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1

Ventricular septal defect in a blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola).  

PubMed

A 9-mo-old female blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola) weighing 3.9 kg was diagnosed with a cardiac murmur during quarantine examination. Evaluation of the heart by auscultation, electrocardiography, two-dimensional echocardiography, and Doppler color-flow echocardiography revealed a restrictive outlet ventricular septal defect with left atrial and left ventricular dilation. Trivial mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation was also noted. Though the duiker was clinically asymptomatic at the time of cardiac evaluation, it was found dead 1 wk later. The cause of death was not determined. PMID:11237152

Suedmeyer, W K; Hitchcock, L S; Bonagura, J D; Kreeger, J; Smith, T

2000-09-01

2

Dysplastic tracheae in eight blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola) from Bioko, Equatorial Guinea.  

PubMed

Nine blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola), purchased in the Malabo bushmeat market, were necropsied. Eight of the nine animals were found to have dysplastic tracheas, characterized by lateral apposition of tracheal rings, entrapment of the trachealis muscle and annular ligaments, and bunching of the tracheal epithelium. Communications with zoologic pathologists and a thorough search of the veterinary literature have not uncovered a single case of this pathologic finding. As such, this finding may represent an evolutionary marker indicative of a bottleneck that may have occurred in the history of this species of duiker, endemic to the island of Bioko, in the Gulf of Benin. PMID:20597221

Lombardini, Eric D; Lane, Emily; Del Piero, Fabio

2010-06-01

3

Bacterial and Fungal Numbers in Ruminal and Cecal Contents of the Blue Duiker (Cephalophus monticola).  

PubMed

Total and cellulolytic bacterial and fungal numbers were determined in ruminal and cecal contents of 20 blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). The animals were equally divided by sex and fed two diets, either high roughage or high concentrate. The mean concentration for total bacterial numbers in the rumen was 26.0 x 10/g of contents, with values ranging from 2 x 10/g to 93 x 10/g. Cellulolytic numbers averaged 6.0 x 10/g with a range of 1.5 x 10/g to 24.0 x 10/g. No differences related to sex or diet were found. In contrast, total bacterial numbers in the cecum differed between diets (P < 0.02), i.e., 1,046 x 10 bacteria per g for animals fed the high-forage diet compared with 166 x 10/g for those fed the high-concentrate diet. Cellulolytic bacterial counts in the cecal contents averaged 3.1 and 7.0% of the total counts for the high-forage and high-concentrate diets, respectively. Low concentrations of fungi were found in both ruminal and cecal contents of some, but not all, animals. Unexpectedly, concentrations of bacteria and fungi in the rumen and cecum were highly correlated with their total numbers (concentration multiplied by total weight of contents). PMID:16348413

Dehority, B A; Varga, G A

1991-02-01

4

Bacterial and Fungal Numbers in Ruminal and Cecal Contents of the Blue Duiker (Cephalophus monticola) †  

PubMed Central

Total and cellulolytic bacterial and fungal numbers were determined in ruminal and cecal contents of 20 blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). The animals were equally divided by sex and fed two diets, either high roughage or high concentrate. The mean concentration for total bacterial numbers in the rumen was 26.0 × 108/g of contents, with values ranging from 2 × 108/g to 93 × 108/g. Cellulolytic numbers averaged 6.0 × 108/g with a range of 1.5 × 108/g to 24.0 × 108/g. No differences related to sex or diet were found. In contrast, total bacterial numbers in the cecum differed between diets (P < 0.02), i.e., 1,046 × 106 bacteria per g for animals fed the high-forage diet compared with 166 × 106/g for those fed the high-concentrate diet. Cellulolytic bacterial counts in the cecal contents averaged 3.1 and 7.0% of the total counts for the high-forage and high-concentrate diets, respectively. Low concentrations of fungi were found in both ruminal and cecal contents of some, but not all, animals. Unexpectedly, concentrations of bacteria and fungi in the rumen and cecum were highly correlated with their total numbers (concentration multiplied by total weight of contents). PMID:16348413

Dehority, Burk A.; Varga, Gabriella A.

1991-01-01

5

Rumen ciliate protozoa of the blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola), with observations on morphological variation lines within the species Entodinium dubardi.  

PubMed

Protozoal concentrations were determined in rumen and cecal contents of 20 blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Ten animals of each sex were fed either a high concentrate or high roughage diet. Rumen protozoa were present in 19 of the 20 animals and concentrations ranged from 4.5 to 33.7 x 10(6) per g of rumen contents. At the higher concentrations, protozoal cells equaled between 30-40% of the total rumen contents volume. No protozoa were found in cecal contents. Weight of rumen contents was higher in females than in males (P < 0.01), and rumen protozoa concentrations were higher in males (P < 0.05) and in those animals fed the high concentrate diet (P < 0.05). All the protozoa were identified as belonging to a single species, Entodinium dubardi. However, an average of about 30% of the E. dubardi cells varied from the typical morphology of this species. These cells appeared to be on variation lines leading toward 7-10 other non-caudate species of Entodinium. The present data were used to evaluate and discuss the concept of variation lines within E. dubardi. PMID:8167616

Dehority, B A

1994-01-01

6

Besnoitiosis of the reproductive tract of a Blue Duiker (Cephalophus monticola).  

PubMed

A mature male Blue Duiker that had been born in the United States was submitted for necropsy examination following a brief illness. On histologic examination of the reproductive tract several Besnoitia cysts were found in the epididymis, prostate and bulbourethral gland. The lack of an inflammatory response or any negative effect on fertility, based on histologic evaluation and breeding history, is in contrast with the severe orchitis, epididymitis and infertility of besnoitiosis in cattle. This is the first report of an autochthonous infection of Besnoitia in the United States as well as the first report of besnoitiosis in a Blue Duiker. PMID:2382384

Foley, G L; Anderson, W I; Steinberg, H

1990-05-01

7

Mammalian pheromone studies, VII. Identification of thiazole derivatives in the preorbital gland secretions of the grey duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, and the red duiker, Cephalophus natalensis.  

PubMed

2-Isobutyl-1,3-thiazole and its 4,5-dihydro derivative were identified in the preorbital gland secretions of the grey duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, and the red duiker, Cephalophus natalensis, but are absent from the preorbital secretion of the blue duiker, C. monticola. These two compounds which are present in high, but varying concentrations in the secretions of male grey duikers, are present in low concentrations in the secretions of females. This seems to be the only consistent significant difference between the secretions of male and female grey duikers and together with the fact that only males mark out their territories, was construed as evidence in favour of these two compounds playing a significant role in the territorial behaviour of male grey duikers. PMID:3245266

Burger, B V; Pretorius, P J; Stander, J; Grierson, G R

1988-01-01

8

Fusobacterium necrophorum and Actinomyces pyogenes associated facial and mandibular abscesses in blue duiker.  

PubMed

Anaerobic and aerobic cultures of facial and mandibular abscesses were made from 12 blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola fusicolor) housed at the Deer and Duiker Research Facility of the Pennsylvania State University (USA). Increases in concentrations of total protein and serum globulin occurred in all cases. Actinomyces pyogenes was isolated from nine animals. Fusobacterium necrophorum was present in eight and Bacteroides sp. was found in seven animals; other genera of isolated bacteria included: Streptococcus (from two animals), Lactobacillus (one), Staphylococcus (one) and Actinomyces (two). Eight (67%) of affected animals were less than or equal to 2 yr of age. Facial soft tissues and mandibles were the tissues most often affected. Tissues within the oral cavity were not affected at the time of presentation. A common finding, not reported in other host species with necrobacillosis, was the presence of nondestructive mandibular proliferation. PMID:2761010

Roeder, B L; Chengappa, M M; Lechtenberg, K F; Nagaraja, T G; Varga, G A

1989-07-01

9

Chapter 6. Soil Management Sjoerd Willem Duiker  

E-print Network

Chapter 6. Soil Management Sjoerd Willem Duiker Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Penn State...................................................... 141 Using cover crops to ameliorate compaction............................................................... 144 Crop residue management

Kaye, Jason P.

10

A multi-locus species phylogeny of African forest duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae: evidence for a recent radiation in the Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Background Duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae are a group of tropical forest mammals believed to have first originated during the late Miocene. However, knowledge of phylogenetic relationships, pattern and timing of their subsequent radiation is poorly understood. Here we present the first multi-locus phylogeny of this threatened group of tropical artiodactyls and use a Bayesian uncorrelated molecular clock to estimate divergence times. Results A total of 4152 bp of sequence data was obtained from two mitochondrial genes and four nuclear introns. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis of concatenated mitochondrial, nuclear and combined datasets. A relaxed molecular clock with two fossil calibration points was used to estimate divergence times. The first was based on the age of the split between the two oldest subfamilies within the Bovidae whereas the second was based on the earliest known fossil appearance of the Cephalophinae and molecular divergence time estimates for the oldest lineages within this group. Findings indicate strong support for four major lineages within the subfamily, all of which date to the late Miocene/early Pliocene. The first of these to diverge was the dwarf duiker genus Philantomba, followed by the giant, eastern and western red duiker lineages, all within the genus Cephalophus. While these results uphold the recognition of Philantomba, they do not support the monotypic savanna-specialist genus Sylvicapra, which as sister to the giant duikers leaves Cephalophus paraphyletic. BEAST analyses indicate that most sister species pairs originated during the Pleistocene, suggesting that repeated glacial cycling may have played an important role in the recent diversification of this group. Furthermore, several red duiker sister species pairs appear to be either paraphyletic (C.callipygus/C. ogilbyi and C. harveyi/C. natalensis) or exhibit evidence of mitochondrial admixture (C. nigrifrons and C. rufilatus), consistent with their recent divergence and/or possible hybridization with each other. Conclusions Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest that Pleistocene-era climatic oscillations have played an important role in the speciation of this largely forest-dwelling group. Our results also reveal the most well supported species phylogeny for the subfamily to date, but also highlight several areas of inconsistency between our current understanding of duiker taxonomy and the evolutionary relationships depicted here. These findings may therefore prove particularly relevant to future conservation efforts, given that many species are presently regulated under the Convention for Trade in Endangered Species. PMID:22823504

2012-01-01

11

The chromosomes of tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitotic and meiotic chromosome preparations of the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) were studied to elucidate the sex-chromosomal polymorphism evidenced by this species. Females had 2n = 46 or 47 chromosomes, whereas males had 2n = 47 or 48 chromosomes. An X;autosome translocation was identified by synaptonemal complex analysis of spermatocytes at pachytene and confirmed by the presence of a trivalent

L. Shi; F. Yang; A. Kumamoto

1991-01-01

12

INTRODUCCIN La lagartija cantbrica (Iberolacerta monticola) es  

E-print Network

of this area. In addition, the genetic variability of these specimens was screened by combi- ning nuclear Azken 30 urteetan, Sugandila kantabriarra (Iberolacerta monticola) galdu egin da edo populazioak

Galán, Pedro

13

Les chromosomes polytčnes de Neanura monticola Cassagnau (Collemboles)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Collembolan Neanura monticola (2 n ? = + XX, 2 n ? = 12 + XO) only the autosomes have classical polytene structure in salivary glands. — In a valley of the Pyrenees-mountains, the X-chromosome shows an intense polymorphism with 13 different types of pattern. These differences are revealed in the pairing in bundles of elementary fibres, in

Paul Cassagnau

1974-01-01

14

Burkholderia monticola sp. nov., isolated from mountain soil.  

PubMed

An ivory/yellow, Gram-stain-negative, short-rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, designated JC2948(T), was isolated from a soil sample taken from Gwanak Mountain, Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain JC2948(T) belongs to the genus Burkholderia. The test strain showed highest sequence similarities to Burkholderia tropica LMG 22274(T) (97.6?%), Burkholderia acidipaludis NBRC 101816(T) (97.5?%), Burkholderia tuberum LMG 21444(T) (97.5?%), Burkholderia sprentiae LMG 27175(T) (97.4?%), Burkholderia terricola LMG 20594(T) (97.3?%) and Burkholderia diazotrophica LMG 26031(T) (97.1?%). Based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) values, the new isolate represents a novel genomic species as it shows less than 90?% ANI values with other closely related species. Also, other phylosiological and biochemical comparisons allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain JC2948(T) from other members of the genus Burkholderia. Therefore, we suggest that this strain should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Burkholderia. The name Burkholderia monticola sp. nov. (type strain, JC2948(T)?=?JCM 19904(T)?=?KACC 17924(T)) is proposed. PMID:25472981

Baek, Inwoo; Seo, Boram; Lee, Imchang; Yi, Hana; Chun, Jongsik

2015-02-01

15

Polymorphic karyotypes and sex chromosomes in the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus): cytogenetic studies and analyses of sex chromosome-linked genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different diploid chromosome numbers have been reported for the tufted deer Elaphodus cephalophus (female, 2n = 46\\/47; male, 2n = 47\\/48) in earlier reports. In the present study, chromosomal analysis of seven tufted deer (5?, 2?) revealed that the karyotype of these animals contains 48 chromosomes, including a pair of large heteromorphic chromosomes in the male. C-banding revealed these chromosomes

X. Cao; H. Jiang; X. Zhang

2005-01-01

16

Degradation of Coal by the Fungi Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola  

PubMed Central

We report that two species of basidiomycete fungi (Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola) grow in minimal liquid or solid medium when supplemented with crushed lignite coal. The fungi also grow directly on crushed lignite coal. The growth of both fungi was observed qualitatively as the production and extension of hyphae. No fungal growth occurred in minimal agar medium without coal. The fungi degraded solid lignite coal to a black liquid product which never appeared in cultures unless fungi and coal were present together. Apparently, lignite coal can serve as the principal substrate for the growth of the fungi. Infrared analyses of the liquid products of lignite degradation showed both similarities to and differences from the original lignite. Images PMID:16346060

Cohen, Martin S.; Gabriele, Peter D.

1982-01-01

17

Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India.  

PubMed

Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), from the Kani tribal settlements, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, southern India was described. These settlements were located in the Western Ghats, which is one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Morphological characters of male and female specimens of Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola were described with illustrations and its taxonomic position is defined within the genus. The DNA barcode analysis showed that both male and female specimens of the species were belonging to a single taxonomic category. The genetic distance with the most similar taxonomic neighbour was 14.61%, which confirms its distinctness from its congeners. Voucher specimens of the new species were deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India, Zoological Survey of India, India and Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Washington, D.C., USA. PMID:24832008

Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep

2014-09-01

18

Transcriptome analysis of Pinus monticola primary needles by RNA-seq provides novel insight into host resistance to Cronartium ribicola  

PubMed Central

Background Five-needle pines are important forest species that have been devastated by white pine blister rust (WPBR, caused by Cronartium ribicola) across North America. Currently little transcriptomic and genomic data are available to understand molecular interactions in the WPBR pathosystem. Results We report here RNA-seq analysis results using Illumina deep sequencing of primary needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola) infected with WPBR. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the first P. monticola consensus transcriptome, which contained 39,439 unique transcripts with an average length of 1,303 bp and a total length of 51.4 Mb. About 23,000 P. monticola unigenes produced orthologous hits in the Pinus gene index (PGI) database (BLASTn with E values < e-100) and 6,300 genes were expressed actively (at RPKM ? 10) in the healthy tissues. Comparison of transcriptomes from WPBR-susceptible and -resistant genotypes revealed a total of 979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a significant fold change > 1.5 during P. monticola- C. ribicola interactions. Three hundred and ten DEGs were regulated similarly in both susceptible and resistant seedlings and 275 DEGs showed regulatory differences between susceptible and resistant seedlings post infection by C. ribicola. The DEGs up-regulated in resistant seedlings included a set of putative signal receptor genes encoding disease resistance protein homologs, calcineurin B-like (CBL)-interacting protein kinases (CIPK), F-box family proteins (FBP), and abscisic acid (ABA) receptor; transcriptional factor (TF) genes of multiple families; genes homologous to apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), flowering locus T-like protein (FT), and subtilisin-like protease. DEGs up-regulated in resistant seedlings also included a wide diversity of down-stream genes (encoding enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways, pathogenesis-related -PR proteins of multiple families, and anti-microbial proteins). A large proportion of the down-regulated DEGs were related to photosystems, the metabolic pathways of carbon fixation and flavonoid biosynthesis. Conclusions The novel P. monticola transcriptome data provide a basis for future studies of genetic resistance in a non-model, coniferous species. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of transcriptomic regulation in the WPBR pathosystem and yields novel insights on molecular and biochemical mechanisms of disease resistance in conifers. PMID:24341615

2013-01-01

19

The importance of comparative phylogeography in diagnosing introduced species: a lesson from the seal salamander, Desmognathus monticola  

PubMed Central

Background In most regions of the world human influences on the distribution of flora and fauna predate complete biotic surveys. In some cases this challenges our ability to discriminate native from introduced species. This distinction is particularly critical for isolated populations, because relicts of native species may need to be conserved, whereas introduced species may require immediate eradication. Recently an isolated population of seal salamanders, Desmognathus monticola, was discovered on the Ozark Plateau, ~700 km west of its broad continuous distribution in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Using Nested Clade Analysis (NCA) we test whether the Ozark isolate results from population fragmentation (a natural relict) or long distance dispersal (a human-mediated introduction). Results Despite its broad distribution in the Appalachian Mountains, the primary haplotype diversity of D. monticola is restricted to less than 2.5% of the distribution in the extreme southern Appalachians, where genetic diversity is high for other co-distributed species. By intensively sampling this genetically diverse region we located haplotypes identical to the Ozark isolate. Nested Clade Analysis supports the hypothesis that the Ozark population was introduced, but it was necessary to include haplotypes that are less than or equal to 0.733% divergent from the Ozark population in order to arrive at this conclusion. These critical haplotypes only occur in < 1.2% of the native distribution and NCA excluding them suggest that the Ozark population is a natural relict. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that the isolated population of D. monticola from the Ozarks is not native to the region and may need to be extirpated rather than conserved, particularly because of its potential negative impacts on endemic Ozark stream salamander communities. Diagnosing a species as introduced may require locating nearly identical haplotypes in the known native distribution, which may be a major undertaking. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering comparative phylogeographic information for locating critical haplotypes when distinguishing native from introduced species. PMID:17825102

Bonett, Ronald M; Kozak, Kenneth H; Vieites, David R; Bare, Alison; Wooten, Jessica A; Trauth, Stanley E

2007-01-01

20

Causes and Evolutionary Consequences of Population Subdivision of an Iberian Mountain Lizard, Iberolacerta monticola  

PubMed Central

Aim The study of the factors that influence population connectivity and spatial distribution of genetic variation is crucial for understanding speciation and for predicting the effects of landscape modification and habitat fragmentation, which are considered severe threats to global biodiversity. This dual perspective is obtained from analyses of subalpine mountain species, whose present distribution may have been shaped both by cyclical climate changes over ice ages and anthropogenic perturbations of their habitats. Here, we examine the phylogeography, population structure and genetic diversity of the lacertid lizard Iberolacerta monticola, an endemism considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in several populations. Location Northwestern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula. Methods We analyzed the mtDNA variation at the control region (454 bp) and the cytochrome b (598 bp) loci, as well as at 10 nuclear microsatellite loci from 17 populations throughout the distribution range of the species. Results According to nuclear markers, most sampling sites are defined as distinct, genetically differentiated populations, and many of them show traces of recent bottlenecks. Mitochondrial data identify a relatively old, geographically restricted lineage, and four to six younger geographically vicariant sister clades, whose origin may be traced back to the mid-Pleistocene revolution, with several subclades possibly associated to the mid-Bruhnes transition. Geographic range fragmentation of one of these clades, which includes lowland sites, is very recent, and most likely due to the accelerated loss of Atlantic forests by human intervention. Main Conclusions Altogether, the data fit a “refugia within refugia” model, some lack of pattern uniformity notwithstanding, and suggest that these mountains might be the cradles of new species of Iberolacerta. However, the changes operated during the Holocene severely compromise the long-term survival of those genetic lineages more exposed to the anthropogenic perturbations of their habitats. PMID:23762459

Remón, Nuria; Galán, Pedro; Vila, Marta; Arribas, Oscar; Naveira, Horacio

2013-01-01

21

Water uptake and oil distribution during imbibition of seeds of western white pine ( Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) monitored in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry or fully imbibed seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) were studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of the dry seed revealed many of the gross anatomical features of seed structure. Furthermore, the non-invasive nature of MRI allowed for a study of the dynamics of water and oil distribution during in situ imbibition

Victor V. Terskikh; J. Allan. Feurtado; Chengwei Ren; Suzanne R. Abrams; Allison R. Kermode

2005-01-01

22

UV-B effects on the nutritional chemistry of plants and the responses of a mammalian herbivore.  

PubMed

Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. Because the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. We also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Forages were irradiated for 3 months with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6 x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal and inconsistent effects on the nutritional content, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and protein-binding capacity of forages. However, flavonoid compounds increased in seven of the 13 forbs and woody dicots that were evaluated. Flavonoids were found to decrease only in yarrow (Achillea millefolium). When offered simultaneously, blue duikers preferred 1x and 1.6 x UV-B irradiated plants of alfalfa equally, but ate 26% less willow grown under 1.6 x UV-B radiation. However, when fed to duikers in separate feeding experiments, total dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of dry matter, fiber, protein, and apparent energy did not differ between alfalfa and willow grown under 1x and 1.6 x UV-B radiation. We conclude that expected increases in UV-B radiation from ozone depletion would have minimal effects on intake and digestion of ruminant herbivores. PMID:18274780

Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

2008-05-01

23

Genetic diversity and structure of western white pine ( Pinus monticola ) in North America: a baseline study for conservation, restoration, and addressing impacts of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species in western North America that has declined in prominence over the\\u000a past several decades, mainly due to the introduction of Cronartium ribicola (cause of white pine blister rust) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)\\u000a markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure

Mee-Sook Kim; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein

2011-01-01

24

Ixodid ticks of angora and boer goats, grysbok, common duikers, kudus and scrub hares in Valley Bushveld in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.  

PubMed

At monthly intervals from February 1983 to January 1984 two Angora goats, two Boer goats, one grysbok, Raphicerus melanotis, one common duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, one greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, and four scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, were killed on a farm in Valley Bushveld in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa and examined for ticks. Seven ixodid tick species were collected, of which Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum followed by Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus oculatus were the most numerous. Amblyomma hebraeum was mainly a parasite of the two goat breeds, with the Angora goats harbouring greater numbers than the Boer goats, while large numbers of R. glabroscutatum parasitized the goats and the antelopes. Rhipicephalus oculatus was nearly exclusively a parasite of scrub hares. The larvae of A. hebraeum were most numerous on goats from May to July, the nymphs from September to November and the adults from August to December and during February, while the immature stages of R. glabroscutatum were most numerous on these animals from April to July and the adults from August to December. Peak activity periods of the latter tick were somewhat longer on kudus than on goats; the immature stages were most numerous from January to August and the adults from July to February. The larvae of R. oculatus were most numerous on scrub hares from March to May, nymphs from September to November and adults from October to December. PMID:12967172

Macivor, K M de F; Horak, I G

2003-06-01

25

Karyological characterization of the endemic Iberian rock lizard, Iberolacerta monticola (Squamata, Lacertidae): insights into sex chromosome evolution.  

PubMed

Rock lizards of the genus Iberolacerta constitute a promising model to examine the process of sex chromosome evolution, as these closely related taxa exhibit remarkable diversity in the degree of sex chromosome differentiation with no clear phylogenetic segregation, ranging from cryptic to highly heteromorphic ZW chromosomes and even multiple chromosome systems (Z1Z1Z2Z2/Z1Z2W). To gain a deeper insight into the patterns of karyotype and sex chromosome evolution, we performed a cytogenetic analysis based on conventional staining, banding techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization in the species I. monticola, for which previous cytogenetic investigations did not detect differentiated sex chromosomes. The karyotype is composed of 2n = 36 acrocentric chromosomes. NORs and the major ribosomal genes were located in the subtelomeric region of chromosome pair 6. Hybridization signals of the telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n were visualized at the telomeres of all chromosomes and interstitially in 5 chromosome pairs. C-banding showed constitutive heterochromatin at the centromeres of all chromosomes, as well as clear pericentromeric and light telomeric C-bands in several chromosome pairs. These results highlight some chromosomal markers which can be useful to identify species-specific diagnostic characters, although they may not accurately reflect the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa. In addition, C-banding revealed the presence of a heteromorphic ZW sex chromosome pair, where W is smaller than Z and almost completely heterochromatic. This finding sheds light on sex chromosome evolution in the genus Iberolacerta and suggests that further comparative cytogenetic analyses are needed to understand the processes underlying the origin, differentiation and plasticity of sex chromosome systems in lacertid lizards. PMID:24296524

Rojo, V; Giovannotti, M; Naveira, H; Nisi Cerioni, P; González-Tizón, A M; Caputo Barucchi, V; Galán, P; Olmo, E; Martínez-Lage, A

2014-01-01

26

Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.  

PubMed

Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. PMID:23692021

Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

2013-06-01

27

Antifungal activity of a Pinus monticola antimicrobial peptide 1 (Pm-AMP1) and its accumulation in western white pine infected with Cronartium ribicola.  

PubMed

Pinus monticola antimicrobial peptide 1 (Pm-AMP1) was expressed and purified from bacterial cell lysate and its identity and purity confirmed by Western blot analysis using the Pm-AMP1 antibody. Application of Pm-AMP1 resulted in visible hyphal growth inhibition of Cronartium ribicola , Phellinus sulphurascens , Ophiostoma montium , and Ophiostoma clavigerum 3-12 days post-treatment. Pm-AMP1 also inhibited spore germination of several other phytopathogenic fungi by 32%-84% 5 days post-treatment. Microscopic examination of C. ribicola hyphae in contact with Pm-AMP1 showed distinct morphological changes. Seven western white pine ( Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) families (Nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10) showing partial resistance to C. ribicola in the form of bark reaction (BR) were assessed by Western immunoblot for associations between Pm-AMP1 accumulation and family, phenotype, canker number, and virulence of C. ribicola. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in mean Pm-AMP1 protein accumulation between families, with higher levels detected in the full-sib BR families (Nos. 1, 2, 5) than the half-sib BR families (Nos. 6, 7). Family 8, previously described as a Mechanism 'X' BR family, had the highest number of BR seedlings and displayed high Pm-AMP1 levels, whereas the susceptible family (No. 10) showed the lowest levels (p < 0.05). Family 1 showed a significant association between Pm-AMP1 accumulation and overall seedling health (p < 0.01, R = 0.533), with higher protein levels observed in healthy versus severely infected seedlings. In general, low Pm-AMP1 levels were observed with an increase in the number of cankers per seedling (p < 0.05), and seedlings inoculated with the avirulent source of C. ribicola showed significantly higher Pm-AMP1 levels (p < 0.05) in the majority of BR families. Cis-acting regulatory elements, such as CCAAT binding factors, and an AG-motif binding protein were identified in the Pm-AMP1 promoter region. Multiple polymorphic sites were identified within the 5' untranslated region and promoter regions. Our results suggest that Pm-AMP1 is involved in the western white pine defense response to fungal infection, as observed by its antifungal activity on C. ribicola and a range of phytopathogens as well as through its association with different indicators of resistance to C. ribicola. PMID:21823970

Zamany, Arezoo; Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul; Sniezko, Richard

2011-08-01

28

A cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide from Pinus monticola (PmAMP1) confers resistance to multiple fungal pathogens in canola (Brassica napus).  

PubMed

Canola (Brassica napus), an agriculturally important oilseed crop, can be significantly affected by diseases such as sclerotinia stem rot, blackleg, and alternaria black spot resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides isolated from plants have emerged as a potential resource for protection of plants against phytopathogens. Here we report the significance of an antimicrobial peptide, PmAMP1, isolated from western white pine (Pinus monticola), in providing canola with resistance against multiple phytopathogenic fungi. The cDNA encoding PmAMP1 was successfully incorporated into the genome of B. napus, and it's in planta expression conferred greater protection against Alternaria brassicae, Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In vitro experiments with proteins extracted from transgenic canola expressing Pm-AMP1 demonstrated its inhibitory activity by reducing growth of fungal hyphae. In addition, the in vitro synthesized peptide also inhibited the growth of the fungi. These results demonstrate that generating transgenic crops expressing PmAMP1 may be an effective and versatile method to protect susceptible crops against multiple phytopathogens. PMID:22351159

Verma, Shiv S; Yajima, William R; Rahman, Muhammad H; Shah, Saleh; Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Kav, Nat N V

2012-05-01

29

Effects of photochemical oxidant injury of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines on susceptibility of sapwood and freshly cut stumps to Fomes annosus. [Pinus ponderosa; Pinus jeffreyi; Fomes annosus; Trichoderma spp. ; Polyporus versicolor; Poria Monticola  

SciTech Connect

Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine sapwood samples and freshly cut stumps from trees with different amounts of oxidant injury were inoculated with Fomes annosus. With stumps, percentage of surface cross-section area infected and extent of vertical colonization were determined 1 mo and 6-10 mo after inoculation, respectively. Increase in surface area infection with increased oxidant injury, expressed as upper-crown needle retention, was statistically significant for ponderosa pine (P=0.01), but was not for Jeffrey pine. Also, the rate of vertical colonization was greater in stumps from severely oxidant-injured trees than in those from slightly injured trees. The relationship between injury and colonization was significant for Jeffrey pine (P = 0.05) and for ponderosa pine at one site (P = 0.03), but nonsignificant (P = 0.18) for ponderosa pine at a second site. Increased susceptibility of stumps to F. annosus appeared to be associated with decreased colonization by other fungi (especially Trichoderma spp. and blue stain fungi). Laboratory tests indicated that decay susceptibility of excised sapwood to F. annosus apparently was not affected by oxidant injury with Jeffrey pine, but weight loss of ponderosa pine sapwood was correlated with decreased injury (greater needle retention). On the other hand, weight losses of Jeffrey pine caused by Polyporus versicolor and of ponderosa pine caused by Poria monticola were correlated with increased injury (increased needle chlorosis). 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

James, R.L.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wilcox, W.W.; Rowney, D.L.

1980-01-01

30

Common Functional Correlates of Head-Strike Behavior in the Pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia, Dinosauria) and Combative Artiodactyls  

PubMed Central

Background Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans and physical sectioning revealed internal cranial structure of ten artiodactyls and pachycephalosaurs Stegoceras validum and Prenocephale prenes. Finite element analyses (FEA), incorporating bone and keratin tissue types, determined cranial stress and strain from simulated head impacts. Recursive partition analysis quantified strengths of correlation between functional morphology and actual or hypothesized behavior. Strong head-strike correlates include a dome-like cephalic morphology, neurovascular canals exiting onto the cranium surface, large neck muscle attachments, and dense cortical bone above a sparse cancellous layer in line with the force of impact. The head-butting duiker Cephalophus leucogaster is the closest morphological analog to Stegoceras, with a smaller yet similarly rounded dome. Crania of the duiker, pachycephalosaurs, and bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis share stratification of thick cortical and cancellous layers. Stegoceras, Cephalophus, and musk ox crania experience lower stress and higher safety factors for a given impact force than giraffe, pronghorn, or the non-combative llama. Conclusions/Significance Anatomy, biomechanics, and statistical correlation suggest that some pachycephalosaurs were as competent at head-to-head impacts as extant analogs displaying such combat. Large-scale comparisons and recursive partitioning can greatly refine inference of behavioral capability for fossil animals. PMID:21738658

Snively, Eric; Theodor, Jessica M.

2011-01-01

31

Isolation and Characterization of the Cetn1 Gene from Tufted Deer ( Elaphodus cephalophus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tufted deer, a species found only in China, has polymorphic sex chromosomes (2n = 46, 47, 48). Centrins are centrosome components in species from yeast to humans. Here, the Cetn1 gene was isolated from the testis cDNA library of tufted deer, and its expression pattern, number of gene copies, and gene\\u000a structure were studied. To date, for unknown reasons, satisfactory genomic

Wen Zhang; Xiangrong Cao; Quan Shen; Wei Liu; Siyang Ni; Xiuguo Hua; Xiran Zhang

2008-01-01

32

Loss of mating opportunities influences refuge use in the Iberian rock lizard, Lacerta monticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because time spent in refuge may be costly if prey lose opportunities to forage, fight, or mate, prey allow predators to approach closer before beginning to flee when opportunity costs are high. Because the same opportunity costs may apply to refuge use as to escape, prey should make similar trade-offs between risk of emerging and cost of remaining in refuge.

J. Martín; P. López; W. E. Cooper Jr

2003-01-01

33

Targeted detection of mammalian species using carrion fly-derived DNA.  

PubMed

DNA analysis from carrion flies (iDNA analysis) has recently been promoted as a powerful tool for cost- and time-efficient monitoring of wildlife. While originally applied to identify any mammalian species present in an area, it should also allow for targeted detection of species and individuals. Using carrion flies captured in the Taď National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we assessed this possibility by (i) screening carrion fly DNA extracts with nonspecific and species-specific PCR systems, respectively, targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments of any mammal or of Jentink's duiker (Cephalophus jentinki), three colobine monkeys (subfamily Colobinae) and sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys); and (ii) genotyping carrion fly extracts containing sooty mangabey mtDNA. In comparison with the nonspecific PCR assay, the use of specific PCRs increased the frequency of detection of target species up to threefold. Detection rates partially reflected relative abundances of target species in the area. Amplification of seven microsatellite loci from carrion flies positive for sooty mangabey mtDNA yielded an average PCR success of 46%, showing that the identification of individuals is, to some extent, possible. Regression analysis of microsatellite PCR success and mtDNA concentration revealed that, among all carrion flies analysed for this study, 1% contained amounts of mammal mtDNA sufficient to attempt genotyping with potentially high success. We conclude that carrion fly-derived DNA analysis represents a promising tool for targeted monitoring of mammals in their natural habitat. PMID:25042567

Schubert, Grit; Stockhausen, Melanie; Hoffmann, Constanze; Merkel, Kevin; Vigilant, Linda; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

2015-03-01

34

Effect of small-scale heterogeneity of prey and hunter distributions on the sustainability of bushmeat hunting.  

PubMed

Bushmeat is the main source of protein and the most important source of income for rural people in the Congo Basin, but intensive hunting of bushmeat species is also a major concern for conservationists. Although spatial heterogeneity in hunting effort and in prey populations at the landscape level plays a key role in the sustainability of hunted populations, the role of small-scale heterogeneity within a village hunting territory in the sustainability of hunting has remained understudied. We built a spatially explicit multiagent model to capture the dynamics of a system in which hunters and preys interact within a village hunting territory. We examined the case of hunting of bay duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis) in the village of Ntsiété, northeastern Gabon. The impact of hunting on prey populations depended on the spatial heterogeneity of hunting and prey distribution at small scales within a hunting area. Within a village territory, the existence of areas hunted throughout the year, areas hunted only during certain seasons, and unhunted areas contributed to the sustainability of the system. Prey abundance and offtake per hunter were particularly sensitive to the frequency and length of hunting sessions and to the number of hunters sharing an area. Some biological parameters of the prey species, such as dispersal rate and territory size, determined their spatial distribution in a hunting area, which in turn influenced the sustainability of hunting. Detailed knowledge of species ecology and behavior, and of hunting practices are crucial to understanding the distribution of potential sinks and sources in space and time. Given the recognized failure of simple biological models to assess maximum sustainable yields, multiagent models provide an innovative path toward new approaches for the assessment of hunting sustainability, provided further research is conducted to increase knowledge of prey species' and hunter behavior. PMID:20345398

Van Vliet, Nathalie; Milner-Gulland, E J; Bousquet, Francois; Saqalli, Mehdi; Nasi, Robert

2010-10-01

35

Phytologia (December 2007) 89(3) 361 JUNIPERUS COMPACTA (CUPRESSACEAE)  

E-print Network

Phytologia (December 2007) 89(3) 361 JUNIPERUS COMPACTA (CUPRESSACEAE) A NEW SPECIES FROM MEXICO. monticola f. compacta is not conspecific with J. monticola f. monticola. Juniperus monticola f. compacta Mart. is raised to the specific level as: Juniperus compacta (Mart.) R. P. Adams, comb. et. stat. nov

Adams, Robert P.

36

Assessing sustainability at multiple scales in a rotational bushmeat hunting system.  

PubMed

Results of many studies show unsustainable levels of bushmeat hunting across West/Central Africa. Nevertheless, these results are usually derived from snapshot sustainability indices in which critical parameters are often taken from the literature. Simple, more informative tools for assessing sustainability are needed. We evaluated the impact of bushmeat hunting across a range of temporal, spatial, and taxonomic scales in a comparison of different measures of sustainability. Over 15 months in 2002-2004 in and around a village close to Equatorial Guinea's Monte Alén National Park, we collected data via a village offtake survey, hunter-camp bushmeat-consumption diaries, hunter interviews, and following hunters during hunts. We compared 2003 data with a previous offtake survey (1998-1999) and interview reports back to 1990. In the past 14 years, average distance from the village at which hunters operated remained constant, with hunters switching back and forth between long-established camps, although trapping effort increased. In the past 5 years, overall offtake and number of active hunters did not change substantially, although catch per unit effort (CPUE) decreased slightly. Although the proportion of the two most commonly trapped species (Cephalophus monticola and Atherurus africanus) and gun-hunted primates increased in the offtake, species presumably less robust to trapping decreased slightly. Apparent sustainability in economic terms may be masking gradual local extirpation of more vulnerable species before and during this study. Our results suggest that changes in prey profiles and CPUE may be the most accurate indicators of actual sustainability; these indices can be monitored with simple village-based offtake surveys and hunter interviews to improve community management of bushmeat hunting. PMID:20455910

Kümpel, Noëlle F; Milner-Gulland, E J; Cowlishaw, Guy; Rowcliffe, J Marcus

2010-06-01

37

Original article Preliminary study of the monoterpene response  

E-print Network

Original article Preliminary study of the monoterpene response of three pines to Ophiostoma monticola) to inoculation with Ophiostoma cla- vigerum and injection with chitosan, a proteinase inhibitor ponderosa / Pinus monticola / Ophiostoma clavige- rum / chemical elicitors / defense reaction / gas

Boyer, Edmond

38

A scientific note on the lactic acid bacterial flora within the honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera (Buckfast), A.m. scutellata, A.m. mellifera, and A.m. monticola  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It was discovered by Olofsson and Vásquez (2008) that a novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota with numerous LAB, comprising the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, live in a symbiotic relationship with honeybees (Apis mellifera) in their honey stomach. Previous results from 16S rRNA gene...

39

Forested Communities of the Upper Montane in the Central and Southern  

E-print Network

), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), western white pine (Pinus monticola magnifica), white fir (Abies concolor), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), Jeffrey pine (Pinus Jeffreyii

Standiford, Richard B.

40

Western White Pine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...

41

Phytologia (April 2010) 92(1) 105 JUNIPERUS ZANONII, A NEW SPECIES FROM CERRO  

E-print Network

Phytologia (April 2010) 92(1) 105 JUNIPERUS ZANONII, A NEW SPECIES FROM CERRO POTOSI, NUEVO LEON. monticola nor J. m. f. compacta. A new species is proposed, Juniperus zanonii R.P. Adams, sp. nov. from than J. zanonii. Phytologia 92(1): 105-117 (April, 2010). KEY WORDS: Juniperus jaliscana, J. monticola

Adams, Robert P.

42

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 White Pine Blister Rust Resistance in Pinus  

E-print Network

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 262 White Pine Blister Rust Resistance in Pinus monticola and P. albicaulis in the Pacific Northwest U.S. ­ A Tale of Two Species Richard A. Sniezko,1 Angelia Kegley,1 and Robert Danchok1 Western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) and whitebark pine (P

Standiford, Richard B.

43

Silvicultural management of white pines in western North America  

E-print Network

monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm (Pinus monticola) and sugar pine (P. lambertiana) are highly valued timber species, their silviculture.C. Fisch. in Rabh., causal agent of white pine blister rust, populations of western white pine (Pinus

44

Responses toward a trapped animal by wild bonobos at Wamba.  

PubMed

Chimpanzees and bonobos are the closest living relatives of humans and diverged relatively recently in their phylogenetic history. However, a number of reports have suggested behavioral discrepancies between the two Pan species, such as more cooperative and tolerant social interaction and poorer tool-using repertoires in bonobos. Concerning hunting behavior and meat consumption, recent studies from the field have confirmed both behaviors not only in chimpanzees but also in bonobos. The present study reports an encounter by wild bonobos at Wamba with a duiker trapped in a snare. Bonobos interacted with the live duiker for about 10 min but did not eventually kill the animal. They showed fear responses when the duiker moved and exhibited behaviors related to anxiety and stress such as branch-drag displays and self-scratching. Although bonobos manipulated nearby saplings and parts of the snare, they did not use detached objects to make indirect contact with the duiker. Juveniles and adults of both sexes engaged in active interactions with the trapped duiker. Overall, bonobos' behavioral responses indicated species-specific cognitive characteristics largely different from those of chimpanzees. PMID:22411619

Hayashi, Misato; Ohashi, Gaku; Ryu, Heung Jin

2012-07-01

45

First report of prey capture from human laid snare-traps by wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Chimpanzees regularly hunt for meat in the wild, including both solo and group hunting; however, theft of prey from non-chimpanzee hunters, or scavenging of carcasses is extremely rare. Here we report the first observations of a novel prey capture technique by the chimpanzees in two adjacent communities in the Budongo Conservation Field Station, Uganda. In both cases blue duikers were found caught in human laid snare traps, and then retrieved by the chimpanzees. In one case the duiker was still alive when retrieved and subsequently fully consumed by the chimpanzees. In the other, the chimpanzees encountered the duiker while alive, but retrieved it soon after its death; here only a small portion was consumed. These observations are discussed in comparison to observations of chimpanzee hunting, scavenging, and their exploitation of an environment increasingly modified by human activity. PMID:24682899

Brand, Charlotte; Eguma, Robert; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine

2014-07-01

46

Dr Anna Brown, Forest Research Dothistroma needle blight  

E-print Network

. kesiya, P. lambertiana, P. massoniana, P. monticola, P. mugo subsp. Mugo, P. muricata, P. occidentalis, P;17-11-2011 And seven non- Pinus species...... ·Larix decidua ·Picea abies ·Picea omorika ·Picea pungens ·Picea

47

P u b l i s h i n g Address manuscripts and editorial enquiries to  

E-print Network

, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murrayana), red fir, and western white pine (Pinus monticola) trees@nature.berkeley.edu Abstract. Fire history and forest structural characteristics of adjacent Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi

Stephens, Scott L.

48

Rapid graft propagation of dormant native Texas grapevines  

E-print Network

produce a phylloxera resistant rootstock suitable to the European environment that was easily propagated. Species included in the studies wereV. aestivalis, (Michaux), berlandieri, (Planchon), cordifolia, (Michaux), monticola, (Buckley), riparia...

Roth, Bryan Gregory

1992-01-01

49

Cronartium ribicola Resistance in Whitebark Pine, Southwestern White Pine,  

E-print Network

white pine (Pinus monticola), sugar pine (P. lambertiana), and eastern white pine (P. strobus). However species such as southwestern white pine (P. strobiformis, SWWP), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis, WBP

50

Intergeneric pollen – megagametophyte relationships of conifers in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germinating pollen from larch (Larix occidentalis), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and white pine (Pinus monticola) were co-cultured with megagametophytes dissected from cones of other genera (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Larix×eurolepis and Pinus monticola). Pollen was presented to megagametophytes possessing archegonia which were either alive, degenerating or dead. In addition,\\u000a pollen was presented to fertilized megagametophytes and to megagametophytes that had been cut

N. Dumont-BéBoux; M. Weber; Y. Ma; P. von Aderkas

1998-01-01

51

Myostatin rapid sequence evolution in ruminants predates domestication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex),

Ĺsa Tellgren; Ann-Charlotte Berglund; Peter Savolainen; Christine M. Janis; David A. Liberles

2004-01-01

52

Molecular Characterization of Theileria Species Associated with Mortality in Four Species of African Antelopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogen DNA was isolated from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in South Africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. We developed Theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of Theileria in four African antelope

A. M. Nijhof; V. Pillay; J. Steyl; L. Prozesky; W. H. Stoltsz; J. A. Lawrence; B. L. Penzhorn; F. Jongejan

2005-01-01

53

The anatomy of the omasum of some Zambian game species.  

PubMed

The gross anatomy of the omasum of 11 different Zambian game species are described. These include Roan Antelope, Sable Antelope, Wildebeest, Kudu, Kafue Lechwe, Puku, Reedbuck, Impala, Bushbuck, Oribi and Duiker. Lamellar area and papilla density and shape are reported. PMID:8129169

Stafford, K J; Stafford, Y M

1993-12-01

54

Multiple Ebola Virus Transmission Events and Rapid Decline of Central African Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several human and animal Ebola outbreaks have occurred over the past 4 years in Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The human outbreaks consisted of multiple simultaneous epidemics caused by different viral strains, and each epidemic resulted from the handling of a distinct gorilla, chimpanzee, or duiker carcass. These animal populations declined markedly during human Ebola outbreaks, apparently as a

Eric M. Leroy; Pierre Rouquet; Pierre Formenty; Sandrine Souquičre; Annelisa Kilbourne; Jean-Marc Froment; Magdalena Bermejo; Sheilag Smit; William Karesh; Robert Swanepoel; Sherif R. Zaki; Pierre E. Rollin

2004-01-01

55

A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine  

PubMed Central

The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George

2004-01-01

56

Phylogenomics of several deer species revealed by comparative chromosome painting with Chinese muntjac paints  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) chromosome-specific paints has been hybridized onto the metaphases of sika deer (Cervus nippon, CNI, 2n = 66), red deer (Cervus elaphus, CEL, 2n = 62) and tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus, ECE, 2n = 47). Thirty-three homologous autosomal segments were detected in genomes of sika deer and red deer, while 31 autosomal\\u000a homologous segments

Ling Huang; Jianxiang Chi; Wenhui Nie; Jinhuan Wang; Fengtang Yang

2006-01-01

57

New provincial records of skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) from northwestern Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Abstract We report six new records of skinks from northwestern Vietnam: Eutropis macularius, Scincella devorator, S. monticola, S. ochracea, Sphenomorphus cryptotis and S. indicus. Our new findings increase the species number of skinks (Scincidae) to nine in Dien Bien Province and to 14 in Son La Province. We also provide additional natural history data of aforementioned species. PMID:25698899

Pham, Anh Van; Le, Dzung Trung; Nguyen, Son Lan Hung; Ziegler, Thomas

2015-01-01

58

Antimicrobial activity of three Mexican Gnaphalium species.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowers, leaves and stems of Gnaphalium oxyphyllum var. oxyphyllum, G. liebmannii var. monticola and G. viscosum was investigated. The hexane extracts showed in all cases the higher inhibitions, G. oxyphyllum flower extract exhibiting the wider spectrum of activity. PMID:11543972

Villagómez-Ibarra, J R; Sánchez, M; Espejo, O; Zúńiga-Estrada, A; Torres-Valencia, J M; Joseph-Nathan, P

2001-08-01

59

Antimicrobial activity of three Mexican Gnaphalium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowers, leaves and stems of Gnaphaliumoxyphyllum var. oxyphyllum, G. liebmannii var. monticola and G. viscosum was investigated. The hexane extracts showed in all cases the higher inhibitions, G. oxyphyllum flower extract exhibiting the wider spectrum of activity.

J. Roberto Villagómez-Ibarra; Maricruz Sánchez; Ofelia Espejo; Armida Zúńiga-Estrada; J. Mart??n Torres-Valencia; Pedro Joseph-Nathan

2001-01-01

60

Figure 1--Location and topography of theTeakettle Experimental Forest  

E-print Network

(Pinus contorta) may also be present (Barbour and Woodward 1985). Fresno Forest Boundary Roads Streams pine (Pinus lambertiana), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), and black oak mixed conifer, but white fir, Jeffrey pine, western white pine (Pinus monticola), and lodgepole pine

Standiford, Richard B.

61

Biochemical Systematlcsand Ecology,Vol. 18,No. 4, pp. 267-280, 1990. 0305-1978/90 $3.00+ 0.00 Printed in GreatBritain. 1990PergamonPressplc.  

E-print Network

heterophylla), the shore pine race (mainly on Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) and the mountain hemlock race Ill. Shorepine Pinus contorta Tsugaheterophylla ssp. contorta Pinus monttcola of the three purported TsugamertensJana Abies amabifis Pinus monticola Abies procera Piceasitchensis II. Mountain hemlock

Nickrent, Daniel L.

62

vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA  

E-print Network

SisĂłn 35 2 Troglodytes troglodytes ChochĂ­n 17 Turdus merula Mirlo ComĂşn 88 Tyto alba Lechuza ComĂşn 47 3 Monticola solitarius Roquero Solitario 64 3 Motacilla alba Lavandera Blanca 11 Motacilla flava Lavandera

Carrascal, Luis M.

63

Phytologia (August 2009) 91(2) 353 VARIATION IN JUNIPERUS DURANGENSIS AND RELATED  

E-print Network

Phytologia (August 2009) 91(2) 353 VARIATION IN JUNIPERUS DURANGENSIS AND RELATED JUNIPERS WORDS: Juniperus durangensis, J. monticola, J. martinezii, J. flaccida, nrDNA, petN-psbM, SNPs, Cupressaceae, geographic variation. Juniperus durangensis Mart. is a tree or large shrub to 5 m that generally

Adams, Robert P.

64

The serrate leaf margined Juniperus (Section Sabina) of the western hemisphere: systematics and evolution based on leaf essential oils and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A

Robert P. Adams

2000-01-01

65

Establishment and Growth of Two Willow Species in a Riparian Zone Impacted by Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fi eld study was initiated to determine survival, growth characteristics, and metal uptake of two montane riparian willow species, Geyer (Salix geyeriana Andersson) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow, grown in amended fl uvial mine tailing deposits. Revegetation was done with staked and previously rooted cuttings to determine if planting method had an eff ect on successful establishment of

Melody M. Bourret; Joe E. Brummer; Wayne C. Leininger

2009-01-01

66

Seasonal changes in activity and spatial and social relationships of the Iberian rock lizard,  

E-print Network

Seasonal changes in activity and spatial and social relationships of the Iberian rock lizard interactions of the Iberian rock lizard, Lacerta monticola, during the same favorable climatic period. Activity was suitable for the activity of lizards in both seasons, therefore the seasonal changes cannot be explained

Alvarez, Nadir

67

C'SOUTHWEST FOREST SERVICE  

E-print Network

of the sprayed trees was apparently reduced. Oxford: 145.7x19.66 Dendroctonus ponderosae: 147.7 Pinus contorta (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) to western white pines (Pinus monticola Dougl.) sprayed with lindane. Knopf ineffective against western pine beetle ( D. brevicomis Lec.) by Vit6 and Pitman"; but they gave

Standiford, Richard B.

68

28 USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-32. 2004 In: Sniezko, Richard A.; Samman, Safiya; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Kriebel,  

E-print Network

(Neuenschwander and others 1999). In this region, WWP was a modifier keystone species whose presence influenced). Ecosystems where whitebark pine (WBP) (P. albicaulis Engelmann) is a keystone species are also at risk species--western white pine (Pinus monticola) (WWP) and sugar pine (P. lambertiana) (SP). The USDA Forest

69

Electrophoretic evidence for genetic differentiation in two host races of hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key Word Index--Arceuthobium tsugense; Viscaceae; dwarf mistletoe; electrophoresis; allozymes; host race. Abstract--Three host races of hemlock dwarf mistletoe have been described: the western hemlock race (mainly parasitic on Tsuga heterophylla), the shore pine race (mainly on Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) and the mountain hemlock race (mainly on Tsuga mertensiana and R monticola). Mistletoe shoots from 21 populations representing the three

Daniel L. Nickrent; Adam L. Stell

1990-01-01

70

Growth and Metal Accumulation of Geyer and Mountain Willow Grown in Topsoil versus Amended Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Willows (Salix spp.) are an integral component in the restoration of wetland plant communities that have been impacted by the fluvial deposition\\u000a of mine tailings. A greenhouse study was conducted to compare growth and metal uptake of Geyer (S. geyeriana) and mountain (S. monticola) willow grown in topsoil versus lime and biosolids amended mine tailings. Biomass, leader length, and tissue

M. J. Boyter; J. E. Brummer; W. C. Leininger

2009-01-01

71

USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. 147 The eight white pine species native to the western United  

E-print Network

tree seed collections of Pinus albicaulis, P. aristata, P. balfou- riana, P. flexilis, P. longaeva Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don and P. lam- bertiana Dougl. throughout significant portions of their geographic ranges. More recently, programs have been initi- ated for the other six species: P. albicaulis

72

Dendroecological Reconstruction of Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in the Chilcotin Plateau of British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is an aggressive bark beetle that periodically increases to outbreak levels killing thousands of trees. It is considered one of the major natural disturbance agents in North America. In British Columbia, the main host species is lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.), but western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.), ponderosa

René I. Alfaro; Rochelle Campbell; Paula Vera; Brad Hawkes; Terry L. Shore

73

USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. 151 The content of this paper reflects the views of the author(s), who are  

E-print Network

, Cronartium ribicola. There has also been some effort in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and limber pine-resistance screening activities in western white (Pinus monticola), sugar (Pinus lambertiana), and eastern white (Pinus (Pinus flexilis) disease-resistance work, but to a lesser degree. Recently the FS has been actively

74

entomology & pathology Applied Chemical Ecology of the Mountain Pine  

E-print Network

. James; western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don; and whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis Engelm several pine species, most notably lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.; ponderosa pine, Pinus pon- derosa Dougl. ex Laws.; sugar pine, Pinus lambertiana Dougl.; lim- ber pine, Pinus flexilis E

75

Birds, Babuyan Islands, Cagayan Province, Northern Philippines: New island distribution records  

E-print Network

and J. Eaton in Feb ruary 2005 (pers. comm.), and CO flushed two woodcocks on Cam iguin Norte in February 2007. The identity of these woodcocks needs further investigation. Larus argentatus Known in t he Philippi nes fro m only two old records... ew vagrant sp ecies, na- mely Larus argentatus, Urosphena squameiceps, Muscicapa dauurica , and Ceyx erithaca , were also encountered. Monticola solitarius Known from Batan, Calayan, Sabtang, and Y’ami (K), and fro m Babuyan Claro, Camiguin...

Oliveros, Carl Hirang; Peterson, A. Townsend; Villa, Mark Jason C.

2008-05-01

76

RFLP variability in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars and wild species  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFLP variability was studied in eight U.S. peanut cultivars, representing the four market types, and in 14 wild Arachis species accessions, using random genomic clones from a PstI library. Very low levels of RFLP variability were found among the allotetraploids, which included the U.S. cultivars and Arachis monticola, a wild species. The diploid wild species were very diverse, however. RFLP

G. Kochert; T. Halward; W. D. Branch; C. E. Simpson

1991-01-01

77

Sulfometuron methyl influences seedling growth and leaf function of three conifer species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling growth and gas exchange responses were measured for two potted seedling trials testing herbicide phytotoxicity to\\u000a three important tree species of the Inland Northwest, USA. Media-filled pots were treated with sulfometuron methyl (Oust®) in varying concentrations and planted with seedlings of Larix occidentalis Nutt., Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco, and Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don. Seedlings were

Nathan D. Robertson; Anthony S. Davis

78

Manganese and Zinc Toxicity Thresholds for Mountain and Geyer Willow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the heavy metal toxicity thresholds of woody species endemic to the western United States is lacking but critical for successful restoration of contaminated riparian areas. Manganese (Mn, 50–10,000 mg l) and zinc (Zn, 100–1000 mg l) toxicity thresholds were determined for Geyer (Salix geyeriana Anderss.) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow using a sand-culture technique. The lethal concentration

Jennifer O. Shanahan; Joe E. Brummer; Wayne C. Leininger; Mark W. Paschke

2007-01-01

79

Comparison of a-pinene and myrcene on attraction of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to pheromones in stancls of western white pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-funnel traps baited with exo-brevicomin and a mixture of cis- and trans- verbenol were used to test the relative attractiveness #If myrcene and (-)-a-pinene to the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in a stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Doug). Traps baited with myrcene caught significantly more D. ponderosae than traps baited with (-)-a-pinene, irrespective of the presence

DANIEL R. MILLER; B. STAFFAN LINDGREN

80

Response of Subalpine Conifers in the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., to 20th-Century Warming and Decadal Climate Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four independent studies of conifer growth between 1880 and 2002 in upper elevation forests of the central Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., showed correlated multidecadal and century-long responses associated with climate. Using tree-ring and ecological plot analysis, we studied annual branch growth of krummholz Pinus albicaulis; invasion by P. albicaulis and Pinus monticola into formerly persistent snowfields; dates of vertical branch

Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; John C. King; Lisa J. Graumlich

2004-01-01

81

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Long-Chain 3,4-Epoxy-2-alkanones  

PubMed Central

3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone, a major component in the preorbital gland of the African grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), showed antimicrobial activity in preliminary tests. The C11 to C17 homologues of this compound were prepared and their activity against several pathogenic dermal bacteria and fungi was tested. 3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone and 3,4-epoxy-2-tridecanone inhibited the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 25 ?g/mL. Moderate inhibition of the growth of the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and the lipophilic yeast, Pityrosporum ovale, was seen for several of the homologues. PMID:21179314

Wood, William F.

2010-01-01

82

Molecular characterization of Theileria species associated with mortality in four species of African antelopes.  

PubMed

Pathogen DNA was isolated from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) in South Africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. We developed Theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of Theileria in four African antelope species. The close phylogenetic relationship between members of the genera Theileria and Cytauxzoon, similarities in the morphologies of developmental stages, and confusion in the literature regarding theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis are discussed. PMID:16333074

Nijhof, A M; Pillay, V; Steyl, J; Prozesky, L; Stoltsz, W H; Lawrence, J A; Penzhorn, B L; Jongejan, F

2005-12-01

83

Vegetation and fire dynamics in different geological settings since the last ice age, Klamath Mountains, northwestern, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Klamath Mountains of northwestern California are a floristic hotspot and their diversity likely results from a combination of geological, ecological and historical factors (e.g., long-term climate change). To evaluate how climate change has influenced past composition, structure, and disturbance regime of the Klamath forests in different geological settings, vegetation and fire histories from four sites, Bolan (1), Sanger (in prog.), Campbell (in prog.), and Bluff (2) lakes are compared. Bolan and Sanger lakes are underline by nutrient-rich diorite soils, Campbell Lake by nutrient-poor and poorly-drained soils derived from mudstone and shales and Bluff Lake by ultramafics which pose severe nutrient limitations to plants. All sites experience the same modern climate and vegetation. The vegetation and fire records from the four sites suggest that substrates have influenced the sensitivity of plant communities and fire regimes to past variations in climate. Cool, dry late-glacial (>11ka cal yr BP) conditions resulted in a subalpine parkland in the Klamath region. P. jeffreyi and Abies were the main tree species at Bluff Lake and fires occurred frequently. Campbell Lake supported more species than Bluff (excluding P. jeffreyi) such as P. monticola, Picea and T. mertensiana and experienced few fires. Bolan and Sanger Lake harbored similar species as Campbell, as well as a small population of Pseudotsuga and experienced few fires. Warm, dry Early Holocene (7-11ka cal yr BP) conditions led to an increase in C. decurrens and a slight decrease in P. jeffreyi at Bluff Lake than before and fires were very frequent. At Campbell Lake, P. monticola increased, C. decurrens became more abundant than before, and Abies, Picea and T. mertensiana were scarce. Similar vegetation occurred at Bolan and Sanger lakes although the sites continued to harbor Pseudotsuga. Campbell, Bolan and Sanger all experienced frequent fires. Cool, wet conditions in the Middle Holocene (3-7ka cal yr BP) allowed P. jeffreyi to increase at the expense of C. decurrens at Bluff Lake. At Campbell, Sanger and Bolan lakes there was a decrease in P. monticola and a significant increase in Abies than before. Bolan and Sanger lakes still maintained a significant population of Pseudotsuga. Fire frequency at all sites was moderate. Modern (3ka cal yr BP to present) climate conditions in the Late Holocene resulted in increases in P. jeffreyi and Abies than before at Bluff Lake. P. monticola and Abies were abundant at Campbell Lake with minor amounts of Pseudotsuga and T. mertensiana. Most tree species occurred at Bolan and Sanger Lake (with the exception of P. jeffreyi at both sites and T. mertensiana at Sanger Lake). Abies and P.monticola were the primary species in the Bolan, Sanger and Campbell lake forests. Fires were frequent at all sites. In conclusion, Bluff Lake was dominated by ultramafic tolerant taxa such as Pinus jeffreyi, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies, while Bolan and Sanger lakes harbored mostly ultramafic intolerant species such as Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Tsuga mertensiana since the last ice age. The forest at Campbell Lake was more open, was dominated by Pinus monticola and had less Picea and T. mertensiana than Bolan and Sanger lakes since the last ice age. REFS. 1 Briles, C. et al 2005. Quaternary Research 64. 2 Mohr, J.A. et al 2000. The Holocene 10.

Briles, C.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P.

2006-12-01

84

Identification of complete mitochondrial genome of the tufted deer.  

PubMed

The tufted deer Elaphodus cephalophus are endangered animals in the world and little is understood about their mitochondrial (mt) genome. In our study, the mt genome of the tufted deer is identified--which is about 16 kb in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding sequence (control region). The distinguishing feature is that GTG is the start codon of the NADH4L gene and the cyt b gene has a subterminal AAA followed by the stop codon TAG. According to 12 H strand protein-coding genes and phylogenetic analysis, Elaphodus may have a sister relationship with another deer group Muntiacus. PMID:19462515

Pang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yaguang; Fang, Lin; Zhang, Xiran; Cao, Xiangrong

2008-08-01

85

A chalcone synthase/stilbene synthase DNA probe for conifers.  

PubMed

A probe for chalcone synthase (CHS) was generated by PCR using chalcone synthase conserved sequences. The cloned PCR product has high similarity to both chalcone synthase and stilbene synthase sequences. The probe was used to examine the organization of chalcone synthase and stilbene synthase genes in Abies procera, Pinus lambertiana, P. monticola, Picea glauca, P. sitchensis, Pseudostuga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata. A large number of hybridizing bands were found in all species except T. plicata which did not cross hybridize. The hybridization patterns are highly polymorphic between the species and are also polymorphic within several of them. PMID:24166547

Baker, S M; White, E E

1996-05-01

86

Chromosome numbers of some North American Salix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome numbers are reported for 19 species of North AmericanSalix, one natural hybrid, and one introduced species. The following 17 species are here examined cytologically for the first time:Salix amygdaloides Anderss.,S. arbusculoides Anderss.,S. brachycarpa Nutt.,S. Candida Willd.,S. discolor Muhl.,S. exigua Nutt.,S. kumilis Marsh.,S. interior Rowlee,S. lutea Nutt.,S. maccalliana Rowlee,S. monticola Rydb.,S. myrtillifolia Anderss.,S. pellita Anderss.,S. petiolaris J. E. Sm,S. scouleriana

Yutaka Suda; George W. Argus

1968-01-01

87

Description of a new montane freshwater crab (Crustacea: Potamidae: Geothelphusa) from northern Taiwan.  

PubMed

A new freshwater crab is described from a montane area in northern Taiwan based on morphological characters and molecular evidence. Geothelphusa cilan sp. nov., from the Cilan Forest, situated on the boundary of Hsinchu and Yilan (= Ilan) counties, is close to G. monticola Shy, Ng & Yu, 1994, and G. takuan Shy, Ng & Yu, 1994, but can be distinguished by its male first gonopod (G1) and the ratio of thoracic sternites. Molecular evidence from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) also supports the identity of the new species. PMID:25283939

Shy, Jhy-Yun; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Jean-Jay

2014-01-01

88

Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001–2003  

PubMed Central

All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 2001–2003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystčmes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred. PMID:15752448

Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Délicat, André; Rollin, Pierre E.; Leroy, Eric M.

2005-01-01

89

Myostatin rapid sequence evolution in ruminants predates domestication.  

PubMed

Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex), impala (Aepyceros melampus rednilis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus). Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (Ka/Ks) indicates that positive selection may have been operating on this gene during the time of divergence of Bovinae and Antilopinae, starting from approximately 23 million years ago, a period that appears to account for most of the sequence difference between myostatin in these groups. These periods of positive selective pressure on myostatin may correlate with changes in skeletal muscle mass during the same period. PMID:15522803

Tellgren, Asa; Berglund, Ann-Charlotte; Savolainen, Peter; Janis, Christine M; Liberles, David A

2004-12-01

90

Evolutionary affinities of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the context of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae.  

PubMed

To elucidate the systematic status of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a new bovid genus recently discovered in Vietnam, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships within the family Bovidae, four distinct DNA markers were sequenced. Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (1143 bp) and 12S rRNA (956 bp) genes and non-coding regions from the nuclear genes for aromatase cytochrome P-450 (199 bp) and lactoferrin (338 bp) have been compared for 25 bovid species and three Cervidae and Antilocapridae outgroups. Independent and/or combined analyses of the four nucleotide matrices through maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that Bovidae consists of two major lineages, i.e. Bovinac which contains the tribes Bovini, Boselaphini and Tragelaphini, and Antilopinae which encompasses all other bovids. Within Bovinae, the tribe Bovini is divided into buffalo Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus) and cattle Bovini (Bos and Bison) and Tragelaphini are possibly related to Boselaphini. Pseudoryx is shown to be (i) robustly nested within Bovinae; (ii) strongly associated with Bovini; and (iii) tentatively sharing a sister-group relationship with cattle Bovini. Within Antilopinae, three robust clades are in evidence: (i) Hippotragus and Damaliscus are linked to Ovis; (ii) Aepyceros joins Neotragus; and (iii) Cephalophus clusters with Oreotragus. PMID:10380679

Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J

1999-05-01

91

Evolutionary affinities of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the context of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae.  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the systematic status of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a new bovid genus recently discovered in Vietnam, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships within the family Bovidae, four distinct DNA markers were sequenced. Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (1143 bp) and 12S rRNA (956 bp) genes and non-coding regions from the nuclear genes for aromatase cytochrome P-450 (199 bp) and lactoferrin (338 bp) have been compared for 25 bovid species and three Cervidae and Antilocapridae outgroups. Independent and/or combined analyses of the four nucleotide matrices through maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that Bovidae consists of two major lineages, i.e. Bovinac which contains the tribes Bovini, Boselaphini and Tragelaphini, and Antilopinae which encompasses all other bovids. Within Bovinae, the tribe Bovini is divided into buffalo Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus) and cattle Bovini (Bos and Bison) and Tragelaphini are possibly related to Boselaphini. Pseudoryx is shown to be (i) robustly nested within Bovinae; (ii) strongly associated with Bovini; and (iii) tentatively sharing a sister-group relationship with cattle Bovini. Within Antilopinae, three robust clades are in evidence: (i) Hippotragus and Damaliscus are linked to Ovis; (ii) Aepyceros joins Neotragus; and (iii) Cephalophus clusters with Oreotragus. PMID:10380679

Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J

1999-01-01

92

Late Holocene forest dynamics, volcanism, and climate change at Whitewing Mountain and San Joaquin Ridge, Mono County, Sierra Nevada, CA, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deadwood tree stems scattered above treeline on tephra-covered slopes of Whitewing Mtn (3051 m) and San Joaquin Ridge (3122 m) show evidence of being killed in an eruption from adjacent Glass Creek Vent, Inyo Craters. Using tree-ring methods, we dated deadwood to AD 815-1350 and infer from death dates that the eruption occurred in late summer AD 1350. Based on wood anatomy, we identified deadwood species as Pinus albicaulis, P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. contorta, P. jeffreyi, and Tsuga mertensiana. Only P. albicaulis grows at these elevations currently; P. lambertiana is not locally native. Using contemporary distributions of the species, we modeled paleoclimate during the time of sympatry to be significantly warmer (+3.2°C annual minimum temperature) and slightly drier (-24 mm annual precipitation) than present, resembling values projected for California in the next 70-100 yr.

Millar, Constance I.; King, John C.; Westfall, Robert D.; Alden, Harry A.; Delany, Diane L.

2006-09-01

93

Methyl jasmonate induces changes mimicking anatomical defenses in diverse members of the Pinaceae.  

PubMed

Conifers have defenses such as the production of phenolic compounds and resins that can be induced by bark beetles and other invading organisms, but the signaling agents involved are unknown. The anatomical effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), a potent inducer of certain plant defenses, were compared with wounding of the bark of 12-15-year-old trees of five conifer species. Wounding in all species resulted in tissue necrosis and wound periderm development immediately around the wound site. One cm from the wound, swelling of phloem polyphenolic parenchyma cells and phenolic accumulation were observed in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Picea pungens Engelman, Larix occidentalis Nutt. and Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don, but not in Taxus brevifolia Nutt. Traumatic resin ducts were formed in response to wounding in three species of Pinaceae, but not in P. monticola, which formed irregular clusters of cells rather than ducts. Taxus brevifolia did not form resin ducts in response to either wounding or MJ treatment. In the Pinaceae species studied, surface application of 100 mM MJ caused similar anatomical changes to those observed in response to wounding, including phenolic accumulation, cell swelling and traumatic resin duct formation, but it did not induce a wound periderm. Traumatic resin ducts differed in size among the study species, ranging from small in L. occidentalis to very large in P. menziesii. In P. menziesii, P. pungens and L. occidentalis, traumatic resin ducts were more abundant after MJ treatment than after wounding. We conclude that the octadecanoid pathway is likely involved in defense responses in stems of the Pinaceae, but not necessarily in other taxa. PMID:12642238

Hudgins, J W; Christiansen, Erik; Franceschi, Vincent R

2003-04-01

94

Long-term research sites as refugia for threatened and over-harvested species.  

PubMed

The presence of researchers, ecotourists or rangers inside protected areas is generally assumed to provide a protective effect for wildlife populations, mainly by reducing poaching pressure. However, this assumption has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we evaluate and quantify the conservation benefits of the presence of a long-term research area in Taď National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. A wildlife survey following 225 km of line transects revealed considerably higher primate and duiker encounter rates within the research area when compared with adjacent areas. This positive effect was particularly pronounced for threatened and over-harvested species, such as the endangered red colobus monkey (Procolobus badius). This pattern was clearly mirrored by a reversed gradient in signs of poaching, which decreased towards and inside the research area, a trend that was also supported with park-wide data. This study demonstrates that even relatively simple evidence-based analytical approaches can bridge the gap between conservation theory and practice. In addition, it emphasizes the value of establishing long-term research sites as an integral part of protected area management. PMID:21450724

Campbell, G; Kuehl, H; Diarrassouba, A; N'Goran, P K; Boesch, C

2011-10-23

95

Evolution of weaponry in female bovids  

PubMed Central

Weaponry is ubiquitous in male ungulates and is driven by intrasexual selection, but the mystery surrounding its sporadic presence in females remains unsolved. Female horns are often smaller and shaped differently to male horns, suggesting a different function; indeed, hypotheses explaining the presence of female horns include competition for food, male mollification and defence against predators. Here we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to show that females are significantly more likely to bear horns in bovids that are conspicuous due to large body size and living in open habitats than inconspicuous species living in closed habitats or that are small. An inability to rely on crypsis or take refuge in deep vegetation has apparently driven the evolution of horns for defence against predators in female bovids, a finding supported by many field observations. Typically, exceptions are small species where females are territorial (e.g. duikers) and use horns in intrasexual contests. Furthermore, we suggest that conspicuousness and territoriality hypotheses may explain other instances of female cranial weaponry (i.e. antlers and ossicones) in other horned ruminants. Our phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the primary function of horns in females is linked to antipredator defence in most clades, but occasionally to intrasexual competition in others. PMID:19759035

Stankowich, Theodore; Caro, Tim

2009-01-01

96

Evolution of weaponry in female bovids.  

PubMed

Weaponry is ubiquitous in male ungulates and is driven by intrasexual selection, but the mystery surrounding its sporadic presence in females remains unsolved. Female horns are often smaller and shaped differently to male horns, suggesting a different function; indeed, hypotheses explaining the presence of female horns include competition for food, male mollification and defence against predators. Here we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to show that females are significantly more likely to bear horns in bovids that are conspicuous due to large body size and living in open habitats than inconspicuous species living in closed habitats or that are small. An inability to rely on crypsis or take refuge in deep vegetation has apparently driven the evolution of horns for defence against predators in female bovids, a finding supported by many field observations. Typically, exceptions are small species where females are territorial (e.g. duikers) and use horns in intrasexual contests. Furthermore, we suggest that conspicuousness and territoriality hypotheses may explain other instances of female cranial weaponry (i.e. antlers and ossicones) in other horned ruminants. Our phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the primary function of horns in females is linked to antipredator defence in most clades, but occasionally to intrasexual competition in others. PMID:19759035

Stankowich, Theodore; Caro, Tim

2009-12-22

97

Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.  

PubMed

Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe. PMID:6716555

Kuttler, K L

1984-01-01

98

Sequestration of furostanol saponins by Monophadnus sawfly larvae.  

PubMed

Sawfly larvae of the tribe Phymatocerini (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which are specialized on toxic plants in the orders Liliales and Ranunculales, exude a droplet of deterrent hemolymph upon attack by a predator. We investigated whether secondary plant metabolites from Ranunculaceae leaves are sequestered by phymatocerine Monophadnus species, i.e., Monophadnus alpicola feeding upon Pulsatilla alpina and Monophadnus monticola feeding upon Ranunculus lanuginosus. Moreover, two undescribed Monophadnus species were studied: species A collected from Helleborusfoetidus and species B collected from Helleborus viridis. Comparative high-performance liquid chromatographicphotodiode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analyses of plant leaf and insect hemolymph extracts revealed the presence of furostanol saponins in all samples. Larvae of species A and B actively sequestered (25R)-26-[(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl) oxy]-22alpha-methoxyfurost-5-en-3beta-yl O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-[6-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 1). This compound occurred at a 65- to 200-fold higher concentration in the hemolymph of the two species (1.6 and 17.5 micromol/g FW, respectively) than in their host plant (0.008 and 0.268 micromol/g FW, respectively). In M. monticola, compound 1 was found at a concentration (1.2 micromol/g FW) similar to that in the host plant (1.36 micromol/g FW). The compound could not be detected consistently in M. alpicola larvae where, however, a related saponin may be present. Additional furostanol saponins were found in H. foetidus and H. viridis, but not in the two Monophadnus species feeding on them, indicating that sequestration of compound 1 is a highly specific process. In laboratory bioassays, crude hemolymph of three Monophadnus species showed a significant feeding deterrent activity against a potential predator, Myrmica rubra ant workers. Isolated furostanol saponins were also active against the ants, at a concentration range similar to that found in the hemolymph. Thus, these compounds seem to play a major role for chemical defense of Monophadnus larvae, although other plant secondary metabolites (glycosylated ecdysteroids) were also detected in their hemolymph. Physiological and ecological implications of the sequestered furostanol saponins are discussed. PMID:17252214

Prieto, José M; Schaffner, Urs; Barker, Alison; Braca, Alessandra; Siciliano, Tiziana; Boevé, Jean-Luc

2007-03-01

99

Cytochrome b phylogeny of the family bovidae: resolution within the alcelaphini, antilopini, neotragini, and tragelaphini.  

PubMed

The family Bovidae is characterized by an incomplete fossil record for the period during which most bovid subfamilies emerged. This, coupled to extensive morphological convergence among species, has given rise to inconsistencies in taxonomic treatments, especially at the tribal and subfamilial levels. In an attempt to clarify some of these issues we analyzed the complete mtDNA cytochrome b gene (1140 bp) from 38 species/subspecies representing at least nine tribes and six subfamilies. Specific emphasis was placed on the evolution of the Alcelaphini (hartebeest and wildebeest), the Tragelaphini (kudu, eland, and close allies), the Antilopini (gazelles), and the Neotragini (dwarf antelope). Saturation plots for the codon positions revealed differences between bovid tribes and this allowed for the exclusion of transitional substitutions that were characterized by multiple hits. There was no significant rate heterogeneity between taxa. By calibrating genetic distance against the fossil record, a transversion-based sequence divergence of 0.22% (+/-0.015%) per million years is proposed for cytochrome b clock calibrations in the Bovidae. All evidence suggests that the Alcelaphini form a monophyletic group; there was no support for the recognition of the Lichtenstein's hartebeest in a separate genus (Sigmoceros), and the acceptance of the previously suggested Alcelaphus is recommended for this species. High bootstrap support was found for a sister taxon relationship between Alcelaphus and Damaliscus, a finding which is in good agreement with allozyme and morphological studies. In the case of the Tragelaphini, the molecular data suggest the inclusion of Taurotragus in the genus Tragelaphus, and no genetic support was found for the generic status of Boocercus. Although associations within the Antilopinae (comprising the tribes Neotragini and Antilopini) could not be unequivocally resolved, there was nonetheless convincing evidence of non-monophyly for the tribe Neotragini, with the Suni antelope (Neotragus moschatus) grouping as a sister taxon to the Impala (Aepyceros melampus, tribe indeterminate, sensu Gentry, 1992) and the Klipspringer (Oreotragus oreotragus) falling within the duiker antelope tribe (Cephalophini). PMID:10222159

Matthee, C A; Robinson, T J

1999-06-01

100

Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from forest areas in Botucatu municipality, central western Săo Paulo State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubiăo Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, Săo Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, resulting in approximately 900 collecting hours. During this period, 216 sandfly specimens of sixteen species were captured. Pintomyia monticola and Brumptomyia guimaraesi were the most abundant with 56 specimens (25.93%) captured per species, followed by Pintomyia fischeri 28 (12.96%) and Psathyromyia pascalei 18 (8.33%). Other captured species were Lutzomyia amarali, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae, Pintomyia misionensis, Brumptomyia carvalheiroi, Brumptomyia cardosoi, Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Brumptomyia brumpti and Brumptomyia spp. represented by 58 (26.85%) specimens. Conclusions Although less frequently found, the presence of Pintomyia fischeri, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei, known vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, indicates risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence. Moreover, the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis-the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, which is the agent of American visceral leishmaniasis-suggests that there is no risk of introduction and establishment of this disease in the studied area. PMID:23849624

2013-01-01

101

Deposition of atmospheric ions to pine branches and surrogate surfaces in the vicinity of emerald lake watershed, Sequoia National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric dry deposition of ions to branches of native Pinus contorta and Pinus monticola (natural surfaces), and nylon filters and Whatman paper filters (surrogate surfaces) were measured in the summer of 1987 in the vicinity of Emerald Lake Watershed (ELW) of the Sequoia National Park located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada in California. Deposition fluxes of airborne NO -3, NH +4 and SO 2-4 to native pines at the ELW were much higher than in the eastern Sierra Nevada, but several times lower than deposition fluxes to natural and surrogate surfaces at the highly polluted site in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Deposition fluxes of NO 3- and NH 4+ to the natural and surrogate surfaces at the ELW were much higher than deposition of SO 42-, providing the importance of N compounds in atmospheric dry deposition in this part of the western U.S. A deficit of inorganic anions in materials deposited to various surfaces indicated a possibility of substantial participation of organic acids in atmospheric dry deposition processes. Nylon and paper filters proved to be poor surrogate surfaces for the estimation of ionic dry deposition to conifer branches.

Bytnerowicz, A.; Dawson, P. J.; Morrison, C. L.; Poe, M. P.

102

Establishment and growth of two willow species in a riparian zone impacted by mine tailings.  

PubMed

A field study was initiated to determine survival, growth characteristics, and metal uptake of two montane riparian willow species, Geyer (Salix geyeriana Andersson) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow, grown in amended fluvial mine tailing deposits. Revegetation was done with staked and previously rooted cuttings to determine if planting method had an effect on successful establishment of willows. A second planting was done the following growing season which tested cuttings of different ages. The addition of lime increased the soil pH from 5.0 to 6.5 and effectively reduced bioavailability of most heavy metals below phytotoxic levels. However, both willow species, regardless of planting method, concentrated Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in their leaf tissue above levels considered toxic to agronomic plants. Over the course of four growing seasons, prerooted mountain willows had a consistently higher survival rate compared to staked willows. At the end of the fourth growing season, mountain willow had a higher survival rate and produced greater aboveground growth for both planting methods, irrespective of year planted, compared with Geyer willow. Based on growth characteristics, the use of prerooted mountain willows would be recommended for successful revegetation of amended fluvial mine tailing deposits in riparian zones. However, because of the high Cd uptake into aboveground tissues, care should be taken in restoration efforts where wildlife and domestic livestock are likely to browse on the willows. PMID:19244490

Bourret, Melody M; Brummer, Joe E; Leininger, Wayne C

2009-01-01

103

Effect of water table on willows grown in amended mine tailing.  

PubMed

Survival and growth characteristics of two montane riparian willow species, Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana Andersson) and mountain willow (Salix monticola Bebb), grown in amended fluvial mine tailing were investigated in a greenhouse study. Willow stem cuttings were planted in lysimeters that simulated a 60-cm amended tailing profile with three static water depths (20, 40, and 60 cm) and a fluctuating water table for a total of four water table treatments. Species and water table treatments affected plant biomass and chemical composition of the soil and plant tissue. Mountain willow leaf, stem, and root biomass were 62, 95, and 164% greater, respectively, than for Geyer willow. Averaging across species, the fluctuating water table negatively affected leaf and stem biomass compared with the 20- and 60-cm water table treatments. Manganese was the only metal in plant tissue to strongly respond to water table treatments. Manganese concentrations in mountain willow leaf tissue were approximately twofold higher in the two most saturated water table treatments (20 cm and fluctuating) than in the least saturated water table treatment (60 cm). This trend was consistent with chemical analyses of the growth media, which reflected higher bioavailable Mn in the saturated tailing profile compared with the unsaturated profile. Results from this study indicate that mountain willow is a more vigorous and possibly more metal-tolerant species than Geyer willow when grown in amended mine tailing and that a fluctuating water table negatively affects willow growth. PMID:15843641

Bourret, M M; Brummer, J E; Leininger, W C; Heil, D M

2005-01-01

104

Stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood tree species in the central cascades of Oregon.  

PubMed

Mature and old growth trees of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different tree species. Bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including bark) for four of the ten species. These predictions of sapwood volume were used to scale respiratory potential to the main-bole level (excluding all branches). On the core level, species that maintained narrow sapwood (8-16% of bole radius) such as Pseudotusga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata, had sapwood respiratory potentials in the lower bole that were 50% higher (P<0.05) than species with wide sapwood (>16% of bole radius), such as Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, and Tsuga heterophylla. This pattern was not observed for inner bark respiratory potential, or for sapwood respiratory potential within the crown. On the main-bole level, respiratory potential per unit volume was inversely correlated to the live bole volumetric fraction (inner bark plus sapwood divided by whole bole volume) (Adj. R(2)=0.6). Specifically, tree species with 18-20% of the main bole alive potentially respired 1.3-3 times more per unit live bole volume than species with over 40%, suggesting that the live bole was less metabolically active in tree species that maintained large volumes of sapwood. PMID:12844251

Pruyn, Michele L; Harmon, Mark E; Gartner, B L

2003-09-01

105

The solubilization of low-ranked coals by microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Late in 1984, our Laboratory was funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, to investigate the potential utility of microorganisms for the solubilization of low-ranked coals. Our approach has been multifacited, including studies of the types of microorganisms involved, appropriate conditions for their growth and coal-solubilization, the suceptibility of different coals to microbial action, the chemical and physical nature of the product, and potential bioprocess designs. A substantial number of fungal species have been shown to be able to solubilize coal. Cohen and Gabrielle reported that two lignin-degrading fungi, Polyporous (Trametes) versicolor and Poria monticola could solubilize lignite. Ward has isolated several diverse fungi from nature which are capable of degrading different lignites, and our Laboratory has isolated three coal-solubilizing fungi which were found growing on a sample of Texas lignite. The organisms we studied are shown in Table 1. The perceived significance of lignin degradation led us to examine two lignin-degrading strains of the genus Streptomyces. As discussed later, these bacteria were capable of solubilizing coal; but, in the case of at least one, the mechanism was non-enzymatic. The coal-solubilizing ability of other strains of Streptomyces was recently reported. Fakoussa and Trueper found evidence that a strain of Pseudomonas was capble of solubizing coal. It would thus appear that a diverse array of microorganisms possess the ability to solubilize coal. 16 refs.

Strandberg, G.W.

1987-07-09

106

Using climate-FVS to project landscape-level forest carbon stores for 100 years from field and LiDAR measures of initial conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Forest resources supply a wide range of environmental services like mitigation of increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). As climate is changing, forest managers have added pressure to obtain forest resources by following stand management alternatives that are biologically sustainable and economically profitable. The goal of this study is to project the effect of typical forest management actions on forest C levels, given a changing climate, in the Moscow Mountain area of north-central Idaho, USA. Harvest and prescribed fire management treatments followed by plantings of one of four regionally important commercial tree species were simulated, using the climate-sensitive version of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, to estimate the biomass of four different planted species and their C sequestration response to three climate change scenarios. Results Results show that anticipated climate change induces a substantial decrease in C sequestration potential regardless of which of the four tree species tested are planted. It was also found that Pinus monticola has the highest capacity to sequester C by 2110, followed by Pinus ponderosa, then Pseudotsuga menziesii, and lastly Larix occidentalis. Conclusions Variability in the growth responses to climate change exhibited by the four planted species considered in this study points to the importance to forest managers of considering how well adapted seedlings may be to predicted climate change, before the seedlings are planted, and particularly if maximizing C sequestration is the management goal. PMID:24495313

2014-01-01

107

Leotia cf. lubrica forms arbutoid mycorrhiza with Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae).  

PubMed

Arbutoid mycorrhizal plants are commonly found as understory vegetation in forests worldwide where ectomycorrhiza-forming trees occur. Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae) is a tropical woody plant and common in tropical Central America. This plant forms arbutoid mycorrhiza, whereas only associations with Leccinum monticola as well as Sebacina sp. are described so far. We collected arbutoid mycorrhizas of C. arbutoides from the Cerro de la Muerte (Cordillera de Talamanca), Costa Rica, where this plant species grows together with Quercus costaricensis. We provide here the first evidence of mycorrhizal status for the Ascomycete Leotia cf. lubrica (Helotiales) that was so far under discussion as saprophyte or mycorrhizal. This fungus formed arbutoid mycorrhiza with C. arbutoides. The morphotype was described morphologically and anatomically. Leotia cf. lubrica was identified using molecular methods, such as sequencing the internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA regions, as well as phylogenetic analyses. Specific plant primers were used to confirm C. arbutoides as the host plant of the leotioid mycorrhiza. PMID:25033922

Kühdorf, Katja; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F

2015-02-01

108

The Holocene 10,4 (2000) pp. 587–601 Postglacial vegetation and fire history, eastern Klamath Mountains, California,  

E-print Network

changes in climate, vegetation and fire history during the last 15 500 years. Pollen data at Bluff Lake suggest that the vegetation between c. 15 500 and 13 100 cal. BP consisted of subalpine parkland with scattered Pinus and Abies. After 13 100 cal. BP a relatively closed forest of P. monticola, P. contorta and Abies developed, and fire-event frequency was low. The inferred climate then was cooler and wetter than present. Pinus and Quercus vaccinifolia dominated at both sites during the early Holocene, when conditions were warm and dry. As climate became wetter and cooler in the late Holocene, Abies spp. at both sites and Tsuga mertensiana at Crater Lake increased in importance, displacing Pinus and Quercus. The two lake records have similar trends in fire history, with high event frequencies at c. 8400, 4000 and 1000 cal. BP and low values at c. 4800 cal. BP. The fire and vegetation history at both sites suggests a similar response to large-scale changes in climate during the Holocene.

Jerry A. Mohr; Cathy Whitlock; Carl N. Skinner

1999-01-01

109

Assessing the effects of changing climate on the transformation and vulnerability of coupled hydrologic, ecologic, and human systems using an interdisciplinary spatiotemporal methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. northern Rocky Mountain (NRM) region is particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, which include rapid shifts in the rain-snow transition zone, earlier spring snowmelt, prolonged dry seasons, and concomitant impacts on coupled ecological and human systems. The extent to which these hydroclimatic changes are projected to alter widespread disturbance events (e.g.: bark beetle outbreaks, wildfires, and rain-on-snow induced floods) and influence the long-term health and sustainability of coupled social-ecological systems in the NRM is not well understood. Methods that integrate these disciplines are essential to understand how changing environmental conditions impact tree species distributions, disturbance regimes, and people in nearby communities. We are investigating the spatiotemporal relationships between current (past 10 years) and projected (next 30 - 50 years) shifts in: 1) the location of the rain-snow transition zone and its future movement into higher elevations, 2) the zone created by the upslope movement of the lower elevation terminus of two mid-elevation tree species (western larch [Larix occidentalis] and western white pine [Pinus monticola]), 3) the extent of widespread, severe crown fires in the greater Idaho and Montana region and their proximity to, or correlation with, these zones of projected hydrologic vulnerability, and 4) the location and socio-economic dynamics of NRM human population centers and their changing levels of natural hazard risk from disturbance events. This overlay analysis displays the proximity of these changes to one another, and identifies potential zones in the NRM that are likely to experience the greatest cumulative effects of regional climate change near human population centers. Ultimately, this spatiotemporal methodology identifies areas best suited for additional interdisciplinary research that investigates the processes and mechanisms which link hydroclimatic changes to shifts in hydrologic regime, tree species distribution, disturbance events, and socio-economic community dynamics.

Klos, P. Z.; Kemp, K. B.; Blades, J. J.; Link, T. E.; Morgan, P.; Higuera, P. E.; Hall, T. E.; Northern Rockies Team

2010-12-01

110

Orientation behavior of the predator Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) to hemlock woolly adelgid and host tree odors in a multi-chambered olfactometer.  

PubMed

We studied the adult ambulatory response of the predator, Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), to odors from its prey, Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid, and foliage of hemlock woolly adelgid, host hemlocks (Tsuga spp.), and other conifers. Both the predator and hemlock woolly adelgid are apparently native to western North America, but the predator is being released in the eastern United States, which has different hemlock species, for biological control of a lineage of hemlock woolly adelgid inadvertently introduced from Japan. L. nigrinus responded to odors from hemlock woolly adelgid host trees, but not to odors from hemlock woolly adelgid. L. nigrinus collected from hemlock woolly adelgid-infested western hemlock were more strongly attracted to odors from western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Rafinesque) Sargent] than eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carričre] in most trials. Odors from western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) and white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] were as attractive as western hemlock odors whereas odors from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii (Mirbel)] and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) were avoided. L. nigrinus reared on hemlock woolly adelgid-infested eastern hemlock in the laboratory were lethargic and were not attracted to either eastern or western hemlock odors. Predators collected in the field and tested monthly from December to March responded similarly each month, except February, when they flew rather than walked in the olfactometer, suggesting a period of dispersal or mate finding at that time of year. The implications of these results for programs to release L. nigrinus in the eastern United States for control of hemlock woolly adelgid are discussed. PMID:22251687

Wallin, Kimberly F; Latty, Tanya M; Ross, Darrell W

2011-08-01

111

Reconstructing a Past Climate Using Current Multi-species' Climate Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of a ghost forest on WhiteWing Mt at 3000 m in the eastern Sierra Nevada, southeast of Yosemite NP. Killed by a volcanic eruption about 650 years ago, the deadwood on WhiteWing dates by standard tree-ring analysis to 800-1330 CE, during the Medieval Warm Anomaly. Individual stems have been identified by wood anatomical characteristics as Pinus albicualis, P. monticola, P. jeffreyi, P. contorta, P. lambertiana, and Tsuga mertensiana. With the exception of P. albicualis, which is currently in krummholz form at this elevation, the other species are 200 m or more lower in elevation. One, P. lambertiana, is west of the Sierran crest and 600 m lower in elevation. Assuming that climatic conditions on Whitewing during this period were mutually compatible with all species, we reconstruct this climate by the intersection of the current climatic spaces of these species. We did this by first generating individual species' ranges in the Sierran ecoregions through selecting vegetation GIS polygons from the California Gap Analysis database (UCSB) that contain the individual species. Climatic spaces for each species were generated by the GIS intersection of its polygons with 4 km gridded polygons from PRISM climatic estimates (OSU); this was done for annual, January, and July maximum and minimum temperature, and precipitation, merged together for each species. Climatic intersections of the species were generated from the misclassified polygons of a discriminant analysis of species by the climatic data. The average data from these misclassified polygons suggest that the climate on WhiteWing during the existence of this forest community was 230 mm, 1oC, and 3oC greater than present in precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperature, respectively.

Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.

2004-12-01

112

A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the peculiar reproductive biology of Arachis. PMID:23131301

Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, José F. M.; Bertioli, David J.

2013-01-01

113

Manganese and zinc toxicity thresholds for mountain and Geyer willow.  

PubMed

Information on the heavy metal toxicity thresholds of woody species endemic to the western United States is lacking but critical for successful restoration of contaminated riparian areas. Manganese (Mn, 50-10,000 mg l(-1)) and zinc (Zn, 100-1000 mg l(-1)) toxicity thresholds were determined for Geyer (Salix geyeriana Anderss.) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow using a sand-culture technique. The lethal concentration (50%) values were 3117 and 2791 mg Mn l(-1) and 556 and 623 mg Zn l(-1) for Geyer and mountain willow, respectively. The effective concentration (50%) values for shoots were 2263 and 1027 mg Mn l(-1) and 436 and 356 mg Zn l(-1) for Geyer and mountain willow, respectively. Shoot tissue values did not increase with increasing treatment concentrations. However, metals in the roots did increase consistently in response to the treatments. Metal levels in the shoot tissues were low for Zn (65-139 mg kg(-1)) and moderate for Mn (1300-2700 mg kg(-1)). Geyer and mountain willow have good resistance to Mn, possibly due to evolution in hydric soils with increased Mn availability, and may be useful for phytostabilization of soils with high levels of available Mn. Both species were affected to a greater degree by Zn as compared to Mn, but still exhibited good resistance and should be useful in remediating sites with at least moderate levels of available Zn. Based on the thresholds evaluated, Geyer willow had greater resistance to both Mn and Zn as compared to mountain willow, especially at lower concentrations in which growth of Geyer willow was actually stimulated. PMID:18246728

Shanahan, Jennifer O; Brummer, Joe E; Leininger, Wayne C; Paschke, Mark W

2007-01-01

114

Eyeing emergence: modified treatments for terminating dormancy of conifer seeds.  

PubMed

Many seeds of coniferous species display a deep primary dormancy at maturity and require several weeks of pretreatment to produce seed populations that germinate in a vigorous and timely manner. Facilitating an efficient transition from dormancy to germination by devising improved protocols for dormancy breakage is not only important to conifer seed research, aiding in the study of the dormancy process itself, but is also of interest and applicability to commercial forest nursery operations. In the forests of British Columbia, Canada, several conifer species are well-adapted to their environment, with seeds needing to experience long durations in the moist state at cool or fluctuating temperatures. These include yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and true fir species, such as Pacific silver fir and subalpine fir (Abies amabilis and A. lasiocarpa, respectively). In this chapter, we discuss the development of new dormancy-breaking protocols for the aforementioned species that centre on the balance of several key aspects: (1) reducing the time needed to terminate dormancy in the seed population; (2) synchronicity of germination; (3) ease of use; (4) cost-effectiveness; and (5) repeatability. Where possible, any new or modified protocol should be further tested in relationship to promoting rapid seedling growth in a forest nursery greenhouse setting and after planting at natural stands. Based on the five criteria listed above, very significant improvements compared to traditional dormancy-breaking methods have been achieved for the targeted conifer species. Where tested (e.g. yellow-cedar), the modified dormancy-breaking treatments result in vigorous growth in the greenhouse and after planting at natural stands. PMID:21898249

Feurtado, J Allan; Kermode, Allison R

2011-01-01

115

Spider fauna in Caspian Costal region of Iran.  

PubMed

The current study investigated spider fauna of Caspian Costal region of Iran (Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces) during 2005-2006. Spiders were collected from on the ground and under the stones and grasses by bottle, aspirator, Pitfall trap and pans and from branches, leaves and trunks of different trees and bushes by Steiner and Baggiolini method and insect net. They transferred to the laboratory and classified in 52 species and 51 genera belonged to 20 families. Thirty species, 13 genera and 2 families are reported for the first time from Iran, as follows: Family Agelenidae: Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757), Cicurina sp., Family Araneidae: Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763), Araniella inconspicua (Simon, 1874), Araniella alpica (C.L. Koch, 1869), Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757, Cercidia sp., Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772), Hypsosinga sanguinea (C.L. Koch,1845), Family Clubionidae: Clubiona neglecta O.P. Camridge, 1862, Family Amaurobiidae, Family Eresidae: Eresus sp., Dresserus sp., Family Gnaphosidae: Aphantaulax sp., Micaria sp., Family Metidae: Zygiella x-notata (Clerck,1757), Family Miturgidae: Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802), Cheiracanthium pennyi O.P. Cambridge, 1873, Family Linyphiidae: Microlinyphia sp., Family Lycosidae: Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa amentata (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861), Pardosa monticola (Clerck, 1757), Family Oxyopidae: Oxyopes salticus (Hentx, 1802), Family Philodromidae: Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer, 1802),Family Pholcidae: Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911), Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775), Family Salticidae: Salticus scenicus (Clerck, 1757), Family Tetragnathidae: Tetragnatha montana, Simon, 1874, Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890), Family Theridiidae: Dipoena prona (Menge, 1868), Steatoda albomaculata (Degeer, 1778), Theridion impressum C. L. Koch, Theridion simile C.L. Koch,1836, Family Thomisidae: Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus formicinus (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus striatus C.L. Koch, 1845, Xysticus cristatus (Clerck, 1757). PMID:19069849

Ghavami, Sahra

2007-03-01

116

The host plants of the Telamonini treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) and the first diagnoses of nymphs for 14 species.  

PubMed

Recent research on the treehopper tribe Telamonini has focused on their classification and Nearctic distribution but little has been published on their biology, including detailed information on their host plants as well as data on their nymphal stage. Any studies including host plant data have emphasized adult records (often unreliable due to their movements), largely ignoring the nymphs, which are the predominant feeding stage. This work provides the first comprehensive summary of Telamonini host plants, it documents the first positive identification of the nymphs for several telamonine species (and the genus Helonica), and it provides the first morphological diagnoses for 14 species, thus filling in major gaps in the life history of many species. Host plant records were determined based on accounts in the literature (adults and nymphs), from rearings of nymphs on host plants to the adult stage, and from label data on museum specimens. The Telamonini are known from 22 families, 41 genera, and 80 species of mostly woody, deciduous trees (of which, six species are new host plant records). Nearly half of all telamonines have been collected from more than one plant genus and only 12 species are known from a single host plant species. Telamonine nymphs were reared to the adult stage on 15 plant species. Of 68 telamonine species, 45 have been found on oak (Quercus), and white oak (Q. alba) is the most common telamonine host plant. Telamona monticola has the most recorded host plants with 29. The work includes 23 color illustrations showing both live and preserved nymphs, representing 15 species, all illustrated for the first time (eight are positively identified for the first time). Differences in nymphal morphology among species within Archasia, Glossonotus, Heliria, and Telamona suggest current generic definitions need revision. This study highlights the need for an increased emphasis on nymphal collections when determining treehopper host plants and inferring classifications.  PMID:25544439

Wallace, Matthew S

2014-01-01

117

Vertebrate DNA in Fecal Samples from Bonobos and Gorillas: Evidence for Meat Consumption or Artefact?  

PubMed Central

Background Deciphering the behavioral repertoire of great apes is a challenge for several reasons. First, due to their elusive behavior in dense forest environments, great ape populations are often difficult to observe. Second, members of the genus Pan are known to display a great variety in their behavioral repertoire; thus, observations from one population are not necessarily representative for other populations. For example, bonobos (Pan paniscus) are generally believed to consume almost no vertebrate prey. However, recent observations show that at least some bonobo populations may consume vertebrate prey more commonly than previously believed. We investigated the extent of their meat consumption using PCR amplification of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments from DNA extracted from bonobo feces. As a control we also attempted PCR amplifications from gorilla feces, a species assumed to be strictly herbivorous. Principal Findings We found evidence for consumption of a variety of mammalian species in about 16% of the samples investigated. Moreover, 40% of the positive DNA amplifications originated from arboreal monkeys. However, we also found duiker and monkey mtDNA in the gorilla feces, albeit in somewhat lower percentages. Notably, the DNA sequences isolated from the two ape species fit best to the species living in the respective regions. This result suggests that the sequences are of regional origin and do not represent laboratory contaminants. Conclusions Our results allow at least three possible and mutually not exclusive conclusions. First, all results may represent contamination of the feces by vertebrate DNA from the local environment. Thus, studies investigating a species' diet from feces DNA may be unreliable due to the low copy number of DNA originating from diet items. Second, there is some inherent difference between the bonobo and gorilla feces, with only the later ones being contaminated. Third, similar to bonobos, for which the consumption of monkeys has only recently been documented, the gorilla population investigated (for which very little observational data are as yet available) may occasionally consume small vertebrates. Although the last explanation is speculative, it should not be discarded a-priori given that observational studies continue to unravel new behaviors in great ape species. PMID:20195539

Hofreiter, Michael; Kreuz, Eva; Eriksson, Jonas; Schubert, Grit; Hohmann, Gottfried

2010-01-01

118

Challenges towards the elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo in southern Cameroon.  

PubMed

The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview on the types of mutations occurring in the region has been raised and a discussion on the strategies that can be implemented to achieve the elimination of the disease has been made. PMID:25129168

Simo, Gustave; Mbida Mbida, Jean Arthur; Ebo'o Eyenga, Vincent; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Njiokou, Flobert; Grébaut, Pascal

2014-01-01

119

Where is the game? Wild meat products authentication in South Africa: a case study  

PubMed Central

Background Wild animals’ meat is extensively consumed in South Africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. To test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained DNA sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. The reliability of species assignments were evaluated using BLAST searches in GenBank, maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis and the character-based method implemented in BLOG. The Kimura-2-parameter intra- and interspecific variation was evaluated for all matched species. Results The combined application of similarity, phylogenetic and character-based methods proved successful in species identification. Game meat samples showed 76.5% substitution, no beef samples were substituted. The substitutions showed a variety of domestic species (cattle, horse, pig, lamb), common game species in the market (kudu, gemsbok, ostrich, impala, springbok), uncommon species in the market (giraffe, waterbuck, bushbuck, duiker, mountain zebra) and extra-continental species (kangaroo). The mountain zebra Equus zebra is an International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red listed species. We also detected Damaliscus pygargus, which is composed of two subspecies with one listed by IUCN as ‘near threatened’; however, these mitochondrial fragments were insufficient to distinguish between the subspecies. The genetic distance between African ungulate species often overlaps with within-species distance in cases of recent speciation events, and strong phylogeographic structure determines within-species distances that are similar to the commonly accepted distances between species. Conclusions The reliability of commercial labeling of game meat in South Africa is very poor. The extensive substitution of wild game has important implications for conservation and commerce, and for the consumers making decisions on the basis of health, religious beliefs or personal choices. Distance would be a poor indicator for identification of African ungulates species. The efficiency of the character-based method is reliant upon availability of large reference data. The current higher availability of cytochrome b data would make this the marker of choice for African ungulates. The encountered problems of incomplete or erroneous information in databases are discussed. PMID:23452350

2013-01-01

120

The hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Malagasy region taxonomic revision of the T. naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups.  

PubMed

The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps. PMID:25009414

Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L

2014-01-01

121

The hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Malagasy region taxonomic revision of the T. naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups  

PubMed Central

Abstract The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps. PMID:25009414

Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

2014-01-01

122

Postglacial fire, vegetation, and climate history across an elevational gradient in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA and Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 13,100-year-long high-resolution pollen and charcoal record from Foy Lake in western Montana is compared with a network of vegetation and fire-history records from the Northern Rocky Mountains. New and previously published results were stratified by elevation into upper and lower and tree line to explore the role of Holocene climate variability on vegetation dynamics and fire regimes. During the cooler and drier Lateglacial period, ca 13,000 cal yr BP, sparsely vegetated Picea parkland occupied Foy Lake as well as other low- and high-elevations with a low incidence of fire. During the warmer early Holocene, from ca 11,000-7500 cal yr BP, low-elevation records, including Foy, indicate significant restructuring of regional vegetation as Lateglacial Picea parkland gave way to a mixed forest of Pinus-Pseudotsuga-Larix. In contrast, upper tree line sites (ca >2000 m) supported Pinus albicaulis and/or P. monticola-Abies-Picea forests in the Lateglacial and early Holocene. Regionally, biomass burning gradually increased from the Lateglacial times through the middle Holocene. However, upper tree line fire-history records suggest several climate-driven decreases in biomass burning centered at 11,500, 8500, 4000, 1600 and 500 cal yr BP. In contrast, lower tree line records generally experienced a gradual increase in biomass burning from the Lateglacial to ca 8000 cal yr BP, then reduced fire activity until a late Holocene maximum at 1800 cal yr BP, as structurally complex mesophytic forests at Foy Lake and other sites supported mixed-severity fire regimes. During the last two millennia, fire activity decreased at low elevations as modern forests developed and the climate became cooler and wetter than before. Embedded within these long-term trends are high amplitude variations in both vegetation dynamics and biomass burning. High-elevation paleoecological reconstructions tend to be more responsive to long-term changes in climate forcing related to growing-season temperature. Low-elevation records in the NRM have responded more abruptly to changes in effective precipitation during the late Holocene. Prolonged droughts, including those between 1200 and 800 cal yr BP, and climatic cooling during the last few centuries continues to influence vegetation and fire regimes at low elevation while increasing temperature has increased biomass burning in high elevations.

Power, M. J.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P. J.

2011-09-01

123

One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus weevils from New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Abstract A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus montivagus sp. n., Trigonopterus moreaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus myops sp. n., Trigonopterus nangiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus nothofagorum sp. n., Trigonopterus ovatus sp. n., Trigonopterus oviformis sp. n., Trigonopterus parumsquamosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parvulus sp. n., Trigonopterus phoenix sp. n., Trigonopterus plicicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus politoides sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudogranum sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudonasutus sp. n., Trigonopterus ptolycoides sp. n., Trigonopterus punctulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ragaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus rhinoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus rhomboidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus rubiginosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rubripennis sp. n., Trigonopterus rufibasis sp. n., Trigonopterus scabrosus sp. n., Trigonopterus scissops sp. n., Trigonopterus scharfi sp. n., Trigonopterus signicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus simulans sp. n., Trigonopterus soiorum sp. n., T sordidus sp. n., Trigonopterus squamirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus striatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strigatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strombosceroides sp. n., Trigonopterus subglabratus sp. n., Trigonopterus sulcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus taenzleri sp. n., Trigonopterus talpa sp. n., Trigonopterus taurekaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tialeorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tibialis sp. n., Trigonopterus tridentatus sp. n., Trigonopterus uniformis sp. n., Trigonopterus variabilis sp. n., Trigonopterus velaris sp. n., Trigonopterus verrucosus sp. n., Trigonopterus violaceus sp. n., Trigonopterus viridescens sp. n., Trigonopterus wamenaensis sp. n., Trigonopterus wariorum sp. n., Trigonopterus zygops sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel. PMID:23794832

Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tänzler;  Michael Balke

2013-01-01