A mature male Blue Duiker that had been born in the United States was submitted for necropsy examination following a brief illness. On histologic examination of the reproductive tract several Besnoitia cysts were found in the epididymis, prostate and bulbourethral gland. The lack of an inflammatory response or any negative effect on fertility, based on histologic evaluation and breeding history, is in contrast with the severe orchitis, epididymitis and infertility of besnoitiosis in cattle. This is the first report of an autochthonous infection of Besnoitia in the United States as well as the first report of besnoitiosis in a Blue Duiker. PMID:2382384
Foley, G L; Anderson, W I; Steinberg, H
A xanthone derivative, 3,6,7-trihydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone has been isolated from the stem bark of Allanblackia monticola together with other known compounds, 2,6-dihydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone, allanxanthone A, epicathechin and oleanolic acid acetate. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:16076639
Ngouela, Silvere; Zelefack, Fabien; Lenta, Bruno N; Ngouamegne, Erasmienne T; Tchamo, Diderot N; Tsamo, Etienne; Connolly, Joseph D
A xanthone derivative, 3,6,7-trihydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone has been isolated from the stem bark of Allanblackia monticola together with other known compounds, 2,6-dihydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone, allanxanthone A, epicathechin and oleanolic acid acetate. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic methods.
Silvere Ngouela; Fabien Zelefack; Bruno N. Lenta; Erasmienne T. Ngouamegne; Diderot N. Tchamo; Etienne Tsamo; Joseph D. Connolly
Necrotic reactions in branch or main stems of western white pine (Pinus monticola) caused by infection by the blister rust fungus (Cronartium ribicola) are a major mechanism of resistance. Overall, 26 percent of the seedlings eliminated the fungus via thi...
R. J. Hoff
Arcyria monticola was found in Hokkaido, northern Japan. This is the first record of its locality, except for the type locality. The linearly\\u000a expanding capillitium with many coils characterizing A. monticola consists of very elastic longitudinal tubes, short lateral tubes, and many small intricate nets. A longitudinal tube coils\\u000a around a small intricate net, which forms a core. In contrast,
Norio Kondo; Yukinori Yamamoto
Analysis of megagametophytic and embryonic allozyme variants in nine enzymatic systems encoded by 14 loci was conducted on 30 western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) trees from a natural stand on Vancouver Island, B.C. The segregation of allozymes in megagametophytes of heterozygous trees indicated distinct, simple, Mendelian inheritance. The stand heterozygosity parameters (proportion of polymorphic loci (0·64), average number of
Y A El-Kassaby; M D Meagher; J Parkinson; F T Portlock
In a preliminary antiprotozoal screening of several Clusiaceae species, the methanolic extracts of Allanblackia monticola and Symphonia globulifera showed high in vitro leishmanicidal activity. Further bioguided phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of four benzophenones: guttiferone A (1), garcinol (2), cambogin (3) and guttiferone F (4), along with three xanthones: allanxanthone A (5), xanthone V1 (6) and globulixanthone C (7) as active constituents. Compounds 1 and 6 were isolated from S. globulifera leaves, while compounds 2-5 were obtained from A. monticola fruits. Guttiferone A (1) and F (4) showed particulary strong leishmanicidal activity in vitro, with IC50 values (0.2 microM and 0.16 microM, respectively) comparable to that of the reference compound, miltefosine (0.46 microM). Although the leishmanicidal activity is promising, the cytotoxicity profile of these compounds prevent at this state further in vivo biological evaluation. In addition, all the isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their anticholinesterase properties. The four benzophenones showed potent anticholinesterase properties towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (AChE). For AChE, the IC50 value (0.66 microM) of garcinol (2) was almost equal to that of the reference compound galanthamine (0.50 microM). Furthermore, guttiferone A (1) and guttiferone F (4) (IC50 = 2.77 and 3.50 microM, respectively) were more active than galanthamine (IC50 = 8.5) against BChE. PMID:17960072
Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Vonthron-Sénécheau, Catherine; Weniger, Bernard; Devkota, Krishna Prasad; Ngoupayo, Joseph; Kaiser, Marcel; Naz, Qamar; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Tsamo, Etienne; Sewald, Norbert
Iberolacerta populations from the Northern Montes de León (NML) were studied by means of external morphology (scalation and biometry), osteology and genetics (mtDNA and microsatellites), searching for their homogeneity ("intrazonal analysis") and, once verified, comparing them with Iberolacerta monticola s. str. (from Central Cantabrian Mountains) and I. galani (from Southern Montes de León) ("extrazonal analysis") from neighboring areas. PMID:24870674
Arribas, Oscar J; Galán, Pedro; Remón, Núria; Naveira, Horacio
We report that two species of basidiomycete fungi (Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola) grow in minimal liquid or solid medium when supplemented with crushed lignite coal. The fungi also grow directly on crushed lignite coal. The growth of both fungi was observed qualitatively as the production and extension of hyphae. No fungal growth occurred in minimal agar medium without coal. The fungi degraded solid lignite coal to a black liquid product which never appeared in cultures unless fungi and coal were present together. Apparently, lignite coal can serve as the principal substrate for the growth of the fungi. Infrared analyses of the liquid products of lignite degradation showed both similarities to and differences from the original lignite. PMID:16346060
Cohen, M S; Gabriele, P D
Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), from the Kani tribal settlements, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, southern India was described. These settlements were located in the Western Ghats, which is one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Morphological characters of male and female specimens of Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola were described with illustrations and its taxonomic position is defined within the genus. The DNA barcode analysis showed that both male and female specimens of the species were belonging to a single taxonomic category. The genetic distance with the most similar taxonomic neighbour was 14.61%, which confirms its distinctness from its congeners. Voucher specimens of the new species were deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India, Zoological Survey of India, India and Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Washington, D.C., USA. PMID:24832008
Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep
Background In most regions of the world human influences on the distribution of flora and fauna predate complete biotic surveys. In some cases this challenges our ability to discriminate native from introduced species. This distinction is particularly critical for isolated populations, because relicts of native species may need to be conserved, whereas introduced species may require immediate eradication. Recently an isolated population of seal salamanders, Desmognathus monticola, was discovered on the Ozark Plateau, ~700 km west of its broad continuous distribution in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Using Nested Clade Analysis (NCA) we test whether the Ozark isolate results from population fragmentation (a natural relict) or long distance dispersal (a human-mediated introduction). Results Despite its broad distribution in the Appalachian Mountains, the primary haplotype diversity of D. monticola is restricted to less than 2.5% of the distribution in the extreme southern Appalachians, where genetic diversity is high for other co-distributed species. By intensively sampling this genetically diverse region we located haplotypes identical to the Ozark isolate. Nested Clade Analysis supports the hypothesis that the Ozark population was introduced, but it was necessary to include haplotypes that are less than or equal to 0.733% divergent from the Ozark population in order to arrive at this conclusion. These critical haplotypes only occur in < 1.2% of the native distribution and NCA excluding them suggest that the Ozark population is a natural relict. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that the isolated population of D. monticola from the Ozarks is not native to the region and may need to be extirpated rather than conserved, particularly because of its potential negative impacts on endemic Ozark stream salamander communities. Diagnosing a species as introduced may require locating nearly identical haplotypes in the known native distribution, which may be a major undertaking. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering comparative phylogeographic information for locating critical haplotypes when distinguishing native from introduced species.
Bonett, Ronald M; Kozak, Kenneth H; Vieites, David R; Bare, Alison; Wooten, Jessica A; Trauth, Stanley E
To investigate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and catabolism in dormant imbibed seeds of western white pine\\u000a (Pinus monticola), ABA and selected catabolites were measured during a combined treatment of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, and\\u000a gibberellic acid (GA). Fluridone in combination with GA effectively disrupted ABA homeostasis and replaced the approximately\\u000a 90-day moist chilling period normally required
J. Allan Feurtado; Jenny Yang; Stephen J. Ambrose; Adrian J. Cutler; Suzanne R. Abrams; Allison R. Kermode
Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. PMID:23692021
Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E
Background and Aims The oriental forest ecosystem in Madagascar has been seriously impacted by fragmentation. The pattern of genetic diversity was analysed on a tree species, Dalbergia monticola, which plays an important economic role in Madagascar and is one of the many endangered tree species in the eastern forest. Methods Leaves from 546 individuals belonging to 18 small populations affected by different levels of fragmentation were genotyped using eight nuclear (nuc) and three chloroplast (cp) microsatellite markers. Key Results For nuclear microsatellites, allelic richness (R) and heterozygosity (He,nuc) differed between types of forest: R = 7·36 and R = 9·55, He,nuc = 0·64 and He,nuc = 0·80 in fragmented and non-fragmented forest, respectively, but the differences were not significant. Only the mean number of alleles (Na,nuc) and the fixation index FIS differed significantly: Na,nuc = 9·41 and Na,nuc = 13·18, FIS = 0·06 and FIS = 0·15 in fragmented and non-fragmented forests, respectively. For chloroplast microsatellites, estimated genetic diversity was higher in non-fragmented forest, but the difference was not significant. No recent bottleneck effect was detected for either population. Overall differentiation was low for nuclear microsatellites (FST,nuc = 0·08) and moderate for chloroplast microsatellites (FST,cp = 0·49). A clear relationship was observed between genetic and geographic distance (r = 0·42 P < 0·01 and r = 0·42 P = 0·03 for nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites, respectively), suggesting a pattern of isolation by distance. Analysis of population structure using the neighbor-joining method or Bayesian models separated southern populations from central and northern populations with nuclear microsatellites, and grouped the population according to regions with chloroplast microsatellites, but did not separate the fragmented populations. Conclusions Residual diversity and genetic structure of populations of D. monticola in Madagascar suggest a limited impact of fragmentation on molecular genetic parameters.
Andrianoelina, O.; Favreau, B.; Ramamonjisoa, L.; Bouvet, J.-M.
Canola (Brassica napus), an agriculturally important oilseed crop, can be significantly affected by diseases such as sclerotinia stem rot, blackleg, and alternaria black spot resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides isolated from plants have emerged as a potential resource for protection of plants against phytopathogens. Here we report the significance of an antimicrobial peptide, PmAMP1, isolated from western white pine (Pinus monticola), in providing canola with resistance against multiple phytopathogenic fungi. The cDNA encoding PmAMP1 was successfully incorporated into the genome of B. napus, and it's in planta expression conferred greater protection against Alternaria brassicae, Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In vitro experiments with proteins extracted from transgenic canola expressing Pm-AMP1 demonstrated its inhibitory activity by reducing growth of fungal hyphae. In addition, the in vitro synthesized peptide also inhibited the growth of the fungi. These results demonstrate that generating transgenic crops expressing PmAMP1 may be an effective and versatile method to protect susceptible crops against multiple phytopathogens. PMID:22351159
Verma, Shiv S; Yajima, William R; Rahman, Muhammad H; Shah, Saleh; Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Kav, Nat N V
Western white pine ( Pinus monticola Dougl. ex. D. Don., WWP) shows genetic variation in disease resistance to white pine blister rust ( Cronartium ribicola). Most plant disease resistance (R) genes encode proteins that belong to a superfamily with nucleotide-binding site domains (NBS) and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRR). In this work a PCR strategy was used to clone R gene analogs (RGAs) from WWP using oligonucleotide primers based on the conserved sequence motifs in the NBS domain of angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. Sixty-seven NBS sequences were cloned from disease-resistant trees. BLAST searches in GenBank revealed that they shared significant identity to well-characterized R genes from angiosperms, including L and M genes from flax, the tobacco N gene and the soybean gene LM6. Sequence alignments revealed that the RGAs from WWP contained the conserved motifs identified in angiosperm NBS domains, especially those motifs specific for TIR-NBS-LRR proteins. Phylogenic analysis of plant R genes and RGAs indicated that all cloned WWP RGAs can be grouped into one major branch together with well-known R proteins carrying a TIR domain, suggesting they belong to the subfamily of TIR-NBS-LRR genes. In one phylogenic tree, WWP RGAs were further subdivided into fourteen clusters with an amino acid sequence identity threshold of 75%. cDNA cloning and RT-PCR analysis with gene-specific primers demonstrated that members of 10 of the 14 RGA classes were expressed in foliage tissues, suggesting that a large and diverse NBS-LRR gene family may be functional in conifers. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that conifer RGAs share a common origin with R genes from angiosperms, and some of them may play important roles in defense mechanisms that confer disease resistance in western white pine. Ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (Ka/Ks) in the WWP NBS domains were greater than 1 or close to 1, indicating that diversifying selection and/or neutral selection operate on the NBS domains of the WWP RGA family. PMID:14586641
Liu, J-J; Ekramoddoullah, A K M
Twenty-five common reedbuck, Redunca arundinum, from the Himeville region, 21 from the Eastern Shores Nature Reserve, 4 from the Charter's Creek Nature Reserve and 2 from the St Lucia Game Park, Natal were examined for arthropod parasites. The reedbuck from Himeville were infested with 4 ixodid tick species, those from the Eastern Shores with 7 species and those from Charter's Creek and St Lucia with 6 species. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi was the only tick common to the 4 localities. The lice Damalinia reduncae and Linognathus fahrenholzi were present on the reedbuck from each locality. In addition 3 red duiker, Cephalophus natalensis, and 2 bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus, from the Charter's Creek Nature Reserve plus 2 impala, Aepyceros melampus, from the St Lucia Game Park were examined for ixodid ticks. The red duiker were infested with 3 tick species and the bushbuck and impala with 4 each. PMID:3353095
Horak, I G; Keep, M E; Flamand, J R; Boomker, J
Host and vector distribution of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was studied in relation to habitat types and seasons. Six (19.35%) of the 31 mammal species recorded in Bipindi were reservoir hosts. Cercopithecus nictitans was confined to the undisturbed forest and the low intensive shifting cultivation zones, while Cephalophus monticola, Cephalophus dorsalis, Cricetomys gambianus, Atherurus africanus and Nandinia binotata occurred in all the habitat types. As for vectors of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Glossina palpalis palpalis, was the most abundant (99.13%) among tsetse fly species. It occurs in all biotopes with its highest density recorded in the village-adjacent forest. The village-adjacent forest is therefore the most risky transmission zone for HAT mainly during the short rainy season when G. palpalis palpalis' density is highest (2.91); while, the high and low intensive shifting cultivation zones are the most important contact zones between humans, G. palpalis palpalis and wild mammals in all seasons. PMID:20067756
Massussi, Jacques A; Massussi, Jacques Anselme; Mbida Mbida, Jean A; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; Njiokou, Flobert; Laveissière, Claude; van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe
To determine the origin of stomoxyine fly bloodmeals (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon, 1,021 flies belonging to seven different species of Stomoxys were captured and dissected in the area of Makokou. In total, 798 were not blood-fed and 223 bloodmeals could be gathered on filter paper. The identification of the origin of these meals was made by amplification of mitochondrial Cytb gene, then heteroduplex technique by using the Gambian rat (Cricetomys gambianus) as driver. Samples of fauna, collected on the local market, consisted of 24 mammal and two reptile blood and muscle samples, to which it is necessary to add human samples (27 potential hosts). 19 meals could not be amplified for technical reasons, 65 were amplified, but the acquired patterns corresponded to none of the tested potential hosts. On the 139 identified meals, 55% were taken on the black-fronted duiker (Cephalophus nigrifrons) and 19% on pig. Stomoxys transvittatus, the most abundant species in Makokou, is very opportunistic: 68 % of meals were taken on six different hosts, among whom 48% on the black-fronted duiker and 32% were not identified using the panel of tested hosts. S. xanthomelas took 50% of its meals on the moustached monkey (Cercopithecus cephus) and 7% on human beings. S. calcitrans, species of anthropised areas, took 33% of its meals on human beings. These three species can therefore take bloodmeals on wild fauna and human beings. They could potentially play an important role in the emergence of zoonotic diseases. The four other species took their bloodmeals only on wild fauna and pig, the only example of domestic fauna in this study. This preliminary study must be followed up using a larger number of specimens and by increasing the diversity of the tested potential hosts. PMID:19202770
Mavoungou, J F; Simo, G; Gilles, J; De Stordeur, E; Duvallet, G
Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa. PMID:23778608
Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M
Cronartium ribicola, the blister rust fungus of 5-needle pines establishes itself by adhering to the surface of host cells and will then penetrate the cell walls with haustoria. Success occurs when enzymes are produced that hydrolyze the cellulose, pectin...
N. E. Martin
One possible explanation of the maintenance of many historical foci of sleeping sickness in Central Africa could be the existence of a wild animal reservoir. In this study, PCR was used to detect the different trypanosome species present in wild animal captured by hunters in the southern forest belt of Cameroon (Bipindi). Trypanosomes were also detected by a parasitological method (Quantitative buffy coat: QBC). Parasite could not be isolated in culture medium (Kit for in vitro isolation: KIVI). Specific primers of T. brucei s.l., T. congolense forest type, T. congolense savannah type, T. vivax, T. simiae and T. b. gambiense group 1 were used to identify parasites in the blood of 164 animals belonging to 24 different species including ungulates, rodents, pangolins, carnivores, reptiles and primates. Of the 24 studied species, eight were carrying T. b. gambiense group 1. Those parasites pathogenic to man were found in monkeys (Cercocebus torquatus and Cercopithecus nictitans), in ungulates (Cephalophus dorsalis and C. monticola), in carnivores (Nandinia binotata and Genetta servalina) and in rodents (Cricetomys gambianus and Atherurus africanus). 13 species (54%) were carrying T. brucei s.l. identified as non-gambiense group 1. PMID:12514949
Herder, S; Simo, G; Nkinin, S; Njiokou, F
Bushmeat is the main source of protein and the most important source of income for rural people in the Congo Basin, but intensive hunting of bushmeat species is also a major concern for conservationists. Although spatial heterogeneity in hunting effort and in prey populations at the landscape level plays a key role in the sustainability of hunted populations, the role of small-scale heterogeneity within a village hunting territory in the sustainability of hunting has remained understudied. We built a spatially explicit multiagent model to capture the dynamics of a system in which hunters and preys interact within a village hunting territory. We examined the case of hunting of bay duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis) in the village of Ntsiété, northeastern Gabon. The impact of hunting on prey populations depended on the spatial heterogeneity of hunting and prey distribution at small scales within a hunting area. Within a village territory, the existence of areas hunted throughout the year, areas hunted only during certain seasons, and unhunted areas contributed to the sustainability of the system. Prey abundance and offtake per hunter were particularly sensitive to the frequency and length of hunting sessions and to the number of hunters sharing an area. Some biological parameters of the prey species, such as dispersal rate and territory size, determined their spatial distribution in a hunting area, which in turn influenced the sustainability of hunting. Detailed knowledge of species ecology and behavior, and of hunting practices are crucial to understanding the distribution of potential sinks and sources in space and time. Given the recognized failure of simple biological models to assess maximum sustainable yields, multiagent models provide an innovative path toward new approaches for the assessment of hunting sustainability, provided further research is conducted to increase knowledge of prey species' and hunter behavior. PMID:20345398
Van Vliet, Nathalie; Milner-Gulland, E J; Bousquet, Francois; Saqalli, Mehdi; Nasi, Robert
Results of many studies show unsustainable levels of bushmeat hunting across West/Central Africa. Nevertheless, these results are usually derived from snapshot sustainability indices in which critical parameters are often taken from the literature. Simple, more informative tools for assessing sustainability are needed. We evaluated the impact of bushmeat hunting across a range of temporal, spatial, and taxonomic scales in a comparison of different measures of sustainability. Over 15 months in 2002-2004 in and around a village close to Equatorial Guinea's Monte Alén National Park, we collected data via a village offtake survey, hunter-camp bushmeat-consumption diaries, hunter interviews, and following hunters during hunts. We compared 2003 data with a previous offtake survey (1998-1999) and interview reports back to 1990. In the past 14 years, average distance from the village at which hunters operated remained constant, with hunters switching back and forth between long-established camps, although trapping effort increased. In the past 5 years, overall offtake and number of active hunters did not change substantially, although catch per unit effort (CPUE) decreased slightly. Although the proportion of the two most commonly trapped species (Cephalophus monticola and Atherurus africanus) and gun-hunted primates increased in the offtake, species presumably less robust to trapping decreased slightly. Apparent sustainability in economic terms may be masking gradual local extirpation of more vulnerable species before and during this study. Our results suggest that changes in prey profiles and CPUE may be the most accurate indicators of actual sustainability; these indices can be monitored with simple village-based offtake surveys and hunter interviews to improve community management of bushmeat hunting. PMID:20455910
Kümpel, Noëlle F; Milner-Gulland, E J; Cowlishaw, Guy; Rowcliffe, J Marcus
To ascertain whether browsing or hydrologic conditions influence the physiological performance of Salix and whether Salix and graminoids (Carex) use and possibly compete for similar water resources, we quantified the in situ seasonal patterns of plant water and carbon\\u000a relations over three growing seasons. Our studies were designed to address the physiological factors which may be responsible\\u000a for poor woody
K. P. Alstad; J. M. Welker; S. A. Williams; M. J. Trlica
Chimpanzees and bonobos are the closest living relatives of humans and diverged relatively recently in their phylogenetic history. However, a number of reports have suggested behavioral discrepancies between the two Pan species, such as more cooperative and tolerant social interaction and poorer tool-using repertoires in bonobos. Concerning hunting behavior and meat consumption, recent studies from the field have confirmed both behaviors not only in chimpanzees but also in bonobos. The present study reports an encounter by wild bonobos at Wamba with a duiker trapped in a snare. Bonobos interacted with the live duiker for about 10 min but did not eventually kill the animal. They showed fear responses when the duiker moved and exhibited behaviors related to anxiety and stress such as branch-drag displays and self-scratching. Although bonobos manipulated nearby saplings and parts of the snare, they did not use detached objects to make indirect contact with the duiker. Juveniles and adults of both sexes engaged in active interactions with the trapped duiker. Overall, bonobos' behavioral responses indicated species-specific cognitive characteristics largely different from those of chimpanzees. PMID:22411619
Hayashi, Misato; Ohashi, Gaku; Ryu, Heung Jin
Chimpanzees regularly hunt for meat in the wild, including both solo and group hunting; however, theft of prey from non-chimpanzee hunters, or scavenging of carcasses is extremely rare. Here we report the first observations of a novel prey capture technique by the chimpanzees in two adjacent communities in the Budongo Conservation Field Station, Uganda. In both cases blue duikers were found caught in human laid snare traps, and then retrieved by the chimpanzees. In one case the duiker was still alive when retrieved and subsequently fully consumed by the chimpanzees. In the other, the chimpanzees encountered the duiker while alive, but retrieved it soon after its death; here only a small portion was consumed. These observations are discussed in comparison to observations of chimpanzee hunting, scavenging, and their exploitation of an environment increasingly modified by human activity. PMID:24682899
Brand, Charlotte; Eguma, Robert; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine
Several tannin-tolerant bacteria were isolated from enrichment cultures of rumen microflora of bush duiker, giraffe, Grant's gazelle, sheep, and goat, and established in medium containing crude tannin extracts or tannic acid. The isolates were characterized by classical and molecular methods. The isolates were also tested for the presence of tannin acylhydrolase. Characterization by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S
Agnes A. Odenyo; Richard Bishop; Genet Asefa; Ramni Jamnadass; David Odongo; Paschal Osuji
The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A
Robert P. Adams
Summary 1. Iberian Rock Lizard ( Lacerta monticola , Boulenger 1905) males produce copulatory plugs that harden and adhere firmly inside the female cloaca immediately after copu- lation and occlude both oviductal openings. 2. To determine whether plugs reduce the chance of females being inseminated by rival males, two hypotheses were tested: (i) that plugs reduce female attractiveness and\\/or receptivity
P. L. Moreira; T. R. Birkhead
A preliminary checklist of 78 species in 47 genera of lichens from 137 collections made in the Uwharrie Mountains of the North Carolina Piedmont is presented. Notewothy finds include Mycoporum acervatum and Rinodina destituta as new for North Carolina, and six new records for the North Carolina Piedmont. Among the latter is the rare Xanthoparmelia monticola, here first reported from
GARY B. PERLMUTTER
Sediments in three ponds between 1300 - 1500 m on the south side of Mt. Rainier were examined for plant macrofossils and pollen. Macrofossils of seral species such as Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus monticola, Abies procera, and Pinus contorta are conspicuous from 6000 to 3400 BP. These species suggest a climate that was warmer\\/drier than today and favored frequent
Seven new subspecies of Zenaida asiatica are described: Z. a. peninsulae of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; Z. a. gradis of the upper Big Bend area, central western Texas; Z. a monticola chiefly of the Mexican interior plateaus and highlands; Z. a. palustr...
G. B. Saunders
The antibacterial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowers, leaves and stems of Gnaphalium oxyphyllum var. oxyphyllum, G. liebmannii var. monticola and G. viscosum was investigated. The hexane extracts showed in all cases the higher inhibitions, G. oxyphyllum flower extract exhibiting the wider spectrum of activity. PMID:11543972
Villagómez-Ibarra, J R; Sánchez, M; Espejo, O; Zúñiga-Estrada, A; Torres-Valencia, J M; Joseph-Nathan, P
The antibacterial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowers, leaves and stems of Gnaphaliumoxyphyllum var. oxyphyllum, G. liebmannii var. monticola and G. viscosum was investigated. The hexane extracts showed in all cases the higher inhibitions, G. oxyphyllum flower extract exhibiting the wider spectrum of activity.
J. Roberto Villagómez-Ibarra; Maricruz Sánchez; Ofelia Espejo; Armida Zúñiga-Estrada; J. Mart??n Torres-Valencia; Pedro Joseph-Nathan
We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. PMID:23410077
Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso
The species of Nymphicula occurring in Australia and south Pacific islands are described and illustrated. 22 new species are described: N. adelphalis, N. christinae, N. conjunctalis, N. edwardsi, N. hampsoni, N. ochrepunctalis, N. torresalis, N. beni, N. irianalis, N. michaeli, N. monticola, N. nokensis, N. plumbilinealis, N. submarginalis, N. susannae, N. tariensis, N. xanthocostalis, N. fionae, N. insulalis, N. lactealis, N. lifuensis, N. cheesmanae. A replacement name is proposed for Cataclysta dialitha Tams: Nymphicula samoensis. PMID:24871510
The genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 of the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini: Tyrina) is revised. The three so far known species, Lasinus mandarinus Raffray, 1890, Lasinus monticola Sawada, 1961 and Lasinus spinosus Sharp, 1874 are redescribed. Eight new species, Lasinus sinicus sp. n. from China, Lasinus mikado sp. n., Lasinus yamamotoi sp. n., Lasinus inexpectatus sp. n., Lasinus yakushimanus sp. n., Lasinus amamianus sp. n., Lasinus saoriae sp. n., and Lasinus okinawanus sp. n. from Japan, are described. And all species are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Lasinus mandarinus and Lasinus spinosus. An identification key to species of the genus Lasinus is provided. PMID:24146590
Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlavá?, Peter; Nomura, Shûhei
The status of a putative new species of Lepidosperma from the mountains of south-western Tasmania, Australia, was investigated. Phenetic analysis (Flexible UPGMA Agglomerative Hierarchical Fusion and semi-strong hybrid multidimensional scaling) was conducted on a database derived from morphological and anatomical characters scored from herbarium material, culm anatomy slides and scanning electron micrographs of fruit. The results of the analysis support the recognition of a new species, here described as Lepidosperma monticola G.T.Plunkett & J.J.Bruhl. The distribution, habitat and conservation status are discussed. PMID:24399891
Plunkett, George T; Wilson, Karen L; Bruhl, Jeremy J
Abstract The status of a putative new species of Lepidosperma from the mountains of south-western Tasmania, Australia, was investigated. Phenetic analysis (Flexible UPGMA Agglomerative Hierarchical Fusion and semi-strong hybrid multidimensional scaling) was conducted on a database derived from morphological and anatomical characters scored from herbarium material, culm anatomy slides and scanning electron micrographs of fruit. The results of the analysis support the recognition of a new species, here described as Lepidosperma monticola G.T.Plunkett & J.J.Bruhl. The distribution, habitat and conservation status are discussed.
Plunkett, George T.; Wilson, Karen L.; Bruhl, Jeremy J.
Abstract A new genus and species, Pengzhongiella daicongchaoi, of the subtribe Batrisina (Batrisitae: Batrisini) is described from the Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan, Southwest China. Adults were collected in a colony of Odontomachus monticola, and presented reduction of certain external characters and elongate appendages relating to myrmecophily. Description and illustrations of the habitus and major diagnostic features of the new taxon are provided; a brief discussion of its taxonomic placement is included. The new species also represents the first record of a Pselaphinae in association with an Odontomachus ant.
Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen
Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two undescribed species of the hemiphractid genus Gastrotheca in the Andes in northern Peru. Both species are similar morphologically to Gastrotheca dysprosita and G. monticola, but they differ from these species and from one another in subtleties of coloration and minor variances in size and proportions. Gastrotheca aguaruna sp. nov. (6?10'50"S, 77?37'01"W, 2480 m) is from humid forested areas in the northern part of the Cordillera Central, whereas G. aratia sp. nov. (6?14'00"S, 78?51'24"W, 2560 m ) is known from the northern part of the Cordillera Occidental. PMID:24871173
Duellman, William E; Barley, Anthony J; Venegas, Pablo J
Abstract The genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 of the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini: Tyrina) is revised. The three so far known species, Lasinus mandarinus Raffray, 1890, Lasinus monticola Sawada, 1961 and Lasinus spinosus Sharp, 1874 are redescribed. Eight new species, Lasinus sinicus sp. n. from China, Lasinus mikado sp. n., Lasinus yamamotoi sp. n., Lasinus inexpectatus sp. n., Lasinus yakushimanus sp. n., Lasinus amamianus sp. n., Lasinus saoriae sp. n., and Lasinus okinawanus sp. n. from Japan, are described. And all species are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Lasinus mandarinus and Lasinus spinosus. An identification key to species of the genus Lasinus is provided.
Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlavac, Peter; Nomura, Shuhei
Atlantinone A has been isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum. The exact structure of the compound was confirmed by mass spectrometric and 1- and 2D NMR experiments. Atlantinone A was originally only produced upon chemical epigenetic manipulation of P. hirayamae, however in this study the compound was found to be produced at standard growth conditions by the following species; P. solitum, P. discolor, P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. palitans, P. novae-zeelandiae and P. monticola. A biosynthetic pathway to atlantinone A starting from andrastin A is proposed.
Dalsgaard, Petur W.; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens ?.; Zidorn, Christian; Frisvad, Jens C.; Christophersen, Carsten; Larsen, Thomas O.
All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 2001-2003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystemes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred. PMID:15752448
Rouquet, Pierre; Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Délicat, André; Rollin, Pierre E; Leroy, Eric M
Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex), impala (Aepyceros melampus rednilis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus). Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (Ka/Ks) indicates that positive selection may have been operating on this gene during the time of divergence of Bovinae and Antilopinae, starting from approximately 23 million years ago, a period that appears to account for most of the sequence difference between myostatin in these groups. These periods of positive selective pressure on myostatin may correlate with changes in skeletal muscle mass during the same period. PMID:15522803
Tellgren, Asa; Berglund, Ann-Charlotte; Savolainen, Peter; Janis, Christine M; Liberles, David A
Background Identifying causal relationships in phylogeographic and landscape genetic investigations is notoriously difficult, but can be facilitated by use of multispecies comparisons. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data visualizations to identify common spatial patterns within single lineages of four taxa inhabiting Pacific Northwest forests (northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina; red tree vole: Arborimus longicaudus; southern torrent salamander: Rhyacotriton variegatus; and western white pine: Pinus monticola). Visualizations suggested that, despite occupying the same geographical region and habitats, species responded differently to prevailing historical processes. S. o. caurina and P. monticola demonstrated directional patterns of spatial genetic structure where genetic distances and diversity were greater in southern versus northern locales. A. longicaudus and R. variegatus displayed opposite patterns where genetic distances were greater in northern versus southern regions. Statistical analyses of directional patterns subsequently confirmed observations from visualizations. Based upon regional climatological history, we hypothesized that observed latitudinal patterns may have been produced by range expansions. Subsequent computer simulations confirmed that directional patterns can be produced by expansion events. Conclusions/Significance We discuss phylogeographic hypotheses regarding historical processes that may have produced observed patterns. Inferential methods used here may become increasingly powerful as detailed simulations of organisms and historical scenarios become plausible. We further suggest that inter-specific comparisons of historical patterns take place prior to drawing conclusions regarding effects of current anthropogenic change within landscapes.
Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.
Sediments in three ponds between 1300 - 1500 m on the south side of Mt. Rainier were examined for plant macrofossils and pollen. Macrofossils of seral species such as Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus monticola, Abies procera, and Pinus contorta are conspicuous from 6000 to 3400 BP. These species suggest a climate that was warmer/drier than today and favored frequent fires. Neoglacial cooling may have begun 3700-3400 BP, as species typical of higher elevations became prominent; a decline in seral species after 3400 BP suggests less frequent fires. In the last 100 yr, Tsuga heterophylla became abundant and then declined at the highest elevation site. General trends in pollen percentages are similar to the macrofossil curves. Tephra deposition from Mt. Rainier and Mt. St. Helens did not produce conspicuous changes in forest composition. Few major fires are evident from charcoal and macrofossils at these sites.
Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.
Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.
In tropical forests, hunting nearly always accompanies logging. The entangled nature of these disturbances complicates our ability to resolve applied questions, such as whether secondary and degraded forest can sustain populations of tropical animals. With the expansion of logging in central Africa, conservation depends on knowledge of the individual and combined impacts of logging and hunting on animal populations. Our goals were (1) to decouple the effects of selective logging and hunting on densities of animal guilds, including apes, duikers, monkeys, elephant, pigs, squirrels, and large frugivorous and insectivorous birds and (2) to compare the relative importance of these disturbances to the effects of local-scale variation in forest structure and fruit abundance. In northern Republic of Congo, we surveyed animals along 30 transects positioned in forest disturbed by logging and hunting, logging alone, and neither logging nor hunting. While sampling transects twice per month for two years, we observed 47 179 animals of 19 species and eight guilds in 1154 passages (2861 km). Species densities varied by as much as 480% among forest areas perturbed by logging and/or hunting, demonstrating the strong effects of these disturbances on populations of some species. Densities of animal guilds varied more strongly with disturbance type than with variation in forest structure, canopy cover, and fruit abundance. Independently, logging and hunting decreased density of some guilds and increased density of others: densities varied from 44% lower (pigs) to 90% higher (insectivorous birds) between logged and unlogged forest and from 61% lower (apes) to 77% higher (frugivorous birds) between hunted and unhunted forest. Their combined impacts exacerbated decreases in populations of some guilds (ape, duiker, monkey, and pig), but counteracted one another for others (squirrels, insectivorous and frugivorous birds). Together, logging and hunting shifted the relative abundance of the animal community away from large mammals toward squirrels and birds. Logged forest, even in the absence of hunting, does not maintain similar densities as unlogged forest for most animal guilds. To balance conservation with the need for economic development and wild meat in tropical countries, landscapes should be spatially managed to include protected areas, community hunting zones, and production forest. PMID:21830721
Poulsen, J R; Clark, C J; Bolker, B M
The histological structure of ruminant (family: Bovidae) placentomes in eight antelope species was compared to that of domestic cattle and sheep. The chorioallantoic villi differed in degree of branching, surface corrugation, and complexity of utero-placental junction. All species had the epitheliochorial type of placenta, with the epithelial lining of maternal caruncular crypts varying between cellular and syncytial types. Uganda kob (Kobus kob, Reduncinae) and common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia, Cephalophinae) had the simplest structures with minimal villous branching, round to polygonal villous cross-sections, and cellular crypt lining. Common eland (Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphinae) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Tragelaphinae) had moderate villous branching, polygonal to mildly corrugated villous cross-sections, and cellular crypt lining with slight signs of syncytium. Wildebeest (gnu, Connochaetes gnou, Alcelaphinae) and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger, Hippotraginae) had moderate villous branching with corrugated surface and almost completely syncytial crypt lining. Steenbok (Raphicerus campestris, Neotraginae) and impala (Aepyceros melampus, Aepycerotinae) had the most complicated branching of villi and corrugation, and their crypt lining was clearly syncytial. Cattle (Bos taurus) and sheep (Ovis aries) had villous branching and corrugation similar to impala, and their crypt lining resembled that of eland and impala, respectively. PMID:16726390
Hradecký, P; Mossman, H W; Stott, G G
A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia) to eland (Taurotragus oryx) occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus) was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n = 8) did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6) routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7%) and antelope species (54.5%). The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4) followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important. PMID:12240773
Madzingira, O; Mukaratirwa, S; Pandey, V S; Dorny, P
Outbreaks of Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever have been reported from 1994 to 1996 in the province of Ogooué Ivindo, a forest zone situated in the Northeast of Gabon. Each time, the great primates had been identified as the initial source of human infection. End of November 2001 a new alert came from this province, rapidly confirmed as a EVHV outbreak. The response was given by the Ministry of Health with the help of an international team under the aegis of WHO. An active monitoring system was implemented in the three districts hit by the epidemic (Zadié, Ivindo and Mpassa) to organize the detection of cases and their follow-up. A case definition has been set up, the suspected cases were isolated at hospital, at home or in lazarets and serological tests were performed. These tests consisted of the detection of antigen or specific IgG and the RT-PCR. A classification of cases was made according to the results of biological tests, clinical and epidemiological data. The contact subjects were kept watch over for 21 days. 65 cases were recorded among which 53 deaths. The first human case, a hunter died on the 28th of October 2001. The epidemic spreads over through family transmission and nosocomial contamination. Four distinct primary foci have been identified together with an isolated case situated in the South East of Gabon, 580 km away from the epicenter. Deaths happened within a delay of 6 days. The last death has been recorded on the 22nd of March 2002 and the end of the outbreak was declared on the 6th of May 2002. The epidemic spreads over the Gabon just next. Unexplained deaths of animals had been mentionned in the nearby forests as soon as August 2001: great primates and cephalophus. Samples taken from their carcasses confirmed a concomitant animal epidemic. PMID:16267965
Nkoghe, D; Formenty, P; Leroy, E M; Nnegue, S; Edou, S Y Obame; Ba, J Iba; Allarangar, Y; Cabore, J; Bachy, C; Andraghetti, R; de Benoist, A C; Galanis, E; Rose, A; Bausch, D; Reynolds, M; Rollin, P; Choueibou, C; Shongo, R; Gergonne, B; Koné, L M; Yada, A; Roth, C; Mve, M Toung
Aberrations (quantitative chaetotactic deviations, i.e. decreasing or increasing of setae numbers and variations in arrangement of setae) and anomalies (qualitative chaetotactic deviations, for example, partial reduction of scutum, shortening of a seta more than 1.5-2 times, merging of setae) were recorded for 13 taxonomically important morphological structures in the chigger mite species Neotrombicula sympatrica Stekolnikov, 2001. 3308 specimens were studied as a total. 17.2% of them had various morphological deviations. The most common types of aberrations were observed in the number and positions of genualae I (94 specimens), AM seta (79 spec.) and sternal setae (77 spec.). The aberrations of sternal and coxal setae were usually interrelated: the sternal seta was "transferred" from the sternal area onto the coxa, or the other way round take place. The specimens having aberrations of sternal setae were twice as numerous as the specimens with aberrations of coxal setae (77 against 35). The specimens with aberrations of dorsal setae and mastitarsala were very rare (2 spec. each). Among anomalies, the presence of nude galeal seta (91 spec.) and scutal anomalies (66 spec.) were prevalent. The most frequently one form of deviation only was observed in one specimen of N. sympatrica. Nevertheless, the specimens simultaneously having several aberrations or anomalies were also found. 17 types of such combinations were observed, that counts 20.6% of all specimens with deviations. Symmetric deviations, namely the presence of two nude galeal setae (31 spec.), presence of 2 genualae on both legs I (4 spec.), presence of 2 AM (2 spec.) and symmetric reduction of scutal angles (1 spec.), sometimes cause troubles in diagnostics. The quarter of variance in N. sympatrica and in the species N. monticola Schluger et Davydov, 1967 formerly studied by the author turned out as almost identical. The specimens with deviations counted 14.5% of all studied specimens in the latter species. However, the structures of variance in these species is different. In N. monticola, the aberrations of humeral setae were dominant (71.6%) (Kharadov, Chirov, 2001), while in N. sympatrica, the aberrations of other structures were prevalent: genualae I (24.8%), AM (20.9%) and sternal setae (20.4%). PMID:12481606
Kharadov, A V
The family Bovidae is characterized by an incomplete fossil record for the period during which most bovid subfamilies emerged. This, coupled to extensive morphological convergence among species, has given rise to inconsistencies in taxonomic treatments, especially at the tribal and subfamilial levels. In an attempt to clarify some of these issues we analyzed the complete mtDNA cytochrome b gene (1140 bp) from 38 species/subspecies representing at least nine tribes and six subfamilies. Specific emphasis was placed on the evolution of the Alcelaphini (hartebeest and wildebeest), the Tragelaphini (kudu, eland, and close allies), the Antilopini (gazelles), and the Neotragini (dwarf antelope). Saturation plots for the codon positions revealed differences between bovid tribes and this allowed for the exclusion of transitional substitutions that were characterized by multiple hits. There was no significant rate heterogeneity between taxa. By calibrating genetic distance against the fossil record, a transversion-based sequence divergence of 0.22% (+/-0.015%) per million years is proposed for cytochrome b clock calibrations in the Bovidae. All evidence suggests that the Alcelaphini form a monophyletic group; there was no support for the recognition of the Lichtenstein's hartebeest in a separate genus (Sigmoceros), and the acceptance of the previously suggested Alcelaphus is recommended for this species. High bootstrap support was found for a sister taxon relationship between Alcelaphus and Damaliscus, a finding which is in good agreement with allozyme and morphological studies. In the case of the Tragelaphini, the molecular data suggest the inclusion of Taurotragus in the genus Tragelaphus, and no genetic support was found for the generic status of Boocercus. Although associations within the Antilopinae (comprising the tribes Neotragini and Antilopini) could not be unequivocally resolved, there was nonetheless convincing evidence of non-monophyly for the tribe Neotragini, with the Suni antelope (Neotragus moschatus) grouping as a sister taxon to the Impala (Aepyceros melampus, tribe indeterminate, sensu Gentry, 1992) and the Klipspringer (Oreotragus oreotragus) falling within the duiker antelope tribe (Cephalophini). PMID:10222159
Matthee, C A; Robinson, T J
Research on fluctuating asymmetry (FA)-mediated sexual selection has focused almost exclusively on visual signals and ignored chemical communication despite the fact that many species rely on chemical signals for attracting mates. Female mate choice based on visual traits appears to be rare in lizards. However, the femoral glands of male lizards produce pheromones which might transmit chemical information about an individual's developmental stability. Therefore, we hypothesized that mate choice may be based on chemical cues. We analysed the effect of the developmental stability levels of males on the attractiveness of males' scents to females in a laboratory experiment with the lizard Lacerta monticola. When we offered two males of similar body size, females preferentially associated with the scents of males with low FA in their femoral pores and also with the scents of males with a higher number of femoral pores. This suggested that the females were able to discriminate the FA of the males by chemical signals alone and that the females preferred to be in areas marked by males of high quality, thus increasing their opportunities of mating with males of high quality. We suggest that the quality and/or amount of male pheromones could communicate the heritable genetic quality of a male to the female and thereby serve as the basis for adaptive female choice in lizards.
Martin, J; Lopez, P
The phlebotomine sandflies in the northern areas of the state of Paraná, Brazil, particularly those in the '16a' health region, were investigated over a 3-year period. Using CDC light traps (with and without hamster bait) and Shannon traps (with lights and horse or human bait), 16 species were collected from seven municipal districts which were known foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis: Arapongas; Apucarana; Cambira; Marumbi; Faxinal; Florestópolis; and Sabáudia. Although the frequency at which each species was collected varied with the collection site, Lutzomyia whitmani predominated (62.0% of all the sandflies collected), followed by Lu. fischeri (13.3%), Lu. pessoai (10.8%), Lu. migonei (8.2%) and Lu. intermedia (2.8%). Lutzomyia monticola, Lu. shanonni, Lu. firmatoi, Lu. lanei, Lu. alphabetica, Lu. misionensis, Lu. correalimai, Lu. cortellezzii, Lu. longipenis, Brumptomyia brumpti and B. nitzulescui together represented the remaining 3.0% of the collected sandflies. Three of the 1961 female sandflies collected and dissected in the municipal district of Cambira, where a recent case of cutaneous leishmaniasis had been registered, were found to have flagellates in their guts. All three were Lu. whitmani. The parasites from each of these infections were successfully isolated in NNN and 'Tobie and Evans' media and/or by inoculation into a hind foot of a golden hamster. The results of isoenzyme electrophoresis indicated that all three isolates were of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:11064764
Luz, E; Membrive, N; Castro, E A; Dereure, J; Pratlong, F; Dedet, J A; Pandey, A; Thomaz-Soccol, V
The genus Cercomela comprises nine arid-adapted terrestrial bird species distributed primarily across the African continent with one species occurring in India. Using mitochondrial genetic data, we reconstructed molecular evolutionary relationships within Cercomela and its relationship to other closely related genera. Included in our analysis were 24 individuals representing all nine Cercomela species and 23 individuals representing 17 of 21 Oenanthe species. In addition, we included representatives of the genera Myrmecocichla, Thamnolaea and Saxicola, with Phoenicurus, Tarsiger and Monticola as outgroup taxa. Results of our analyses suggest that the genus Cercomela is polyphyletic with species in three distinct clades. Five Cercomela species: C. dubia, C. scotocerca, C. familiaris, C. melanura and C. fusca are more closely affiliated with Oenanthe than with the remaining Cercomela species. Oenanthe is paraphyletic with regard to these five Cercomela species. The three southwest African Cercomela species; C. tractrac, C. schlegelii and C. sinuata, form their own distinct clade. Cercomelasordida (Pinarochroasordida, Sundevall) should remain Pinarochroasordida as this species is genetically highly distinct from all other chat genera/species. Based on our results, we make a number of taxonomic recommendations. PMID:19772925
Outlaw, Robert K; Voelker, Gary; Bowie, Rauri C K
The levels of resistance to insect pests in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) germplasm are quite low, and therefore, we screened 30 accessions of Arachis spp. and 12 derived lines for resistance to insect pests under field and greenhouse conditions. Accessions belonging to Arachis cardenasii, Arachis duranensis, Arachis kempff-mercadoi, Arachis monticola, Arachis stenosperma, Arachis paraguariensis, Arachis pusilla, and Arachis triseminata showed multiple resistance to the leaf miner Aproaerema modicella, Helicoverpa armigera, Empoasca kerri, and to rust, Puccnia arachidis Speg., and late leaf spot, Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. et Curt.). Arachis cardenasii (ICG 8216), Arachis ipaensis (ICG 8206), A. paraguariensis (ICG 8130), and Arachis appressipila (ICG 8946) showed resistance to leaf feeding and antibiosis to Spodoptera litura under no-choice conditions. Six lines, derived from wild relatives, showed resistance to H. armigera and S. litura, and/or leaf miner. Plant morphological characteristics such as main stem thickness, hypanthium length, leaflet shape and length, leaf hairiness, standard petal length and petal markings, basal leaflet width, main stem thickness and hairiness, stipule adnation length and width, and peg length showed significant correlation and/or regression coefficients with damage by H. armigera, S. litura, and leafhoppers, and these traits can possibly be used as markers to select for resistance to these insect pests. Principal component analysis placed the Arachis spp. accessions into five groups, and these differences can be exploited to diversify resistance to the target insect pests in groundnut. PMID:14977130
Sharma, H C; Pampapathy, G; Dwivedi, S L; Reddy, L J
Late in 1984, our Laboratory was funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, to investigate the potential utility of microorganisms for the solubilization of low-ranked coals. Our approach has been multifacited, including studies of the types of microorganisms involved, appropriate conditions for their growth and coal-solubilization, the suceptibility of different coals to microbial action, the chemical and physical nature of the product, and potential bioprocess designs. A substantial number of fungal species have been shown to be able to solubilize coal. Cohen and Gabrielle reported that two lignin-degrading fungi, Polyporous (Trametes) versicolor and Poria monticola could solubilize lignite. Ward has isolated several diverse fungi from nature which are capable of degrading different lignites, and our Laboratory has isolated three coal-solubilizing fungi which were found growing on a sample of Texas lignite. The organisms we studied are shown in Table 1. The perceived significance of lignin degradation led us to examine two lignin-degrading strains of the genus Streptomyces. As discussed later, these bacteria were capable of solubilizing coal; but, in the case of at least one, the mechanism was non-enzymatic. The coal-solubilizing ability of other strains of Streptomyces was recently reported. Fakoussa and Trueper found evidence that a strain of Pseudomonas was capble of solubizing coal. It would thus appear that a diverse array of microorganisms possess the ability to solubilize coal. 16 refs.
The San Bernardino shrew, Sorex obscurus parvidens Jackson, 1921, is a population inhabiting the San Bernardino and San Gabriel mountains of southern California. For the past 9 decades, this population has been considered either a subspecies of S. obscurus Merriam, 1895, S. vagrans Baird, 1857, or S. monticola Merriam, 1890; or an undifferentiated population of S. ornatus Merriam, 1895. Aside from the changing taxonomic landscape that contextualizes the genus Sorex, previous study of S. obscurus parvidens has been retarded by the perception of limited available samples (typically, fewer than 8 specimens); misinterpretation of the provenance of specimens identified as S. obscurus parvidens; misunderstanding of the type locality; and inclusion of specimens of this taxon in the type series of another species with which S. obscurus parvidens has been both contrasted and allied at different times. My investigation of S. obscurus parvidens indicates that it is a distinctive population that is morphologically closest to S. ornatus, and it corresponds to the Southern Clade of that species. However, the appropriate names for deep clades within S. ornatus remain uncertain. Until this uncertainty is resolved, S. obscurus parvidens should be considered a distinctive population within S. ornatus; for conservation purposes, it should be recognized as S. ornatus parvidens.
Cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., is a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) species thought to be of allopolyploid origin. Its closest relatives are the diploid (2n = 2x = 20) annual and perennial species included with it in Arachis sect. Arachis. Species in section Arachis represent an important source of novel alleles for improvement of cultivated peanut. A better understanding of the level of speciation and taxonomic relationships between taxa within section Arachis is a prerequisite to the effective use of this secondary gene pool in peanut breeding programs. The AFLP technique was used to determine intra- and interspecific relationships among and within 108 accessions of 26 species of this section. A total of 1328 fragments were generated with 8 primer combinations. From those, 239 bands ranging in size from 65 to 760 bp were scored as binary data. Genetic distances among accessions ranged from 0 to 0.50. Average distances among diploid species (0.30) were much higher than that detected between tetraploid species (0.05). Cluster analysis using different methods and principal component analysis were performed. The resulting grouping of accessions and species supports previous taxonomic classifications and genome designations. Based on genetic distances and cluster analysis, A-genome accessions KG 30029 (Arachis helodes) and KSSc 36009 (Arachis simpsonii) and B-genome accession KGBSPSc 30076 (A. ipaensis) were the most closely related to both Arachis hypogaea and Arachis monticola. This finding suggests their involvement in the evolution of the tetraploid peanut species. PMID:15729391
Milla, S R; Isleib, T G; Stalker, H T
Species' assessments must frequently be derived from opportunistic observations made by volunteers (i.e., citizen scientists). Interpretation of the resulting data to estimate population trends is plagued with problems, including teasing apart genuine population trends from variations in observation effort. We devised a way to correct for annual variation in effort when estimating trends in occupancy (species distribution) from faunal or floral databases of opportunistic observations. First, for all surveyed sites, detection histories (i.e., strings of detection-nondetection records) are generated. Within-season replicate surveys provide information on the detectability of an occupied site. Detectability directly represents observation effort; hence, estimating detectability means correcting for observation effort. Second, site-occupancy models are applied directly to the detection-history data set (i.e., without aggregation by site and year) to estimate detectability and species distribution (occupancy, i.e., the true proportion of sites where a species occurs). Site-occupancy models also provide unbiased estimators of components of distributional change (i.e., colonization and extinction rates). We illustrate our method with data from a large citizen-science project in Switzerland in which field ornithologists record opportunistic observations. We analyzed data collected on four species: the widespread Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) and Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) and the scarce Rock Thrush (Monticola saxatilis) and Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria). Our method requires that all observed species are recorded. Detectability was <1 and varied over the years. Simulations suggested some robustness, but we advocate recording complete species lists (checklists), rather than recording individual records of single species. The representation of observation effort with its effect on detectability provides a solution to the problem of differences in effort encountered when extracting trend information from haphazard observations. We expect our method is widely applicable for global biodiversity monitoring and modeling of species distributions. PMID:20337672
Kéry, Marc; Royle, J Andrew; Schmid, Hans; Schaub, Michael; Volet, Bernard; Häfliger, Guido; Zbinden, Niklaus
The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinópolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance. PMID:23178219
Nascimento, Bruno Warlley Leandro; Saraiva, Lara; Neto, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira; Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra e; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Silva, Eduardo Sérgio da; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade
Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the peculiar reproductive biology of Arachis.
Moretzsohn, Marcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, Jose F. M.; Bertioli, David J.
DNA sequences from parts of the 12S, 16S and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes, which totalled 1049 aligned base pairs, were used to estimate the relationships of 49 species of Lacertidae, including representatives of 19 out of the 23 recognized genera and 23 species of the paraphyletic genus Lacerta. These data were used, together with morphological information, to estimate the relationships within the family. Molecular evidence corroborates the monophyletic status of many genera and species groups originally based on morphology. It indicates that Psammodromus forms a clade with Gallotia, which is the sister taxon of all other lacertids. These comprise three units: the primarily Afrotropical armatured group; the largely Oriental Takydromus; and the west Palaearctic Lacerta and its derivatives, Podarcis and Algyroides. Morphology also supports the first three assemblages, but suggests that they are derived from a paraphyletic Lacerta. Within Lacerta and its allies, DNA sequence analysis corroborates the affinity of some members of each of the subgenera Lacerta s. str. and Timon, and of the L. saxicola group. It also supports the relationship of L. monticola, L. bonnali and L. horvathi, and suggests that the L. parva--L. fraasi clade and L. brandli are not related to Psammodromus Gallotia, as morphology indicates, but instead are associated respectively with the L. danfordi and L. saxicola groups. DNA sequence data provide additional evidence that the eastern Arabian 'Lacerta' jayakari and 'L.' cyanura are members of the armatured clade and also sister species. Our analysis supports an origin for present lacertids in west Eurasia. The armatured clade invaded Africa, probably in the mid-Miocene, spreading widely and evolving increasingly xeric-adapted forms, one lineage of which later moved back into the Palaearctic. 'Lacerta' jayakari and 'L.' cyanura are assigned to Omanosaura, Lutz and Mayer 1986. The name Gallotiinae Cano, Baez, Lopez-Jurado & Ortega, 1984 is available for the Gallotia-Psammodromus clade, Eremiainae Shcherbak 1975 for the armatured clade and Lacertinae for Lacerta, Podarcis and Algyroides. Two new subgenera of Lacerta are proposed here: Caucasilacerta for L. saxicola and its allies, and Parvilacerta for L. parva and L. fraasi.
Harris, D J; Arnold, E N; Thomas, R H
Abstract The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps.
Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.
Background The genus Arachis, originated in South America, is divided into nine taxonomical sections comprising of 80 species. Most of the Arachis species are diploids (2n = 2x = 20) and the tetraploid species (2n = 2x = 40) are found in sections Arachis, Extranervosae and Rhizomatosae. Diploid species have great potential to be used as resistance sources for agronomic traits like pests and diseases, drought related traits and different life cycle spans. Understanding of genetic relationships among wild species and between wild and cultivated species will be useful for enhanced utilization of wild species in improving cultivated germplasm. The present study was undertaken to evaluate genetic relationships among species (96 accessions) belonging to seven sections of Arachis by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Arachis hypogaea genomic library and gene sequences from related genera of Arachis. Results The average transferability rate of 101 SSR markers tested to section Arachis and six other sections was 81% and 59% respectively. Five markers (IPAHM 164, IPAHM 165, IPAHM 407a, IPAHM 409, and IPAHM 659) showed 100% transferability. Cluster analysis of allelic data from a subset of 32 SSR markers on 85 wild and 11 cultivated accessions grouped accessions according to their genome composition, sections and species to which they belong. A total of 109 species specific alleles were detected in different wild species, Arachis pusilla exhibited largest number of species specific alleles (15). Based on genetic distance analysis, the A-genome accession ICG 8200 (A. duranensis) and the B-genome accession ICG 8206 (A. ipaënsis) were found most closely related to A. hypogaea. Conclusion A set of cross species and cross section transferable SSR markers has been identified that will be useful for genetic studies of wild species of Arachis, including comparative genome mapping, germplasm analysis, population genetic structure and phylogenetic inferences among species. The present study provides strong support based on both genomic and genic markers, probably for the first time, on relationships of A. monticola and A. hypogaea as well as on the most probable donor of A and B-genomes of cultivated groundnut.
Studies of forest change in western North America often focus on increased densities of small-diameter trees rather than on changes in the large tree component. Large trees generally have lower rates of mortality than small trees and are more resilient to climate change, but these assumptions have rarely been examined in long-term studies. We combined data from 655 historical (1932-1936) and 210 modern (1988-1999) vegetation plots to examine changes in density of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park (3027 km2). We tested the assumption of stability for large-diameter trees, as both individual species and communities of large-diameter trees. Between the 1930s and 1990s, large-diameter tree density in Yosemite declined 24%. Although the decrease was apparent in all forest types, declines were greatest in subalpine and upper montane forests (57.0% of park area), and least in lower montane forests (15.3% of park area). Large-diameter tree densities of 11 species declined while only 3 species increased. Four general patterns emerged: (1) Pinus albicaulis, Quercus chrysolepis, and Quercus kelloggii had increases in density of large-diameter trees occur throughout their ranges; (2) Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, and Pinus ponderosa, had disproportionately larger decreases in large-diameter tree densities in lower-elevation portions of their ranges; (3) Abies concolor and Pinus contorta, had approximately uniform decreases in large-diameter trees throughout their elevational ranges; and (4) Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga mertensiana displayed little or no change in large-diameter tree densities. In Pinus ponderosa-Calocedrus decurrens forests, modern large-diameter tree densities were equivalent whether or not plots had burned since 1936. However, in unburned plots, the large-diameter trees were predominantly A. concolor, C. decurrens, and Q. chrysolepis, whereas P. ponderosa dominated the large-diameter component of burned plots. Densities of large-diameter P. ponderosa were 8.1 trees ha-1 in plots that had experienced fire, but only 0.5 trees ha-1 in plots that remained unburned. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lutz, J. A.; van, Wagtendonk, J. W.; Franklin, J. F.
Abstract A species discovery and description pipeline to accelerate and improve taxonomy is outlined, relying on concise expert descriptions, combined with DNA sequencing, digital imaging, and automated wiki species page creation from the journal. One hundred and one new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 are described to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach: Trigonopterus aeneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneus sp. n., Trigonopterus agathis sp. n., Trigonopterus agilis sp. n., Trigonopterus amplipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus ancoruncus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus angustus sp. n., Trigonopterus apicalis sp. n., Trigonopterus armatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ascendens sp. n., Trigonopterus augur sp. n., Trigonopterus balimensis sp. n., Trigonopterus basalis sp. n., Trigonopterus conformis sp. n., Trigonopterus constrictus sp. n., Trigonopterus costatus sp. n., Trigonopterus costicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus crassicornis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuneipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cyclopensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dentirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus discoidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus dromedarius sp. n., Trigonopterus durus sp. n., Trigonopterus echinus sp. n., Trigonopterus edaphus sp. n., Trigonopterus eremitus sp. n., Trigonopterus euops sp. n., Trigonopterus ferrugineus sp. n., Trigonopterus fusiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus glaber sp. n., Trigonopterus gonatoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus granum sp. n., Trigonopterus helios sp. n., Trigonopterus hitoloorum sp. n., Trigonopterus imitatus sp. n., Trigonopterus inflatus sp. n., Trigonopterus insularis sp. n., Trigonopterus irregularis sp. n., Trigonopterus ixodiformis sp. n., Trigonopterus kanawiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus katayoi sp. n., Trigonopterus koveorum sp. n., Trigonopterus kurulu sp. n., Trigonopterus lekiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus lineatus sp. n., Trigonopterus lineellus sp. n., Trigonopterus maculatus sp. n., Trigonopterus mimicus sp. n., Trigonopterus monticola sp. n., Trigonopterus montivagus sp. n., Trigonopterus moreaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus myops sp. n., Trigonopterus nangiorum sp. n., Trigonopterus nothofagorum sp. n., Trigonopterus ovatus sp. n., Trigonopterus oviformis sp. n., Trigonopterus parumsquamosus sp. n., Trigonopterus parvulus sp. n., Trigonopterus phoenix sp. n., Trigonopterus plicicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus politoides sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudogranum sp. n., Trigonopterus pseudonasutus sp. n., Trigonopterus ptolycoides sp. n., Trigonopterus punctulatus sp. n., Trigonopterus ragaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus rhinoceros sp. n., Trigonopterus rhomboidalis sp. n., Trigonopterus rubiginosus sp. n., Trigonopterus rubripennis sp. n., Trigonopterus rufibasis sp. n., Trigonopterus scabrosus sp. n., Trigonopterus scissops sp. n., Trigonopterus scharfi sp. n., Trigonopterus signicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus simulans sp. n., Trigonopterus soiorum sp. n., T sordidus sp. n., Trigonopterus squamirostris sp. n., Trigonopterus striatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strigatus sp. n., Trigonopterus strombosceroides sp. n., Trigonopterus subglabratus sp. n., Trigonopterus sulcatus sp. n., Trigonopterus taenzleri sp. n., Trigonopterus talpa sp. n., Trigonopterus taurekaorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tialeorum sp. n., Trigonopterus tibialis sp. n., Trigonopterus tridentatus sp. n., Trigonopterus uniformis sp. n., Trigonopterus variabilis sp. n., Trigonopterus velaris sp. n., Trigonopterus verrucosus sp. n., Trigonopterus violaceus sp. n., Trigonopterus viridescens sp. n., Trigonopterus wamenaensis sp. n., Trigonopterus wariorum sp. n., Trigonopterus zygops sp. n.. All new species are authored by the taxonomist-in-charge, Alexander Riedel.
Riedel, Alexander; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Rene Tanzler; Michael Balke
Linkages between geology and fish assemblages have been inferred in many regions throughout the world, but no studies have yet investigated whether fish assemblages differ across geologies in Mesoamerica. The goals of our study were to: 1) compare physicochemical conditions and fish-assemblage structure across 2 geologic types in headwaters of the Monkey River Basin, Belize, and 2) describe basin-scale patterns in fish community composition and structure for the benefit of conservation efforts. We censused headwater-pool fishes by direct observation, and assessed habitat size, structure, and water chemistry to compare habitat and fish richness, diversity, evenness, and density between streams in the variably metamorphosed sedimentary geologic type typical of 80% of Belize's Maya Mountains (the Santa Rosa Group), and an anomalous extrusive geologic formation in the same area (the Bladen Volcanic Member). We also collected species-presence data from 20 sites throughout the basin for analyses of compositional patterns from the headwaters to the top of the estuary. Thirty-nine fish species in 21 families were observed. Poeciliids were numerically dominant, making up 39% of individuals captured, followed by characins (25%), and cichlids (20%). Cichlidae was the most species-rich family (7 spp.), followed by Poeciliidae (6 spp.). Habitat size and water chemistry differed strongly between geologic types, but habitat diversity did not. Major fish-assemblage differences also were not obvious between geologies, despite a marked difference in the presence of the aquatic macrophyte, Marathrum oxycarpum (Podostemaceae), which covered 37% of the stream bottom in high-nutrient streams draining the Santa Rosa Group, and did not occur in the low-P streams draining the Bladen Volcanic Member. Correlation analyses suggested that distance from the sea and amount of cover within pools are important to fish-assemblage structure, but that differing abiotic factors may influence assemblage structure within each geologic type. The fauna showed weak compositional zonation into 3 groups (headwaters, coastal plain, and nearshore). Nearly 20% of the fish species collected have migratory life cycles (including Joturus pichardi, Agonostomus monticola, and Gobiomorus dormitor) that use freshwater and marine habitats. Some of these species probably rely on a natural flow regime and longitudinal connectivity for reproduction and dispersal of young, and natural flow regime and longitudinal connectivity are important factors for maintenance of functional linkages between the uplands and the coast in the ridge-to-reef corridor where the Monkey River is located. Therefore, we suggest that the viability of migratory fish populations may be a good biological indicator of upland-to-estuary connectivity important both to fishes and coastal ecosystem function. We recommend follow-up studies to substantiate the relative strengths of relationships between community structure and abiotic factors in contrasting geologies and to examine potential bottom-up responses of stream biota to the higher nutrient levels that were observed in stream waters draining the Santa Rosa Group geologic type.
Esselman, P.C.; Freeman, M. C.; Pringle, C.M.