Boomker, J; Horak, I G; Flamand, J R
The helminths of the following red duikers, Cephalophus natalensis, were examined: 24 from 3 game reserves in Natal and 1 that had originated from Charters Creek, Natal, shortly before it died in the National Zoological Gardens, Pretoria. The 21 animals from Charters Creek harboured 16 nematode species, a nematode genus, 2 cestode species and paramphistomes. The 2 red duiker from Fanies Island harboured 4 nematode species, 3 nematode genera and 1 cestode species, while the single red duiker from Ndumu was infected with 3 nematode species. The antelope from the National Zoological Gardens, Pretoria, harboured 2 nematode species, 1 nematode genus and 1 cestode species. A race of Cooperia rotundispiculum was the most abundant nematode in duikers from all the reserves. Hyostrongylus rubidus is a new parasite record in South Africa and in red duikers, and was present in 80% of the antelope. Although primarily a parasite of swine, Hyostrongylus rubidus should be regarded as a definitive parasite of these antelope. PMID:1923384
Funktionsanatomische untersuchungen an der kaumuskulatur des blauduckers Cephalophus monticola (Thunberg, 1789) (Mammalia, Bovidae) Investigations on the gross functional anatomy of the muscles of mastication in the blue duiker, Cephalophus monticola (Thunberg, 1789) (Mammalia, Bovidae)
The study of the masticating muscles of ruminants has been rather neglected. Two specimens (skinned head and skull) allowed for the study of the shape of the masticating muscles and their tendinous skeleton. The masseter conformed fairly well to the normal bovid type, the other three muscles very much less so. The outer ear has a special supporting osseous process.
Saowapa Sonthichai; Sa-ngium Promkutkaew
The nest of 'Snapping ant' Odontomachus monticola Emery,1892b is in underground and covered with nature twigs and leaf litter. The temporary nest was found in the lawnyard of Chiang Mai University. Therefore, the population of O. monticola was estimated by Marking and recaptured method and yielded 67 individuals. Study of food preference of O. monticola was carried out in the
Baek, Inwoo; Seo, Boram; Lee, Imchang; Yi, Hana; Chun, Jongsik
An ivory/yellow, Gram-stain-negative, short-rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, designated JC2948(T), was isolated from a soil sample taken from Gwanak Mountain, Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain JC2948(T) belongs to the genus Burkholderia. The test strain showed highest sequence similarities to Burkholderia tropica LMG 22274(T) (97.6 %), Burkholderia acidipaludis NBRC 101816(T) (97.5 %), Burkholderia tuberum LMG 21444(T) (97.5 %), Burkholderia sprentiae LMG 27175(T) (97.4 %), Burkholderia terricola LMG 20594(T) (97.3 %) and Burkholderia diazotrophica LMG 26031(T) (97.1 %). Based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) values, the new isolate represents a novel genomic species as it shows less than 90 % ANI values with other closely related species. Also, other phylosiological and biochemical comparisons allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain JC2948(T) from other members of the genus Burkholderia. Therefore, we suggest that this strain should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Burkholderia. The name Burkholderia monticola sp. nov. (type strain, JC2948(T)?= JCM 19904(T)?= KACC 17924(T)) is proposed. PMID:25472981
Pedro L. Moreira; Pilar López; José Martín
Socially dominant males often signal their status to rival males and\\/or females. We tested the hypotheses that Lacerta monticola femoral gland secretions and copulatory plugs convey chemical information about male identity and dominance status. We estimated male dominance status by staging male–male agonistic encounters in a neutral arena. We then conducted two experiments to compare male tongue-flick behavior toward chemical
Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei
Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. Because the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. We also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Forages were irradiated for 3 months with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6 x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal and inconsistent effects on the nutritional content, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and protein-binding capacity of forages. However, flavonoid compounds increased in seven of the 13 forbs and woody dicots that were evaluated. Flavonoids were found to decrease only in yarrow (Achillea millefolium). When offered simultaneously, blue duikers preferred 1x and 1.6 x UV-B irradiated plants of alfalfa equally, but ate 26% less willow grown under 1.6 x UV-B radiation. However, when fed to duikers in separate feeding experiments, total dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of dry matter, fiber, protein, and apparent energy did not differ between alfalfa and willow grown under 1x and 1.6 x UV-B radiation. We conclude that expected increases in UV-B radiation from ozone depletion would have minimal effects on intake and digestion of ruminant herbivores. PMID:18274780
Remón, Nuria; Galán, Pedro; Vila, Marta; Arribas, Oscar; Naveira, Horacio
Aim The study of the factors that influence population connectivity and spatial distribution of genetic variation is crucial for understanding speciation and for predicting the effects of landscape modification and habitat fragmentation, which are considered severe threats to global biodiversity. This dual perspective is obtained from analyses of subalpine mountain species, whose present distribution may have been shaped both by cyclical climate changes over ice ages and anthropogenic perturbations of their habitats. Here, we examine the phylogeography, population structure and genetic diversity of the lacertid lizard Iberolacerta monticola, an endemism considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in several populations. Location Northwestern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula. Methods We analyzed the mtDNA variation at the control region (454 bp) and the cytochrome b (598 bp) loci, as well as at 10 nuclear microsatellite loci from 17 populations throughout the distribution range of the species. Results According to nuclear markers, most sampling sites are defined as distinct, genetically differentiated populations, and many of them show traces of recent bottlenecks. Mitochondrial data identify a relatively old, geographically restricted lineage, and four to six younger geographically vicariant sister clades, whose origin may be traced back to the mid-Pleistocene revolution, with several subclades possibly associated to the mid-Bruhnes transition. Geographic range fragmentation of one of these clades, which includes lowland sites, is very recent, and most likely due to the accelerated loss of Atlantic forests by human intervention. Main Conclusions Altogether, the data fit a “refugia within refugia” model, some lack of pattern uniformity notwithstanding, and suggest that these mountains might be the cradles of new species of Iberolacerta. However, the changes operated during the Holocene severely compromise the long-term survival of those genetic lineages more exposed to the anthropogenic perturbations of their habitats. PMID:23762459
Remón, N; Vila, M; Galán, P; Naveira, H
Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci are described for the Iberian rock lizard, Iberolacerta monticola. Genetic variation in a sample of 20 individuals from Piornedo (northwestern Spain) was quantified both by the number of alleles per locus, which ranged from six to 13, and by the expected frequency of heterozygotes under random mating (heterozygosity), which ranged from 0.761 to 0.902. Single locus and global exclusion probabilities were also computed, and indicate a high power of these markers for paternity assignments and mating system studies of I. monticola. All the analysed loci were also polymorphic in Iberolacerta galani, but only seven in Zootoca vivipara. PMID:21586043
M.-S. Kim; S. J. Brunsfeld; G. I. McDonald; N. B. Klopfenstein
Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species from western North America that has declined over the past several decades mainly due to the introduction of blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variation in northern Idaho populations of western white pine (including
Dries Bonte; Jean-Pierre Maelfait
Pardosa monticola (Araneae, Lycosidae) is a rare spider in Flanders. It is restricted to ther- mophilic mesotrophic (dune and heath) grasslands. Its life cycle and its habitat preference in the coastal dunes were analysed by interpreting data of more than 200 year-round pitfall-samplings. Viable populations are found in short dune grasslands (grazed by rabbits) and in mown young dune slacks.
Hiroko Kudo; Masazumi Mitani
The predatory behavior of the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx,Linnaeus 1758), a forestliving baboon, on the bay duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis,Gray 1864) was observed under natural conditions. In the predatory episode, at least two mandrills (one adult female and one adult\\u000a male) attacked a bay duiker, but no overt aggressive interactions between the attackers occurred during consumption. The estimated\\u000a predation pattern based on
E. L. Nguemfo; T. Dimo; A. B. Dongmo; A. G. B. Azebaze; K. Alaoui; A. E. Asongalem; Y. Cherrah; P. Kamtchouing
. Stem bark of Allanblackia monticola has been used in association with others plant in the Cameroonian folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases such\\u000a amoebic dysentery, diarrhoea, lung infections, and skin diseases. The methylene chloride fraction, its isolated compounds\\u000a like ?-mangostin, lupeol and acid betulinic were screened for antioxidant activity using free radical scavenging method. These\\u000a isolated compounds were
Mee-Sook Kim; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein
Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species in western North America that has declined in prominence over the\\u000a past several decades, mainly due to the introduction of Cronartium ribicola (cause of white pine blister rust) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)\\u000a markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure
Nguemfo, E L; Dimo, T; Dongmo, A B; Azebaze, A G B; Alaoui, K; Asongalem, A E; Cherrah, Y; Kamtchouing, P
Stem bark of Allanblackia monticola has been used in association with others plant in the Cameroonian folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases such amoebic dysentery, diarrhoea, lung infections, and skin diseases. The methylene chloride fraction, its isolated compounds like alpha-mangostin, lupeol and acid betulinic were screened for antioxidant activity using free radical scavenging method. These isolated compounds were further tested for anti-inflammatory properties using carrageenan-induced model. Methylene chloride fraction, showed concentration-dependent radical scavenging activity, by inhibiting 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) with an IC(50) value of 14.60 microg/ml. alpha-Mangostin and betulinic acid (500 microg/ml), showed weak radical scavenging activity with a maximum inhibition reaching 38.07 microg/ml and 26.38 microg/ml, respectively. Betulinic acid, lupeol and alpha-mangostin (5 mg/kg and 9.37 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory activity with a maximum inhibition of 57.89%, 57.14% and 38.70%, respectively. Methylene chloride fraction of Allanblackia monticola and some derivatives, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:19127347
Upregulation of insulin secretion and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in STZ-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats by Pseuduvaria monticola bark extract.
Taha, Hairin; Arya, Aditya; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen; Vasudeva Murthy, C R; Noordin, M I; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Mustafa, A M; Hadi, A Hamid A
The current study aimed to ascertain the antidiabetic potential of Pseuduvaria monticola bark methanolic extract (PMm) using in vitro mechanistic study models. In particular, the study determined the effect of PMm on cellular viability, 2-NBDG glucose uptake, insulin secretion, and NF-?B translocation in mouse pancreatic insulinoma cells (NIT-1). Furthermore, in vivo acute toxicity and antidiabetic studies were performed using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 and STZ-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rat models to evaluate various biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Five isoquinoline alkaloids and three phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the PMm by LC/MS Triple TOF. The study results showed that PMm is non-toxic to NIT-1 cells and significantly increased the glucose uptake and insulin secretion without affecting the translocation of NF-?B. Moreover, the non-toxic effects of PMm were confirmed through an in vivo acute toxicity study, which revealed that the serum insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly upregulated in type 2 diabetic rats and that no significant changes were observed in type 1 diabetic rats. Similarly, PMm was found to downregulate the levels of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetic rats by alleviating hyperglycemia. Therefore, we conclude that PMm may be developed as an antidiabetic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes-associated conditions. PMID:24518542
(6E,10E) Isopolycerasoidol and (6E,10E) Isopolycerasoidol Methyl Ester, Prenylated Benzopyran Derivatives from Pseuduvaria monticola Induce Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells
Taha, Hairin; Looi, Chung Yeng; Arya, Aditya; Wong, Won Fen; Yap, Lee Fah; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh; Mohd, Mustafa A.; Paterson, Ian C; Mohd Ali, Hapipah
Phytochemicals from Pseuduvaria species have been reported to display a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, a known benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E) isopolycerasoidol (1), and a new benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E) isopolycerasoidol methyl ester (2), were isolated from a methanol extract of Pseuduvaria monticola leaves. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and LCMS-QTOF, and by comparison with previously published data. The anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of these compounds on human breast cancer cell-lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a human normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) were investigated. MTT results revealed both (1) and (2) were efficient in reducing cell viability of breast cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that (1) and (2) induced cell death via apoptosis, as demonstrated by an increase in phosphotidylserine exposure. Both compounds elevated ROS production, leading to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased plasma membrane permeability in breast cancer cells. These effects occurred concomitantly with a dose-dependent activation of caspase 3/7 and 9, a down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 and the accumulation of p38 MAPK in the nucleus. Taken together, our data demonstrate that (1) and (2) induce intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, which provides the first pharmacological evidence for their future development as anticancer agents. PMID:25946039
Snively, Eric; Theodor, Jessica M.
Background Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans and physical sectioning revealed internal cranial structure of ten artiodactyls and pachycephalosaurs Stegoceras validum and Prenocephale prenes. Finite element analyses (FEA), incorporating bone and keratin tissue types, determined cranial stress and strain from simulated head impacts. Recursive partition analysis quantified strengths of correlation between functional morphology and actual or hypothesized behavior. Strong head-strike correlates include a dome-like cephalic morphology, neurovascular canals exiting onto the cranium surface, large neck muscle attachments, and dense cortical bone above a sparse cancellous layer in line with the force of impact. The head-butting duiker Cephalophus leucogaster is the closest morphological analog to Stegoceras, with a smaller yet similarly rounded dome. Crania of the duiker, pachycephalosaurs, and bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis share stratification of thick cortical and cancellous layers. Stegoceras, Cephalophus, and musk ox crania experience lower stress and higher safety factors for a given impact force than giraffe, pronghorn, or the non-combative llama. Conclusions/Significance Anatomy, biomechanics, and statistical correlation suggest that some pachycephalosaurs were as competent at head-to-head impacts as extant analogs displaying such combat. Large-scale comparisons and recursive partitioning can greatly refine inference of behavioral capability for fossil animals. PMID:21738658
Paul S. Wenninger; Lisa A. Shipley
Because small ruminants (<15 kg) have a high ratio of metabolic rate to fermentation capacity, they are expected to select\\u000a and require low-fiber, nutrient-dense concentrate diets. However, recent studies suggest that small ruminants may not be as\\u000a limited in their digestive capacity as previously thought. In this study, we examined harvesting, rumination, digestion, and\\u000a passage of three diets (domestic figs
Bachand, Nicholas; Ravel, André; Onanga, Richard; Arsenault, Julie; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul
Wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central Africa. Also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. Considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in Central Africa. This cross-sectional survey served to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella in the muscle tissue of 128 wild animal carcasses from several hunted wildlife species (guenons [Cercopithecus spp.], collared mangabeys [Cercocebus torquatus], gray-cheeked mangabeys [Lophocebus albigena], African crested porcupines [Atherurus africanus], duikers [Cephalophus spp.], and red river hogs [Potamocherus porcus]) sold in two markets of Port-Gentil, Gabon, in July and August 2010. Salmonella was detected from one carcass; no Campylobacter or Shigella was detected. If Campylobacter and Shigella were present, the maximum expected prevalence was estimated at 6% and 1%, respectively. In light of such very low apparent muscle contamination levels, bushmeat likely does not represent a health risk per se with respect to Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Shigella. However, because carcass evisceration and skinning can take place within households prior to consumption, consumers should follow strict hygiene and food safety practices to avoid potential health hazards associated with the handling, preparation, or consumption of bushmeat. PMID:22740547
Assefa, Zelalem; Yirga, Solomon; Reed, Kaye E
The Kibish faunal remains are useful for reconstructing the habitat of the earliest documented Homo sapiens and for understanding the community within which early modern humans existed. A diverse assemblage of large mammals, including many species of bovids, suids, and equids, has been recovered from the Kibish Formation. There are no extinct large mammals represented in the fossil assemblage, and the overall taxonomic composition of the fossil fauna is similar to the modern-day wildlife community living near the Omo River. The fossil faunal assemblage shows a paucity of arboreal primates, and carnivore species are rare. However, the faunal sample includes possible Cephalophus (duiker) remains and Hylochoerus meinertzhageni (giant forest hog), taxa that are extremely rare in the African fossil record, and both indicate more closed habitats. Comparative analyses of the Kibish faunal remains using the ecological-diversity approach document close associations with edaphic grassland and woodland vegetation types. These vegetation forms are similar to current habitats surrounding the Omo River. PMID:18691734
Ekramoddoullah, A K M; Liu, J-J; Zamani, A
ABSTRACT We have been working on proteins that are involved in the defense response of western white pine (WWP) (Pinus monitcola) to the blister rust fungus Cronartium ribicola. Our objective was to identify candidate genes that could be used for improving resistance of WWP to this rust pathogen. During proteomic analysis of bark proteins extracted from WWP trees exhibiting slow-canker-growth (SCG) resistance, a 10.6-kDa peptide, termed Pm-AMP1, was found to be enriched at the receding canker margin. The cDNA encoding this peptide was cloned and characterized. A BLASTX search revealed that the Pm-AMP1 encoded by its cDNA has a 50% homology with MiAMP1, a broad-spectrum antifungal protein isolated from Macadamia integrifolia. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, an antibody was produced against the Pm-AMP1. Immunochemical quantification of the Pm-AMP1 in bark samples of susceptible WWP trees revealed this protein to be barely detectable in the cankered tissues, but occurring in higher concentrations in healthy tissues away from canker margins. Foliage of SCG-resistant trees contained higher concentrations of the Pm-AMP1 than foliage from susceptible cankered trees. Both wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment of WWP needles induced the expression of this protein, further supporting its putative role as a defense response protein. PMID:18943919
Pilar López; Alberto Muñoz; José Martín
Female preference for dominant males is widespread and it is generally assumed that success in male-male competition reflects high quality. However, male dominance is not always attractive to females. Alternatively, relatively symmetric individuals may experience fitness advantages, but it remains to be determined whether males with more symmetrical secondary sexual traits experience advantages in both intra- and intersexual selection. We
Nickrent, Daniel L.
Tusgamertensiana Pinusalblcaulis Pinus monticola Abies lasiocarpa Abies grandis Picea engelmannii Piceabreweriana TsugamertensJana Abies amabifis Pinus monticola Abies procera Piceasitchensis II. Mountain hemlock
Adams, Robert P.
Phytologia (December 2007) 89(3) 361 JUNIPERUS COMPACTA (CUPRESSACEAE) A NEW SPECIES FROM MEXICO. monticola f. compacta is not conspecific with J. monticola f. monticola. Juniperus monticola f. compacta Mart. is raised to the specific level as: Juniperus compacta (Mart.) R. P. Adams, comb. et. stat. nov
Western White pine Current Figure S13a. Projected habitat of western white pine (Pinus-2006 Recent Average1961-1990 Climate Normal #12;Western White pine 2020s Figure S13b. Projected habitat of western white pine for the 20112040 normal period according to 18 climate
It was discovered by Olofsson and Vásquez (2008) that a novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota with numerous LAB, comprising the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, live in a symbiotic relationship with honeybees (Apis mellifera) in their honey stomach. Previous results from 16S rRNA gene...
Epps, Clinton Wakefield
conservation value for the corridor. At Sokoine University, we have optimized DNA extraction procedures from dik, bush duiker, impala, greater kudu, eland, buffalo, giraffe, and elephant). We have initiated
Kaye, Jason P.
........................................................................ 12 Cover crop selection and management .............................................. 12 STEP 3 STEP 4: Crop residue management........................................................... 15 STEP 5Steps Toward a Successful Transition to No-Till Sjoerd W. Duiker Soil Management Specialist, Penn
Standiford, Richard B.
), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), western white pine (Pinus monticola magnifica), white fir (Abies concolor), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), Jeffrey pine (Pinus Jeffreyii
A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...
Standiford, Richard B.
GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 262 White Pine Blister Rust Resistance in Pinus monticola and P. albicaulis in the Pacific Northwest U.S. A Tale of Two Species Richard A. Sniezko,1 Angelia Kegley,1 and Robert Danchok1 Western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) and whitebark pine (P
species--western white pine (Pinus monticola) (WWP) and sugar pine (P. lambertiana) (SP). The USDA Forest in populations of western white pine (WP) (Pinus monticola Douglas ex. D. Don.) in the northern Rocky Mountains). Ecosystems where whitebark pine (WBP) (P. albicaulis Engelmann) is a keystone species are also at risk
monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm (Pinus monticola) and sugar pine (P. lambertiana) are highly valued timber species, their silviculture.C. Fisch. in Rabh., causal agent of white pine blister rust, populations of western white pine (Pinus
Stephens, Scott L.
, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murrayana), red fir, and western white pine (Pinus monticola) firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract. Fire history and forest structural characteristics of adjacent Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi
Required Tennessee Salamanders WFS 433/533 Common Name Family Scientific Name spotted dusky salamander Plethodontidae Desmognathus conanti Santeetlah dusky salamander Desmognathus santeetlah seal salamander Desmognathus monticola black-bellied salamander Desmognathus quadramaculatus shovel
Required Tennessee Salamanders WFS 433/533 Common name Family Scientific name spotted dusky salamander Plethodontidae Desmognathus conanti Santeetlah dusky salamander Desmognathus santeetlah seal salamander Desmognathus monticola black-bellied salamander Desmognathus quadramaculatus shovel
white pine (Pinus monticola), sugar pine (P. lambertiana), and eastern white pine (P. strobus). However species such as southwestern white pine (P. strobiformis, SWWP), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis, WBP
type Engelmann spruce forest Pinus albicaulis - Abies lasiocarpa cover type White-bark pine - subalpine fir forest Pinus albicaulis cover type White-bark pine forest Pinus contorta cover type Lodgepole pine forest Pinus monticola cover
Åsa Tellgren; Ann-Charlotte Berglund; Peter Savolainen; Christine M. Janis; David A. Liberles
Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex),
Mahdi M. Al-Kaisi; Xinhua Yin
in soil organic C in the first 2 to 5 yr after changing to conservation management, but a large increase in TC Soil C change and CO2 emission due to different tillage systems occurred in the next 5 to 10 yr. In addition, Duiker need to be evaluated to encourage the adoption of conservation prac- tices to sustain soil productivity
Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George
The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484
Daniel L. Nickrent; Adam L. Stell
Key Word Index--Arceuthobium tsugense; Viscaceae; dwarf mistletoe; electrophoresis; allozymes; host race. Abstract--Three host races of hemlock dwarf mistletoe have been described: the western hemlock race (mainly parasitic on Tsuga heterophylla), the shore pine race (mainly on Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) and the mountain hemlock race (mainly on Tsuga mertensiana and R monticola). Mistletoe shoots from 21 populations representing the three
Patrick B. Cooney; Thomas J. Kwak
We collected and compiled length and weight information from four countries and one commonwealth to develop standard weight (Ws) equations for three amphidromous fish species native to the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico regions: mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola (N = 9,768 individuals, 52 populations), river goby Awaous banana (N = 1,847 individuals, 62 populations), and bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor (N
Technical Report RMRS-GTR-208 April 2008 Death of an Ecosystem: Perspectives on Western White Pine white pine ecosystems of North America at the end of the twentieth century. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-208. The effective loss of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) in the white pine ecosystem has far
Villagómez-Ibarra, J R; Sánchez, M; Espejo, O; Zúñiga-Estrada, A; Torres-Valencia, J M; Joseph-Nathan, P
The antibacterial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowers, leaves and stems of Gnaphalium oxyphyllum var. oxyphyllum, G. liebmannii var. monticola and G. viscosum was investigated. The hexane extracts showed in all cases the higher inhibitions, G. oxyphyllum flower extract exhibiting the wider spectrum of activity. PMID:11543972
J. Roberto Villagómez-Ibarra; Maricruz Sánchez; Ofelia Espejo; Armida Zúñiga-Estrada; J. Mart??n Torres-Valencia; Pedro Joseph-Nathan
The antibacterial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowers, leaves and stems of Gnaphaliumoxyphyllum var. oxyphyllum, G. liebmannii var. monticola and G. viscosum was investigated. The hexane extracts showed in all cases the higher inhibitions, G. oxyphyllum flower extract exhibiting the wider spectrum of activity.
of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to pheromones in stancls of western beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in a stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Doug]. Traps,ze in stands of western white pine in British Columbia. Key words: Scolytidae, Dendroctonus ponderosae
Standiford, Richard B.
R.STRUBLE The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus monticolae Hopk. )1 is recognized as the principal been used successfully against the western pine beetle (D. brevi- comis Lec. ) in ponderosa pine (~. ponderosa Laws.) (1). - ABSTRACT: Data accumulated for more than 25 . years from old- growth sugar pine
Standiford, Richard B.
(Pinus contorta) may also be present (Barbour and Woodward 1985). Fresno Forest Boundary Roads Streams pine (Pinus lambertiana), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), and black oak mixed conifer, but white fir, Jeffrey pine, western white pine (Pinus monticola), and lodgepole pine
Standiford, Richard B.
- dandelion 1 X X Agoseris glauca var. laciniata False agoseris 3 Agoseris glauca var. monticola Pale agoseris aurantiaca Orange agoseris 1 M X Agoseris elata Tall agoseris 1 X X Agoseris glauca Glaucous mountain Scientific name Abies concolor Abies magnifica Abies magnifica var. magnifica Abronia turbinata Acer glabrum
mainly interested in a) the relative contributions of mutation and of recombination of standing genetic. Henrique Teotónio PhD thesis entitled: "Adaptation from standing genetic variation and from mutation of Iberian Rock lizards (Lacerta Monticola)". Responsabilities: extraction of genomic DNA of samples
René I. Alfaro; Rochelle Campbell; Paula Vera; Brad Hawkes; Terry L. Shore
The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is an aggressive bark beetle that periodically increases to outbreak levels killing thousands of trees. It is considered one of the major natural disturbance agents in North America. In British Columbia, the main host species is lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.), but western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.), ponderosa
Standiford, Richard B.
Perideridia bacigalupii Bacigalupi's perideridia X Pinus albicaulis Whitebark pine P Pinus contorta ssp. murrayana Lodgepole pine CH Pinus jeffreyi Jeffrey pine CH Pinus lambertiana Sugar pine CH Pinus monticola Western white pine CH Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa pine CH Potamogeton epihydrus ssp. nuttallii Ribbonleaf
, Cronartium ribicola. There has also been some effort in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and limber pine-resistance screening activities in western white (Pinus monticola), sugar (Pinus lambertiana), and eastern white (Pinus (Pinus flexilis) disease-resistance work, but to a lesser degree. Recently the FS has been actively
tree seed collections of Pinus albicaulis, P. aristata, P. balfou- riana, P. flexilis, P. longaeva Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don and P. lam- bertiana Dougl. throughout significant portions of their geographic ranges. More recently, programs have been initi- ated for the other six species: P. albicaulis
. James; western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don; and whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis Engelm several pine species, most notably lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.; ponderosa pine, Pinus pon- derosa Dougl. ex Laws.; sugar pine, Pinus lambertiana Dougl.; lim- ber pine, Pinus flexilis E
Rissler, Leslie J; Wilbur, Henry M; Taylor, Douglas R
Understanding the unique contributions of ecology and history to the distribution of species within communities requires an integrative approach. The Eastern Continental Divide in southwestern Virginia separates river drainages that differ in species composition: the more aquatic, predatory Desmognathus quadramaculatus is present only in the New River drainage (which drains to the Gulf of Mexico), while Desmognathus monticola is present in both the New River drainage and the James River drainage (which drains to the Atlantic Ocean). We investigated natural distributions, behavioral variation in experimental mesocosms, population genetic, and phylogenetic implications of community structure. The presence of D. quadramaculatus increased the terrestriality of D. monticola in natural and experimental situations but to different degrees in allopatric and sympatric populations. Our ecological data suggest that the degree of terrestriality in D. monticola is a result of a balance between the optimal aquatic habitat and risks of predation. Our genetic analyses suggest that D. monticola has experienced a recent range expansion and has only a recent history of association with D. quadramaculatus in Virginia. This is surprising given the strong behavioral variation that exists in populations experiencing unique community compositions over a scale of meters. This study demonstrates the need to combine both ecology and genetics toward an understanding of the factors affecting species distributions, behavioral variation between populations, and patterns of genetic variation across a landscape. PMID:15278844
Standiford, Richard B.
to understand a synonymy of two species of scolytid cone beetles, Conophthorus ponderosae and C. lambertianae of C. monticolae with C. ponderosae. Conophthorus from sugar pine could com prise a sibling species of Conophthorus spp. and [testing hypothesis on] select species of forest insects. We conducted a study
Robert P. Adams
The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A
Avenue West, Minot, North Dakota 58707, USA 2 Department of Biology, Western Carolina University congeners, e.g., D. monticola Dunn, 1916 and D. ocoee Nicholls, 1949 (Bruce, 1988, 1989). This pattern is the usual pathway in amphibians to emancipation from the aquatic larval environment(Dunn, 1926; Titus
Nijhof, A. M.; Pillay, V.; Steyl, J.; Prozesky, L.; Stoltsz, W. H.; Lawrence, J. A.; Penzhorn, B. L.; Jongejan, F.
Pathogen DNA was isolated from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in South Africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. We developed Theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of Theileria in four African antelope species. The close phylogenetic relationship between members of the genera Theileria and Cytauxzoon, similarities in the morphologies of developmental stages, and confusion in the literature regarding theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis are discussed. PMID:16333074
Wood, William F.
3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone, a major component in the preorbital gland of the African grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), showed antimicrobial activity in preliminary tests. The C11 to C17 homologues of this compound were prepared and their activity against several pathogenic dermal bacteria and fungi was tested. 3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone and 3,4-epoxy-2-tridecanone inhibited the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 25 ?g/mL. Moderate inhibition of the growth of the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and the lipophilic yeast, Pityrosporum ovale, was seen for several of the homologues. PMID:21179314
Margaret F. Smith
Phylogenetic relationships among pocket gophers were examined based on the complete sequence for the mitochondrial cytochromebgene (1140 base pairs). The tribe Geomyini (Geomys, Orthogeomys, Cratogeomys,andPappogeomys) was well differentiated from the tribe Thomomyini (Thomomys), using the heteromyid generaDipodomysandPerognathusas the outgroup. Within the genusThomomys,the species in the subgenusThomomys(T. talpoides, T. monticola,andT. mazama) differed from those in the subgenusMegascapheus(T. bottae, T. townsendii,andT. umbrinus)
James L. Patton; Steven W. Sherwood
A basic dichotomy exists in the amount and chromosomal position of constitutive heterochromatin (C-bands) in species of pocket gophers, genus Thomomys. Members of the “talpoides-group” of species (e.g., T. talpoides and T. monticola) have C-bands restricted to the centromeric regions. These taxa are characterized by Robertsonian patterns of karyotypic evolution. In contrast, species within the “bottae-group” are characterized by extensive
DANIEL R. MILLER; B. STAFFAN LINDGREN
Multiple-funnel traps baited with exo-brevicomin and a mixture of cis- and trans- verbenol were used to test the relative attractiveness #If myrcene and (-)-a-pinene to the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in a stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Doug). Traps baited with myrcene caught significantly more D. ponderosae than traps baited with (-)-a-pinene, irrespective of the presence
José M. Prieto; Urs Schaffner; Alison Barker; Alessandra Braca; Tiziana Siciliano; Jean-Luc Boevé
Sawfly larvae of the tribe Phymatocerini (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which are specialized on toxic plants in the orders\\u000a Liliales and Ranunculales, exude a droplet of deterrent hemolymph upon attack by a predator. We investigated whether secondary\\u000a plant metabolites from Ranunculaceae leaves are sequestered by phymatocerine Monophadnus species, i.e., Monophadnus alpicola feeding upon Pulsatilla alpina and Monophadnus monticola feeding upon Ranunculus lanuginosus.
DeSante, David F.
PONDEROSA FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 11 PINUS RADIATA FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 18 PINUS ALBICAULIS FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 19 SEMPERVIRENS - PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 1 CUPRESSUS MACNABIANA FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 10 PINUS PINUS MONTICOLA FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 20 PINUS PONDEROSA - PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 21 PINUS
Groce, Julie Elizabeth
% of the land in the LTB (LTBMU 2008). Manley et al. (2000:409?412) described 3 main vegetation zones in the LTB. The lower montane zone (Pinus jeffreyi) forests, white fir (Abies concolor) forests, and mixed... pine (P. albicaulis) and smaller proportions of red fir, lodgepole pine, and western white pine (P. monticola). Wet and dry meadows, quaking aspen groves, and riparian areas are scattered throughout the LTB. Due primarily to logging in the 1800s...
Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; John C. King; Lisa J. Graumlich
Four independent studies of conifer growth between 1880 and 2002 in upper elevation forests of the central Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., showed correlated multidecadal and century-long responses associated with climate. Using tree-ring and ecological plot analysis, we studied annual branch growth of krummholz Pinus albicaulis; invasion by P. albicaulis and Pinus monticola into formerly persistent snowfields; dates of vertical branch
Briles, C.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P.
The Klamath Mountains of northwestern California are a floristic hotspot and their diversity likely results from a combination of geological, ecological and historical factors (e.g., long-term climate change). To evaluate how climate change has influenced past composition, structure, and disturbance regime of the Klamath forests in different geological settings, vegetation and fire histories from four sites, Bolan (1), Sanger (in prog.), Campbell (in prog.), and Bluff (2) lakes are compared. Bolan and Sanger lakes are underline by nutrient-rich diorite soils, Campbell Lake by nutrient-poor and poorly-drained soils derived from mudstone and shales and Bluff Lake by ultramafics which pose severe nutrient limitations to plants. All sites experience the same modern climate and vegetation. The vegetation and fire records from the four sites suggest that substrates have influenced the sensitivity of plant communities and fire regimes to past variations in climate. Cool, dry late-glacial (>11ka cal yr BP) conditions resulted in a subalpine parkland in the Klamath region. P. jeffreyi and Abies were the main tree species at Bluff Lake and fires occurred frequently. Campbell Lake supported more species than Bluff (excluding P. jeffreyi) such as P. monticola, Picea and T. mertensiana and experienced few fires. Bolan and Sanger Lake harbored similar species as Campbell, as well as a small population of Pseudotsuga and experienced few fires. Warm, dry Early Holocene (7-11ka cal yr BP) conditions led to an increase in C. decurrens and a slight decrease in P. jeffreyi at Bluff Lake than before and fires were very frequent. At Campbell Lake, P. monticola increased, C. decurrens became more abundant than before, and Abies, Picea and T. mertensiana were scarce. Similar vegetation occurred at Bolan and Sanger lakes although the sites continued to harbor Pseudotsuga. Campbell, Bolan and Sanger all experienced frequent fires. Cool, wet conditions in the Middle Holocene (3-7ka cal yr BP) allowed P. jeffreyi to increase at the expense of C. decurrens at Bluff Lake. At Campbell, Sanger and Bolan lakes there was a decrease in P. monticola and a significant increase in Abies than before. Bolan and Sanger lakes still maintained a significant population of Pseudotsuga. Fire frequency at all sites was moderate. Modern (3ka cal yr BP to present) climate conditions in the Late Holocene resulted in increases in P. jeffreyi and Abies than before at Bluff Lake. P. monticola and Abies were abundant at Campbell Lake with minor amounts of Pseudotsuga and T. mertensiana. Most tree species occurred at Bolan and Sanger Lake (with the exception of P. jeffreyi at both sites and T. mertensiana at Sanger Lake). Abies and P.monticola were the primary species in the Bolan, Sanger and Campbell lake forests. Fires were frequent at all sites. In conclusion, Bluff Lake was dominated by ultramafic tolerant taxa such as Pinus jeffreyi, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies, while Bolan and Sanger lakes harbored mostly ultramafic intolerant species such as Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Tsuga mertensiana since the last ice age. The forest at Campbell Lake was more open, was dominated by Pinus monticola and had less Picea and T. mertensiana than Bolan and Sanger lakes since the last ice age. REFS. 1 Briles, C. et al 2005. Quaternary Research 64. 2 Mohr, J.A. et al 2000. The Holocene 10.
Tellgren, Asa; Berglund, Ann-Charlotte; Savolainen, Peter; Janis, Christine M; Liberles, David A
Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex), impala (Aepyceros melampus rednilis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus). Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (Ka/Ks) indicates that positive selection may have been operating on this gene during the time of divergence of Bovinae and Antilopinae, starting from approximately 23 million years ago, a period that appears to account for most of the sequence difference between myostatin in these groups. These periods of positive selective pressure on myostatin may correlate with changes in skeletal muscle mass during the same period. PMID:15522803
Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J
To elucidate the systematic status of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a new bovid genus recently discovered in Vietnam, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships within the family Bovidae, four distinct DNA markers were sequenced. Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (1143 bp) and 12S rRNA (956 bp) genes and non-coding regions from the nuclear genes for aromatase cytochrome P-450 (199 bp) and lactoferrin (338 bp) have been compared for 25 bovid species and three Cervidae and Antilocapridae outgroups. Independent and/or combined analyses of the four nucleotide matrices through maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that Bovidae consists of two major lineages, i.e. Bovinac which contains the tribes Bovini, Boselaphini and Tragelaphini, and Antilopinae which encompasses all other bovids. Within Bovinae, the tribe Bovini is divided into buffalo Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus) and cattle Bovini (Bos and Bison) and Tragelaphini are possibly related to Boselaphini. Pseudoryx is shown to be (i) robustly nested within Bovinae; (ii) strongly associated with Bovini; and (iii) tentatively sharing a sister-group relationship with cattle Bovini. Within Antilopinae, three robust clades are in evidence: (i) Hippotragus and Damaliscus are linked to Ovis; (ii) Aepyceros joins Neotragus; and (iii) Cephalophus clusters with Oreotragus. PMID:10380679
Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlavá?, Peter; Nomura, Shûhei
Abstract The genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 of the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini: Tyrina) is revised. The three so far known species, Lasinus mandarinus Raffray, 1890, Lasinus monticola Sawada, 1961 and Lasinus spinosus Sharp, 1874 are redescribed. Eight new species, Lasinus sinicus sp. n. from China, Lasinus mikado sp. n., Lasinus yamamotoi sp. n., Lasinus inexpectatus sp. n., Lasinus yakushimanus sp. n., Lasinus amamianus sp. n., Lasinus saoriae sp. n., and Lasinus okinawanus sp. n. from Japan, are described. And all species are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Lasinus mandarinus and Lasinus spinosus. An identification key to species of the genus Lasinus is provided. PMID:24146590
Plunkett, George T.; Wilson, Karen L.; Bruhl, Jeremy J.
Abstract The status of a putative new species of Lepidosperma from the mountains of south-western Tasmania, Australia, was investigated. Phenetic analysis (Flexible UPGMA Agglomerative Hierarchical Fusion and semi-strong hybrid multidimensional scaling) was conducted on a database derived from morphological and anatomical characters scored from herbarium material, culm anatomy slides and scanning electron micrographs of fruit. The results of the analysis support the recognition of a new species, here described as Lepidosperma monticola G.T.Plunkett & J.J.Bruhl. The distribution, habitat and conservation status are discussed. PMID:24399891
Yutaka Suda; George W. Argus
Chromosome numbers are reported for 19 species of North AmericanSalix, one natural hybrid, and one introduced species. The following 17 species are here examined cytologically for the first time:Salix amygdaloides Anderss.,S. arbusculoides Anderss.,S. brachycarpa Nutt.,S. Candida Willd.,S. discolor Muhl.,S. exigua Nutt.,S. kumilis Marsh.,S. interior Rowlee,S. lutea Nutt.,S. maccalliana Rowlee,S. monticola Rydb.,S. myrtillifolia Anderss.,S. pellita Anderss.,S. petiolaris J. E. Sm,S. scouleriana
Grant, E.H.C.; Jung, R.E.; Rice, K.C.
Stream salamanders are sensitive to acid mine drainage and may be sensitive to acidification and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a watershed. Streams in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, are subject to episodic acidification from precipitation events. We surveyed 25 m by 2 m transects located on the stream bank adjacent to the water channel in Shenandoah National Park for salamanders using a stratified random sampling design based on elevation, aspect and bedrock geology. We investigated the relationships of four species (Eurycea bislineata, Desmognathus fuscus, D. monticola and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) to habitat and water quality variables. We did not find overwhelming evidence that stream salamanders are affected by the acid-base status of streams in Shenandoah National Park. Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola abundance was greater both in streams that had a higher potential to neutralize acidification, and in higher elevation (>700 m) streams. Neither abundance of E. bislineata nor species richness were related to any of the habitat variables. Our sampling method preferentially detected the adult age class of the study species and did not allow us to estimate population sizes. We suggest that continued monitoring of stream salamander populations in SNP will determine the effects of stream acidification on these taxa.
Smith, W.; Kwak, Thomas J.
Adult movement scale was quantified for two tropical Caribbean diadromous fishes, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor and mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, using passive integrated transponders (PITs) and radio-telemetry. Large numbers of fishes were tagged in Rio Mameyes, Puerto Rico, U.S.A., with PITs and monitored at three fixed locations over a 2-5 year period to estimate transition probabilities between upper and lower elevations and survival probabilities with a multistate Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. A sub-set of fishes were tagged with radio-transmitters and tracked at weekly intervals to estimate fine-scale dispersal. Changes in spatial and temporal distributions of tagged fishes indicated that neither G. dormitor nor A. monticola moved into the lowest, estuarine reaches of Rio Mameyes during two consecutive reproductive periods, thus demonstrating that both species follow an amphidromous, rather than catadromous, migratory strategy. Further, both species were relatively sedentary, with restricted linear ranges. While substantial dispersal of these species occurs at the larval stage during recruitment to fresh water, the results indicate minimal dispersal in spawning adults. Successful conservation of diadromous fauna on tropical islands requires management at both broad basin and localized spatial scales.
Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso
Abstract We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. Distribución de una Comunidad de Mamíferos en Relación a Carreteras y Otras Perturbaciones Humanas en Gabón, Africa Central Resumen Presentamos el primer estudio a nivel de comunidad de la relación entre carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas con la distribución de mamíferos en Gabón (África central). Nuestro sitio de estudio está dentro de una concesión petrolera en un paisaje litoral heterogéneo. Realizamos muestreos a lo largo de 199 transectos lineales e instalamos cámaras trampa en 99 de ellos para documentar la presencia y abundancia de mamíferos. Utilizamos modelos lineales generalizados con efectos mixtos para documentar las asociaciones entre variables relacionadas con el ecosistema (cobertura de suelo, topografía e hidrología), carreteras (tipo de revestimiento, ancho de derecho de vía, condición, tipo de vehículos que utilizan la carretera, nivel de tráfico, afiliación de los usuarios y el tipo general de carretera) y otras perturbaciones humanas (urbanización, agricultura, caza, tala, recolecta y actividades industriales) y la abundancia o presencia de 17 especies o grupos de mamíferos incluyendo elefantes (Loxodonta cyclotis), búfalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), cerdo rojo de río (Potomochoerus porcus), ungulados pequeños, gorila (Gorilla gorilla), chimpancé (Pan troglodytes), chacal con rayas a los lados (Canis adustus), carnívoros, monos y roedores de talla grande. Ciertos tipos de carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas estuvieron asociadas negativamente con la abundancia o presencia de elefantes, búfalos, gorilas, sitatungas, algunos monos y antílopes. Los patrones de asociación de mamíferos con carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas fueron diversos e incluyen asociaciones positivas con la presencia de carreteras (cerdo rojo de río, algunos monos y antílopes), agricultura (sitatunga, carnívoros pequeños y roedores de talla grande) y actividades industriales (sitatunga, cerdo rojo de río, a
Nkoghe, D; Formenty, P; Leroy, E M; Nnegue, S; Edou, S Y Obame; Ba, J Iba; Allarangar, Y; Cabore, J; Bachy, C; Andraghetti, R; de Benoist, A C; Galanis, E; Rose, A; Bausch, D; Reynolds, M; Rollin, P; Choueibou, C; Shongo, R; Gergonne, B; Koné, L M; Yada, A; Roth, C; Mve, M Toung
Outbreaks of Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever have been reported from 1994 to 1996 in the province of Ogooué Ivindo, a forest zone situated in the Northeast of Gabon. Each time, the great primates had been identified as the initial source of human infection. End of November 2001 a new alert came from this province, rapidly confirmed as a EVHV outbreak. The response was given by the Ministry of Health with the help of an international team under the aegis of WHO. An active monitoring system was implemented in the three districts hit by the epidemic (Zadié, Ivindo and Mpassa) to organize the detection of cases and their follow-up. A case definition has been set up, the suspected cases were isolated at hospital, at home or in lazarets and serological tests were performed. These tests consisted of the detection of antigen or specific IgG and the RT-PCR. A classification of cases was made according to the results of biological tests, clinical and epidemiological data. The contact subjects were kept watch over for 21 days. 65 cases were recorded among which 53 deaths. The first human case, a hunter died on the 28th of October 2001. The epidemic spreads over through family transmission and nosocomial contamination. Four distinct primary foci have been identified together with an isolated case situated in the South East of Gabon, 580 km away from the epicenter. Deaths happened within a delay of 6 days. The last death has been recorded on the 22nd of March 2002 and the end of the outbreak was declared on the 6th of May 2002. The epidemic spreads over the Gabon just next. Unexplained deaths of animals had been mentionned in the nearby forests as soon as August 2001: great primates and cephalophus. Samples taken from their carcasses confirmed a concomitant animal epidemic. PMID:16267965
Sediments in three ponds between 1300 - 1500 m on the south side of Mt. Rainier were examined for plant macrofossils and pollen. Macrofossils of seral species such as Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus monticola, Abies procera, and Pinus contorta are conspicuous from 6000 to 3400 BP. These species suggest a climate that was warmer/drier than today and favored frequent fires. Neoglacial cooling may have begun 3700-3400 BP, as species typical of higher elevations became prominent; a decline in seral species after 3400 BP suggests less frequent fires. In the last 100 yr, Tsuga heterophylla became abundant and then declined at the highest elevation site. General trends in pollen percentages are similar to the macrofossil curves. Tephra deposition from Mt. Rainier and Mt. St. Helens did not produce conspicuous changes in forest composition. Few major fires are evident from charcoal and macrofossils at these sites.
Millar, Constance I.; King, John C.; Westfall, Robert D.; Alden, Harry A.; Delany, Diane L.
Deadwood tree stems scattered above treeline on tephra-covered slopes of Whitewing Mtn (3051 m) and San Joaquin Ridge (3122 m) show evidence of being killed in an eruption from adjacent Glass Creek Vent, Inyo Craters. Using tree-ring methods, we dated deadwood to AD 815-1350 and infer from death dates that the eruption occurred in late summer AD 1350. Based on wood anatomy, we identified deadwood species as Pinus albicaulis, P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. contorta, P. jeffreyi, and Tsuga mertensiana. Only P. albicaulis grows at these elevations currently; P. lambertiana is not locally native. Using contemporary distributions of the species, we modeled paleoclimate during the time of sympatry to be significantly warmer (+3.2°C annual minimum temperature) and slightly drier (-24 mm annual precipitation) than present, resembling values projected for California in the next 70-100 yr.
Klimaszewski, Jan; Godin, Benoit; Langor, David; Bourdon, Caroline; Lee, Seung-Il; Horwood, Denise
Abstract Fifty-four new Canadian provincial records of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae), including three new Canadian records and one new North American record, are presented. Of these, 33 are new provincial records for Saskatchewan, 14 for Alberta, two for British Columbia, three for Manitoba, two for the Northwest Territories and one for the Yukon Territory. The following are new Canadian records: Trichiusa pilosa Casey [formerly reported from Nova Scotia and Ontario as Trichiusa postica Casey], Acrotona recondita (Erichson) and the adventive Palaearctic Atheta nigra (Kraatz), which is also a new North American record. Bionomics information and new locality records are provided. The following new synonyms of Trichiusa pilosa Casey are established: Trichiusa atra Casey, Trichiusa monticola Casey, Trichiusa parviceps Casey, and Trichiusa postica Casey. The numbers of Aleocharinae remaining to be discovered in Canadian provinces and territories are discussed. PMID:25931964
The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A number of previously unidentified compounds of the leaf essential oils have now been identified. In addition, DNA data (RAPDs) of all these species were analyzed. Both the leaf essential oils and DNA show these species to be quite distinct with few apparent subgroups, such that the species groupings were not strong in either data set. These data support the hypothesis that this group of junipers originated in Mexico as part of the Madro-Tertiary flora by rapid radiation into new arid land habitats, leaving few extant intermediate taxa. PMID:10996262
Stankowich, Theodore; Caro, Tim
Weaponry is ubiquitous in male ungulates and is driven by intrasexual selection, but the mystery surrounding its sporadic presence in females remains unsolved. Female horns are often smaller and shaped differently to male horns, suggesting a different function; indeed, hypotheses explaining the presence of female horns include competition for food, male mollification and defence against predators. Here we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to show that females are significantly more likely to bear horns in bovids that are conspicuous due to large body size and living in open habitats than inconspicuous species living in closed habitats or that are small. An inability to rely on crypsis or take refuge in deep vegetation has apparently driven the evolution of horns for defence against predators in female bovids, a finding supported by many field observations. Typically, exceptions are small species where females are territorial (e.g. duikers) and use horns in intrasexual contests. Furthermore, we suggest that conspicuousness and territoriality hypotheses may explain other instances of female cranial weaponry (i.e. antlers and ossicones) in other horned ruminants. Our phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the primary function of horns in females is linked to antipredator defence in most clades, but occasionally to intrasexual competition in others. PMID:19759035
Campbell, G; Kuehl, H; Diarrassouba, A; N'Goran, P K; Boesch, C
The presence of researchers, ecotourists or rangers inside protected areas is generally assumed to provide a protective effect for wildlife populations, mainly by reducing poaching pressure. However, this assumption has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we evaluate and quantify the conservation benefits of the presence of a long-term research area in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. A wildlife survey following 225 km of line transects revealed considerably higher primate and duiker encounter rates within the research area when compared with adjacent areas. This positive effect was particularly pronounced for threatened and over-harvested species, such as the endangered red colobus monkey (Procolobus badius). This pattern was clearly mirrored by a reversed gradient in signs of poaching, which decreased towards and inside the research area, a trend that was also supported with park-wide data. This study demonstrates that even relatively simple evidence-based analytical approaches can bridge the gap between conservation theory and practice. In addition, it emphasizes the value of establishing long-term research sites as an integral part of protected area management. PMID:21450724
Kuttler, K L
Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe. PMID:6716555
Prieto, José M; Schaffner, Urs; Barker, Alison; Braca, Alessandra; Siciliano, Tiziana; Boevé, Jean-Luc
Sawfly larvae of the tribe Phymatocerini (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which are specialized on toxic plants in the orders Liliales and Ranunculales, exude a droplet of deterrent hemolymph upon attack by a predator. We investigated whether secondary plant metabolites from Ranunculaceae leaves are sequestered by phymatocerine Monophadnus species, i.e., Monophadnus alpicola feeding upon Pulsatilla alpina and Monophadnus monticola feeding upon Ranunculus lanuginosus. Moreover, two undescribed Monophadnus species were studied: species A collected from Helleborusfoetidus and species B collected from Helleborus viridis. Comparative high-performance liquid chromatographicphotodiode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analyses of plant leaf and insect hemolymph extracts revealed the presence of furostanol saponins in all samples. Larvae of species A and B actively sequestered (25R)-26-[(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl) oxy]-22alpha-methoxyfurost-5-en-3beta-yl O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-[6-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 1). This compound occurred at a 65- to 200-fold higher concentration in the hemolymph of the two species (1.6 and 17.5 micromol/g FW, respectively) than in their host plant (0.008 and 0.268 micromol/g FW, respectively). In M. monticola, compound 1 was found at a concentration (1.2 micromol/g FW) similar to that in the host plant (1.36 micromol/g FW). The compound could not be detected consistently in M. alpicola larvae where, however, a related saponin may be present. Additional furostanol saponins were found in H. foetidus and H. viridis, but not in the two Monophadnus species feeding on them, indicating that sequestration of compound 1 is a highly specific process. In laboratory bioassays, crude hemolymph of three Monophadnus species showed a significant feeding deterrent activity against a potential predator, Myrmica rubra ant workers. Isolated furostanol saponins were also active against the ants, at a concentration range similar to that found in the hemolymph. Thus, these compounds seem to play a major role for chemical defense of Monophadnus larvae, although other plant secondary metabolites (glycosylated ecdysteroids) were also detected in their hemolymph. Physiological and ecological implications of the sequestered furostanol saponins are discussed. PMID:17252214
Background Arctic ecosystems, especially those near transition zones, are expected to be strongly impacted by climate change. Because it is positioned on the ecotone between tundra and boreal forest, the Churchill area is a strategic locality for the analysis of shifts in faunal composition. This fact has motivated the effort to develop a comprehensive biodiversity inventory for the Churchill region by coupling DNA barcoding with morphological studies. The present study represents one element of this effort; it focuses on analysis of the spider fauna at Churchill. Results 198 species were detected among 2704 spiders analyzed, tripling the count for the Churchill region. Estimates of overall diversity suggest that another 10–20 species await detection. Most species displayed little intraspecific sequence variation (maximum <1%) in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, but four species showed considerably higher values (maximum?=?4.1-6.2%), suggesting cryptic species. All recognized species possessed a distinct haplotype array at COI with nearest-neighbour interspecific distances averaging 8.57%. Three species new to Canada were detected: Robertus lyrifer (Theridiidae), Baryphyma trifrons (Linyphiidae), and Satilatlas monticola (Linyphiidae). The first two species may represent human-mediated introductions linked to the port in Churchill, but the other species represents a range extension from the USA. The first description of the female of S. monticola was also presented. As well, one probable new species of Alopecosa (Lycosidae) was recognized. Conclusions This study provides the first comprehensive DNA barcode reference library for the spider fauna of any region. Few cryptic species of spiders were detected, a result contrasting with the prevalence of undescribed species in several other terrestrial arthropod groups at Churchill. Because most (97.5%) sequence clusters at COI corresponded with a named taxon, DNA barcoding reliably identifies spiders in the Churchill fauna. The capacity of DNA barcoding to enable the identification of otherwise taxonomically ambiguous specimens (juveniles, females) also represents a major advance for future monitoring efforts on this group. PMID:24279427
Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Green-Ruiz, C; Zavala-Nevárez, M; Soto-Jiménez, M
With the purpose of knowing seasonal variations of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in a river basin with past and present mining activities, elemental concentrations were measured in six fish species and four crustacean species in Baluarte River, from some of the mining sites to the mouth of the river in the Pacific Ocean between May 2005 and March 2006. In fish, highest levels of Cd (0.06 ?g g ?¹ dry weight) and Cr (0.01 ?g g?¹) were detected during the dry season in Gobiesox fluviatilis and Agonostomus monticola, respectively; the highest levels of Hg (0.56 ?g g?¹) were detected during the dry season in Guavina guavina and Mugil curema. In relation to Pb, the highest level (1.65 ?g g?¹) was detected in A. monticola during the dry season. In crustaceans, highest levels of Cd (0.05 ?g g?¹) occurred in Macrobrachium occidentale during both seasons; highest concentration of Cr (0.09 ?g g?¹) was also detected in M. occidentale during the dry season. With respect to Hg, highest level (0.20 ?g g?¹) was detected during the rainy season in Macrobrachium americanum; for Pb, the highest concentration (2.4 ?g g?¹) corresponded to Macrobrachium digueti collected in the dry season. Considering average concentrations of trace metals in surficial sediments from all sites, Cd (p<0.025), Cr (p<0.10) and Hg (p<0.15) were significantly higher during the rainy season. Biota sediment accumulation factors above unity were detected mostly in the case of Hg in fish during both seasons. On the basis of the metal levels in fish and crustacean and the provisional tolerable weekly intake of studied elements, people can eat up to 13.99, 0.79 and 2.34 kg of fish in relation to Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively; regarding crustaceans, maximum amounts were 11.33, 2.49 and 2.68 kg of prawns relative to levels of Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively. PMID:21684575
Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G; Caspeta-Mandujano, J
The following 3 new species of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) are described from the intestines of freshwater fishes in Mexico, all belonging to the morphological group characterized by the presence of wide caudal alae, 3 pairs of subventral preanal papillae, and unequal spicules in the male: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) jaliscensis n. sp. (type host: Agonostomus monticola) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) gobiomori n. sp. (hosts: Gobiomorus maculatus [type host], Gobiomorus polylepis and Eleotris picta) from 2 rivers in Jalisco State, western Mexico, and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) mexicanus n. sp. (type host: Cichlasoma geddesi) from Xalapa District, Veracruz State (Gulf of Mexico region), southeastern Mexico. Procamallanus jaliscensis is characterized by the length of the spicules (606-900 microm and 282-354 microm), number (15-16) of spiral ridges in the buccal capsule, and the digit-like protrusion with 1 terminal cuticular spike on the female tail; P. mexicanus by the length of the spicules (456-480 microm and 231-233 microm), number (10-12) of spiral ridges in the capsule, and the shape of the female tail (conical with a suddenly narrowed distal part, without any terminal spikes); and P. gobiomori by the length of spicules (318-348 microm and 156-192 microm), number (8-10) of spiral ridges and by the digit-like protrusion with 2 terminal cuticular spikes on the female tail. PMID:10701574
Smith, M F
Phylogenetic relationships among pocket gophers were examined based on the complete sequence for the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 base pairs). The tribe Geomyini (Geomys, Orthogeomys, Cratogeomys, and Pappogeomys) was well differentiated from the tribe Thomomyini (Thomomys), using the heteromyid genera Dipodomys and Perognathus as the out-group. Within the genus Thomomys, the species in the subgenus Thomomys (T. talpoides, T. monticola, and T. mazama) differed from those in the subgenus Megascapheus (T. bottae, T. townsendii, and T. umbrinus) by an average of 19.3% uncorrected sequence divergence. Extensive sampling within one species, T. bottae, revealed strongly differentiated geographic units, with a maximum difference among localities of 15.7%. The geographic units within T. bottae coincided with geographic regions based on allozyme data in some areas, but not at all boundaries. The geographic units within currently recognized species in the bottae group (subgenus Megascapheus) were not grouped together with a high level of confidence. The pattern suggests a rapid radiation of the bottae group, followed by geographic subdivision. PMID:9479688
Patton, J L; Sherwood, S W
A basic dichotomy exists in the amount and chromosomal position of constitutive heterochromatin (C-bands) in species of pocket gophers, genus Thomomys. Members of the "talpoides-group" of species (e.g., T. talpoides and T. monticola) have C-bands restricted to the centromeric regions. These taxa are characterized by Robertsonian patterns of karyotypic evolution. In contrast, species within the "bottae-group" are characterized by extensive amounts of heterochromatin, placed as whole-arm and apparent whole-chromosome (T. bottae) or as large interstitial blocks (T. umbrinus). These species are characterized by extensive non-Robertsonian variation in karyotype, variation which may be expressed from local population polymorphism to between population or species polytypy. Within T. bottae, the number of whole-arm heterochromatic autosomes is inversely proportional to the number of uniarmed chromosomes in the complement, which ranges from 0 to 36 across the species populations. In all-biarmed karyotypic populations, upward to 60 percent of the linear length of the genome is composed of heterochromatin. Populations with extensive heterochromatin variation and those with similar amounts meet and hybridize freely in nature. The implications of these date for current ideas on the function of heterochromatin, particularly as related to speciation models, are discussed. PMID:7117026
Martín, José; López, Pilar
Evolutionary theory proposes that signals used in sexual selection can only be stable if they are honest and condition dependent. However, despite the fact that chemical signals are used by many animals, empirical research has mainly focused on visual and acoustic signals. Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for lizards, but in some lizards its precursor (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol=provitamin D) is found in femoral gland secretions, which males use for scent marking and intraspecific communication. By allocating provitamin D to secretions, males might need to divert vitamin D from metabolism. This might be costly and condition dependent. We tested whether diet quality affected chemical signals of male Iberian rock lizards (Lacerta monticola) and its consequences for sexual selection. After experimental supplementation of dietary vitamin D, males increased the proportion of provitamin D in femoral secretions. Further experiments showed that females detected these changes in males' signals by chemosensory cues, and discriminated provitamin D, and changes in its concentration, from similar steroids (i.e. cholesterol) found in secretions. Moreover, females preferred areas scent marked by males with more provitamin D in their secretions. This mechanism would confer honesty to chemical signals of male lizards, and, thus, females may rely on it to select high-quality males. We suggest that the allocation of vitamins and other essential nutrients to either visual (e.g. carotenoids) or chemical ornaments might be the common basis of honest sexual displays in many animals. PMID:17002947
Bytnerowicz, A.; Dawson, P. J.; Morrison, C. L.; Poe, M. P.
Atmospheric dry deposition of ions to branches of native Pinus contorta and Pinus monticola (natural surfaces), and nylon filters and Whatman paper filters (surrogate surfaces) were measured in the summer of 1987 in the vicinity of Emerald Lake Watershed (ELW) of the Sequoia National Park located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada in California. Deposition fluxes of airborne NO -3, NH +4 and SO 2-4 to native pines at the ELW were much higher than in the eastern Sierra Nevada, but several times lower than deposition fluxes to natural and surrogate surfaces at the highly polluted site in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Deposition fluxes of NO 3- and NH 4+ to the natural and surrogate surfaces at the ELW were much higher than deposition of SO 42-, providing the importance of N compounds in atmospheric dry deposition in this part of the western U.S. A deficit of inorganic anions in materials deposited to various surfaces indicated a possibility of substantial participation of organic acids in atmospheric dry deposition processes. Nylon and paper filters proved to be poor surrogate surfaces for the estimation of ionic dry deposition to conifer branches.
Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, resulting in approximately 900 collecting hours. During this period, 216 sandfly specimens of sixteen species were captured. Pintomyia monticola and Brumptomyia guimaraesi were the most abundant with 56 specimens (25.93%) captured per species, followed by Pintomyia fischeri 28 (12.96%) and Psathyromyia pascalei 18 (8.33%). Other captured species were Lutzomyia amarali, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae, Pintomyia misionensis, Brumptomyia carvalheiroi, Brumptomyia cardosoi, Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Brumptomyia brumpti and Brumptomyia spp. represented by 58 (26.85%) specimens. Conclusions Although less frequently found, the presence of Pintomyia fischeri, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei, known vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, indicates risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence. Moreover, the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis-the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, which is the agent of American visceral leishmaniasis-suggests that there is no risk of introduction and establishment of this disease in the studied area. PMID:23849624
Bonte, Dries; Lens, Luc; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Hoffmann, Maurice; Kuijken, Eckhart
The spatial population dynamics of the wolfspider Pardosa monticola, inhabiting patchily distributed grasslands in the Flemish coastal dunes of Belgium and Northern France were investigated with incidence function models using field survey data from 1998 and 2000. Vegetation height and patch size were related to habitat quality. Mark-recapture experiments revealed maximum cursorial dispersal distances of 280 m for moss dunes and 185 m for higher dune grassland. Higher shrub vegetation appeared to be dispersal barriers. These habitat-dependant cursorial distances and the theoretically estimated ballooning distance were included with patch distances into a connectivity index for both dispersal modes. Forward multiple regression indicated that patch occurrence was influenced by habitat quality and ballooning connectivity. Habitat quality and cursorial connectivity explained patterns in short-term colonisation. Extinction appeared to be stochastic and not related to habitat quality and connectivity. Genetic differentiation and variability was low. The discrepancy between the estimated low dispersal capacity and the indirect estimate of gene flow ( F(ST)) indicates that historical population dynamics and/or historical ballooning dispersal influence the genetic structure in this species. PMID:12698344
Simo, Gustave; Mbida Mbida, Jean Arthur; Ebo'o Eyenga, Vincent; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Njiokou, Flobert; Grébaut, Pascal
The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview on the types of mutations occurring in the region has been raised and a discussion on the strategies that can be implemented to achieve the elimination of the disease has been made. PMID:25129168
Kinloch, Bohun B; Dupper, Gayle E
ABSTRACT Four of eight white pine species native to western North America surveyed for resistance to white pine blister rust by artificial inoculation showed classical hypersensitive reactions (HR) at frequencies ranging from very low to moderate. Mendelian segregation, indicating a single dominant allele for resistance (Cr3), was observed in southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis), as it was previously in sugar pine (P. lambertiana, Cr1) and western white pine (P. monticola, Cr2). HR was present at a relatively high frequency (19%) in one of five bulk seed lot sources of limber pine (P. flexilis), and was also presumed to be conditioned by a single gene locus, by analogy with the other three species. HR was not found in whitebark pine (P. albcaulis), Mexican white pine (P. ayacahuite), foxtail pine (P. balfouriana), or Great Basin bristlecone pine (P. longaeva), but population and sample sizes in these species may have been below the level of detection of alleles in low frequency. When challenged by (haploid) inocula from specific locations known to harbor virulence to Cr1 or Cr2, genotypes carrying these alleles and Cr3 reacted differentially, such that inoculum virulent to Cr1 was avirulent to Cr2, and inoculum virulent to Cr2 was avirulent to Cr1. Neither of these two inocula was capable of neutralizing Cr3. Although blister rust traditionally is considered an exotic disease in North America, these results, typical of classic gene-for-gene interactions, suggest that genetic memory of similar encounters in past epochs has been retained in this pathosystem. PMID:18943999
Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.
We present an analysis of a ghost forest on WhiteWing Mt at 3000 m in the eastern Sierra Nevada, southeast of Yosemite NP. Killed by a volcanic eruption about 650 years ago, the deadwood on WhiteWing dates by standard tree-ring analysis to 800-1330 CE, during the Medieval Warm Anomaly. Individual stems have been identified by wood anatomical characteristics as Pinus albicualis, P. monticola, P. jeffreyi, P. contorta, P. lambertiana, and Tsuga mertensiana. With the exception of P. albicualis, which is currently in krummholz form at this elevation, the other species are 200 m or more lower in elevation. One, P. lambertiana, is west of the Sierran crest and 600 m lower in elevation. Assuming that climatic conditions on Whitewing during this period were mutually compatible with all species, we reconstruct this climate by the intersection of the current climatic spaces of these species. We did this by first generating individual species' ranges in the Sierran ecoregions through selecting vegetation GIS polygons from the California Gap Analysis database (UCSB) that contain the individual species. Climatic spaces for each species were generated by the GIS intersection of its polygons with 4 km gridded polygons from PRISM climatic estimates (OSU); this was done for annual, January, and July maximum and minimum temperature, and precipitation, merged together for each species. Climatic intersections of the species were generated from the misclassified polygons of a discriminant analysis of species by the climatic data. The average data from these misclassified polygons suggest that the climate on WhiteWing during the existence of this forest community was 230 mm, 1oC, and 3oC greater than present in precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperature, respectively.
The current study investigated spider fauna of Caspian Costal region of Iran (Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces) during 2005-2006. Spiders were collected from on the ground and under the stones and grasses by bottle, aspirator, Pitfall trap and pans and from branches, leaves and trunks of different trees and bushes by Steiner and Baggiolini method and insect net. They transferred to the laboratory and classified in 52 species and 51 genera belonged to 20 families. Thirty species, 13 genera and 2 families are reported for the first time from Iran, as follows: Family Agelenidae: Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757), Cicurina sp., Family Araneidae: Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763), Araniella inconspicua (Simon, 1874), Araniella alpica (C.L. Koch, 1869), Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757, Cercidia sp., Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772), Hypsosinga sanguinea (C.L. Koch,1845), Family Clubionidae: Clubiona neglecta O.P. Camridge, 1862, Family Amaurobiidae, Family Eresidae: Eresus sp., Dresserus sp., Family Gnaphosidae: Aphantaulax sp., Micaria sp., Family Metidae: Zygiella x-notata (Clerck,1757), Family Miturgidae: Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802), Cheiracanthium pennyi O.P. Cambridge, 1873, Family Linyphiidae: Microlinyphia sp., Family Lycosidae: Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa amentata (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861), Pardosa monticola (Clerck, 1757), Family Oxyopidae: Oxyopes salticus (Hentx, 1802), Family Philodromidae: Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer, 1802),Family Pholcidae: Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911), Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775), Family Salticidae: Salticus scenicus (Clerck, 1757), Family Tetragnathidae: Tetragnatha montana, Simon, 1874, Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890), Family Theridiidae: Dipoena prona (Menge, 1868), Steatoda albomaculata (Degeer, 1778), Theridion impressum C. L. Koch, Theridion simile C.L. Koch,1836, Family Thomisidae: Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus formicinus (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus striatus C.L. Koch, 1845, Xysticus cristatus (Clerck, 1757). PMID:19069849
Wei, L.; Hudak, A. T.; Link, T. E.; Marshall, J. D.; Kavanagh, K.; Zhou, H.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Pangle, R. E.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Denner, R. J.
As global warming proceeds, evapotranspiration demand will increase, the precipitation regime may change, and water cycling in many ecosystems may be affected. Streamflow in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the USA decreased in the last ~60 year possibly due to decreasing precipitation at high elevations and/or increasing evapotranspiration. However, an increasing trend of streamflow was observed at a 4km2 watershed in the Priest River Experimental Forest (PREF) in northern Idaho. We used the process-based soil-vegetation-atmosphere Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model, to simulate the changes in the water cycle at PREF. Independent measurements were used to parameterize the model, including forest transpiration, stomatal responses to vapor pressure, forest properties (height, leaf area index, and biomass), soil properties, soil moisture, snow depth, and snow water equivalent. The model reasonably simulated the streamflow dynamics during the evaluation period from 2003 to 2010, which verified the ability of SHAW to simulate the water cycle at PREF. We then ran the model using historical vegetation cover and climate data to reveal the drivers of the changes in water budget of PREF over the past 60 years. Historical vegetation cover was obtained from a 1939 digitized historical vegetation map. The biggest change was the decline of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), a fast growing and deep rooted species with high transpiration rates, which was once a predominant species in PREF in the early 20th century. This was followed by a subsequent increase and decrease in fir species, followed by the emergence of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) as the current dominant tree species. The tree species shifts under this successional trajectory would have produced continually decreasing transpiration rates, which may explain the steady increase in observed runoff over the last ~60 years, which was likewise simulated with the SHAW model.
Harris, D J; Arnold, E N; Thomas, R H
DNA sequences from parts of the 12S, 16S and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes, which totalled 1049 aligned base pairs, were used to estimate the relationships of 49 species of Lacertidae, including representatives of 19 out of the 23 recognized genera and 23 species of the paraphyletic genus Lacerta. These data were used, together with morphological information, to estimate the relationships within the family. Molecular evidence corroborates the monophyletic status of many genera and species groups originally based on morphology. It indicates that Psammodromus forms a clade with Gallotia, which is the sister taxon of all other lacertids. These comprise three units: the primarily Afrotropical armatured group; the largely Oriental Takydromus; and the west Palaearctic Lacerta and its derivatives, Podarcis and Algyroides. Morphology also supports the first three assemblages, but suggests that they are derived from a paraphyletic Lacerta. Within Lacerta and its allies, DNA sequence analysis corroborates the affinity of some members of each of the subgenera Lacerta s. str. and Timon, and of the L. saxicola group. It also supports the relationship of L. monticola, L. bonnali and L. horvathi, and suggests that the L. parva--L. fraasi clade and L. brandli are not related to Psammodromus Gallotia, as morphology indicates, but instead are associated respectively with the L. danfordi and L. saxicola groups. DNA sequence data provide additional evidence that the eastern Arabian 'Lacerta' jayakari and 'L.' cyanura are members of the armatured clade and also sister species. Our analysis supports an origin for present lacertids in west Eurasia. The armatured clade invaded Africa, probably in the mid-Miocene, spreading widely and evolving increasingly xeric-adapted forms, one lineage of which later moved back into the Palaearctic. 'Lacerta' jayakari and 'L.' cyanura are assigned to Omanosaura, Lutz and Mayer 1986. The name Gallotiinae Cano, Baez, Lopez-Jurado & Ortega, 1984 is available for the Gallotia-Psammodromus clade, Eremiainae Shcherbak 1975 for the armatured clade and Lacertinae for Lacerta, Podarcis and Algyroides. Two new subgenera of Lacerta are proposed here: Caucasilacerta for L. saxicola and its allies, and Parvilacerta for L. parva and L. fraasi. PMID:9821361
Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.
Abstract The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps. PMID:25009414
Power, M. J.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P. J.
A 13,100-year-long high-resolution pollen and charcoal record from Foy Lake in western Montana is compared with a network of vegetation and fire-history records from the Northern Rocky Mountains. New and previously published results were stratified by elevation into upper and lower and tree line to explore the role of Holocene climate variability on vegetation dynamics and fire regimes. During the cooler and drier Lateglacial period, ca 13,000 cal yr BP, sparsely vegetated Picea parkland occupied Foy Lake as well as other low- and high-elevations with a low incidence of fire. During the warmer early Holocene, from ca 11,000-7500 cal yr BP, low-elevation records, including Foy, indicate significant restructuring of regional vegetation as Lateglacial Picea parkland gave way to a mixed forest of Pinus-Pseudotsuga-Larix. In contrast, upper tree line sites (ca >2000 m) supported Pinus albicaulis and/or P. monticola-Abies-Picea forests in the Lateglacial and early Holocene. Regionally, biomass burning gradually increased from the Lateglacial times through the middle Holocene. However, upper tree line fire-history records suggest several climate-driven decreases in biomass burning centered at 11,500, 8500, 4000, 1600 and 500 cal yr BP. In contrast, lower tree line records generally experienced a gradual increase in biomass burning from the Lateglacial to ca 8000 cal yr BP, then reduced fire activity until a late Holocene maximum at 1800 cal yr BP, as structurally complex mesophytic forests at Foy Lake and other sites supported mixed-severity fire regimes. During the last two millennia, fire activity decreased at low elevations as modern forests developed and the climate became cooler and wetter than before. Embedded within these long-term trends are high amplitude variations in both vegetation dynamics and biomass burning. High-elevation paleoecological reconstructions tend to be more responsive to long-term changes in climate forcing related to growing-season temperature. Low-elevation records in the NRM have responded more abruptly to changes in effective precipitation during the late Holocene. Prolonged droughts, including those between 1200 and 800 cal yr BP, and climatic cooling during the last few centuries continues to influence vegetation and fire regimes at low elevation while increasing temperature has increased biomass burning in high elevations.
Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler; Michael Balke
A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus montivagus sp. n., Trigonopterus moreaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus myops sp. n., Trigonopterus nangiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus nothofagorum sp. n., Trigonopterus ovatus sp. n., Trigonopterus oviformis sp. n., Trigonopterus parumsquamosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parvulus sp. n., Trigonopterus phoenix sp. n., Trigonopterus plicicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus politoides sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudogranum sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudonasutus sp. n., Trigonopterus ptolycoides sp. n., Trigonopterus punctulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ragaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus rhinoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus rhomboidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus rubiginosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rubripennis sp. n., Trigonopterus rufibasis sp. n., Trigonopterus scabrosus sp. n., Trigonopterus scissops sp. n., Trigonopterus scharfi sp. n., Trigonopterus signicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus simulans sp. n., Trigonopterus soiorum sp. n., T sordidus sp. n., Trigonopterus squamirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus striatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strigatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strombosceroides sp. n., Trigonopterus subglabratus sp. n., Trigonopterus sulcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus taenzleri sp. n., Trigonopterus talpa sp. n., Trigonopterus taurekaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tialeorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tibialis sp. n., Trigonopterus tridentatus sp. n., Trigonopterus uniformis sp. n., Trigonopterus variabilis sp. n., Trigonopterus velaris sp. n., Trigonopterus verrucosus sp. n., Trigonopterus violaceus sp. n., Trigonopterus viridescens sp. n., Trigonopterus wamenaensis sp. n., Trigonopterus wariorum sp. n., Trigonopterus zygops sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. PMID:23794832
Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M
This listing of names of prokaryotes published in a previous issue of the IJSEM is provided as a service to bacteriology to assist in the recognition of new names and new combinations. This procedure was proposed by the Judicial Commission [Minute 11(ii), Int J Syst Bacteriol 41 (1991), p. 185]. The names given herein are listed according to the Rules of priority (i.e. page number and order of valid publication of names in the original articles). ijs;65/Pt_5/1397/T1T1t1Name/authors:Proposed as:Page no. Phenylobacterium kunshanense Chu et al. 2015sp. nov.329 Deinococcus antarcticus Dong et al. 2015sp. nov.334 Hanstruepera Hameed et al. 2015gen. nov.343 Hanstruepera neustonica Hameed et al. 2015sp. nov.343 Compostibacillus Yu et al. 2015gen. nov.351 Compostibacillus humi Yu et al. 2015sp. nov.351 Perspicuibacter Teramoto et al. 2015gen. nov.356 Perspicuibacter marinus Teramoto et al. 2015sp. nov.356 Arenicellaceae Teramoto et al. 2015fam. nov.357 Arenicellales Teramoto et al. 2015ord. nov.357 Thiobacimonas Li et al. 2015gen. nov.362 Thiobacimonas profunda Li et al. 2015sp. nov.362 Arthrobacter nanjingensis Huang et al. 2015sp. nov.366 Flavobacterium suzhouense Zhang et al. 2015sp. nov.373 Pontibacillus salicampi Lee et al. 2015sp. nov.379 Litoribaculum Jin and Jeon 2015gen. nov.385 Litoribaculum gwangyangense Jin and Jeon 2015sp. nov.385 Bisgaardia miroungae Hansen et al. 2015sp. nov.391 Sphingobium subterraneum Lee et al. 2015sp. nov.397 Phyllobacterium sophorae Jiao et al. 2015sp. nov.403 Muriicola marianensis Hu et al. 2015sp. nov.410 Rhizobium yantingense Chen et al. 2015sp. nov.416 Chitinophaga longshanensis Gao et al. 2015sp. nov.421 Pseudomonas yamanorum Arnau et al. 2015sp. nov.428 Brenneria populi Li et al. 2015sp. nov.436 Streptococcus parasuis Nomoto et al. 2015sp. nov.442 Thorsellia kenyensis Kämpfer et al. 2015sp. nov.448 Thorsellia kandunguensis Kämpfer et al. 2015sp. nov.448 Thorselliaceae Kämpfer et al. 2015fam. nov.449 Marivirga lumbricoides Xu et al. 2015sp. nov.455 Belliella kenyensis Akhwale et al. 2015sp. nov.460 Rhodococcus aerolatus Hwang et al. 2015sp. nov.470 Rhizobium alvei Sheu et al. 2015sp. nov.475 Rhizobacter bergeniae Wei et al. 2015sp. nov.483 Lutibacter oricola Sung et al. 2015sp. nov.489 Kribbella italica Everest et al. 2015sp. nov.495 Rhizobium sophorae Jiao et al. 2015sp. nov.500 Rhizobium sophoriradicis Jiao et al. 2015sp. nov.501 Burkholderia monticola Baek et al. 2015sp. nov.508 Mycobacterium celeriflavum Shahraki et al. 2015sp. nov.514 Nesterenkonia alkaliphila Zhang et al. 2015sp. nov.519 Pseudobacteriovorax McCauley et al. 2015gen. nov.527 Pseudobacteriovorax antillogorgiicola McCauley et al. 2015sp. nov.528 Pseudobacteriovoracaceae McCauley et al. 2015fam. nov.528 Corynebacterium atrinae Kim et al. 2015sp. nov.534 Metallosphaera tengchongensis Peng et al. 2015sp. nov.539 Sporohalobacter salinus Abdallah et al. 2015sp. nov.547 Tepidisphaera Kovaleva et al. 2015gen. nov.553 Tepidisphaera mucosa Kovaleva et al. 2015sp. nov.553 Tepidisphaeraceae Kovaleva et al. 2015fam. nov.554 Tepidisphaerales Kovaleva et al. 2015ord. nov.554 Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens Nicholson et al. 2015subsp. nov.*560 Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi Nicholson et al. 2015subsp. nov.560 Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus Cheng et al. 2015sp. nov.566 Ammoniibacillus Sakai et al. 2015gen. nov.574 Ammoniibacillus agariperforans Sakai et al. 2015sp. nov.575 Arachidicoccus Madhaiyan et al. 2015gen. nov.584 Arachidicoccus rhizosphaerae Madhaiyan et al. 2015sp. nov.584 Lysobacter terrae Ngo et al. 2015sp. nov.589 Halobacteriovorax Koval et al. 2015gen. nov.594 Halobacteriovorax marinus (Baer et al. 2004) Koval et al. 2015comb. nov. (basonym: Bacteriovorax marinus Baer et al. 2004)594 Halobacteriovorax litoralis (Baer et al. 2004) Koval et al. 2015comb. nov. (basonym: Bacteriovorax litoralis Baer et al. 2004)596 Halobacteriovoraceae Koval et al. 2015fam. nov.596 Legionella norrlandica Rizzardi et al. 2015sp. nov.602 Natribaculum Liu et al. 2015gen. nov.606 Natribaculum breve Liu et al. 2015sp. nov