Anaerobic and aerobic cultures of facial and mandibular abscesses were made from 12 blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola fusicolor) housed at the Deer and Duiker Research Facility of the Pennsylvania State University (USA). Increases in concentrations of total protein and serum globulin occurred in all cases. Actinomyces pyogenes was isolated from nine animals. Fusobac- terium necrophorum was present in eight and
B. L. Roeder; M. M. Chengappa; K. F. Lechtenberg; T. G. Nagaraja; G. A. Varg
Chapter 6. Soil Management Sjoerd Willem Duiker Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Penn State...................................................... 141 Using cover crops to ameliorate compaction............................................................... 144 Crop residue management
Kaye, Jason P.
An ivory yellow-colored, gram-negative, short-rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, designated JC2948T, was isolated from a soil sample of Mountain Gwanak, Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain JC2948T belongs to the genus Burkholderia. The test strain showed highest sequence similarities to Burkholderia tropica LMG 22274T (97.6%), Burkholderia acidipaludis NBRC 101816T (97.5%), Burkholderia tuberum LMG 21444T (97.5%), Burkholderia sprentiae LMG 27175T (97.4%), Burkholderia terricola LMG 20594T (97.3%) and Burkholderia diazotrophica LMG 26031T (97.1%). Based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) values, the new isolate represents a novel genomic species by showing less than 90% of ANI values with other closely related species. Also other phylosiological and biochemical comparison allowed phenotypic differentiation of strain JC2948T from the members of the genus Burkholderia. Therefore, this strain should be classified as the type strain of a novel Burkholderia species. The name Burkholderia monticola sp. nov. (type strain JC2948T = JCM 19904T = KACC 17924T) is proposed. PMID:25472981
Baek, Inwoo; Seo, Boram; Lee, Imchang; Yi, Hana; Chun, Jongsik
Background Five-needle pines are important forest species that have been devastated by white pine blister rust (WPBR, caused by Cronartium ribicola) across North America. Currently little transcriptomic and genomic data are available to understand molecular interactions in the WPBR pathosystem. Results We report here RNA-seq analysis results using Illumina deep sequencing of primary needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola) infected with WPBR. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the first P. monticola consensus transcriptome, which contained 39,439 unique transcripts with an average length of 1,303 bp and a total length of 51.4 Mb. About 23,000 P. monticola unigenes produced orthologous hits in the Pinus gene index (PGI) database (BLASTn with E values < e-100) and 6,300 genes were expressed actively (at RPKM ? 10) in the healthy tissues. Comparison of transcriptomes from WPBR-susceptible and -resistant genotypes revealed a total of 979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a significant fold change > 1.5 during P. monticola- C. ribicola interactions. Three hundred and ten DEGs were regulated similarly in both susceptible and resistant seedlings and 275 DEGs showed regulatory differences between susceptible and resistant seedlings post infection by C. ribicola. The DEGs up-regulated in resistant seedlings included a set of putative signal receptor genes encoding disease resistance protein homologs, calcineurin B-like (CBL)-interacting protein kinases (CIPK), F-box family proteins (FBP), and abscisic acid (ABA) receptor; transcriptional factor (TF) genes of multiple families; genes homologous to apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), flowering locus T-like protein (FT), and subtilisin-like protease. DEGs up-regulated in resistant seedlings also included a wide diversity of down-stream genes (encoding enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways, pathogenesis-related -PR proteins of multiple families, and anti-microbial proteins). A large proportion of the down-regulated DEGs were related to photosystems, the metabolic pathways of carbon fixation and flavonoid biosynthesis. Conclusions The novel P. monticola transcriptome data provide a basis for future studies of genetic resistance in a non-model, coniferous species. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of transcriptomic regulation in the WPBR pathosystem and yields novel insights on molecular and biochemical mechanisms of disease resistance in conifers. PMID:24341615
Iberolacerta populations from the Northern Montes de Leon (NML) were studied by means of external morphology (scalation and biometry), osteology and genetics (mtDNA and microsatellites), searching for their homogeneity ("intrazonalanalysis") and, once verified, comparing them with Iberolacerta monticola s. str. (from Central Cantabrian Mountains)and/. gal ani (from Southern Montes de Leon) ("extrazonal analysis") from neighboring areas.Our "intrazonal analysis" revealed discordances between the different approaches, especially the patterns of variation of nuclear microsatellites (congruent with external morphology) and mtDNA, namely a very low nuclear differentiation between relatively highly differentiated mtDNA lineages. The morphological approach was unable to discriminate any of the populations as significantly different from the others in the NML. Mitochondrial DNA revealed a haplotype lineage closely related to I. galani (MNL-II in our text) in some specimens of Sierra de Villabandfn and Suspiron, but these populations are morphologically indistinguishable from the main part of the other populations that belong to lineage NML-1,phylogenetically closer to/. monticola. After a separation from I. manti cola ca. 1.8 Mya, the populations in this geographic region must have suffered at least two different waves of gene flow from I. gal ani, the second one not much later than 0.5 Mya. Microsatellite results indicate that all the NML populations are genetically similar in terms of their nuclear genomes,independently of their mitochondrial differentiation (NML-I vs. NML-II haplotype groups). Since all the morphological and microsatellite evidences point towards the fact that, independently of the mitochondrial haplotypes that they bear (NML-1 or NML-II), there is only one taxon in the area, we describe it as: Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov.Concerning the relationships of I. m. astur ssp. nov. with I. monticola s. str. and I. gal ani ("extra zonal analysis"), in the female analyses the new taxon centroid is closer to I. monticola s. str. than to I. gal ani (more similarity with I manticolas.str.), whereas in the male analyses the relationship is just the contrary (closer to I. gal ani, paralleling the direction of the hypothesized past hybridization). Moreover, in both sexes' ANOVA, I. m. astur ssp. nov. results more similar (lessP<0.05 differences) to I. galani than to I. monticola s. str. Osteologically, I. m. astur ssp. nov. is slightly more similar toI. monticola s. str. than to I. galani, especially in the squamosal bone, which is regularly arched (primitive shape). Genetically,as indicated above, the NML populations can be subdivided in two groups according to their mitochondrial DNA,namely NML-I (bearing clearly differentiated haplotypes, phylogenetically closer to I. monticola) and NML-II (whose haplotypes could have been mistaken for those of an I. gal ani population). This mitochondrial subdivision has at most a subtle nuclear correlate, however. According to the nuclear microsatellite markers, all the NML populations belong to a single group(/. m. astur ssp. nov.), which would be more similar to I. gal ani than to I monticola, with NML-II populations lying closer to I. galani than those from the NML-I group and, correspondingly, more distant from I. monticola. The discordant phylogenetic signal of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is discussed in terms of past introgression events and sex-biases in phylopatry and dispersion in these species. Iberolacerta manti cola astur ssp. nov., inhabits the Northern Montes de Leon (Sierra de Gistreo sensu latissimo ): Gistredo,Catoute, Tambaron, Nevadfn, Villabandfn (or Macizo del Alto de Ia Canada), Arcos del Agua (or Fernan Perez),Tiendas and Suspiron, mainly in quartzite and slate rock substrates. Its current distribution, cornered in the NW of theNorthern part of the Montes de Leon, suggests a possible competitive exclusion between this taxon and/. galani, as the galani haplotypes (NML-II) appear cornered in the most harsh
Arribas, Oscar J; Galán, Pedro; Remón, Núria; Naveira, Horacio
Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. Because the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. We also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Forages were irradiated for 3 months with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6 x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal and inconsistent effects on the nutritional content, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and protein-binding capacity of forages. However, flavonoid compounds increased in seven of the 13 forbs and woody dicots that were evaluated. Flavonoids were found to decrease only in yarrow (Achillea millefolium). When offered simultaneously, blue duikers preferred 1x and 1.6 x UV-B irradiated plants of alfalfa equally, but ate 26% less willow grown under 1.6 x UV-B radiation. However, when fed to duikers in separate feeding experiments, total dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of dry matter, fiber, protein, and apparent energy did not differ between alfalfa and willow grown under 1x and 1.6 x UV-B radiation. We conclude that expected increases in UV-B radiation from ozone depletion would have minimal effects on intake and digestion of ruminant herbivores. PMID:18274780
Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei
Background In most regions of the world human influences on the distribution of flora and fauna predate complete biotic surveys. In some cases this challenges our ability to discriminate native from introduced species. This distinction is particularly critical for isolated populations, because relicts of native species may need to be conserved, whereas introduced species may require immediate eradication. Recently an isolated population of seal salamanders, Desmognathus monticola, was discovered on the Ozark Plateau, ~700 km west of its broad continuous distribution in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Using Nested Clade Analysis (NCA) we test whether the Ozark isolate results from population fragmentation (a natural relict) or long distance dispersal (a human-mediated introduction). Results Despite its broad distribution in the Appalachian Mountains, the primary haplotype diversity of D. monticola is restricted to less than 2.5% of the distribution in the extreme southern Appalachians, where genetic diversity is high for other co-distributed species. By intensively sampling this genetically diverse region we located haplotypes identical to the Ozark isolate. Nested Clade Analysis supports the hypothesis that the Ozark population was introduced, but it was necessary to include haplotypes that are less than or equal to 0.733% divergent from the Ozark population in order to arrive at this conclusion. These critical haplotypes only occur in < 1.2% of the native distribution and NCA excluding them suggest that the Ozark population is a natural relict. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that the isolated population of D. monticola from the Ozarks is not native to the region and may need to be extirpated rather than conserved, particularly because of its potential negative impacts on endemic Ozark stream salamander communities. Diagnosing a species as introduced may require locating nearly identical haplotypes in the known native distribution, which may be a major undertaking. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering comparative phylogeographic information for locating critical haplotypes when distinguishing native from introduced species. PMID:17825102
Bonett, Ronald M; Kozak, Kenneth H; Vieites, David R; Bare, Alison; Wooten, Jessica A; Trauth, Stanley E
Aim The study of the factors that influence population connectivity and spatial distribution of genetic variation is crucial for understanding speciation and for predicting the effects of landscape modification and habitat fragmentation, which are considered severe threats to global biodiversity. This dual perspective is obtained from analyses of subalpine mountain species, whose present distribution may have been shaped both by cyclical climate changes over ice ages and anthropogenic perturbations of their habitats. Here, we examine the phylogeography, population structure and genetic diversity of the lacertid lizard Iberolacerta monticola, an endemism considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in several populations. Location Northwestern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula. Methods We analyzed the mtDNA variation at the control region (454 bp) and the cytochrome b (598 bp) loci, as well as at 10 nuclear microsatellite loci from 17 populations throughout the distribution range of the species. Results According to nuclear markers, most sampling sites are defined as distinct, genetically differentiated populations, and many of them show traces of recent bottlenecks. Mitochondrial data identify a relatively old, geographically restricted lineage, and four to six younger geographically vicariant sister clades, whose origin may be traced back to the mid-Pleistocene revolution, with several subclades possibly associated to the mid-Bruhnes transition. Geographic range fragmentation of one of these clades, which includes lowland sites, is very recent, and most likely due to the accelerated loss of Atlantic forests by human intervention. Main Conclusions Altogether, the data fit a “refugia within refugia” model, some lack of pattern uniformity notwithstanding, and suggest that these mountains might be the cradles of new species of Iberolacerta. However, the changes operated during the Holocene severely compromise the long-term survival of those genetic lineages more exposed to the anthropogenic perturbations of their habitats. PMID:23762459
Remón, Nuria; Galán, Pedro; Vila, Marta; Arribas, Oscar; Naveira, Horacio
The Lataste's viper Vipera latastei is a medium-sized viper distributed throughout almost the entire Iberian Peninsula and north-west of Africa. Former morphological studies noted the existence of two subspecies, V. l. gaditana and V. l. latastei, as well as a full species, V. monticola, in the High Atlas, corresponding to the prior overall range described for V. latastei. However, some
José C. Brito; Xavier Santos; Juan M. Pleguezuelos; Soumia Fahd; Gustavo A. Llorente; Xavier Parellada
Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species in western North America that has declined in prominence over the\\u000a past several decades, mainly due to the introduction of Cronartium ribicola (cause of white pine blister rust) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)\\u000a markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure
Mee-Sook Kim; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein
Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. PMID:23692021
Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E
Canola (Brassica napus), an agriculturally important oilseed crop, can be significantly affected by diseases such as sclerotinia stem rot, blackleg, and alternaria black spot resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides isolated from plants have emerged as a potential resource for protection of plants against phytopathogens. Here we report the significance of an antimicrobial peptide, PmAMP1, isolated from western white pine (Pinus monticola), in providing canola with resistance against multiple phytopathogenic fungi. The cDNA encoding PmAMP1 was successfully incorporated into the genome of B. napus, and it's in planta expression conferred greater protection against Alternaria brassicae, Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In vitro experiments with proteins extracted from transgenic canola expressing Pm-AMP1 demonstrated its inhibitory activity by reducing growth of fungal hyphae. In addition, the in vitro synthesized peptide also inhibited the growth of the fungi. These results demonstrate that generating transgenic crops expressing PmAMP1 may be an effective and versatile method to protect susceptible crops against multiple phytopathogens. PMID:22351159
Verma, Shiv S; Yajima, William R; Rahman, Muhammad H; Shah, Saleh; Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Kav, Nat N V
& gerharDt 2001), fish (mcgregor & westby 1992), birds (lovell & lein 2004), mammals (rosell & b not only the resource holding potential (individual traits correlated with competitive ability) (par in intraspecific competition (maynarD-smith & parK- er 1976). Asymmetries not only influence the outcome but also
Background Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans and physical sectioning revealed internal cranial structure of ten artiodactyls and pachycephalosaurs Stegoceras validum and Prenocephale prenes. Finite element analyses (FEA), incorporating bone and keratin tissue types, determined cranial stress and strain from simulated head impacts. Recursive partition analysis quantified strengths of correlation between functional morphology and actual or hypothesized behavior. Strong head-strike correlates include a dome-like cephalic morphology, neurovascular canals exiting onto the cranium surface, large neck muscle attachments, and dense cortical bone above a sparse cancellous layer in line with the force of impact. The head-butting duiker Cephalophus leucogaster is the closest morphological analog to Stegoceras, with a smaller yet similarly rounded dome. Crania of the duiker, pachycephalosaurs, and bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis share stratification of thick cortical and cancellous layers. Stegoceras, Cephalophus, and musk ox crania experience lower stress and higher safety factors for a given impact force than giraffe, pronghorn, or the non-combative llama. Conclusions/Significance Anatomy, biomechanics, and statistical correlation suggest that some pachycephalosaurs were as competent at head-to-head impacts as extant analogs displaying such combat. Large-scale comparisons and recursive partitioning can greatly refine inference of behavioral capability for fossil animals. PMID:21738658
Snively, Eric; Theodor, Jessica M.
Because small ruminants (<15 kg) have a high ratio of metabolic rate to fermentation capacity, they are expected to select\\u000a and require low-fiber, nutrient-dense concentrate diets. However, recent studies suggest that small ruminants may not be as\\u000a limited in their digestive capacity as previously thought. In this study, we examined harvesting, rumination, digestion, and\\u000a passage of three diets (domestic figs
Paul S. Wenninger; Lisa A. Shipley
The Kibish faunal remains are useful for reconstructing the habitat of the earliest documented Homo sapiens and for understanding the community within which early modern humans existed. A diverse assemblage of large mammals, including many species of bovids, suids, and equids, has been recovered from the Kibish Formation. There are no extinct large mammals represented in the fossil assemblage, and the overall taxonomic composition of the fossil fauna is similar to the modern-day wildlife community living near the Omo River. The fossil faunal assemblage shows a paucity of arboreal primates, and carnivore species are rare. However, the faunal sample includes possible Cephalophus (duiker) remains and Hylochoerus meinertzhageni (giant forest hog), taxa that are extremely rare in the African fossil record, and both indicate more closed habitats. Comparative analyses of the Kibish faunal remains using the ecological-diversity approach document close associations with edaphic grassland and woodland vegetation types. These vegetation forms are similar to current habitats surrounding the Omo River. PMID:18691734
Assefa, Zelalem; Yirga, Solomon; Reed, Kaye E
Wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central Africa. Also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. Considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in Central Africa. This cross-sectional survey served to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella in the muscle tissue of 128 wild animal carcasses from several hunted wildlife species (guenons [Cercopithecus spp.], collared mangabeys [Cercocebus torquatus], gray-cheeked mangabeys [Lophocebus albigena], African crested porcupines [Atherurus africanus], duikers [Cephalophus spp.], and red river hogs [Potamocherus porcus]) sold in two markets of Port-Gentil, Gabon, in July and August 2010. Salmonella was detected from one carcass; no Campylobacter or Shigella was detected. If Campylobacter and Shigella were present, the maximum expected prevalence was estimated at 6% and 1%, respectively. In light of such very low apparent muscle contamination levels, bushmeat likely does not represent a health risk per se with respect to Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Shigella. However, because carcass evisceration and skinning can take place within households prior to consumption, consumers should follow strict hygiene and food safety practices to avoid potential health hazards associated with the handling, preparation, or consumption of bushmeat. PMID:22740547
Bachand, Nicholas; Ravel, André; Onanga, Richard; Arsenault, Julie; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul
DNA analysis from carrion flies (iDNA analysis) has recently been promoted as a powerful tool for cost- and time-efficient monitoring of wildlife. While originally applied to identify any mammalian species present in an area, it should also allow for targeted detection of species and individuals. Using carrion flies captured in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we assessed this possibility by (i) screening carrion fly DNA extracts with nonspecific and species-specific PCR systems, respectively, targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments of any mammal or of Jentink's duiker (Cephalophus jentinki), three colobine monkeys (subfamily Colobinae) and sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys); and (ii) genotyping carrion fly extracts containing sooty mangabey mtDNA. In comparison with the nonspecific PCR assay, the use of specific PCRs increased the frequency of detection of target species up to threefold. Detection rates partially reflected relative abundances of target species in the area. Amplification of seven microsatellite loci from carrion flies positive for sooty mangabey mtDNA yielded an average PCR success of 46%, showing that the identification of individuals is, to some extent, possible. Regression analysis of microsatellite PCR success and mtDNA concentration revealed that, among all carrion flies analysed for this study, 1% contained amounts of mammal mtDNA sufficient to attempt genotyping with potentially high success. We conclude that carrion fly-derived DNA analysis represents a promising tool for targeted monitoring of mammals in their natural habitat. PMID:25042567
Schubert, Grit; Stockhausen, Melanie; Hoffmann, Constanze; Merkel, Kevin; Vigilant, Linda; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien
Bushmeat is the main source of protein and the most important source of income for rural people in the Congo Basin, but intensive hunting of bushmeat species is also a major concern for conservationists. Although spatial heterogeneity in hunting effort and in prey populations at the landscape level plays a key role in the sustainability of hunted populations, the role of small-scale heterogeneity within a village hunting territory in the sustainability of hunting has remained understudied. We built a spatially explicit multiagent model to capture the dynamics of a system in which hunters and preys interact within a village hunting territory. We examined the case of hunting of bay duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis) in the village of Ntsiété, northeastern Gabon. The impact of hunting on prey populations depended on the spatial heterogeneity of hunting and prey distribution at small scales within a hunting area. Within a village territory, the existence of areas hunted throughout the year, areas hunted only during certain seasons, and unhunted areas contributed to the sustainability of the system. Prey abundance and offtake per hunter were particularly sensitive to the frequency and length of hunting sessions and to the number of hunters sharing an area. Some biological parameters of the prey species, such as dispersal rate and territory size, determined their spatial distribution in a hunting area, which in turn influenced the sustainability of hunting. Detailed knowledge of species ecology and behavior, and of hunting practices are crucial to understanding the distribution of potential sinks and sources in space and time. Given the recognized failure of simple biological models to assess maximum sustainable yields, multiagent models provide an innovative path toward new approaches for the assessment of hunting sustainability, provided further research is conducted to increase knowledge of prey species' and hunter behavior. PMID:20345398
Van Vliet, Nathalie; Milner-Gulland, E J; Bousquet, Francois; Saqalli, Mehdi; Nasi, Robert
Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Audubon Park Zoo and Miami Metro Zoo, (Miami, Florida, USA) from December 1996 to June 1997. Several species of animals were vaccinated with vMC0, which is serologically indistinguishable from the field strain of EMCV. Serum samples were taken at the time of vaccination and again 21 days later, then submitted for serum neutralization titers against EMCV. The vaccinate species included red capped mangebey (Cercocebus torquatus), colobus (Colobus guereza), angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis), ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus ruber and Lemur variegatus variegatus), back lemur (Lemur macaco), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), diana guenon (Cercopithicus diana), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin), Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), guanaco (Lama glama guanicoe), black duiker (Cephalophus niger), Vietnamese potbellied pig (Sus scrofa), babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), collard peccary (Tayass tajacu), and African crested porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis). The vaccine response was variable, with high virus neutralizing antibody titer responses in some primate species and mixed to poor responses for other species. No ill effects were seen with vaccination. PMID:10231768
Backues, K A; Hill, M; Palmenberg, A C; Miller, C; Soike, K F; Aguilar, R
BACKGROUND: In most regions of the world human influences on the distribution of flora and fauna predate complete biotic surveys. In some cases this challenges our ability to discriminate native from introduced species. This distinction is particularly critical for isolated populations, because relicts of native species may need to be conserved, whereas introduced species may require immediate eradication. Recently an
Ronald M Bonett; Kenneth H Kozak; David R Vieites; Alison Bare; Jessica A Wooten; Stanley E Trauth
.0 Sabinene 1.0 0.4 0.2 Myrcene 1.2 1.0 1.9 Limonene 1.6 2.3 6.4 Ã?-Phellandrene 3.5 0.4 1.6 Terpinolene 0.7 0 Myrcene 0 - 2 3 - 5 6- 100 Limonene 0 - 2 2 - 10 11 - 100 1 Normalized. 90 USDA Forest Service Gen
Standiford, Richard B.
It was discovered by Olofsson and Vásquez (2008) that a novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota with numerous LAB, comprising the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, live in a symbiotic relationship with honeybees (Apis mellifera) in their honey stomach. Previous results from 16S rRNA gene...
), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), western white pine (Pinus monticola magnifica), white fir (Abies concolor), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), Jeffrey pine (Pinus Jeffreyii
Standiford, Richard B.
) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) whereas Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was attracted to (-)-a, kairomones, Pinus monticola, Trypodendron lineatum, Cleridae, Thanasimus undatulus INTRODUCTION The mountain
All representatives of the subfamily Agonostominae of grey mullets in the collections of The Natural History Museum in London were examined for parasitic copepods. Agonostomus monticola, Joturus pichardi, Aldrichetta forsteri and Cestraeus goldiei were all infected by copepods. Three new species of Acusicola and two new species of Ergasilus were found: E. parabahiensis n. sp. on A. monticola from Guyana
H. El-Rashidy; G. A. Boxshall
monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm (Pinus monticola) and sugar pine (P. lambertiana) are highly valued timber species, their silviculture.C. Fisch. in Rabh., causal agent of white pine blister rust, populations of western white pine (Pinus
GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 262 White Pine Blister Rust Resistance in Pinus monticola and P. albicaulis in the Pacific Northwest U.S. Â A Tale of Two Species Richard A. Sniezko,1 Angelia Kegley,1 and Robert Danchok1 Western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) and whitebark pine (P
Standiford, Richard B.
species--western white pine (Pinus monticola) (WWP) and sugar pine (P. lambertiana) (SP). The USDA Forest in populations of western white pine (WP) (Pinus monticola Douglas ex. D. Don.) in the northern Rocky Mountains). Ecosystems where whitebark pine (WBP) (P. albicaulis Engelmann) is a keystone species are also at risk
A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...
of the morphometrical measurements classified most samples from above 2000 m as Apis mellifera monticola and samples are descendants of a common ancestor now restricted to mountain refugia. Apis mellifera monticola / Apis mellifera of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, in Africa is not as thoroughly studied as in Europe. The data collections
and Unfamiliar ConspeciÂ®c Faecal Pellets by the Iberian Rock-Lizard, Lacerta monticola Pedro AragoÃ? n, Pilar Lo responses to familiar and unfa- miliar conspeciÂ®c faecal pellets by the Iberian rock-lizard, Lacerta between males of the Iberian rock lizard (Lacerta monticola). The degree of familiarity was deter- mined
, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murrayana), red fir, and western white pine (Pinus monticola) email@example.com Abstract. Fire history and forest structural characteristics of adjacent Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi
Stephens, Scott L.
the climate is monticola), and some western hemlock essentially warm and moist in the winter, (Tsuga heterophylla). But at the same time, but hot and dry in the summer. we are cursed by 5 species of dwarf
Standiford, Richard B.
-white pine-western hemlock (Abies grandis-Pinus monticola-Tsuga heterophylla) slash fuels. This paper reports. Habitat type is western hemlock/ Queencup beadlily (Tsuga heterophylla/Clintonia uniflora-Clin- tonia
Fried, Jeremy S.
) in the Illinois River drainage include Salix planifolia (24.6%), 1. pseudocordata (16.3%), ~. monticola (15 of cattle (Bos taurus) on the physical structure of a high-altitude willow (Salix spp.) community
white pine (Pinus monticola), sugar pine (P. lambertiana), and eastern white pine (P. strobus). However species such as southwestern white pine (P. strobiformis, SWWP), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis, WBP
Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex),
Åsa Tellgren; Ann-Charlotte Berglund; Peter Savolainen; Christine M. Janis; David A. Liberles
Serum magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were measured in 179 impala (Aepyceros melampus), 13 warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), 6 kudu (Tragelaphu strepsiceros), 4 grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) and 3 blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) from the Mlawula- Mbuluzi-Simunye Nature Reserve and Protected Area complex in the northeastern Swaziland lowveld from October 1985 to September 1986. Serum Mg was higher in the small
Gordon J. Gallivan; J. Culverwel; R. Girdwood
The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484
Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George
Key Word Index--Arceuthobium tsugense; Viscaceae; dwarf mistletoe; electrophoresis; allozymes; host race. Abstract--Three host races of hemlock dwarf mistletoe have been described: the western hemlock race (mainly parasitic on Tsuga heterophylla), the shore pine race (mainly on Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) and the mountain hemlock race (mainly on Tsuga mertensiana and R monticola). Mistletoe shoots from 21 populations representing the three
Daniel L. Nickrent; Adam L. Stell
of infection on Pinus monticola by Cronartium ribicola from Ribes lacustre and R. viscosissimum. Journal of the prickly currant (Ribes lacustre) and the of the sticky currant (R. viscosissimum) to spread damaging whiteAnnotated Bibliography: Ribes Ecology and Pathology Prepared by Brian W. Geils on Thursday
(Whittaker, 1960). Pinus balfouriana (foxtail pine), Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir) and Chamaecyparis parkland with scattered Pinus and Abies. After 13 100 cal. BP a relatively closed forest of P. monticola, P. contorta and Abies developed, and fire-event frequency was low. The inferred climate then was cooler
Whitlock, Cathy L.
(Pinus contorta) may also be present (Barbour and Woodward 1985). Fresno Forest Boundary Roads Streams pine (Pinus lambertiana), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), and black oak mixed conifer, but white fir, Jeffrey pine, western white pine (Pinus monticola), and lodgepole pine
Standiford, Richard B.
of the sprayed trees was apparently reduced. Oxford: 145.7x19.66 Dendroctonus ponderosae: 147.7 Pinus contorta (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) to western white pines (Pinus monticola Dougl.) sprayed with lindane. Knopf test with mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine (P. contorta Dougl.). Freshly infested bolts readily
Standiford, Richard B.
of hemlock dwarf mistletoe have been described: the western hemlock race (mainly parasitic on Tsuga heterophylla), the shore pine race (mainly on Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) and the mountain hemlock race (mainly on Tsuga mertensiana and R monticola). Mistletoe shoots from 21 populations representing the three
Nickrent, Daniel L.
Abstract We report six new records of skinks from northwestern Vietnam: Eutropis macularius, Scincella devorator, S. monticola, S. ochracea, Sphenomorphus cryptotis and S. indicus. Our new findings increase the species number of skinks (Scincidae) to nine in Dien Bien Province and to 14 in Son La Province. We also provide additional natural history data of aforementioned species.
Pham, Anh Van; Le, Dzung Trung; Nguyen, Son Lan Hung; Ziegler, Thomas
The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is an aggressive bark beetle that periodically increases to outbreak levels killing thousands of trees. It is considered one of the major natural disturbance agents in North America. In British Columbia, the main host species is lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.), but western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.), ponderosa
René I. Alfaro; Rochelle Campbell; Paula Vera; Brad Hawkes; Terry L. Shore
, Cronartium ribicola. There has also been some effort in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and limber pine-resistance screening activities in western white (Pinus monticola), sugar (Pinus lambertiana), and eastern white (Pinus (Pinus flexilis) disease-resistance work, but to a lesser degree. Recently the FS has been actively
. James; western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don; and whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis Engelm several pine species, most notably lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.; ponderosa pine, Pinus pon- derosa Dougl. ex Laws.; sugar pine, Pinus lambertiana Dougl.; lim- ber pine, Pinus flexilis E
tree seed collections of Pinus albicaulis, P. aristata, P. balfou- riana, P. flexilis, P. longaeva Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don and P. lam- bertiana Dougl. throughout significant portions of their geographic ranges. More recently, programs have been initi- ated for the other six species: P. albicaulis
The antibacterial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowers, leaves and stems of Gnaphalium oxyphyllum var. oxyphyllum, G. liebmannii var. monticola and G. viscosum was investigated. The hexane extracts showed in all cases the higher inhibitions, G. oxyphyllum flower extract exhibiting the wider spectrum of activity. PMID:11543972
Villagómez-Ibarra, J R; Sánchez, M; Espejo, O; Zúñiga-Estrada, A; Torres-Valencia, J M; Joseph-Nathan, P
Seasonal changes in activity and spatial and social relationships of the Iberian rock lizard interactions of the Iberian rock lizard, Lacerta monticola, during the same favorable climatic period. Activity was suitable for the activity of lizards in both seasons, therefore the seasonal changes cannot be explained
The presence in the southeastern USA of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a fungal pathogen of amphibians, is a potential threat to the diverse salamander assemblages in the region. In this study, we tested the susceptibility of plethodontid salamanders to infection with B. dendrobatidis. We experimentally infected one terrestrial species (Plethodon metcalfi) and one stream-dwelling spe- cies (Desmognathus monticola). Mortality of P. metcalfi
V. M. Vazquez; B. B. Rothermel; A. P. Pessier
3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone, a major component in the preorbital gland of the African grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), showed antimicrobial activity in preliminary tests. The C11 to C17 homologues of this compound were prepared and their activity against several pathogenic dermal bacteria and fungi was tested. 3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone and 3,4-epoxy-2-tridecanone inhibited the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 25 ?g/mL. Moderate inhibition of the growth of the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and the lipophilic yeast, Pityrosporum ovale, was seen for several of the homologues. PMID:21179314
Wood, William F.
Phylogenetic relationships among pocket gophers were examined based on the complete sequence for the mitochondrial cytochromebgene (1140 base pairs). The tribe Geomyini (Geomys, Orthogeomys, Cratogeomys,andPappogeomys) was well differentiated from the tribe Thomomyini (Thomomys), using the heteromyid generaDipodomysandPerognathusas the outgroup. Within the genusThomomys,the species in the subgenusThomomys(T. talpoides, T. monticola,andT. mazama) differed from those in the subgenusMegascapheus(T. bottae, T. townsendii,andT. umbrinus)
Margaret F. Smith
A basic dichotomy exists in the amount and chromosomal position of constitutive heterochromatin (C-bands) in species of pocket gophers, genus Thomomys. Members of the “talpoides-group” of species (e.g., T. talpoides and T. monticola) have C-bands restricted to the centromeric regions. These taxa are characterized by Robertsonian patterns of karyotypic evolution. In contrast, species within the “bottae-group” are characterized by extensive
James L. Patton; Steven W. Sherwood
To understand long-term impacts of partial cutting practices on stream-dwelling salamanders in the central Appalachians, we examined pooled abundance of Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola salamanders (hereafter Desmognathus) in headwater streams located within long-term silvicultural research compartments on the Fernow Experimental Forest, Tucker County, West Virginia. We sampled Desmognathus salamanders in 12 headwater streams within silvicultural research compartments that have
Kurtis R. Moseley; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Thomas M. Schuler
Multiple-funnel traps baited with exo-brevicomin and a mixture of cis- and trans- verbenol were used to test the relative attractiveness #If myrcene and (-)-a-pinene to the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in a stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Doug). Traps baited with myrcene caught significantly more D. ponderosae than traps baited with (-)-a-pinene, irrespective of the presence
DANIEL R. MILLER; B. STAFFAN LINDGREN
RFLP variability was studied in eight U.S. peanut cultivars, representing the four market types, and in 14 wild Arachis species accessions, using random genomic clones from a PstI library. Very low levels of RFLP variability were found among the allotetraploids, which included the U.S. cultivars and Arachis monticola, a wild species. The diploid wild species were very diverse, however. RFLP
G. Kochert; T. Halward; W. D. Branch; C. E. Simpson
Four independent studies of conifer growth between 1880 and 2002 in upper elevation forests of the central Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., showed correlated multidecadal and century-long responses associated with climate. Using tree-ring and ecological plot analysis, we studied annual branch growth of krummholz Pinus albicaulis; invasion by P. albicaulis and Pinus monticola into formerly persistent snowfields; dates of vertical branch
Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; John C. King; Lisa J. Graumlich
The Klamath Mountains of northwestern California are a floristic hotspot and their diversity likely results from a combination of geological, ecological and historical factors (e.g., long-term climate change). To evaluate how climate change has influenced past composition, structure, and disturbance regime of the Klamath forests in different geological settings, vegetation and fire histories from four sites, Bolan (1), Sanger (in prog.), Campbell (in prog.), and Bluff (2) lakes are compared. Bolan and Sanger lakes are underline by nutrient-rich diorite soils, Campbell Lake by nutrient-poor and poorly-drained soils derived from mudstone and shales and Bluff Lake by ultramafics which pose severe nutrient limitations to plants. All sites experience the same modern climate and vegetation. The vegetation and fire records from the four sites suggest that substrates have influenced the sensitivity of plant communities and fire regimes to past variations in climate. Cool, dry late-glacial (>11ka cal yr BP) conditions resulted in a subalpine parkland in the Klamath region. P. jeffreyi and Abies were the main tree species at Bluff Lake and fires occurred frequently. Campbell Lake supported more species than Bluff (excluding P. jeffreyi) such as P. monticola, Picea and T. mertensiana and experienced few fires. Bolan and Sanger Lake harbored similar species as Campbell, as well as a small population of Pseudotsuga and experienced few fires. Warm, dry Early Holocene (7-11ka cal yr BP) conditions led to an increase in C. decurrens and a slight decrease in P. jeffreyi at Bluff Lake than before and fires were very frequent. At Campbell Lake, P. monticola increased, C. decurrens became more abundant than before, and Abies, Picea and T. mertensiana were scarce. Similar vegetation occurred at Bolan and Sanger lakes although the sites continued to harbor Pseudotsuga. Campbell, Bolan and Sanger all experienced frequent fires. Cool, wet conditions in the Middle Holocene (3-7ka cal yr BP) allowed P. jeffreyi to increase at the expense of C. decurrens at Bluff Lake. At Campbell, Sanger and Bolan lakes there was a decrease in P. monticola and a significant increase in Abies than before. Bolan and Sanger lakes still maintained a significant population of Pseudotsuga. Fire frequency at all sites was moderate. Modern (3ka cal yr BP to present) climate conditions in the Late Holocene resulted in increases in P. jeffreyi and Abies than before at Bluff Lake. P. monticola and Abies were abundant at Campbell Lake with minor amounts of Pseudotsuga and T. mertensiana. Most tree species occurred at Bolan and Sanger Lake (with the exception of P. jeffreyi at both sites and T. mertensiana at Sanger Lake). Abies and P.monticola were the primary species in the Bolan, Sanger and Campbell lake forests. Fires were frequent at all sites. In conclusion, Bluff Lake was dominated by ultramafic tolerant taxa such as Pinus jeffreyi, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies, while Bolan and Sanger lakes harbored mostly ultramafic intolerant species such as Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Tsuga mertensiana since the last ice age. The forest at Campbell Lake was more open, was dominated by Pinus monticola and had less Picea and T. mertensiana than Bolan and Sanger lakes since the last ice age. REFS. 1 Briles, C. et al 2005. Quaternary Research 64. 2 Mohr, J.A. et al 2000. The Holocene 10.
Briles, C.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P.
Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex), impala (Aepyceros melampus rednilis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus). Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (Ka/Ks) indicates that positive selection may have been operating on this gene during the time of divergence of Bovinae and Antilopinae, starting from approximately 23 million years ago, a period that appears to account for most of the sequence difference between myostatin in these groups. These periods of positive selective pressure on myostatin may correlate with changes in skeletal muscle mass during the same period. PMID:15522803
Tellgren, Asa; Berglund, Ann-Charlotte; Savolainen, Peter; Janis, Christine M; Liberles, David A
1. A series of nitrogen-balance trials was done using groups of four animals of various species of wild and domesticated ruminants using pelleted diets (Arman & Hopcraft, 1975). 2. Various herbivores were given grass or grass hays, legumes, herbs and shrubs. Food and faecal samples were analysed for N. 3. With the pelleted diets, the N content of the faecal dry matter (DM) was low for eland (Taurotragus oryx Pallas), high for sheep and cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus) and intermediate for the three small antelope species (hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei Günther), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii Günther) and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia L.)). With the natural doffers, similar relationships were found, together with variations associated with the type of diet. 4. Three forms of equation were used to express the relationship between faecal N and food N. One of the forms, the linear regression of g faecal N/kg DM intake v. g food N/kg DM intake, fitted the results less well than did the other two and was not used to estimate metabolic faecal N(MFN) losses9 5. MFN was calculated by extrapolation of linear regressions of g faecal N/kg faecal DM v. g N intake/kg faecal DM for the pelleted diets. The range of values was (g N/kg faecal DM): Friesians 7-6, eland 8-1, zebu cattle 11-0 and small antelope and sheep 11-5-12-69 There were significant differences (P smaller than 0-001) between species in slopes and intercepts. 6. MFN was calculated from linear regressions of g faecal N/kg faecal DM v. g food N/kg food DM for all diets. This method gave the best fit for the pelleted diets. Values for these diets were (g N/kg faecal DM): eland 8-3, cattle and sheep 9-3-11-0 and small antelope 11-6-12-3. Species differences were significant (P smaller than 0-001). With grasses, values ranged from 5-9 for non-ruminants (rabbit (domesticated), warthog (Phacohoerus aethiopicus Pallas) and hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L.)) plus eland and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus Burchell), to 8-4 for for the other ruminants (sheep, goat, hartebeest, gazelle, duiker, buffalo (Syncerus caffer Sparrman)), kob (Adenota kob thomasi Sclater), reedbuck (Redunca redunca Pallas) and topi (Damalisucs korrigum Ogilby). For ruminants (sheep, hartebeest, duiker and kob), excluding eland, given legumes the value was 8-6, and for sheep and duiker given herbs the value was 14-7. With shrubs, faecal-N losses were variable and sometimes high. 7. With the pelleted diets, true digestibilities of crude protein (N times 6-25) varied from 0-84 to 0-91. 8. The results are discussed in relation to the digestive physiology and feeding habits of the various species, and there is an examination of the feasibility of using linear regressions of crude protein in the diet v. N in the faecal DM for evaluating the quality of the diets selected by free-ranging East African herbivores. PMID:1115763
Arman, P; Hopcraft, D; McDonald, I
The histomorphology of formalin-fixed micro and macrosarcosporidian cysts of Grant's, Thomson's gazelle, impala, wildebeest, Bubal hartebeest, Cape eland, red duiker, Kirk's dik-dik, defassa waterbuck, Bohor reedbuck, African buffalo, giraffe, warthog, and giant forest hog is described. The wall of microsarcosporidian cysts is smooth and without villi or with villi. The villi are solid or of honeycomb-like structure on tangential sections. In some animals, microsarcosporidian cysts of almost the same diameter with different wall structure were found in the same muscle of the same animal. Some muscle cells contained two or three microsarcosporidian cysts. The wall of macrosarcosporidian cysts of different game species showed also different structure. PMID:807047
A probe for chalcone synthase (CHS) was generated by PCR using chalcone synthase conserved sequences. The cloned PCR product has high similarity to both chalcone synthase and stilbene synthase sequences. The probe was used to examine the organization of chalcone synthase and stilbene synthase genes in Abies procera, Pinus lambertiana, P. monticola, Picea glauca, P. sitchensis, Pseudostuga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata. A large number of hybridizing bands were found in all species except T. plicata which did not cross hybridize. The hybridization patterns are highly polymorphic between the species and are also polymorphic within several of them. PMID:24166547
Baker, S M; White, E E
Abstract The status of a putative new species of Lepidosperma from the mountains of south-western Tasmania, Australia, was investigated. Phenetic analysis (Flexible UPGMA Agglomerative Hierarchical Fusion and semi-strong hybrid multidimensional scaling) was conducted on a database derived from morphological and anatomical characters scored from herbarium material, culm anatomy slides and scanning electron micrographs of fruit. The results of the analysis support the recognition of a new species, here described as Lepidosperma monticola G.T.Plunkett & J.J.Bruhl. The distribution, habitat and conservation status are discussed. PMID:24399891
Plunkett, George T.; Wilson, Karen L.; Bruhl, Jeremy J.
To elucidate the systematic status of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a new bovid genus recently discovered in Vietnam, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships within the family Bovidae, four distinct DNA markers were sequenced. Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (1143 bp) and 12S rRNA (956 bp) genes and non-coding regions from the nuclear genes for aromatase cytochrome P-450 (199 bp) and lactoferrin (338 bp) have been compared for 25 bovid species and three Cervidae and Antilocapridae outgroups. Independent and/or combined analyses of the four nucleotide matrices through maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that Bovidae consists of two major lineages, i.e. Bovinac which contains the tribes Bovini, Boselaphini and Tragelaphini, and Antilopinae which encompasses all other bovids. Within Bovinae, the tribe Bovini is divided into buffalo Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus) and cattle Bovini (Bos and Bison) and Tragelaphini are possibly related to Boselaphini. Pseudoryx is shown to be (i) robustly nested within Bovinae; (ii) strongly associated with Bovini; and (iii) tentatively sharing a sister-group relationship with cattle Bovini. Within Antilopinae, three robust clades are in evidence: (i) Hippotragus and Damaliscus are linked to Ovis; (ii) Aepyceros joins Neotragus; and (iii) Cephalophus clusters with Oreotragus. PMID:10380679
Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J
Abstract We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. Distribución de una Comunidad de Mamíferos en Relación a Carreteras y Otras Perturbaciones Humanas en Gabón, Africa Central Resumen Presentamos el primer estudio a nivel de comunidad de la relación entre carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas con la distribución de mamíferos en Gabón (África central). Nuestro sitio de estudio está dentro de una concesión petrolera en un paisaje litoral heterogéneo. Realizamos muestreos a lo largo de 199 transectos lineales e instalamos cámaras trampa en 99 de ellos para documentar la presencia y abundancia de mamíferos. Utilizamos modelos lineales generalizados con efectos mixtos para documentar las asociaciones entre variables relacionadas con el ecosistema (cobertura de suelo, topografía e hidrología), carreteras (tipo de revestimiento, ancho de derecho de vía, condición, tipo de vehículos que utilizan la carretera, nivel de tráfico, afiliación de los usuarios y el tipo general de carretera) y otras perturbaciones humanas (urbanización, agricultura, caza, tala, recolecta y actividades industriales) y la abundancia o presencia de 17 especies o grupos de mamíferos incluyendo elefantes (Loxodonta cyclotis), búfalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), cerdo rojo de río (Potomochoerus porcus), ungulados pequeños, gorila (Gorilla gorilla), chimpancé (Pan troglodytes), chacal con rayas a los lados (Canis adustus), carnívoros, monos y roedores de talla grande. Ciertos tipos de carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas estuvieron asociadas negativamente con la abundancia o presencia de elefantes, búfalos, gorilas, sitatungas, algunos monos y antílopes. Los patrones de asociación de mamíferos con carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas fueron diversos e incluyen asociaciones positivas con la presencia de carreteras (cerdo rojo de río, algunos monos y antílopes), agricultura (sitatunga, carnívoros pequeños y roedores de talla grande) y actividades industriales (sitatunga, cerdo rojo de río, a
Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso
Deadwood tree stems scattered above treeline on tephra-covered slopes of Whitewing Mtn (3051 m) and San Joaquin Ridge (3122 m) show evidence of being killed in an eruption from adjacent Glass Creek Vent, Inyo Craters. Using tree-ring methods, we dated deadwood to AD 815-1350 and infer from death dates that the eruption occurred in late summer AD 1350. Based on wood anatomy, we identified deadwood species as Pinus albicaulis, P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. contorta, P. jeffreyi, and Tsuga mertensiana. Only P. albicaulis grows at these elevations currently; P. lambertiana is not locally native. Using contemporary distributions of the species, we modeled paleoclimate during the time of sympatry to be significantly warmer (+3.2°C annual minimum temperature) and slightly drier (-24 mm annual precipitation) than present, resembling values projected for California in the next 70-100 yr.
Millar, Constance I.; King, John C.; Westfall, Robert D.; Alden, Harry A.; Delany, Diane L.
Conifers have defenses such as the production of phenolic compounds and resins that can be induced by bark beetles and other invading organisms, but the signaling agents involved are unknown. The anatomical effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), a potent inducer of certain plant defenses, were compared with wounding of the bark of 12-15-year-old trees of five conifer species. Wounding in all species resulted in tissue necrosis and wound periderm development immediately around the wound site. One cm from the wound, swelling of phloem polyphenolic parenchyma cells and phenolic accumulation were observed in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Picea pungens Engelman, Larix occidentalis Nutt. and Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don, but not in Taxus brevifolia Nutt. Traumatic resin ducts were formed in response to wounding in three species of Pinaceae, but not in P. monticola, which formed irregular clusters of cells rather than ducts. Taxus brevifolia did not form resin ducts in response to either wounding or MJ treatment. In the Pinaceae species studied, surface application of 100 mM MJ caused similar anatomical changes to those observed in response to wounding, including phenolic accumulation, cell swelling and traumatic resin duct formation, but it did not induce a wound periderm. Traumatic resin ducts differed in size among the study species, ranging from small in L. occidentalis to very large in P. menziesii. In P. menziesii, P. pungens and L. occidentalis, traumatic resin ducts were more abundant after MJ treatment than after wounding. We conclude that the octadecanoid pathway is likely involved in defense responses in stems of the Pinaceae, but not necessarily in other taxa. PMID:12642238
Hudgins, J W; Christiansen, Erik; Franceschi, Vincent R
Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe. PMID:6716555
Kuttler, K L
Weaponry is ubiquitous in male ungulates and is driven by intrasexual selection, but the mystery surrounding its sporadic presence in females remains unsolved. Female horns are often smaller and shaped differently to male horns, suggesting a different function; indeed, hypotheses explaining the presence of female horns include competition for food, male mollification and defence against predators. Here we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to show that females are significantly more likely to bear horns in bovids that are conspicuous due to large body size and living in open habitats than inconspicuous species living in closed habitats or that are small. An inability to rely on crypsis or take refuge in deep vegetation has apparently driven the evolution of horns for defence against predators in female bovids, a finding supported by many field observations. Typically, exceptions are small species where females are territorial (e.g. duikers) and use horns in intrasexual contests. Furthermore, we suggest that conspicuousness and territoriality hypotheses may explain other instances of female cranial weaponry (i.e. antlers and ossicones) in other horned ruminants. Our phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the primary function of horns in females is linked to antipredator defence in most clades, but occasionally to intrasexual competition in others. PMID:19759035
Stankowich, Theodore; Caro, Tim
A basic dichotomy exists in the amount and chromosomal position of constitutive heterochromatin (C-bands) in species of pocket gophers, genus Thomomys. Members of the "talpoides-group" of species (e.g., T. talpoides and T. monticola) have C-bands restricted to the centromeric regions. These taxa are characterized by Robertsonian patterns of karyotypic evolution. In contrast, species within the "bottae-group" are characterized by extensive amounts of heterochromatin, placed as whole-arm and apparent whole-chromosome (T. bottae) or as large interstitial blocks (T. umbrinus). These species are characterized by extensive non-Robertsonian variation in karyotype, variation which may be expressed from local population polymorphism to between population or species polytypy. Within T. bottae, the number of whole-arm heterochromatic autosomes is inversely proportional to the number of uniarmed chromosomes in the complement, which ranges from 0 to 36 across the species populations. In all-biarmed karyotypic populations, upward to 60 percent of the linear length of the genome is composed of heterochromatin. Populations with extensive heterochromatin variation and those with similar amounts meet and hybridize freely in nature. The implications of these date for current ideas on the function of heterochromatin, particularly as related to speciation models, are discussed. PMID:7117026
Patton, J L; Sherwood, S W
Phylogenetic relationships among pocket gophers were examined based on the complete sequence for the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 base pairs). The tribe Geomyini (Geomys, Orthogeomys, Cratogeomys, and Pappogeomys) was well differentiated from the tribe Thomomyini (Thomomys), using the heteromyid genera Dipodomys and Perognathus as the out-group. Within the genus Thomomys, the species in the subgenus Thomomys (T. talpoides, T. monticola, and T. mazama) differed from those in the subgenus Megascapheus (T. bottae, T. townsendii, and T. umbrinus) by an average of 19.3% uncorrected sequence divergence. Extensive sampling within one species, T. bottae, revealed strongly differentiated geographic units, with a maximum difference among localities of 15.7%. The geographic units within T. bottae coincided with geographic regions based on allozyme data in some areas, but not at all boundaries. The geographic units within currently recognized species in the bottae group (subgenus Megascapheus) were not grouped together with a high level of confidence. The pattern suggests a rapid radiation of the bottae group, followed by geographic subdivision. PMID:9479688
Smith, M F
The spatial population dynamics of the wolfspider Pardosa monticola, inhabiting patchily distributed grasslands in the Flemish coastal dunes of Belgium and Northern France were investigated with incidence function models using field survey data from 1998 and 2000. Vegetation height and patch size were related to habitat quality. Mark-recapture experiments revealed maximum cursorial dispersal distances of 280 m for moss dunes and 185 m for higher dune grassland. Higher shrub vegetation appeared to be dispersal barriers. These habitat-dependant cursorial distances and the theoretically estimated ballooning distance were included with patch distances into a connectivity index for both dispersal modes. Forward multiple regression indicated that patch occurrence was influenced by habitat quality and ballooning connectivity. Habitat quality and cursorial connectivity explained patterns in short-term colonisation. Extinction appeared to be stochastic and not related to habitat quality and connectivity. Genetic differentiation and variability was low. The discrepancy between the estimated low dispersal capacity and the indirect estimate of gene flow ( F(ST)) indicates that historical population dynamics and/or historical ballooning dispersal influence the genetic structure in this species. PMID:12698344
Bonte, Dries; Lens, Luc; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Hoffmann, Maurice; Kuijken, Eckhart
Atmospheric dry deposition of ions to branches of native Pinus contorta and Pinus monticola (natural surfaces), and nylon filters and Whatman paper filters (surrogate surfaces) were measured in the summer of 1987 in the vicinity of Emerald Lake Watershed (ELW) of the Sequoia National Park located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada in California. Deposition fluxes of airborne NO -3, NH +4 and SO 2-4 to native pines at the ELW were much higher than in the eastern Sierra Nevada, but several times lower than deposition fluxes to natural and surrogate surfaces at the highly polluted site in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Deposition fluxes of NO 3- and NH 4+ to the natural and surrogate surfaces at the ELW were much higher than deposition of SO 42-, providing the importance of N compounds in atmospheric dry deposition in this part of the western U.S. A deficit of inorganic anions in materials deposited to various surfaces indicated a possibility of substantial participation of organic acids in atmospheric dry deposition processes. Nylon and paper filters proved to be poor surrogate surfaces for the estimation of ionic dry deposition to conifer branches.
Bytnerowicz, A.; Dawson, P. J.; Morrison, C. L.; Poe, M. P.
Mature and old growth trees of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different tree species. Bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including bark) for four of the ten species. These predictions of sapwood volume were used to scale respiratory potential to the main-bole level (excluding all branches). On the core level, species that maintained narrow sapwood (8-16% of bole radius) such as Pseudotusga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata, had sapwood respiratory potentials in the lower bole that were 50% higher (P<0.05) than species with wide sapwood (>16% of bole radius), such as Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, and Tsuga heterophylla. This pattern was not observed for inner bark respiratory potential, or for sapwood respiratory potential within the crown. On the main-bole level, respiratory potential per unit volume was inversely correlated to the live bole volumetric fraction (inner bark plus sapwood divided by whole bole volume) (Adj. R(2)=0.6). Specifically, tree species with 18-20% of the main bole alive potentially respired 1.3-3 times more per unit live bole volume than species with over 40%, suggesting that the live bole was less metabolically active in tree species that maintained large volumes of sapwood. PMID:12844251
Pruyn, Michele L; Harmon, Mark E; Gartner, B L
Throughout the Sierra Nevada, conifers are increasing in density in forests and colonizing previously treeless habitats, such as subalpine meadows or openings left by early melting of persistent snowfields. This effect has often been considered to result from human impacts of fire suppression, trampling, overgrazing, exotic plant invasion, and watershed deterioration. In many cases, restoration goals seek to reverse the effect and reduce tree biomass. The implications of climate as a natural process and its influence on ecological dynamics have been little studied. OBJECTIVES Investigate 20 th century demographics of meadow and snowfield slope invasion by pines in the high Sierra Nevada and their relationship to climate. METHODS • 9 meadows (2600-3050m); 6 snowfields (2700-3100m) • Sites located east and west of the Sierran crest • Diverse fire and grazing histories among sites • Varied environmental contexts (forest types, substrates, elevations) At each site, we established 3m circular plots at 15m intervals along line transects from the forest borders into the openings, and for trees within plots we calculated tree age by counting rings and branch whorls. • N (meadows) = 926 trees (Pinus contorta) • N (snowfields) = 608 trees (P. contorta, P. monticola, P. albicaulis) RESULTS
Constance Millar; I. Pine; Invasion Of Meadows
Background In most Arthropod groups, the study of systematics and evolution rely mostly on neutral characters, in this context cuticular compounds, as non-neutral characters, represent an underexplored but potentially informative type of characters at the infraspecific level as they have been routinely proven to be involved in sexual attraction. Methods and Findings The collembolan species complex Deutonura deficiens was chosen as a model in order to test the utility of these characters for delineating four infraspecific entities of this group. Specimens were collected for three subspecies (D. d. deficiens, D. d. meridionalis, D. d. sylvatica) and two morphotypes (D. d. sylvatica morphoype A and B) of the complex; an additional species D. monticola was added. Cuticular compounds were extracted and separated by gas chromatography for each individual. Our results demonstrate that cuticular compounds succeeded in separating the different elements of this complex. Those data allowed also the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships among them. Conclusions The discriminating power of cuticular compounds is directly related to their involvement in sexual attraction and mate recognition. These findings allowed a discussion on the potential involvement of intrinsic and paleoclimatic factors in the origin and the diversification of this complex in the Pyrenean zone. This character type brings the first advance from pattern to process concerning the origin of this species complex. PMID:21209797
Porco, David; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis
Arbutoid mycorrhizal plants are commonly found as understory vegetation in forests worldwide where ectomycorrhiza-forming trees occur. Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae) is a tropical woody plant and common in tropical Central America. This plant forms arbutoid mycorrhiza, whereas only associations with Leccinum monticola as well as Sebacina sp. are described so far. We collected arbutoid mycorrhizas of C. arbutoides from the Cerro de la Muerte (Cordillera de Talamanca), Costa Rica, where this plant species grows together with Quercus costaricensis. We provide here the first evidence of mycorrhizal status for the Ascomycete Leotia cf. lubrica (Helotiales) that was so far under discussion as saprophyte or mycorrhizal. This fungus formed arbutoid mycorrhiza with C. arbutoides. The morphotype was described morphologically and anatomically. Leotia cf. lubrica was identified using molecular methods, such as sequencing the internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA regions, as well as phylogenetic analyses. Specific plant primers were used to confirm C. arbutoides as the host plant of the leotioid mycorrhiza. PMID:25033922
Kühdorf, Katja; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F
There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes.
Humar, Miha [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Rozna dolina, c. VIII/34, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Amartey, Sam A. [Forest Products Research Center, Buckinghamshire Chilterns, University College, High Wycombe HP11 2JZ (United Kingdom); Pohleven, Franc [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Rozna dolina, c. VIII/34, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)
The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview on the types of mutations occurring in the region has been raised and a discussion on the strategies that can be implemented to achieve the elimination of the disease has been made. PMID:25129168
Simo, Gustave; Mbida Mbida, Jean Arthur; Ebo'o Eyenga, Vincent; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Njiokou, Flobert; Grébaut, Pascal
Background Wild animals’ meat is extensively consumed in South Africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. To test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained DNA sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. The reliability of species assignments were evaluated using BLAST searches in GenBank, maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis and the character-based method implemented in BLOG. The Kimura-2-parameter intra- and interspecific variation was evaluated for all matched species. Results The combined application of similarity, phylogenetic and character-based methods proved successful in species identification. Game meat samples showed 76.5% substitution, no beef samples were substituted. The substitutions showed a variety of domestic species (cattle, horse, pig, lamb), common game species in the market (kudu, gemsbok, ostrich, impala, springbok), uncommon species in the market (giraffe, waterbuck, bushbuck, duiker, mountain zebra) and extra-continental species (kangaroo). The mountain zebra Equus zebra is an International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red listed species. We also detected Damaliscus pygargus, which is composed of two subspecies with one listed by IUCN as ‘near threatened’; however, these mitochondrial fragments were insufficient to distinguish between the subspecies. The genetic distance between African ungulate species often overlaps with within-species distance in cases of recent speciation events, and strong phylogeographic structure determines within-species distances that are similar to the commonly accepted distances between species. Conclusions The reliability of commercial labeling of game meat in South Africa is very poor. The extensive substitution of wild game has important implications for conservation and commerce, and for the consumers making decisions on the basis of health, religious beliefs or personal choices. Distance would be a poor indicator for identification of African ungulates species. The efficiency of the character-based method is reliant upon availability of large reference data. The current higher availability of cytochrome b data would make this the marker of choice for African ungulates. The encountered problems of incomplete or erroneous information in databases are discussed. PMID:23452350
Genetic variation is the driving force of evolution and as such is of central interest for biologists. However, inadequate discrimination of errors from true genetic variation could lead to incorrect estimates of gene copy number, population genetic parameters, phylogenetic relationships and the deposition of gene and protein sequences in databases that are not actually present in any organism. Misincorporation errors in multi-template PCR cloning methods, still commonly used for obtaining novel gene sequences in non-model species, are difficult to detect, as no previous information may be available about the number of expected copies of genes belonging to multi-gene families. However, studies employing these techniques rarely describe in any great detail how errors arising in the amplification process were detected and accounted for. Here, we estimated the rate of base misincorporation of a widely-used PCR-cloning method, using a single copy mitochondrial gene from a single individual to minimise variation in the template DNA, as 1.62×10(-3) errors per site, or 9.26×10(-5) per site per duplication. The distribution of errors among sequences closely matched that predicted by a binomial distribution function. The empirically estimated error rate was applied to data, obtained using the same methods, from the Phospholipase A(2) toxin family from the pitviper Ovophis monticola. The distribution of differences detected closely matched the expected distribution of errors and we conclude that, when undertaking gene discovery or assessment of genetic diversity using this error-prone method, it will be informative to empirically determine the rate of base misincorporation. PMID:21151906
Dawson, Karen; Thorpe, Roger S; Malhotra, Anita
Many seeds of coniferous species display a deep primary dormancy at maturity and require several weeks of pretreatment to produce seed populations that germinate in a vigorous and timely manner. Facilitating an efficient transition from dormancy to germination by devising improved protocols for dormancy breakage is not only important to conifer seed research, aiding in the study of the dormancy process itself, but is also of interest and applicability to commercial forest nursery operations. In the forests of British Columbia, Canada, several conifer species are well-adapted to their environment, with seeds needing to experience long durations in the moist state at cool or fluctuating temperatures. These include yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and true fir species, such as Pacific silver fir and subalpine fir (Abies amabilis and A. lasiocarpa, respectively). In this chapter, we discuss the development of new dormancy-breaking protocols for the aforementioned species that centre on the balance of several key aspects: (1) reducing the time needed to terminate dormancy in the seed population; (2) synchronicity of germination; (3) ease of use; (4) cost-effectiveness; and (5) repeatability. Where possible, any new or modified protocol should be further tested in relationship to promoting rapid seedling growth in a forest nursery greenhouse setting and after planting at natural stands. Based on the five criteria listed above, very significant improvements compared to traditional dormancy-breaking methods have been achieved for the targeted conifer species. Where tested (e.g. yellow-cedar), the modified dormancy-breaking treatments result in vigorous growth in the greenhouse and after planting at natural stands. PMID:21898249
Feurtado, J Allan; Kermode, Allison R
The U.S. northern Rocky Mountain (NRM) region is particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, which include rapid shifts in the rain-snow transition zone, earlier spring snowmelt, prolonged dry seasons, and concomitant impacts on coupled ecological and human systems. The extent to which these hydroclimatic changes are projected to alter widespread disturbance events (e.g.: bark beetle outbreaks, wildfires, and rain-on-snow induced floods) and influence the long-term health and sustainability of coupled social-ecological systems in the NRM is not well understood. Methods that integrate these disciplines are essential to understand how changing environmental conditions impact tree species distributions, disturbance regimes, and people in nearby communities. We are investigating the spatiotemporal relationships between current (past 10 years) and projected (next 30 - 50 years) shifts in: 1) the location of the rain-snow transition zone and its future movement into higher elevations, 2) the zone created by the upslope movement of the lower elevation terminus of two mid-elevation tree species (western larch [Larix occidentalis] and western white pine [Pinus monticola]), 3) the extent of widespread, severe crown fires in the greater Idaho and Montana region and their proximity to, or correlation with, these zones of projected hydrologic vulnerability, and 4) the location and socio-economic dynamics of NRM human population centers and their changing levels of natural hazard risk from disturbance events. This overlay analysis displays the proximity of these changes to one another, and identifies potential zones in the NRM that are likely to experience the greatest cumulative effects of regional climate change near human population centers. Ultimately, this spatiotemporal methodology identifies areas best suited for additional interdisciplinary research that investigates the processes and mechanisms which link hydroclimatic changes to shifts in hydrologic regime, tree species distribution, disturbance events, and socio-economic community dynamics.
Klos, P. Z.; Kemp, K. B.; Blades, J. J.; Link, T. E.; Morgan, P.; Higuera, P. E.; Hall, T. E.; Northern Rockies Team
We present an analysis of a ghost forest on WhiteWing Mt at 3000 m in the eastern Sierra Nevada, southeast of Yosemite NP. Killed by a volcanic eruption about 650 years ago, the deadwood on WhiteWing dates by standard tree-ring analysis to 800-1330 CE, during the Medieval Warm Anomaly. Individual stems have been identified by wood anatomical characteristics as Pinus albicualis, P. monticola, P. jeffreyi, P. contorta, P. lambertiana, and Tsuga mertensiana. With the exception of P. albicualis, which is currently in krummholz form at this elevation, the other species are 200 m or more lower in elevation. One, P. lambertiana, is west of the Sierran crest and 600 m lower in elevation. Assuming that climatic conditions on Whitewing during this period were mutually compatible with all species, we reconstruct this climate by the intersection of the current climatic spaces of these species. We did this by first generating individual species' ranges in the Sierran ecoregions through selecting vegetation GIS polygons from the California Gap Analysis database (UCSB) that contain the individual species. Climatic spaces for each species were generated by the GIS intersection of its polygons with 4 km gridded polygons from PRISM climatic estimates (OSU); this was done for annual, January, and July maximum and minimum temperature, and precipitation, merged together for each species. Climatic intersections of the species were generated from the misclassified polygons of a discriminant analysis of species by the climatic data. The average data from these misclassified polygons suggest that the climate on WhiteWing during the existence of this forest community was 230 mm, 1oC, and 3oC greater than present in precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperature, respectively.
Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.
Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the peculiar reproductive biology of Arachis. PMID:23131301
Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, José F. M.; Bertioli, David J.
The current study investigated spider fauna of Caspian Costal region of Iran (Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces) during 2005-2006. Spiders were collected from on the ground and under the stones and grasses by bottle, aspirator, Pitfall trap and pans and from branches, leaves and trunks of different trees and bushes by Steiner and Baggiolini method and insect net. They transferred to the laboratory and classified in 52 species and 51 genera belonged to 20 families. Thirty species, 13 genera and 2 families are reported for the first time from Iran, as follows: Family Agelenidae: Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757), Cicurina sp., Family Araneidae: Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763), Araniella inconspicua (Simon, 1874), Araniella alpica (C.L. Koch, 1869), Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757, Cercidia sp., Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772), Hypsosinga sanguinea (C.L. Koch,1845), Family Clubionidae: Clubiona neglecta O.P. Camridge, 1862, Family Amaurobiidae, Family Eresidae: Eresus sp., Dresserus sp., Family Gnaphosidae: Aphantaulax sp., Micaria sp., Family Metidae: Zygiella x-notata (Clerck,1757), Family Miturgidae: Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802), Cheiracanthium pennyi O.P. Cambridge, 1873, Family Linyphiidae: Microlinyphia sp., Family Lycosidae: Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa amentata (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861), Pardosa monticola (Clerck, 1757), Family Oxyopidae: Oxyopes salticus (Hentx, 1802), Family Philodromidae: Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer, 1802),Family Pholcidae: Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911), Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775), Family Salticidae: Salticus scenicus (Clerck, 1757), Family Tetragnathidae: Tetragnatha montana, Simon, 1874, Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890), Family Theridiidae: Dipoena prona (Menge, 1868), Steatoda albomaculata (Degeer, 1778), Theridion impressum C. L. Koch, Theridion simile C.L. Koch,1836, Family Thomisidae: Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus formicinus (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus striatus C.L. Koch, 1845, Xysticus cristatus (Clerck, 1757). PMID:19069849
The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps. PMID:25009414
Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L
Abstract The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps. PMID:25009414
Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.
DNA sequences from parts of the 12S, 16S and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes, which totalled 1049 aligned base pairs, were used to estimate the relationships of 49 species of Lacertidae, including representatives of 19 out of the 23 recognized genera and 23 species of the paraphyletic genus Lacerta. These data were used, together with morphological information, to estimate the relationships within the family. Molecular evidence corroborates the monophyletic status of many genera and species groups originally based on morphology. It indicates that Psammodromus forms a clade with Gallotia, which is the sister taxon of all other lacertids. These comprise three units: the primarily Afrotropical armatured group; the largely Oriental Takydromus; and the west Palaearctic Lacerta and its derivatives, Podarcis and Algyroides. Morphology also supports the first three assemblages, but suggests that they are derived from a paraphyletic Lacerta. Within Lacerta and its allies, DNA sequence analysis corroborates the affinity of some members of each of the subgenera Lacerta s. str. and Timon, and of the L. saxicola group. It also supports the relationship of L. monticola, L. bonnali and L. horvathi, and suggests that the L. parva--L. fraasi clade and L. brandli are not related to Psammodromus Gallotia, as morphology indicates, but instead are associated respectively with the L. danfordi and L. saxicola groups. DNA sequence data provide additional evidence that the eastern Arabian 'Lacerta' jayakari and 'L.' cyanura are members of the armatured clade and also sister species. Our analysis supports an origin for present lacertids in west Eurasia. The armatured clade invaded Africa, probably in the mid-Miocene, spreading widely and evolving increasingly xeric-adapted forms, one lineage of which later moved back into the Palaearctic. 'Lacerta' jayakari and 'L.' cyanura are assigned to Omanosaura, Lutz and Mayer 1986. The name Gallotiinae Cano, Baez, Lopez-Jurado & Ortega, 1984 is available for the Gallotia-Psammodromus clade, Eremiainae Shcherbak 1975 for the armatured clade and Lacertinae for Lacerta, Podarcis and Algyroides. Two new subgenera of Lacerta are proposed here: Caucasilacerta for L. saxicola and its allies, and Parvilacerta for L. parva and L. fraasi. PMID:9821361
Harris, D J; Arnold, E N; Thomas, R H
A 13,100-year-long high-resolution pollen and charcoal record from Foy Lake in western Montana is compared with a network of vegetation and fire-history records from the Northern Rocky Mountains. New and previously published results were stratified by elevation into upper and lower and tree line to explore the role of Holocene climate variability on vegetation dynamics and fire regimes. During the cooler and drier Lateglacial period, ca 13,000 cal yr BP, sparsely vegetated Picea parkland occupied Foy Lake as well as other low- and high-elevations with a low incidence of fire. During the warmer early Holocene, from ca 11,000-7500 cal yr BP, low-elevation records, including Foy, indicate significant restructuring of regional vegetation as Lateglacial Picea parkland gave way to a mixed forest of Pinus-Pseudotsuga-Larix. In contrast, upper tree line sites (ca >2000 m) supported Pinus albicaulis and/or P. monticola-Abies-Picea forests in the Lateglacial and early Holocene. Regionally, biomass burning gradually increased from the Lateglacial times through the middle Holocene. However, upper tree line fire-history records suggest several climate-driven decreases in biomass burning centered at 11,500, 8500, 4000, 1600 and 500 cal yr BP. In contrast, lower tree line records generally experienced a gradual increase in biomass burning from the Lateglacial to ca 8000 cal yr BP, then reduced fire activity until a late Holocene maximum at 1800 cal yr BP, as structurally complex mesophytic forests at Foy Lake and other sites supported mixed-severity fire regimes. During the last two millennia, fire activity decreased at low elevations as modern forests developed and the climate became cooler and wetter than before. Embedded within these long-term trends are high amplitude variations in both vegetation dynamics and biomass burning. High-elevation paleoecological reconstructions tend to be more responsive to long-term changes in climate forcing related to growing-season temperature. Low-elevation records in the NRM have responded more abruptly to changes in effective precipitation during the late Holocene. Prolonged droughts, including those between 1200 and 800 cal yr BP, and climatic cooling during the last few centuries continues to influence vegetation and fire regimes at low elevation while increasing temperature has increased biomass burning in high elevations.
Power, M. J.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P. J.
Abstract A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus montivagus sp. n., Trigonopterus moreaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus myops sp. n., Trigonopterus nangiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus nothofagorum sp. n., Trigonopterus ovatus sp. n., Trigonopterus oviformis sp. n., Trigonopterus parumsquamosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parvulus sp. n., Trigonopterus phoenix sp. n., Trigonopterus plicicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus politoides sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudogranum sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudonasutus sp. n., Trigonopterus ptolycoides sp. n., Trigonopterus punctulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ragaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus rhinoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus rhomboidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus rubiginosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rubripennis sp. n., Trigonopterus rufibasis sp. n., Trigonopterus scabrosus sp. n., Trigonopterus scissops sp. n., Trigonopterus scharfi sp. n., Trigonopterus signicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus simulans sp. n., Trigonopterus soiorum sp. n., T sordidus sp. n., Trigonopterus squamirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus striatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strigatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strombosceroides sp. n., Trigonopterus subglabratus sp. n., Trigonopterus sulcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus taenzleri sp. n., Trigonopterus talpa sp. n., Trigonopterus taurekaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tialeorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tibialis sp. n., Trigonopterus tridentatus sp. n., Trigonopterus uniformis sp. n., Trigonopterus variabilis sp. n., Trigonopterus velaris sp. n., Trigonopterus verrucosus sp. n., Trigonopterus violaceus sp. n., Trigonopterus viridescens sp. n., Trigonopterus wamenaensis sp. n., Trigonopterus wariorum sp. n., Trigonopterus zygops sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. PMID:23794832
Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler; Michael Balke
A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus montivagus sp. n., Trigonopterus moreaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus myops sp. n., Trigonopterus nangiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus nothofagorum sp. n., Trigonopterus ovatus sp. n., Trigonopterus oviformis sp. n., Trigonopterus parumsquamosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parvulus sp. n., Trigonopterus phoenix sp. n., Trigonopterus plicicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus politoides sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudogranum sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudonasutus sp. n., Trigonopterus ptolycoides sp. n., Trigonopterus punctulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ragaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus rhinoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus rhomboidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus rubiginosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rubripennis sp. n., Trigonopterus rufibasis sp. n., Trigonopterus scabrosus sp. n., Trigonopterus scissops sp. n., Trigonopterus scharfi sp. n., Trigonopterus signicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus simulans sp. n., Trigonopterus soiorum sp. n., T sordidus sp. n., Trigonopterus squamirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus striatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strigatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strombosceroides sp. n., Trigonopterus subglabratus sp. n., Trigonopterus sulcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus taenzleri sp. n., Trigonopterus talpa sp. n., Trigonopterus taurekaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tialeorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tibialis sp. n., Trigonopterus tridentatus sp. n., Trigonopterus uniformis sp. n., Trigonopterus variabilis sp. n., Trigonopterus velaris sp. n., Trigonopterus verrucosus sp. n., Trigonopterus violaceus sp. n., Trigonopterus viridescens sp. n., Trigonopterus wamenaensis sp. n., Trigonopterus wariorum sp. n., Trigonopterus zygops sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. PMID:23794832
Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler; Michael Balke
Linkages between geology and fish assemblages have been inferred in many regions throughout the world, but no studies have yet investigated whether fish assemblages differ across geologies in Mesoamerica. The goals of our study were to: 1) compare physicochemical conditions and fish-assemblage structure across 2 geologic types in headwaters of the Monkey River Basin, Belize, and 2) describe basin-scale patterns in fish community composition and structure for the benefit of conservation efforts. We censused headwater-pool fishes by direct observation, and assessed habitat size, structure, and water chemistry to compare habitat and fish richness, diversity, evenness, and density between streams in the variably metamorphosed sedimentary geologic type typical of 80% of Belize's Maya Mountains (the Santa Rosa Group), and an anomalous extrusive geologic formation in the same area (the Bladen Volcanic Member). We also collected species-presence data from 20 sites throughout the basin for analyses of compositional patterns from the headwaters to the top of the estuary. Thirty-nine fish species in 21 families were observed. Poeciliids were numerically dominant, making up 39% of individuals captured, followed by characins (25%), and cichlids (20%). Cichlidae was the most species-rich family (7 spp.), followed by Poeciliidae (6 spp.). Habitat size and water chemistry differed strongly between geologic types, but habitat diversity did not. Major fish-assemblage differences also were not obvious between geologies, despite a marked difference in the presence of the aquatic macrophyte, Marathrum oxycarpum (Podostemaceae), which covered 37% of the stream bottom in high-nutrient streams draining the Santa Rosa Group, and did not occur in the low-P streams draining the Bladen Volcanic Member. Correlation analyses suggested that distance from the sea and amount of cover within pools are important to fish-assemblage structure, but that differing abiotic factors may influence assemblage structure within each geologic type. The fauna showed weak compositional zonation into 3 groups (headwaters, coastal plain, and nearshore). Nearly 20% of the fish species collected have migratory life cycles (including Joturus pichardi, Agonostomus monticola, and Gobiomorus dormitor) that use freshwater and marine habitats. Some of these species probably rely on a natural flow regime and longitudinal connectivity for reproduction and dispersal of young, and natural flow regime and longitudinal connectivity are important factors for maintenance of functional linkages between the uplands and the coast in the ridge-to-reef corridor where the Monkey River is located. Therefore, we suggest that the viability of migratory fish populations may be a good biological indicator of upland-to-estuary connectivity important both to fishes and coastal ecosystem function. We recommend follow-up studies to substantiate the relative strengths of relationships between community structure and abiotic factors in contrasting geologies and to examine potential bottom-up responses of stream biota to the higher nutrient levels that were observed in stream waters draining the Santa Rosa Group geologic type.
Esselman, P.C.; Freeman, M.C.; Pringle, C.M.