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1

Dysplastic tracheae in eight blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola) from Bioko, Equatorial Guinea.  

PubMed

Nine blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola), purchased in the Malabo bushmeat market, were necropsied. Eight of the nine animals were found to have dysplastic tracheas, characterized by lateral apposition of tracheal rings, entrapment of the trachealis muscle and annular ligaments, and bunching of the tracheal epithelium. Communications with zoologic pathologists and a thorough search of the veterinary literature have not uncovered a single case of this pathologic finding. As such, this finding may represent an evolutionary marker indicative of a bottleneck that may have occurred in the history of this species of duiker, endemic to the island of Bioko, in the Gulf of Benin. PMID:20597221

Lombardini, Eric D; Lane, Emily; Del Piero, Fabio

2010-06-01

2

Notes on Abbott's duiker (Cephalophus spadix True 1890) and other forest antelopes of Mwanihana Forest, Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, as revealed by camera-trapping and direct observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Udzungwa Mountains of south-central Tanzania are part of an internationally outstanding area for biodiversity. This is reflected in the mammalian fauna and particularly in the forest antelopes: at least five species co-exist, including the Tanzanian endemic Abbott's duiker (Cephalophus spadix True 1890). Information on forest antelopes from Mwanihana Forest, one of the largest forest blocks within the Udzungwa Mountains,

F. Rovero; T. Jones; J. Sanderson

2005-01-01

3

A multi-locus species phylogeny of African forest duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae: evidence for a recent radiation in the Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Background Duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae are a group of tropical forest mammals believed to have first originated during the late Miocene. However, knowledge of phylogenetic relationships, pattern and timing of their subsequent radiation is poorly understood. Here we present the first multi-locus phylogeny of this threatened group of tropical artiodactyls and use a Bayesian uncorrelated molecular clock to estimate divergence times. Results A total of 4152 bp of sequence data was obtained from two mitochondrial genes and four nuclear introns. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis of concatenated mitochondrial, nuclear and combined datasets. A relaxed molecular clock with two fossil calibration points was used to estimate divergence times. The first was based on the age of the split between the two oldest subfamilies within the Bovidae whereas the second was based on the earliest known fossil appearance of the Cephalophinae and molecular divergence time estimates for the oldest lineages within this group. Findings indicate strong support for four major lineages within the subfamily, all of which date to the late Miocene/early Pliocene. The first of these to diverge was the dwarf duiker genus Philantomba, followed by the giant, eastern and western red duiker lineages, all within the genus Cephalophus. While these results uphold the recognition of Philantomba, they do not support the monotypic savanna-specialist genus Sylvicapra, which as sister to the giant duikers leaves Cephalophus paraphyletic. BEAST analyses indicate that most sister species pairs originated during the Pleistocene, suggesting that repeated glacial cycling may have played an important role in the recent diversification of this group. Furthermore, several red duiker sister species pairs appear to be either paraphyletic (C.callipygus/C. ogilbyi and C. harveyi/C. natalensis) or exhibit evidence of mitochondrial admixture (C. nigrifrons and C. rufilatus), consistent with their recent divergence and/or possible hybridization with each other. Conclusions Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest that Pleistocene-era climatic oscillations have played an important role in the speciation of this largely forest-dwelling group. Our results also reveal the most well supported species phylogeny for the subfamily to date, but also highlight several areas of inconsistency between our current understanding of duiker taxonomy and the evolutionary relationships depicted here. These findings may therefore prove particularly relevant to future conservation efforts, given that many species are presently regulated under the Convention for Trade in Endangered Species. PMID:22823504

2012-01-01

4

Chloroplast DNA in Pinus monticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within-species variability of a restriction site in the chloroplast (cp) DNA in Pinus monticola has been surveyed. Frequencies of two variants of the cp genome are significantly different in interior versus coastal populations. Paternal inheritance of the cp genome predominates, though some individuals have both variants of the genome. The presence of heteroplasmic individuals indicates occasional biparental inheritance.

E. E. White

1990-01-01

5

Chloroplast DNA in Pinus monticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction sites on the chloroplast genome of Pinus monticola have been mapped, and the gene for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase, the genes for the photosystem II polypeptides psbA, psbD and psbC, and the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes have been located. The genome lacks the large inverted repeat characteristic of most angiosperms. The gene order is

E. E. White

1990-01-01

6

Sequences of four nuclear loci reveal a population bottleneck in Pinus monticola  

E-print Network

Sequences of four nuclear loci reveal a population bottleneck in Pinus monticola JohnJohn Syring University #12;Pinus monticola Western white pine (WWP) #12;5 changes Monophyletic Monophyletic Weakly #12;Sampling Localities of Pinus monticola · Sampled evenly across the range of the species · Prior

Syring, John

7

Western white pine ( Pinus monticola Dougl.) reproduction: I. Gametophyte development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male and female gametophyte development are described from light and transmission electron microscope preparations of ovules\\u000a from first and second year Pinus\\u000a monticola Dougl. seed cones. In the first year of development, pollen tubes penetrate about one-third the distance through the nucellus.\\u000a The generative cell and tube nucleus move into the pollen tube. The megagametophyte undergoes early free nuclear division.

John N. Owens; Darla Bruns

2000-01-01

8

Fungal endophytes in seeds and needles of Pinus monticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sequence-based approach, we investigated the transmission of diverse fungal endophytes in seed and needles of Pinus monticola, western white pine. We isolated 2003 fungal endophytes from 750 surface-sterilized needles. In contrast, only 16 endophytic isolates were obtained from 800 surface-sterilized seeds. The ITS region was sequenced from a representative selection of these endophytes. Isolates were then assigned to

Rebecca J. Ganley; George Newcombe

2006-01-01

9

Fungal endophytes in seeds and needles of Pinus monticola.  

PubMed

Using a sequence-based approach, we investigated the transmission of diverse fungal endophytes in seed and needles of Pinus monticola, western white pine. We isolated 2003 fungal endophytes from 750 surface-sterilized needles. In contrast, only 16 endophytic isolates were obtained from 800 surface-sterilized seeds. The ITS region was sequenced from a representative selection of these endophytes. Isolates were then assigned to the most closely related taxa in GenBank. Although 95% of the endophytes in needles from mature trees belonged to the Rhytismataceae, 82 unique ITS sequences were obtained from at least 21 genera and 10 different orders of fungi. Significantly, none of the endophytes in seed were rhytismataceous (chi(2) = 180; P < 0.001). Similarly, needles of greenhouse seedlings yielded only non-rhytismataceous isolates, whereas seedlings of the same age that had naturally regenerated near older white pines in roadless areas were colonized by rhytismataceous endophytes almost to the same extent as in mature trees. Only one of 17 rhytismataceous isolates were able to grow on a medium containing only 0.17% nitrogen, whereas 25 of 31 non-rhytismataceous endophytes grew. Rhytismataceous endophytes are dominant in needles of P. monticola, but they appear to be absent in seed, and unlikely colonists of nitrogen-limiting host tissues such as the apoplast. PMID:16492396

Ganley, Rebecca J; Newcombe, George

2006-03-01

10

Chloroplast DNA in Pinus monticola : 1. Physical map.  

PubMed

Restriction sites on the chloroplast genome of Pinus monticola have been mapped, and the gene for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the genes for the photosystem II polypeptides psbA, psbD and psbC, and the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes have been located. The genome lacks the large inverted repeat characteristic of most angiosperms. The gene order is similar to that found in P. radiata. The presence of dispersed repeated sequences is likely. Two structural features, lack of a large inverted repeat and the presence of dispersed repeats, may confer a degree of variability on the genome which will prove useful in studies of population structure. PMID:24226130

White, E E

1990-01-01

11

Allozyme inheritance, heterozygosity and outcrossing rate among Pinus monticola near Ladysmith, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of megagametophytic and embryonic allozyme variants in nine enzymatic systems encoded by 14 loci was conducted on 30 western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) trees from a natural stand on Vancouver Island, B.C. The segregation of allozymes in megagametophytes of heterozygous trees indicated distinct, simple, Mendelian inheritance. The stand heterozygosity parameters (proportion of polymorphic loci (064), average number of

Y A El-Kassaby; M D Meagher; J Parkinson; F T Portlock

1987-01-01

12

Histology of sterile male and female cones in Pinus monticola (western white pine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two years of histological samples were collected from a Pinus monticola Dougl. (western white pine) tree identified as not producing mature pollen or seed cones. Anatomical information was collected to the ultrastructural level, to assess possible mechanisms for pollen and cone abortion resulting in sterility. Development of male and female gametophytes in the sterile western white pine tree was arrested

Vivienne R. Wilson; John N. Owens

2003-01-01

13

Sexual reproduction and crossing barriers in white pines: the case between Pinus lambertiana (sugar pine) and P. monticola (western white pine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual reproductive process in Pinus lambertiana has not been completely described, and previous attempts to generate hybrids with Pinus monticola and other North American pines have not been successful. The nature of incompatibility barriers between P. lambertiana and P. monticola is unknown. This needs to be understood if strategies are to be developed to overcome the said barriers. In

Danilo D. Fernando; Richard A. Sniezko

2005-01-01

14

Identification and characterization of the WRKY transcription factor family in Pinus monticola.  

PubMed

The WRKY gene family represents an ancient and highly complex group of transcription factors involved in signal transduction pathways of numerous plant developmental processes and host defense response. Up to now, most WRKY proteins have been identified in a few angiosperm species. Identification of WRKY genes in a conifer species would facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary and function-adaptive process of this superfamily in plants. We performed PCR on genomic DNA to clone WRKY sequences from western white pine (Pinus monticola), one of the most valuable conifer species endangered by white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). In total, 83 P. monticola WRKY (PmWRKY) sequences were identified using degenerate primers targeted to the WRKY domain. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmWRKY members fell into four major groups (1, 2a+2b, 2c, and 2d+2e) described in Arabidopsis and rice. Because of high genetic diversity of the PmWRKY family, a modified AFLP method was used to detect DNA polymorphism of this gene family. Polymorphic fragments accounted for 17%-35% of total PCR products in the AFLP profiles. Among them, one WRKY AFLP marker was linked to the major resistance gene (Cr2) against C. ribicola. The results of this study provide basic genomic information for a conifer WRKY gene family, which will pave the way for elucidating gene evolutionary mechanisms in plants and unveiling the precise roles of PmWRKY in conifer development and defense response. PMID:19132074

Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

2009-01-01

15

Association of a novel Pinus monticola chitinase gene (PmCh4B) with quantitative resistance to Cronartium ribicola.  

PubMed

Multiple families of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are believed to contribute to plant quantitative resistance to various pathogens. Along with other host PR proteins, PR3 chitinase is one protein component participating in genetic resistance of western white pine (Pinus monticola) to the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathogen (Cronartium ribicola). In the present study, we characterized a novel P. monticola class IV chitinase gene (PmCh4B) and further analyzed its nucleotide variations in the open-pollinated seed families of diverse geographical distribution and variable levels of quantitative resistance to C. ribicola infection. PmCh4B showed high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.94) and nucleotide diversity (?=0.00965), similar to those of other conifer genes related to environmental stresses. A low level of intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) (but most of the levels with statistical significance) was found within a distance of ?800 bp. Based on PmCh4B haplotype frequency, moderate to high levels of population structure were observed among P. monticola seed families currently used in breeding programs for WPBR resistance (average FST=0.163, P<0.001). Association analysis revealed that allelic variants and multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms of PmCh4B were significantly associated with quantitative levels of P. monticola resistance against C. ribicola. This work represents the first association study for quantitative resistance in western white pine pathosystem and provides a potential for marker-assisted selection in white pine breeding. PMID:21469933

Liu, Jun-Jun; Sniezko, Richard A; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

2011-08-01

16

Effects of nursery environment on needle morphology of Pinus monticola Dougl. and implications for tree improvement programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistically significant differences were found in 14 needle traits of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) seedlings grown from the same seed orchard source in the three nurseries in northern Idaho. Traits with significant variation included needle length and width, number of stomatal rows, number of stomata per row, total stomata per needle, adaxial surface area, stomatal density, major axes

Kwan-Soo Woo; Lauren Fins; Geral I. McDonald; David L. Wenny; Aram Eramian

2002-01-01

17

Chloroplast DNA in Pinus monticola : 2. Survey of within-species variability and detection of heteroplasmic individuals.  

PubMed

Within-species variability of a restriction site in the chloroplast (cp) DNA in Pinus monticola has been surveyed. Frequencies of two variants of the cp genome are significantly different in interior versus coastal populations. Paternal inheritance of the cp genome predominates, though some individuals have both variants of the genome. The presence of heteroplasmic individuals indicates occasional biparental inheritance. PMID:24226226

White, E E

1990-02-01

18

Variation in Cronartium ribicola Field Resistance Among 13 Pinus monticola and 12 P. lambertiana Families: Early Results from Happy Camp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995 seed from 13 Pinus monticola (western white pine) and 12 P. lambertiana (sugar pine) parents previously in- cluded in short-term blister rust testing at Dorena Genetic Resource Center (DGRC), Cottage Grove, OR, were sown to establish field trials. The parents were chosen to represent a wide array of resistance responses shown in earlier artificial inoculation trials. Percentage stem

R. A. Sniezko; A. D. Bower; A. J. Kegley

19

Congruent Climate?Related Genecological Responses from Molecular Markers and Quantitative Traits for Western White Pine (Pinus monticola)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of molecular and quantitative genetic data demonstrate the existence of congruent climate?related patterns in western white pine (Pinus monticola). Two independent studies allowed comparisons of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers with quantitative variation in adaptive traits. Principal component analyses were conducted on seedling traits in common gardens collected from 58 sites; principal coordinate analyses were conducted on AFLP

2009-01-01

20

Ixodid ticks of angora and boer goats, grysbok, common duikers, kudus and scrub hares in Valley Bushveld in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.  

PubMed

At monthly intervals from February 1983 to January 1984 two Angora goats, two Boer goats, one grysbok, Raphicerus melanotis, one common duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, one greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, and four scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, were killed on a farm in Valley Bushveld in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa and examined for ticks. Seven ixodid tick species were collected, of which Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum followed by Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus oculatus were the most numerous. Amblyomma hebraeum was mainly a parasite of the two goat breeds, with the Angora goats harbouring greater numbers than the Boer goats, while large numbers of R. glabroscutatum parasitized the goats and the antelopes. Rhipicephalus oculatus was nearly exclusively a parasite of scrub hares. The larvae of A. hebraeum were most numerous on goats from May to July, the nymphs from September to November and the adults from August to December and during February, while the immature stages of R. glabroscutatum were most numerous on these animals from April to July and the adults from August to December. Peak activity periods of the latter tick were somewhat longer on kudus than on goats; the immature stages were most numerous from January to August and the adults from July to February. The larvae of R. oculatus were most numerous on scrub hares from March to May, nymphs from September to November and adults from October to December. PMID:12967172

Macivor, K M de F; Horak, I G

2003-06-01

21

Molecular cloning of a pathogen\\/wound-inducible PR10 promoter from Pinus monticola and characterization in transgenic Arabidopsis plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don), the class ten pathogenesis-related (PR10) proteins comprise a family of multiple members differentially expressed upon pathogen infection and other environmental stresses. One of them, PmPR10-1.13, is studied here by investigating its transcriptional regulation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. For functional analyses of the PmPR10-1.13 promoter, a 1,316-bp promoter fragment and three 5' deletions were

Jun-Jun Liu; Abul K. M. Ekramoddoullah; Nina Piggott; Arezoo Zamani

2005-01-01

22

RNA and protein synthesis during in vitro pollen germination and tube elongation in Pinus monticola and other conifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen germination and tube elongation in Pinus\\u000a monticola are accompanied by RNA and protein synthesis as shown by the effects of inhibitors such as actinomycin D and cycloheximide,\\u000a respectively. Pollen grains germinate in the presence of actinomycin D, but further tube elongation is inhibited. This suggests\\u000a that RNAs needed for germination are already available in the mature ungerminated pollen, but

Danilo D. Fernando; John N. Owens; Xueshu Yu; Abul K. M. Ekramoddoullah

2001-01-01

23

Transcriptome analysis of Pinus monticola primary needles by RNA-seq provides novel insight into host resistance to Cronartium ribicola  

PubMed Central

Background Five-needle pines are important forest species that have been devastated by white pine blister rust (WPBR, caused by Cronartium ribicola) across North America. Currently little transcriptomic and genomic data are available to understand molecular interactions in the WPBR pathosystem. Results We report here RNA-seq analysis results using Illumina deep sequencing of primary needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola) infected with WPBR. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the first P. monticola consensus transcriptome, which contained 39,439 unique transcripts with an average length of 1,303 bp and a total length of 51.4 Mb. About 23,000 P. monticola unigenes produced orthologous hits in the Pinus gene index (PGI) database (BLASTn with E values < e-100) and 6,300 genes were expressed actively (at RPKM ? 10) in the healthy tissues. Comparison of transcriptomes from WPBR-susceptible and -resistant genotypes revealed a total of 979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a significant fold change > 1.5 during P. monticola- C. ribicola interactions. Three hundred and ten DEGs were regulated similarly in both susceptible and resistant seedlings and 275 DEGs showed regulatory differences between susceptible and resistant seedlings post infection by C. ribicola. The DEGs up-regulated in resistant seedlings included a set of putative signal receptor genes encoding disease resistance protein homologs, calcineurin B-like (CBL)-interacting protein kinases (CIPK), F-box family proteins (FBP), and abscisic acid (ABA) receptor; transcriptional factor (TF) genes of multiple families; genes homologous to apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), flowering locus T-like protein (FT), and subtilisin-like protease. DEGs up-regulated in resistant seedlings also included a wide diversity of down-stream genes (encoding enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways, pathogenesis-related -PR proteins of multiple families, and anti-microbial proteins). A large proportion of the down-regulated DEGs were related to photosystems, the metabolic pathways of carbon fixation and flavonoid biosynthesis. Conclusions The novel P. monticola transcriptome data provide a basis for future studies of genetic resistance in a non-model, coniferous species. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of transcriptomic regulation in the WPBR pathosystem and yields novel insights on molecular and biochemical mechanisms of disease resistance in conifers. PMID:24341615

2013-01-01

24

Analysis of bark proteins in blister rust-resistant and susceptible western white pine (Pinus monticola).  

PubMed

We compared bark proteins from four contrasting (blister rust-resistant versus susceptible) half-sib seedling pairs of western white pine (Pinus monticola D. Don). Pooled proteins from resistant and susceptible groups (four trees per group) were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, silver stained, and analyzed with the aid of a laser scanner interfaced with a computerized gel documentation system. Qualitative and quantitative protein differences were observed between resistant and susceptible groups. The number of proteins unique to a group was greater in the susceptible category than in the resistant category. Biosynthesis of some common proteins was enhanced near lesioned areas of susceptible seedlings. Many proteins shared similar charge and mass characteristics with those of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Two protein bands were isolated and partially characterized by N-terminal amino acid sequencing: a 10.6-kDa band that was selectively enriched in all resistant individuals, and a 26.0-kDa band that was enriched in some susceptible individuals. The significance of these protein differences and the possible use of selected proteins as disease or resistance markers are discussed. PMID:14759906

Davidson, J; Ekramoddoullah, A K

1997-10-01

25

Comparative proteomic profiles of Pinus monticola needles during early compatible and incompatible interactions with Cronartium ribicola.  

PubMed

The proteomic profiles of primary needles from Cr2-resistant and cr2-susceptible Pinus monticola seedlings were analysed post Cronartium ribicola inoculation by 2-DE. One hundred-and-five protein spots exhibiting significant differential expression were identified using LC-MS/MS. Functional classification showed that the most numerous proteins are involved in defence signalling, oxidative burst, metabolic pathways, and other physiological processes. Our results revealed that differential expression of proteins in response to C. ribicola inoculation was genotype- and infection-stage dependent. Responsive proteins in resistant seedlings with incompatible white pine blister rust (WPBR) interaction included such well-characterized proteins as heat shock proteins (HSPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes, and intermediate factors functioning in the signal transduction pathways triggered by well-known plant R genes, as well as new candidates in plant defence like sugar epimerase, GTP-binding proteins, and chloroplastic ribonucleoproteins. Fewer proteins were regulated in susceptible seedlings; most of them were in common with resistant seedlings and related to photosynthesis among others. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed HSP- and ROS-related genes played an important role in host defence in response to C. ribicola infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative proteomics study on WPBR interactions at the early stages of host defence, which provides a reference proteomic profile for other five-needle pines as well as resistance candidates for further understanding of host resistance in the WPBR pathosystem. PMID:22868574

Zamany, Arezoo; Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

2012-12-01

26

A new mountain lizard from Montes de Len (NW Iberian Peninsula):Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov. (Squamata: Lacertidae).  

PubMed

Iberolacerta populations from the Northern Montes de Leon (NML) were studied by means of external morphology (scalation and biometry), osteology and genetics (mtDNA and microsatellites), searching for their homogeneity ("intrazonalanalysis") and, once verified, comparing them with Iberolacerta monticola s. str. (from Central Cantabrian Mountains)and/. gal ani (from Southern Montes de Leon) ("extrazonal analysis") from neighboring areas.Our "intrazonal analysis" revealed discordances between the different approaches, especially the patterns of variation of nuclear microsatellites (congruent with external morphology) and mtDNA, namely a very low nuclear differentiation between relatively highly differentiated mtDNA lineages. The morphological approach was unable to discriminate any of the populations as significantly different from the others in the NML. Mitochondrial DNA revealed a haplotype lineage closely related to I. galani (MNL-II in our text) in some specimens of Sierra de Villabandfn and Suspiron, but these populations are morphologically indistinguishable from the main part of the other populations that belong to lineage NML-1,phylogenetically closer to/. monticola. After a separation from I. manti cola ca. 1.8 Mya, the populations in this geographic region must have suffered at least two different waves of gene flow from I. gal ani, the second one not much later than 0.5 Mya. Microsatellite results indicate that all the NML populations are genetically similar in terms of their nuclear genomes,independently of their mitochondrial differentiation (NML-I vs. NML-II haplotype groups). Since all the morphological and microsatellite evidences point towards the fact that, independently of the mitochondrial haplotypes that they bear (NML-1 or NML-II), there is only one taxon in the area, we describe it as: Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov.Concerning the relationships of I. m. astur ssp. nov. with I. monticola s. str. and I. gal ani ("extra zonal analysis"), in the female analyses the new taxon centroid is closer to I. monticola s. str. than to I. gal ani (more similarity with I manticolas.str.), whereas in the male analyses the relationship is just the contrary (closer to I. gal ani, paralleling the direction of the hypothesized past hybridization). Moreover, in both sexes' ANOVA, I. m. astur ssp. nov. results more similar (lessP<0.05 differences) to I. galani than to I. monticola s. str. Osteologically, I. m. astur ssp. nov. is slightly more similar toI. monticola s. str. than to I. galani, especially in the squamosal bone, which is regularly arched (primitive shape). Genetically,as indicated above, the NML populations can be subdivided in two groups according to their mitochondrial DNA,namely NML-I (bearing clearly differentiated haplotypes, phylogenetically closer to I. monticola) and NML-II (whose haplotypes could have been mistaken for those of an I. gal ani population). This mitochondrial subdivision has at most a subtle nuclear correlate, however. According to the nuclear microsatellite markers, all the NML populations belong to a single group(/. m. astur ssp. nov.), which would be more similar to I. gal ani than to I monticola, with NML-II populations lying closer to I. galani than those from the NML-I group and, correspondingly, more distant from I. monticola. The discordant phylogenetic signal of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is discussed in terms of past introgression events and sex-biases in phylopatry and dispersion in these species. Iberolacerta manti cola astur ssp. nov., inhabits the Northern Montes de Leon (Sierra de Gistreo sensu latissimo ): Gistredo,Catoute, Tambaron, Nevadfn, Villabandfn (or Macizo del Alto de Ia Canada), Arcos del Agua (or Fernan Perez),Tiendas and Suspiron, mainly in quartzite and slate rock substrates. Its current distribution, cornered in the NW of theNorthern part of the Montes de Leon, suggests a possible competitive exclusion between this taxon and/. galani, as the galani haplotypes (NML-II) appear cornered in the most harsh

Arribas, Oscar J; Galn, Pedro; Remn, Nria; Naveira, Horacio

2014-01-01

27

Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.  

PubMed

Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. PMID:23692021

Vega, Mara Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jess; Fa, John E

2013-06-01

28

The importance of comparative phylogeography in diagnosing introduced species: a lesson from the seal salamander, Desmognathus monticola  

PubMed Central

Background In most regions of the world human influences on the distribution of flora and fauna predate complete biotic surveys. In some cases this challenges our ability to discriminate native from introduced species. This distinction is particularly critical for isolated populations, because relicts of native species may need to be conserved, whereas introduced species may require immediate eradication. Recently an isolated population of seal salamanders, Desmognathus monticola, was discovered on the Ozark Plateau, ~700 km west of its broad continuous distribution in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Using Nested Clade Analysis (NCA) we test whether the Ozark isolate results from population fragmentation (a natural relict) or long distance dispersal (a human-mediated introduction). Results Despite its broad distribution in the Appalachian Mountains, the primary haplotype diversity of D. monticola is restricted to less than 2.5% of the distribution in the extreme southern Appalachians, where genetic diversity is high for other co-distributed species. By intensively sampling this genetically diverse region we located haplotypes identical to the Ozark isolate. Nested Clade Analysis supports the hypothesis that the Ozark population was introduced, but it was necessary to include haplotypes that are less than or equal to 0.733% divergent from the Ozark population in order to arrive at this conclusion. These critical haplotypes only occur in < 1.2% of the native distribution and NCA excluding them suggest that the Ozark population is a natural relict. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that the isolated population of D. monticola from the Ozarks is not native to the region and may need to be extirpated rather than conserved, particularly because of its potential negative impacts on endemic Ozark stream salamander communities. Diagnosing a species as introduced may require locating nearly identical haplotypes in the known native distribution, which may be a major undertaking. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering comparative phylogeographic information for locating critical haplotypes when distinguishing native from introduced species. PMID:17825102

Bonett, Ronald M; Kozak, Kenneth H; Vieites, David R; Bare, Alison; Wooten, Jessica A; Trauth, Stanley E

2007-01-01

29

Causes and Evolutionary Consequences of Population Subdivision of an Iberian Mountain Lizard, Iberolacerta monticola  

PubMed Central

Aim The study of the factors that influence population connectivity and spatial distribution of genetic variation is crucial for understanding speciation and for predicting the effects of landscape modification and habitat fragmentation, which are considered severe threats to global biodiversity. This dual perspective is obtained from analyses of subalpine mountain species, whose present distribution may have been shaped both by cyclical climate changes over ice ages and anthropogenic perturbations of their habitats. Here, we examine the phylogeography, population structure and genetic diversity of the lacertid lizard Iberolacerta monticola, an endemism considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in several populations. Location Northwestern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula. Methods We analyzed the mtDNA variation at the control region (454 bp) and the cytochrome b (598 bp) loci, as well as at 10 nuclear microsatellite loci from 17 populations throughout the distribution range of the species. Results According to nuclear markers, most sampling sites are defined as distinct, genetically differentiated populations, and many of them show traces of recent bottlenecks. Mitochondrial data identify a relatively old, geographically restricted lineage, and four to six younger geographically vicariant sister clades, whose origin may be traced back to the mid-Pleistocene revolution, with several subclades possibly associated to the mid-Bruhnes transition. Geographic range fragmentation of one of these clades, which includes lowland sites, is very recent, and most likely due to the accelerated loss of Atlantic forests by human intervention. Main Conclusions Altogether, the data fit a refugia within refugia model, some lack of pattern uniformity notwithstanding, and suggest that these mountains might be the cradles of new species of Iberolacerta. However, the changes operated during the Holocene severely compromise the long-term survival of those genetic lineages more exposed to the anthropogenic perturbations of their habitats. PMID:23762459

Remon, Nuria; Galan, Pedro; Vila, Marta; Arribas, Oscar; Naveira, Horacio

2013-01-01

30

Responses of foliar delta13C, gas exchange and leaf morphology to reduced hydraulic conductivity in Pinus monticola branches.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that branch hydraulic conductivity partly controls foliar stable carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) by its influence on stomatal conductance in Pinus monticola Dougl. Notching and phloem-girdling treatments were applied to reduce branch conductivity over the course of a growing season. Notching and phloem girdling reduced leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) by about 30 and 90%, respectively. The 90% reduction in LSC increased foliar delta13C by about 1 per thousand (P < 0.0001, n = 65), whereas the 30% reduction in LSC had no effect on foliar delta13C (P = 0.90, n = 65). Variation in the delta13C of dark respiration was similar to that of whole-tissues when compared among treatments. These isotopic measurements, in addition to instantaneous gas exchange measurements, suggested only minor adjustments in the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric CO2 partial pressures (ci/ca) in response to experimentally reduced hydraulic conductivity. A strong correlation was observed between stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic demand over a tenfold range in gs. Although ci/ca and delta13C appeared to be relatively homeostatic, current-year leaf area varied linearly as a function of branch hydraulic conductivity (r2 = 0.69, P < 0.0001, n = 18). These results suggest that, for Pinus monticola, adjustment of leaf area is a more important response to reduced branch conductivity than adjustment of ci/ca. PMID:11600343

Cernusak, L A; Marshall, J D

2001-10-01

31

Acidbase chemistry of dissolved organic matter in aqueous leaf extracts: Application to organic acids in throughfall. [Chrysolepis sempervirens; Pinus monticola; Salix orestera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental composition data were obtained for bulk precipitation and throughfall samples and for aqueous extracts of leaves of three woody plant species common in the subalpine Sierras Nevada range, California: chinquapin (Chrysolepis sempervirens Hjelmqvist), western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.), and willow (Salix orestera Schneider). The acid-base equilibria of the extracts were characterized by potentiometric titration and proton formation functions

A. D. Brown; G. Sposito

2009-01-01

32

Water uptake and oil distribution during imbibition of seeds of western white pine ( Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) monitored in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry or fully imbibed seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) were studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of the dry seed revealed many of the gross anatomical features of seed structure. Furthermore, the non-invasive nature of MRI allowed for a study of the dynamics of water and oil distribution during in situ imbibition

Victor V. Terskikh; J. Allan. Feurtado; Chengwei Ren; Suzanne R. Abrams; Allison R. Kermode

2005-01-01

33

Effect of white pine blister rust ( Cronartium ribicola ) and rust-resistance breeding on genetic variation in western white pine ( Pinus monticola )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species from western North America that has declined over the past several decades mainly due to the introduction of blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variation in northern Idaho populations of western white pine (including

M.-S. Kim; S. J. Brunsfeld; G. I. McDonald; N. B. Klopfenstein

2003-01-01

34

Development of leucine-rich repeat polymorphism, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and sequence characterized amplified region markers to the Cronartium ribicola resistance gene Cr2 in western white pine ( Pinus monticola )  

Microsoft Academic Search

White pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by Cronartium ribicola, is a devastating disease in Pinus monticola and other five-needle pines. Pyramiding a major resistance gene (Cr2) with other resistance genes is an important component of integrated strategies to control WPBR in P. monticola. To facilitate this strategy, the objective of the present study was to identify leucine-rich repeat (LRR) polymorphisms,

Jun-Jun Liu; Abul K. M. Ekramoddoullah

2008-01-01

35

Genetic analysis of Pinus strobus and Pinus monticola populations from Canada using ISSR and RAPD markers: development of genome-specific SCAR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinus is the largest genus of conifers, containing over 100 species and is also the most widespread genus in the Northern Hemisphere.\\u000a Pinus monticola and P. strobus are two closely related and economically important species in Canada. Morphological and allometric characteristics have been\\u000a used to assess genetic variation within these two species but these markers are not reliable due to

M. S. Mehes; K. K. Nkongolo; P. Michael

2007-01-01

36

Genetic diversity and structure of western white pine ( Pinus monticola ) in North America: a baseline study for conservation, restoration, and addressing impacts of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species in western North America that has declined in prominence over the\\u000a past several decades, mainly due to the introduction of Cronartium ribicola (cause of white pine blister rust) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)\\u000a markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure

Mee-Sook Kim; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein

2011-01-01

37

Isolation, genetic variation and expression of TIR-NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs from western white pine ( Pinus monticola Dougl. ex. D. Don.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western white pine ( Pinus monticolaDougl. ex. D. Don., WWP) shows genetic variation in disease resistance to white pine blister rust ( Cronartium ribicola). Most plant disease resistance (R) genes encode proteins that belong to a superfamily with nucleotide-binding site domains (NBS) and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRR). In this work a PCR strategy was used to clone R gene analogs

J.-J. Liu; A. K. M. Ekramoddoullah

2004-01-01

38

Dormancy termination of western white pine ( Pinus monticola Dougl. Ex D. Don) seeds is associated with changes in abscisic acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western white pine ( Pinus monticola) seeds exhibit deep dormancy at maturity and seed populations require several months of moist chilling to reach their uppermost germination capacities. Abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), 7'-hydroxy ABA (7'OH ABA) and ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE), were quantified in western white pine seeds during dormancy breakage (moist chilling) and

J. Allan Feurtado; Stephen J. Ambrose; Adrian J. Cutler; Andrew R. S. Ross; Suzanne R. Abrams; Allison R. Kermode

2004-01-01

39

Disrupting Abscisic Acid Homeostasis in Western White Pine ( Pinus monticola Dougl. Ex D. Don) Seeds Induces Dormancy Termination and Changes in Abscisic Acid Catabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and catabolism in dormant imbibed seeds of western white pine\\u000a (Pinus monticola), ABA and selected catabolites were measured during a combined treatment of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, and\\u000a gibberellic acid (GA). Fluridone in combination with GA effectively disrupted ABA homeostasis and replaced the approximately\\u000a 90-day moist chilling period normally required

J. Allan Feurtado; Jenny Yang; Stephen J. Ambrose; Adrian J. Cutler; Suzanne R. Abrams; Allison R. Kermode

2007-01-01

40

Genomic organization, induced expression and promoter activity of a resistance gene analog (PmTNL1) in western white pine (Pinus monticola).  

PubMed

Cronartium ribicola causes white pine blister rust (WPBR) in subgenus Strobus. Various genetic and molecular approaches were used to detect white pine genes contributing to host resistance. The molecular role of the NBS-LRR family is highly related to plant immuno-activity against various pathogens and pests. In the present study, genomic organization of a resistance gene analog (RGA), designated as PmTNL1, and its allelic variants were characterized in Pinus monticola. PmTNL1 showed high identity with TIR-NBS-LRR proteins from other plants. qRT-PCR revealed that the PmTNL1 transcript was expressed at low basal levels in different tissues and exhibited similar patterns during compatible and incompatible interactions of P. monticola with C. ribicola at early stages post inoculation. In comparison, PmTNL1 was up-regulated significantly in diseased P. monticola tissues with WPBR symptoms. Expression of the PmTNL1 promoter::GUS fusion gene in transgenic Arabidopsis demonstrated that GUS signal appeared only inside phloem tissues of young seedlings and at hydathodes and branching and organ-connecting points in mature Arabidopsis plants. Similar to the endogenous expression pattern for this gene in pine, GUS activity was up-regulated significantly around vascular tissues locally at pathogen infection sites, but little or no induction was observed in response to abiotic stresses. A DNA marker was developed based on variation of the LRR-coding region, and PmTNL1 was mapped to one genetic linkage group using a pedigree with major dominant gene (Cr2) conferring HR resistance to C. ribicola. These results suggest that PmTNL1 may play an important role in white pine partial resistance against C. ribicola. PMID:21279649

Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

2011-05-01

41

Molecular cloning of a pathogen/wound-inducible PR10 promoter from Pinus monticola and characterization in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.  

PubMed

In Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don), the class ten pathogenesis-related (PR10) proteins comprise a family of multiple members differentially expressed upon pathogen infection and other environmental stresses. One of them, PmPR10-1.13, is studied here by investigating its transcriptional regulation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. For functional analyses of the PmPR10-1.13 promoter, a 1,316-bp promoter fragment and three 5' deletions were translationally fused to the ss-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The 1,316-bp promoter-driven GUS activity first appeared in hypocotyls and cotyledons in 2- to 3-day-old seedlings. As transgenic plants grew, GUS activity was detected strongly in apical meristems, next in stems and leaves. No GUS activity was detected in roots and in reproductive tissues of flower organs. In adult plants, the PmPR10-1.13 promoter-directed GUS expression was upregulated following pathogen infection and by wounding treatment, which generally mimic the endogenous expression pattern in western white pine. Promoter analysis of 5' deletions demonstrated that two regions between -1,316 and -930, and between -309 and -100 were responsible for the wound responsiveness. By structural and functional comparisons with PmPR10-1.14 promoter, putative wound-responsive elements were potentially identified in the PmPR10-1.13 promoter. In conclusion, PmPR10-1.13 showed properties of a defence-responsive gene, being transcriptionally upregulated upon biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:15609047

Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Piggott, Nina; Zamani, Arezoo

2005-05-01

42

Identification and Characterization of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers Linked to a Major Gene (Cr2) for Resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Pinus monticola.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT DNA markers tightly linked to resistance (R) genes provide a very powerful tool for both marker-assisted selection in plant breeding and positional cloning of R genes. In the present study, a linkage of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to the single dominant gene (Cr2) for resistance to white pine blister rust fungus (Cronartium ribicola) was investigated in western white pine (Pinus monticola). A mapping population of 128 individual megagametophytes was generated from seeds of a heterozygous resistant tree (Cr2/cr2), and the corresponding seedlings of each megagametophyte were subjected to the test of phenotype segregation by inoculation with C. ribicola. Bulked segregant analysis and haploid segregation analysis identified eight robust RAPD markers linked to Cr2. This constitutes the first Cr2 genetic linkage map spanning 84.7 cM with four markers only 3.2 cM from Cr2. One sequence (U256-1385) of these linked markers was significantly similar to the Ty3/gypsy-like long terminal direct repeats retrotransposons. Another marker, U570-843, had no significant similarity to any entry in either GenBank or the loblolly genomics data bank. As presumed that the average physical distance per centimorgan is about 10 Mb in P. monticola, it is probably unrealistic to use these DNA markers for positional cloning of the Cr2 gene. PMID:18943421

Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Hunt, Rich S; Zamani, Arezoo

2006-04-01

43

Microculture of western white pine (Pinus monticola) by induction of shoots on bud explants from 1- to 7-year-old trees.  

PubMed

We developed a protocol for the production of shoots from bud explants from 1- to 7-year-old trees of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.). The best explant was a 2-mm-thick cross-sectional slice of the early winter bud. Genotype of the donor tree was a significant factor affecting shoot production, but more than 80% of the genotypes tested produced shoots. Of the media tested, bud slices from 1- to 3-year-old trees grew best in Litvay's medium containing N(6)-benzyladenine in the range of 1 to 30 micro M, whereas bud slices from older trees grew best in Gupta and Durzan's DCR medium with zeatin riboside. Up to 400 shoots more than 3 mm in height were obtained from 100 bud-slice explants taken from 7-year-old western white pine trees. PMID:14871731

Lapp, M S; Malinek, J; Coffey, M

1996-04-01

44

Analysis of needle proteins and N-terminal amino acid sequences of two photosystem II proteins of western white pine (Pinus monticola D. Don).  

PubMed

A method is described for extracting needle proteins from mature western white pine (Pinus monticola D. Don) trees. Extracted proteins were separated into 26 components by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The predominant protein component (32-39%) had a molecular weight of 57 kDa. The second most predominant protein component (14-25%) had a molecular weight of 16 kDa. The amino acid composition of the twenty-six protein components was determined and a few selected proteins were subjected to further amino acid sequence analysis. Of these, two proteins, designated as Pin m I and Pin m II, were identified by sequence homology with other Photosystem II proteins. The Pin m I and Pin m II proteins had molecular weights of 22.6 kDa and 23.4 kDa, respectively. Pin m I had a much higher proline content than Pin m II. PMID:14969938

Ekramoddoullah, A K

1993-01-01

45

Small effect of fragmentation on the genetic diversity of Dalbergia monticola, an endangered tree species of the eastern forest of Madagascar, detected by chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The oriental forest ecosystem in Madagascar has been seriously impacted by fragmentation. The pattern of genetic diversity was analysed on a tree species, Dalbergia monticola, which plays an important economic role in Madagascar and is one of the many endangered tree species in the eastern forest. Methods Leaves from 546 individuals belonging to 18 small populations affected by different levels of fragmentation were genotyped using eight nuclear (nuc) and three chloroplast (cp) microsatellite markers. Key Results For nuclear microsatellites, allelic richness (R) and heterozygosity (He,nuc) differed between types of forest: R = 736 and R = 955, He,nuc = 064 and He,nuc = 080 in fragmented and non-fragmented forest, respectively, but the differences were not significant. Only the mean number of alleles (Na,nuc) and the fixation index FIS differed significantly: Na,nuc = 941 and Na,nuc = 1318, FIS = 006 and FIS = 015 in fragmented and non-fragmented forests, respectively. For chloroplast microsatellites, estimated genetic diversity was higher in non-fragmented forest, but the difference was not significant. No recent bottleneck effect was detected for either population. Overall differentiation was low for nuclear microsatellites (FST,nuc = 008) and moderate for chloroplast microsatellites (FST,cp = 049). A clear relationship was observed between genetic and geographic distance (r = 042 P < 001 and r = 042 P = 003 for nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites, respectively), suggesting a pattern of isolation by distance. Analysis of population structure using the neighbor-joining method or Bayesian models separated southern populations from central and northern populations with nuclear microsatellites, and grouped the population according to regions with chloroplast microsatellites, but did not separate the fragmented populations. Conclusions Residual diversity and genetic structure of populations of D. monticola in Madagascar suggest a limited impact of fragmentation on molecular genetic parameters. PMID:19773273

Andrianoelina, O.; Favreau, B.; Ramamonjisoa, L.; Bouvet, J.-M.

2009-01-01

46

Characterization, expression and evolution of two novel subfamilies of Pinus monticola cDNAs encoding pathogenesis-related (PR)-10 proteins.  

PubMed

Proteins of the pathogenesis-related (PR)-10 family are induced in many plants by phytopathogens and environmental stresses. A multi-gene family of PR10 proteins has previously been found in the genome of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don). We isolated two novel subfamilies of PR10 cDNAs (PmPR10-2 and PmPR10-3) from P. monticola that are distinct from other PR10 genes (PmPR10-1.1-1.14) reported from the same species. The PmPR10 proteins are grouped in three subfamilies based on similarity in amino acid sequences. The sequence identities of PmPR10 proteins are much higher among members within a subfamily than among members of different subfamilies (86-99% versus 59-68%). Induction of both PmPR10-2 and PmPR10-3 mRNAs was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in needles in response to wounding treatment. PmPR10-3 was also expressed in needles during cold acclimation in winter. Transcript levels of both PmPR10-2 and PmPR10-3 were less than the detectable levels of constitutive expression in roots, stems and vegetative shoots, whereas PmPR10-1.10 mRNA of subfamily I was expressed at various levels. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PmPR10 and PR10 proteins from other conifers are grouped within one clade that is distinct from that of angiosperm PR10 proteins. In the conifer monophyletic group, PR10 sequences diversify into three distinct clusters. Among these three clusters, some PR10 proteins from single conifer species showed greater divergence distances than sequences from other conifer species, suggesting that, within the conifers, the multi-gene family underwent great diversification during evolution. Based on ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (Ka/Ks), we speculate that positive selection resulted in the divergence of PmPR10 subfamilies I and III. Possible mechanisms and significance of PR10 gene evolution are discussed. PMID:15465700

Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

2004-12-01

47

Antifungal activity of a Pinus monticola antimicrobial peptide 1 (Pm-AMP1) and its accumulation in western white pine infected with Cronartium ribicola.  

PubMed

Pinus monticola antimicrobial peptide 1 (Pm-AMP1) was expressed and purified from bacterial cell lysate and its identity and purity confirmed by Western blot analysis using the Pm-AMP1 antibody. Application of Pm-AMP1 resulted in visible hyphal growth inhibition of Cronartium ribicola , Phellinus sulphurascens , Ophiostoma montium , and Ophiostoma clavigerum 3-12 days post-treatment. Pm-AMP1 also inhibited spore germination of several other phytopathogenic fungi by 32%-84% 5days post-treatment. Microscopic examination of C. ribicola hyphae in contact with Pm-AMP1 showed distinct morphological changes. Seven western white pine ( Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) families (Nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10) showing partial resistance to C.ribicola in the form of bark reaction (BR) were assessed by Western immunoblot for associations between Pm-AMP1 accumulation and family, phenotype, canker number, and virulence of C. ribicola. There was a significant difference (p< 0.001) in mean Pm-AMP1 protein accumulation between families, with higher levels detected in the full-sib BR families (Nos. 1, 2, 5) than the half-sib BR families (Nos. 6, 7). Family 8, previously described as a Mechanism 'X' BR family, had the highest number of BR seedlings and displayed high Pm-AMP1 levels, whereas the susceptible family (No. 10) showed the lowest levels (p< 0.05). Family 1 showed a significant association between Pm-AMP1 accumulation and overall seedling health (p< 0.01, R= 0.533), with higher protein levels observed in healthy versus severely infected seedlings. In general, low Pm-AMP1 levels were observed with an increase in the number of cankers per seedling (p< 0.05), and seedlings inoculated with the avirulent source of C. ribicola showed significantly higher Pm-AMP1 levels (p< 0.05) in the majority of BR families. Cis-acting regulatory elements, such as CCAAT binding factors, and an AG-motif binding protein were identified in the Pm-AMP1 promoter region. Multiple polymorphic sites were identified within the 5' untranslated region and promoter regions. Our results suggest that Pm-AMP1 is involved in the western white pine defense response to fungal infection, as observed by its antifungal activity on C. ribicola and a range of phytopathogens as well as through its association with different indicators of resistance to C.ribicola. PMID:21823970

Zamany, Arezoo; Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul; Sniezko, Richard

2011-08-01

48

A cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide from Pinus monticola (PmAMP1) confers resistance to multiple fungal pathogens in canola (Brassica napus).  

PubMed

Canola (Brassica napus), an agriculturally important oilseed crop, can be significantly affected by diseases such as sclerotinia stem rot, blackleg, and alternaria black spot resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides isolated from plants have emerged as a potential resource for protection of plants against phytopathogens. Here we report the significance of an antimicrobial peptide, PmAMP1, isolated from western white pine (Pinus monticola), in providing canola with resistance against multiple phytopathogenic fungi. The cDNA encoding PmAMP1 was successfully incorporated into the genome of B. napus, and it's in planta expression conferred greater protection against Alternaria brassicae, Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In vitro experiments with proteins extracted from transgenic canola expressing Pm-AMP1 demonstrated its inhibitory activity by reducing growth of fungal hyphae. In addition, the in vitro synthesized peptide also inhibited the growth of the fungi. These results demonstrate that generating transgenic crops expressing PmAMP1 may be an effective and versatile method to protect susceptible crops against multiple phytopathogens. PMID:22351159

Verma, Shiv S; Yajima, William R; Rahman, Muhammad H; Shah, Saleh; Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Kav, Nat N V

2012-05-01

49

Water uptake and oil distribution during imbibition of seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) monitored in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Dry or fully imbibed seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) were studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of the dry seed revealed many of the gross anatomical features of seed structure. Furthermore, the non-invasive nature of MRI allowed for a study of the dynamics of water and oil distribution during in situ imbibition of a single seed with time-lapse chemical shift selective MRI. During soaking of the dry seed, water penetrated through the seed coat and megagametophyte. The cotyledons of the embryo (located in the chalazal end of the seed) were the first to show hydration followed by the hypocotyl and later the radicle. After penetrating the seed coat, water in the micropylar end of the seed likely also contributed to further hydration of the embryo; however, the micropyle itself did not appear to be a site for water entry into the seed. A model that describes the kinetics of the earlier stages of imbibition is proposed. Non-viable pine seeds captured with MRI displayed atypical imbibition kinetics and were distinguished by their rapid and uncontrolled water uptake. The potential of MR microimaging for detailed studies of water uptake and distribution during the soaking, moist chilling ("stratification"), and germination of conifer seeds is discussed. PMID:15605241

Terskikh, Victor V; Feurtado, J Allan; Ren, Chengwei; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kermode, Allison R

2005-04-01

50

Effect of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and rust-resistance breeding on genetic variation in western white pine (Pinus monticola).  

PubMed

Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species from western North America that has declined over the past several decades mainly due to the introduction of blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variation in northern Idaho populations of western white pine (including rust-resistant breeding stock) in relation to blister rust. A total of 176 individuals from four populations was analyzed using 163 AFLP loci. Within populations, an average 31.3% of the loci were polymorphic (P), and expected heterozygosity (H(e)) was 0.123. Genetic differentiation values (G(st)) showed that 9.4% of detected genetic variation was explained by differences among populations. The comparison between the rust-resistant breeding stock and a corresponding sample derived from multiple natural populations produced similar values of P (35% vs. 34.4%) and H(e) (0.134 vs. 0.131). No apparent signs of a genetic bottleneck caused by rust-resistance breeding were found. However, a comparison of two natural populations from local geographic areas showed that the population with low pressure from blister rust had higher polymorphism and heterozygosity than the population that had experienced high mortality due to blister rust: P (30.7% vs. 25.1%) and H(e) (0.125 vs. 0.100), respectively. In addition, the population from low blister-rust pressure had twice as many unique alleles as the blister rust-selected population. The genetic distance and Dice's similarity coefficients among the four populations indicated that the local population that survived high blister-rust pressure was genetically similar to the rust-resistant breeding stock. PMID:12671747

Kim, M-S; Brunsfeld, S J; McDonald, G I; Klopfenstein, N B

2003-04-01

51

Dormancy termination of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. Ex D. Don) seeds is associated with changes in abscisic acid metabolism.  

PubMed

Western white pine (Pinus monticola) seeds exhibit deep dormancy at maturity and seed populations require several months of moist chilling to reach their uppermost germination capacities. Abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), 7'-hydroxy ABA (7'OH ABA) and ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE), were quantified in western white pine seeds during dormancy breakage (moist chilling) and germination using an HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method with multiple reaction monitoring and internal standards incorporating deuterium-labeled analogs. In the seed coat, ABA and metabolite levels were high in dry seeds, but declined precipitously during the pre-moist-chilling water soak to relatively low levels thereafter. In the embryo and megagametophyte, ABA levels decreased significantly during moist chilling, coincident with an increase in the germination capacity of seeds. ABA catabolism occurred via several routes, depending on the stage and the seed tissue. Moist chilling of seeds led to increases in PA and DPA levels in both the embryo and megagametophyte. Within the embryo, 7'OH ABA and ABA-GE also accumulated during moist chilling; however, 7'OH ABA peaked early in germination. Changes in ABA flux, i.e. shifts in the ratio between biosynthesis and catabolism, occurred at three distinct stages during the transition from dormant seed to seedling. During moist chilling, the relative rate of ABA catabolism exceeded ABA biosynthesis. This trend became even more pronounced during germination, and germination was also accompanied by a decrease in the ABA catabolites DPA and PA, presumably as a result of their further metabolism and/or leaching/transport. The transition from germination to post-germinative growth was accompanied by a shift toward ABA biosynthesis. Dormant imbibed seeds, kept in warm moist conditions for 30 days (after an initial 13 days of soaking), maintained high ABA levels, while the amounts of PA, 7'OH ABA, and DPA decreased or remained at steady-state levels. Thus, in the absence of conditions required to break dormancy there were no net changes in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism. PMID:14663585

Feurtado, J Allan; Ambrose, Stephen J; Cutler, Adrian J; Ross, Andrew R S; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kermode, Allison R

2004-02-01

52

Isolation, genetic variation and expression of TIR-NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs from western white pine ( Pinus monticola Dougl. ex. D. Don.).  

PubMed

Western white pine ( Pinus monticola Dougl. ex. D. Don., WWP) shows genetic variation in disease resistance to white pine blister rust ( Cronartium ribicola). Most plant disease resistance (R) genes encode proteins that belong to a superfamily with nucleotide-binding site domains (NBS) and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRR). In this work a PCR strategy was used to clone R gene analogs (RGAs) from WWP using oligonucleotide primers based on the conserved sequence motifs in the NBS domain of angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. Sixty-seven NBS sequences were cloned from disease-resistant trees. BLAST searches in GenBank revealed that they shared significant identity to well-characterized R genes from angiosperms, including L and M genes from flax, the tobacco N gene and the soybean gene LM6. Sequence alignments revealed that the RGAs from WWP contained the conserved motifs identified in angiosperm NBS domains, especially those motifs specific for TIR-NBS-LRR proteins. Phylogenic analysis of plant R genes and RGAs indicated that all cloned WWP RGAs can be grouped into one major branch together with well-known R proteins carrying a TIR domain, suggesting they belong to the subfamily of TIR-NBS-LRR genes. In one phylogenic tree, WWP RGAs were further subdivided into fourteen clusters with an amino acid sequence identity threshold of 75%. cDNA cloning and RT-PCR analysis with gene-specific primers demonstrated that members of 10 of the 14 RGA classes were expressed in foliage tissues, suggesting that a large and diverse NBS-LRR gene family may be functional in conifers. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that conifer RGAs share a common origin with R genes from angiosperms, and some of them may play important roles in defense mechanisms that confer disease resistance in western white pine. Ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (Ka/Ks) in the WWP NBS domains were greater than 1 or close to 1, indicating that diversifying selection and/or neutral selection operate on the NBS domains of the WWP RGA family. PMID:14586641

Liu, J-J; Ekramoddoullah, A K M

2003-12-01

53

Effects of photochemical oxidant injury of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines on susceptibility of sapwood and freshly cut stumps to Fomes annosus. [Pinus ponderosa; Pinus jeffreyi; Fomes annosus; Trichoderma spp. ; Polyporus versicolor; Poria Monticola  

SciTech Connect

Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine sapwood samples and freshly cut stumps from trees with different amounts of oxidant injury were inoculated with Fomes annosus. With stumps, percentage of surface cross-section area infected and extent of vertical colonization were determined 1 mo and 6-10 mo after inoculation, respectively. Increase in surface area infection with increased oxidant injury, expressed as upper-crown needle retention, was statistically significant for ponderosa pine (P=0.01), but was not for Jeffrey pine. Also, the rate of vertical colonization was greater in stumps from severely oxidant-injured trees than in those from slightly injured trees. The relationship between injury and colonization was significant for Jeffrey pine (P = 0.05) and for ponderosa pine at one site (P = 0.03), but nonsignificant (P = 0.18) for ponderosa pine at a second site. Increased susceptibility of stumps to F. annosus appeared to be associated with decreased colonization by other fungi (especially Trichoderma spp. and blue stain fungi). Laboratory tests indicated that decay susceptibility of excised sapwood to F. annosus apparently was not affected by oxidant injury with Jeffrey pine, but weight loss of ponderosa pine sapwood was correlated with decreased injury (greater needle retention). On the other hand, weight losses of Jeffrey pine caused by Polyporus versicolor and of ponderosa pine caused by Poria monticola were correlated with increased injury (increased needle chlorosis). 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

James, R.L.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wilcox, W.W.; Rowney, D.L.

1980-01-01

54

A Class IV Chitinase Is Up-Regulated by Fungal Infection and Abiotic Stresses and Associated with Slow-Canker-Growth Resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Western White Pine (Pinus monticola).  

PubMed

ABSTRACT In the present study, in a candidate gene approach, a class IV chitinase gene (PmCh4A) of pathogenesis-related family three was cloned and characterized in western white pine (Pinus monticola). PmCh4A chitinase expression in the different organs of healthy seedlings was below levels detectable by western immunoblot analysis using an antibody raised against PmCh4A protein. However, a 27-kDa isozyme of PmCh4A accu mulated in both susceptible and slow-canker-growth (SCG) resistant seedlings after infection by Cronartium ribicola. As with fungal infection, the application of a signal chemical (methyl jasmonate) and a protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitor (okadaic acid) increased the PmCh4A protein accumulation. Furthermore, another 26-kDa isozyme was expressed specifically in SCG resistant seedlings, providing a potential tool for marker-assisted selection in forest breeding. Wounding treatment also induced expression of the protein. These data suggest that the class IV chitinase PmCh4A is involved in the defense response of western white pine to infection and abiotic stresses. PMID:18943122

Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Zamani, Arezoo

2005-03-01

55

Common Functional Correlates of Head-Strike Behavior in the Pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia, Dinosauria) and Combative Artiodactyls  

PubMed Central

Background Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans and physical sectioning revealed internal cranial structure of ten artiodactyls and pachycephalosaurs Stegoceras validum and Prenocephale prenes. Finite element analyses (FEA), incorporating bone and keratin tissue types, determined cranial stress and strain from simulated head impacts. Recursive partition analysis quantified strengths of correlation between functional morphology and actual or hypothesized behavior. Strong head-strike correlates include a dome-like cephalic morphology, neurovascular canals exiting onto the cranium surface, large neck muscle attachments, and dense cortical bone above a sparse cancellous layer in line with the force of impact. The head-butting duiker Cephalophus leucogaster is the closest morphological analog to Stegoceras, with a smaller yet similarly rounded dome. Crania of the duiker, pachycephalosaurs, and bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis share stratification of thick cortical and cancellous layers. Stegoceras, Cephalophus, and musk ox crania experience lower stress and higher safety factors for a given impact force than giraffe, pronghorn, or the non-combative llama. Conclusions/Significance Anatomy, biomechanics, and statistical correlation suggest that some pachycephalosaurs were as competent at head-to-head impacts as extant analogs displaying such combat. Large-scale comparisons and recursive partitioning can greatly refine inference of behavioral capability for fossil animals. PMID:21738658

Snively, Eric; Theodor, Jessica M.

2011-01-01

56

Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.  

PubMed

Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa. PMID:23778608

Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

2013-07-01

57

Review of Published Safety Thresholds for Human Divers Exposed to Underwater Sound (Veilige maximale geluidsniveaus voor duikers - beoordeling van publicaties).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High levels of underwater sound can be harmful to human divers, as they can result in hearing damage or damage to other organs, either directly, or indirectly by causing a panic reaction. Published recommendations for the maximum safe underwater sound lev...

M. A. Ainslie

2008-01-01

58

Public health significance of zoonotic bacterial pathogens from bushmeat sold in urban markets of Gabon, Central Africa.  

PubMed

Wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central Africa. Also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. Considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in Central Africa. This cross-sectional survey served to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella in the muscle tissue of 128 wild animal carcasses from several hunted wildlife species (guenons [Cercopithecus spp.], collared mangabeys [Cercocebus torquatus], gray-cheeked mangabeys [Lophocebus albigena], African crested porcupines [Atherurus africanus], duikers [Cephalophus spp.], and red river hogs [Potamocherus porcus]) sold in two markets of Port-Gentil, Gabon, in July and August 2010. Salmonella was detected from one carcass; no Campylobacter or Shigella was detected. If Campylobacter and Shigella were present, the maximum expected prevalence was estimated at 6% and 1%, respectively. In light of such very low apparent muscle contamination levels, bushmeat likely does not represent a health risk per se with respect to Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Shigella. However, because carcass evisceration and skinning can take place within households prior to consumption, consumers should follow strict hygiene and food safety practices to avoid potential health hazards associated with the handling, preparation, or consumption of bushmeat. PMID:22740547

Bachand, Nicholas; Ravel, Andr; Onanga, Richard; Arsenault, Julie; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

2012-07-01

59

Genetically engineered Mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.  

PubMed

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Audubon Park Zoo and Miami Metro Zoo, (Miami, Florida, USA) from December 1996 to June 1997. Several species of animals were vaccinated with vMC0, which is serologically indistinguishable from the field strain of EMCV. Serum samples were taken at the time of vaccination and again 21 days later, then submitted for serum neutralization titers against EMCV. The vaccinate species included red capped mangebey (Cercocebus torquatus), colobus (Colobus guereza), angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis), ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus ruber and Lemur variegatus variegatus), back lemur (Lemur macaco), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), diana guenon (Cercopithicus diana), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin), Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), guanaco (Lama glama guanicoe), black duiker (Cephalophus niger), Vietnamese potbellied pig (Sus scrofa), babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), collard peccary (Tayass tajacu), and African crested porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis). The vaccine response was variable, with high virus neutralizing antibody titer responses in some primate species and mixed to poor responses for other species. No ill effects were seen with vaccination. PMID:10231768

Backues, K A; Hill, M; Palmenberg, A C; Miller, C; Soike, K F; Aguilar, R

1999-04-01

60

Loss of mating opportunities influences refuge use in the Iberian rock lizard, Lacerta monticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because time spent in refuge may be costly if prey lose opportunities to forage, fight, or mate, prey allow predators to approach closer before beginning to flee when opportunity costs are high. Because the same opportunity costs may apply to refuge use as to escape, prey should make similar trade-offs between risk of emerging and cost of remaining in refuge.

J. Martn; P. Lpez; W. E. Cooper Jr

2003-01-01

61

Full length article Endophyte-mediated resistance against white pine blister rust in Pinus monticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced resistance responses, including fungal endophyte-mediated resistance, have been well studied in both agricultural crops and grass systems. Yet, the effect of these processes and symbionts in forest trees is poorly known. Fungal endophytes have been found in all conifer forest systems examined to date and have been hypothesised to be involved in resistance-mediated responses. However, in the absence of

Rebecca J. Ganley; Richard A. Sniezko; George Newcombe

62

Seasonal variation of western white pine (Pinus monticola D. Don) foliage proteins.  

PubMed

Recently, a western white pine protein, Pin m III, was shown to be associated with overwintering and frost hardiness of western white pine foliage. To examine whether Pin m III is directly involved in frost hardiness by functioning as an antifreeze protein, work is underway to clone the gene encoding this protein and to assess the function of this gene in freezing tolerance by incorporating the gene in a test plant, such as tobacco. Here, we examined in more detail, by SDS-PAGE and also by two dimensional gel electrophoresis, the seasonal variation of additional proteins in western pine foliage. SDS-PAGE analysis of three seedlots showed that different proteins reached a maximum level in different months, although most proteins (5 to 11) reached a maximum level in winter months (December, January and February). The 2-D gel analysis of foliage sampled on three harvest dates (October, January and April) of one seedlot revealed a seasonal variation of a large number proteins (76 to 184). Of the seasonally varied proteins, the amino terminal sequence of several proteins including Pin m III was determined. One of the sequences was identified by homology to that of the small subunit of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase, whose level increased substantially from fall to spring. The amino terminal sequence of Pin m III had 89% homology to a sugar pine protein, Pin l I. The anti-photosystem II antibody was used to monitor the annual variation of the extrinsic 23-kDa photosystem II protein. The level of the extrinsic 23-kDa photosystem II protein decreased slowly as fall progressed and reached its lowest level in December and then increased in early spring indicating that this variation is due to photosynthetic activity of the foliage during the season. PMID:8665095

Ekramoddoullah, A K; Taylor, D W

1996-03-01

63

Field Resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Full-Sib Families of Pinus monticola in Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field sites were established between 1968 and 1974 using canker-free western white pine seedlings from full-sib fami- lies previously inoculated with white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) at Dorena Genetic Resource Center. Many individuals planted on these sites had been identified as the resistant seg- regants for a major gene for resistance (Cr2). However, a strain of rust with

Richard A. Sniezko; Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.; Andrew D. Bower; Robert S. Danchok; Joseph M. Linn; Angelia J. Kegley

64

Cloning and Characterization of a Putative Antifungal Peptide Gene (Pm-AMP1) in Pinus monticola.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT We have been working on proteins that are involved in the defense response of western white pine (WWP) (Pinus monitcola) to the blister rust fungus Cronartium ribicola. Our objective was to identify candidate genes that could be used for improving resistance of WWP to this rust pathogen. During proteomic analysis of bark proteins extracted from WWP trees exhibiting slow-canker-growth (SCG) resistance, a 10.6-kDa peptide, termed Pm-AMP1, was found to be enriched at the receding canker margin. The cDNA encoding this peptide was cloned and characterized. A BLASTX search revealed that the Pm-AMP1 encoded by its cDNA has a 50% homology with MiAMP1, a broad-spectrum antifungal protein isolated from Macadamia integrifolia. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, an antibody was produced against the Pm-AMP1. Immunochemical quantification of the Pm-AMP1 in bark samples of susceptible WWP trees revealed this protein to be barely detectable in the cankered tissues, but occurring in higher concentrations in healthy tissues away from canker margins. Foliage of SCG-resistant trees contained higher concentrations of the Pm-AMP1 than foliage from susceptible cankered trees. Both wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment of WWP needles induced the expression of this protein, further supporting its putative role as a defense response protein. PMID:18943919

Ekramoddoullah, A K M; Liu, J-J; Zamani, A

2006-02-01

65

Endophyte-mediated resistance against white pine blister rust in Pinus monticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced resistance responses, including fungal endophyte-mediated resistance, have been well studied in both agricultural crops and grass systems. Yet, the effect of these processes and symbionts in forest trees is poorly known. Fungal endophytes have been found in all conifer forest systems examined to date and have been hypothesised to be involved in resistance-mediated responses. However, in the absence of

Rebecca J. Ganley; Richard A. Sniezko; George Newcombe

2008-01-01

66

Micropropagation of western white pine ( Pinus monticola ) starting with mature embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program to develop micropropagation protocols for western white pine, the production of adventitious shoots from mature embryos was investigated. Litvay's medium proved to be the best of the six media formulations tried. The optimum concentration of N6-benzyladenine was 30 M for 21 days. BiTek agar which had an optimum at 8 g\\/L produced significantly more shoots

Martin S. Lapp; Jana Malinek; Maxine Coffey

1995-01-01

67

Micropropagation of western white pine (Pinus monticola) starting with mature embryos.  

PubMed

As part of a program to develop micropropagation protocols for western white pine, the production of adventitious shoots from mature embryos was investigated. Litvay's medium proved to be the best of the six media formulations tried. The optimum concentration of N6-benzyladenine was 30 ?M for 21 days. BiTek agar which had an optimum at 8 g/L produced significantly more shoots than GelGro gellan gum which had an optimum at 5 g/L. There was no significant difference in the shoot production between three different seed lots, two from interior British Columbia and one from coastal British Columbia, with this protocol. Harvested adventitious shoots survived best on the medium of Gresshoff and Doy at half-strength. Using the protocol described here, it was possible to obtain 500 to 600 shoots for every 100 embryos explanted. Up to 80 percent of the shoots continued to grow three months after excision from the explants. PMID:24185788

Lapp, M S; Malinek, J; Coffey, M

1995-12-01

68

Consensus Document on the Biology of Western White Pine (Pinus monticola DOUGL. ex D. Don)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental safety\\/risks of transgenic organisms are normally based on the information on the characteristics of the host organism, the introduced traits, the environment into which the organism is introduced, the interaction between these, and the intended application. The OECD?s Working Group on Harmonisation of Regulatory Oversight in Biotechnology decided at its first session, in June 1995, to focus its

2006-01-01

69

Western white pine ( Pinus monticola Dougl.) reproduction: II. Fertilisation and cytoplasmic inheritance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilisation and proembryo development are described from transmission electron micrographs emphasising the origin and fate\\u000a of the maternal and paternal mitochondria and plastids. During central cell and egg development mitochondria migrate toward\\u000a the nuclei, forming a perinuclear zone consisting predominantly of maternal mitochondria and polysomes. At the same time,\\u000a maternal plastids transformed and at fertilisation are excluded from the neocytoplasm.

Darla Bruns; John N. Owens

2000-01-01

70

Chem. & Chem. Technol. 2009, 3, 173-178. Witold Brostow 1  

E-print Network

temperature of ignition, and the cleanness of burning. Pinus monticola, Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra. Pinus monticola, Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, Diospyrus spp., Tabebuia spp. and Guaiacum spp. were

North Texas, University of

71

Leader and bark characteristics in different growth categories of white pine ( Pinus strobus L. and Pinus monticola Dougl.) in Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimensional and chemical aspects of leaders and bark were investigated in tall (4075 ft) eastern white pines (Pinus strobus) and in smaller (1225 ft) trees growing in the open and in shade. Leaders from young open grown trees were longer, of greater\\u000a diameter, and had thicker bark than leaders from tall white pines and from young shaded white pines. Tall

Dan M. Harman; Melvin L. Brown

1974-01-01

72

A Publication to Help Farmers Understand the Effects of  

E-print Network

A Publication to Help Farmers Understand the Effects of No-Till Systems on the Soil. BETTER SOILS WITH THE NO-TILL SYSTEM by Sjoerd W. Duiker & Joel C. Myersby Sjoerd W. Duiker & Joel C. Myers A Publication to Help Farmers Understand the Effects of No-Till Systems on the Soil. BETTER SOILS WITH THE NO-TILL

Kaye, Jason P.

73

Carbon and water relations of Salix monticola in response to winter browsing and changes in surface water hydrology: an isotopic study using ? 13 C and ? 18 O  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ascertain whether browsing or hydrologic conditions influence the physiological performance of Salix and whether Salix and graminoids (Carex) use and possibly compete for similar water resources, we quantified the in situ seasonal patterns of plant water and carbon\\u000a relations over three growing seasons. Our studies were designed to address the physiological factors which may be responsible\\u000a for poor woody

K. P. Alstad; J. M. Welker; S. A. Williams; M. J. Trlica

1999-01-01

74

Gene cloning of a thaumatin-like (PR5) protein of western white pine ( Pinus monticola D. Don) and expression studies of members of the PR5 group  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the molecular defence response of western white pine to the blister rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola, we have endeavoured to isolate and characterise pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins from western white pine. A full-length cDNA (Pin mTLP) was isolated from a cDNA library constructed from inoculated foliage. BLASTX search results indicated that the sequence shared a high degree of identity with

Nina Piggott; Abul K. M Ekramoddoullah; Jun-Jun Liu; Xueshu Yu

2004-01-01

75

The CC-NBS-LRR Subfamily in Pinus monticola: Targeted Identification, Gene Expression, and Genetic Linkage with Resistance to Cronartium ribicola.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate disease resistance gene analogs (RGAs) encoding coiled-coil-nucelotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeats (CC-NBS-LRR) proteins in western white pine, degenerate primers targeting the conserved motifs in the NBS domain were designed to amplify RGAs from genomic DNA and cDNA. Sixty-one distinct RGAs were identified with identities to well-known R proteins of the CC-NBS-LRR subfamily. These RGAs exhibited variation of putative amino acid sequences from 13% to 98%, representing a complex CC-NBS-LRR subfamily. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the amino acid sequence alignment revealed that these 61 RGAs were grouped with other CC-NBS-LRR members from angiosperms, and could be further divided into six classes with an identity threshold of 68%. To map RGAs, RGA polymorphisms and a modified amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method with incorporated sequences from the NBS domain were used to reveal NBS or NBS-AFLP markers. RGA polymorphism study revealed that three off the identified RGAs were not linked to the Cr2 gene imparting resistance to white pine blister rust. However, the AFLP strategy, using bulk segregant analysis (BSA) and haploid segregation analysis, identified 11 NBS-AFLP markers localized in the Cr2 linkage, the closest two to the gene being 0.41 cM and 1.22 cM away at either side. Eight of these markers showed significant amino acid sequence homologies with RGAs. PMID:18943604

Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

2007-06-01

76

Chapter 3 19 Pine Species of California Smith Table 3-36--Average monoterpene composition of the trees in three stands of P. monticola in  

E-print Network

---------------------------- Nonane 1.6 1.1 1.5 -Pinene 71.1 82.5 53.0 Undecane 2.0 3.0 5.6 �-Pinene 14.1 9.1 21.7 3-Carene 3.1 0 7 --------------------------- -Pinene 0 - 44 45 - 62 63 - 100 �-Pinene 0 - 10 11 - 20 21 - 100 3-Carene 0 - 10 11 - 30 31 - 100

Standiford, Richard B.

77

Genomic organization, induced expression and promoter activity of a resistance gene analog ( PmTNL1 ) in western white pine ( Pinus monticola )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cronartium ribicola causes white pine blister rust (WPBR) in subgenus Strobus. Various genetic and molecular approaches were used to detect white pine genes contributing to host resistance. The molecular\\u000a role of the NBS-LRR family is highly related to plant immuno-activity against various pathogens and pests. In the present\\u000a study, genomic organization of a resistance gene analog (RGA), designated as PmTNL1,

Jun-Jun LiuAbul; Abul K. M. Ekramoddoullah

2011-01-01

78

Biochemical Systematlcsand Ecology,Vol. 18,No. 4, pp. 267-280, 1990. 0305-1978/90 $3.00+ 0.00 Printed in GreatBritain. 1990PergamonPressplc.  

E-print Network

TsugamertensJana Abies amabifis Pinus monticola Abies procera Piceasitchensis II. Mountain hemlock Tusgamertensiana Pinusalblcaulis Pinus monticola Abies lasiocarpa Abies grandis Picea engelmannii Piceabreweriana heterophylla), the shore pine race (mainly on Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) and the mountain hemlock race

Nickrent, Daniel L.

79

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 Molecular and Genetic Basis for Partial Resistance  

E-print Network

Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is an important forest species in North America in P. monticola populations. In contrast to the Cr2-mediated major gene resistance that occurs on pine

Standiford, Richard B.

80

CONGRUENT CLIMATE-RELATED GENECOLOGICAL RESPONSES FROM MOLECULAR MARKERS AND QUANTITATIVE TRAITS FOR WESTERN WHITE PINE  

E-print Network

FOR WESTERN WHITE PINE (PINUS MONTICOLA) Bryce A. Richardson,1, * Gerald E. Rehfeldt,y and Mee-Sook Kimz *USDA the existence of congruent climate-related patterns in western white pine (Pinus monticola). Two independent

81

Regeneration patterns in old-growth red firwestern white pine forests in the northern Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe, USA  

E-print Network

fir­western white pine (Pinus monticola) forest in the northern Sierra Nevada. We used detailed stem-growth red fir forests. # 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Abies magnifica; Pinus monticola

Taylor, Alan

82

This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-print Network

(Pinus monticola) forest in the northern Sierra Nevada. We used detailed stem mapping, stand structural-growth red fir forests. # 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Abies magnifica; Pinus monticola

Taylor, Alan

83

28 USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-32. 2004 In: Sniezko, Richard A.; Samman, Safiya; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Kriebel,  

E-print Network

species--western white pine (Pinus monticola) (WWP) and sugar pine (P. lambertiana) (SP). The USDA Forest in populations of western white pine (WP) (Pinus monticola Douglas ex. D. Don.) in the northern Rocky Mountains

84

Phytologia (August 2012) 94(2) 253 MULTIVARIATE DETECTION OF HYBRIDIZATION  

E-print Network

in clones, F1 hybrids and S1 progeny of Pinus monticola. He found the inheritance of each terpene (except/17 intermediate, 6/17 transgressive). Hanover (1971) expanded his study on P. monticola and concluded that : 1

Adams, Robert P.

85

Western white pine growth relative to forest Theresa B. Jain, Russell T. Graham, and Penelope Morgan  

E-print Network

, and an introduced stem disease have contributed to the decline in western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D maladie du tronc introduite ont contribué à diminuer l'abondance du pin blanc de l'Ouest (Pinus monticola) have all contributed to the decline in western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) abundance

Fried, Jeremy S.

86

148 USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-32. 2004 In: Sniezko, Richard A.; Samman, Safiya; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Kriebel,  

E-print Network

and Nonresistant Pinus monticola Kwan-Soo Woo Lauren Fins Geral I. McDonald programs and/or for quantifying levels: Epistomatal wax, Pinus monticola Dougl., wettability, stomatal occlusion, blister rust, needle morphology, rust resistance Introduction ____________________ Routine tests of western white pine (Pinus monticola

87

Phytologia (April 2010) 92(1) 105 JUNIPERUS ZANONII, A NEW SPECIES FROM CERRO  

E-print Network

that the shrubby alpine juniper from Cerro Potosi is not allied with J. monticola f. compacta from Ixtaccihuatl Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) with samples of J. monticola f. compacta from the near the type locality confirmed that the Cerro Potosi alpine-subalpine juniper is not related to either J. monticola f

Adams, Robert P.

88

Steps Toward a Successful Transition to  

E-print Network

Steps Toward a Successful Transition to No-Till Sjoerd W. Duiker Soil Management Specialist, Penn, the Pennsylvania State Conservation Commission. #12;The no-till revolution .................................................................................. 3 Planning the transition to no-till

Kaye, Jason P.

89

Forested Communities of the Upper Montane in the Central and Southern  

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), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), western white pine (Pinus monticola magnifica), white fir (Abies concolor), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), Jeffrey pine (Pinus Jeffreyii

Standiford, Richard B.

90

150 / Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions MPMI Vol. 19, No. 2, 2006, pp. 150160. DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-19-0150. 2006 The American Phytopathological Society  

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(Kinloch and Dupper 2002; Patton 1972). Resistant individuals of Pinus lambertiana, Pinus monticola2, respectively) in western species (Pinus lambertiana and Pinus monticola) and employed in both Blister Rust-Resistant and Susceptible Pinus strobus Seedlings Reveals UpRegulation of Putative Disease

Blanchette, Robert A.

91

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 Are Needle Reactions in Resistance to  

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and the disease is currently present in native populations of each species, except Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey for operational resistance breeding programs for P. monticola Douglas ex D. Don and P. lambertiana Douglas1, Cr2, and Cr3 in P. lambertiana, P. monticola, and P. strobiformis Engelm., respectively (Kinloch

Standiford, Richard B.

92

BiochemicalSystematicsandEcology,Vol. 19,No. 4, pp. 305-313, 1991. 0305-1978/91 $3.00+0.00 Printed in GreatBritain. PergamonPressplc.  

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in GreatBritain. PergamonPressplc. Genetic Relationships in Arceuthobium monticola and A. siskiyouense, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, U.S.A. Key Word Index--Arceuthobium siskiyouense; A. monticola and southwestern Oregon were determined. The principal host of A. siskiyouense is Pinus attenuata (knobcone pine

Nickrent, Daniel L.

93

Silvicultural management of white pines in western North America  

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(Pinus monticola) and sugar pine (P. lambertiana) are highly valued timber species, their silviculture monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.C. Fisch. in Rabh., causal agent of white pine blister rust, populations of western white pine (Pinus

94

Phytologia (August 2012) 94(2)174 ANALYSIS OF PUTATIVE HYBRIDS OF HESPEROCYPARIS  

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in clones, F1 hybrids and S1 progeny of Pinus monticola. He found the inheritance of each terpene (except) expanded his study on P. monticola and concluded that : 1. Monoterpenes were under strong, predictable genes. Squillace (1971) examined inheritance of monoterpenes in oleoresin of Pinus elliotii

Adams, Robert P.

95

.I.ENTOMOL.SOC.BRIT COLUMBIA~~,DECEMBER~OOO 41 Comparison of a-pinene and myrcene on attraction of  

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beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in a stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Doug]. Traps, kairomones, Pinus monticola, Trypodendron lineatum, Cleridae, Thanasimus undatulus INTRODUCTION The mountain lodgepole, Pinus contorta var. latijblia Engehn., ponderosa, P. ponderosa P. Laws. and western white pines

Lindgren, Staffan

96

Original article Preliminary study of the monoterpene response  

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ponderosa / Pinus monticola / Ophiostoma clavige- rum / chemical elicitors / defense reaction / gas of phloem and sapwood of individual pines belonging to 3 species (Pinus contorta, Pinus ponderosa and Pinus monticola) to inoculation with Ophiostoma cla- vigerum and injection with chitosan, a proteinase inhibitor

Boyer, Edmond

97

A Comparison of Early Field Results of White Pine Blister Rust Resistance in Sugar Pine and Western White Pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. white pine blister rust, Cronartiunz ribicola, western white pine, Pinus monticola, sugar pine, Pinus lambertiana, resistance, bark reaction SUMMARY. Seedlings from 12 sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and 13 western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) families were planted at Happy Camp, Calif., in 1996. Assessment in Summer 1999 indicated moderate levels of white pine blister rust (Cvonartium

Richard A. Sniezko; Andrew Bower; Jude Danielson

98

272 USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. The content of this paper reflects the views of the author(s), who are  

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of the author(s), who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the information presented herein. Abstract--Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don.) maintains a com- plex defence system that detects white pine blister rust with durable disease resistance. Our research focuses on molecular dis- section of P. monticola major gene (Cr2

99

chapter thirty Restoring dry and moist forests ofthe  

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agents. In the northern Rocky Mountain moist forests, early-seral Pinus monticola has nearly been forests (Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii), and an estimated 18% was covered by moist forests (Pinus monticola, Tsuga heterophylla). Frequent surface fires burned over 75% of the area of dry forests; today

Fried, Jeremy S.

100

Molecular Characterization of Theileria Species Associated with Mortality in Four Species of African Antelopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogen DNA was isolated from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in South Africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. We developed Theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of Theileria in four African antelope

A. M. Nijhof; V. Pillay; J. Steyl; L. Prozesky; W. H. Stoltsz; J. A. Lawrence; B. L. Penzhorn; F. Jongejan

2005-01-01

101

Habituation, ecotourism and research for conservation of western gorillas in Central African Republic Bai Hokou  

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1 Habituation, ecotourism and research for conservation of western gorillas in Central African The south-western region of the Central African Republic reminds one of a paradisiacal habitat, harbouring an exceptional faunal diversity: there are forest elephants, forest buffaloes, sitatungas, bongos, several duiker

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

Myostatin rapid sequence evolution in ruminants predates domestication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex),

sa Tellgren; Ann-Charlotte Berglund; Peter Savolainen; Christine M. Janis; David A. Liberles

2004-01-01

103

Cronartium ribicola Resistance in Whitebark Pine, Southwestern White Pine,  

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white pine (Pinus monticola), sugar pine (P. lambertiana), and eastern white pine (P. strobus). However species such as southwestern white pine (P. strobiformis, SWWP), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis, WBP

104

Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives  

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. Protection performance of these treating solutions on native wood was also determined by soil-block and agar-block test methods. Weight loss by Lentinus lepideus and Poria monticola fungi and toxic threshold retention point for each treatment solution...

Gezer, Engin Derya

2012-06-07

105

246 USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. Abstract--All nine species of white pines native to the U.S. or  

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high elevation white pine species, the severe infection and mortality levels of Pinus albicaulis have. Further examination of the many P. monticola field trials, some more than 30 years old, will help pro

106

P u b l i s h i n g Address manuscripts and editorial enquiries to  

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, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murrayana), red fir, and western white pine (Pinus monticola) trees@nature.berkeley.edu Abstract. Fire history and forest structural characteristics of adjacent Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi

Stephens, Scott L.

107

PERISSOMYRMEX SNYDERI (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) IS NATIVE TO CENTRAL AMERICA  

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and Andrade (1993) described a sec- ond species, P. monticola, based on two workers and a queen from 2800m, with Pinus and Liquidambar in the vicinity but not at this particular site. The workers were extracted from

Villemant, Claire

108

BEAVERHABITATUSEANDIMPACTINTRUCKEERIVERBASIN, PAULBEIER,Departmentof ForestryandResourceManagement,Universityof California,Berkeley,CA94720  

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with an overstory of white fir(Abies concolor); Jeffrey (Pinus jeffreyi), ponderosa (P. ponderosa), Washoe (P by Shasta red fir (Abies mag- nifica), western white pine (P. monticola), and lodgepole pine

Beier, Paul

109

Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry  

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. Hill3 Introduction Western white pine (WWP) (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is a long-lived forest 281 Frequency of Hypersensitive-Like Reaction and Stem Infections in a Large Full-Sib Family of Pinus monticola Robert S. Danchok,1 R.A. Sniezko,1 S. Long,1 A. Kegley,1 D. Savin,1 J.B. Mayo,1 J.J. Liu,2 and J

Standiford, Richard B.

110

Intergeneric pollen megagametophyte relationships of conifers in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germinating pollen from larch (Larix occidentalis), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and white pine (Pinus monticola) were co-cultured with megagametophytes dissected from cones of other genera (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Larixeurolepis and Pinus monticola). Pollen was presented to megagametophytes possessing archegonia which were either alive, degenerating or dead. In addition,\\u000a pollen was presented to fertilized megagametophytes and to megagametophytes that had been cut

N. Dumont-BBoux; M. Weber; Y. Ma; P. von Aderkas

1998-01-01

111

A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine  

PubMed Central

The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George

2004-01-01

112

A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

Ganley, Rebecca J; Brunsfeld, Steven J; Newcombe, George

2004-07-01

113

USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. 147 The eight white pine species native to the western United  

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tree seed collections of Pinus albicaulis, P. aristata, P. balfou- riana, P. flexilis, P. longaeva Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don and P. lam- bertiana Dougl. throughout significant portions of their geographic ranges. More recently, programs have been initi- ated for the other six species: P. albicaulis

114

C'SOUTHWEST FOREST SERVICE  

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of the sprayed trees was apparently reduced. Oxford: 145.7x19.66 Dendroctonus ponderosae: 147.7 Pinus contorta (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) to western white pines (Pinus monticola Dougl.) sprayed with lindane. Knopf ineffective against western pine beetle ( D. brevicomis Lec.) by Vit6 and Pitman"; but they gave

Standiford, Richard B.

115

vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA  

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Sisón 35 2 Troglodytes troglodytes Chochín 17 Turdus merula Mirlo Común 88 Tyto alba Lechuza Común 47 3 Monticola solitarius Roquero Solitario 64 3 Motacilla alba Lavandera Blanca 11 Motacilla flava Lavandera

Carrascal, Luis M.

116

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 White Pine Blister Rust Resistance in Pinus  

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GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 262 White Pine Blister Rust Resistance in Pinus monticola to white pine blister rust, caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, and both have suffered, Schwandt et al. 2010). The high susceptibility of these two species to blister rust has limited their use

Standiford, Richard B.

117

Mediterranean Climate Effects. II. Conifer Growth Phenology across a Sierra Nevada Ecotone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and xylem water potential of the lower elevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi and Abies concolor and the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnificawere monitored in their montane Mediterranean habitat of the southernmost Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Measurements were made across the ecotone between the midmontane and upper montane forests and through light and heavy snowfall years. Radial stem

E. B. Royce; M. G. Barbour

2001-01-01

118

( i .-, '); /L( f;-!.. or '}  

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' s for treating western white pines (Pinus monticola Dougl. ) infected with blister rust. 3 In 1959 the Pacific chemical method for controlling blister rust (Cronartium rib i col a Fischer) on sugar pine (Pinus pine (Pinus strobus L. ) proposed by Mar- tin and Gravatt1 is applicable to high-value horticultural

Standiford, Richard B.

119

Dendroecological Reconstruction of Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in the Chilcotin Plateau of British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is an aggressive bark beetle that periodically increases to outbreak levels killing thousands of trees. It is considered one of the major natural disturbance agents in North America. In British Columbia, the main host species is lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.), but western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.), ponderosa

Ren I. Alfaro; Rochelle Campbell; Paula Vera; Brad Hawkes; Terry L. Shore

120

USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. 265 Preliminary Overview of the First Extensive Rust  

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Rust Resistance Screening Tests of Pinus flexilis and Pinus aristata Anna W. Schoettle, USDA Forest, CO ExtendedAbstract Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P white pine (P. monticola Douglas ex D. Don) and sugar pine (P. lambertiana Douglas). However, Kinloch

121

USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. 151 The content of this paper reflects the views of the author(s), who are  

E-print Network

-resistance screening activities in western white (Pinus monticola), sugar (Pinus lambertiana), and eastern white (Pinus, Cronartium ribicola. There has also been some effort in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) disease-resistance work, but to a lesser degree. Recently the FS has been actively

122

Figure 1--Location and topography of theTeakettle Experimental Forest  

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mixed conifer, but white fir, Jeffrey pine, western white pine (Pinus monticola), and lodgepole pine pine (Pinus lambertiana), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), and black oak (Pinus contorta) may also be present (Barbour and Woodward 1985). Fresno Forest Boundary Roads Streams

Standiford, Richard B.

123

The Holocene 10,4 (2000) pp. 587601 Postglacial vegetation and fire history,  

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parkland with scattered Pinus and Abies. After 13 100 cal. BP a relatively closed forest of P. monticola, P and wetter than present. Pinus and Quercus vaccinifolia dominated at both sites during the early Holocene. at both sites and Tsuga mertensi- ana at Crater Lake increased in importance, displacing Pinus and Quercus

Whitlock, Cathy L.

124

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

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white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) as well as ecologically important pines such as whitebark's personal copy Aerially applied verbenone-releasing laminated flakes protect Pinus contorta stands from of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon, throughout its range in western North America (Furniss

Erbilgin, Nadir

125

DWARF MISTLETOE CONTROL ON THE ROGUE RIVER NATIONAL FOREST IN ORE GO^^  

E-print Network

~nificiavx. shastensis], ponderosa pine part of the Siskiyou Mountains. The center ponderosa), sugar pine (Pinus of the Forest is about 100 miles inland lambertiana), western white pine (Pinus from the Pacific Ocean, so the climate is monticola), and some western hemlock essentially warm and moist in the winter, (Tsuga

Standiford, Richard B.

126

First year field growth of chemically root pruned containerized seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Containers deform seedling root systems and have a potential to inhibit tree growth after outplanting. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. var. ponderosa), western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) were grown in containers coated with latex paint containing different concentrations of cupric carbonate and outplanted in a forest.

D. L. Wenny; Y. Liu; R. K. Dumroese; H. L. Osborne

1988-01-01

127

Potential resistance mechanisms in Pinus strobus to infection by Cronartium Jason A. Smitha, Todd A. Burnesa, Joel A. Jurgensa, Andrew J. Davidb, and Robert A.  

E-print Network

Strobus of Pinus, including P. monticola and P. lambertiana (2,3). Major-gene resistance in these speciesPotential resistance mechanisms in Pinus strobus to infection by Cronartium ribicola Jason A Abstract Although putative blister rust-resistant Pinus strobus were selected nearly 40 years ago

Blanchette, Robert A.

128

Oecologia (2003) 137:1021 DOI 10.1007/s00442-003-1316-2  

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radius), such as Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, and Tsuga heterophylla. This pattern was not observed autotrophic respi- ration of forests has been reported to range from 12% (sub-alpine Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, Ryan and Waring 1992 and Australian Pinus radiata D. Don, Ryan et al. 1996) to 42% (temperate

Lachenbruch, Barbara

129

REJUVENATION RESEARCH Volume 9, Number 1, 2006  

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: "long-lived trees"); the Western white pine, Pinus monticola, and the red pine, Pinus resinosa (400 and Telomerase Activity in Tree Species of Various Lifespans, and with Age in the Bristlecone Pine Pinus longaeva is present. The bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva, is the oldest known living eukaryotic organism

Kletetschka, Gunther

130

USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. 273 Abstract--Infection and mortality levels from Cronartium ribicola,  

E-print Network

range of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and P. strobiformis (Southwestern white pine). Genetic of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and Implications for Restoration R. A. Sniezko, USDA Forest, Region 3, Albuquerque, NM Abstract strobiformis families. Compared to P. monticola and P. lambertiana

131

126 IUFRO Conference on Forest Landscape Restoration-Seoul, Korea May 14-1, 2007 chanGes in ForesT soils as The resUlT oF eXoTic diseases,  

E-print Network

-seral western white pine (Pinus monticola) (Daubenmire and Daubenmire 1968). Five key disturbances, or the lack complexes, native disturbances, and climate (Daubenmire and Daubenmire 1968, Hann et al. 1997).Dryforests,oftendominatedbypines(Pinus), an early-seral species, can be succeeded by late-seral ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in some locales

Fried, Jeremy S.

132

Forecast Technical Document Tree Species  

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koreana Pine 4 14 SP PMO Western white pine Pinus monticola Pine 4 14 LP PTA Loblolly pine Pinus taeda pine Pinus nigra var nigra Pine 6 20 CP BIP Bishop pine Pinus muricata Pine 6 20 LP CP Corsican pine Pinus nigra var maritima Pine 6 20 CP LP Lodgepole pine Pinus contorta Pine 4 14 LP MAP Maritime pine

133

Multiple Nuclear Loci Reveal the Distinctiveness of the Threatened, Neotropical Pinus chiapensis  

E-print Network

and its three most probable progenitors (P. ayacahuite, P. monticola, and P. strobus). Pinus chiapensisMultiple Nuclear Loci Reveal the Distinctiveness of the Threatened, Neotropical Pinus chiapensis for correspondence (jsyring@msubillings.edu) Communicating Editor: Thomas A. Ranker ABSTRACT. Pinus chiapensis

Syring, John

134

New hosts and differential susceptibility of five-needle pine species to Dooks needle blight (Lophophacidium dooksii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of Dooks needle blight (Lophophacidium dooksii) in a five-needle pine genetic archive containing nine five-needle pine species and their interspecific hybrids provided an opportunity to observe the differential susceptibility of these pine species to the disease. Survey results indicated that four of the nine species in the archive were susceptible, including new hosts western white pine (Pinus monticola)

John A. McLaughlin; Pengxin Lu; Sylvia Greifenhagen; Richard Wilson

2012-01-01

135

Draft Umatilla/Willow Subbasin Plan May 28, 2004 Appendix D: Focal Habitat Descriptions D-1  

E-print Network

conifers include western larch (Larix occidentalis) and western white pine (Pinus monticola) on mesic sites pine (Pinus ponderosa) as a co- dominant with Douglas-fir in the overstory and often have other shade, Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa

136

The serrate leaf margined Juniperus (Section Sabina) of the western hemisphere: systematics and evolution based on leaf essential oils and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A

Robert P. Adams

2000-01-01

137

Growth and Metal Accumulation of Geyer and Mountain Willow Grown in Topsoil versus Amended Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Willows (Salix spp.) are an integral component in the restoration of wetland plant communities that have been impacted by the fluvial deposition\\u000a of mine tailings. A greenhouse study was conducted to compare growth and metal uptake of Geyer (S. geyeriana) and mountain (S. monticola) willow grown in topsoil versus lime and biosolids amended mine tailings. Biomass, leader length, and tissue

M. J. Boyter; J. E. Brummer; W. C. Leininger

2009-01-01

138

Establishment and Growth of Two Willow Species in a Riparian Zone Impacted by Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fi eld study was initiated to determine survival, growth characteristics, and metal uptake of two montane riparian willow species, Geyer (Salix geyeriana Andersson) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow, grown in amended fl uvial mine tailing deposits. Revegetation was done with staked and previously rooted cuttings to determine if planting method had an eff ect on successful establishment of

Melody M. Bourret; Joe E. Brummer; Wayne C. Leininger

2009-01-01

139

Annotated Bibliography: Ribes Ecology and Pathology Prepared by Brian W. Geils on Thursday, December 27, 2001  

E-print Network

of infection on Pinus monticola by Cronartium ribicola from Ribes lacustre and R. viscosissimum. Journal of the prickly currant (Ribes lacustre) and the of the sticky currant (R. viscosissimum) to spread damaging whiteAnnotated Bibliography: Ribes Ecology and Pathology Prepared by Brian W. Geils on Thursday

140

Dr Anna Brown, Forest Research Dothistroma needle blight  

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. kesiya, P. lambertiana, P. massoniana, P. monticola, P. mugo subsp. Mugo, P. muricata, P. occidentalis, P;17-11-2011 And seven non- Pinus species...... ·Larix decidua ·Picea abies ·Picea omorika ·Picea pungens ·Picea

141

Project Goals List Student Government Association  

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. Thomas Casto Director of Transportation tccasto@mix.wvu.edu Archive Student Organization History Goal their history and archive photos and documents in replacement of the Monticola. Kristy Ross Historian khross Football Invitations Goal: Invite the SGA President of each respective away Big XII football team to attend

Mohaghegh, Shahab

142

Molecular characterization of Theileria species associated with mortality in four species of African antelopes.  

PubMed

Pathogen DNA was isolated from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in South Africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. We developed Theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of Theileria in four African antelope species. The close phylogenetic relationship between members of the genera Theileria and Cytauxzoon, similarities in the morphologies of developmental stages, and confusion in the literature regarding theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis are discussed. PMID:16333074

Nijhof, A M; Pillay, V; Steyl, J; Prozesky, L; Stoltsz, W H; Lawrence, J A; Penzhorn, B L; Jongejan, F

2005-12-01

143

Molecular Characterization of Theileria Species Associated with Mortality in Four Species of African Antelopes  

PubMed Central

Pathogen DNA was isolated from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in South Africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. We developed Theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of Theileria in four African antelope species. The close phylogenetic relationship between members of the genera Theileria and Cytauxzoon, similarities in the morphologies of developmental stages, and confusion in the literature regarding theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis are discussed. PMID:16333074

Nijhof, A. M.; Pillay, V.; Steyl, J.; Prozesky, L.; Stoltsz, W. H.; Lawrence, J. A.; Penzhorn, B. L.; Jongejan, F.

2005-01-01

144

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Long-Chain 3,4-Epoxy-2-alkanones  

PubMed Central

3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone, a major component in the preorbital gland of the African grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), showed antimicrobial activity in preliminary tests. The C11 to C17 homologues of this compound were prepared and their activity against several pathogenic dermal bacteria and fungi was tested. 3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone and 3,4-epoxy-2-tridecanone inhibited the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 25 ?g/mL. Moderate inhibition of the growth of the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and the lipophilic yeast, Pityrosporum ovale, was seen for several of the homologues. PMID:21179314

Wood, William F.

2010-01-01

145

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type-1 following snake bite: a case report.  

PubMed

The pathophysiological mechanism and clinical course of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type-I still remain ill defined. Both the treatment and the prediction of the outcome of the treatment are difficult. Abnormal neurohumoral and inflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in its causation usually following trivial noxious event in an extremity. However, to the best of our knowledge CRPS type-1 following snakebite has not been reported yet in the literature. We here report a case of an aggressive CRPS type-1 following a mountain pit viper bite, locally known as Gurube (Ovophis monticola monticola) in a 55-year-old lady. The clinical condition responded well to the therapy with serial sympathetic blockade of the limb with local anaesthetics, non-steroidal antiinflammatory analgesic, antiepileptic, antidepressant and physiotherapy. Our experience in managing this patient and associated pathophysiology in development of CRPS type-1 are discussed. PMID:19558072

Bhattarai, B; Shrestha, B P; Rahman, T R; Sharma, S K; Tripathi, M

2008-12-01

146

HSA protocol: Appendix 6 Western North American NVCS codes 1 of 10 NVCS code Alliance Description (Forest p.1; Woodland p.2; Shrubland p.3; Dwarf-shrubland p.6; Herbaceous p.6; Non-vascular p.10)  

E-print Network

PINUS MONTICOLA FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 20 PINUS PONDEROSA - PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 21 PINUS SEMPERVIRENS - PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 1 CUPRESSUS MACNABIANA FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 10 PINUS PONDEROSA FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 11 PINUS RADIATA FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 18 PINUS ALBICAULIS FOREST I.A.8.N.b. 19

DeSante, David F.

147

Root induction in pine (Pinus) and larch (Larix) spp. using Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root induction on in vitro adventitious Pinus monticola Dougl. shoots from mature embryos was improved after 8 weeks co-cultivation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes Conn. strain A4 or the pRi transconjugant strain R1000 as compared to controls, and to naphthaleneacetic acid and indoleacetic acid treatments. An improvement in the number and quality of roots induced was observed on co-cultivated shoots as well

B. J. McAfee; E. E. White; L. E. Pelcher; M. S. Lapp

1993-01-01

148

Response of Subalpine Conifers in the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., to 20th-Century Warming and Decadal Climate Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four independent studies of conifer growth between 1880 and 2002 in upper elevation forests of the central Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., showed correlated multidecadal and century-long responses associated with climate. Using tree-ring and ecological plot analysis, we studied annual branch growth of krummholz Pinus albicaulis; invasion by P. albicaulis and Pinus monticola into formerly persistent snowfields; dates of vertical branch

Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; John C. King; Lisa J. Graumlich

2004-01-01

149

Mediterranean Climate Effects. I. Conifer Water Use across a Sierra Nevada Ecotone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylem water potential of the midelevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Abies concolor,and Calocedrus decurrens, the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnifica,and co-occurring evergreen angiosperm shrubs, together with soil moisture under these plants, were monitored at three sites on the Kern Plateau in the southernmost Sierra Nevada Range of California. Site locations spanned the ecotone between the mid- and

E. B. Royce; M. G. Barbour

2001-01-01

150

Manganese and Zinc Toxicity Thresholds for Mountain and Geyer Willow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the heavy metal toxicity thresholds of woody species endemic to the western United States is lacking but critical for successful restoration of contaminated riparian areas. Manganese (Mn, 5010,000 mg l) and zinc (Zn, 1001000 mg l) toxicity thresholds were determined for Geyer (Salix geyeriana Anderss.) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow using a sand-culture technique. The lethal concentration

Jennifer O. Shanahan; Joe E. Brummer; Wayne C. Leininger; Mark W. Paschke

2007-01-01

151

Genome evolution in pocket gophers (genus Thomomys )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic dichotomy exists in the amount and chromosomal position of constitutive heterochromatin (C-bands) in species of pocket gophers, genus Thomomys. Members of the talpoides-group of species (e.g., T. talpoides and T. monticola) have C-bands restricted to the centromeric regions. These taxa are characterized by Robertsonian patterns of karyotypic evolution. In contrast, species within the bottae-group are characterized by extensive

James L. Patton; Steven W. Sherwood

1982-01-01

152

Phylogenetic Relationships and Geographic Structure in Pocket Gophers in the Genus Thomomys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships among pocket gophers were examined based on the complete sequence for the mitochondrial cytochromebgene (1140 base pairs). The tribe Geomyini (Geomys, Orthogeomys, Cratogeomys,andPappogeomys) was well differentiated from the tribe Thomomyini (Thomomys), using the heteromyid generaDipodomysandPerognathusas the outgroup. Within the genusThomomys,the species in the subgenusThomomys(T. talpoides, T. monticola,andT. mazama) differed from those in the subgenusMegascapheus(T. bottae, T. townsendii,andT. umbrinus)

Margaret F. Smith

1998-01-01

153

Sulfometuron methyl influences seedling growth and leaf function of three conifer species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling growth and gas exchange responses were measured for two potted seedling trials testing herbicide phytotoxicity to\\u000a three important tree species of the Inland Northwest, USA. Media-filled pots were treated with sulfometuron methyl (Oust) in varying concentrations and planted with seedlings of Larix occidentalis Nutt., Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco, and Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don. Seedlings were

Nathan D. Robertson; Anthony S. Davis

154

Expression profiling of a complex thaumatin-like protein family in western white pine.  

PubMed

The protein content in the plant apoplast is believed to change dramatically as a result of host defense response upon infection with various pathogens. In this study, six novel thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) were identified in western white pine (Pinus monticola) needle apoplast by a proteomic strategy using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sequent cDNA cloning found that ten P. monticola TLP genes (PmTLP-L1 to -L6 and -S1 to -S4) were expressed in various tissues. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these PmTLP genes belong to a large, complex, and highly diverse plant TLP family. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using gene-specific primer pairs showed that each PmTLP gene exhibited a characteristic pattern of mRNA expression based on their unique organ distribution, seasonal regulation, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. A time-course analysis at the early stages of infection by white pine blister rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola revealed that a coordinated upregulation of multiple PmTLP genes was involved in P. monticola major gene (Cr2) resistance. The structural and expressional differentiations suggest that the PmTLP family may contribute to host defense as well as other mechanism. PMID:19997927

Liu, Jun-Jun; Zamani, Arezoo; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

2010-02-01

155

Vegetation and fire dynamics in different geological settings since the last ice age, Klamath Mountains, northwestern, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Klamath Mountains of northwestern California are a floristic hotspot and their diversity likely results from a combination of geological, ecological and historical factors (e.g., long-term climate change). To evaluate how climate change has influenced past composition, structure, and disturbance regime of the Klamath forests in different geological settings, vegetation and fire histories from four sites, Bolan (1), Sanger (in prog.), Campbell (in prog.), and Bluff (2) lakes are compared. Bolan and Sanger lakes are underline by nutrient-rich diorite soils, Campbell Lake by nutrient-poor and poorly-drained soils derived from mudstone and shales and Bluff Lake by ultramafics which pose severe nutrient limitations to plants. All sites experience the same modern climate and vegetation. The vegetation and fire records from the four sites suggest that substrates have influenced the sensitivity of plant communities and fire regimes to past variations in climate. Cool, dry late-glacial (>11ka cal yr BP) conditions resulted in a subalpine parkland in the Klamath region. P. jeffreyi and Abies were the main tree species at Bluff Lake and fires occurred frequently. Campbell Lake supported more species than Bluff (excluding P. jeffreyi) such as P. monticola, Picea and T. mertensiana and experienced few fires. Bolan and Sanger Lake harbored similar species as Campbell, as well as a small population of Pseudotsuga and experienced few fires. Warm, dry Early Holocene (7-11ka cal yr BP) conditions led to an increase in C. decurrens and a slight decrease in P. jeffreyi at Bluff Lake than before and fires were very frequent. At Campbell Lake, P. monticola increased, C. decurrens became more abundant than before, and Abies, Picea and T. mertensiana were scarce. Similar vegetation occurred at Bolan and Sanger lakes although the sites continued to harbor Pseudotsuga. Campbell, Bolan and Sanger all experienced frequent fires. Cool, wet conditions in the Middle Holocene (3-7ka cal yr BP) allowed P. jeffreyi to increase at the expense of C. decurrens at Bluff Lake. At Campbell, Sanger and Bolan lakes there was a decrease in P. monticola and a significant increase in Abies than before. Bolan and Sanger lakes still maintained a significant population of Pseudotsuga. Fire frequency at all sites was moderate. Modern (3ka cal yr BP to present) climate conditions in the Late Holocene resulted in increases in P. jeffreyi and Abies than before at Bluff Lake. P. monticola and Abies were abundant at Campbell Lake with minor amounts of Pseudotsuga and T. mertensiana. Most tree species occurred at Bolan and Sanger Lake (with the exception of P. jeffreyi at both sites and T. mertensiana at Sanger Lake). Abies and P.monticola were the primary species in the Bolan, Sanger and Campbell lake forests. Fires were frequent at all sites. In conclusion, Bluff Lake was dominated by ultramafic tolerant taxa such as Pinus jeffreyi, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies, while Bolan and Sanger lakes harbored mostly ultramafic intolerant species such as Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Tsuga mertensiana since the last ice age. The forest at Campbell Lake was more open, was dominated by Pinus monticola and had less Picea and T. mertensiana than Bolan and Sanger lakes since the last ice age. REFS. 1 Briles, C. et al 2005. Quaternary Research 64. 2 Mohr, J.A. et al 2000. The Holocene 10.

Briles, C.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P.

2006-12-01

156

Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001-2003  

PubMed Central

All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 20012003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystmes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred. PMID:15752448

Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Delicat, Andre; Rollin, Pierre E.; Leroy, Eric M.

2005-01-01

157

Myostatin rapid sequence evolution in ruminants predates domestication.  

PubMed

Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex), impala (Aepyceros melampus rednilis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus). Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (Ka/Ks) indicates that positive selection may have been operating on this gene during the time of divergence of Bovinae and Antilopinae, starting from approximately 23 million years ago, a period that appears to account for most of the sequence difference between myostatin in these groups. These periods of positive selective pressure on myostatin may correlate with changes in skeletal muscle mass during the same period. PMID:15522803

Tellgren, Asa; Berglund, Ann-Charlotte; Savolainen, Peter; Janis, Christine M; Liberles, David A

2004-12-01

158

Evolutionary affinities of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the context of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae.  

PubMed

To elucidate the systematic status of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a new bovid genus recently discovered in Vietnam, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships within the family Bovidae, four distinct DNA markers were sequenced. Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (1143 bp) and 12S rRNA (956 bp) genes and non-coding regions from the nuclear genes for aromatase cytochrome P-450 (199 bp) and lactoferrin (338 bp) have been compared for 25 bovid species and three Cervidae and Antilocapridae outgroups. Independent and/or combined analyses of the four nucleotide matrices through maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that Bovidae consists of two major lineages, i.e. Bovinac which contains the tribes Bovini, Boselaphini and Tragelaphini, and Antilopinae which encompasses all other bovids. Within Bovinae, the tribe Bovini is divided into buffalo Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus) and cattle Bovini (Bos and Bison) and Tragelaphini are possibly related to Boselaphini. Pseudoryx is shown to be (i) robustly nested within Bovinae; (ii) strongly associated with Bovini; and (iii) tentatively sharing a sister-group relationship with cattle Bovini. Within Antilopinae, three robust clades are in evidence: (i) Hippotragus and Damaliscus are linked to Ovis; (ii) Aepyceros joins Neotragus; and (iii) Cephalophus clusters with Oreotragus. PMID:10380679

Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J

1999-05-01

159

Evolutionary affinities of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the context of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae.  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the systematic status of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a new bovid genus recently discovered in Vietnam, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships within the family Bovidae, four distinct DNA markers were sequenced. Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (1143 bp) and 12S rRNA (956 bp) genes and non-coding regions from the nuclear genes for aromatase cytochrome P-450 (199 bp) and lactoferrin (338 bp) have been compared for 25 bovid species and three Cervidae and Antilocapridae outgroups. Independent and/or combined analyses of the four nucleotide matrices through maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that Bovidae consists of two major lineages, i.e. Bovinac which contains the tribes Bovini, Boselaphini and Tragelaphini, and Antilopinae which encompasses all other bovids. Within Bovinae, the tribe Bovini is divided into buffalo Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus) and cattle Bovini (Bos and Bison) and Tragelaphini are possibly related to Boselaphini. Pseudoryx is shown to be (i) robustly nested within Bovinae; (ii) strongly associated with Bovini; and (iii) tentatively sharing a sister-group relationship with cattle Bovini. Within Antilopinae, three robust clades are in evidence: (i) Hippotragus and Damaliscus are linked to Ovis; (ii) Aepyceros joins Neotragus; and (iii) Cephalophus clusters with Oreotragus. PMID:10380679

Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J

1999-01-01

160

Pengzhongiella daicongchaoi gen. et sp. n., a remarkable myrmecophile (Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae, Batrisitae) from the Gaoligong Mountains  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new genus and species, Pengzhongiella daicongchaoi, of the subtribe Batrisina (Batrisitae: Batrisini) is described from the Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan, Southwest China. Adults were collected in a colony of Odontomachus monticola, and presented reduction of certain external characters and elongate appendages relating to myrmecophily. Description and illustrations of the habitus and major diagnostic features of the new taxon are provided; a brief discussion of its taxonomic placement is included. The new species also represents the first record of a Pselaphinae in association with an Odontomachus ant. PMID:24039533

Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

2013-01-01

161

Morphological description and life cycle of Paragonimus sp. (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae): causal agent of human paragonimiasis in Colombia.  

PubMed

The first morphological description is made of all stages of the life cycle of a Paragonimus species infecting humans in Colombia. Larval stages were obtained both in vitro and from field collections. Adult Paragonimus spp. are described. The aquatic snail Aroapyrgus sp. serves as an intermediate host of this species, both naturally and experimentally, yielding rediae and cercariae. Crabs (Hypolobocera bouvieri monticola and H. emberarum) were found to be the natural second intermediate hosts, and individuals of another crab species (Strengeria sp.) were also infected in the laboratory. PMID:14533686

Vlez, Imelda; Velsquez, Luz E; Vlez, Ivn D

2003-08-01

162

Improved rooting of western white pine shoots from tissue cultures  

SciTech Connect

Adventitious shoots of Pinus monticola obtained from embryonic tissue were exposed to 4 combinations of growth regulators (6-benzylaminopurine/NAA/IAA/IBA), either continuously for 6 weeks or by pulse treatment for 7 days, followed by 5 weeks culture without growth regulators. After 6 weeks of continuous exposure, rooting of shoots varied between 0 and 20%. Pulse treatment resulted in 40-64% rooting. In paired comparisons pulse treatments always provided better rooting percentages than did constant exposure treatments. Pulse treatments also produced longer (less than 2 mm) roots and more multiple roots.

Amerson, H.V.; Mott, R.L.

1982-01-01

163

A chalcone synthase/stilbene synthase DNA probe for conifers.  

PubMed

A probe for chalcone synthase (CHS) was generated by PCR using chalcone synthase conserved sequences. The cloned PCR product has high similarity to both chalcone synthase and stilbene synthase sequences. The probe was used to examine the organization of chalcone synthase and stilbene synthase genes in Abies procera, Pinus lambertiana, P. monticola, Picea glauca, P. sitchensis, Pseudostuga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata. A large number of hybridizing bands were found in all species except T. plicata which did not cross hybridize. The hybridization patterns are highly polymorphic between the species and are also polymorphic within several of them. PMID:24166547

Baker, S M; White, E E

1996-05-01

164

Sedges in the mist: A new species ofLepidosperma (Cyperaceae, Schoeneae) from the mountains ofTasmania.  

PubMed

The status of a putative new species of Lepidosperma from the mountains of south-western Tasmania, Australia, was investigated. Phenetic analysis (Flexible UPGMA Agglomerative Hierarchical Fusion and semi-strong hybrid multidimensional scaling) was conducted on a database derived from morphological and anatomical characters scored from herbarium material, culm anatomy slides and scanning electron micrographs of fruit. The results of the analysis support the recognition of a new species, here described as Lepidosperma monticola G.T.Plunkett & J.J.Bruhl. The distribution, habitat and conservation status are discussed. PMID:24399891

Plunkett, George T; Wilson, Karen L; Bruhl, Jeremy J

2013-01-01

165

Chromosome numbers of some North American Salix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome numbers are reported for 19 species of North AmericanSalix, one natural hybrid, and one introduced species. The following 17 species are here examined cytologically for the first time:Salix amygdaloides Anderss.,S. arbusculoides Anderss.,S. brachycarpa Nutt.,S. Candida Willd.,S. discolor Muhl.,S. exigua Nutt.,S. kumilis Marsh.,S. interior Rowlee,S. lutea Nutt.,S. maccalliana Rowlee,S. monticola Rydb.,S. myrtillifolia Anderss.,S. pellita Anderss.,S. petiolaris J. E. Sm,S. scouleriana

Yutaka Suda; George W. Argus

1968-01-01

166

Description of a new montane freshwater crab (Crustacea: Potamidae: Geothelphusa) from northern Taiwan.  

PubMed

A new freshwater crab is described from a montane area in northern Taiwan based on morphological characters and molecular evidence. Geothelphusa cilan sp. nov., from the Cilan Forest, situated on the boundary of Hsinchu and Yilan (= Ilan) counties, is close to G. monticola Shy, Ng & Yu, 1994, and G. takuan Shy, Ng & Yu, 1994, but can be distinguished by its male first gonopod (G1) and the ratio of thoracic sternites. Molecular evidence from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) also supports the identity of the new species. PMID:25283939

Shy, Jhy-Yun; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Jean-Jay

2014-01-01

167

A taxonomic revision of Tyrini of the Oriental region. V. Revision of the genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 of the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini: Tyrina) is revised. The three so far known species, Lasinus mandarinus Raffray, 1890, Lasinus monticola Sawada, 1961 and Lasinus spinosus Sharp, 1874 are redescribed. Eight new species, Lasinus sinicus sp. n. from China, Lasinus mikado sp. n., Lasinus yamamotoi sp. n., Lasinus inexpectatus sp. n., Lasinus yakushimanus sp. n., Lasinus amamianus sp. n., Lasinus saoriae sp. n., and Lasinus okinawanus sp. n. from Japan, are described. And all species are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Lasinus mandarinus and Lasinus spinosus. An identification key to species of the genus Lasinus is provided. PMID:24146590

Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlavac, Peter; Nomura, Shuhei

2013-01-01

168

Identifying Shared Genetic Structure Patterns among Pacific Northwest Forest Taxa: Insights from Use of Visualization Tools and Computer Simulations  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying causal relationships in phylogeographic and landscape genetic investigations is notoriously difficult, but can be facilitated by use of multispecies comparisons. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data visualizations to identify common spatial patterns within single lineages of four taxa inhabiting Pacific Northwest forests (northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina; red tree vole: Arborimus longicaudus; southern torrent salamander: Rhyacotriton variegatus; and western white pine: Pinus monticola). Visualizations suggested that, despite occupying the same geographical region and habitats, species responded differently to prevailing historical processes. S. o. caurina and P. monticola demonstrated directional patterns of spatial genetic structure where genetic distances and diversity were greater in southern versus northern locales. A. longicaudus and R. variegatus displayed opposite patterns where genetic distances were greater in northern versus southern regions. Statistical analyses of directional patterns subsequently confirmed observations from visualizations. Based upon regional climatological history, we hypothesized that observed latitudinal patterns may have been produced by range expansions. Subsequent computer simulations confirmed that directional patterns can be produced by expansion events. Conclusions/Significance We discuss phylogeographic hypotheses regarding historical processes that may have produced observed patterns. Inferential methods used here may become increasingly powerful as detailed simulations of organisms and historical scenarios become plausible. We further suggest that inter-specific comparisons of historical patterns take place prior to drawing conclusions regarding effects of current anthropogenic change within landscapes. PMID:21060824

Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.

2010-01-01

169

[Multiple Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Gabon, from October 2001 to April 2002].  

PubMed

Outbreaks of Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever have been reported from 1994 to 1996 in the province of Ogoou Ivindo, a forest zone situated in the Northeast of Gabon. Each time, the great primates had been identified as the initial source of human infection. End of November 2001 a new alert came from this province, rapidly confirmed as a EVHV outbreak. The response was given by the Ministry of Health with the help of an international team under the aegis of WHO. An active monitoring system was implemented in the three districts hit by the epidemic (Zadi, Ivindo and Mpassa) to organize the detection of cases and their follow-up. A case definition has been set up, the suspected cases were isolated at hospital, at home or in lazarets and serological tests were performed. These tests consisted of the detection of antigen or specific IgG and the RT-PCR. A classification of cases was made according to the results of biological tests, clinical and epidemiological data. The contact subjects were kept watch over for 21 days. 65 cases were recorded among which 53 deaths. The first human case, a hunter died on the 28th of October 2001. The epidemic spreads over through family transmission and nosocomial contamination. Four distinct primary foci have been identified together with an isolated case situated in the South East of Gabon, 580 km away from the epicenter. Deaths happened within a delay of 6 days. The last death has been recorded on the 22nd of March 2002 and the end of the outbreak was declared on the 6th of May 2002. The epidemic spreads over the Gabon just next. Unexplained deaths of animals had been mentionned in the nearby forests as soon as August 2001: great primates and cephalophus. Samples taken from their carcasses confirmed a concomitant animal epidemic. PMID:16267965

Nkoghe, D; Formenty, P; Leroy, E M; Nnegue, S; Edou, S Y Obame; Ba, J Iba; Allarangar, Y; Cabore, J; Bachy, C; Andraghetti, R; de Benoist, A C; Galanis, E; Rose, A; Bausch, D; Reynolds, M; Rollin, P; Choueibou, C; Shongo, R; Gergonne, B; Kon, L M; Yada, A; Roth, C; Mve, M Toung

2005-09-01

170

Comparative histology of antelope placentomes.  

PubMed

The histological structure of ruminant (family: Bovidae) placentomes in eight antelope species was compared to that of domestic cattle and sheep. The chorioallantoic villi differed in degree of branching, surface corrugation, and complexity of utero-placental junction. All species had the epitheliochorial type of placenta, with the epithelial lining of maternal caruncular crypts varying between cellular and syncytial types. Uganda kob (Kobus kob, Reduncinae) and common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia, Cephalophinae) had the simplest structures with minimal villous branching, round to polygonal villous cross-sections, and cellular crypt lining. Common eland (Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphinae) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Tragelaphinae) had moderate villous branching, polygonal to mildly corrugated villous cross-sections, and cellular crypt lining with slight signs of syncytium. Wildebeest (gnu, Connochaetes gnou, Alcelaphinae) and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger, Hippotraginae) had moderate villous branching with corrugated surface and almost completely syncytial crypt lining. Steenbok (Raphicerus campestris, Neotraginae) and impala (Aepyceros melampus, Aepycerotinae) had the most complicated branching of villi and corrugation, and their crypt lining was clearly syncytial. Cattle (Bos taurus) and sheep (Ovis aries) had villous branching and corrugation similar to impala, and their crypt lining resembled that of eland and impala, respectively. PMID:16726390

Hradeck, P; Mossman, H W; Stott, G G

1988-01-01

171

Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.  

PubMed

Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe. PMID:6716555

Kuttler, K L

1984-01-01

172

6000-year record of forest history on Mount Rainier, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Sediments in three ponds between 1300 - 1500 m on the south side of Mt. Rainier were examined for plant macrofossils and pollen. Macrofossils of seral species such as Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus monticola, Abies procera, and Pinus contorta are conspicuous from 6000 to 3400 BP. These species suggest a climate that was warmer/drier than today and favored frequent fires. Neoglacial cooling may have begun 3700-3400 BP, as species typical of higher elevations became prominent; a decline in seral species after 3400 BP suggests less frequent fires. In the last 100 yr, Tsuga heterophylla became abundant and then declined at the highest elevation site. General trends in pollen percentages are similar to the macrofossil curves. Tephra deposition from Mt. Rainier and Mt. St. Helens did not produce conspicuous changes in forest composition. Few major fires are evident from charcoal and macrofossils at these sites.

Dunwiddie, P.W.

1986-02-01

173

Late Holocene forest dynamics, volcanism, and climate change at Whitewing Mountain and San Joaquin Ridge, Mono County, Sierra Nevada, CA, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deadwood tree stems scattered above treeline on tephra-covered slopes of Whitewing Mtn (3051 m) and San Joaquin Ridge (3122 m) show evidence of being killed in an eruption from adjacent Glass Creek Vent, Inyo Craters. Using tree-ring methods, we dated deadwood to AD 815-1350 and infer from death dates that the eruption occurred in late summer AD 1350. Based on wood anatomy, we identified deadwood species as Pinus albicaulis, P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. contorta, P. jeffreyi, and Tsuga mertensiana. Only P. albicaulis grows at these elevations currently; P. lambertiana is not locally native. Using contemporary distributions of the species, we modeled paleoclimate during the time of sympatry to be significantly warmer (+3.2C annual minimum temperature) and slightly drier (-24 mm annual precipitation) than present, resembling values projected for California in the next 70-100 yr.

Millar, Constance I.; King, John C.; Westfall, Robert D.; Alden, Harry A.; Delany, Diane L.

2006-09-01

174

Family differences in height growth and photosynthetic traits in three conifers.  

PubMed

We investigated variation in height growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf stable carbon isotope ratio among wind-pollinated progenies of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) from a small group of contiguous stands on the Priest River Experimental Forest in northern Idaho. Photosynthetic variables differed between height classes in the pines, but not in Douglas-fir. Among species and families, tall families of ponderosa pine regained photosynthetic capacity earliest in the spring and maintained it latest in the growing season. Tall families of western white pine had higher instantaneous water-use efficiencies and lower photosynthetic rates than short families on warm days in August. PMID:11470658

Marshall, J D; Rehfeldt, G E; Monserud, R A

2001-07-01

175

Gas exchange parameters inferred from {delta}{sup 13}C of conifer annual rings throughout the 20th century  

SciTech Connect

In this study the stable isotopes of carbon in plant tissue provided a means of inferring the proportional decrease in carbon dioxide concentration across the stomata, which is closely related to photosynthetic water-use efficiency. The authors analyzed the stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings laid down over the past 80 years to determine whether the proportional decrease in CO{sub 2} concentration across the stomata had increased. Dominant and codominant trees of western white pine (Pinus monticola), ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) growing at the Priest River Experimental Forest, in northern Idaho, were analyzed. To avoid confounding age and year, the authors compared the innermost rings of mature trees to trees of intermediate age and to saplings. The isotopic data were corrected for changes in isotopic composition and carbon dioxide concentration using published data from ice cores.

Marshall, J.D. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Monserud, R.A. [Forest Service, Moscow, ID (United States). Intermountain Research Station

1995-12-31

176

Species-diagnostic and species-specific DNA sequences evenly distributed throughout pine and spruce chromosomes.  

PubMed

Genome organization in the family Pinaceae is complex and largely unknown. The main purpose of the present study was to develop and physically map species-diagnostic and species-specific molecular markers in pine and spruce. Five RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and one ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) species-diagnostic or species-specific markers for Picea mariana, Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, or Pinus monticola were identified, cloned, and sequenced. In situ hybridization of these sequences to spruce and pine chromosomes showed the sequences to be present in high copy number and evenly distributed throughout the genome. The analysis of centromeric and telomeric regions revealed the absence of significant clustering of species-diagnostic and species-specific sequences in all the chromosomes of the four species studied. Both RAPD and ISSR markers showed similar patterns. PMID:20962883

Mehes-Smith, Melanie; Michael, Paul; Nkongolo, Kabwe

2010-10-01

177

Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.

Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.

1996-05-01

178

The serrate leaf margined Juniperus (Section Sabina) of the western hemisphere: systematics and evolution based on leaf essential oils and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs).  

PubMed

The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A number of previously unidentified compounds of the leaf essential oils have now been identified. In addition, DNA data (RAPDs) of all these species were analyzed. Both the leaf essential oils and DNA show these species to be quite distinct with few apparent subgroups, such that the species groupings were not strong in either data set. These data support the hypothesis that this group of junipers originated in Mexico as part of the Madro-Tertiary flora by rapid radiation into new arid land habitats, leaving few extant intermediate taxa. PMID:10996262

Adams

2000-12-01

179

Discovery of four new species of the genus Planaeschna from Southwestern China (Odonata: Anisoptera: Aeshnidae).  

PubMed

Four new species of the genus Planaeschna, P. robusta sp. nov. (holotype male; Mt. Emeishan, Emeishan City, Sichuan Province, China, 16. VIII. 2007), P. maculifrons sp. nov. (holotype male; Mt. Emeishan, Emeishan City, Sichuan Province, China, 20. VIII. 2007), P. caudispina sp. nov. (holotype male; Mt. Qingchengshan, Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province, China, 30. VIII. 2007) and P. monticola sp. nov. (holotype male; Sanjiacun Stream, Fengyi Town, Dali City, Yunnan Province, China, 19. XI. 2012) are described and illustrated and diagnosed from their congeners. All the holotypes have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Brief notes on the biology of each species are also provided. PMID:25112987

Zhang, Hao-Miao; Cai, Qing-Hua

2013-01-01

180

Methyl jasmonate induces changes mimicking anatomical defenses in diverse members of the Pinaceae.  

PubMed

Conifers have defenses such as the production of phenolic compounds and resins that can be induced by bark beetles and other invading organisms, but the signaling agents involved are unknown. The anatomical effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), a potent inducer of certain plant defenses, were compared with wounding of the bark of 12-15-year-old trees of five conifer species. Wounding in all species resulted in tissue necrosis and wound periderm development immediately around the wound site. One cm from the wound, swelling of phloem polyphenolic parenchyma cells and phenolic accumulation were observed in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Picea pungens Engelman, Larix occidentalis Nutt. and Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don, but not in Taxus brevifolia Nutt. Traumatic resin ducts were formed in response to wounding in three species of Pinaceae, but not in P. monticola, which formed irregular clusters of cells rather than ducts. Taxus brevifolia did not form resin ducts in response to either wounding or MJ treatment. In the Pinaceae species studied, surface application of 100 mM MJ caused similar anatomical changes to those observed in response to wounding, including phenolic accumulation, cell swelling and traumatic resin duct formation, but it did not induce a wound periderm. Traumatic resin ducts differed in size among the study species, ranging from small in L. occidentalis to very large in P. menziesii. In P. menziesii, P. pungens and L. occidentalis, traumatic resin ducts were more abundant after MJ treatment than after wounding. We conclude that the octadecanoid pathway is likely involved in defense responses in stems of the Pinaceae, but not necessarily in other taxa. PMID:12642238

Hudgins, J W; Christiansen, Erik; Franceschi, Vincent R

2003-04-01

181

Were snares and traps used in the Middle Stone Age and does it matter? A review and a case study from Sibudu, South Africa.  

PubMed

The concept of remote capture involved in the creation and use of snares and traps is one of several indicators that can be used for the recognition of enhanced working memory and complex cognition. It can be argued that this humble technology is a more reliable indicator of complex cognition than encounter hunting, for example with spears. It is difficult to recognize snares and traps archaeologically because they are generally made from materials that do not preserve well. To infer their presence in the past, it is therefore necessary to rely on circumstantial evidence such as mortality profiles, taxonomic diversity and high frequencies of creatures that are susceptible to capture in snares or traps. Clearly there are some problems with using snares to infer complex cognition because people do not necessarily choose meat-getting strategies with the lowest costs. Although snares make economic sense because they reduce search costs, their use by modern hunters is not associated with the type of status accorded to other means of hunting. Social demands, more than economic or environmental ones, may consequently have determined the amount of snaring and trapping that occurred in the past. Because of social attitudes, an absence of snaring need not mean that people were incapable of using this technique. At Sibudu, a South African Middle Stone Age site, snares or other non-selective capture techniques may have been used during the Howiesons Poort and perhaps also the Still Bay Industry. The circumstantial evidence consists of 1. high frequency representations of animals that prefer forested environments, including the tiny blue duiker (adult and juvenile) and the dangerous bushpig, 2. high frequencies of small mammals, 3. high taxonomic diversity and, 4. the presence of small carnivores. Importantly, the Howiesons Poort faunal assemblage is different from that in more recent Middle Stone Age occupations of the site. PMID:20031191

Wadley, Lyn

2010-02-01

182

Cytochrome b phylogeny of the family bovidae: resolution within the alcelaphini, antilopini, neotragini, and tragelaphini.  

PubMed

The family Bovidae is characterized by an incomplete fossil record for the period during which most bovid subfamilies emerged. This, coupled to extensive morphological convergence among species, has given rise to inconsistencies in taxonomic treatments, especially at the tribal and subfamilial levels. In an attempt to clarify some of these issues we analyzed the complete mtDNA cytochrome b gene (1140 bp) from 38 species/subspecies representing at least nine tribes and six subfamilies. Specific emphasis was placed on the evolution of the Alcelaphini (hartebeest and wildebeest), the Tragelaphini (kudu, eland, and close allies), the Antilopini (gazelles), and the Neotragini (dwarf antelope). Saturation plots for the codon positions revealed differences between bovid tribes and this allowed for the exclusion of transitional substitutions that were characterized by multiple hits. There was no significant rate heterogeneity between taxa. By calibrating genetic distance against the fossil record, a transversion-based sequence divergence of 0.22% (+/-0.015%) per million years is proposed for cytochrome b clock calibrations in the Bovidae. All evidence suggests that the Alcelaphini form a monophyletic group; there was no support for the recognition of the Lichtenstein's hartebeest in a separate genus (Sigmoceros), and the acceptance of the previously suggested Alcelaphus is recommended for this species. High bootstrap support was found for a sister taxon relationship between Alcelaphus and Damaliscus, a finding which is in good agreement with allozyme and morphological studies. In the case of the Tragelaphini, the molecular data suggest the inclusion of Taurotragus in the genus Tragelaphus, and no genetic support was found for the generic status of Boocercus. Although associations within the Antilopinae (comprising the tribes Neotragini and Antilopini) could not be unequivocally resolved, there was nonetheless convincing evidence of non-monophyly for the tribe Neotragini, with the Suni antelope (Neotragus moschatus) grouping as a sister taxon to the Impala (Aepyceros melampus, tribe indeterminate, sensu Gentry, 1992) and the Klipspringer (Oreotragus oreotragus) falling within the duiker antelope tribe (Cephalophini). PMID:10222159

Matthee, C A; Robinson, T J

1999-06-01

183

Ebolavirus and other filoviruses.  

PubMed

Since Ebola fever emerged in Central Africa in 1976, a number of studies have been undertaken to investigate its natural history and to characterize its transmission from a hypothetical reservoir host(s) to humans. This research has comprised investigations on a variety of animals and their characterization as intermediate, incidental, amplifying, reservoir, or vector hosts. A viral transmission chain was recently unveiled after a long absence of epidemic Ebola fever. Animal trapping missions were carried out in the Central African rain forest in an area where several epidemics and epizootics had occurred between 2001 and 2005. Among the various animals captured and analyzed, three species of fruit bats (suborder Megachiroptera) were found asymptomatically and naturally infected with Ebola virus: Hypsignathus monstrosus (hammer-headed fruit beats), Epomops franqueti (singing fruit bats), and Myonycteris torquata (little collared fruit bats). From experimental data, serological studies and virus genetic analysis, these findings confirm the importance of these bat species as potential reservoir species of Ebola virus in Central Africa. While feeding bats drop partially eaten fruit and masticated fruit pulp (spats) to the ground, possibly promoting indirect transmission of Ebola virus to certain ground dwelling mammals, if virus is being shed in saliva by chronically and asymptomatically infected bats. Great apes and forest duikers are particularly sensitive to lethal Ebola virus infection. These terrestrial mammals feed on fallen fruits and possibly spats, suggesting a chain of events leading to Ebola virus spillover to these incidental hosts. This chain of events may occur sporadically at different sites and times depending on a combination of the phenology of fruit production by different trees, animal behavior, and various, but as yet still unknown environmental factors, which could include drought. During the reproductive period, infected body fluid can also be shed in the environment and present a potential risk for indirect transmission to other vertebrates. PMID:17848072

Gonzalez, J P; Pourrut, X; Leroy, E

2007-01-01

184

Spiders (Araneae) of Churchill, Manitoba: DNA barcodes and morphology reveal high species diversity and new Canadian records  

PubMed Central

Background Arctic ecosystems, especially those near transition zones, are expected to be strongly impacted by climate change. Because it is positioned on the ecotone between tundra and boreal forest, the Churchill area is a strategic locality for the analysis of shifts in faunal composition. This fact has motivated the effort to develop a comprehensive biodiversity inventory for the Churchill region by coupling DNA barcoding with morphological studies. The present study represents one element of this effort; it focuses on analysis of the spider fauna at Churchill. Results 198 species were detected among 2704 spiders analyzed, tripling the count for the Churchill region. Estimates of overall diversity suggest that another 1020 species await detection. Most species displayed little intraspecific sequence variation (maximum <1%) in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, but four species showed considerably higher values (maximum?=?4.1-6.2%), suggesting cryptic species. All recognized species possessed a distinct haplotype array at COI with nearest-neighbour interspecific distances averaging 8.57%. Three species new to Canada were detected: Robertus lyrifer (Theridiidae), Baryphyma trifrons (Linyphiidae), and Satilatlas monticola (Linyphiidae). The first two species may represent human-mediated introductions linked to the port in Churchill, but the other species represents a range extension from the USA. The first description of the female of S. monticola was also presented. As well, one probable new species of Alopecosa (Lycosidae) was recognized. Conclusions This study provides the first comprehensive DNA barcode reference library for the spider fauna of any region. Few cryptic species of spiders were detected, a result contrasting with the prevalence of undescribed species in several other terrestrial arthropod groups at Churchill. Because most (97.5%) sequence clusters at COI corresponded with a named taxon, DNA barcoding reliably identifies spiders in the Churchill fauna. The capacity of DNA barcoding to enable the identification of otherwise taxonomically ambiguous specimens (juveniles, females) also represents a major advance for future monitoring efforts on this group. PMID:24279427

2013-01-01

185

Evolutionary history of the honey bee Apis mellifera inferred from mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Variability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. has been investigated by restriction and sequence analyses on a sample of 68 colonies from ten different subspecies. The 19 mtDNA types detected are clustered in three major phylogenetic lineages. These clades correspond well to three groups of populations with distinct geographical distributions: branch A for African subspecies (intermissa, monticola, scutellata, andansonii and capensis), branch C for North Mediterranean subspecies (caucasica, carnica and ligustica) and branch M for the West European populations (mellifera subspecies). These results partially confirm previous hypotheses based on morphometrical and allozymic studies, the main difference concerning North African populations, now assigned to branch A instead of branch M. The pattern of spatial structuring suggests the Middle East as the centre of dispersion of the species, in accordance with the geographic areas of the other species of the same genus. Based on a conservative 2% divergence rate per Myr, the separation of the three branches has been dated at about 1 Myr BP. PMID:1364272

Garnery, L; Cornuet, J M; Solignac, M

1992-10-01

186

Mediterranean climate effects. I. Conifer water use across a Sierra Nevada ecotone.  

PubMed

Xylem water potential of the midelevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Abies concolor, and Calocedrus decurrens, the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnifica, and co-occurring evergreen angiosperm shrubs, together with soil moisture under these plants, were monitored at three sites on the Kern Plateau in the southernmost Sierra Nevada Range of California. Site locations spanned the ecotone between the mid- and upper montane forests at elevations of 2230-2820 m. Measurements were made through a low-snowfall year and a heavy-snowfall year.In the Mediterranean climate of the Sierra Nevada, the heavy winter snowpack persists into late spring, after precipitation has effectively stopped. We found the subsequent depletion of soil moisture due to plant water uptake to result in predawn xylem water potentials for conifers more negative by 0.6-1.4 MPa than those for shrubs or inferred soil potentials. Shrubs generally depleted soil moisture more rapidly and ultimately extracted a greater fraction of the available soil moisture than did the conifers. This depletion of soil moisture by shrubs, particularly Arctostaphylos patula, may limit conifer growth and regeneration by prematurely terminating growth on the shallow soils studied. The conifers all generally showed similar patterns of soil moisture use, except that A. magnifica extracted moisture more rapidly early in the season. PMID:11353716

Royce, E B; Barbour, M G

2001-05-01

187

Data on sand fly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The sand fly fauna in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was investigated in different habitats ranging from sylvatic areas to those altered by human activity related to ecotourism, specifically identifying species that have been suggested as potential leishmaniasis vectors. Sand flies were captured from June 2002 to March 2004, using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. A total of 1,256 sand fly specimens were captured, from species belonging to genera Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia: Brumptomyia guimaraesi, B. troglodytes, Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) amarali, L. lanei, L. migonei, L. sallesi, L. edwardsi, L. tupynambai, L. (Pintomyia) pessoai, L. (P.) bianchigalatie, L. rupicola, L. (Psathyromyia) shannoni, L. pascalei, L. (Psychodopygus) matosi, L. (P.) davisi, L. (P.) hirsuta hirsuta, L. (P.) ayrozai, L. peresi, L. monticola, and L. misionensis. Worthy of special attention were four species that are considered potential vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: L. ayrozai, L. hirsuta hirsuta, L. migonei, and L. davisi, representing 19.19% of the specimens captured in this study. PMID:17334585

Afonso, Margarete M S; Costa, Wagner A; Azevedo, Alfredo C R; Costa, Simone M da; Vilela, Maurcio L; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2007-03-01

188

Deposition of atmospheric ions to pine branches and surrogate surfaces in the vicinity of emerald lake watershed, Sequoia National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric dry deposition of ions to branches of native Pinus contorta and Pinus monticola (natural surfaces), and nylon filters and Whatman paper filters (surrogate surfaces) were measured in the summer of 1987 in the vicinity of Emerald Lake Watershed (ELW) of the Sequoia National Park located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada in California. Deposition fluxes of airborne NO -3, NH +4 and SO 2-4 to native pines at the ELW were much higher than in the eastern Sierra Nevada, but several times lower than deposition fluxes to natural and surrogate surfaces at the highly polluted site in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Deposition fluxes of NO 3- and NH 4+ to the natural and surrogate surfaces at the ELW were much higher than deposition of SO 42-, providing the importance of N compounds in atmospheric dry deposition in this part of the western U.S. A deficit of inorganic anions in materials deposited to various surfaces indicated a possibility of substantial participation of organic acids in atmospheric dry deposition processes. Nylon and paper filters proved to be poor surrogate surfaces for the estimation of ionic dry deposition to conifer branches.

Bytnerowicz, A.; Dawson, P. J.; Morrison, C. L.; Poe, M. P.

189

Mycorrhizas on nursery and field seedlings of Quercus garryana.  

PubMed

Oak woodland regeneration and restoration requires that seedlings develop mycorrhizas, yet the need for this mutualistic association is often overlooked. In this study, we asked whether Quercus garryana seedlings in nursery beds acquire mycorrhizas without artificial inoculation or access to a mycorrhizal network of other ectomycorrhizal hosts. We also assessed the relationship between mycorrhizal infection and seedling growth in a nursery. Further, we compared the mycorrhizal assemblage of oak nursery seedlings to that of conifer seedlings in the nursery and to that of oak seedlings in nearby oak woodlands. Seedlings were excavated and the roots washed and examined microscopically. Mycorrhizas were identified by DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region and by morphotype. On oak nursery seedlings, predominant mycorrhizas were species of Laccaria and Tuber with single occurrences of Entoloma and Peziza. In adjacent beds, seedlings of Pseudotsuga menziesii were mycorrhizal with Hysterangium and a different species of Laccaria; seedlings of Pinus monticola were mycorrhizal with Geneabea, Tarzetta, and Thelephora. Height of Q. garryana seedlings correlated with root biomass and mycorrhizal abundance. Total mycorrhizal abundance and abundance of Laccaria mycorrhizas significantly predicted seedling height in the nursery. Native oak seedlings from nearby Q. garryana woodlands were mycorrhizal with 13 fungal symbionts, none of which occurred on the nursery seedlings. These results demonstrate the value of mycorrhizas to the growth of oak seedlings. Although seedlings in nursery beds developed mycorrhizas without intentional inoculation, their mycorrhizas differed from and were less species rich than those on native seedlings. PMID:19139931

Southworth, Darlene; Carrington, Elizabeth M; Frank, Jonathan L; Gould, Peter; Harrington, Connie A; Devine, Warren D

2009-03-01

190

Mediterranean climate effects. II. Conifer growth phenology across a Sierra Nevada ecotone.  

PubMed

Growth and xylem water potential of the lower elevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi and Abies concolor and the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnifica were monitored in their montane Mediterranean habitat of the southernmost Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Measurements were made across the ecotone between the midmontane and upper montane forests and through light and heavy snowfall years.Radial stem growth, averaging ?1.5 mm/yr, started 2 wk after snow melt, providing that maximum air temperatures had reached 21C, and ended when predawn water potentials fell rapidly at the onset of the summer drought. Leader growth started on or after a fixed date, providing that minimum air temperatures were above -4C for Pinus species or +2.5C for Abies species. The cue for leader growth was inferred to be photoperiodic. Leader growth ended when either a determinate internode length of ?1 mm was reached or predawn water potentials fell rapidly. Abies magnifica grew more rapidly than the low-elevation species, but had a shorter growth period; its annual leader growth, as a consequence, was only 35 mm/yr vs. 50 mm/yr for the low-elevation species. Needle growth was similarly determinate in the absence of early drought. This growth phenology contributes to determining species distribution across the ecotone. PMID:11353717

Royce, E B; Barbour, M G

2001-05-01

191

Measurement of atmospheric dry deposition at Emerald Lake in Sequoia National Park. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the study was to evaluate atmospheric dry deposition of major anions and cations to trees in the Emerald Lake area of Sequoia National Park. The field work was performed between July 15 and September 10, 1987. Teflon-coated and non-coated branches of native lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta) and western white pine (P. monticola), and potted seedlings of Coulter pine (P. coulteri) were rinsed using deionized-distilled water. Nylon and paper filters were exposed along with the vegetation, and were extracted in deionized-distilled water. The rinses and extracts were analyzed for concentrations of nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, chloride, fluoride, ammonium, and metallic cations. The deposition of nitrate to paper filters and to Coulter pine branches was significantly higher than deposition to the native conifers. Deposition of nitrate was significantly greater than deposition of sulfate, supporting earlier studies of chapparal in the South Coast Air Basin. Ammonium deposition was also quite high, suggesting that transport from the valley may be a significant source of dry deposition in the Sierra.

Bytnerowicz, A.; Olszyk, D.

1988-04-11

192

Characterization of Pin m III cDNA in western white pine.  

PubMed

Maximum accumulation of Pin m III protein in western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) needles occurred during the winter months. To characterize Pin m III, an expression cDNA library from poly(A)+ mRNA of needles was immunoscreened and the full length cDNA was cloned. An open reading frame of 486 bases encodes a protein of 161 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 18 kD and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.5. The deduced amino acid sequence had some similarities (37%) with an intracellular pathogenesis-related (PR) protein from garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) and the major pollen allergen from white birch (Betula verrucosa J. F. Ehrh.), which are members of the ribonuclease-like PR-10 family. Phylogenetic analysis provided circumstantial evidence that Pin m III may be grouped with intracellular PRs from asparagus and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), while the allergens formed another subgroup. Northern analysis showed that the Pin m III gene was preferentially expressed during cold acclimation with the highest expression in the fall and winter months, preceding the peak of Pin m III protein accumulation. Tissue specificity expression analysis indicated that the gene was strongly expressed in roots and twigs. Higher amounts of the homologous protein (Pin l I) and its transcript accumulated in sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) needles infected with blister rust compared with healthy needles. PMID:12651516

Yu, Xueshu; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K. M.; Misra, Santosh

2000-05-01

193

Identification and characterization of RAPD markers inferring genetic relationships among Pine species.  

PubMed

Total genomic DNAs were extracted from several populations of pine species and amplified using oligonucleotides of random sequences. Polymorphism in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was high and sufficient in distinguishing each of the species. Genetic relationships among eight pine species (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus strobus, Pinus rigida, Pinus resinosa, Pinus nigra, Pinus contorta, Pinus monticola, and Pinus banksiana) from different provenances were analyzed. The degree of band sharing was used to evaluate genetic distance between species and to construct a phylogenetic tree. In general, the dendrogram corroborated the description of relationships based on morphological characteristics and crossability, but also provided new insights into pine taxonomy. RAPD markers specific to some pine species were cloned and sequenced. PCR amplifications using pairs of designed specific primers revealed that all the cloned sequences were likely genus specific because they were not found in spruce or larch. True species-specific sequences were identified using designed primers flanking cloned RAPD fragments. The analysis of RAPD fragment sequences confirmed the genetic relationships among species. A 2281-bp RAPD band called PI-Mt-Stb-23 from P. strobus was used as a probe in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and produced distinct banding patterns for each species examined, consistent with the highly polymorphic character of DNA-fingerprinting probes. PMID:11908668

Nkongolo, K K; Michael, P; Gratton, W S

2002-02-01

194

Stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood tree species in the central cascades of Oregon.  

PubMed

Mature and old growth trees of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different tree species. Bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including bark) for four of the ten species. These predictions of sapwood volume were used to scale respiratory potential to the main-bole level (excluding all branches). On the core level, species that maintained narrow sapwood (8-16% of bole radius) such as Pseudotusga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata, had sapwood respiratory potentials in the lower bole that were 50% higher (P<0.05) than species with wide sapwood (>16% of bole radius), such as Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, and Tsuga heterophylla. This pattern was not observed for inner bark respiratory potential, or for sapwood respiratory potential within the crown. On the main-bole level, respiratory potential per unit volume was inversely correlated to the live bole volumetric fraction (inner bark plus sapwood divided by whole bole volume) (Adj. R(2)=0.6). Specifically, tree species with 18-20% of the main bole alive potentially respired 1.3-3 times more per unit live bole volume than species with over 40%, suggesting that the live bole was less metabolically active in tree species that maintained large volumes of sapwood. PMID:12844251

Pruyn, Michele L; Harmon, Mark E; Gartner, B L

2003-09-01

195

Effect of water table on willows grown in amended mine tailing.  

PubMed

Survival and growth characteristics of two montane riparian willow species, Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana Andersson) and mountain willow (Salix monticola Bebb), grown in amended fluvial mine tailing were investigated in a greenhouse study. Willow stem cuttings were planted in lysimeters that simulated a 60-cm amended tailing profile with three static water depths (20, 40, and 60 cm) and a fluctuating water table for a total of four water table treatments. Species and water table treatments affected plant biomass and chemical composition of the soil and plant tissue. Mountain willow leaf, stem, and root biomass were 62, 95, and 164% greater, respectively, than for Geyer willow. Averaging across species, the fluctuating water table negatively affected leaf and stem biomass compared with the 20- and 60-cm water table treatments. Manganese was the only metal in plant tissue to strongly respond to water table treatments. Manganese concentrations in mountain willow leaf tissue were approximately twofold higher in the two most saturated water table treatments (20 cm and fluctuating) than in the least saturated water table treatment (60 cm). This trend was consistent with chemical analyses of the growth media, which reflected higher bioavailable Mn in the saturated tailing profile compared with the unsaturated profile. Results from this study indicate that mountain willow is a more vigorous and possibly more metal-tolerant species than Geyer willow when grown in amended mine tailing and that a fluctuating water table negatively affects willow growth. PMID:15843641

Bourret, M M; Brummer, J E; Leininger, W C; Heil, D M

2005-01-01

196

Establishment and growth of two willow species in a riparian zone impacted by mine tailings.  

PubMed

A field study was initiated to determine survival, growth characteristics, and metal uptake of two montane riparian willow species, Geyer (Salix geyeriana Andersson) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow, grown in amended fluvial mine tailing deposits. Revegetation was done with staked and previously rooted cuttings to determine if planting method had an effect on successful establishment of willows. A second planting was done the following growing season which tested cuttings of different ages. The addition of lime increased the soil pH from 5.0 to 6.5 and effectively reduced bioavailability of most heavy metals below phytotoxic levels. However, both willow species, regardless of planting method, concentrated Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in their leaf tissue above levels considered toxic to agronomic plants. Over the course of four growing seasons, prerooted mountain willows had a consistently higher survival rate compared to staked willows. At the end of the fourth growing season, mountain willow had a higher survival rate and produced greater aboveground growth for both planting methods, irrespective of year planted, compared with Geyer willow. Based on growth characteristics, the use of prerooted mountain willows would be recommended for successful revegetation of amended fluvial mine tailing deposits in riparian zones. However, because of the high Cd uptake into aboveground tissues, care should be taken in restoration efforts where wildlife and domestic livestock are likely to browse on the willows. PMID:19244490

Bourret, Melody M; Brummer, Joe E; Leininger, Wayne C

2009-01-01

197

Phylogenetic relationships and geographic structure in pocket gophers in the genus Thomomys.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships among pocket gophers were examined based on the complete sequence for the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 base pairs). The tribe Geomyini (Geomys, Orthogeomys, Cratogeomys, and Pappogeomys) was well differentiated from the tribe Thomomyini (Thomomys), using the heteromyid genera Dipodomys and Perognathus as the out-group. Within the genus Thomomys, the species in the subgenus Thomomys (T. talpoides, T. monticola, and T. mazama) differed from those in the subgenus Megascapheus (T. bottae, T. townsendii, and T. umbrinus) by an average of 19.3% uncorrected sequence divergence. Extensive sampling within one species, T. bottae, revealed strongly differentiated geographic units, with a maximum difference among localities of 15.7%. The geographic units within T. bottae coincided with geographic regions based on allozyme data in some areas, but not at all boundaries. The geographic units within currently recognized species in the bottae group (subgenus Megascapheus) were not grouped together with a high level of confidence. The pattern suggests a rapid radiation of the bottae group, followed by geographic subdivision. PMID:9479688

Smith, M F

1998-02-01

198

Genome evolution in pocket gophers (genus Thomomys). I. Heterochromatin variation and speciation potential.  

PubMed

A basic dichotomy exists in the amount and chromosomal position of constitutive heterochromatin (C-bands) in species of pocket gophers, genus Thomomys. Members of the "talpoides-group" of species (e.g., T. talpoides and T. monticola) have C-bands restricted to the centromeric regions. These taxa are characterized by Robertsonian patterns of karyotypic evolution. In contrast, species within the "bottae-group" are characterized by extensive amounts of heterochromatin, placed as whole-arm and apparent whole-chromosome (T. bottae) or as large interstitial blocks (T. umbrinus). These species are characterized by extensive non-Robertsonian variation in karyotype, variation which may be expressed from local population polymorphism to between population or species polytypy. Within T. bottae, the number of whole-arm heterochromatic autosomes is inversely proportional to the number of uniarmed chromosomes in the complement, which ranges from 0 to 36 across the species populations. In all-biarmed karyotypic populations, upward to 60 percent of the linear length of the genome is composed of heterochromatin. Populations with extensive heterochromatin variation and those with similar amounts meet and hybridize freely in nature. The implications of these date for current ideas on the function of heterochromatin, particularly as related to speciation models, are discussed. PMID:7117026

Patton, J L; Sherwood, S W

1982-01-01

199

Cuticular Compounds Bring New Insight in the Post-Glacial Recolonization of a Pyrenean Area: Deutonura deficiens Deharveng, 1979 Complex, a Case Study  

PubMed Central

Background In most Arthropod groups, the study of systematics and evolution rely mostly on neutral characters, in this context cuticular compounds, as non-neutral characters, represent an underexplored but potentially informative type of characters at the infraspecific level as they have been routinely proven to be involved in sexual attraction. Methods and Findings The collembolan species complex Deutonura deficiens was chosen as a model in order to test the utility of these characters for delineating four infraspecific entities of this group. Specimens were collected for three subspecies (D. d. deficiens, D. d. meridionalis, D. d. sylvatica) and two morphotypes (D. d. sylvatica morphoype A and B) of the complex; an additional species D. monticola was added. Cuticular compounds were extracted and separated by gas chromatography for each individual. Our results demonstrate that cuticular compounds succeeded in separating the different elements of this complex. Those data allowed also the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships among them. Conclusions The discriminating power of cuticular compounds is directly related to their involvement in sexual attraction and mate recognition. These findings allowed a discussion on the potential involvement of intrinsic and paleoclimatic factors in the origin and the diversification of this complex in the Pyrenean zone. This character type brings the first advance from pattern to process concerning the origin of this species complex. PMID:21209797

Porco, David; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis

2010-01-01

200

Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes.

Humar, Miha [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Rozna dolina, c. VIII/34, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: miha.humar@bf.uni-lj.si; Amartey, Sam A. [Forest Products Research Center, Buckinghamshire Chilterns, University College, High Wycombe HP11 2JZ (United Kingdom); Pohleven, Franc [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Rozna dolina, c. VIII/34, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2006-07-01

201

Where is the game? Wild meat products authentication in South Africa: a case study  

PubMed Central

Background Wild animals meat is extensively consumed in South Africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. To test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained DNA sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. The reliability of species assignments were evaluated using BLAST searches in GenBank, maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis and the character-based method implemented in BLOG. The Kimura-2-parameter intra- and interspecific variation was evaluated for all matched species. Results The combined application of similarity, phylogenetic and character-based methods proved successful in species identification. Game meat samples showed 76.5% substitution, no beef samples were substituted. The substitutions showed a variety of domestic species (cattle, horse, pig, lamb), common game species in the market (kudu, gemsbok, ostrich, impala, springbok), uncommon species in the market (giraffe, waterbuck, bushbuck, duiker, mountain zebra) and extra-continental species (kangaroo). The mountain zebra Equus zebra is an International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red listed species. We also detected Damaliscus pygargus, which is composed of two subspecies with one listed by IUCN as near threatened; however, these mitochondrial fragments were insufficient to distinguish between the subspecies. The genetic distance between African ungulate species often overlaps with within-species distance in cases of recent speciation events, and strong phylogeographic structure determines within-species distances that are similar to the commonly accepted distances between species. Conclusions The reliability of commercial labeling of game meat in South Africa is very poor. The extensive substitution of wild game has important implications for conservation and commerce, and for the consumers making decisions on the basis of health, religious beliefs or personal choices. Distance would be a poor indicator for identification of African ungulates species. The efficiency of the character-based method is reliant upon availability of large reference data. The current higher availability of cytochrome b data would make this the marker of choice for African ungulates. The encountered problems of incomplete or erroneous information in databases are discussed. PMID:23452350

2013-01-01

202

Orientation behavior of the predator Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) to hemlock woolly adelgid and host tree odors in a multi-chambered olfactometer.  

PubMed

We studied the adult ambulatory response of the predator, Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), to odors from its prey, Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid, and foliage of hemlock woolly adelgid, host hemlocks (Tsuga spp.), and other conifers. Both the predator and hemlock woolly adelgid are apparently native to western North America, but the predator is being released in the eastern United States, which has different hemlock species, for biological control of a lineage of hemlock woolly adelgid inadvertently introduced from Japan. L. nigrinus responded to odors from hemlock woolly adelgid host trees, but not to odors from hemlock woolly adelgid. L. nigrinus collected from hemlock woolly adelgid-infested western hemlock were more strongly attracted to odors from western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Rafinesque) Sargent] than eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrire] in most trials. Odors from western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) and white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] were as attractive as western hemlock odors whereas odors from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii (Mirbel)] and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) were avoided. L. nigrinus reared on hemlock woolly adelgid-infested eastern hemlock in the laboratory were lethargic and were not attracted to either eastern or western hemlock odors. Predators collected in the field and tested monthly from December to March responded similarly each month, except February, when they flew rather than walked in the olfactometer, suggesting a period of dispersal or mate finding at that time of year. The implications of these results for programs to release L. nigrinus in the eastern United States for control of hemlock woolly adelgid are discussed. PMID:22251687

Wallin, Kimberly F; Latty, Tanya M; Ross, Darrell W

2011-08-01

203

Reconstructing a Past Climate Using Current Multi-species' Climate Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of a ghost forest on WhiteWing Mt at 3000 m in the eastern Sierra Nevada, southeast of Yosemite NP. Killed by a volcanic eruption about 650 years ago, the deadwood on WhiteWing dates by standard tree-ring analysis to 800-1330 CE, during the Medieval Warm Anomaly. Individual stems have been identified by wood anatomical characteristics as Pinus albicualis, P. monticola, P. jeffreyi, P. contorta, P. lambertiana, and Tsuga mertensiana. With the exception of P. albicualis, which is currently in krummholz form at this elevation, the other species are 200 m or more lower in elevation. One, P. lambertiana, is west of the Sierran crest and 600 m lower in elevation. Assuming that climatic conditions on Whitewing during this period were mutually compatible with all species, we reconstruct this climate by the intersection of the current climatic spaces of these species. We did this by first generating individual species' ranges in the Sierran ecoregions through selecting vegetation GIS polygons from the California Gap Analysis database (UCSB) that contain the individual species. Climatic spaces for each species were generated by the GIS intersection of its polygons with 4 km gridded polygons from PRISM climatic estimates (OSU); this was done for annual, January, and July maximum and minimum temperature, and precipitation, merged together for each species. Climatic intersections of the species were generated from the misclassified polygons of a discriminant analysis of species by the climatic data. The average data from these misclassified polygons suggest that the climate on WhiteWing during the existence of this forest community was 230 mm, 1oC, and 3oC greater than present in precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperature, respectively.

Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.

2004-12-01

204

Anti-microbial peptide (AMP): nucleotide variation, gene expression, and host resistance in the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathosystem.  

PubMed

Pinus monticola antimicrobial peptide (PmAMP1) inhibits growth of Cronartium ribicola and other fungal pathogens. C. ribicola causes white pine blister rust and has resulted in a dramatic reduction of native white pines across North America. Quantitative disease resistance (QDR) is a highly desirable trait screened in breeding programs for durable resistance against C. ribicola. Along with phenotyping on a collection of germplasms, we analyzed PmAMP1 transcript and protein expression and re-sequenced the full-length gene including its promoter region. A mixed linear model was used to identify the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with accumulated protein and stem QDR levels. Among 16 PmAMP1 SNPs identified in the present study, we found an association of protein levels with 6 SNPs (P<0.05), including 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 3 in the open reading frame (ORF) region with 2 nonsynonymous SNPs, and 1 SNP in the 3'-UTR. Another set of six SNPs was associated with stem QDR levels (P<0.05), with one localized in the promoter region and the other five in the ORF region with four nonsynonymous changes, suggesting that multiple isoforms may have antifungal activity to differing degrees. Of three common PmAMP1 haplotypes, the trees with haplotype 2 showed high QDR levels with moderate protein abundance while those trees with haplotype 3 exhibited low QDR levels in the susceptible range and the lowest level of protein accumulation. Thus, an association of gene variations with protein abundance and resistance-related traits may facilitate elucidation of physiological contribution of PmAMP1 to host resistance. PMID:22968909

Liu, Jun-Jun; Zamany, Arezoo; Sniezko, Richard A

2013-01-01

205

Eyeing emergence: modified treatments for terminating dormancy of conifer seeds.  

PubMed

Many seeds of coniferous species display a deep primary dormancy at maturity and require several weeks of pretreatment to produce seed populations that germinate in a vigorous and timely manner. Facilitating an efficient transition from dormancy to germination by devising improved protocols for dormancy breakage is not only important to conifer seed research, aiding in the study of the dormancy process itself, but is also of interest and applicability to commercial forest nursery operations. In the forests of British Columbia, Canada, several conifer species are well-adapted to their environment, with seeds needing to experience long durations in the moist state at cool or fluctuating temperatures. These include yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and true fir species, such as Pacific silver fir and subalpine fir (Abies amabilis and A. lasiocarpa, respectively). In this chapter, we discuss the development of new dormancy-breaking protocols for the aforementioned species that centre on the balance of several key aspects: (1) reducing the time needed to terminate dormancy in the seed population; (2) synchronicity of germination; (3) ease of use; (4) cost-effectiveness; and (5) repeatability. Where possible, any new or modified protocol should be further tested in relationship to promoting rapid seedling growth in a forest nursery greenhouse setting and after planting at natural stands. Based on the five criteria listed above, very significant improvements compared to traditional dormancy-breaking methods have been achieved for the targeted conifer species. Where tested (e.g. yellow-cedar), the modified dormancy-breaking treatments result in vigorous growth in the greenhouse and after planting at natural stands. PMID:21898249

Feurtado, J Allan; Kermode, Allison R

2011-01-01

206

Genetic specificity in the white pine-blister rust pathosystem.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Four of eight white pine species native to western North America surveyed for resistance to white pine blister rust by artificial inoculation showed classical hypersensitive reactions (HR) at frequencies ranging from very low to moderate. Mendelian segregation, indicating a single dominant allele for resistance (Cr3), was observed in southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis), as it was previously in sugar pine (P. lambertiana, Cr1) and western white pine (P. monticola, Cr2). HR was present at a relatively high frequency (19%) in one of five bulk seed lot sources of limber pine (P. flexilis), and was also presumed to be conditioned by a single gene locus, by analogy with the other three species. HR was not found in whitebark pine (P. albcaulis), Mexican white pine (P. ayacahuite), foxtail pine (P. balfouriana), or Great Basin bristlecone pine (P. longaeva), but population and sample sizes in these species may have been below the level of detection of alleles in low frequency. When challenged by (haploid) inocula from specific locations known to harbor virulence to Cr1 or Cr2, genotypes carrying these alleles and Cr3 reacted differentially, such that inoculum virulent to Cr1 was avirulent to Cr2, and inoculum virulent to Cr2 was avirulent to Cr1. Neither of these two inocula was capable of neutralizing Cr3. Although blister rust traditionally is considered an exotic disease in North America, these results, typical of classic gene-for-gene interactions, suggest that genetic memory of similar encounters in past epochs has been retained in this pathosystem. PMID:18943999

Kinloch, Bohun B; Dupper, Gayle E

2002-03-01

207

Origin and distribution of cr2, a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in natural populations of Western white pine.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The distribution and frequency of the Cr2 gene for resistance to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) in western white pine (Pinus monticola) was surveyed in natural populations of the host by inoculation of open-pollinated seedlings from 687 individual seed parents from throughout most of the species' range. Because Cr2 is dominant and results in a conspicuous hypersensitive reaction (HR) in pine needles, the phenotype can readily be detected in offspring of susceptible seed parents fertilized by unknown Cr2 donors in the ambient pollen cloud. Gametic frequencies of Cr2 were thus determined as the proportion of total challenged seedlings that were pollen receptors exhibiting the Cr2 phenotype. Zygotic frequencies, the proportion of seed parents with progeny that segregated in Mendelian ratios for the Cr2 phenotype to the total number of parents, were a complementary, though less precise, measure. Cr2 frequency was rare overall, ranging from 0.004 to 0.008 in the Sierra Nevada to about 0.001 in the central Cascade Range; it was undetectable further north in the Cascades, as well as in the Rocky Mountains and Coast Mountains of the United States and Canada. The diminishing frequency of Cr2 from the southern and central Sierra Nevada northward mirrors that of Cr1 in sugar pine (P. lambertiana) and points to this region as the origin of both genes. We rationalize that this coincidence may have resulted from protection that these genes may have conferred on both species to an endemic pine stem rust congeneric with C. ribicola (C. occidentale) in recent geologic epochs. PMID:18943055

Kinloch, Bohun B; Sniezko, Richard A; Dupper, Gayle E

2003-06-01

208

Manganese and zinc toxicity thresholds for mountain and Geyer willow.  

PubMed

Information on the heavy metal toxicity thresholds of woody species endemic to the western United States is lacking but critical for successful restoration of contaminated riparian areas. Manganese (Mn, 50-10,000 mg l(-1)) and zinc (Zn, 100-1000 mg l(-1)) toxicity thresholds were determined for Geyer (Salix geyeriana Anderss.) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow using a sand-culture technique. The lethal concentration (50%) values were 3117 and 2791 mg Mn l(-1) and 556 and 623 mg Zn l(-1) for Geyer and mountain willow, respectively. The effective concentration (50%) values for shoots were 2263 and 1027 mg Mn l(-1) and 436 and 356 mg Zn l(-1) for Geyer and mountain willow, respectively. Shoot tissue values did not increase with increasing treatment concentrations. However, metals in the roots did increase consistently in response to the treatments. Metal levels in the shoot tissues were low for Zn (65-139 mg kg(-1)) and moderate for Mn (1300-2700 mg kg(-1)). Geyer and mountain willow have good resistance to Mn, possibly due to evolution in hydric soils with increased Mn availability, and may be useful for phytostabilization of soils with high levels of available Mn. Both species were affected to a greater degree by Zn as compared to Mn, but still exhibited good resistance and should be useful in remediating sites with at least moderate levels of available Zn. Based on the thresholds evaluated, Geyer willow had greater resistance to both Mn and Zn as compared to mountain willow, especially at lower concentrations in which growth of Geyer willow was actually stimulated. PMID:18246728

Shanahan, Jennifer O; Brummer, Joe E; Leininger, Wayne C; Paschke, Mark W

2007-01-01

209

A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipansis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2329 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the peculiar reproductive biology of Arachis. PMID:23131301

Moretzsohn, Marcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, Jose F. M.; Bertioli, David J.

2013-01-01

210

Effect of Liquid Nitrogen Storage on Seed Germination of 51 Tree Species  

E-print Network

Two liquid nitrogen storage experiments were performed on 51 tree species. In experiment 1, seeds of 9 western tree species were placed in a liquid nitrogen tank for 3 time periods: 24 hours, 4 weeks, and 222 days. A corresponding control sample accompanied each treatment. For three species, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus jefferyi, and Pinus contorta, the germination percent was not significantly different from the controls in any of the liquid nitrogen treatments. Exposure to 24 hours of liquid nitrogen did not affect the germination percent for any of the 9 species compared to their controls. Two species, Abies x shastensis and Picea engelmannii, exhibited a significant negative response to 4 weeks exposure to liquid nitrogen. Four species Abies amabilis, Abies concolor, Pinus monticola, and Pseudotsuga menziesii, exhibited a significant positive response to the 222-day exposure to liquid nitrogen when compared with Control D. Experiment 2 examined the germination response to liquid nitrogen storage after a 24 hour exposure for 42 tree species. The germination percent for nine of the 42 species, Acer rubra, Celtis occidentalis, Lonicera tartarica, Malus prunifolia, Physiocarpus opulifiolius, Pinus banksiana, Pinus clausa, Pinus nigra, and Pinus rigida, was significantly affected by 24 hours exposure to liquid nitrogen. Liquid nitrogen exposure had a negative affect on germination for 7 species and a positive effect for 2 species, Pinus nigra, and Pinus rigida. Only 8 species had enough data to calculate the correlation coefficient between moisture content and germination after exposure to liquid nitrogen. Correlations were significant for 4 species. Two species, Abies fraseri and Liriodendron tulipfera had negative correlations; two species, Pinus ponderosa and Pinus taeda had positive correlations.

unknown authors

211

Assessing the effects of changing climate on the transformation and vulnerability of coupled hydrologic, ecologic, and human systems using an interdisciplinary spatiotemporal methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. northern Rocky Mountain (NRM) region is particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, which include rapid shifts in the rain-snow transition zone, earlier spring snowmelt, prolonged dry seasons, and concomitant impacts on coupled ecological and human systems. The extent to which these hydroclimatic changes are projected to alter widespread disturbance events (e.g.: bark beetle outbreaks, wildfires, and rain-on-snow induced floods) and influence the long-term health and sustainability of coupled social-ecological systems in the NRM is not well understood. Methods that integrate these disciplines are essential to understand how changing environmental conditions impact tree species distributions, disturbance regimes, and people in nearby communities. We are investigating the spatiotemporal relationships between current (past 10 years) and projected (next 30 - 50 years) shifts in: 1) the location of the rain-snow transition zone and its future movement into higher elevations, 2) the zone created by the upslope movement of the lower elevation terminus of two mid-elevation tree species (western larch [Larix occidentalis] and western white pine [Pinus monticola]), 3) the extent of widespread, severe crown fires in the greater Idaho and Montana region and their proximity to, or correlation with, these zones of projected hydrologic vulnerability, and 4) the location and socio-economic dynamics of NRM human population centers and their changing levels of natural hazard risk from disturbance events. This overlay analysis displays the proximity of these changes to one another, and identifies potential zones in the NRM that are likely to experience the greatest cumulative effects of regional climate change near human population centers. Ultimately, this spatiotemporal methodology identifies areas best suited for additional interdisciplinary research that investigates the processes and mechanisms which link hydroclimatic changes to shifts in hydrologic regime, tree species distribution, disturbance events, and socio-economic community dynamics.

Klos, P. Z.; Kemp, K. B.; Blades, J. J.; Link, T. E.; Morgan, P.; Higuera, P. E.; Hall, T. E.; Northern Rockies Team

2010-12-01

212

Is Dicroglossidae Anderson, 1871 (Amphibia, Anura) an available nomen?  

PubMed

Anderson (1871a: 38) mentioned the family nomen Dicroglossidae, without any comment, in a list of specimens of the collections of the Indian Museum of Calcutta (now the Zoological Survey of India). He referred to this family a single species, Xenophrys monticola, a nomen given by Gnther (1864) to a species of Megophryidae from Darjeeling and Khasi Hills (India) which has a complex nomenclatural history (Dubois 1989, 1992; Deuti et al. submitted). Dubois (1987: 57), considering that the nomen Dicroglossidae had been based on the generic nomen Dicroglossus Gnther, 1860, applied it to a family group taxon, the tribe Dicroglossini, for which he proposed a diagnosis. The genus Dicroglossus had been erected by Gnther (1860), 11 years before Anderson's (1871a) paper, for the unique species Dicroglossus adolfi. Boulenger (1882: 17) stated that this specific nomen was a subjective junior synonym of Rana cyanophlyctis Schneider, 1799, and therefore Dicroglossus a subjective junior synonym of Rana Linnaeus, 1758 (Boulenger, 1882: 7). The synonymy of these two species nomina has been accepted as valid until now by all authors, and we here confirm it, having examined the symphoronts (syntypes) of Rana cyanophlyctis (ZMB 3198, adult female, SVL 50.0 mm; ZMB 3197, adult female, SVL 44.7 mm) and of Dicroglossus adolfi (BMNH 1947.2.4.60, adult female, SVL 38.6 mm; BMNH 1947.2.4.61, adult male, SVL 33.1 mm; BMNH 1947.2.25.46, adult male, SVL 39.0 mm). Dubois (1980: 158, 1981: 238) referred the species cyanophlyctis to the genus Euphlyctis Fitzinger, 1843, where is still stands nowadays (Frost et al. 2006; Joshy et al. 2009). The nomen Dicroglossini was subsequently upgraded to the rank subfamily, as Dicroglossinae (Dubois 1992: 309, 313; Roelants et al. 2004: 732), then to the rank family, as Dicroglossidae (Frost et al. 2006: 241). The taxon at stake is currently recognized as valid by most authors, as the family Dicroglossidae Anderson, 1871 (Roelants et al. 2007; Fei et al. 2010: 25; Blackburn & Wake 2011: 42; Pyron & Wiens 2011: 579; Fei et al. 2012: 436; Vitt & Caldwell 2014: 510). PMID:25081801

Ohler, Annemarie; Dubois, Alain

2014-01-01

213

Postglacial fire, vegetation, and climate history across an elevational gradient in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA and Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 13,100-year-long high-resolution pollen and charcoal record from Foy Lake in western Montana is compared with a network of vegetation and fire-history records from the Northern Rocky Mountains. New and previously published results were stratified by elevation into upper and lower and tree line to explore the role of Holocene climate variability on vegetation dynamics and fire regimes. During the cooler and drier Lateglacial period, ca 13,000 cal yr BP, sparsely vegetated Picea parkland occupied Foy Lake as well as other low- and high-elevations with a low incidence of fire. During the warmer early Holocene, from ca 11,000-7500 cal yr BP, low-elevation records, including Foy, indicate significant restructuring of regional vegetation as Lateglacial Picea parkland gave way to a mixed forest of Pinus-Pseudotsuga-Larix. In contrast, upper tree line sites (ca >2000 m) supported Pinus albicaulis and/or P. monticola-Abies-Picea forests in the Lateglacial and early Holocene. Regionally, biomass burning gradually increased from the Lateglacial times through the middle Holocene. However, upper tree line fire-history records suggest several climate-driven decreases in biomass burning centered at 11,500, 8500, 4000, 1600 and 500 cal yr BP. In contrast, lower tree line records generally experienced a gradual increase in biomass burning from the Lateglacial to ca 8000 cal yr BP, then reduced fire activity until a late Holocene maximum at 1800 cal yr BP, as structurally complex mesophytic forests at Foy Lake and other sites supported mixed-severity fire regimes. During the last two millennia, fire activity decreased at low elevations as modern forests developed and the climate became cooler and wetter than before. Embedded within these long-term trends are high amplitude variations in both vegetation dynamics and biomass burning. High-elevation paleoecological reconstructions tend to be more responsive to long-term changes in climate forcing related to growing-season temperature. Low-elevation records in the NRM have responded more abruptly to changes in effective precipitation during the late Holocene. Prolonged droughts, including those between 1200 and 800 cal yr BP, and climatic cooling during the last few centuries continues to influence vegetation and fire regimes at low elevation while increasing temperature has increased biomass burning in high elevations.

Power, M. J.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P. J.

2011-09-01

214

The hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Malagasy region taxonomic revision of the T. naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups  

PubMed Central

Abstract The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps. PMID:25009414

Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

2014-01-01

215

Root-specific expression of a western white pine PR10 gene is mediated by different promoter regions in transgenic tobacco.  

PubMed

We report here the isolation and characterization of a novel PR10 gene, PmPR10-1.14, from western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex. D. Don). The PmPR10-1.14 gene encodes a polypeptide exhibiting high similarity with other members of the PR10 family and corresponds to one of six isoforms immunodetected in the roots of western white pine. Northern blot and western immunoblot analyses showed that expression of the PR10 gene family, including PmPR10-1.14, was detected in vegetative tissues constitutively, but not in developing reproductive organs. RT-PCR with gene-specific primers showed that the transcript of PmPR10-1.14 gene was found only in lateral roots and needles during growth. To study PR10 gene regulation at the cellular level, PmPR10-1.14 promoter was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) report gene, and analyzed for transient and stable gene expression. The transient expression assays in agroinfiltrated tobacco leaves indicated that the core promoter of PmPR10-1.14 gene resided in the sequence from -101 to +69 relative to the first nucleotide of PR10 cDNA. Furthermore, the promoter region from -311 to -101 acted as an enhancer, and the region from -506 to -311 as a silencer. Fluorometric GUS assays of transgenic tobacco plants demonstrated that the longest promoter of 1675 bp directed GUS expression constitutively at high levels in the roots of mature plants, but expression levels were too low to be detectable in other organs in histochemical assays. Histochemical localization analysis showed that PmPR10-1.14 promoter directed a tissue-specific expression exclusively during the initiation and development of the lateral roots. The distal 5' deletion of the promoter to -311 did not decrease the expression level significantly in the roots, suggesting that the cis-regulatory elements necessary for a high level of gene expression reside in the proximal fragment from -311 to +69. As one striking feature, PmPR10-1.14 promoter contains two copies of direct repeated sequences as long as 281 bp at its distal 5' region. Deletion of one copy (-1326 to -1045) or both copies (-1675 to -1045) of the repeated sequences increased gene expression significantly in leaves and stems, which was regulated developmentally. Further deletion to -820 erased the increased gene expression in leaves and stems. These experiments revealed that the root-specific expression of PmPR10-1.14 gene is mediated by different promoter regions with both negative and positive regulatory mechanisms in transgenic tobacco plants. PMID:12825693

Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

2003-05-01

216

Time-series analysis of delta13C from tree rings. I. Time trends and autocorrelation.  

PubMed

Univariate time-series analyses were conducted on stable carbon isotope ratios obtained from tree-ring cellulose. We looked for the presence and structure of autocorrelation. Significant autocorrelation violates the statistical independence assumption and biases hypothesis tests. Its presence would indicate the existence of lagged physiological effects that persist for longer than the current year. We analyzed data from 28 trees (60-85 years old; mean = 73 years) of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca) growing in northern Idaho. Material was obtained by the stem analysis method from rings laid down in the upper portion of the crown throughout each tree's life. The sampling protocol minimized variation caused by changing light regimes within each tree. Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models were used to describe the autocorrelation structure over time. Three time series were analyzed for each tree: the stable carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C); discrimination (delta); and the difference between ambient and internal CO(2) concentrations (c(a) - c(i)). The effect of converting from ring cellulose to whole-leaf tissue did not affect the analysis because it was almost completely removed by the detrending that precedes time-series analysis. A simple linear or quadratic model adequately described the time trend. The residuals from the trend had a constant mean and variance, thus ensuring stationarity, a requirement for autocorrelation analysis. The trend over time for c(a) - c(i) was particularly strong (R(2) = 0.29-0.84). Autoregressive moving average analyses of the residuals from these trends indicated that two-thirds of the individual tree series contained significant autocorrelation, whereas the remaining third were random (white noise) over time. We were unable to distinguish between individuals with and without significant autocorrelation beforehand. Significant ARMA models were all of low order, with either first- or second-order (i.e., lagged 1 or 2 years, respectively) models performing well. A simple autoregressive (AR(1)), model was the most common. The most useful generalization was that the same ARMA model holds for each of the three series (delta(13)C, delta, c(a) - c(i)) for an individual tree, if the time trend has been properly removed for each series. The mean series for the two pine species were described by first-order ARMA models (1-year lags), whereas the Douglas-fir mean series were described by second-order models (2-year lags) with negligible first-order effects. Apparently, the process of constructing a mean time series for a species preserves an underlying signal related to delta(13)C while canceling some of the random individual tree variation. Furthermore, the best model for the overall mean series (e.g., for a species) cannot be inferred from a consensus of the individual tree model forms, nor can its parameters be estimated reliably from the mean of the individual tree parameters. Because two-thirds of the individual tree time series contained significant autocorrelation, the normal assumption of a random structure over time is unwarranted, even after accounting for the time trend. The residuals of an appropriate ARMA model satisfy the independence assumption, and can be used to make hypothesis tests. PMID:11581016

Monserud, R A; Marshall, J D

2001-09-01

217

Co-occurring species differ in tree-ring delta(18)O trends.  

PubMed

The stable oxygen isotope ratio (delta(18)O) of tree-ring cellulose is jointly determined by the delta(18)O of xylem water, the delta(18)O of atmospheric water vapor, the humidity of the atmosphere and perhaps by species-specific differences in leaf structure and function. Atmospheric humidity and the delta(18)O of water vapor vary seasonally and annually, but if the canopy atmosphere is well mixed, atmospheric characteristics should be uniform among co-occurring trees. In contrast, xylem water delta(18)O is determined by the delta(18)O of water being drawn from the soil, which varies with depth. If co-occurring trees draw water from different soil depths, this soil-water delta(18)O signal would be manifest as differences in delta(18)O among the trees. We examined the variation in tree ring delta(18)O, over eight decades during the 20th Century, among three species co-occurring in natural forest stands of the northern Rocky Mountains in the USA. We sampled 10 Douglas-firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca), 10 ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) and seven western white pines (Pinus monticola Dougl.). As expected, variation in atmospheric conditions was recorded in the delta(18)O of the cellulose produced in a given year, but observed climatic correlations with delta(18)O were weak. Significant correlations with June climate data included: daily maximum temperature (r = 0.29), daily minimum temperature (r = -0.25), mean temperature (r = 0.20), mean daily precipitation (r = -0.54), vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.32) and solar radiation (r = 0.44). Lagged effects were observed in Douglas-fir and western white pine. In these species, the delta(18)O of a given annual ring was correlated with the delta(18)O of the previous ring. Ponderosa pine showed no significant autocorrelation. Although the species means were correlated among years (r = 0.67 to 0.76), ponderosa pine was consistently enriched in delta(18)O relative to the other species; differences were close to 2 per thousand and they are steadily increasing. Relative to the mean for the three species, ponderosa pine is becoming steadily more enriched (-1.0 per thousand). In contrast, Douglas-fir is being steadily depleted and western pine is intermediate, with an enrichment of 0.5 per thousand. Because all trees were exposed to the same atmospheric conditions, the differences in delta(18)O observed between species are likely due either to differences in the depth of water extraction or leaf function. If the former, presumably ponderosa pine has steadily taken up more water from near the soil surface and Douglas-fir has shifted uptake to a greater depth. If the latter, we suggest the pronounced changes in leaf-water delta(18)O are a result of changes in leaf structure and function with tree size and age. PMID:16651255

Marshall, John D; Monserud, Robert A

2006-08-01