Logging operations brought a boom in the bushmeat trade and wildlife management projects into the heart of the forest in southeastern Cameroon. Hunting pressure on duikers (Cephalophus spp.) reached an unsustainable level because of the intensified hunting in areas close to roads. Control of the bushmeat trade was then reinforced, and the hunting subsided. The excessive control of hunting, however,
This paper is based on a study about the bushmeat hunting of a small antelope held in an eastern cameroonian forest village (Djemiong). This study aims at understanding how the organization of the hunting activity between the villagers may constitute a management scheme. The major hunted species is the blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola Thunberg). Surveys have been conducted to understand
F. Bousquet; Ch. LePage; I. Bakam; A. Takforyan
Duikers Cephalophus spp. are an important source of food and income throughout the forest regions of Central and West Africa, and current levels of hunting are probably unsustainable, at least near large settlements. The direct effects of hunting consist of two main aspects: overexploitation of target species, and incidental hunting of non-targeted or rare species because hunting is largely non-selective.
Background Duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae are a group of tropical forest mammals believed to have first originated during the late Miocene. However, knowledge of phylogenetic relationships, pattern and timing of their subsequent radiation is poorly understood. Here we present the first multi-locus phylogeny of this threatened group of tropical artiodactyls and use a Bayesian uncorrelated molecular clock to estimate divergence times. Results A total of 4152 bp of sequence data was obtained from two mitochondrial genes and four nuclear introns. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis of concatenated mitochondrial, nuclear and combined datasets. A relaxed molecular clock with two fossil calibration points was used to estimate divergence times. The first was based on the age of the split between the two oldest subfamilies within the Bovidae whereas the second was based on the earliest known fossil appearance of the Cephalophinae and molecular divergence time estimates for the oldest lineages within this group. Findings indicate strong support for four major lineages within the subfamily, all of which date to the late Miocene/early Pliocene. The first of these to diverge was the dwarf duiker genus Philantomba, followed by the giant, eastern and western red duiker lineages, all within the genus Cephalophus. While these results uphold the recognition of Philantomba, they do not support the monotypic savanna-specialist genus Sylvicapra, which as sister to the giant duikers leaves Cephalophus paraphyletic. BEAST analyses indicate that most sister species pairs originated during the Pleistocene, suggesting that repeated glacial cycling may have played an important role in the recent diversification of this group. Furthermore, several red duiker sister species pairs appear to be either paraphyletic (C.callipygus/C. ogilbyi and C. harveyi/C. natalensis) or exhibit evidence of mitochondrial admixture (C. nigrifrons and C. rufilatus), consistent with their recent divergence and/or possible hybridization with each other. Conclusions Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest that Pleistocene-era climatic oscillations have played an important role in the speciation of this largely forest-dwelling group. Our results also reveal the most well supported species phylogeny for the subfamily to date, but also highlight several areas of inconsistency between our current understanding of duiker taxonomy and the evolutionary relationships depicted here. These findings may therefore prove particularly relevant to future conservation efforts, given that many species are presently regulated under the Convention for Trade in Endangered Species.
Using a sequence-based approach, we investigated the transmission of diverse fungal endophytes in seed and needles of Pinus monticola, western white pine. We isolated 2003 fungal endophytes from 750 surface-sterilized needles. In contrast, only 16 endophytic isolates were obtained from 800 surface-sterilized seeds. The ITS region was sequenced from a representative selection of these endophytes. Isolates were then assigned to the most closely related taxa in GenBank. Although 95% of the endophytes in needles from mature trees belonged to the Rhytismataceae, 82 unique ITS sequences were obtained from at least 21 genera and 10 different orders of fungi. Significantly, none of the endophytes in seed were rhytismataceous (chi(2) = 180; P < 0.001). Similarly, needles of greenhouse seedlings yielded only non-rhytismataceous isolates, whereas seedlings of the same age that had naturally regenerated near older white pines in roadless areas were colonized by rhytismataceous endophytes almost to the same extent as in mature trees. Only one of 17 rhytismataceous isolates were able to grow on a medium containing only 0.17% nitrogen, whereas 25 of 31 non-rhytismataceous endophytes grew. Rhytismataceous endophytes are dominant in needles of P. monticola, but they appear to be absent in seed, and unlikely colonists of nitrogen-limiting host tissues such as the apoplast. PMID:16492396
Ganley, Rebecca J; Newcombe, George
We report on the isolation of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci from mountain mullet (Agonostomus monticola). In the two populations sampled, loci exhibited two to 21 alleles and observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.222 to 1.000. All loci conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, and none exhibited linkage disequilibrium. Although A. monticola is an important subsistence fishery in parts of its range, little is known about its ecology and many populations appear to be experiencing declines. These microsatellite loci should prove useful in the study of population structure of A. monticola and aid in other potential conservation efforts such as the management of hatchery broodstock. PMID:21564939
Feldheim, Kevin A; Sanchez, Patrick J; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R
The specific features of distribution of Neotrombicula (N) monticola Schluger et Davidov, 1967 on small mammals were studied in the Tien Shan montains (Kirghiz ridge). N. (N ) monticola was found to occur in all the places under study. Nine species of mammals (pigmy white-toothed shrew, dwarf hamster, tamarisk gerbil, Turkestan rat, long-tailed mouse, Tien Shan, Kirghiz, and silver voles, and wood mouse) were established to be feeders of larvae of the ticks. N. (N) monticola larvae were detected in three topographic zones and seven portions of the body of vertebral hosts. The inner auricle is the major site of tick attachment to the host. Preference of N. (N) monticola in selecting the host is likely to be based on the morphophysiological features of partners. PMID:17912838
Chirov, P A; Kharadov, A V
Key Word Index--Arceuthobium siskiyouense; A. monticola; Viscaceae; electrophoresis; allozymes. Abstract--Genetic relationships among eight populations of two new species of Arceuthobium from the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon were determined. The principal host of A. siskiyouense is Pinus attenuata (knobcone pine) whereas A. monticola is parasitic primar- ily on R mondcola (western white pine). Arceuthobium siskiyouense
D Nickrent; THERESE L. BUTLERT
Sixteen grey duikers were culled on the farm Riekert 's Laager in the central Transvaal at irregular intervals from May 1979-March 1981. One trematode species, 3 cestode species and 16 nematode species were recovered from these animals. Of these the following are new helminth records for this antelope: Cooperia hungi , Cooperia neitzi , Cooperia pectinata , Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus falculatus , Trichostrongylus instabilis , Impalaia tuberculata , Nematodirus sp. and Paramphistomum sp. In addition, 6 species of ixodid ticks were collected. These, in order of abundance, were Amblyomma hebraeum (55,9%), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (36,6%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (5,1%), Boophilus decoloratus (2,3%), Boophilus microplus (0,05%) and Haemaphysalis sp. (0,05%). Only 60 (2,8%) of the 2 118 ticks that were collected were adults. Of the 3 species of lice that were recovered, Linognathus zumpti zumpti was most abundant (58,9%), but, out of a total of 1 498 collected, 1 496 occurred on 1 animal only. Linognathus breviceps constituted 29,5% and Damalinia lerouxi 11,6% of the total. A total of 277 specimens of the hippoboscid fly Lipoptena paradoxa were collected from 12 of the 16 animals examined. Trends in the seasonal fluctuation of Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Impalaia , Lipoptena and the immature stages of Amblyomma and R. appendiculatus are graphically illustrated. PMID:6676685
Boomker, J; Du Plessis, W H; Boomker, E A
Both Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. Growth of Polyporus was shown to be faster and stronger than that of Poria under all conditions tested and the results reported here are based upon liqu...
M. S. Cohen
The sexual reproductive process in Pinus lambertiana has not been completely described, and previous attempts to generate hybrids with Pinus monticola and other North American pines have not been successful. The nature of incompatibility barriers between P. lambertiana and P. monticola is unknown. This needs to be understood if strategies are to be developed to overcome the said barriers. In
Danilo D. Fernando; Richard A. Sniezko
This study reports the first description of the karyotype of Agonostomus monticola, a species belonging to a genus which is considered to be the most primitive among living mugilid fish. Specimens from Panama and Venezuela were cytogenetically analysed by conventional chromosome banding (Ag and base-specific-fluorochrome staining, C-banding) and by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Agonostomus monticola showed a chromosome complement of 2n = 48, composed of 23 acrocentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs and a pericentromeric distribution of the C-positive heterochromatin in all chromosomes. Major ribosomal genes were found to be located on the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair number 24 and minor ribosomal genes in a paracentromeric position of a single medium-sized chromosome pair. All these observed cytogenetic features are similar to those previously described in four representatives of two genera, Liza and Chelon, which are considered to be among the most advanced in the family. Thus, this karyotypic form might represent the plesiomorphic condition for the mullets. This hypothesis regarding the plesiomorphic condition, if confirmed, would shed new light on the previously inferred cytotaxonomic relationships for the studied species of Mugilidae, because the karyotype with 48 acrocentric chromosomes, which has been so far regarded as primitive for the family, would have to be considered as derived. PMID:18330712
Nirchio, Mauro; Oliveira, Claudio; Ferreira, Irani A; Martins, Cesar; Rossi, Anna Rita; Sola, Luciana
There is an urgent need to maintain and restore a broad genetic base for the management of Dalbergia monticola, a very economically important but endangered tree species in Madagascar. Random amplified polymorphism DNAs (RAPDs) and\\u000a chloroplast micro-satellite markers were used to quantify the genetic variation and to analyse the geographic distribution\\u000a of diversity. Ten locations covering most of the natural
Olivarimbola Andrianoelina; Hery Rakotondraoelina; Lolona Ramamonjisoa; Jean Maley; Pascal Danthu; Jean-Marc Bouvet
There is an urgent need to maintain and restore a broad genetic base for the management of Dalbergia monticola, a very economically important but endangered tree species in Madagascar. Random amplified polymorphism DNAs (RAPDs) and\\u000a chloroplast microsatellite markers were used to quantify the genetic variation and to analyse the geographic distribution\\u000a of diversity. Ten locations covering most of the natural
Olivarimbola Andrianoelina; Hery Rakotondraoelina; Lolona Ramamonjisoa; Jean Maley; Pascal Danthu; Jean-Marc Bouvet
The freshwater mugilids Joturus pichardi and Agonostomus monticola, have been documented on ecological and distribution aspects, mainly for Central American populations, nevertheless, little information is available on their reproductive aspects, specifically in Colombian freshwater environments. Reproductive biology of the mugilids J. pichardi and A. monticola from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) rivers was studied between July 2005 and December 2006. A total of 14 specimens of J. pichardi and 320 of A. monticola were collected. The reproductive biology was analyzed by means of: sexual proportion, gonadosomatic index, and mean size at maturity, fecundity and oocyte diameter. Additionally, a bioassay was carried out to evaluate the effect of salinity on spermatic motility and its possible relationship with the species' spawning area. These mugilids share habitats with similar ecological characteristics, in which strong currents; clear water and stony areas stand out. Gonadal maturity indicators and indirect evidence are presented to support the relationship between reproductive maturity and higher rainfall levels in the area (September, October and November), as well as the catadromous migration of J. pichardi and A. monticola. This last species females outnumbered males with a sex ratio of 2.3:1. Females mean size at maturity was 172mm of their total length (TL) and 108mm TL for males. Fecundity (F) was 23 925 +/- 4 581 eggs per gram of gonad, and was related to size by the equation F = 395.1TL(1.281); besides, the mean oocyte diameter was 362 +/- 40 microm. Considering the salinity effect on sperm motility in both species, results suggested that J. pichardi spawned in estuarine environments but the species did not migrate to fully marine environments; however, A. monticola withstood a broad range of salinity, suggesting a spawning from intermediate to total saline environments. Both species have high culturing potentials, considering that their feeding is based on plant and macroinvertebrates, their meat quality and the size they are able to reach. These species represent an interesting resource to the fisher groups of the region and should be integrally assessed. PMID:22208088
Eslava Eljaiek, Pedro; Díaz Vesga, Roy
Both Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. Growth of Polyporus was shown to be faster and stronger than that of Poria under all conditions tested and the results reported here are based upon liquefaction of lignite coal by Polyporus. The liquefied coal samples were treated with acetonitrile which gave two fractions, a black precipitate and a light yellow liquid phase supernatant. This supernatant consists of acetonitrile and organic compounds which are soluble in acetonitrile. If the supernatant is drawn off with a Pasteur pipette followed by addition of water to the black precipitate, the precipitate dissolves instantly in the water producing a black liquid. Using these techniques, the products of coal liquefaction have been divided into two phases which are soluble either in acetonitrile or in water. Both fractions have been analyzed by HPLC and compounds have been partially separated. No peaks have been identified. However, two principal peaks of the acetonitrile fraction have been sent to PETC for chemical analysis by GC-MS. 9 figs.
We tested the hypothesis that branch hydraulic conductivity partly controls foliar stable carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) by its influence on stomatal conductance in Pinus monticola Dougl. Notching and phloem-girdling treatments were applied to reduce branch conductivity over the course of a growing season. Notching and phloem girdling reduced leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) by about 30 and 90%, respectively. The 90% reduction in LSC increased foliar delta13C by about 1 per thousand (P < 0.0001, n = 65), whereas the 30% reduction in LSC had no effect on foliar delta13C (P = 0.90, n = 65). Variation in the delta13C of dark respiration was similar to that of whole-tissues when compared among treatments. These isotopic measurements, in addition to instantaneous gas exchange measurements, suggested only minor adjustments in the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric CO2 partial pressures (ci/ca) in response to experimentally reduced hydraulic conductivity. A strong correlation was observed between stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic demand over a tenfold range in gs. Although ci/ca and delta13C appeared to be relatively homeostatic, current-year leaf area varied linearly as a function of branch hydraulic conductivity (r2 = 0.69, P < 0.0001, n = 18). These results suggest that, for Pinus monticola, adjustment of leaf area is a more important response to reduced branch conductivity than adjustment of ci/ca. PMID:11600343
Cernusak, L A; Marshall, J D
Dry or fully imbibed seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) were studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of the dry seed revealed many of the gross anatomical features of seed structure. Furthermore, the non-invasive nature of MRI allowed for a study of the dynamics of water and oil distribution during in situ imbibition
Victor V. Terskikh; J. Allan. Feurtado; Chengwei Ren; Suzanne R. Abrams; Allison R. Kermode
Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. Because the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. We also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Forages were irradiated for 3 months with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6 x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal and inconsistent effects on the nutritional content, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and protein-binding capacity of forages. However, flavonoid compounds increased in seven of the 13 forbs and woody dicots that were evaluated. Flavonoids were found to decrease only in yarrow (Achillea millefolium). When offered simultaneously, blue duikers preferred 1x and 1.6 x UV-B irradiated plants of alfalfa equally, but ate 26% less willow grown under 1.6 x UV-B radiation. However, when fed to duikers in separate feeding experiments, total dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of dry matter, fiber, protein, and apparent energy did not differ between alfalfa and willow grown under 1x and 1.6 x UV-B radiation. We conclude that expected increases in UV-B radiation from ozone depletion would have minimal effects on intake and digestion of ruminant herbivores. PMID:18274780
Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei
At monthly intervals from February 1983 to January 1984 two Angora goats, two Boer goats, one grysbok, Raphicerus melanotis, one common duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, one greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, and four scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, were killed on a farm in Valley Bushveld in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa and examined for ticks. Seven ixodid tick species were collected, of which Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum followed by Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus oculatus were the most numerous. Amblyomma hebraeum was mainly a parasite of the two goat breeds, with the Angora goats harbouring greater numbers than the Boer goats, while large numbers of R. glabroscutatum parasitized the goats and the antelopes. Rhipicephalus oculatus was nearly exclusively a parasite of scrub hares. The larvae of A. hebraeum were most numerous on goats from May to July, the nymphs from September to November and the adults from August to December and during February, while the immature stages of R. glabroscutatum were most numerous on these animals from April to July and the adults from August to December. Peak activity periods of the latter tick were somewhat longer on kudus than on goats; the immature stages were most numerous from January to August and the adults from July to February. The larvae of R. oculatus were most numerous on scrub hares from March to May, nymphs from September to November and adults from October to December. PMID:12967172
Macivor, K M de F; Horak, I G
Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species in western North America that has declined in prominence over the\\u000a past several decades, mainly due to the introduction of Cronartium ribicola (cause of white pine blister rust) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)\\u000a markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure
Mee-Sook Kim; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein
Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. PMID:23692021
Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E
Phylogeographic studies during the last decade confirmed an internal complexity of the Iberian Peninsula and northern Maghreb as refugial areas during the Miocene to Pleistocene period. Species with low vagility that experienced the complex climatic and palaeogeographic processes occurred in the Western Mediterranean Basin are excellent candidates to study the extent of lineage diversification in this region. We applied phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial data to infer the evolutionary history of Vipera latastei/monticola and identify the major biogeographic events structuring the genetic diversity within this group. We obtained a well-resolved phylogeny, with four highly divergent lineages (one African and three Iberian) that originated in the Tertiary. Coalescence-based estimations suggest that the differentiation of the four major lineages in V. latastei/monticola corresponds to the Messinian salinity crisis and the reopening of the Strait of Gibraltar during the Miocene. Subsequent Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic oscillations continued to isolate both Iberian and Maghrebian populations and led to a high genetic structuring in this group, particularly in Southern Iberia, a complex palaeogeographic and topographic region with high endemism levels. This study does not support the current taxonomy of the group, thus suggesting that an integrative evaluation of Iberian and African populations is needed to resolve its systematics. PMID:22982758
Velo-Antón, G; Godinho, R; Harris, D J; Santos, X; Martínez-Freiria, F; Fahd, S; Larbes, S; Pleguezuelos, J M; Brito, J C
Background and Aims The oriental forest ecosystem in Madagascar has been seriously impacted by fragmentation. The pattern of genetic diversity was analysed on a tree species, Dalbergia monticola, which plays an important economic role in Madagascar and is one of the many endangered tree species in the eastern forest. Methods Leaves from 546 individuals belonging to 18 small populations affected by different levels of fragmentation were genotyped using eight nuclear (nuc) and three chloroplast (cp) microsatellite markers. Key Results For nuclear microsatellites, allelic richness (R) and heterozygosity (He,nuc) differed between types of forest: R = 7·36 and R = 9·55, He,nuc = 0·64 and He,nuc = 0·80 in fragmented and non-fragmented forest, respectively, but the differences were not significant. Only the mean number of alleles (Na,nuc) and the fixation index FIS differed significantly: Na,nuc = 9·41 and Na,nuc = 13·18, FIS = 0·06 and FIS = 0·15 in fragmented and non-fragmented forests, respectively. For chloroplast microsatellites, estimated genetic diversity was higher in non-fragmented forest, but the difference was not significant. No recent bottleneck effect was detected for either population. Overall differentiation was low for nuclear microsatellites (FST,nuc = 0·08) and moderate for chloroplast microsatellites (FST,cp = 0·49). A clear relationship was observed between genetic and geographic distance (r = 0·42 P < 0·01 and r = 0·42 P = 0·03 for nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites, respectively), suggesting a pattern of isolation by distance. Analysis of population structure using the neighbor-joining method or Bayesian models separated southern populations from central and northern populations with nuclear microsatellites, and grouped the population according to regions with chloroplast microsatellites, but did not separate the fragmented populations. Conclusions Residual diversity and genetic structure of populations of D. monticola in Madagascar suggest a limited impact of fragmentation on molecular genetic parameters.
Andrianoelina, O.; Favreau, B.; Ramamonjisoa, L.; Bouvet, J.-M.
Effects of photochemical oxidant injury of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines on susceptibility of sapwood and freshly cut stumps to Fomes annosus. [Pinus ponderosa; Pinus jeffreyi; Fomes annosus; Trichoderma spp. ; Polyporus versicolor; Poria Monticola
Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine sapwood samples and freshly cut stumps from trees with different amounts of oxidant injury were inoculated with Fomes annosus. With stumps, percentage of surface cross-section area infected and extent of vertical colonization were determined 1 mo and 6-10 mo after inoculation, respectively. Increase in surface area infection with increased oxidant injury, expressed as upper-crown needle retention, was statistically significant for ponderosa pine (P=0.01), but was not for Jeffrey pine. Also, the rate of vertical colonization was greater in stumps from severely oxidant-injured trees than in those from slightly injured trees. The relationship between injury and colonization was significant for Jeffrey pine (P = 0.05) and for ponderosa pine at one site (P = 0.03), but nonsignificant (P = 0.18) for ponderosa pine at a second site. Increased susceptibility of stumps to F. annosus appeared to be associated with decreased colonization by other fungi (especially Trichoderma spp. and blue stain fungi). Laboratory tests indicated that decay susceptibility of excised sapwood to F. annosus apparently was not affected by oxidant injury with Jeffrey pine, but weight loss of ponderosa pine sapwood was correlated with decreased injury (greater needle retention). On the other hand, weight losses of Jeffrey pine caused by Polyporus versicolor and of ponderosa pine caused by Poria monticola were correlated with increased injury (increased needle chlorosis). 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.
James, R.L.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wilcox, W.W.; Rowney, D.L.
Background Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans and physical sectioning revealed internal cranial structure of ten artiodactyls and pachycephalosaurs Stegoceras validum and Prenocephale prenes. Finite element analyses (FEA), incorporating bone and keratin tissue types, determined cranial stress and strain from simulated head impacts. Recursive partition analysis quantified strengths of correlation between functional morphology and actual or hypothesized behavior. Strong head-strike correlates include a dome-like cephalic morphology, neurovascular canals exiting onto the cranium surface, large neck muscle attachments, and dense cortical bone above a sparse cancellous layer in line with the force of impact. The head-butting duiker Cephalophus leucogaster is the closest morphological analog to Stegoceras, with a smaller yet similarly rounded dome. Crania of the duiker, pachycephalosaurs, and bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis share stratification of thick cortical and cancellous layers. Stegoceras, Cephalophus, and musk ox crania experience lower stress and higher safety factors for a given impact force than giraffe, pronghorn, or the non-combative llama. Conclusions/Significance Anatomy, biomechanics, and statistical correlation suggest that some pachycephalosaurs were as competent at head-to-head impacts as extant analogs displaying such combat. Large-scale comparisons and recursive partitioning can greatly refine inference of behavioral capability for fossil animals.
Snively, Eric; Theodor, Jessica M.
To determine the origin of stomoxyine fly bloodmeals (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon, 1,021 flies belonging to seven different species of Stomoxys were captured and dissected in the area of Makokou. In total, 798 were not blood-fed and 223 bloodmeals could be gathered on filter paper. The identification of the origin of these meals was made by amplification of mitochondrial Cytb gene, then heteroduplex technique by using the Gambian rat (Cricetomys gambianus) as driver. Samples of fauna, collected on the local market, consisted of 24 mammal and two reptile blood and muscle samples, to which it is necessary to add human samples (27 potential hosts). 19 meals could not be amplified for technical reasons, 65 were amplified, but the acquired patterns corresponded to none of the tested potential hosts. On the 139 identified meals, 55% were taken on the black-fronted duiker (Cephalophus nigrifrons) and 19% on pig. Stomoxys transvittatus, the most abundant species in Makokou, is very opportunistic: 68 % of meals were taken on six different hosts, among whom 48% on the black-fronted duiker and 32% were not identified using the panel of tested hosts. S. xanthomelas took 50% of its meals on the moustached monkey (Cercopithecus cephus) and 7% on human beings. S. calcitrans, species of anthropised areas, took 33% of its meals on human beings. These three species can therefore take bloodmeals on wild fauna and human beings. They could potentially play an important role in the emergence of zoonotic diseases. The four other species took their bloodmeals only on wild fauna and pig, the only example of domestic fauna in this study. This preliminary study must be followed up using a larger number of specimens and by increasing the diversity of the tested potential hosts. PMID:19202770
Mavoungou, J F; Simo, G; Gilles, J; De Stordeur, E; Duvallet, G
Wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central Africa. Also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. Considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in Central Africa. This cross-sectional survey served to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella in the muscle tissue of 128 wild animal carcasses from several hunted wildlife species (guenons [Cercopithecus spp.], collared mangabeys [Cercocebus torquatus], gray-cheeked mangabeys [Lophocebus albigena], African crested porcupines [Atherurus africanus], duikers [Cephalophus spp.], and red river hogs [Potamocherus porcus]) sold in two markets of Port-Gentil, Gabon, in July and August 2010. Salmonella was detected from one carcass; no Campylobacter or Shigella was detected. If Campylobacter and Shigella were present, the maximum expected prevalence was estimated at 6% and 1%, respectively. In light of such very low apparent muscle contamination levels, bushmeat likely does not represent a health risk per se with respect to Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Shigella. However, because carcass evisceration and skinning can take place within households prior to consumption, consumers should follow strict hygiene and food safety practices to avoid potential health hazards associated with the handling, preparation, or consumption of bushmeat. PMID:22740547
Bachand, Nicholas; Ravel, André; Onanga, Richard; Arsenault, Julie; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul
Bushmeat is the main source of protein and the most important source of income for rural people in the Congo Basin, but intensive hunting of bushmeat species is also a major concern for conservationists. Although spatial heterogeneity in hunting effort and in prey populations at the landscape level plays a key role in the sustainability of hunted populations, the role of small-scale heterogeneity within a village hunting territory in the sustainability of hunting has remained understudied. We built a spatially explicit multiagent model to capture the dynamics of a system in which hunters and preys interact within a village hunting territory. We examined the case of hunting of bay duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis) in the village of Ntsiété, northeastern Gabon. The impact of hunting on prey populations depended on the spatial heterogeneity of hunting and prey distribution at small scales within a hunting area. Within a village territory, the existence of areas hunted throughout the year, areas hunted only during certain seasons, and unhunted areas contributed to the sustainability of the system. Prey abundance and offtake per hunter were particularly sensitive to the frequency and length of hunting sessions and to the number of hunters sharing an area. Some biological parameters of the prey species, such as dispersal rate and territory size, determined their spatial distribution in a hunting area, which in turn influenced the sustainability of hunting. Detailed knowledge of species ecology and behavior, and of hunting practices are crucial to understanding the distribution of potential sinks and sources in space and time. Given the recognized failure of simple biological models to assess maximum sustainable yields, multiagent models provide an innovative path toward new approaches for the assessment of hunting sustainability, provided further research is conducted to increase knowledge of prey species' and hunter behavior. PMID:20345398
Van Vliet, Nathalie; Milner-Gulland, E J; Bousquet, Francois; Saqalli, Mehdi; Nasi, Robert
Polyporus versicolor (ATCC 12679), obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, has been demonstrated to degrade leonardite, lignite, and subbituminous coals to a black liquid product which is called the bioextract. The process of solubilizing the coal has been termed liquification. Fungi were routinely maintained in both solid Sabouraud maltose agar (6%) and in Sabouraud maltose broth cultures. All cultures were incubated at 30/sup 0/C, 84 to 98% relative humidity, and pH = 5.8. All materials which came into contact with the fungi were sterilized before use. Experimental cultures were incubated as described for stock cultures. Cultures were incubated for approximately 12 days to produce a mature fungal mat across a glass petri dish. Coal pieces (approximately 5 mm/sup 3/) were placed directly on the hyphal mat. Liquified coal (the bioextract) was removed from the top of the mycelium and/or coal pieces and either stored for analyses at 4/sup 0/C or else freeze-dried and stored dessicated at room temperature. The bioextract has been produced in sufficient quantity to permit various methods of analysis including high performance liquid chromatography, UV-visible spectrophotometry, titrimetry, electrophoresis, proton nmr spectroscopy, and calorimetry. The solubility of the bioextract in different solvents has also been determined. 6 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.
BACKGROUND: In most regions of the world human influences on the distribution of flora and fauna predate complete biotic surveys. In some cases this challenges our ability to discriminate native from introduced species. This distinction is particularly critical for isolated populations, because relicts of native species may need to be conserved, whereas introduced species may require immediate eradication. Recently an
Ronald M Bonett; Kenneth H Kozak; David R Vieites; Alison Bare; Jessica A Wooten; Stanley E Trauth
Polyporus versicolor (ATCC 12679), obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, has been demonstrated to degrade leonardite, lignite, and subbituminous coals to a black liquid product which is called the bioextract. The process of so...
M. S. Cohen
Results of many studies show unsustainable levels of bushmeat hunting across West/Central Africa. Nevertheless, these results are usually derived from snapshot sustainability indices in which critical parameters are often taken from the literature. Simple, more informative tools for assessing sustainability are needed. We evaluated the impact of bushmeat hunting across a range of temporal, spatial, and taxonomic scales in a comparison of different measures of sustainability. Over 15 months in 2002-2004 in and around a village close to Equatorial Guinea's Monte Alén National Park, we collected data via a village offtake survey, hunter-camp bushmeat-consumption diaries, hunter interviews, and following hunters during hunts. We compared 2003 data with a previous offtake survey (1998-1999) and interview reports back to 1990. In the past 14 years, average distance from the village at which hunters operated remained constant, with hunters switching back and forth between long-established camps, although trapping effort increased. In the past 5 years, overall offtake and number of active hunters did not change substantially, although catch per unit effort (CPUE) decreased slightly. Although the proportion of the two most commonly trapped species (Cephalophus monticola and Atherurus africanus) and gun-hunted primates increased in the offtake, species presumably less robust to trapping decreased slightly. Apparent sustainability in economic terms may be masking gradual local extirpation of more vulnerable species before and during this study. Our results suggest that changes in prey profiles and CPUE may be the most accurate indicators of actual sustainability; these indices can be monitored with simple village-based offtake surveys and hunter interviews to improve community management of bushmeat hunting. PMID:20455910
Kümpel, Noëlle F; Milner-Gulland, E J; Cowlishaw, Guy; Rowcliffe, J Marcus
Niche segregation among three small antelopes ¿ red duiker, common duiker and suni ¿ was investigated in a coastal savanna woodland\\/forest mosaic. It was expected that these similar-sized concentrate selectors would show differentiation in diet choice to decrease competition. Diet composition did not vary significantly among the different vegetation types. For all three antelope species, the number of dietary items
Herbert H. T. Prins; Boer de W. F; Herman van Oeveren; Augusto Correia; Jorge Mafuca; Han Olff
When a western white pine (Pinus Monticola) tree dies, it undergoes a series of physical changes. The effects of these changes on product recovery are evaluated. Tabular information and prediction equations provide the tools necessary for using this resou...
T. A. Snellgrove J. M. Cahill
Several human and animal Ebola outbreaks have occurred over the past 4 years in Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The human outbreaks consisted of multiple simultaneous epidemics caused by different viral strains, and each epidemic resulted from the handling of a distinct gorilla, chimpanzee, or duiker carcass. These animal populations declined markedly during human Ebola outbreaks, apparently as a
Eric M. Leroy; Pierre Rouquet; Pierre Formenty; Sandrine Souquière; Annelisa Kilbourne; Jean-Marc Froment; Magdalena Bermejo; Sheilag Smit; William Karesh; Robert Swanepoel; Sherif R. Zaki; Pierre E. Rollin
in soil organic C in the first 2 to 5 yr after changing to conservation management, but a large increase in TC Soil C change and CO2 emission due to different tillage systems occurred in the next 5 to 10 yr. In addition, Duiker need to be evaluated to encourage the adoption of conservation prac- tices to sustain soil productivity
Mahdi M. Al-Kaisi; Xinhua Yin
All representatives of the subfamily Agonostominae of grey mullets in the collections of The Natural History Museum in London were examined for parasitic copepods. Agonostomus monticola, Joturus pichardi, Aldrichetta forsteri and Cestraeus goldiei were all infected by copepods. Three new species of Acusicola and two new species of Ergasilus were found: E. parabahiensis n. sp. on A. monticola from Guyana and E. acusicestraeus n. sp. on C. goldiei from Papua New Guinea. Acusicola spinuloderma n. sp. was found on A. monticola and J. pichardi collected from different localities in Central America, A. mazatlanesis n. sp. on the same host from west Mexico (Mazatlan) and A. joturicola n. sp. on J. pichardi from Panama. Descriptions of the five new species and a redescription of E. australiensis Roubal, from Aldrichetta forsteri, are presented. The host-parasite relationships and geographical distributions of hosts and their parasitic copepods are analysed. PMID:10613535
El-Rashidy, H; Boxshall, G A
The antibacterial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowers, leaves and stems of Gnaphaliumoxyphyllum var. oxyphyllum, G. liebmannii var. monticola and G. viscosum was investigated. The hexane extracts showed in all cases the higher inhibitions, G. oxyphyllum flower extract exhibiting the wider spectrum of activity.
J. Roberto Villagómez-Ibarra; Maricruz Sánchez; Ofelia Espejo; Armida Zúñiga-Estrada; J. Mart??n Torres-Valencia; Pedro Joseph-Nathan
The antibacterial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowers, leaves and stems of Gnaphalium oxyphyllum var. oxyphyllum, G. liebmannii var. monticola and G. viscosum was investigated. The hexane extracts showed in all cases the higher inhibitions, G. oxyphyllum flower extract exhibiting the wider spectrum of activity. PMID:11543972
Villagómez-Ibarra, J R; Sánchez, M; Espejo, O; Zúñiga-Estrada, A; Torres-Valencia, J M; Joseph-Nathan, P
Growth and xylem water potential of the lower elevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi and Abies concolor and the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnificawere monitored in their montane Mediterranean habitat of the southernmost Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Measurements were made across the ecotone between the midmontane and upper montane forests and through light and heavy snowfall years. Radial stem
E. B. Royce; M. G. Barbour
The primary objective of the study was to evaluate atmospheric dry deposition of major anions and cations to trees in the Emerald Lake area of Sequoia National Park. The field work was performed between July 15 and September 10, 1987. Teflon-coated and non-coated branches of native lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta) and western white pine (P. monticola), and potted seedlings of
A. Bytnerowicz; D. Olszyk
Accessions of Arachis hypogaea, A. glabrata, A. monticola, and several other legumes were tested to Puccinia arachidis cultures PR-1-66 (from Puerto Rico) and TEX-1-67 (from Frio County, Texas). Accessions PI 314817 and PI 315608 of A. hypogaea were physi...
K. R. Bromfield S. J. Cevario
Willows (Salix spp.) are an integral component in the restoration of wetland plant communities that have been impacted by the fluvial deposition\\u000a of mine tailings. A greenhouse study was conducted to compare growth and metal uptake of Geyer (S. geyeriana) and mountain (S. monticola) willow grown in topsoil versus lime and biosolids amended mine tailings. Biomass, leader length, and tissue
M. J. Boyter; J. E. Brummer; W. C. Leininger
The ectomycorrhizal fungi Gautieria monticola and Hysterangium setchellii both form dense hyphal mats in coniferous forest soils of the Pacific Northwest. We recently observed that all Douglas-fir seedlings found under the canopy of a maturing 60–75 year stand were associated with mats formed by ectomycorrhizal fungi. The significance of these mat communities in relation to seedling establishment and survival is
Robert P. Griffiths; Michael A. Castellano; Bruce A. Caldwell
The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A
Robert P. Adams
Accessions of Arachis hypogaea, A. glabrata, A. monticola, and several other legumes were tested for susceptibility to Puccinia arachidis cultures PR-1-66 (from Puerto Rico) and TEX-1-67 (from Frio County, Texas). Accessions PI 314817 and PI 315608 of A. ...
K. R. Bromfield S. J. Cevario
Key Word Index--Arceuthobium tsugense; Viscaceae; dwarf mistletoe; electrophoresis; allozymes; host race. Abstract--Three host races of hemlock dwarf mistletoe have been described: the western hemlock race (mainly parasitic on Tsuga heterophylla), the shore pine race (mainly on Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) and the mountain hemlock race (mainly on Tsuga mertensiana and R monticola). Mistletoe shoots from 21 populations representing the three
Daniel L. Nickrent; Adam L. Stell
The dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium tsugense, exists as two pathotypes in British Columbia: one primarily infects western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), the other shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta). This is the first report of natural occurrence of either pathotypes on Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi\\/) and the first of the hemlock dwarf mistletoe pathotype on western white pine (Pinus monticola) north of Oregon.
R. S. Hunt; R. B. Smith
A probe for chalcone synthase (CHS) was generated by PCR using chalcone synthase conserved sequences. The cloned PCR product has high similarity to both chalcone synthase and stilbene synthase sequences. The probe was used to examine the organization of chalcone synthase and stilbene synthase genes in Abies procera, Pinus lambertiana, P. monticola, Picea glauca, P. sitchensis, Pseudostuga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia,
S. M. Baker; E. E. White
The helminth species composition and helminth burdens of 4 grey duikers, 12 bushbuck, 2 nyala, 2 giraffe, a steenbok, an oribi, a waterbuck and a tsessebe from the Kruger National Park (KNP); of a steenbok and a greater kudu from the farm Riekerts Laager, Transvaal; of a single blue duiker from the Tsitsikama Forest National Park, and of a blue wildebeest, a red hartebeest, a gemsbok and 2 springbok from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park (KGNP) were collected, counted and identified. New parasite records are: Agriostomum equidentatum from the gemsbok, Cooperia neitzi from the bushbuck, Cooperia sp. from the gemsbok and the red hartebeest, Cooperia yoshidai from the waterbuck and the tsessebe, Dictyocaulus viviparus from the bushbuck, Haemonchus bedfordi from the waterbuck, Haemonchus contortus from the gemsbok, Haemonchus krugeri from the steenbok from the KNP, Impalaia nudicollis from the gemsbok and the red hartebeest, Impalaia tuberculata from the oribi and the waterbuck, Impalaia spp. from the kudu, Longistrongylus meyeri from the steenbok from Riekerts Laager and the gemsbok, Longistrongylus sabie from the steenbok from the KNP, Longistrongylus schrenki from the tsessebe, Parabronema sp. from the tsessebe and the red hartebeest, Paracooperia serrata from the gemsbok and the steenbok from the KGNP, Pneumostrongylus calcaratus from the bushbuck, Strongyloides sp. from the gemsbok, Trichostrongylus sp. from the gemsbok, the red hartebeest and the steenbok from the KGNP, Trichostrongylus axei from the blue duiker, Trichostrongylus falculatus from the bushbuck and the oribi, Trichostrongylus instabilis from the bushbuck, the steenbok from the KNP and the oribi and Trichostrongylus thomasi from the grey duikers and tsessebe. Host specificity of the parasites was not marked and crossinfestation was common. This was not true for the giraffe, since none of the helminths of these animals were found in the antelope and vice versa. PMID:3725333
Boomker, J; Horak, I G; De Vos, V
Forty-four accessions of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) representing sixbotanical varieties of two subspecies along with three accessions ofthe wild relative A. monticola Krapov et Rigoni were evaluated for their genetic relationships using theAFLP marker technology. Fifteen AFLP primer pairs (EcoRI\\/MseI) generated 28distinct polymorphic markers that were employed to develop uniqueprofiles of all accessions and to construct a phenogram. The
Guohao He; Channapatna Prakash
RFLP variability was studied in eight U.S. peanut cultivars, representing the four market types, and in 14 wild Arachis species accessions, using random genomic clones from a PstI library. Very low levels of RFLP variability were found among the allotetraploids, which included the U.S. cultivars and Arachis monticola, a wild species. The diploid wild species were very diverse, however. RFLP
G. Kochert; T. Halward; W. D. Branch; C. E. Simpson
Xylem water potential of the midelevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Abies concolor,and Calocedrus decurrens, the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnifica,and co-occurring evergreen angiosperm shrubs, together with soil moisture under these plants, were monitored at three sites on the Kern Plateau in the southernmost Sierra Nevada Range of California. Site locations spanned the ecotone between the mid- and
E. B. Royce; M. G. Barbour
The efficacies of several entomopathogenic nematodes ofSteinernema andHeterorhabditis spp. were examined against tobacco cutworm,Spodoptera litura Fabricius.H. bacteriophora HY showed 100% mortality after 20 h against 2nd instar of tobacco cutworm. In the case of 3–4th instar,S. carpocapsae PC.,H. bacteriophora HY andS. monticola CR showed 100% mortality after 47 h. In the case of 5–6th instar,S. carpocapsae PC proved more effective
Sun Ho Park; Yeon Su Yu; Jae Sung Park; Ho Yul Choo; Soon Do Bae; Min Hee Nam
Four independent studies of conifer growth between 1880 and 2002 in upper elevation forests of the central Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., showed correlated multidecadal and century-long responses associated with climate. Using tree-ring and ecological plot analysis, we studied annual branch growth of krummholz Pinus albicaulis; invasion by P. albicaulis and Pinus monticola into formerly persistent snowfields; dates of vertical branch
Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; John C. King; Lisa J. Graumlich
The major viperid snakes present in Taiwan today are: Daboia russelli siamensis, Deinagkistrodon acutus, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Trimeresurus stej- negeri, Ovophis monticola and Ovophis gracilis. As suggested by the species trees deduced from mtDNA sequences of the family Viperidae, these species apparently belong to five different genera. Molecular cloning, N-terminal sequencing, and mass spectrometry have facilitated the sequence-determination of venom proteins.
We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. PMID:23410077
Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso
Pathogen DNA was isolated from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in South Africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. We developed Theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of Theileria in four African antelope species. The close phylogenetic relationship between members of the genera Theileria and Cytauxzoon, similarities in the morphologies of developmental stages, and confusion in the literature regarding theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis are discussed.
Nijhof, A. M.; Pillay, V.; Steyl, J.; Prozesky, L.; Stoltsz, W. H.; Lawrence, J. A.; Penzhorn, B. L.; Jongejan, F.
Pathogen DNA was isolated from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in South Africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. We developed Theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of Theileria in four African antelope species. The close phylogenetic relationship between members of the genera Theileria and Cytauxzoon, similarities in the morphologies of developmental stages, and confusion in the literature regarding theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis are discussed. PMID:16333074
Nijhof, A M; Pillay, V; Steyl, J; Prozesky, L; Stoltsz, W H; Lawrence, J A; Penzhorn, B L; Jongejan, F
The Klamath Mountains of northwestern California are a floristic hotspot and their diversity likely results from a combination of geological, ecological and historical factors (e.g., long-term climate change). To evaluate how climate change has influenced past composition, structure, and disturbance regime of the Klamath forests in different geological settings, vegetation and fire histories from four sites, Bolan (1), Sanger (in prog.), Campbell (in prog.), and Bluff (2) lakes are compared. Bolan and Sanger lakes are underline by nutrient-rich diorite soils, Campbell Lake by nutrient-poor and poorly-drained soils derived from mudstone and shales and Bluff Lake by ultramafics which pose severe nutrient limitations to plants. All sites experience the same modern climate and vegetation. The vegetation and fire records from the four sites suggest that substrates have influenced the sensitivity of plant communities and fire regimes to past variations in climate. Cool, dry late-glacial (>11ka cal yr BP) conditions resulted in a subalpine parkland in the Klamath region. P. jeffreyi and Abies were the main tree species at Bluff Lake and fires occurred frequently. Campbell Lake supported more species than Bluff (excluding P. jeffreyi) such as P. monticola, Picea and T. mertensiana and experienced few fires. Bolan and Sanger Lake harbored similar species as Campbell, as well as a small population of Pseudotsuga and experienced few fires. Warm, dry Early Holocene (7-11ka cal yr BP) conditions led to an increase in C. decurrens and a slight decrease in P. jeffreyi at Bluff Lake than before and fires were very frequent. At Campbell Lake, P. monticola increased, C. decurrens became more abundant than before, and Abies, Picea and T. mertensiana were scarce. Similar vegetation occurred at Bolan and Sanger lakes although the sites continued to harbor Pseudotsuga. Campbell, Bolan and Sanger all experienced frequent fires. Cool, wet conditions in the Middle Holocene (3-7ka cal yr BP) allowed P. jeffreyi to increase at the expense of C. decurrens at Bluff Lake. At Campbell, Sanger and Bolan lakes there was a decrease in P. monticola and a significant increase in Abies than before. Bolan and Sanger lakes still maintained a significant population of Pseudotsuga. Fire frequency at all sites was moderate. Modern (3ka cal yr BP to present) climate conditions in the Late Holocene resulted in increases in P. jeffreyi and Abies than before at Bluff Lake. P. monticola and Abies were abundant at Campbell Lake with minor amounts of Pseudotsuga and T. mertensiana. Most tree species occurred at Bolan and Sanger Lake (with the exception of P. jeffreyi at both sites and T. mertensiana at Sanger Lake). Abies and P.monticola were the primary species in the Bolan, Sanger and Campbell lake forests. Fires were frequent at all sites. In conclusion, Bluff Lake was dominated by ultramafic tolerant taxa such as Pinus jeffreyi, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies, while Bolan and Sanger lakes harbored mostly ultramafic intolerant species such as Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Tsuga mertensiana since the last ice age. The forest at Campbell Lake was more open, was dominated by Pinus monticola and had less Picea and T. mertensiana than Bolan and Sanger lakes since the last ice age. REFS. 1 Briles, C. et al 2005. Quaternary Research 64. 2 Mohr, J.A. et al 2000. The Holocene 10.
Briles, C.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P.
Creptotrema agonostomi n. sp. is described from the mugilid fish Agonostomus monticola from Río Cuitzmala, Jalisco, east México, from Río Las Palmas and Río Máquinas, Veracruz, west México, and from the ictalurid, Ictalurus balsanus from Río Chontalcoatlán, Guerrero, east México. It is distinguished from other species of Creptotrema by its small size, large acetabulum with vertical incision, cirrus sac not reaching the posterior border of acetabulum, and very small eggs, measuring 0.041-0.057 x 0.020-0.033 mm. PMID:9580545
Salgado-Maldonado, G; Cabañas-Carranza, G; Caspeta-Mandujano, J M
Abstract The genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 of the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini: Tyrina) is revised. The three so far known species, Lasinus mandarinus Raffray, 1890, Lasinus monticola Sawada, 1961 and Lasinus spinosus Sharp, 1874 are redescribed. Eight new species, Lasinus sinicus sp. n. from China, Lasinus mikado sp. n., Lasinus yamamotoi sp. n., Lasinus inexpectatus sp. n., Lasinus yakushimanus sp. n., Lasinus amamianus sp. n., Lasinus saoriae sp. n., and Lasinus okinawanus sp. n. from Japan, are described. And all species are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Lasinus mandarinus and Lasinus spinosus. An identification key to species of the genus Lasinus is provided.
Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlavac, Peter; Nomura, Shuhei
A new genus and species, Pengzhongiella daicongchaoi, of the subtribe Batrisina (Batrisitae: Batrisini) is described from the Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan, Southwest China. Adults were collected in a colony of Odontomachus monticola, and presented reduction of certain external characters and elongate appendages relating to myrmecophily. Description and illustrations of the habitus and major diagnostic features of the new taxon are provided; a brief discussion of its taxonomic placement is included. The new species also represents the first record of a Pselaphinae in association with an Odontomachus ant. PMID:24039533
Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen
The genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 of the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini: Tyrina) is revised. The three so far known species, Lasinus mandarinus Raffray, 1890, Lasinus monticola Sawada, 1961 and Lasinus spinosus Sharp, 1874 are redescribed. Eight new species, Lasinus sinicus sp. n. from China, Lasinus mikado sp. n., Lasinus yamamotoi sp. n., Lasinus inexpectatus sp. n., Lasinus yakushimanus sp. n., Lasinus amamianus sp. n., Lasinus saoriae sp. n., and Lasinus okinawanus sp. n. from Japan, are described. And all species are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Lasinus mandarinus and Lasinus spinosus. An identification key to species of the genus Lasinus is provided. PMID:24146590
Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlavá?, Peter; Nomura, Shûhei
Setaria scalprum (Von Linstow, 1908) and Setaria saegeri (Le Van Hoa, 1961) are closely related filarid species that occur in the smaller antelope of Africa. Material previously collected from common dulker, Sylvicapra grimmia, steenbok, Raphicerus campestris and grysbok, Raphicerus melanotis, from several localities in the northern and eastern regions of South Africa was re-examined and measurements of adult worms were compared with those given in the original descriptions of the species. Scanning electron microscopy of the anterior and posterior regions of the female worms confirmed the validity of the two species. Differences in the postdeirid, ventral transverse bands and bosses on the cuticle of the male specimens were also observed. Setaria saegeri in common duiker and grysbok is a new parasite record for these hosts. PMID:12825675
Watermeyer, R; Boomker, J; Putteril, J F
All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 2001–2003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystèmes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred.
Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Delicat, Andre; Rollin, Pierre E.; Leroy, Eric M.
Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex), impala (Aepyceros melampus rednilis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus). Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (Ka/Ks) indicates that positive selection may have been operating on this gene during the time of divergence of Bovinae and Antilopinae, starting from approximately 23 million years ago, a period that appears to account for most of the sequence difference between myostatin in these groups. These periods of positive selective pressure on myostatin may correlate with changes in skeletal muscle mass during the same period. PMID:15522803
Tellgren, Asa; Berglund, Ann-Charlotte; Savolainen, Peter; Janis, Christine M; Liberles, David A
The present study compares the effect of three storage media (silica, RNAlater®, ethanol) and time to extraction (1 week, 1 month and 3 months) on mitochondrial and nuclear marker amplification success in faecal DNA extracts from a sympatric community of small to medium-sized Central African forest ungulates (genera Cephalophus, Tragelaphus, Hyemoschus). The effect of storage type and time on nuclear DNA concentrations, genotyping errors and percentage recovery of consensus genotypes was also examined. Regardless of storage method, mitochondrial and nuclear amplification success was high in DNA extracted within the first week after collection. Over longer storage periods, RNAlater yielded better amplification success rates in the mitochondrial assay. However, samples stored on silica showed (i) highest nuclear DNA concentrations, (ii) best microsatellite genotyping success, (iii) lowest genotyping errors, and (iv) greatest percentage recovery of the consensus genotype. The quantity of nuclear DNA was generally a good predictor of microsatellite performance with 83% amplification success or greater achieved with sample DNA concentrations of ? 50 pg/µL. If faecal DNA samples are to be used for nuclear microsatellite analyses, we recommend silica as the best storage method. However, for maximum mitochondrial amplification success, RNAlater appears to be the best storage medium. In contrast, ethanol appeared inferior to the other two methods examined here and should not be used to store tropical ungulate faeces. Regardless of storage method, samples should be extracted as soon as possible after collection to ensure optimal recovery of DNA. PMID:21564676
Soto-Calderón, Iván D; Ntie, Stephan; Mickala, Patrick; Maisels, Fiona; Wickings, Elizabeth J; Anthony, Nicola M
Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.
Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.
Juvenile fish were sampled with a 10 m long net in a tide pool (17,000 m2) on the West margin of Boca Guarumal, Térraba-Sierpe Forest Reserve, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, from October 1992 through January 1994. Water temperature and surface salinity were recorded in each visit. The specimens were fixed in 5% formaldehyde and preserved in 70% ethanol. Abundance and size data were pooled based on precipitation, a main ecological influence in the Reserve. A total of 13,494 individuals from 18 species were captured. Eucinostomus currani, Gobionellus sagittula, Diapterus peruvianus, Agonostomus monticola and Atherinella sp. represented more than 97% of the captures. Although many species presented the tendency of concentrating during the dry season, significant differences in temporal abundance were found. The fish entered the estuary when their body length was between 20 and 60 mm. PMID:15264544
Chicas, F A
The prevalence of macroscopic bone anomalies in the appendicular skeleton of wild rodents and, particularly, fossorial species is not well known. We examined 8,257 bones corresponding to 564 collection specimens (249 males and 315 females) of a fossorial form of water vole (Arvicola terrestris monticola). Animals were obtained monthly from July 1983 to December 1984 in the Aran Valley (Pyrenees). Most macroscopic anomalies were healed fractures or exostoses. The prevalence of anomalies was not significantly different between males and females but was clearly higher in adults than in juveniles and subadults. The frequency of alterations in the thoracic limb long bones was significantly higher than that in the pelvic counterparts. Aggressive intraspecific interactions and biomechanical factors related to burrowing may be associated with these differences. In females, remodeling of the innominate shape because of pregnancy and parturition could enhance fractures and exostoses in this structure. PMID:16456161
Ventura, Jacint; Götzens, Victor
We investigated variation in height growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf stable carbon isotope ratio among wind-pollinated progenies of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) from a small group of contiguous stands on the Priest River Experimental Forest in northern Idaho. Photosynthetic variables differed between height classes in the pines, but not in Douglas-fir. Among species and families, tall families of ponderosa pine regained photosynthetic capacity earliest in the spring and maintained it latest in the growing season. Tall families of western white pine had higher instantaneous water-use efficiencies and lower photosynthetic rates than short families on warm days in August. PMID:11470658
Marshall, J D; Rehfeldt, G E; Monserud, R A
A comprehensive mitochondrial phylogeny of the family Mugilidae (Durand et al., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64 (2012) 73-92) demonstrated the polyphyly or paraphyly of a proportion of the 20 genera in the family. Based on these results, here we propose a revised classification with 25 genera, including 15 genera currently recognized as valid (Agonostomus, Aldrichetta, Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, Chelon, Crenimugil, Ellochelon, Joturus, Mugil, Myxus, Neomyxus, Oedalechilus, Rhinomugil, Sicamugil and Trachystoma), 7 resurrected genera [Dajaus (for Agonostomus monticola), Gracilimugil (for Liza argentea), Minimugil (for Sicamugil cascasia), Osteomugil (for several species currently under Moolgarda and Valamugil, including M. cunnesius, M. engeli, M. perusii, and V. robustus), Planiliza (for Indo-Pacific Chelon spp., Indo-Pacific Liza spp., and Paramugil parmatus), Plicomugil (for Oedalechilus labiosus), and Squalomugil (for Rhinomugil nasutus)] and 3 new genera: Neochelon gen. nov. (for Liza falcipinnis), Parachelon gen. nov. (for L. grandisquamis) and Pseudomyxus gen. nov. (for Myxus capensis). Genus Chelon was shown to include exclusively Chelon spp. and Liza spp. from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and Liza spp. species endemic to eastern southern Africa. Genus Crenimugil should now include C. crenilabis, Moolgarda seheli and V. buchanani. Genus names Liza, Moolgarda, Paramugil, Valamugil and Xenomugil should be abandoned because they are no longer valid. Further genetic evidence is required to confirm or infirm the validity of the genus Paracrenimugil Senou 1988. The mitochondrial phylogeny of the 25 genera from the present revision is the following: [(Sicamugil, (Minimugil, Rhinomugil)); Trachystoma; ((Myxus, Neomyxus), (Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, (Agonostomus, Dajaus, Joturus), Mugil)); (Aldrichetta, Gracilimugil); Neochelon gen. nov.; (Pseudomyxus gen. nov., (Chelon, Oedalechilus, Planiliza, Parachelon gen. nov.)); ((Squalomugil, (Ellochelon, Plicomugil)), (Crenimugil, Osteomugil))]. Agonostomus monticola and several species with large distribution ranges (including Moolgarda seheli, Mugil cephalus and M. curema) consist of separate lineages whose geographic distribution suggests they are cryptic species, thus warranting further taxonomic work in the Mugilidae at the infra-generic level. PMID:23199637
Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shen, Kang-Ning; Fu, Cuizhang; Borsa, Philippe
The presence of researchers, ecotourists or rangers inside protected areas is generally assumed to provide a protective effect for wildlife populations, mainly by reducing poaching pressure. However, this assumption has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we evaluate and quantify the conservation benefits of the presence of a long-term research area in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. A wildlife survey following 225 km of line transects revealed considerably higher primate and duiker encounter rates within the research area when compared with adjacent areas. This positive effect was particularly pronounced for threatened and over-harvested species, such as the endangered red colobus monkey (Procolobus badius). This pattern was clearly mirrored by a reversed gradient in signs of poaching, which decreased towards and inside the research area, a trend that was also supported with park-wide data. This study demonstrates that even relatively simple evidence-based analytical approaches can bridge the gap between conservation theory and practice. In addition, it emphasizes the value of establishing long-term research sites as an integral part of protected area management. PMID:21450724
Campbell, G; Kuehl, H; Diarrassouba, A; N'Goran, P K; Boesch, C
A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia) to eland (Taurotragus oryx) occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus) was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n = 8) did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6) routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7%) and antelope species (54.5%). The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4) followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important. PMID:12240773
Madzingira, O; Mukaratirwa, S; Pandey, V S; Dorny, P
The histological structure of ruminant (family: Bovidae) placentomes in eight antelope species was compared to that of domestic cattle and sheep. The chorioallantoic villi differed in degree of branching, surface corrugation, and complexity of utero-placental junction. All species had the epitheliochorial type of placenta, with the epithelial lining of maternal caruncular crypts varying between cellular and syncytial types. Uganda kob (Kobus kob, Reduncinae) and common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia, Cephalophinae) had the simplest structures with minimal villous branching, round to polygonal villous cross-sections, and cellular crypt lining. Common eland (Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphinae) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Tragelaphinae) had moderate villous branching, polygonal to mildly corrugated villous cross-sections, and cellular crypt lining with slight signs of syncytium. Wildebeest (gnu, Connochaetes gnou, Alcelaphinae) and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger, Hippotraginae) had moderate villous branching with corrugated surface and almost completely syncytial crypt lining. Steenbok (Raphicerus campestris, Neotraginae) and impala (Aepyceros melampus, Aepycerotinae) had the most complicated branching of villi and corrugation, and their crypt lining was clearly syncytial. Cattle (Bos taurus) and sheep (Ovis aries) had villous branching and corrugation similar to impala, and their crypt lining resembled that of eland and impala, respectively. PMID:16726390
Hradecký, P; Mossman, H W; Stott, G G
Sawfly larvae of the tribe Phymatocerini (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which are specialized on toxic plants in the orders Liliales and Ranunculales, exude a droplet of deterrent hemolymph upon attack by a predator. We investigated whether secondary plant metabolites from Ranunculaceae leaves are sequestered by phymatocerine Monophadnus species, i.e., Monophadnus alpicola feeding upon Pulsatilla alpina and Monophadnus monticola feeding upon Ranunculus lanuginosus. Moreover, two undescribed Monophadnus species were studied: species A collected from Helleborusfoetidus and species B collected from Helleborus viridis. Comparative high-performance liquid chromatographicphotodiode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analyses of plant leaf and insect hemolymph extracts revealed the presence of furostanol saponins in all samples. Larvae of species A and B actively sequestered (25R)-26-[(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl) oxy]-22alpha-methoxyfurost-5-en-3beta-yl O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-[6-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 1). This compound occurred at a 65- to 200-fold higher concentration in the hemolymph of the two species (1.6 and 17.5 micromol/g FW, respectively) than in their host plant (0.008 and 0.268 micromol/g FW, respectively). In M. monticola, compound 1 was found at a concentration (1.2 micromol/g FW) similar to that in the host plant (1.36 micromol/g FW). The compound could not be detected consistently in M. alpicola larvae where, however, a related saponin may be present. Additional furostanol saponins were found in H. foetidus and H. viridis, but not in the two Monophadnus species feeding on them, indicating that sequestration of compound 1 is a highly specific process. In laboratory bioassays, crude hemolymph of three Monophadnus species showed a significant feeding deterrent activity against a potential predator, Myrmica rubra ant workers. Isolated furostanol saponins were also active against the ants, at a concentration range similar to that found in the hemolymph. Thus, these compounds seem to play a major role for chemical defense of Monophadnus larvae, although other plant secondary metabolites (glycosylated ecdysteroids) were also detected in their hemolymph. Physiological and ecological implications of the sequestered furostanol saponins are discussed. PMID:17252214
Prieto, José M; Schaffner, Urs; Barker, Alison; Braca, Alessandra; Siciliano, Tiziana; Boevé, Jean-Luc
With the purpose of knowing seasonal variations of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in a river basin with past and present mining activities, elemental concentrations were measured in six fish species and four crustacean species in Baluarte River, from some of the mining sites to the mouth of the river in the Pacific Ocean between May 2005 and March 2006. In fish, highest levels of Cd (0.06 ?g g ?¹ dry weight) and Cr (0.01 ?g g?¹) were detected during the dry season in Gobiesox fluviatilis and Agonostomus monticola, respectively; the highest levels of Hg (0.56 ?g g?¹) were detected during the dry season in Guavina guavina and Mugil curema. In relation to Pb, the highest level (1.65 ?g g?¹) was detected in A. monticola during the dry season. In crustaceans, highest levels of Cd (0.05 ?g g?¹) occurred in Macrobrachium occidentale during both seasons; highest concentration of Cr (0.09 ?g g?¹) was also detected in M. occidentale during the dry season. With respect to Hg, highest level (0.20 ?g g?¹) was detected during the rainy season in Macrobrachium americanum; for Pb, the highest concentration (2.4 ?g g?¹) corresponded to Macrobrachium digueti collected in the dry season. Considering average concentrations of trace metals in surficial sediments from all sites, Cd (p<0.025), Cr (p<0.10) and Hg (p<0.15) were significantly higher during the rainy season. Biota sediment accumulation factors above unity were detected mostly in the case of Hg in fish during both seasons. On the basis of the metal levels in fish and crustacean and the provisional tolerable weekly intake of studied elements, people can eat up to 13.99, 0.79 and 2.34 kg of fish in relation to Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively; regarding crustaceans, maximum amounts were 11.33, 2.49 and 2.68 kg of prawns relative to levels of Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively. PMID:21684575
Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Green-Ruiz, C; Zavala-Nevárez, M; Soto-Jiménez, M
Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, resulting in approximately 900 collecting hours. During this period, 216 sandfly specimens of sixteen species were captured. Pintomyia monticola and Brumptomyia guimaraesi were the most abundant with 56 specimens (25.93%) captured per species, followed by Pintomyia fischeri 28 (12.96%) and Psathyromyia pascalei 18 (8.33%). Other captured species were Lutzomyia amarali, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae, Pintomyia misionensis, Brumptomyia carvalheiroi, Brumptomyia cardosoi, Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Brumptomyia brumpti and Brumptomyia spp. represented by 58 (26.85%) specimens. Conclusions Although less frequently found, the presence of Pintomyia fischeri, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei, known vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, indicates risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence. Moreover, the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis-the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, which is the agent of American visceral leishmaniasis-suggests that there is no risk of introduction and establishment of this disease in the studied area.
Xylem water potential of the midelevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Abies concolor, and Calocedrus decurrens, the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnifica, and co-occurring evergreen angiosperm shrubs, together with soil moisture under these plants, were monitored at three sites on the Kern Plateau in the southernmost Sierra Nevada Range of California. Site locations spanned the ecotone between the mid- and upper montane forests at elevations of 2230-2820 m. Measurements were made through a low-snowfall year and a heavy-snowfall year.In the Mediterranean climate of the Sierra Nevada, the heavy winter snowpack persists into late spring, after precipitation has effectively stopped. We found the subsequent depletion of soil moisture due to plant water uptake to result in predawn xylem water potentials for conifers more negative by 0.6-1.4 MPa than those for shrubs or inferred soil potentials. Shrubs generally depleted soil moisture more rapidly and ultimately extracted a greater fraction of the available soil moisture than did the conifers. This depletion of soil moisture by shrubs, particularly Arctostaphylos patula, may limit conifer growth and regeneration by prematurely terminating growth on the shallow soils studied. The conifers all generally showed similar patterns of soil moisture use, except that A. magnifica extracted moisture more rapidly early in the season. PMID:11353716
Royce, E B; Barbour, M G
The following 3 new species of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) are described from the intestines of freshwater fishes in Mexico, all belonging to the morphological group characterized by the presence of wide caudal alae, 3 pairs of subventral preanal papillae, and unequal spicules in the male: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) jaliscensis n. sp. (type host: Agonostomus monticola) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) gobiomori n. sp. (hosts: Gobiomorus maculatus [type host], Gobiomorus polylepis and Eleotris picta) from 2 rivers in Jalisco State, western Mexico, and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) mexicanus n. sp. (type host: Cichlasoma geddesi) from Xalapa District, Veracruz State (Gulf of Mexico region), southeastern Mexico. Procamallanus jaliscensis is characterized by the length of the spicules (606-900 microm and 282-354 microm), number (15-16) of spiral ridges in the buccal capsule, and the digit-like protrusion with 1 terminal cuticular spike on the female tail; P. mexicanus by the length of the spicules (456-480 microm and 231-233 microm), number (10-12) of spiral ridges in the capsule, and the shape of the female tail (conical with a suddenly narrowed distal part, without any terminal spikes); and P. gobiomori by the length of spicules (318-348 microm and 156-192 microm), number (8-10) of spiral ridges and by the digit-like protrusion with 2 terminal cuticular spikes on the female tail. PMID:10701574
Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G; Caspeta-Mandujano, J
As part of a biocomplexity project in Puerto Rico, we use river and road networks as a platform to understand the interactions between stream biota, the physical environment, and human activity. Specifically, we ask if humans affect aquatic organisms through road building and recreational activities. Culverts have been documented to impede or slow migration of aquatic biota. This is especially important in these streams because all of the freshwater, stream species have diadramous life cycles. If culverts do act as bottlenecks to shrimp migrations, we expect altered predator-prey interactions downstream through density-dependent predation dynamics. In order to determine how roads may affect predation rates on upstream migrating shrimp, we parameterized functional response curves for mountain mullet (Agonostomus monticola) consuming shrimp (Xiphocaris sp.) using artificial mesocosm experiments. We then used data obtained from underwater videography to determine how culverts decrease the rate and number of shrimp moving upstream. These data were combined in a predator-prey model to quantify the effects of culverts on localized shrimp densities and fish predation.
Hein, C. L.; Kikkert, D. A.; Crowl, T. A.
A new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n., is described from the intestine of three species of fishes, Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft) (Mugilidae, Perciformes) (type host), Ictalurus balsanus (Jordan et Snyder) (Ictaluridae, Siluriformes) and Cichlasoma beani (Jordan) (Cichlidae, Perciformes), from three rivers (La Maquina River, Veracruz; Chontalcoatlán River, Guerrero and Santiago River, Nayarit) in central Mexico. This species is characterised by the absence of a ventral sucker in the male (subgenus Dichelyne) and it differs from its congeners mainly in possessing very unequal and dissimilar spicules (left 0.465-0.768 mm and right 293-548 mm long), an asymmetrical gubernaculum, and two intestinal caeca. Another cucullanid nematode, Cucullanus caballeroi Petter, 1977, is reported from Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Eleotridae, Perciformes) from the La Palma and La Maquina Rivers and Balzapote stream, Veracruz, being briefly described and illustrated; this represents a new host record. Findings of D. mexicanus and C. caballeroi represent a new record of cucullanid nematodes from fishes in Mexican fresh waters. PMID:10730201
Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G
Growth and xylem water potential of the lower elevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi and Abies concolor and the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnifica were monitored in their montane Mediterranean habitat of the southernmost Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Measurements were made across the ecotone between the midmontane and upper montane forests and through light and heavy snowfall years.Radial stem growth, averaging ?1.5 mm/yr, started 2 wk after snow melt, providing that maximum air temperatures had reached 21°C, and ended when predawn water potentials fell rapidly at the onset of the summer drought. Leader growth started on or after a fixed date, providing that minimum air temperatures were above -4°C for Pinus species or +2.5°C for Abies species. The cue for leader growth was inferred to be photoperiodic. Leader growth ended when either a determinate internode length of ?1 mm was reached or predawn water potentials fell rapidly. Abies magnifica grew more rapidly than the low-elevation species, but had a shorter growth period; its annual leader growth, as a consequence, was only 35 mm/yr vs. 50 mm/yr for the low-elevation species. Needle growth was similarly determinate in the absence of early drought. This growth phenology contributes to determining species distribution across the ecotone. PMID:11353717
Royce, E B; Barbour, M G
Late in 1984, our Laboratory was funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, to investigate the potential utility of microorganisms for the solubilization of low-ranked coals. Our approach has been multifacited, including studies of the types of microorganisms involved, appropriate conditions for their growth and coal-solubilization, the suceptibility of different coals to microbial action, the chemical and physical nature of the product, and potential bioprocess designs. A substantial number of fungal species have been shown to be able to solubilize coal. Cohen and Gabrielle reported that two lignin-degrading fungi, Polyporous (Trametes) versicolor and Poria monticola could solubilize lignite. Ward has isolated several diverse fungi from nature which are capable of degrading different lignites, and our Laboratory has isolated three coal-solubilizing fungi which were found growing on a sample of Texas lignite. The organisms we studied are shown in Table 1. The perceived significance of lignin degradation led us to examine two lignin-degrading strains of the genus Streptomyces. As discussed later, these bacteria were capable of solubilizing coal; but, in the case of at least one, the mechanism was non-enzymatic. The coal-solubilizing ability of other strains of Streptomyces was recently reported. Fakoussa and Trueper found evidence that a strain of Pseudomonas was capble of solubizing coal. It would thus appear that a diverse array of microorganisms possess the ability to solubilize coal. 16 refs.
A field study was initiated to determine survival, growth characteristics, and metal uptake of two montane riparian willow species, Geyer (Salix geyeriana Andersson) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow, grown in amended fluvial mine tailing deposits. Revegetation was done with staked and previously rooted cuttings to determine if planting method had an effect on successful establishment of willows. A second planting was done the following growing season which tested cuttings of different ages. The addition of lime increased the soil pH from 5.0 to 6.5 and effectively reduced bioavailability of most heavy metals below phytotoxic levels. However, both willow species, regardless of planting method, concentrated Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in their leaf tissue above levels considered toxic to agronomic plants. Over the course of four growing seasons, prerooted mountain willows had a consistently higher survival rate compared to staked willows. At the end of the fourth growing season, mountain willow had a higher survival rate and produced greater aboveground growth for both planting methods, irrespective of year planted, compared with Geyer willow. Based on growth characteristics, the use of prerooted mountain willows would be recommended for successful revegetation of amended fluvial mine tailing deposits in riparian zones. However, because of the high Cd uptake into aboveground tissues, care should be taken in restoration efforts where wildlife and domestic livestock are likely to browse on the willows. PMID:19244490
Bourret, Melody M; Brummer, Joe E; Leininger, Wayne C
The concept of remote capture involved in the creation and use of snares and traps is one of several indicators that can be used for the recognition of enhanced working memory and complex cognition. It can be argued that this humble technology is a more reliable indicator of complex cognition than encounter hunting, for example with spears. It is difficult to recognize snares and traps archaeologically because they are generally made from materials that do not preserve well. To infer their presence in the past, it is therefore necessary to rely on circumstantial evidence such as mortality profiles, taxonomic diversity and high frequencies of creatures that are susceptible to capture in snares or traps. Clearly there are some problems with using snares to infer complex cognition because people do not necessarily choose meat-getting strategies with the lowest costs. Although snares make economic sense because they reduce search costs, their use by modern hunters is not associated with the type of status accorded to other means of hunting. Social demands, more than economic or environmental ones, may consequently have determined the amount of snaring and trapping that occurred in the past. Because of social attitudes, an absence of snaring need not mean that people were incapable of using this technique. At Sibudu, a South African Middle Stone Age site, snares or other non-selective capture techniques may have been used during the Howiesons Poort and perhaps also the Still Bay Industry. The circumstantial evidence consists of 1. high frequency representations of animals that prefer forested environments, including the tiny blue duiker (adult and juvenile) and the dangerous bushpig, 2. high frequencies of small mammals, 3. high taxonomic diversity and, 4. the presence of small carnivores. Importantly, the Howiesons Poort faunal assemblage is different from that in more recent Middle Stone Age occupations of the site. PMID:20031191
Species' assessments must frequently be derived from opportunistic observations made by volunteers (i.e., citizen scientists). Interpretation of the resulting data to estimate population trends is plagued with problems, including teasing apart genuine population trends from variations in observation effort. We devised a way to correct for annual variation in effort when estimating trends in occupancy (species distribution) from faunal or floral databases of opportunistic observations. First, for all surveyed sites, detection histories (i.e., strings of detection-nondetection records) are generated. Within-season replicate surveys provide information on the detectability of an occupied site. Detectability directly represents observation effort; hence, estimating detectability means correcting for observation effort. Second, site-occupancy models are applied directly to the detection-history data set (i.e., without aggregation by site and year) to estimate detectability and species distribution (occupancy, i.e., the true proportion of sites where a species occurs). Site-occupancy models also provide unbiased estimators of components of distributional change (i.e., colonization and extinction rates). We illustrate our method with data from a large citizen-science project in Switzerland in which field ornithologists record opportunistic observations. We analyzed data collected on four species: the widespread Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) and Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) and the scarce Rock Thrush (Monticola saxatilis) and Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria). Our method requires that all observed species are recorded. Detectability was <1 and varied over the years. Simulations suggested some robustness, but we advocate recording complete species lists (checklists), rather than recording individual records of single species. The representation of observation effort with its effect on detectability provides a solution to the problem of differences in effort encountered when extracting trend information from haphazard observations. We expect our method is widely applicable for global biodiversity monitoring and modeling of species distributions. PMID:20337672
Kéry, Marc; Royle, J Andrew; Schmid, Hans; Schaub, Michael; Volet, Bernard; Häfliger, Guido; Zbinden, Niklaus
Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), some of which are known as active nonautonomous DNA transposons, are found in the genomes of plants and animals. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Ah-MITE1 has been identified in a gene for fatty-acid desaturase, and possessed excision activity. However, the AhMITE1 distribution and frequency of excision have not been determined for the peanut genome. In order to characterize AhMITE1s, their genomic diversity and transposition ability was investigated. Southern blot analysis indicated high AhMITE1 copy number in the genomes of A. hypogaea, A. magna and A. monticola, but not in A. duranensis. A total of 504 AhMITE1s were identified from the MITE-enriched genomic libraries of A. hypogaea. The representative AhMITE1s exhibited a mean length of 205.5 bp and a GC content of 30.1%, with AT-rich, 9 bp target site duplications and 25 bp terminal inverted repeats. PCR analyses were performed using primer pairs designed against both flanking sequences of each AhMITE1. These analyses detected polymorphisms at 169 out of 411 insertional loci in the four peanut lines. In subsequent analyses of 60 gamma-irradiated mutant lines, four Ah-MITE1 excisions showed footprint mutations at the 109 loci tested. This study characterizes AhMITE1s in peanut and discusses their use as DNA markers and mutagens for the genetics, genomics and breeding of peanut and its relatives. PMID:22294450
Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Kiyoshima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Sigeru; Sasamoto, Sigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Isobe, Sachiko
Information on the heavy metal toxicity thresholds of woody species endemic to the western United States is lacking but critical for successful restoration of contaminated riparian areas. Manganese (Mn, 50-10,000 mg l(-1)) and zinc (Zn, 100-1000 mg l(-1)) toxicity thresholds were determined for Geyer (Salix geyeriana Anderss.) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow using a sand-culture technique. The lethal concentration (50%) values were 3117 and 2791 mg Mn l(-1) and 556 and 623 mg Zn l(-1) for Geyer and mountain willow, respectively. The effective concentration (50%) values for shoots were 2263 and 1027 mg Mn l(-1) and 436 and 356 mg Zn l(-1) for Geyer and mountain willow, respectively. Shoot tissue values did not increase with increasing treatment concentrations. However, metals in the roots did increase consistently in response to the treatments. Metal levels in the shoot tissues were low for Zn (65-139 mg kg(-1)) and moderate for Mn (1300-2700 mg kg(-1)). Geyer and mountain willow have good resistance to Mn, possibly due to evolution in hydric soils with increased Mn availability, and may be useful for phytostabilization of soils with high levels of available Mn. Both species were affected to a greater degree by Zn as compared to Mn, but still exhibited good resistance and should be useful in remediating sites with at least moderate levels of available Zn. Based on the thresholds evaluated, Geyer willow had greater resistance to both Mn and Zn as compared to mountain willow, especially at lower concentrations in which growth of Geyer willow was actually stimulated. PMID:18246728
Shanahan, Jennifer O; Brummer, Joe E; Leininger, Wayne C; Paschke, Mark W
Background Wild animals’ meat is extensively consumed in South Africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. To test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained DNA sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. The reliability of species assignments were evaluated using BLAST searches in GenBank, maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis and the character-based method implemented in BLOG. The Kimura-2-parameter intra- and interspecific variation was evaluated for all matched species. Results The combined application of similarity, phylogenetic and character-based methods proved successful in species identification. Game meat samples showed 76.5% substitution, no beef samples were substituted. The substitutions showed a variety of domestic species (cattle, horse, pig, lamb), common game species in the market (kudu, gemsbok, ostrich, impala, springbok), uncommon species in the market (giraffe, waterbuck, bushbuck, duiker, mountain zebra) and extra-continental species (kangaroo). The mountain zebra Equus zebra is an International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red listed species. We also detected Damaliscus pygargus, which is composed of two subspecies with one listed by IUCN as ‘near threatened’; however, these mitochondrial fragments were insufficient to distinguish between the subspecies. The genetic distance between African ungulate species often overlaps with within-species distance in cases of recent speciation events, and strong phylogeographic structure determines within-species distances that are similar to the commonly accepted distances between species. Conclusions The reliability of commercial labeling of game meat in South Africa is very poor. The extensive substitution of wild game has important implications for conservation and commerce, and for the consumers making decisions on the basis of health, religious beliefs or personal choices. Distance would be a poor indicator for identification of African ungulates species. The efficiency of the character-based method is reliant upon availability of large reference data. The current higher availability of cytochrome b data would make this the marker of choice for African ungulates. The encountered problems of incomplete or erroneous information in databases are discussed.
Background The genus Arachis, originated in South America, is divided into nine taxonomical sections comprising of 80 species. Most of the Arachis species are diploids (2n = 2x = 20) and the tetraploid species (2n = 2x = 40) are found in sections Arachis, Extranervosae and Rhizomatosae. Diploid species have great potential to be used as resistance sources for agronomic traits like pests and diseases, drought related traits and different life cycle spans. Understanding of genetic relationships among wild species and between wild and cultivated species will be useful for enhanced utilization of wild species in improving cultivated germplasm. The present study was undertaken to evaluate genetic relationships among species (96 accessions) belonging to seven sections of Arachis by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Arachis hypogaea genomic library and gene sequences from related genera of Arachis. Results The average transferability rate of 101 SSR markers tested to section Arachis and six other sections was 81% and 59% respectively. Five markers (IPAHM 164, IPAHM 165, IPAHM 407a, IPAHM 409, and IPAHM 659) showed 100% transferability. Cluster analysis of allelic data from a subset of 32 SSR markers on 85 wild and 11 cultivated accessions grouped accessions according to their genome composition, sections and species to which they belong. A total of 109 species specific alleles were detected in different wild species, Arachis pusilla exhibited largest number of species specific alleles (15). Based on genetic distance analysis, the A-genome accession ICG 8200 (A. duranensis) and the B-genome accession ICG 8206 (A. ipaënsis) were found most closely related to A. hypogaea. Conclusion A set of cross species and cross section transferable SSR markers has been identified that will be useful for genetic studies of wild species of Arachis, including comparative genome mapping, germplasm analysis, population genetic structure and phylogenetic inferences among species. The present study provides strong support based on both genomic and genic markers, probably for the first time, on relationships of A. monticola and A. hypogaea as well as on the most probable donor of A and B-genomes of cultivated groundnut.
Univariate time-series analyses were conducted on stable carbon isotope ratios obtained from tree-ring cellulose. We looked for the presence and structure of autocorrelation. Significant autocorrelation violates the statistical independence assumption and biases hypothesis tests. Its presence would indicate the existence of lagged physiological effects that persist for longer than the current year. We analyzed data from 28 trees (60-85 years old; mean = 73 years) of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca) growing in northern Idaho. Material was obtained by the stem analysis method from rings laid down in the upper portion of the crown throughout each tree's life. The sampling protocol minimized variation caused by changing light regimes within each tree. Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models were used to describe the autocorrelation structure over time. Three time series were analyzed for each tree: the stable carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C); discrimination (delta); and the difference between ambient and internal CO(2) concentrations (c(a) - c(i)). The effect of converting from ring cellulose to whole-leaf tissue did not affect the analysis because it was almost completely removed by the detrending that precedes time-series analysis. A simple linear or quadratic model adequately described the time trend. The residuals from the trend had a constant mean and variance, thus ensuring stationarity, a requirement for autocorrelation analysis. The trend over time for c(a) - c(i) was particularly strong (R(2) = 0.29-0.84). Autoregressive moving average analyses of the residuals from these trends indicated that two-thirds of the individual tree series contained significant autocorrelation, whereas the remaining third were random (white noise) over time. We were unable to distinguish between individuals with and without significant autocorrelation beforehand. Significant ARMA models were all of low order, with either first- or second-order (i.e., lagged 1 or 2 years, respectively) models performing well. A simple autoregressive (AR(1)), model was the most common. The most useful generalization was that the same ARMA model holds for each of the three series (delta(13)C, delta, c(a) - c(i)) for an individual tree, if the time trend has been properly removed for each series. The mean series for the two pine species were described by first-order ARMA models (1-year lags), whereas the Douglas-fir mean series were described by second-order models (2-year lags) with negligible first-order effects. Apparently, the process of constructing a mean time series for a species preserves an underlying signal related to delta(13)C while canceling some of the random individual tree variation. Furthermore, the best model for the overall mean series (e.g., for a species) cannot be inferred from a consensus of the individual tree model forms, nor can its parameters be estimated reliably from the mean of the individual tree parameters. Because two-thirds of the individual tree time series contained significant autocorrelation, the normal assumption of a random structure over time is unwarranted, even after accounting for the time trend. The residuals of an appropriate ARMA model satisfy the independence assumption, and can be used to make hypothesis tests. PMID:11581016
Monserud, R A; Marshall, J D
The stable oxygen isotope ratio (delta(18)O) of tree-ring cellulose is jointly determined by the delta(18)O of xylem water, the delta(18)O of atmospheric water vapor, the humidity of the atmosphere and perhaps by species-specific differences in leaf structure and function. Atmospheric humidity and the delta(18)O of water vapor vary seasonally and annually, but if the canopy atmosphere is well mixed, atmospheric characteristics should be uniform among co-occurring trees. In contrast, xylem water delta(18)O is determined by the delta(18)O of water being drawn from the soil, which varies with depth. If co-occurring trees draw water from different soil depths, this soil-water delta(18)O signal would be manifest as differences in delta(18)O among the trees. We examined the variation in tree ring delta(18)O, over eight decades during the 20th Century, among three species co-occurring in natural forest stands of the northern Rocky Mountains in the USA. We sampled 10 Douglas-firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca), 10 ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) and seven western white pines (Pinus monticola Dougl.). As expected, variation in atmospheric conditions was recorded in the delta(18)O of the cellulose produced in a given year, but observed climatic correlations with delta(18)O were weak. Significant correlations with June climate data included: daily maximum temperature (r = 0.29), daily minimum temperature (r = -0.25), mean temperature (r = 0.20), mean daily precipitation (r = -0.54), vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.32) and solar radiation (r = 0.44). Lagged effects were observed in Douglas-fir and western white pine. In these species, the delta(18)O of a given annual ring was correlated with the delta(18)O of the previous ring. Ponderosa pine showed no significant autocorrelation. Although the species means were correlated among years (r = 0.67 to 0.76), ponderosa pine was consistently enriched in delta(18)O relative to the other species; differences were close to 2 per thousand and they are steadily increasing. Relative to the mean for the three species, ponderosa pine is becoming steadily more enriched (-1.0 per thousand). In contrast, Douglas-fir is being steadily depleted and western pine is intermediate, with an enrichment of 0.5 per thousand. Because all trees were exposed to the same atmospheric conditions, the differences in delta(18)O observed between species are likely due either to differences in the depth of water extraction or leaf function. If the former, presumably ponderosa pine has steadily taken up more water from near the soil surface and Douglas-fir has shifted uptake to a greater depth. If the latter, we suggest the pronounced changes in leaf-water delta(18)O are a result of changes in leaf structure and function with tree size and age. PMID:16651255
Marshall, John D; Monserud, Robert A
A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus montivagus sp. n., Trigonopterus moreaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus myops sp. n., Trigonopterus nangiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus nothofagorum sp. n., Trigonopterus ovatus sp. n., Trigonopterus oviformis sp. n., Trigonopterus parumsquamosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parvulus sp. n., Trigonopterus phoenix sp. n., Trigonopterus plicicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus politoides sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudogranum sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudonasutus sp. n., Trigonopterus ptolycoides sp. n., Trigonopterus punctulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ragaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus rhinoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus rhomboidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus rubiginosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rubripennis sp. n., Trigonopterus rufibasis sp. n., Trigonopterus scabrosus sp. n., Trigonopterus scissops sp. n., Trigonopterus scharfi sp. n., Trigonopterus signicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus simulans sp. n., Trigonopterus soiorum sp. n., T sordidus sp. n., Trigonopterus squamirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus striatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strigatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strombosceroides sp. n., Trigonopterus subglabratus sp. n., Trigonopterus sulcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus taenzleri sp. n., Trigonopterus talpa sp. n., Trigonopterus taurekaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tialeorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tibialis sp. n., Trigonopterus tridentatus sp. n., Trigonopterus uniformis sp. n., Trigonopterus variabilis sp. n., Trigonopterus velaris sp. n., Trigonopterus verrucosus sp. n., Trigonopterus violaceus sp. n., Trigonopterus viridescens sp. n., Trigonopterus wamenaensis sp. n., Trigonopterus wariorum sp. n., Trigonopterus zygops sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. PMID:23794832
Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler; Michael Balke