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Sample records for duiker cephalophus monticola

  1. Elaphodus cephalophus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie, David M., Jr.; Lee, D.; Dolman, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Elaphodus cephalophus Milne-Edwards, 1872 (tufted deer) is usually considered polytypic with 3 or 4 recognized subspecies, depending on the source. It is a small dark chocolate-brown deer typified by a tuft of hair on its crown, sharp upper canines that protrude downward from under the upper lip, and rudimentary antlers on males; it is similar to muntjacs, to which it is closely related. E. cephalophusoccurs in humid, montane forests at elevations of 300–4,750 m in southwestern through southeastern China and perhaps northwestern Myanmar (historical records). Vulnerable to poaching in remote areas and relatively uncommon in zoos, it is considered vulnerable as a Class II species in China and listed as “Near Threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

  2. A multi-locus species phylogeny of African forest duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae: evidence for a recent radiation in the Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae are a group of tropical forest mammals believed to have first originated during the late Miocene. However, knowledge of phylogenetic relationships, pattern and timing of their subsequent radiation is poorly understood. Here we present the first multi-locus phylogeny of this threatened group of tropical artiodactyls and use a Bayesian uncorrelated molecular clock to estimate divergence times. Results A total of 4152 bp of sequence data was obtained from two mitochondrial genes and four nuclear introns. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis of concatenated mitochondrial, nuclear and combined datasets. A relaxed molecular clock with two fossil calibration points was used to estimate divergence times. The first was based on the age of the split between the two oldest subfamilies within the Bovidae whereas the second was based on the earliest known fossil appearance of the Cephalophinae and molecular divergence time estimates for the oldest lineages within this group. Findings indicate strong support for four major lineages within the subfamily, all of which date to the late Miocene/early Pliocene. The first of these to diverge was the dwarf duiker genus Philantomba, followed by the giant, eastern and western red duiker lineages, all within the genus Cephalophus. While these results uphold the recognition of Philantomba, they do not support the monotypic savanna-specialist genus Sylvicapra, which as sister to the giant duikers leaves Cephalophus paraphyletic. BEAST analyses indicate that most sister species pairs originated during the Pleistocene, suggesting that repeated glacial cycling may have played an important role in the recent diversification of this group. Furthermore, several red duiker sister species pairs appear to be either paraphyletic (C.callipygus/C. ogilbyi and C. harveyi/C. natalensis) or exhibit evidence of mitochondrial admixture (C. nigrifrons and C. rufilatus), consistent with their recent divergence and/or possible hybridization with each other. Conclusions Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest that Pleistocene-era climatic oscillations have played an important role in the speciation of this largely forest-dwelling group. Our results also reveal the most well supported species phylogeny for the subfamily to date, but also highlight several areas of inconsistency between our current understanding of duiker taxonomy and the evolutionary relationships depicted here. These findings may therefore prove particularly relevant to future conservation efforts, given that many species are presently regulated under the Convention for Trade in Endangered Species. PMID:22823504

  3. The chromosomes of tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus).

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Yang, F; Kumamoto, A

    1991-01-01

    Mitotic and meiotic chromosome preparations of the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) were studied to elucidate the sex-chromosomal polymorphism evidenced by this species. Females had 2n = 46 or 47 chromosomes, whereas males had 2n = 47 or 48 chromosomes. An X;autosome translocation was identified by synaptonemal complex analysis of spermatocytes at pachytene and confirmed by the presence of a trivalent at diakinesis/metaphase I. The present work, in combination with earlier observations by others, indicates that E. cephalophus possesses a varied X-chromosome morphology involving an X;autosome translocation and addition of varying amounts of heterochromatin. It is speculated that sex-chromosome polymorphism may be responsible for the observed differences in diploid chromosome number of tufted deer. PMID:2055116

  4. Titrating the Cost of Plant Toxins Against Predators: a Case Study with Common Duikers, Sylvicapra grimmia.

    PubMed

    Abu Baker, Mohammad A

    2015-10-01

    Foragers face many variables that influence their food intake. These may include habitat structure, time, climate, resource characteristic, food quality, and plant defenses. I conducted foraging experiments using common duikers that involved: 1) testing the effect of plant toxins on foraging, and 2) titrating toxin intake against safety. I used giving up densities (GUDs, food remaining after foraging) to test for selection among trays containing alfalfa pellets treated with water, with 10% oxalic acid, or 10% quebracho tannin. Pairs of trays were placed within islands of woody vegetation and out in open grass. I also conducted a titration experiment by offering the duikers a choice between a patch with water-treated pellets placed at a risky site, or a patch with one of three oxalic acid-treated pellets at a safe site. This made it possible to determine the concentration of oxalic acid at which the cost of toxin in the safe site equals the predation cost at the risky site. The common duikers showed no selectivity among the three treatments at 10% concentration, however, GUDs in the open grass (i.e., safe) were significantly lower than in the wooded islands (i.e., risky). As the oxalic acid concentration increased at the safe sites, the duiker's food intake from the risky sites increased significantly. The results demonstrate that foraging hazards may come in different forms such as predation and plant toxins, and their interactions may alter habitat use, foraging patterns, and perceptions of risk. These variables occur under natural situations, altering the overall habitat quality. PMID:26364293

  5. The complete mitogenome of Cherax monticola (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae), a large highland crayfish from New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Eprilurahman, Rury; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a highland freshwater crayfish, Cherax monticola, was recovered by shotgun sequencing. The mitogenome consists of 15,917 base pairs containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of C. monticola is 33.46% for T, 21.48% for C, 33.71% for A and 11.35% for G, with an AT bias of 67.17%. PMID:24617471

  6. [Phylogenetic relationship between tufted deer(Elaphodus cephalophus) and Muntiacus deer is revealed by the exon and intron of K+ channel gene].

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun-Yong; Cao, Xiang-Rong; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Xi-Ran; Xu, Chun-Mao; Hu, Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this study, partial fragments of potassium ion channel gene were amplified using the genomic DNA of muntjak, reevesi, crinifrons, and Elaphodus cephalophus. The PCR products were ligated to the plasmid of pMD18-T Vector by the method of direct T-A cloning. The positive clones were identified by colony PCR. The sequences of the recombinant clones were determined using M13-47/RV-M universal primers and aligned by the software CLUSTALW. The nucleotide divergences of exon were 0.90%-1.44% among three species of Muntiacus, 0.90%-1.26% between E. cephalophus and each of Muntiacus deer. In the nucleotide of intron there is 0%-1.22% difference among these muntjac deers, and the divergene reached about 1.83% between E. cephalophus and the three species of Muntiacus. Using the software of MEGA to analyse molecular phylogeny, Phylogenetic trees were constructed with neighbor-joining method and maximum parsimony method. The result showed Muntiacus, crinifrons is most closely related to muntjak, with reevesi as their sister species. E. cephalophus is in the other genus. PMID:15730968

  7. Comparative proteomic profiles of Pinus monticola needles during early compatible and incompatible interactions with Cronartium ribicola.

    PubMed

    Zamany, Arezoo; Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

    2012-12-01

    The proteomic profiles of primary needles from Cr2-resistant and cr2-susceptible Pinus monticola seedlings were analysed post Cronartium ribicola inoculation by 2-DE. One hundred-and-five protein spots exhibiting significant differential expression were identified using LC-MS/MS. Functional classification showed that the most numerous proteins are involved in defence signalling, oxidative burst, metabolic pathways, and other physiological processes. Our results revealed that differential expression of proteins in response to C. ribicola inoculation was genotype- and infection-stage dependent. Responsive proteins in resistant seedlings with incompatible white pine blister rust (WPBR) interaction included such well-characterized proteins as heat shock proteins (HSPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes, and intermediate factors functioning in the signal transduction pathways triggered by well-known plant R genes, as well as new candidates in plant defence like sugar epimerase, GTP-binding proteins, and chloroplastic ribonucleoproteins. Fewer proteins were regulated in susceptible seedlings; most of them were in common with resistant seedlings and related to photosynthesis among others. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed HSP- and ROS-related genes played an important role in host defence in response to C. ribicola infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative proteomics study on WPBR interactions at the early stages of host defence, which provides a reference proteomic profile for other five-needle pines as well as resistance candidates for further understanding of host resistance in the WPBR pathosystem. PMID:22868574

  8. Prenylated xanthone derivatives with antiplasmodial activity from Allanblackia monticola STANER L.C.

    PubMed

    Azebaze, Anatole Guy Blaise; Meyer, Michèle; Valentin, Alexis; Nguemfo, Edwige Laure; Fomum, Zacharias Tanee; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem

    2006-01-01

    Further study of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Allanblackia monticola STANER L.C. resulted in the isolation of a new prenylated xanthenedione, designated allanxanthone C, together with the five known xanthones, garciniafuran, tovophyllin A, rubraxanthone, norcowanin and mangostin and one saponin, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structure of the new compound was established by detailed spectroscopic analysis to be 1,2-dihydro-3,6,8-trihydroxy-1,1,7-tri(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthen-2,9-dione (3-hydroxyapetalinone C). The methanol extract and pure compounds were tested on two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, F32 (chloroquine sensitive) and FcM29 (chloroquine resistant). The IC50 values obtained ranged from 0.6 to 8.9 microg/ml. Their cytotoxicity was estimated on human melanoma cells (A375) and the cytotoxicity/antiplasmodial ratio was found to be between 15.45 and 30.46. The antimicrobial activities against a range of microorganisms of the crude extract and some of these compounds are also reported. PMID:16394561

  9. The importance of comparative phylogeography in diagnosing introduced species: a lesson from the seal salamander, Desmognathus monticola

    PubMed Central

    Bonett, Ronald M; Kozak, Kenneth H; Vieites, David R; Bare, Alison; Wooten, Jessica A; Trauth, Stanley E

    2007-01-01

    Background In most regions of the world human influences on the distribution of flora and fauna predate complete biotic surveys. In some cases this challenges our ability to discriminate native from introduced species. This distinction is particularly critical for isolated populations, because relicts of native species may need to be conserved, whereas introduced species may require immediate eradication. Recently an isolated population of seal salamanders, Desmognathus monticola, was discovered on the Ozark Plateau, ~700 km west of its broad continuous distribution in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Using Nested Clade Analysis (NCA) we test whether the Ozark isolate results from population fragmentation (a natural relict) or long distance dispersal (a human-mediated introduction). Results Despite its broad distribution in the Appalachian Mountains, the primary haplotype diversity of D. monticola is restricted to less than 2.5% of the distribution in the extreme southern Appalachians, where genetic diversity is high for other co-distributed species. By intensively sampling this genetically diverse region we located haplotypes identical to the Ozark isolate. Nested Clade Analysis supports the hypothesis that the Ozark population was introduced, but it was necessary to include haplotypes that are less than or equal to 0.733% divergent from the Ozark population in order to arrive at this conclusion. These critical haplotypes only occur in < 1.2% of the native distribution and NCA excluding them suggest that the Ozark population is a natural relict. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that the isolated population of D. monticola from the Ozarks is not native to the region and may need to be extirpated rather than conserved, particularly because of its potential negative impacts on endemic Ozark stream salamander communities. Diagnosing a species as introduced may require locating nearly identical haplotypes in the known native distribution, which may be a major undertaking. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering comparative phylogeographic information for locating critical haplotypes when distinguishing native from introduced species. PMID:17825102

  10. Polymorphic karyotypes and sex chromosomes in the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus): cytogenetic studies and analyses of sex chromosome-linked genes.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Jiang, H; Zhang, X

    2005-01-01

    Different diploid chromosome numbers have been reported for the tufted deer Elaphodus cephalophus (female, 2n = 46/47; male, 2n = 47/48) in earlier reports. In the present study, chromosomal analysis of seven tufted deer (5 male symbol, 2 female symbol) revealed that the karyotype of these animals contains 48 chromosomes, including a pair of large heteromorphic chromosomes in the male. C-banding revealed these chromosomes to be very rich in constitutive heterochromatin. Chromosome banding and PCR of sex chromosome-linked genes (SRY, ZFX, ZFY) performed on DOP-PCR products of single microdissected X and Y chromosomes confirmed that the large telocentric chromosome without secondary constriction is the X chromosome whereas the subtelocentric chromosome is the Y. The increased size of both, the X and Y chromosome, appears to be at least partially attributable to the presence of substantial amounts of heterochromatin. PMID:15905647

  11. Causes and Evolutionary Consequences of Population Subdivision of an Iberian Mountain Lizard, Iberolacerta monticola

    PubMed Central

    Remón, Nuria; Galán, Pedro; Vila, Marta; Arribas, Oscar; Naveira, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Aim The study of the factors that influence population connectivity and spatial distribution of genetic variation is crucial for understanding speciation and for predicting the effects of landscape modification and habitat fragmentation, which are considered severe threats to global biodiversity. This dual perspective is obtained from analyses of subalpine mountain species, whose present distribution may have been shaped both by cyclical climate changes over ice ages and anthropogenic perturbations of their habitats. Here, we examine the phylogeography, population structure and genetic diversity of the lacertid lizard Iberolacerta monticola, an endemism considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in several populations. Location Northwestern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula. Methods We analyzed the mtDNA variation at the control region (454 bp) and the cytochrome b (598 bp) loci, as well as at 10 nuclear microsatellite loci from 17 populations throughout the distribution range of the species. Results According to nuclear markers, most sampling sites are defined as distinct, genetically differentiated populations, and many of them show traces of recent bottlenecks. Mitochondrial data identify a relatively old, geographically restricted lineage, and four to six younger geographically vicariant sister clades, whose origin may be traced back to the mid-Pleistocene revolution, with several subclades possibly associated to the mid-Bruhnes transition. Geographic range fragmentation of one of these clades, which includes lowland sites, is very recent, and most likely due to the accelerated loss of Atlantic forests by human intervention. Main Conclusions Altogether, the data fit a “refugia within refugia” model, some lack of pattern uniformity notwithstanding, and suggest that these mountains might be the cradles of new species of Iberolacerta. However, the changes operated during the Holocene severely compromise the long-term survival of those genetic lineages more exposed to the anthropogenic perturbations of their habitats. PMID:23762459

  12. A new mountain lizard from Montes de León (NW Iberian Peninsula): Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov. (Squamata: Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Arribas, Oscar J; Galán, Pedro; Remón, Núria; Naveira, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Iberolacerta populations from the Northern Montes de Leon (NML) were studied by means of external morphology (scalation and biometry), osteology and genetics (mtDNA and microsatellites), searching for their homogeneity ("intrazonalanalysis") and, once verified, comparing them with Iberolacerta monticola s. str. (from Central Cantabrian Mountains)and/. gal ani (from Southern Montes de Leon) ("extrazonal analysis") from neighboring areas.Our "intrazonal analysis" revealed discordances between the different approaches, especially the patterns of variation of nuclear microsatellites (congruent with external morphology) and mtDNA, namely a very low nuclear differentiation between relatively highly differentiated mtDNA lineages. The morphological approach was unable to discriminate any of the populations as significantly different from the others in the NML. Mitochondrial DNA revealed a haplotype lineage closely related to I. galani (MNL-II in our text) in some specimens of Sierra de Villabandfn and Suspiron, but these populations are morphologically indistinguishable from the main part of the other populations that belong to lineage NML-1,phylogenetically closer to/. monticola. After a separation from I. manti cola ca. 1.8 Mya, the populations in this geographic region must have suffered at least two different waves of gene flow from I. gal ani, the second one not much later than 0.5 Mya. Microsatellite results indicate that all the NML populations are genetically similar in terms of their nuclear genomes,independently of their mitochondrial differentiation (NML-I vs. NML-II haplotype groups). Since all the morphological and microsatellite evidences point towards the fact that, independently of the mitochondrial haplotypes that they bear (NML-1 or NML-II), there is only one taxon in the area, we describe it as: Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov.Concerning the relationships of I. m. astur ssp. nov. with I. monticola s. str. and I. gal ani ("extra zonal analysis"), in the female analyses the new taxon centroid is closer to I. monticola s. str. than to I. gal ani (more similarity with I manticolas.str.), whereas in the male analyses the relationship is just the contrary (closer to I. gal ani, paralleling the direction of the hypothesized past hybridization). Moreover, in both sexes' ANOVA, I. m. astur ssp. nov. results more similar (lessP<0.05 differences) to I. galani than to I. monticola s. str. Osteologically, I. m. astur ssp. nov. is slightly more similar toI. monticola s. str. than to I. galani, especially in the squamosal bone, which is regularly arched (primitive shape). Genetically,as indicated above, the NML populations can be subdivided in two groups according to their mitochondrial DNA,namely NML-I (bearing clearly differentiated haplotypes, phylogenetically closer to I. monticola) and NML-II (whose haplotypes could have been mistaken for those of an I. gal ani population). This mitochondrial subdivision has at most a subtle nuclear correlate, however. According to the nuclear microsatellite markers, all the NML populations belong to a single group(/. m. astur ssp. nov.), which would be more similar to I. gal ani than to I monticola, with NML-II populations lying closer to I. galani than those from the NML-I group and, correspondingly, more distant from I. monticola. The discordant phylogenetic signal of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is discussed in terms of past introgression events and sex-biases in phylopatry and dispersion in these species. Iberolacerta manti cola astur ssp. nov., inhabits the Northern Montes de Leon (Sierra de Gistreo sensu latissimo ): Gistredo,Catoute, Tambaron, Nevadfn, Villabandfn (or Macizo del Alto de Ia Canada), Arcos del Agua (or Fernan Perez),Tiendas and Suspiron, mainly in quartzite and slate rock substrates. Its current distribution, cornered in the NW of theNorthern part of the Montes de Leon, suggests a possible competitive exclusion between this taxon and/. galani, as the galani haplotypes (NML-II) appear cornered in the most harsh and continental areas, speaking also about a, even in the past, very limited presence of this species in the area that probably was soon absorbed by I. m. astur ssp. nov. (with NMLI haplotypes). Variation in watershed limits (especially with l montico/a s. str. in the North) and Pleistocene climatic oscillations(with I. gal ani in the South) probably played a crucial role in isolation of the different Iberolacerta colonizationwaves in this zone. These changes in the boundaries among watersheds limited the contact between the NML and the main Cantabrian Mountains, restricting to narrow points (different along time) the contact between the two ranges, and thus,the areas for possible contact between I. m. astur ssp. nov. and I. monticola s. str. (see Fig. lB). The origin of this tax on dates back to the end of Pliocene or Lower Pleistocene (around 1.8 Mya), according to mtDNA divergence. On the other side, climatic oscillations allowed expansion and contact with the more continental harsh climate-dwelling I. gal ani. PMID:24870674

  13. Genomic organization, induced expression and promoter activity of a resistance gene analog (PmTNL1) in western white pine (Pinus monticola).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

    2011-05-01

    Cronartium ribicola causes white pine blister rust (WPBR) in subgenus Strobus. Various genetic and molecular approaches were used to detect white pine genes contributing to host resistance. The molecular role of the NBS-LRR family is highly related to plant immuno-activity against various pathogens and pests. In the present study, genomic organization of a resistance gene analog (RGA), designated as PmTNL1, and its allelic variants were characterized in Pinus monticola. PmTNL1 showed high identity with TIR-NBS-LRR proteins from other plants. qRT-PCR revealed that the PmTNL1 transcript was expressed at low basal levels in different tissues and exhibited similar patterns during compatible and incompatible interactions of P. monticola with C. ribicola at early stages post inoculation. In comparison, PmTNL1 was up-regulated significantly in diseased P. monticola tissues with WPBR symptoms. Expression of the PmTNL1 promoter::GUS fusion gene in transgenic Arabidopsis demonstrated that GUS signal appeared only inside phloem tissues of young seedlings and at hydathodes and branching and organ-connecting points in mature Arabidopsis plants. Similar to the endogenous expression pattern for this gene in pine, GUS activity was up-regulated significantly around vascular tissues locally at pathogen infection sites, but little or no induction was observed in response to abiotic stresses. A DNA marker was developed based on variation of the LRR-coding region, and PmTNL1 was mapped to one genetic linkage group using a pedigree with major dominant gene (Cr2) conferring HR resistance to C. ribicola. These results suggest that PmTNL1 may play an important role in white pine partial resistance against C. ribicola. PMID:21279649

  14. Karyological characterization of the endemic Iberian rock lizard, Iberolacerta monticola (Squamata, Lacertidae): insights into sex chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Rojo, V; Giovannotti, M; Naveira, H; Nisi Cerioni, P; González-Tizón, A M; Caputo Barucchi, V; Galán, P; Olmo, E; Martínez-Lage, A

    2014-01-01

    Rock lizards of the genus Iberolacerta constitute a promising model to examine the process of sex chromosome evolution, as these closely related taxa exhibit remarkable diversity in the degree of sex chromosome differentiation with no clear phylogenetic segregation, ranging from cryptic to highly heteromorphic ZW chromosomes and even multiple chromosome systems (Z1Z1Z2Z2/Z1Z2W). To gain a deeper insight into the patterns of karyotype and sex chromosome evolution, we performed a cytogenetic analysis based on conventional staining, banding techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization in the species I. monticola, for which previous cytogenetic investigations did not detect differentiated sex chromosomes. The karyotype is composed of 2n = 36 acrocentric chromosomes. NORs and the major ribosomal genes were located in the subtelomeric region of chromosome pair 6. Hybridization signals of the telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n were visualized at the telomeres of all chromosomes and interstitially in 5 chromosome pairs. C-banding showed constitutive heterochromatin at the centromeres of all chromosomes, as well as clear pericentromeric and light telomeric C-bands in several chromosome pairs. These results highlight some chromosomal markers which can be useful to identify species-specific diagnostic characters, although they may not accurately reflect the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa. In addition, C-banding revealed the presence of a heteromorphic ZW sex chromosome pair, where W is smaller than Z and almost completely heterochromatic. This finding sheds light on sex chromosome evolution in the genus Iberolacerta and suggests that further comparative cytogenetic analyses are needed to understand the processes underlying the origin, differentiation and plasticity of sex chromosome systems in lacertid lizards. PMID:24296524

  15. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vega, Mara Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jess; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. PMID:23692021

  16. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of some isolated constituents from the stem bark of Allanblackia monticola Staner L.C (Guttiferae).

    PubMed

    Nguemfo, E L; Dimo, T; Dongmo, A B; Azebaze, A G B; Alaoui, K; Asongalem, A E; Cherrah, Y; Kamtchouing, P

    2009-02-01

    Stem bark of Allanblackia monticola has been used in association with others plant in the Cameroonian folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases such amoebic dysentery, diarrhoea, lung infections, and skin diseases. The methylene chloride fraction, its isolated compounds like alpha-mangostin, lupeol and acid betulinic were screened for antioxidant activity using free radical scavenging method. These isolated compounds were further tested for anti-inflammatory properties using carrageenan-induced model. Methylene chloride fraction, showed concentration-dependent radical scavenging activity, by inhibiting 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) with an IC(50) value of 14.60 microg/ml. alpha-Mangostin and betulinic acid (500 microg/ml), showed weak radical scavenging activity with a maximum inhibition reaching 38.07 microg/ml and 26.38 microg/ml, respectively. Betulinic acid, lupeol and alpha-mangostin (5 mg/kg and 9.37 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory activity with a maximum inhibition of 57.89%, 57.14% and 38.70%, respectively. Methylene chloride fraction of Allanblackia monticola and some derivatives, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:19127347

  17. A cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide from Pinus monticola (PmAMP1) confers resistance to multiple fungal pathogens in canola (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Verma, Shiv S; Yajima, William R; Rahman, Muhammad H; Shah, Saleh; Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Kav, Nat N V

    2012-05-01

    Canola (Brassica napus), an agriculturally important oilseed crop, can be significantly affected by diseases such as sclerotinia stem rot, blackleg, and alternaria black spot resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides isolated from plants have emerged as a potential resource for protection of plants against phytopathogens. Here we report the significance of an antimicrobial peptide, PmAMP1, isolated from western white pine (Pinus monticola), in providing canola with resistance against multiple phytopathogenic fungi. The cDNA encoding PmAMP1 was successfully incorporated into the genome of B. napus, and it's in planta expression conferred greater protection against Alternaria brassicae, Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In vitro experiments with proteins extracted from transgenic canola expressing Pm-AMP1 demonstrated its inhibitory activity by reducing growth of fungal hyphae. In addition, the in vitro synthesized peptide also inhibited the growth of the fungi. These results demonstrate that generating transgenic crops expressing PmAMP1 may be an effective and versatile method to protect susceptible crops against multiple phytopathogens. PMID:22351159

  18. New viruses from Lacerta monticola (Serra da Estrela, Portugal): further evidence for a new group of nucleo-cytoplasmic large deoxyriboviruses.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Antnio Pedro Alves; Caeiro, Maria Filomena Alcobia da Silva Trabucho; Papp, Tibor; Matos, Bruno Andr da Cunha Almeida; Correia, Ana Cristina Lacerda; Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-02-01

    Lizard erythrocytic viruses (LEVs) have previously been described in Lacerta monticola from Serra da Estrela, Portugal. Like other known erythrocytic viruses of heterothermic vertebrates, these viruses have never been adapted to cell cultures and remain uncharacterized at the molecular level. In this study, we made attempts to adapt the virus to cell cultures that resulted instead in the isolation of a previously undetected Ranavirus closely related to FV3. The Ranavirus was subsequently detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the blood of infected lizards using primers for a conserved portion of the Ranavirus major capsid protein gene. Electron microscopic study of the new Ranavirus disclosed, among other features, the presence of intranuclear viruses that may be related to an unrecognized intranuclear morphogenetic process. Attempts to detect by PCR a portion of the DNA polymerase gene of the LEV in infected lizard blood were successful. The recovered sequence had 65.2/69.4% nt/aa% homology with a previously detected sequence from a snake erythrocytic virus from Florida, which is ultrastructurally different from the studied LEV. These results further support the hypothesis that erythrocytic viruses are related to one another and may represent a new group of nucleo-cytoplasmic large deoxyriboviruses. PMID:21138619

  19. Upregulation of insulin secretion and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in STZ-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats by Pseuduvaria monticola bark extract.

    PubMed

    Taha, Hairin; Arya, Aditya; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen; Vasudeva Murthy, C R; Noordin, M I; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Mustafa, A M; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2014-04-01

    The current study aimed to ascertain the antidiabetic potential of Pseuduvaria monticola bark methanolic extract (PMm) using in vitro mechanistic study models. In particular, the study determined the effect of PMm on cellular viability, 2-NBDG glucose uptake, insulin secretion, and NF-κB translocation in mouse pancreatic insulinoma cells (NIT-1). Furthermore, in vivo acute toxicity and antidiabetic studies were performed using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 and STZ-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rat models to evaluate various biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Five isoquinoline alkaloids and three phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the PMm by LC/MS Triple TOF. The study results showed that PMm is non-toxic to NIT-1 cells and significantly increased the glucose uptake and insulin secretion without affecting the translocation of NF-κB. Moreover, the non-toxic effects of PMm were confirmed through an in vivo acute toxicity study, which revealed that the serum insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly upregulated in type 2 diabetic rats and that no significant changes were observed in type 1 diabetic rats. Similarly, PMm was found to downregulate the levels of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetic rats by alleviating hyperglycemia. Therefore, we conclude that PMm may be developed as an antidiabetic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes-associated conditions. PMID:24518542

  20. Common Functional Correlates of Head-Strike Behavior in the Pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia, Dinosauria) and Combative Artiodactyls

    PubMed Central

    Snively, Eric; Theodor, Jessica M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans and physical sectioning revealed internal cranial structure of ten artiodactyls and pachycephalosaurs Stegoceras validum and Prenocephale prenes. Finite element analyses (FEA), incorporating bone and keratin tissue types, determined cranial stress and strain from simulated head impacts. Recursive partition analysis quantified strengths of correlation between functional morphology and actual or hypothesized behavior. Strong head-strike correlates include a dome-like cephalic morphology, neurovascular canals exiting onto the cranium surface, large neck muscle attachments, and dense cortical bone above a sparse cancellous layer in line with the force of impact. The head-butting duiker Cephalophus leucogaster is the closest morphological analog to Stegoceras, with a smaller yet similarly rounded dome. Crania of the duiker, pachycephalosaurs, and bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis share stratification of thick cortical and cancellous layers. Stegoceras, Cephalophus, and musk ox crania experience lower stress and higher safety factors for a given impact force than giraffe, pronghorn, or the non-combative llama. Conclusions/Significance Anatomy, biomechanics, and statistical correlation suggest that some pachycephalosaurs were as competent at head-to-head impacts as extant analogs displaying such combat. Large-scale comparisons and recursive partitioning can greatly refine inference of behavioral capability for fossil animals. PMID:21738658

  1. Isolation and characterization of the Cetn1 gene from tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Cao, Xiangrong; Shen, Quan; Liu, Wei; Ni, Siyang; Hua, Xiuguo; Zhang, Xiran

    2008-10-01

    The tufted deer, a species found only in China, has polymorphic sex chromosomes (2n = 46, 47, 48). Centrins are centrosome components in species from yeast to humans. Here, the Cetn1 gene was isolated from the testis cDNA library of tufted deer, and its expression pattern, number of gene copies, and gene structure were studied. To date, for unknown reasons, satisfactory genomic DNA of the tufted deer has not been obtained. In the present study, we extracted high molecular weight genomic DNA from tissues of the tufted deer. Results showed that genomic DNA was isolated successfully and could be used for Southern blotting of the Cetn1 gene. Centrin 1 transcripts were shown to exist in testis and the retina. It has no intron and only a single copy in the genome. Protein sequence analyses indicate that the C-terminal Ser-170, which was shown to be phosphorylated in human centrin, is not conserved except in sequences from the human, chimpanzee, and tufted deer. PMID:18751886

  2. Influence of habitat and seasonal variation on wild mammal diversity and distribution with special reference to the Trypanosoma brucei gambiense host-reservoir in Bipindi (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Massussi, Jacques Anselme; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; Njiokou, Flobert; Laveissière, Claude; van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the role of wildlife in the resurgence and perenisation of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), we investigated the influence of habitat and seasonal variations on the diversity and spatial distribution of wild mammals, with special reference to those recognised as potential host-reservoirs of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Bipindi (southwestern Cameroon). To achieve this, we carried out transect surveys in four habitat types over two years. A total of 31 mammal species were recorded, of which 14 occurred in the undisturbed forest, 9 in cocoa plantations, 11 in farmlands and 11 in village-adjacent gallery forests. Among them, six species (Cephalophus monticola, Cephalophus dorsalis, Atherurus africanus, Cricetomys emini, Nandinia binotata and Cercopithecus nictitans), known as reservoir hosts of T. b. gambiense, occurred in all kinds of habitats suitable or unsuited to Glossina palpalis palpalis and in all seasons. These species are the most involved in the transmission cycle (human being/tsetse flies/wild animals). Cercopithecus cephus, Miopithecus talapoin and Heliosciurus rufobrachium host Trypanosoma brucei spp.; however, only C. cephus does not occur permanently in the suitable habitat of G. palpalis palpalis. In general, some species (C. monticola, Tragelaphus spekei and C. emini) showed a slight density increase from the long dry to the heavy rainy season within the undisturbed and farmland habitats, and a slight decrease within cocoa plantations and village-adjacent forests in the same period. The density of A. africanus increased greatly from the long dry season to the heavy rainy season in the undisturbed forest while, the density of primates in this habitat decreased slightly from the long dry season to the heavy rainy season. These variations indicate a permanent movement of wild mammal reservoir or feeding hosts from one biotope to another over the seasons. Thryonomys swinderianus needs to be investigated because it occurs permanently in the suitable habitat of G. palpalis palpalis and Potamochoerus porcus for its genetic similarities to domestic pigs, favourable feeding hosts of G. palpalis palpalis. PMID:19732737

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

    2013-07-01

    Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa. PMID:23778608

  4. The rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea including two new species, G. monticola and G. unicorne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted of species of the rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea. The previously known species were recollected, namely Gymnosporangium asiaticum, G. clavariiforme, G. globosum, G. japonicum, and G. yamadae. Although G. cornutum was reported from Korea, collections similar to that speci...

  5. Genetically engineered Mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Backues, K A; Hill, M; Palmenberg, A C; Miller, C; Soike, K F; Aguilar, R

    1999-04-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Audubon Park Zoo and Miami Metro Zoo, (Miami, Florida, USA) from December 1996 to June 1997. Several species of animals were vaccinated with vMC0, which is serologically indistinguishable from the field strain of EMCV. Serum samples were taken at the time of vaccination and again 21 days later, then submitted for serum neutralization titers against EMCV. The vaccinate species included red capped mangebey (Cercocebus torquatus), colobus (Colobus guereza), angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis), ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus ruber and Lemur variegatus variegatus), back lemur (Lemur macaco), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), diana guenon (Cercopithicus diana), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin), Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), guanaco (Lama glama guanicoe), black duiker (Cephalophus niger), Vietnamese potbellied pig (Sus scrofa), babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), collard peccary (Tayass tajacu), and African crested porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis). The vaccine response was variable, with high virus neutralizing antibody titer responses in some primate species and mixed to poor responses for other species. No ill effects were seen with vaccination. PMID:10231768

  6. A scientific note on the lactic acid bacterial flora within the honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera (Buckfast), A.m. scutellata, A.m. mellifera, and A.m. monticola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was discovered by Olofsson and Vásquez (2008) that a novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota with numerous LAB, comprising the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, live in a symbiotic relationship with honeybees (Apis mellifera) in their honey stomach. Previous results from 16S rRNA gene...

  7. Western White Pine

    A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...

  8. First report of prey capture from human laid snare-traps by wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Brand, Charlotte; Eguma, Robert; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Chimpanzees regularly hunt for meat in the wild, including both solo and group hunting; however, theft of prey from non-chimpanzee hunters, or scavenging of carcasses is extremely rare. Here we report the first observations of a novel prey capture technique by the chimpanzees in two adjacent communities in the Budongo Conservation Field Station, Uganda. In both cases blue duikers were found caught in human laid snare traps, and then retrieved by the chimpanzees. In one case the duiker was still alive when retrieved and subsequently fully consumed by the chimpanzees. In the other, the chimpanzees encountered the duiker while alive, but retrieved it soon after its death; here only a small portion was consumed. These observations are discussed in comparison to observations of chimpanzee hunting, scavenging, and their exploitation of an environment increasingly modified by human activity. PMID:24682899

  9. A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine

    PubMed Central

    Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George

    2004-01-01

    The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

  10. Rock shelters in Gorges Valley, Mount Kenya Afroalpine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Barendregt, R. W.; Churcher, C. S.; Spence, John R.

    Two rock shelters were located during the course of a field survey of important Quaternary sections on Mount Kenya. Located in dense riverine vegetation, in and around a sequence of end moraines, in the Ericaceous zone on the mountain, they appear to contain the remains of relatively recent ephemeral occupation by transient hunters. The origin of the shelters, their relationship to multiple glaciation on the mountain, and the remains of fragments and bones found in associated hearths are described and discussed. Fragments of wood and bone from a pigeon or dove? ( Streptopelia sp.) and from a small artiodactyl mammal (? Cephalophus grimmia) were recovered, some from within hearths.

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type-1 following snake bite: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, B; Shrestha, B P; Rahman, T R; Sharma, S K; Tripathi, M

    2008-12-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism and clinical course of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type-I still remain ill defined. Both the treatment and the prediction of the outcome of the treatment are difficult. Abnormal neurohumoral and inflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in its causation usually following trivial noxious event in an extremity. However, to the best of our knowledge CRPS type-1 following snakebite has not been reported yet in the literature. We here report a case of an aggressive CRPS type-1 following a mountain pit viper bite, locally known as Gurube (Ovophis monticola monticola) in a 55-year-old lady. The clinical condition responded well to the therapy with serial sympathetic blockade of the limb with local anaesthetics, non-steroidal antiinflammatory analgesic, antiepileptic, antidepressant and physiotherapy. Our experience in managing this patient and associated pathophysiology in development of CRPS type-1 are discussed. PMID:19558072

  12. Haemosporidian Parasites of Antelopes and Other Vertebrates from Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ollomo, Benjamin; Gilabert, Aude; Rougeron, Virginie; Mve-Ondo, Bertrand; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Delicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Yacka-Mouele, Lauriane; Rahola, Nil; Leroy, Eric; BA, Cheikh Tidiane; Renaud, Francois; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of Gabon (Central Africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. We found that samples from five mammalian species (four duiker and one pangolin species), one bird and one turtle species were infected by haemosporidian parasites. In duikers (from which most of the infected specimens were obtained), we demonstrated the existence of at least two distinct parasite lineages related to Polychromophilus species (i.e., bat haemosporidian parasites) and to sauropsid Plasmodium (from birds and lizards). Molecular screening of sylvatic mosquitoes captured during a longitudinal survey revealed the presence of these haemosporidian parasite lineages also in several Anopheles species, suggesting a potential role in their transmission. Our results show that, differently from what was previously thought, several independent clades of haemosporidian parasites (family Plasmodiidae) infect mammals and are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:26863304

  13. Haemosporidian Parasites of Antelopes and Other Vertebrates from Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Boundenga, Larson; Makanga, Boris; Ollomo, Benjamin; Gilabert, Aude; Rougeron, Virginie; Mve-Ondo, Bertrand; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Delicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Yacka-Mouele, Lauriane; Rahola, Nil; Leroy, Eric; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Renaud, Francois; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of Gabon (Central Africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. We found that samples from five mammalian species (four duiker and one pangolin species), one bird and one turtle species were infected by haemosporidian parasites. In duikers (from which most of the infected specimens were obtained), we demonstrated the existence of at least two distinct parasite lineages related to Polychromophilus species (i.e., bat haemosporidian parasites) and to sauropsid Plasmodium (from birds and lizards). Molecular screening of sylvatic mosquitoes captured during a longitudinal survey revealed the presence of these haemosporidian parasite lineages also in several Anopheles species, suggesting a potential role in their transmission. Our results show that, differently from what was previously thought, several independent clades of haemosporidian parasites (family Plasmodiidae) infect mammals and are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:26863304

  14. Vegetation and fire dynamics in different geological settings since the last ice age, Klamath Mountains, northwestern, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, C.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P.

    2006-12-01

    The Klamath Mountains of northwestern California are a floristic hotspot and their diversity likely results from a combination of geological, ecological and historical factors (e.g., long-term climate change). To evaluate how climate change has influenced past composition, structure, and disturbance regime of the Klamath forests in different geological settings, vegetation and fire histories from four sites, Bolan (1), Sanger (in prog.), Campbell (in prog.), and Bluff (2) lakes are compared. Bolan and Sanger lakes are underline by nutrient-rich diorite soils, Campbell Lake by nutrient-poor and poorly-drained soils derived from mudstone and shales and Bluff Lake by ultramafics which pose severe nutrient limitations to plants. All sites experience the same modern climate and vegetation. The vegetation and fire records from the four sites suggest that substrates have influenced the sensitivity of plant communities and fire regimes to past variations in climate. Cool, dry late-glacial (>11ka cal yr BP) conditions resulted in a subalpine parkland in the Klamath region. P. jeffreyi and Abies were the main tree species at Bluff Lake and fires occurred frequently. Campbell Lake supported more species than Bluff (excluding P. jeffreyi) such as P. monticola, Picea and T. mertensiana and experienced few fires. Bolan and Sanger Lake harbored similar species as Campbell, as well as a small population of Pseudotsuga and experienced few fires. Warm, dry Early Holocene (7-11ka cal yr BP) conditions led to an increase in C. decurrens and a slight decrease in P. jeffreyi at Bluff Lake than before and fires were very frequent. At Campbell Lake, P. monticola increased, C. decurrens became more abundant than before, and Abies, Picea and T. mertensiana were scarce. Similar vegetation occurred at Bolan and Sanger lakes although the sites continued to harbor Pseudotsuga. Campbell, Bolan and Sanger all experienced frequent fires. Cool, wet conditions in the Middle Holocene (3-7ka cal yr BP) allowed P. jeffreyi to increase at the expense of C. decurrens at Bluff Lake. At Campbell, Sanger and Bolan lakes there was a decrease in P. monticola and a significant increase in Abies than before. Bolan and Sanger lakes still maintained a significant population of Pseudotsuga. Fire frequency at all sites was moderate. Modern (3ka cal yr BP to present) climate conditions in the Late Holocene resulted in increases in P. jeffreyi and Abies than before at Bluff Lake. P. monticola and Abies were abundant at Campbell Lake with minor amounts of Pseudotsuga and T. mertensiana. Most tree species occurred at Bolan and Sanger Lake (with the exception of P. jeffreyi at both sites and T. mertensiana at Sanger Lake). Abies and P.monticola were the primary species in the Bolan, Sanger and Campbell lake forests. Fires were frequent at all sites. In conclusion, Bluff Lake was dominated by ultramafic tolerant taxa such as Pinus jeffreyi, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies, while Bolan and Sanger lakes harbored mostly ultramafic intolerant species such as Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Tsuga mertensiana since the last ice age. The forest at Campbell Lake was more open, was dominated by Pinus monticola and had less Picea and T. mertensiana than Bolan and Sanger lakes since the last ice age. REFS. 1 Briles, C. et al 2005. Quaternary Research 64. 2 Mohr, J.A. et al 2000. The Holocene 10.

  15. Identification of complete mitochondrial genome of the tufted deer.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yaguang; Fang, Lin; Zhang, Xiran; Cao, Xiangrong

    2008-08-01

    The tufted deer Elaphodus cephalophus are endangered animals in the world and little is understood about their mitochondrial (mt) genome. In our study, the mt genome of the tufted deer is identified--which is about 16 kb in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding sequence (control region). The distinguishing feature is that GTG is the start codon of the NADH4L gene and the cyt b gene has a subterminal AAA followed by the stop codon TAG. According to 12 H strand protein-coding genes and phylogenetic analysis, Elaphodus may have a sister relationship with another deer group Muntiacus. PMID:19462515

  16. Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001–2003

    PubMed Central

    Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Délicat, André; Rollin, Pierre E.; Leroy, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 2001–2003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystèmes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred. PMID:15752448

  17. Description of a new montane freshwater crab (Crustacea: Potamidae: Geothelphusa) from northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shy, Jhy-Yun; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Jean-Jay

    2014-01-01

    A new freshwater crab is described from a montane area in northern Taiwan based on morphological characters and molecular evidence. Geothelphusa cilan sp. nov., from the Cilan Forest, situated on the boundary of Hsinchu and Yilan (= Ilan) counties, is close to G. monticola Shy, Ng & Yu, 1994, and G. takuan Shy, Ng & Yu, 1994, but can be distinguished by its male first gonopod (G1) and the ratio of thoracic sternites. Molecular evidence from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) also supports the identity of the new species. PMID:25283939

  18. New species of Cymatodera Gray (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Tillinae) from México and Central America, with notes on others.

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen new species of Cymatodera Gray are described: C. mexicana, C. cicatricula, C. matehualacaligoides, C. brailovskyi, C. durangoensis, C. monticola, C. paucipunctata, C. anulata, C. christina, C. copei, C. oxchuc, C. merickeli, C. romeroi, C. cellulosa, and C. acutipennis from México; C. doda from México, Nicaragua and Costa Rica; C. carinipennis from México and Guatemala; C. rileyi from México, Honduras, and Belize, and C. wilsoni from Costa Rica. These species are figured, along with the type of C. kolbei Schenkling, and a lectotype is designated for the latter. I include a brief discussion on the prevalence and evolution of brachyptery in Cymatodera. PMID:25947707

  19. A taxonomic revision of Tyrini of the Oriental region. V. Revision of the genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlaváč, Peter; Nomura, Shûhei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 of the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini: Tyrina) is revised. The three so far known species, Lasinus mandarinus Raffray, 1890, Lasinus monticola Sawada, 1961 and Lasinus spinosus Sharp, 1874 are redescribed. Eight new species, Lasinus sinicus sp. n. from China, Lasinus mikado sp. n., Lasinus yamamotoi sp. n., Lasinus inexpectatus sp. n., Lasinus yakushimanus sp. n., Lasinus amamianus sp. n., Lasinus saoriae sp. n., and Lasinus okinawanus sp. n. from Japan, are described. And all species are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Lasinus mandarinus and Lasinus spinosus. An identification key to species of the genus Lasinus is provided. PMID:24146590

  20. Atlantinone A, a Meroterpenoid Produced by Penicillium ribeum and Several Cheese Associated Penicillium Species.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Petur W; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens ; Zidorn, Christian; Frisvad, Jens C; Christophersen, Carsten; Larsen, Thomas O

    2012-01-01

    Atlantinone A has been isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum. The exact structure of the compound was confirmed by mass spectrometric and 1- and 2D NMR experiments. Atlantinone A was originally only produced upon chemical epigenetic manipulation of P. hirayamae, however in this study the compound was found to be produced at standard growth conditions by the following species; P. solitum, P. discolor, P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. palitans, P. novae-zeelandiae and P. monticola. A biosynthetic pathway to atlantinone A starting from andrastin A is proposed. PMID:24957375

  1. A new case of an Holarctic element in the Colombian Andes: first record of Cordyla Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) from the Neotropical region

    PubMed Central

    Kurina, Olavi; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Mycetophilidae – Cordyla monticola sp. n., Cordyla pseudopusilla sp. n. and Cordyla reducta sp. n. – are described from the Colombian Andes, representing the first described species of Cordyla Meigen from the Neotropical region. Colour photos of their habitus, wing and terminalia are provided. The morphological affinities of male terminalia are discussed in a worldwide context. The distributional pattern of the genus clearly indicates a case of northern elements reaching the north-western region of the Neotropics that corresponds to a secondary extension of a Holarctic clade to the south. PMID:26445929

  2. A new species of the genus Amolops (Amphibia: Ranidae) from southeastern Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; YAN, Fang; XIE, Jiang; ZOU, Da-Hu; LIU, Wu-Lin; JIANG, Jian-Ping; LI, Cheng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Amolops Cope, 1865 is described from Nyingchi, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species, Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is assigned to the Amolops monticola group based on its skin smooth, dorsolateral fold distinct, lateral side of head black, upper lip stripe white extending to the shoulder. Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of Amolops by the following combination of characters: (1) medium body size, SVL 48.5-58.3 mm in males, and 57.6-70.7 mm in females; (2) tympanum distinct, slightly larger than one third of the eye diameter; (3) a small tooth-like projection on anteromedial edge of mandible; (4) the absence of white spine on dorsal surface of body; (5) the presence of circummarginal groove on all fingers; (6) the presence of vomerine teeth; (7) background coloration of dorsal surface brown, lateral body gray with yellow; (8) the presence of transverse bands on the dorsal limbs; (9) the presence of nuptial pad on the first finger in males; (10) the absence of vocal sac in males. Taxonomic status of the populations that were previously identified to A. monticola from Tibet is also discussed. PMID:26828032

  3. Stream salamander species richness and abundance in relation to environmental factors in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, E.H.C.; Jung, R.E.; Rice, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Stream salamanders are sensitive to acid mine drainage and may be sensitive to acidification and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a watershed. Streams in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, are subject to episodic acidification from precipitation events. We surveyed 25 m by 2 m transects located on the stream bank adjacent to the water channel in Shenandoah National Park for salamanders using a stratified random sampling design based on elevation, aspect and bedrock geology. We investigated the relationships of four species (Eurycea bislineata, Desmognathus fuscus, D. monticola and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) to habitat and water quality variables. We did not find overwhelming evidence that stream salamanders are affected by the acid-base status of streams in Shenandoah National Park. Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola abundance was greater both in streams that had a higher potential to neutralize acidification, and in higher elevation (>700 m) streams. Neither abundance of E. bislineata nor species richness were related to any of the habitat variables. Our sampling method preferentially detected the adult age class of the study species and did not allow us to estimate population sizes. We suggest that continued monitoring of stream salamander populations in SNP will determine the effects of stream acidification on these taxa.

  4. Identifying Shared Genetic Structure Patterns among Pacific Northwest Forest Taxa: Insights from Use of Visualization Tools and Computer Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Identifying causal relationships in phylogeographic and landscape genetic investigations is notoriously difficult, but can be facilitated by use of multispecies comparisons. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data visualizations to identify common spatial patterns within single lineages of four taxa inhabiting Pacific Northwest forests (northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina; red tree vole: Arborimus longicaudus; southern torrent salamander: Rhyacotriton variegatus; and western white pine: Pinus monticola). Visualizations suggested that, despite occupying the same geographical region and habitats, species responded differently to prevailing historical processes. S. o. caurina and P. monticola demonstrated directional patterns of spatial genetic structure where genetic distances and diversity were greater in southern versus northern locales. A. longicaudus and R. variegatus displayed opposite patterns where genetic distances were greater in northern versus southern regions. Statistical analyses of directional patterns subsequently confirmed observations from visualizations. Based upon regional climatological history, we hypothesized that observed latitudinal patterns may have been produced by range expansions. Subsequent computer simulations confirmed that directional patterns can be produced by expansion events. Conclusions/Significance We discuss phylogeographic hypotheses regarding historical processes that may have produced observed patterns. Inferential methods used here may become increasingly powerful as detailed simulations of organisms and historical scenarios become plausible. We further suggest that inter-specific comparisons of historical patterns take place prior to drawing conclusions regarding effects of current anthropogenic change within landscapes. PMID:21060824

  5. A capture-recapture model of amphidromous fish dispersal.

    PubMed

    Smith, W E; Kwak, T J

    2014-04-01

    Adult movement scale was quantified for two tropical Caribbean diadromous fishes, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor and mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, using passive integrated transponders (PITs) and radio-telemetry. Large numbers of fishes were tagged in Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico, U.S.A., with PITs and monitored at three fixed locations over a 2·5 year period to estimate transition probabilities between upper and lower elevations and survival probabilities with a multistate Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. A sub-set of fishes were tagged with radio-transmitters and tracked at weekly intervals to estimate fine-scale dispersal. Changes in spatial and temporal distributions of tagged fishes indicated that neither G. dormitor nor A. monticola moved into the lowest, estuarine reaches of Río Mameyes during two consecutive reproductive periods, thus demonstrating that both species follow an amphidromous, rather than catadromous, migratory strategy. Further, both species were relatively sedentary, with restricted linear ranges. While substantial dispersal of these species occurs at the larval stage during recruitment to fresh water, the results indicate minimal dispersal in spawning adults. Successful conservation of diadromous fauna on tropical islands requires management at both broad basin and localized spatial scales. PMID:24673127

  6. Iridovirus-like viruses in erythrocytes of lacertids from Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Antnio P Alves; Caeiro, M Filomena; Vale, Filipa F; Crespo, Eduardo; Paperna, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which forminclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. The present work describes the distribution of infected lizard hosts and ultrastructural characteristics of the viral inclusions of NCLDV-like viruses from Portugal and adjacent locations in Spain. Giemsa-stained blood smears of 235 Lacerta schreiberi from Portugal and Spain, 571 Lacerta monticola from the mountain Serra da Estrela (Portugal), 794 Podarcis hispanica from several localities in Portugal and Spain, and 25 Lacerta dugesii from Madeira Island, were studied. Infection in L. schreiberi was only found in mountain populations, up to 30% in Serra da Estrela and 9-11% elsewhere. It was absent in lizards from lowlands. Prevalence of infection among L. monticola in Serra da Estrela was 10%; infected lizards were found during March to July and October but not in August and September. Infection in P. hispanica was below 3.3%. Only one infected specimen of L. dugesii was identified by light microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of infected samples revealed that the inclusions are virus assembly sites of icosahedral cytoplasmic iridovirus-like virions. Virions from different host species have different ultrastructural features and probably represent different related viruses. PMID:23806208

  7. A capture-recapture model of amphidromous fish dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult movement scale was quantified for two tropical Caribbean diadromous fishes, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor and mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, using passive integrated transponders (PITs) and radio-telemetry. Large numbers of fishes were tagged in Rio Mameyes, Puerto Rico, U.S.A., with PITs and monitored at three fixed locations over a 2-5 year period to estimate transition probabilities between upper and lower elevations and survival probabilities with a multistate Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. A sub-set of fishes were tagged with radio-transmitters and tracked at weekly intervals to estimate fine-scale dispersal. Changes in spatial and temporal distributions of tagged fishes indicated that neither G. dormitor nor A. monticola moved into the lowest, estuarine reaches of Rio Mameyes during two consecutive reproductive periods, thus demonstrating that both species follow an amphidromous, rather than catadromous, migratory strategy. Further, both species were relatively sedentary, with restricted linear ranges. While substantial dispersal of these species occurs at the larval stage during recruitment to fresh water, the results indicate minimal dispersal in spawning adults. Successful conservation of diadromous fauna on tropical islands requires management at both broad basin and localized spatial scales.

  8. A new species of the genus Amolops (Amphibia: Ranidae) from southeastern Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Yan, Fang; Xie, Jiang; Zou, Da-Hu; Liu, Wu-Lin; Jiang, Jian-Ping; Li, Cheng; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    A new species of the genus Amolops Cope, 1865 is described from Nyingchi, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species, Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is assigned to the Amolops monticola group based on its skin smooth, dorsolateral fold distinct, lateral side of head black, upper lip stripe white extending to the shoulder. Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of Amolops by the following combination of characters: (1) medium body size, SVL 48.5-58.3 mm in males, and 57.6-70.7 mm in females; (2) tympanum distinct, slightly larger than one third of the eye diameter; (3) a small tooth-like projection on anteromedial edge of mandible; (4) the absence of white spine on dorsal surface of body; (5) the presence of circummarginal groove on all fingers; (6) the presence of vomerine teeth; (7) background coloration of dorsal surface brown, lateral body gray with yellow; (8) the presence of transverse bands on the dorsal limbs; (9) the presence of nuptial pad on the first finger in males; (10) the absence of vocal sac in males. Taxonomic status of the populations that were previously identified to A. monticola from Tibet is also discussed. PMID:26828032

  9. Variable infection of stream salamanders in the southern Appalachians by the trematode Metagonimoides oregonensis (family: Heterophyidae).

    PubMed

    Wyderko, Jennie A; Benfield, Ernest F; Maerz, John C; Cecala, Kristen C; Belden, Lisa K

    2015-08-01

    Many factors contribute to parasites varying in host specificity and distribution among potential hosts. Metagonimoides oregonensis is a digenetic trematode that uses stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders as second intermediate hosts in the Eastern US. We completed a field survey to identify which stream salamander species, at a regional level, are most likely to be important for transmission to raccoon definitive hosts. We surveyed six plethodontid species (N = 289 salamanders) from 23 Appalachian headwater sites in North Carolina: Desmognathus quadramaculatus (n = 69), Eurycea wilderae (n = 160), Desmognathus ocoee (n = 31), Desmognathus monticola (n = 3), Eurycea guttolineata (n = 7), and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (n = 19). We found infection in all species except D. monticola. Further analysis focused on comparing infection in the two most abundant species, D. quadramaculatus and E. wilderae. We found that D. quadramaculatus had significantly higher infection prevalence and intensity, probably due to a longer aquatic larval period and larger body sizes and thus greater cumulative exposure to the parasite. PMID:26026670

  10. Evolutionary affinities of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the context of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae.

    PubMed Central

    Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the systematic status of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a new bovid genus recently discovered in Vietnam, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships within the family Bovidae, four distinct DNA markers were sequenced. Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (1143 bp) and 12S rRNA (956 bp) genes and non-coding regions from the nuclear genes for aromatase cytochrome P-450 (199 bp) and lactoferrin (338 bp) have been compared for 25 bovid species and three Cervidae and Antilocapridae outgroups. Independent and/or combined analyses of the four nucleotide matrices through maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that Bovidae consists of two major lineages, i.e. Bovinac which contains the tribes Bovini, Boselaphini and Tragelaphini, and Antilopinae which encompasses all other bovids. Within Bovinae, the tribe Bovini is divided into buffalo Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus) and cattle Bovini (Bos and Bison) and Tragelaphini are possibly related to Boselaphini. Pseudoryx is shown to be (i) robustly nested within Bovinae; (ii) strongly associated with Bovini; and (iii) tentatively sharing a sister-group relationship with cattle Bovini. Within Antilopinae, three robust clades are in evidence: (i) Hippotragus and Damaliscus are linked to Ovis; (ii) Aepyceros joins Neotragus; and (iii) Cephalophus clusters with Oreotragus. PMID:10380679

  11. Phylogenomics of several deer species revealed by comparative chromosome painting with Chinese muntjac paints.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Chi, Jianxiang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Yang, Fengtang

    2006-05-01

    A set of Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) chromosome-specific paints has been hybridized onto the metaphases of sika deer (Cervus nippon, CNI, 2n = 66), red deer (Cervus elaphus, CEL, 2n = 62) and tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus, ECE, 2n = 47). Thirty-three homologous autosomal segments were detected in genomes of sika deer and red deer, while 31 autosomal homologous segments were delineated in genome of tufted deer. The Chinese muntjac chromosome X probe painted to the whole X chromosome, and the chromosome Y probe gave signals on the Y chromosome as well as distal region of the X chromosome of each species. Our results confirmed that exclusive Robertsonian translocations have contributed to the karyotypic evolution of sika deer and red deer. In addition to Robertsonian translocation, tandem fusions have played a more important role in the karyotypic evolution of tufted deer. Different types of chromosomal rearrangements have led to great differences in the genome organization between cervinae and muntiacinae species. Our analysis testified that six chromosomal fissions in the proposed 2n = 58 ancestral pecoran karyotype led to the formation of 2n = 70 ancestral cervid karyotype and the deer karyotypes is more derived compare with those of bovid species. Combining previous cytogenetic and molecular systematic studies, we analyzed the genome phylogeny for 11 cervid species. PMID:16850210

  12. Cryptic species diversity in marsupial frogs (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca) in the Andes of northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Duellman, William E; Barley, Anthony J; Venegas, Pablo J

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two undescribed species of the hemiphractid genus Gastrotheca in the Andes in northern Peru. Both species are similar morphologically to Gastrotheca dysprosita and G. monticola, but they differ from these species and from one another in subtleties of coloration and minor variances in size and proportions. Gastrotheca aguaruna sp. nov. (6˚10'50"S, 77˚37'01"W, 2480 m) is from humid forested areas in the northern part of the Cordillera Central, whereas G. aratia sp. nov. (6˚14'00"S, 78˚51'24"W, 2560 m ) is known from the northern part of the Cordillera Occidental. PMID:24871173

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis (Cypriniformes, Barbinae, Acrossocheilus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; Huang, Shiqi; Du, Zongjun; Xie, Meng; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Yanzhi; He, Tao; Ren, Hongmei; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Anxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis collected from the Qingyi River is determined. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. yunnanensis is a circular molecule of 16,596 bp in length, and all genes showed the typical gene arrangement conforming to the vertebrate consensus. The 13 protein-coding genes of A. yunnanensis and other 21 Barbinae species from 3 genera were used for phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. The topology demonstrated the genus Acrossocheilus is relatively close to the Labeo than Garra, the A. yunnanensis may have a common ancestor with A. monticola, where both belong to the non-barred group. PMID:26024134

  14. Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.

    1996-05-01

    Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.

  15. A new species of Liolaemus related to L. nigroviridis from the Andean highlands of Central Chile (Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Elorza, Alvaro A.; Puas, German I.; Alfaro-Pardo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Liolaemus nigroviridis group is a clade of highland lizards endemic to Chile. These species are distributed from northern to central Chile, and currently there are no cases of sympatric distribution. This study describes a new species, Liolaemus uniformis sp. n., from this group, and provides a detailed morphological characterization and mitochondrial phylogeny using cytochrome-b. Liolaemus uniformis was found in sympatry with Liolaemus nigroviridis but noticeably differed in size, scalation, and markedly in the color pattern, without sexual dichromatism. This new species has probably been confused with Liolaemus monticola and Liolaemus bellii, both of which do not belong to the nigroviridis group. The taxonomic issues of this group that remain uncertain are also discussed. PMID:26877688

  16. Species-diagnostic and species-specific DNA sequences evenly distributed throughout pine and spruce chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mehes-Smith, Melanie; Michael, Paul; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2010-10-01

    Genome organization in the family Pinaceae is complex and largely unknown. The main purpose of the present study was to develop and physically map species-diagnostic and species-specific molecular markers in pine and spruce. Five RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and one ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) species-diagnostic or species-specific markers for Picea mariana, Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, or Pinus monticola were identified, cloned, and sequenced. In situ hybridization of these sequences to spruce and pine chromosomes showed the sequences to be present in high copy number and evenly distributed throughout the genome. The analysis of centromeric and telomeric regions revealed the absence of significant clustering of species-diagnostic and species-specific sequences in all the chromosomes of the four species studied. Both RAPD and ISSR markers showed similar patterns. PMID:20962883

  17. 6000-year record of forest history on Mount Rainier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwiddie, P.W.

    1986-02-01

    Sediments in three ponds between 1300 - 1500 m on the south side of Mt. Rainier were examined for plant macrofossils and pollen. Macrofossils of seral species such as Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus monticola, Abies procera, and Pinus contorta are conspicuous from 6000 to 3400 BP. These species suggest a climate that was warmer/drier than today and favored frequent fires. Neoglacial cooling may have begun 3700-3400 BP, as species typical of higher elevations became prominent; a decline in seral species after 3400 BP suggests less frequent fires. In the last 100 yr, Tsuga heterophylla became abundant and then declined at the highest elevation site. General trends in pollen percentages are similar to the macrofossil curves. Tephra deposition from Mt. Rainier and Mt. St. Helens did not produce conspicuous changes in forest composition. Few major fires are evident from charcoal and macrofossils at these sites.

  18. A new species of Liolaemus related to L. nigroviridis from the Andean highlands of Central Chile (Iguania, Liolaemidae).

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Elorza, Alvaro A; Puas, German I; Alfaro-Pardo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    The Liolaemus nigroviridis group is a clade of highland lizards endemic to Chile. These species are distributed from northern to central Chile, and currently there are no cases of sympatric distribution. This study describes a new species, Liolaemus uniformis sp. n., from this group, and provides a detailed morphological characterization and mitochondrial phylogeny using cytochrome-b. Liolaemus uniformis was found in sympatry with Liolaemus nigroviridis but noticeably differed in size, scalation, and markedly in the color pattern, without sexual dichromatism. This new species has probably been confused with Liolaemus monticola and Liolaemus bellii, both of which do not belong to the nigroviridis group. The taxonomic issues of this group that remain uncertain are also discussed. PMID:26877688

  19. Gas exchange parameters inferred from {delta}{sup 13}C of conifer annual rings throughout the 20th century

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.D.; Monserud, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    In this study the stable isotopes of carbon in plant tissue provided a means of inferring the proportional decrease in carbon dioxide concentration across the stomata, which is closely related to photosynthetic water-use efficiency. The authors analyzed the stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings laid down over the past 80 years to determine whether the proportional decrease in CO{sub 2} concentration across the stomata had increased. Dominant and codominant trees of western white pine (Pinus monticola), ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) growing at the Priest River Experimental Forest, in northern Idaho, were analyzed. To avoid confounding age and year, the authors compared the innermost rings of mature trees to trees of intermediate age and to saplings. The isotopic data were corrected for changes in isotopic composition and carbon dioxide concentration using published data from ice cores.

  20. New distribution records for Canadian Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae), and new synonymies for Trichiusa

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Godin, Benoit; Langor, David; Bourdon, Caroline; Lee, Seung-Il; Horwood, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fifty-four new Canadian provincial records of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae), including three new Canadian records and one new North American record, are presented. Of these, 33 are new provincial records for Saskatchewan, 14 for Alberta, two for British Columbia, three for Manitoba, two for the Northwest Territories and one for the Yukon Territory. The following are new Canadian records: Trichiusa pilosa Casey [formerly reported from Nova Scotia and Ontario as Trichiusa postica Casey], Acrotona recondita (Erichson) and the adventive Palaearctic Atheta nigra (Kraatz), which is also a new North American record. Bionomics information and new locality records are provided. The following new synonyms of Trichiusa pilosa Casey are established: Trichiusa atra Casey, Trichiusa monticola Casey, Trichiusa parviceps Casey, and Trichiusa postica Casey. The numbers of Aleocharinae remaining to be discovered in Canadian provinces and territories are discussed. PMID:25931964

  1. [Multiple Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Gabon, from October 2001 to April 2002].

    PubMed

    Nkoghe, D; Formenty, P; Leroy, E M; Nnegue, S; Edou, S Y Obame; Ba, J Iba; Allarangar, Y; Cabore, J; Bachy, C; Andraghetti, R; de Benoist, A C; Galanis, E; Rose, A; Bausch, D; Reynolds, M; Rollin, P; Choueibou, C; Shongo, R; Gergonne, B; Koné, L M; Yada, A; Roth, C; Mve, M Toung

    2005-09-01

    Outbreaks of Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever have been reported from 1994 to 1996 in the province of Ogooué Ivindo, a forest zone situated in the Northeast of Gabon. Each time, the great primates had been identified as the initial source of human infection. End of November 2001 a new alert came from this province, rapidly confirmed as a EVHV outbreak. The response was given by the Ministry of Health with the help of an international team under the aegis of WHO. An active monitoring system was implemented in the three districts hit by the epidemic (Zadié, Ivindo and Mpassa) to organize the detection of cases and their follow-up. A case definition has been set up, the suspected cases were isolated at hospital, at home or in lazarets and serological tests were performed. These tests consisted of the detection of antigen or specific IgG and the RT-PCR. A classification of cases was made according to the results of biological tests, clinical and epidemiological data. The contact subjects were kept watch over for 21 days. 65 cases were recorded among which 53 deaths. The first human case, a hunter died on the 28th of October 2001. The epidemic spreads over through family transmission and nosocomial contamination. Four distinct primary foci have been identified together with an isolated case situated in the South East of Gabon, 580 km away from the epicenter. Deaths happened within a delay of 6 days. The last death has been recorded on the 22nd of March 2002 and the end of the outbreak was declared on the 6th of May 2002. The epidemic spreads over the Gabon just next. Unexplained deaths of animals had been mentionned in the nearby forests as soon as August 2001: great primates and cephalophus. Samples taken from their carcasses confirmed a concomitant animal epidemic. PMID:16267965

  2. [New data on the Dipetalonema lineage (Filarioidea, Nematoda)].

    PubMed

    Bain, O; Baker, M; Chabaud, A G

    1982-01-01

    The evolutionary line of Dipetalonema can apparently be divided into four groups: I: Australian species; II: paleoendemic South American species; III: the Tetrapetalonema group; IV: the Acanthocheilonema group. Loxodontofilaria at present insufficiently known to be classified and several species belonging to the Acanthocheilonema group are the object of the present study. Descriptions are given of Loxodontofilaria asiatica n. sp., parasite of Elephas indicus in Burma, Cercopithifilaria degraaffi n. sp., parasites of Papio ursinus in South Africa, C. cephalophi n. sp., parasite of Cephalophus dorsalis and C. gabonensis n. sp., parasite of Atherurus africanus in Gabon. Additional morphological data are given on Cercopithifilaria didelphis, C. rugosicauda, Acanthocheilonema pachycephalum, A. viteae, Molinema dessetae, Dipetalonema gracile, Orihelia sp., Skrjabinofilaria skrjabini, Breinlia (B.) spratti, Litomosa sp., Loxodontofilaria hippopotami. Yatesia n. gen. with type species Yatesia hydrochoerus (Yates, 1980), is proposed, distinguished by specialized characters of the posterior extremity. The genus Cercopithifilaria is used to accomodate species considered as specialized Acanthocheilonema. Chenofilaria is placed in synonymy with Acanthocheilonema. Loxodontofilaria includes the three filarid species from elephants, L. loxodontis, L. gossi, L. asiatica n. sp. and the species from the Hippopotamus, L. hippopotami; D. okapiae is considered a species inquirenda. The interpretation given for the neotropical fauna is the following: --Skrjabinofilaria, Orihelia, Dasypafilaria and Dipetalonema may be true paleoendemics in South America. --Molinema and Ackertia on the one hand and Yatesia on the other may be forms of African origin introduced at the end of the Eocene during the migration of African rodents into South America. The cpature in American reptiles (the genus Macdonaldius) could have occurred during this period. --Surprisingly, the two species of Dipetalonema in Didelphis may be late captures of neartic origin: A. pricei from Acanthocheilonema in carnivores and C. didelphis from a Cercopithifilaria in eutherian mammals. PMID:6891995

  3. The challenge of using experimental infectivity data in risk assessment for Ebola virus: why ecology may be important.

    PubMed

    Gale, P; Simons, R R L; Horigan, V; Snary, E L; Fooks, A R; Drew, T W

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of published data shows that experimental passaging of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) in guinea pigs changes the risk of infection per plaque-forming unit (PFU), increasing infectivity to some species while decreasing infectivity to others. Thus, a PFU of monkey-adapted EBOV is 10(7) -fold more lethal to mice than a PFU adapted to guinea pigs. The first conclusion is that the infectivity of EBOV to humans may depend on the identity of the donor species itself and, on the basis of limited epidemiological data, the question is raised as to whether bat-adapted EBOV is less infectious to humans than nonhuman primate (NHP)-adapted EBOV. Wildlife species such as bats, duikers and NHPs are naturally infected by EBOV through different species giving rise to EBOV with different wildlife species-passage histories (heritages). Based on the ecology of these wildlife species, three broad 'types' of EBOV-infected bushmeat are postulated reflecting differences in the number of passages within a given species, and hence the degree of adaptation of the EBOV present. The second conclusion is that the prior species-transmission chain may affect the infectivity to humans per PFU for EBOV from individuals of the same species. This is supported by the finding that the related Marburg marburgvirus requires ten passages in mice to fully adapt. It is even possible that the evolutionary trajectory of EBOV could vary in individuals of the same species giving rise to variants which are more or less virulent to humans and that the probability of a given trajectory is related to the heritage. Overall the ecology of the donor species (e.g. dog or bushmeat species) at the level of the individual animal itself may determine the risk of infection per PFU to humans reflecting the heritage of the virus and may contribute to the sporadic nature of EBOV outbreaks. PMID:26480954

  4. Were snares and traps used in the Middle Stone Age and does it matter? A review and a case study from Sibudu, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Lyn

    2010-02-01

    The concept of remote capture involved in the creation and use of snares and traps is one of several indicators that can be used for the recognition of enhanced working memory and complex cognition. It can be argued that this humble technology is a more reliable indicator of complex cognition than encounter hunting, for example with spears. It is difficult to recognize snares and traps archaeologically because they are generally made from materials that do not preserve well. To infer their presence in the past, it is therefore necessary to rely on circumstantial evidence such as mortality profiles, taxonomic diversity and high frequencies of creatures that are susceptible to capture in snares or traps. Clearly there are some problems with using snares to infer complex cognition because people do not necessarily choose meat-getting strategies with the lowest costs. Although snares make economic sense because they reduce search costs, their use by modern hunters is not associated with the type of status accorded to other means of hunting. Social demands, more than economic or environmental ones, may consequently have determined the amount of snaring and trapping that occurred in the past. Because of social attitudes, an absence of snaring need not mean that people were incapable of using this technique. At Sibudu, a South African Middle Stone Age site, snares or other non-selective capture techniques may have been used during the Howiesons Poort and perhaps also the Still Bay Industry. The circumstantial evidence consists of 1. high frequency representations of animals that prefer forested environments, including the tiny blue duiker (adult and juvenile) and the dangerous bushpig, 2. high frequencies of small mammals, 3. high taxonomic diversity and, 4. the presence of small carnivores. Importantly, the Howiesons Poort faunal assemblage is different from that in more recent Middle Stone Age occupations of the site. PMID:20031191

  5. Spiders (Araneae) of Churchill, Manitoba: DNA barcodes and morphology reveal high species diversity and new Canadian records

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arctic ecosystems, especially those near transition zones, are expected to be strongly impacted by climate change. Because it is positioned on the ecotone between tundra and boreal forest, the Churchill area is a strategic locality for the analysis of shifts in faunal composition. This fact has motivated the effort to develop a comprehensive biodiversity inventory for the Churchill region by coupling DNA barcoding with morphological studies. The present study represents one element of this effort; it focuses on analysis of the spider fauna at Churchill. Results 198 species were detected among 2704 spiders analyzed, tripling the count for the Churchill region. Estimates of overall diversity suggest that another 10–20 species await detection. Most species displayed little intraspecific sequence variation (maximum <1%) in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, but four species showed considerably higher values (maximum = 4.1-6.2%), suggesting cryptic species. All recognized species possessed a distinct haplotype array at COI with nearest-neighbour interspecific distances averaging 8.57%. Three species new to Canada were detected: Robertus lyrifer (Theridiidae), Baryphyma trifrons (Linyphiidae), and Satilatlas monticola (Linyphiidae). The first two species may represent human-mediated introductions linked to the port in Churchill, but the other species represents a range extension from the USA. The first description of the female of S. monticola was also presented. As well, one probable new species of Alopecosa (Lycosidae) was recognized. Conclusions This study provides the first comprehensive DNA barcode reference library for the spider fauna of any region. Few cryptic species of spiders were detected, a result contrasting with the prevalence of undescribed species in several other terrestrial arthropod groups at Churchill. Because most (97.5%) sequence clusters at COI corresponded with a named taxon, DNA barcoding reliably identifies spiders in the Churchill fauna. The capacity of DNA barcoding to enable the identification of otherwise taxonomically ambiguous specimens (juveniles, females) also represents a major advance for future monitoring efforts on this group. PMID:24279427

  6. Biomonitoring of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in the Baluarte River basin associated to a mining area (NW Mexico).

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Green-Ruiz, C; Zavala-Nevárez, M; Soto-Jiménez, M

    2011-08-15

    With the purpose of knowing seasonal variations of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in a river basin with past and present mining activities, elemental concentrations were measured in six fish species and four crustacean species in Baluarte River, from some of the mining sites to the mouth of the river in the Pacific Ocean between May 2005 and March 2006. In fish, highest levels of Cd (0.06 μg g ⁻¹ dry weight) and Cr (0.01 μg g⁻¹) were detected during the dry season in Gobiesox fluviatilis and Agonostomus monticola, respectively; the highest levels of Hg (0.56 μg g⁻¹) were detected during the dry season in Guavina guavina and Mugil curema. In relation to Pb, the highest level (1.65 μg g⁻¹) was detected in A. monticola during the dry season. In crustaceans, highest levels of Cd (0.05 μg g⁻¹) occurred in Macrobrachium occidentale during both seasons; highest concentration of Cr (0.09 μg g⁻¹) was also detected in M. occidentale during the dry season. With respect to Hg, highest level (0.20 μg g⁻¹) was detected during the rainy season in Macrobrachium americanum; for Pb, the highest concentration (2.4 μg g⁻¹) corresponded to Macrobrachium digueti collected in the dry season. Considering average concentrations of trace metals in surficial sediments from all sites, Cd (p<0.025), Cr (p<0.10) and Hg (p<0.15) were significantly higher during the rainy season. Biota sediment accumulation factors above unity were detected mostly in the case of Hg in fish during both seasons. On the basis of the metal levels in fish and crustacean and the provisional tolerable weekly intake of studied elements, people can eat up to 13.99, 0.79 and 2.34 kg of fish in relation to Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively; regarding crustaceans, maximum amounts were 11.33, 2.49 and 2.68 kg of prawns relative to levels of Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively. PMID:21684575

  7. Distribution of a Community of Mammals in Relation to Roads and Other Human Disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. Distribución de una Comunidad de Mamíferos en Relación a Carreteras y Otras Perturbaciones Humanas en Gabón, Africa Central Resumen Presentamos el primer estudio a nivel de comunidad de la relación entre carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas con la distribución de mamíferos en Gabón (África central). Nuestro sitio de estudio está dentro de una concesión petrolera en un paisaje litoral heterogéneo. Realizamos muestreos a lo largo de 199 transectos lineales e instalamos cámaras trampa en 99 de ellos para documentar la presencia y abundancia de mamíferos. Utilizamos modelos lineales generalizados con efectos mixtos para documentar las asociaciones entre variables relacionadas con el ecosistema (cobertura de suelo, topografía e hidrología), carreteras (tipo de revestimiento, ancho de derecho de vía, condición, tipo de vehículos que utilizan la carretera, nivel de tráfico, afiliación de los usuarios y el tipo general de carretera) y otras perturbaciones humanas (urbanización, agricultura, caza, tala, recolecta y actividades industriales) y la abundancia o presencia de 17 especies o grupos de mamíferos incluyendo elefantes (Loxodonta cyclotis), búfalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), cerdo rojo de río (Potomochoerus porcus), ungulados pequeños, gorila (Gorilla gorilla), chimpancé (Pan troglodytes), chacal con rayas a los lados (Canis adustus), carnívoros, monos y roedores de talla grande. Ciertos tipos de carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas estuvieron asociadas negativamente con la abundancia o presencia de elefantes, búfalos, gorilas, sitatungas, algunos monos y antílopes. Los patrones de asociación de mamíferos con carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas fueron diversos e incluyen asociaciones positivas con la presencia de carreteras (cerdo rojo de río, algunos monos y antílopes), agricultura (sitatunga, carnívoros pequeños y roedores de talla grande) y actividades industriales (sitatunga, cerdo rojo de río, antílope rojo y chacal con rayas a los lados). Nuestros resultados sugieren que la comunidad de mamíferos que estudiamos fue afectada principalmente por la caza, agricultura y urbanización, que son facilitadas por la presencia de carreteras. Recomendamos una mayor regulación de la agricultura, caza y construcción de carreteras en el área. PMID:23410077

  8. Effect of Culverts on Predator-Prey Interactions in a Tropical Stream.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, C. L.; Kikkert, D. A.; Crowl, T. A.

    2005-05-01

    As part of a biocomplexity project in Puerto Rico, we use river and road networks as a platform to understand the interactions between stream biota, the physical environment, and human activity. Specifically, we ask if humans affect aquatic organisms through road building and recreational activities. Culverts have been documented to impede or slow migration of aquatic biota. This is especially important in these streams because all of the freshwater, stream species have diadramous life cycles. If culverts do act as bottlenecks to shrimp migrations, we expect altered predator-prey interactions downstream through density-dependent predation dynamics. In order to determine how roads may affect predation rates on upstream migrating shrimp, we parameterized functional response curves for mountain mullet (Agonostomus monticola) consuming shrimp (Xiphocaris sp.) using artificial mesocosm experiments. We then used data obtained from underwater videography to determine how culverts decrease the rate and number of shrimp moving upstream. These data were combined in a predator-prey model to quantify the effects of culverts on localized shrimp densities and fish predation.

  9. Otolith microchemistry of tropical diadromous fishes: spatial and migratory dynamics.

    PubMed

    Smith, W E; Kwak, T J

    2014-04-01

    Otolith microchemistry was applied to quantify migratory variation and the proportion of native Caribbean stream fishes that undergo full or partial marine migration. Strontium and barium water chemistry in four Puerto Rico, U.S.A., rivers was clearly related to a salinity gradient; however, variation in water barium, and thus fish otoliths, was also dependent on river basin. Strontium was the most accurate index of longitudinal migration in tropical diadromous fish otoliths. Among the four species examined, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor, mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, sirajo goby Sicydium spp. and river goby Awaous banana, most individuals were fully amphidromous, but 9-12% were semi-amphidromous as recruits, having never experienced marine or estuarine conditions in early life stages and showing no evidence of marine elemental signatures in their otolith core. Populations of one species, G. dormitor, may have contained a small contingent of semi-amphidromous adults, migratory individuals that periodically occupied marine or estuarine habitats (4%); however, adult migratory elemental signatures may have been confounded with those related to diet and physiology. These findings indicate the plasticity of migratory strategies of tropical diadromous fishes, which may be more variable than simple categorization might suggest. PMID:24673161

  10. Mechanisms and diversity of resistance to insect pests in wild relatives of groundnut.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H C; Pampapathy, G; Dwivedi, S L; Reddy, L J

    2003-12-01

    The levels of resistance to insect pests in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) germplasm are quite low, and therefore, we screened 30 accessions of Arachis spp. and 12 derived lines for resistance to insect pests under field and greenhouse conditions. Accessions belonging to Arachis cardenasii, Arachis duranensis, Arachis kempff-mercadoi, Arachis monticola, Arachis stenosperma, Arachis paraguariensis, Arachis pusilla, and Arachis triseminata showed multiple resistance to the leaf miner Aproaerema modicella, Helicoverpa armigera, Empoasca kerri, and to rust, Puccnia arachidis Speg., and late leaf spot, Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. et Curt.). Arachis cardenasii (ICG 8216), Arachis ipaensis (ICG 8206), A. paraguariensis (ICG 8130), and Arachis appressipila (ICG 8946) showed resistance to leaf feeding and antibiosis to Spodoptera litura under no-choice conditions. Six lines, derived from wild relatives, showed resistance to H. armigera and S. litura, and/or leaf miner. Plant morphological characteristics such as main stem thickness, hypanthium length, leaflet shape and length, leaf hairiness, standard petal length and petal markings, basal leaflet width, main stem thickness and hairiness, stipule adnation length and width, and peg length showed significant correlation and/or regression coefficients with damage by H. armigera, S. litura, and leafhoppers, and these traits can possibly be used as markers to select for resistance to these insect pests. Principal component analysis placed the Arachis spp. accessions into five groups, and these differences can be exploited to diversify resistance to the target insect pests in groundnut. PMID:14977130

  11. Mitochondrial phylogeny of Chinese barred species of the cyprinid genusAcrossocheilus Oshima, 1919 (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) and its taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Le-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Xiang; Zhang, E

    2015-01-01

    Sequences from the mitochondrial control region of 14 putative species of Acrossocheilus (Cyprinidae) were examined to elucidate phylogenetic relationships within species of the barred group in that genus. Phylogenetic reconstructions were generated using three tree-building methods: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The resultant phylogenies were consistent with monophyly of the majority of the morphologically recognized species. However, mitochondrial DNA sequence evidence is incongruent with monophyly of A. fasciatus, as currently conceived. This species occurs only in the upper Qiantang-Jiang basin in Zhejiang and Anhui provinces, and coastal rivers in the Zhejiang Province. The species formerly recognized as A. paradoxus from Zhejiang Province is A. fasciatus. The specimens previously reported as A. fasciatus from river basins in Fujian Province are misidentified A. wuyiensis. The barred group of Acrossocheilus is shown to be polyphyletic. Acrossocheilus is restricted to the barred species here placed in "Clade II," containing A. paradoxus and relatives. Separate generic status is recommended for A. monticola and for A. longipinnis and their closest relatives, although more information on phylogenetic relationships based on multiple genes is required to develop robust phylogenetic hypotheses and diagnoses. Masticbarbus Tang, 1942 is available for A. longipinnis and three allied species (A. iridescens, A. microstomus and A. lamus). PMID:26701558

  12. Development of standard weight equations for Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico amphidromous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooney, Patrick B.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We collected and compiled length and weight information from four countries and one commonwealth to develop standard weight (Ws) equations for three amphidromous fish species native to the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico regions: mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola (N = 9,768 individuals, 52 populations), river goby Awaous banana (N = 1,847 individuals, 62 populations), and bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor (N = 2,983 individuals, 53 populations). Linear and quadratic Ws equations for three quartiles (25%, median, 75%) are presented for these three species. The length-weight relationship from eight lentic bigmouth sleeper populations was significantly different from that of lotic populations, reflecting higher weights of juvenile fish (< 70 mm total length) in lentic environments. Thus, independent W(s) equations were developed for lotic populations of bigmouth sleepers. W(s) equations were not developed from lentic bigmouth sleeper populations alone due to the low number of applicable populations caused by life history constraints; the equation from combined lentic and lotic populations is suggested for application to lentic bigmouth sleeper populations. These morphometric relationships for amphidromous fishes may improve the ability to assess existing and potential sport fisheries and allow ecological assessment based on fish condition.

  13. Using climate-FVS to project landscape-level forest carbon stores for 100 years from field and LiDAR measures of initial conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Forest resources supply a wide range of environmental services like mitigation of increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). As climate is changing, forest managers have added pressure to obtain forest resources by following stand management alternatives that are biologically sustainable and economically profitable. The goal of this study is to project the effect of typical forest management actions on forest C levels, given a changing climate, in the Moscow Mountain area of north-central Idaho, USA. Harvest and prescribed fire management treatments followed by plantings of one of four regionally important commercial tree species were simulated, using the climate-sensitive version of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, to estimate the biomass of four different planted species and their C sequestration response to three climate change scenarios. Results Results show that anticipated climate change induces a substantial decrease in C sequestration potential regardless of which of the four tree species tested are planted. It was also found that Pinus monticola has the highest capacity to sequester C by 2110, followed by Pinus ponderosa, then Pseudotsuga menziesii, and lastly Larix occidentalis. Conclusions Variability in the growth responses to climate change exhibited by the four planted species considered in this study points to the importance to forest managers of considering how well adapted seedlings may be to predicted climate change, before the seedlings are planted, and particularly if maximizing C sequestration is the management goal. PMID:24495313

  14. Leotia cf. lubrica forms arbutoid mycorrhiza with Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Kühdorf, Katja; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F

    2015-02-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizal plants are commonly found as understory vegetation in forests worldwide where ectomycorrhiza-forming trees occur. Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae) is a tropical woody plant and common in tropical Central America. This plant forms arbutoid mycorrhiza, whereas only associations with Leccinum monticola as well as Sebacina sp. are described so far. We collected arbutoid mycorrhizas of C. arbutoides from the Cerro de la Muerte (Cordillera de Talamanca), Costa Rica, where this plant species grows together with Quercus costaricensis. We provide here the first evidence of mycorrhizal status for the Ascomycete Leotia cf. lubrica (Helotiales) that was so far under discussion as saprophyte or mycorrhizal. This fungus formed arbutoid mycorrhiza with C. arbutoides. The morphotype was described morphologically and anatomically. Leotia cf. lubrica was identified using molecular methods, such as sequencing the internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA regions, as well as phylogenetic analyses. Specific plant primers were used to confirm C. arbutoides as the host plant of the leotioid mycorrhiza. PMID:25033922

  15. Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from forest areas in Botucatu municipality, central western São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, resulting in approximately 900 collecting hours. During this period, 216 sandfly specimens of sixteen species were captured. Pintomyia monticola and Brumptomyia guimaraesi were the most abundant with 56 specimens (25.93%) captured per species, followed by Pintomyia fischeri 28 (12.96%) and Psathyromyia pascalei 18 (8.33%). Other captured species were Lutzomyia amarali, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae, Pintomyia misionensis, Brumptomyia carvalheiroi, Brumptomyia cardosoi, Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Brumptomyia brumpti and Brumptomyia spp. represented by 58 (26.85%) specimens. Conclusions Although less frequently found, the presence of Pintomyia fischeri, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei, known vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, indicates risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence. Moreover, the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis-the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, which is the agent of American visceral leishmaniasis-suggests that there is no risk of introduction and establishment of this disease in the studied area. PMID:23849624

  16. Otolith microchemistry of tropical diadromous fishes: spatial and migratory dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, William E.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Otolith microchemistry was applied to quantify migratory variation and the proportion of native Caribbean stream fishes that undergo full or partial marine migration. Strontium and barium water chemistry in four Puerto Rico, U.S.A., rivers was clearly related to a salinity gradient; however, variation in water barium, and thus fish otoliths, was also dependent on river basin. Strontium was the most accurate index of longitudinal migration in tropical diadromous fish otoliths. Among the four species examined, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor, mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, sirajo goby Sicydium spp. and river goby Awaous banana, most individuals were fully amphidromous, but 9-12% were semi-amphidromous as recruits, having never experienced marine or estuarine conditions in early life stages and showing no evidence of marine elemental signatures in their otolith core. Populations of one species, G. dormitor, may have contained a small contingent of semi-amphidromous adults, migratory individuals that periodically occupied marine or estuarine habitats (4%); however, adult migratory elemental signatures may have been confounded with those related to diet and physiology. These findings indicate the plasticity of migratory strategies of tropical diadromous fishes, which may be more variable than simple categorization might suggest.

  17. Deposition of atmospheric ions to pine branches and surrogate surfaces in the vicinity of emerald lake watershed, Sequoia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Dawson, P. J.; Morrison, C. L.; Poe, M. P.

    Atmospheric dry deposition of ions to branches of native Pinus contorta and Pinus monticola (natural surfaces), and nylon filters and Whatman paper filters (surrogate surfaces) were measured in the summer of 1987 in the vicinity of Emerald Lake Watershed (ELW) of the Sequoia National Park located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada in California. Deposition fluxes of airborne NO -3, NH +4 and SO 2-4 to native pines at the ELW were much higher than in the eastern Sierra Nevada, but several times lower than deposition fluxes to natural and surrogate surfaces at the highly polluted site in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Deposition fluxes of NO 3- and NH 4+ to the natural and surrogate surfaces at the ELW were much higher than deposition of SO 42-, providing the importance of N compounds in atmospheric dry deposition in this part of the western U.S. A deficit of inorganic anions in materials deposited to various surfaces indicated a possibility of substantial participation of organic acids in atmospheric dry deposition processes. Nylon and paper filters proved to be poor surrogate surfaces for the estimation of ionic dry deposition to conifer branches.

  18. DNA based association and description of the larval stage of Drusus melanchaetes McLachlan, 1876 (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae: Drusinae) with notes on ecology and zoogeography

    PubMed Central

    Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Pauls, Steffen U.; Vicentini, Heinrich; Lubini, Verena

    2016-01-01

    At three alpine locations in Switzerland adults of Drusus melanchaetes and unknown Drusinae larvae which could not be identified with existing keys were sampled. Based on DNA association with adults, we identified the unknown larvae as D. melanchaetes. To further support the association of specimens a phylogeny was estimated with the putative closest relatives of D. melanchaetes – D. monticola and D. nigrescens – and five other species of Drusus (D. chrysotus, destitutus, discolor, muelleri and romanicus). A highly supported monophyletic clade groups unknown larvae and D. melanchaetes specimens from the central Alps and Austria (Vorarlberg), confirming the association. Based on morphology, larvae of Drusus melanchaetes key out together with D. destitutus in existing keys. D. melanchaetes is separated from the latter species by the shape of the lateral head profile which is almost straight and shows a small step at the height of the antenna, whereas in D. destitutus the lateral head profile is evenly rounded. In addition, in frontal view, the shape of the lateral head outline is straight in D. melanchaetes and rounded in D. destititus. There are also differences in the shape of the pronotum and in the number of the posterodorsal setae at the eighth abdominal dorsum. PMID:26997681

  19. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Humar, Miha; Amartey, Sam A; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes. PMID:15923114

  20. Taxonomic status and relationships of Sorex obscurus parvidens Jackson, 1921, from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2012-01-01

    The San Bernardino shrew, Sorex obscurus parvidens Jackson, 1921, is a population inhabiting the San Bernardino and San Gabriel mountains of southern California. For the past 9 decades, this population has been considered either a subspecies of S. obscurus Merriam, 1895, S. vagrans Baird, 1857, or S. monticola Merriam, 1890; or an undifferentiated population of S. ornatus Merriam, 1895. Aside from the changing taxonomic landscape that contextualizes the genus Sorex, previous study of S. obscurus parvidens has been retarded by the perception of limited available samples (typically, fewer than 8 specimens); misinterpretation of the provenance of specimens identified as S. obscurus parvidens; misunderstanding of the type locality; and inclusion of specimens of this taxon in the type series of another species with which S. obscurus parvidens has been both contrasted and allied at different times. My investigation of S. obscurus parvidens indicates that it is a distinctive population that is morphologically closest to S. ornatus, and it corresponds to the Southern Clade of that species. However, the appropriate names for deep clades within S. ornatus remain uncertain. Until this uncertainty is resolved, S. obscurus parvidens should be considered a distinctive population within S. ornatus; for conservation purposes, it should be recognized as S. ornatus parvidens.

  1. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Humar, Miha; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-07-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes.

  2. Challenges towards the elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo in southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Mbida Mbida, Jean Arthur; Ebo'o Eyenga, Vincent; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Njiokou, Flobert; Grébaut, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview on the types of mutations occurring in the region has been raised and a discussion on the strategies that can be implemented to achieve the elimination of the disease has been made. PMID:25129168

  3. Blood Meal Analysis and Virus Detection in Blood-Fed Mosquitoes Collected During the 2006–2007 Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel; Mutai, Collins; Mireji, Paul O.; Ongus, Juliette; Linthicum, Ken J.; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006–2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the blood meals. Materials and Methods: Blood meals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for viruses using Vero cells and RT-PCR. DNA was also extracted and the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes amplified by PCR. Purified amplicons were sequenced and queried in GenBank and Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) to identify the putative blood meal sources. Results: The predominant species in Garissa were Aedes ochraceus, (n=561, 76%) and Ae. mcintoshi, (n=176, 24%), and Mansonia uniformis, (n=24, 72.7%) in Baringo. Ae. ochraceus fed on goats (37.6%), cattle (16.4%), donkeys (10.7%), sheep (5.9%), and humans (5.3%). Ae. mcintoshi fed on the same animals in almost equal proportions. RVFV was isolated from Ae. ochraceus that had fed on sheep (4), goats (3), human (1), cattle (1), and unidentified host (1), with infection and dissemination rates of 1.8% (10/561) and 50% (5/10), respectively, and 0.56% (1/176) and 100% (1/1) in Ae. mcintoshi. In Baringo, Ma. uniformis fed on sheep (38%), frogs (13%), duikers (8%), cattle (4%), goats (4%), and unidentified hosts (29%), with infection and dissemination rates of 25% (6/24) and 83.3% (5/6), respectively. Ndumu virus (NDUV) was also isolated from Ae. ochraceus with infection and dissemination rates of 2.3% (13/561) and 76.9% (10/13), and Ae. mcintoshi, 2.8% (5/176) and 80% (4/5), respectively. Ten of the infected Ae. ochraceus had fed on goats, sheep (1), and unidentified hosts (2), and Ae. mcintoshi on goats (3), camel (1), and donkey (1). Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that RVFV and NDUV were concurrently circulating during the outbreak, and sheep and goats were the main amplifiers of these viruses respectively. PMID:25229704

  4. Vertebrate DNA in Fecal Samples from Bonobos and Gorillas: Evidence for Meat Consumption or Artefact?

    PubMed Central

    Hofreiter, Michael; Kreuz, Eva; Eriksson, Jonas; Schubert, Grit; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    Background Deciphering the behavioral repertoire of great apes is a challenge for several reasons. First, due to their elusive behavior in dense forest environments, great ape populations are often difficult to observe. Second, members of the genus Pan are known to display a great variety in their behavioral repertoire; thus, observations from one population are not necessarily representative for other populations. For example, bonobos (Pan paniscus) are generally believed to consume almost no vertebrate prey. However, recent observations show that at least some bonobo populations may consume vertebrate prey more commonly than previously believed. We investigated the extent of their meat consumption using PCR amplification of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments from DNA extracted from bonobo feces. As a control we also attempted PCR amplifications from gorilla feces, a species assumed to be strictly herbivorous. Principal Findings We found evidence for consumption of a variety of mammalian species in about 16% of the samples investigated. Moreover, 40% of the positive DNA amplifications originated from arboreal monkeys. However, we also found duiker and monkey mtDNA in the gorilla feces, albeit in somewhat lower percentages. Notably, the DNA sequences isolated from the two ape species fit best to the species living in the respective regions. This result suggests that the sequences are of regional origin and do not represent laboratory contaminants. Conclusions Our results allow at least three possible and mutually not exclusive conclusions. First, all results may represent contamination of the feces by vertebrate DNA from the local environment. Thus, studies investigating a species' diet from feces DNA may be unreliable due to the low copy number of DNA originating from diet items. Second, there is some inherent difference between the bonobo and gorilla feces, with only the later ones being contaminated. Third, similar to bonobos, for which the consumption of monkeys has only recently been documented, the gorilla population investigated (for which very little observational data are as yet available) may occasionally consume small vertebrates. Although the last explanation is speculative, it should not be discarded a-priori given that observational studies continue to unravel new behaviors in great ape species. PMID:20195539

  5. The host plants of the Telamonini treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) and the first diagnoses of nymphs for 14 species.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the treehopper tribe Telamonini has focused on their classification and Nearctic distribution but little has been published on their biology, including detailed information on their host plants as well as data on their nymphal stage. Any studies including host plant data have emphasized adult records (often unreliable due to their movements), largely ignoring the nymphs, which are the predominant feeding stage. This work provides the first comprehensive summary of Telamonini host plants, it documents the first positive identification of the nymphs for several telamonine species (and the genus Helonica), and it provides the first morphological diagnoses for 14 species, thus filling in major gaps in the life history of many species. Host plant records were determined based on accounts in the literature (adults and nymphs), from rearings of nymphs on host plants to the adult stage, and from label data on museum specimens. The Telamonini are known from 22 families, 41 genera, and 80 species of mostly woody, deciduous trees (of which, six species are new host plant records). Nearly half of all telamonines have been collected from more than one plant genus and only 12 species are known from a single host plant species. Telamonine nymphs were reared to the adult stage on 15 plant species. Of 68 telamonine species, 45 have been found on oak (Quercus), and white oak (Q. alba) is the most common telamonine host plant. Telamona monticola has the most recorded host plants with 29. The work includes 23 color illustrations showing both live and preserved nymphs, representing 15 species, all illustrated for the first time (eight are positively identified for the first time). Differences in nymphal morphology among species within Archasia, Glossonotus, Heliria, and Telamona suggest current generic definitions need revision. This study highlights the need for an increased emphasis on nymphal collections when determining treehopper host plants and inferring classifications.  PMID:25544439

  6. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371-399.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Le Roux, J J; Richardson, D M; Strasberg, D; Shivas, R G; Alvarado, P; Edwards, J; Moreno, G; Sharma, R; Sonawane, M S; Tan, Y P; Altés, A; Barasubiye, T; Barnes, C W; Blanchette, R A; Boertmann, D; Bogo, A; Carlavilla, J R; Cheewangkoon, R; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Duong, T A; Fernández-Vicente, J; Geering, A D W; Guest, D I; Held, B W; Heykoop, M; Hubka, V; Ismail, A M; Kajale, S C; Khemmuk, W; Kolařík, M; Kurli, R; Lebeuf, R; Lévesque, C A; Lombard, L; Magista, D; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Mohedano, J M; Nováková, A; Oberlies, N H; Otto, E C; Paguigan, N D; Pascoe, I G; Pérez-Butrón, J L; Perrone, G; Rahi, P; Raja, H A; Rintoul, T; Sanhueza, R M V; Scarlett, K; Shouche, Y S; Shuttleworth, L A; Taylor, P W J; Thorn, R G; Vawdrey, L L; Solano-Vidal, R; Voitk, A; Wong, P T W; Wood, A R; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2015-12-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Neoseptorioides eucalypti gen. & sp. nov. from Eucalyptus radiata leaves, Phytophthora gondwanensis from soil, Diaporthe tulliensis from rotted stem ends of Theobroma cacao fruit, Diaporthe vawdreyi from fruit rot of Psidium guajava, Magnaporthiopsis agrostidis from rotted roots of Agrostis stolonifera and Semifissispora natalis from Eucalyptus leaf litter. Furthermore, Neopestalotiopsis egyptiaca is described from Mangifera indica leaves (Egypt), Roussoella mexicana from Coffea arabica leaves (Mexico), Calonectria monticola from soil (Thailand), Hygrocybe jackmanii from littoral sand dunes (Canada), Lindgomyces madisonensis from submerged decorticated wood (USA), Neofabraea brasiliensis from Malus domestica (Brazil), Geastrum diosiae from litter (Argentina), Ganoderma wiiroense on angiosperms (Ghana), Arthrinium gutiae from the gut of a grasshopper (India), Pyrenochaeta telephoni from the screen of a mobile phone (India) and Xenoleptographium phialoconidium gen. & sp. nov. on exposed xylem tissues of Gmelina arborea (Indonesia). Several novelties are introduced from Spain, namely Psathyrella complutensis on loamy soil, Chlorophyllum lusitanicum on nitrified grasslands (incl. Chlorophyllum arizonicum comb. nov.), Aspergillus citocrescens from cave sediment and Lotinia verna gen. & sp. nov. from muddy soil. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Phyllosticta carissicola from Carissa macrocarpa, Pseudopyricularia hagahagae from Cyperaceae and Zeloasperisporium searsiae from Searsia chirindensis. Furthermore, Neophaeococcomyces is introduced as a novel genus, with two new combinations, N. aloes and N. catenatus. Several foliicolous novelties are recorded from La Réunion, France, namely Ochroconis pandanicola from Pandanus utilis, Neosulcatispora agaves gen. & sp. nov. from Agave vera-cruz, Pilidium eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus robusta, Strelitziana syzygii from Syzygium jambos (incl. Strelitzianaceae fam. nov.) and Pseudobeltrania ocoteae from Ocotea obtusata (Beltraniaceae emend.). Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:26823636

  7. Species relations among wild Arachis species with the A genome as revealed by FISH mapping of rDNA loci and heterochromatin detection.

    PubMed

    Robledo, G; Lavia, G I; Seijo, G

    2009-05-01

    Section Arachis of the homonymous genus includes 29 wild diploid species and two allotetraploids (A. monticola and the domesticated peanut, A. hypogaea L.). Although, three different genomes (A, B and D) have been proposed for diploid species with x = 10, they are still not well characterized. Moreover, neither the relationships among species within each genome group nor between diploids and tetraploids (AABB) are completely resolved. To tackle these issues, particularly within the A genome, in this study the rRNA genes (5S and 18S-26S) and heterochromatic bands were physically mapped using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in 13 species of Arachis. These molecular cytogenetic landmarks have allowed individual identification of a set of chromosomes and were used to construct detailed FISH-based karyotypes for each species. The bulk of the chromosome markers mapped revealed that, although the A genome species have a common karyotype structure, the species can be arranged in three groups (La Plata River Basin, Chiquitano, and Pantanal) on the basis of the variability observed in the heterochromatin and 18S-26S rRNA loci. Notably, these groups are consistent with the geographical co-distribution of the species. This coincidence is discussed on the basis of the particular reproductive traits of the species such as autogamy and geocarpy. Combined with geographic distribution of the taxa, the cytogenetic data provide evidence that A. duranensis is the most probable A genome ancestor of tetraploid species. It is expected that the groups of diploid species established, and their relation with the cultigen, may aid to rationally select wild species with agronomic traits desirable for peanut breeding programs. PMID:19234686

  8. Study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in the central-western state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Bruno Warlley Leandro; Saraiva, Lara; Neto, Rafael Gonalves Teixeira; Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra e; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Botelho, Helbert Antnio; Belo, Vincius Silva; Silva, Eduardo Srgio da; Gontijo, Clia Maria Ferreira; Filho, Jos Dilermando Andrade

    2013-03-01

    The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinpolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinpolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance. PMID:23178219

  9. Why has streamflow in a northern Idaho creek increased while flows from many other watersheds in the US Pacific Northwest have decreased over the past sixty years?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, L.; Hudak, A. T.; Link, T. E.; Marshall, J. D.; Kavanagh, K.; Zhou, H.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Pangle, R. E.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Denner, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    As global warming proceeds, evapotranspiration demand will increase, the precipitation regime may change, and water cycling in many ecosystems may be affected. Streamflow in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the USA decreased in the last ~60 year possibly due to decreasing precipitation at high elevations and/or increasing evapotranspiration. However, an increasing trend of streamflow was observed at a 4km2 watershed in the Priest River Experimental Forest (PREF) in northern Idaho. We used the process-based soil-vegetation-atmosphere Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model, to simulate the changes in the water cycle at PREF. Independent measurements were used to parameterize the model, including forest transpiration, stomatal responses to vapor pressure, forest properties (height, leaf area index, and biomass), soil properties, soil moisture, snow depth, and snow water equivalent. The model reasonably simulated the streamflow dynamics during the evaluation period from 2003 to 2010, which verified the ability of SHAW to simulate the water cycle at PREF. We then ran the model using historical vegetation cover and climate data to reveal the drivers of the changes in water budget of PREF over the past 60 years. Historical vegetation cover was obtained from a 1939 digitized historical vegetation map. The biggest change was the decline of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), a fast growing and deep rooted species with high transpiration rates, which was once a predominant species in PREF in the early 20th century. This was followed by a subsequent increase and decrease in fir species, followed by the emergence of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) as the current dominant tree species. The tree species shifts under this successional trajectory would have produced continually decreasing transpiration rates, which may explain the steady increase in observed runoff over the last ~60 years, which was likewise simulated with the SHAW model.

  10. Characterization of active miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in the peanut genome.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Kiyoshima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Sigeru; Sasamoto, Sigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Isobe, Sachiko

    2012-05-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), some of which are known as active nonautonomous DNA transposons, are found in the genomes of plants and animals. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Ah-MITE1 has been identified in a gene for fatty-acid desaturase, and possessed excision activity. However, the AhMITE1 distribution and frequency of excision have not been determined for the peanut genome. In order to characterize AhMITE1s, their genomic diversity and transposition ability was investigated. Southern blot analysis indicated high AhMITE1 copy number in the genomes of A. hypogaea, A. magna and A. monticola, but not in A. duranensis. A total of 504 AhMITE1s were identified from the MITE-enriched genomic libraries of A. hypogaea. The representative AhMITE1s exhibited a mean length of 205.5 bp and a GC content of 30.1%, with AT-rich, 9 bp target site duplications and 25 bp terminal inverted repeats. PCR analyses were performed using primer pairs designed against both flanking sequences of each AhMITE1. These analyses detected polymorphisms at 169 out of 411 insertional loci in the four peanut lines. In subsequent analyses of 60 gamma-irradiated mutant lines, four Ah-MITE1 excisions showed footprint mutations at the 109 loci tested. This study characterizes AhMITE1s in peanut and discusses their use as DNA markers and mutagens for the genetics, genomics and breeding of peanut and its relatives. PMID:22294450

  11. Assessing the effects of changing climate on the transformation and vulnerability of coupled hydrologic, ecologic, and human systems using an interdisciplinary spatiotemporal methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klos, P. Z.; Kemp, K. B.; Blades, J. J.; Link, T. E.; Morgan, P.; Higuera, P. E.; Hall, T. E.; Northern Rockies Team

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. northern Rocky Mountain (NRM) region is particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, which include rapid shifts in the rain-snow transition zone, earlier spring snowmelt, prolonged dry seasons, and concomitant impacts on coupled ecological and human systems. The extent to which these hydroclimatic changes are projected to alter widespread disturbance events (e.g.: bark beetle outbreaks, wildfires, and rain-on-snow induced floods) and influence the long-term health and sustainability of coupled social-ecological systems in the NRM is not well understood. Methods that integrate these disciplines are essential to understand how changing environmental conditions impact tree species distributions, disturbance regimes, and people in nearby communities. We are investigating the spatiotemporal relationships between current (past 10 years) and projected (next 30 - 50 years) shifts in: 1) the location of the rain-snow transition zone and its future movement into higher elevations, 2) the zone created by the upslope movement of the lower elevation terminus of two mid-elevation tree species (western larch [Larix occidentalis] and western white pine [Pinus monticola]), 3) the extent of widespread, severe crown fires in the greater Idaho and Montana region and their proximity to, or correlation with, these zones of projected hydrologic vulnerability, and 4) the location and socio-economic dynamics of NRM human population centers and their changing levels of natural hazard risk from disturbance events. This overlay analysis displays the proximity of these changes to one another, and identifies potential zones in the NRM that are likely to experience the greatest cumulative effects of regional climate change near human population centers. Ultimately, this spatiotemporal methodology identifies areas best suited for additional interdisciplinary research that investigates the processes and mechanisms which link hydroclimatic changes to shifts in hydrologic regime, tree species distribution, disturbance events, and socio-economic community dynamics.

  12. Anti-microbial peptide (AMP): nucleotide variation, gene expression, and host resistance in the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Zamany, Arezoo; Sniezko, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Pinus monticola antimicrobial peptide (PmAMP1) inhibits growth of Cronartium ribicola and other fungal pathogens. C. ribicola causes white pine blister rust and has resulted in a dramatic reduction of native white pines across North America. Quantitative disease resistance (QDR) is a highly desirable trait screened in breeding programs for durable resistance against C. ribicola. Along with phenotyping on a collection of germplasms, we analyzed PmAMP1 transcript and protein expression and re-sequenced the full-length gene including its promoter region. A mixed linear model was used to identify the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with accumulated protein and stem QDR levels. Among 16 PmAMP1 SNPs identified in the present study, we found an association of protein levels with 6 SNPs (P < 0.05), including 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 3 in the open reading frame (ORF) region with 2 nonsynonymous SNPs, and 1 SNP in the 3'-UTR. Another set of six SNPs was associated with stem QDR levels (P < 0.05), with one localized in the promoter region and the other five in the ORF region with four nonsynonymous changes, suggesting that multiple isoforms may have antifungal activity to differing degrees. Of three common PmAMP1 haplotypes, the trees with haplotype 2 showed high QDR levels with moderate protein abundance while those trees with haplotype 3 exhibited low QDR levels in the susceptible range and the lowest level of protein accumulation. Thus, an association of gene variations with protein abundance and resistance-related traits may facilitate elucidation of physiological contribution of PmAMP1 to host resistance. PMID:22968909

  13. Orientation behavior of the predator Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) to hemlock woolly adelgid and host tree odors in a multi-chambered olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Kimberly F; Latty, Tanya M; Ross, Darrell W

    2011-08-01

    We studied the adult ambulatory response of the predator, Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), to odors from its prey, Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid, and foliage of hemlock woolly adelgid, host hemlocks (Tsuga spp.), and other conifers. Both the predator and hemlock woolly adelgid are apparently native to western North America, but the predator is being released in the eastern United States, which has different hemlock species, for biological control of a lineage of hemlock woolly adelgid inadvertently introduced from Japan. L. nigrinus responded to odors from hemlock woolly adelgid host trees, but not to odors from hemlock woolly adelgid. L. nigrinus collected from hemlock woolly adelgid-infested western hemlock were more strongly attracted to odors from western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Rafinesque) Sargent] than eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] in most trials. Odors from western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) and white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] were as attractive as western hemlock odors whereas odors from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii (Mirbel)] and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) were avoided. L. nigrinus reared on hemlock woolly adelgid-infested eastern hemlock in the laboratory were lethargic and were not attracted to either eastern or western hemlock odors. Predators collected in the field and tested monthly from December to March responded similarly each month, except February, when they flew rather than walked in the olfactometer, suggesting a period of dispersal or mate finding at that time of year. The implications of these results for programs to release L. nigrinus in the eastern United States for control of hemlock woolly adelgid are discussed. PMID:22251687

  14. Species limits and phylogeography of Newportia (Scolopendromorpha) and implications for widespread morphospecies

    PubMed Central

    Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Vahtera, Varpu; Giribet, Gonzalo; Kaunisto, Pipsa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Newportia Gervais, 1847, includes some 60 nominal species distributed in the Caribbean islands and from Mexico to central South America. Modern keys to species and subspecies are available, greatly facilitating identification, but some species are based on few specimens and have incomplete documentation of taxonomically-informative characters. In order to explore genetic variability and evolutionary relationships within geographically-widespread morphospecies, specimens of Newportia (Newportia) stolli (Pocock, 1896) and Newportia (Newportia) divergens Chamberlin, 1922, two nominal species distinguished principally by differences in suture patterns on T1, were sequenced for mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes from populations in southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Brazil. Newportia (Newportia) stolli is paraphyletic with respect to Newportia (Newportia) divergens within a clade from Guatemala, Honduras, and Chiapas (Mexico), most trees being consistent with a single loss of a connection between the anterior transverse suture on T1, whereas specimens of “Newportia (Newportia) stolli” from Brazil are not closely allied to those from the Mesomerican type area. The widespread morphospecies Newportia (Newportia) monticola Pocock, 1890, was sequenced for the same loci from populations in Costa Rica, Colombia and Brazil, finding that specimens from these areas do not unite as a monophyletic group. Samples of Newportia (Newportia) oreina Chamberlin, 1915, from different regions of Mexico form geographic clusters that resolve as each other’s closest relatives. These results suggest that some widespread species of Newportia may be taxa of convenience more so than natural groupings. In several cases geographic proximity fits the phylogeny better than taxonomy, suggesting that non-monophyletic species do not result from use of inappropriate molecular markers. Molecular identification is possible for specimens missing taxonomically informative morphological characters, notably damaged specimens that lack the ultimate leg pair, a protocol that may also apply to other taxonomically difficult genera that are prone to damage (such as Cryptops). PMID:26257535

  15. Origin and distribution of cr2, a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in natural populations of Western white pine.

    PubMed

    Kinloch, Bohun B; Sniezko, Richard A; Dupper, Gayle E

    2003-06-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution and frequency of the Cr2 gene for resistance to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) in western white pine (Pinus monticola) was surveyed in natural populations of the host by inoculation of open-pollinated seedlings from 687 individual seed parents from throughout most of the species' range. Because Cr2 is dominant and results in a conspicuous hypersensitive reaction (HR) in pine needles, the phenotype can readily be detected in offspring of susceptible seed parents fertilized by unknown Cr2 donors in the ambient pollen cloud. Gametic frequencies of Cr2 were thus determined as the proportion of total challenged seedlings that were pollen receptors exhibiting the Cr2 phenotype. Zygotic frequencies, the proportion of seed parents with progeny that segregated in Mendelian ratios for the Cr2 phenotype to the total number of parents, were a complementary, though less precise, measure. Cr2 frequency was rare overall, ranging from 0.004 to 0.008 in the Sierra Nevada to about 0.001 in the central Cascade Range; it was undetectable further north in the Cascades, as well as in the Rocky Mountains and Coast Mountains of the United States and Canada. The diminishing frequency of Cr2 from the southern and central Sierra Nevada northward mirrors that of Cr1 in sugar pine (P. lambertiana) and points to this region as the origin of both genes. We rationalize that this coincidence may have resulted from protection that these genes may have conferred on both species to an endemic pine stem rust congeneric with C. ribicola (C. occidentale) in recent geologic epochs. PMID:18943055

  16. Adding complexity to the complex: new insights into the phylogeny, diversification and origin of parthenogenesis in the Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rosa; Almodóvar, Ana; Novo, Marta; Simancas, Bárbara; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2012-08-01

    The importance of the Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex lies in the great abundance and wide distribution of the species which exist within it. For more than a century, chaos has surrounded this complex; morphological criteria has failed to solve the taxonomic status of these species. This present body of work aims to study the phylogeny of this complex by increasing the number of samples used in previous molecular works and by including morphologically-similar species that were never studied using molecular tools (A. giardi, Nicodrilus monticola, N. carochensis and N. tetramammalis). Two basal clades were obtained: one formed by A. caliginosa and A. tuberculata and the other by the rest of the species. This second clade was divided into two more: one with Eurosiberian and another with Mediterranean forms. A. caliginosa and A. longa were divided into two paraphyletic groups. Both A. giardi and A. nocturna showed characteristics consistent with monophyletic groups. Each of the two recovered lineages of A. trapezoides were phylogenetically related to different sexual species. While lineage I of A. trapezoides was monophyletic, lineage II resulted to be paraphyletic, as well as the three Nicodrilus 'species'. The diversification of the complex occurred during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene (6.92-11.09 Mya). The parthenogenetic forms within the Mediterranean clade would have diversified before the ones in the Eurosiberian clade (3.13-4.64 Mya and 1.05-3.48 Mya, respectively), thus implying the existence not only of at least two different moments in which parthenogenesis arose within this complex of species, but also of two different and independent evolutionary lines. Neither the 4× rule nor the GMYC method for species delimitation were successful for distinguishing taxonomically-distinct species. PMID:22542691

  17. Site-occupancy distribution modeling to correct population-trend estimates derived from opportunistic observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, H.; Schaub, M.; Volet, B.; Hafliger, G.; Zbinden, N.

    2010-01-01

    Species' assessments must frequently be derived from opportunistic observations made by volunteers (i.e., citizen scientists). Interpretation of the resulting data to estimate population trends is plagued with problems, including teasing apart genuine population trends from variations in observation effort. We devised a way to correct for annual variation in effort when estimating trends in occupancy (species distribution) from faunal or floral databases of opportunistic observations. First, for all surveyed sites, detection histories (i.e., strings of detection-nondetection records) are generated. Within-season replicate surveys provide information on the detectability of an occupied site. Detectability directly represents observation effort; hence, estimating detectablity means correcting for observation effort. Second, site-occupancy models are applied directly to the detection-history data set (i.e., without aggregation by site and year) to estimate detectability and species distribution (occupancy, i.e., the true proportion of sites where a species occurs). Site-occupancy models also provide unbiased estimators of components of distributional change (i.e., colonization and extinction rates). We illustrate our method with data from a large citizen-science project in Switzerland in which field ornithologists record opportunistic observations. We analyzed data collected on four species: the widespread Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis. ) and Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus. ) and the scarce Rock Thrush (Monticola saxatilis. ) and Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria. ). Our method requires that all observed species are recorded. Detectability was <1 and varied over the years. Simulations suggested some robustness, but we advocate recording complete species lists (checklists), rather than recording individual records of single species. The representation of observation effort with its effect on detectability provides a solution to the problem of differences in effort encountered when extracting trend information from haphazard observations. We expect our method is widely applicable for global biodiversity monitoring and modeling of species distributions. ?? 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Species limits and phylogeography of Newportia (Scolopendromorpha) and implications for widespread morphospecies.

    PubMed

    Edgecombe, Gregory D; Vahtera, Varpu; Giribet, Gonzalo; Kaunisto, Pipsa

    2015-01-01

    The genus Newportia Gervais, 1847, includes some 60 nominal species distributed in the Caribbean islands and from Mexico to central South America. Modern keys to species and subspecies are available, greatly facilitating identification, but some species are based on few specimens and have incomplete documentation of taxonomically-informative characters. In order to explore genetic variability and evolutionary relationships within geographically-widespread morphospecies, specimens of Newportia (Newportia) stolli (Pocock, 1896) and Newportia (Newportia) divergens Chamberlin, 1922, two nominal species distinguished principally by differences in suture patterns on T1, were sequenced for mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes from populations in southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Brazil. Newportia (Newportia) stolli is paraphyletic with respect to Newportia (Newportia) divergens within a clade from Guatemala, Honduras, and Chiapas (Mexico), most trees being consistent with a single loss of a connection between the anterior transverse suture on T1, whereas specimens of "Newportia (Newportia) stolli" from Brazil are not closely allied to those from the Mesomerican type area. The widespread morphospecies Newportia (Newportia) monticola Pocock, 1890, was sequenced for the same loci from populations in Costa Rica, Colombia and Brazil, finding that specimens from these areas do not unite as a monophyletic group. Samples of Newportia (Newportia) oreina Chamberlin, 1915, from different regions of Mexico form geographic clusters that resolve as each other's closest relatives. These results suggest that some widespread species of Newportia may be taxa of convenience more so than natural groupings. In several cases geographic proximity fits the phylogeny better than taxonomy, suggesting that non-monophyletic species do not result from use of inappropriate molecular markers. Molecular identification is possible for specimens missing taxonomically informative morphological characters, notably damaged specimens that lack the ultimate leg pair, a protocol that may also apply to other taxonomically difficult genera that are prone to damage (such as Cryptops). PMID:26257535

  19. Postglacial fire, vegetation, and climate history across an elevational gradient in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, M. J.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2011-09-01

    A 13,100-year-long high-resolution pollen and charcoal record from Foy Lake in western Montana is compared with a network of vegetation and fire-history records from the Northern Rocky Mountains. New and previously published results were stratified by elevation into upper and lower and tree line to explore the role of Holocene climate variability on vegetation dynamics and fire regimes. During the cooler and drier Lateglacial period, ca 13,000 cal yr BP, sparsely vegetated Picea parkland occupied Foy Lake as well as other low- and high-elevations with a low incidence of fire. During the warmer early Holocene, from ca 11,000-7500 cal yr BP, low-elevation records, including Foy, indicate significant restructuring of regional vegetation as Lateglacial Picea parkland gave way to a mixed forest of Pinus-Pseudotsuga-Larix. In contrast, upper tree line sites (ca >2000 m) supported Pinus albicaulis and/or P. monticola-Abies-Picea forests in the Lateglacial and early Holocene. Regionally, biomass burning gradually increased from the Lateglacial times through the middle Holocene. However, upper tree line fire-history records suggest several climate-driven decreases in biomass burning centered at 11,500, 8500, 4000, 1600 and 500 cal yr BP. In contrast, lower tree line records generally experienced a gradual increase in biomass burning from the Lateglacial to ca 8000 cal yr BP, then reduced fire activity until a late Holocene maximum at 1800 cal yr BP, as structurally complex mesophytic forests at Foy Lake and other sites supported mixed-severity fire regimes. During the last two millennia, fire activity decreased at low elevations as modern forests developed and the climate became cooler and wetter than before. Embedded within these long-term trends are high amplitude variations in both vegetation dynamics and biomass burning. High-elevation paleoecological reconstructions tend to be more responsive to long-term changes in climate forcing related to growing-season temperature. Low-elevation records in the NRM have responded more abruptly to changes in effective precipitation during the late Holocene. Prolonged droughts, including those between 1200 and 800 cal yr BP, and climatic cooling during the last few centuries continues to influence vegetation and fire regimes at low elevation while increasing temperature has increased biomass burning in high elevations.

  20. The hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Malagasy region taxonomic revision of the T. naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups.

    PubMed

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps. PMID:25009414

  1. Twentieth-century decline of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, J.A.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Franklin, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of forest change in western North America often focus on increased densities of small-diameter trees rather than on changes in the large tree component. Large trees generally have lower rates of mortality than small trees and are more resilient to climate change, but these assumptions have rarely been examined in long-term studies. We combined data from 655 historical (1932-1936) and 210 modern (1988-1999) vegetation plots to examine changes in density of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park (3027 km2). We tested the assumption of stability for large-diameter trees, as both individual species and communities of large-diameter trees. Between the 1930s and 1990s, large-diameter tree density in Yosemite declined 24%. Although the decrease was apparent in all forest types, declines were greatest in subalpine and upper montane forests (57.0% of park area), and least in lower montane forests (15.3% of park area). Large-diameter tree densities of 11 species declined while only 3 species increased. Four general patterns emerged: (1) Pinus albicaulis, Quercus chrysolepis, and Quercus kelloggii had increases in density of large-diameter trees occur throughout their ranges; (2) Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, and Pinus ponderosa, had disproportionately larger decreases in large-diameter tree densities in lower-elevation portions of their ranges; (3) Abies concolor and Pinus contorta, had approximately uniform decreases in large-diameter trees throughout their elevational ranges; and (4) Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga mertensiana displayed little or no change in large-diameter tree densities. In Pinus ponderosa-Calocedrus decurrens forests, modern large-diameter tree densities were equivalent whether or not plots had burned since 1936. However, in unburned plots, the large-diameter trees were predominantly A. concolor, C. decurrens, and Q. chrysolepis, whereas P. ponderosa dominated the large-diameter component of burned plots. Densities of large-diameter P. ponderosa were 8.1 trees ha-1 in plots that had experienced fire, but only 0.5 trees ha-1 in plots that remained unburned. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Malagasy region taxonomic revision of the T. naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups

    PubMed Central

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps. PMID:25009414

  3. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus weevils from New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tnzler; Michael Balke

    2013-01-01

    A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus montivagus sp. n., Trigonopterus moreaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus myops sp. n., Trigonopterus nangiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus nothofagorum sp. n., Trigonopterus ovatus sp. n., Trigonopterus oviformis sp. n., Trigonopterus parumsquamosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parvulus sp. n., Trigonopterus phoenix sp. n., Trigonopterus plicicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus politoides sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudogranum sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudonasutus sp. n., Trigonopterus ptolycoides sp. n., Trigonopterus punctulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ragaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus rhinoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus rhomboidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus rubiginosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rubripennis sp. n., Trigonopterus rufibasis sp. n., Trigonopterus scabrosus sp. n., Trigonopterus scissops sp. n., Trigonopterus scharfi sp. n., Trigonopterus signicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus simulans sp. n., Trigonopterus soiorum sp. n., T sordidus sp. n., Trigonopterus squamirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus striatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strigatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strombosceroides sp. n., Trigonopterus subglabratus sp. n., Trigonopterus sulcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus taenzleri sp. n., Trigonopterus talpa sp. n., Trigonopterus taurekaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tialeorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tibialis sp. n., Trigonopterus tridentatus sp. n., Trigonopterus uniformis sp. n., Trigonopterus variabilis sp. n., Trigonopterus velaris sp. n., Trigonopterus verrucosus sp. n., Trigonopterus violaceus sp. n., Trigonopterus viridescens sp. n., Trigonopterus wamenaensis sp. n., Trigonopterus wariorum sp. n., Trigonopterus zygops sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. PMID:23794832

  4. Co-occurring species differ in tree-ring delta(18)O trends.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John D; Monserud, Robert A

    2006-08-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio (delta(18)O) of tree-ring cellulose is jointly determined by the delta(18)O of xylem water, the delta(18)O of atmospheric water vapor, the humidity of the atmosphere and perhaps by species-specific differences in leaf structure and function. Atmospheric humidity and the delta(18)O of water vapor vary seasonally and annually, but if the canopy atmosphere is well mixed, atmospheric characteristics should be uniform among co-occurring trees. In contrast, xylem water delta(18)O is determined by the delta(18)O of water being drawn from the soil, which varies with depth. If co-occurring trees draw water from different soil depths, this soil-water delta(18)O signal would be manifest as differences in delta(18)O among the trees. We examined the variation in tree ring delta(18)O, over eight decades during the 20th Century, among three species co-occurring in natural forest stands of the northern Rocky Mountains in the USA. We sampled 10 Douglas-firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca), 10 ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) and seven western white pines (Pinus monticola Dougl.). As expected, variation in atmospheric conditions was recorded in the delta(18)O of the cellulose produced in a given year, but observed climatic correlations with delta(18)O were weak. Significant correlations with June climate data included: daily maximum temperature (r = 0.29), daily minimum temperature (r = -0.25), mean temperature (r = 0.20), mean daily precipitation (r = -0.54), vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.32) and solar radiation (r = 0.44). Lagged effects were observed in Douglas-fir and western white pine. In these species, the delta(18)O of a given annual ring was correlated with the delta(18)O of the previous ring. Ponderosa pine showed no significant autocorrelation. Although the species means were correlated among years (r = 0.67 to 0.76), ponderosa pine was consistently enriched in delta(18)O relative to the other species; differences were close to 2 per thousand and they are steadily increasing. Relative to the mean for the three species, ponderosa pine is becoming steadily more enriched (-1.0 per thousand). In contrast, Douglas-fir is being steadily depleted and western pine is intermediate, with an enrichment of 0.5 per thousand. Because all trees were exposed to the same atmospheric conditions, the differences in delta(18)O observed between species are likely due either to differences in the depth of water extraction or leaf function. If the former, presumably ponderosa pine has steadily taken up more water from near the soil surface and Douglas-fir has shifted uptake to a greater depth. If the latter, we suggest the pronounced changes in leaf-water delta(18)O are a result of changes in leaf structure and function with tree size and age. PMID:16651255

  5. Fish-assemblage variation between geologically defined regions and across a longitudinal gradient in the Monkey River Basin, Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esselman, P.C.; Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Linkages between geology and fish assemblages have been inferred in many regions throughout the world, but no studies have yet investigated whether fish assemblages differ across geologies in Mesoamerica. The goals of our study were to: 1) compare physicochemical conditions and fish-assemblage structure across 2 geologic types in headwaters of the Monkey River Basin, Belize, and 2) describe basin-scale patterns in fish community composition and structure for the benefit of conservation efforts. We censused headwater-pool fishes by direct observation, and assessed habitat size, structure, and water chemistry to compare habitat and fish richness, diversity, evenness, and density between streams in the variably metamorphosed sedimentary geologic type typical of 80% of Belize's Maya Mountains (the Santa Rosa Group), and an anomalous extrusive geologic formation in the same area (the Bladen Volcanic Member). We also collected species-presence data from 20 sites throughout the basin for analyses of compositional patterns from the headwaters to the top of the estuary. Thirty-nine fish species in 21 families were observed. Poeciliids were numerically dominant, making up 39% of individuals captured, followed by characins (25%), and cichlids (20%). Cichlidae was the most species-rich family (7 spp.), followed by Poeciliidae (6 spp.). Habitat size and water chemistry differed strongly between geologic types, but habitat diversity did not. Major fish-assemblage differences also were not obvious between geologies, despite a marked difference in the presence of the aquatic macrophyte, Marathrum oxycarpum (Podostemaceae), which covered 37% of the stream bottom in high-nutrient streams draining the Santa Rosa Group, and did not occur in the low-P streams draining the Bladen Volcanic Member. Correlation analyses suggested that distance from the sea and amount of cover within pools are important to fish-assemblage structure, but that differing abiotic factors may influence assemblage structure within each geologic type. The fauna showed weak compositional zonation into 3 groups (headwaters, coastal plain, and nearshore). Nearly 20% of the fish species collected have migratory life cycles (including Joturus pichardi, Agonostomus monticola, and Gobiomorus dormitor) that use freshwater and marine habitats. Some of these species probably rely on a natural flow regime and longitudinal connectivity for reproduction and dispersal of young, and natural flow regime and longitudinal connectivity are important factors for maintenance of functional linkages between the uplands and the coast in the ridge-to-reef corridor where the Monkey River is located. Therefore, we suggest that the viability of migratory fish populations may be a good biological indicator of upland-to-estuary connectivity important both to fishes and coastal ecosystem function. We recommend follow-up studies to substantiate the relative strengths of relationships between community structure and abiotic factors in contrasting geologies and to examine potential bottom-up responses of stream biota to the higher nutrient levels that were observed in stream waters draining the Santa Rosa Group geologic type.

  6. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus weevils from New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler;  Michael Balke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus montivagus sp. n., Trigonopterus moreaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus myops sp. n., Trigonopterus nangiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus nothofagorum sp. n., Trigonopterus ovatus sp. n., Trigonopterus oviformis sp. n., Trigonopterus parumsquamosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parvulus sp. n., Trigonopterus phoenix sp. n., Trigonopterus plicicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus politoides sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudogranum sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudonasutus sp. n., Trigonopterus ptolycoides sp. n., Trigonopterus punctulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ragaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus rhinoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus rhomboidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus rubiginosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rubripennis sp. n., Trigonopterus rufibasis sp. n., Trigonopterus scabrosus sp. n., Trigonopterus scissops sp. n., Trigonopterus scharfi sp. n., Trigonopterus signicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus simulans sp. n., Trigonopterus soiorum sp. n., T sordidus sp. n., Trigonopterus squamirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus striatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strigatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strombosceroides sp. n., Trigonopterus subglabratus sp. n., Trigonopterus sulcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus taenzleri sp. n., Trigonopterus talpa sp. n., Trigonopterus taurekaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tialeorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tibialis sp. n., Trigonopterus tridentatus sp. n., Trigonopterus uniformis sp. n., Trigonopterus variabilis sp. n., Trigonopterus velaris sp. n., Trigonopterus verrucosus sp. n., Trigonopterus violaceus sp. n., Trigonopterus viridescens sp. n., Trigonopterus wamenaensis sp. n., Trigonopterus wariorum sp. n., Trigonopterus zygops sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. PMID:23794832