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Sample records for dulcis chinese water

  1. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  2. The uptake of uranium by Eleocharis dulcis (Chinese water chestnut) in the Ranger Uranium Mine constructed wetland filter.

    PubMed

    Overall, Robyn A; Parry, David L

    2004-11-01

    Eleocharis dulcis has proliferated in a constructed wetland used to treat uranium mine runoff water, where it rapidly accumulates significant quantities of uranium (U) in its roots and relatively little in its stems. We investigated the mechanism of U uptake and accumulation by E. dulcis using field-sampling techniques and microcosm test work. Results from the microcosm trials and outcomes from statistical tests of field sampled macrophyte, water and sediment indicate that the primary source of U for E. dulcis is the water column. Basipetal translocation of U to the plant's roots was indicated by significant correlations between the U content of stems, taproots and rhizomes and XPS detection of U inside root segments. U sequestering from sediment interstitial water by Fe hydroxides on root surfaces was also evident. No basipetal translocation was evident following the 28-day duration of the microcosm experiments, indicating that it is a longer-term process. PMID:15312943

  3. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-01

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 μg/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 μg/mg) or epidermis (685 μg/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 μg/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 μg/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 μg/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots. PMID:24066627

  4. Antiulcer activity of water extract of Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Babincová, Melánia; Schronerová, Kristína; Sourivong, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Oral treatment with the water extracts of Scoparia dulcis whole aerial parts, at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, dose dependently inhibited the indomethacin-induced gastric damages in rats. PMID:18621110

  5. Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov., aluminum-tolerant bacteria isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Tomoko; Bao Ve, Nguyen; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Sunairi, Michio

    2010-09-01

    Two strains of aluminium-tolerant bacteria, SA33(T) and 7A078, were isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps (pH 2-4) in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam (SA33(T)) and Thailand (7A078). The strains were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming rods, 0.6-0.7 mum wide and 1.3-1.7 mum long. These strains showed good growth at pH 3.0-8.0 and 17-37 degrees C. The organisms contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) ω 7c and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the major fatty acids. Their fatty acid profiles were similar to those reported for other Burkholderia species. The DNA G+C content of these strains was 64 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values calculated for strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and the type strains of Burkholderia kururiensis, B. sacchari and B. tuberum were 100, 97.3, 97.1 and 97.0 %, respectively, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 formed a group that was distinct in the phylogenetic trees; the DNA-DNA relatedness of strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and these three type strains were respectively 90, 47, 46 and 45 %. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, including whole-cell protein pattern analysis, allowed phenotypic differentiation of these strains from described Burkholderia species. Therefore, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 represent a novel species, for which the name Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA33(T) (=NBRC 101816(T) =VTCC-D6-6(T)). Strain 7A078 (=NBRC 103872 =BCC 36999) is a reference strain. PMID:19819996

  6. Antiosteoporosis Activity of New Oriental Medicine Preparation (Kyungokgo Mixed with Water Extract of Hovenia dulcis) on the Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Lee, Sung-Ju; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Son, Young-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of new oriental medicine (Kyungokgo mixed with water extract of Hovenia dulcis, KOGHD) was assessed on the bone loss induced mice by ovariectomy. In the in vivo experiments, antiosteoporosis effect of KOGHD was investigated using ovariectomized osteoporosis mice model. After 6 weeks of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the effect of Kyungokgo (KOG) and KOGHD on body weight, spleen weigh, thymus weight, uterine weight, serum biochemical indicators, bone weight and length, immune cell population, bone morphometric parameters, and histological stains was observed. Our results showed that KOGHD prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture caused by ovariectomy, which were accompanied by the lower levels of bone turnover markers and immune cell population as evidenced by the inhibition of RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation without cytotoxic effect on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs). Therefore, these results suggest that the Hovenia dulcis (HD) supplementation in the KOG may also prevent and treat bone loss. PMID:25737735

  7. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, M. R.; Mishra, A.; Pradhan, D. K.; Panda, A. K.; Behera, R. K.; Jha, S.

    2013-01-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:24403665

  8. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M R; Mishra, A; Pradhan, D K; Panda, A K; Behera, R K; Jha, S

    2013-09-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:24403665

  9. Pro blood clotting activity of Scoparia dulcis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Jayakody, J R A C; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2011-04-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn (Family: Scrophulariaceae, Sinhala: WalKoththamalli) is a perennial herb growing in many tropical countries including Sri Lanka. Traditional Physicians in rural down south areas apply crushed S. dulcis plant on cuts and bruises to stop bleeding. S. dulcis may also have Rakta Sthambhana property. The study on effect of decoction (water extract) of S. dulcis on blood clotting time in rats was carried out to investigate this. Two groups of rats, 12 males and 42 females were used in this experimental study. Forty-two female rats were assigned into seven equal groups (n = 6/gp). Different doses of DE (25, 50, 100, 1000, 1500 mg/kg) (group 1-5) or 2 ml of distilled water (DW) (group 6) were orally administered. 0.1 ml of vitamin K was injected intramuscularly (group 7) as reference drug to seventh the group. Twelve male rats were assigned into two equal groups (n = 6/gp), 2 ml of distilled water (DW) and doses of DE (1500 mg/kg) were orally administered. Clotting time was determined on the Days 1, 2, and 7 using Lee and White method. In the DE treated groups with all doses, there was no reduction in clotting time on the Day 1 but a significant reduction of clotting time (P < 0.05) was observed on the Days 2 and 7. In the group treated with vitamin K, there was no significant reduction in clotting time on Day 1 or 2, but there was a significant reduction in clotting time on Day 7. It is concluded that S. dulcis has proclotting activity (rakthasthambhana property) and this was faster than vitamin K. PMID:22408315

  10. Cytotoxic diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Monira; Islam, S K N; Gray, Alexander I; Stimson, William H

    2003-07-01

    Four new labdane-derived diterpenes, iso-dulcinol (1), 4-epi-scopadulcic acid B (2), dulcidiol (4), and scopanolal (5), together with two known diterpenes, dulcinol/scopadulciol (3) and scopadiol (6), were isolated from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis. The structures were determined by extensive NMR studies. The crude extracts as well as the pure diterpenes showed cytotoxicity against a panel of six human stomach cancer cell lines. PMID:12880314

  11. Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

  12. Xanthones with antimalarial activity from Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Likhitwitayawuid, K; Chanmahasathien, W; Ruangrungsi, N; Krungkrai, J

    1998-04-01

    Chromatographic separation of the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia dulcis (Guttiferae) furnished five xanthones, viz 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (2), 1-O-methylsymphoxanthone (3), symphoxanthone (4), and garciniaxanthone (5). These xanthones 1-5 showed inhibitory effects on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.96-3.88 micrograms/ml. In addition, revised 13C-NMR assignments of 3 and complete 13C-NMR assignments of 4 were obtained through analysis of their COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC spectra. PMID:9581528

  13. A new prenylated biflavonoid from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Saelee, Arun; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2015-01-01

    A new prenylated biflavonoid, named dulcisbiflavonoid A, together with five biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were elucidated by analysing their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR. PMID:25675112

  14. Cloning and expression of calmodulin gene in Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Daisuke; Asakura, Yuki; Nkembo, Marguerite Kasidimoko; Shite, Masato; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2007-06-01

    A homology-based cloning strategy yielded a cDNA clone, designated Sd-cam, encoding calmodulin protein from Scoparia dulcis. The restriction digests of genomic DNA of S. dulcis showed a single hybridized signal when probed with the fragment of this gene in Southern blot analyses, suggesting that Sd-cam occurs as a sole gene encoding calmodulin in the plant. The reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Sd-cam was appreciably expressed in leaf, root and stem tissues. It appeared that transcription of this gene increased transiently when the leaf cultures of S. dulcis were treated with methyl jasmonate and calcium ionophore A23187. These results suggest that transcriptional activation of Sd-cam is one of the early cellular events of the methyl jasmonate-induced responses of S. dulcis. PMID:17541174

  15. Biolistic transformation of Scoparia dulcis L.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Kota; Muralikrishna, Narra; Kumar, Kalva Bharath; Raghu, Ellendula; Mahender, Aileni; Kiranmayee, Kasula; Yashodahara, Velivela; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report for the first time, the optimized conditions for microprojectile bombardment-mediated genetic transformation in Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis L.), a Plantaginaceae medicinal plant species. Transformation was achieved by bombardment of axenic leaf segments with Binary vector pBI121 harbouring β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) as a reporter and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (npt II) as a selectable marker. The influence of physical parameters viz., acceleration pressure, flight distance, gap width & macroprojectile travel distance of particle gun on frequency of transient GUS and stable (survival of putative transformants) expressions have been investigated. Biolistic delivery of the pBI121 yielded the best (80.0 %) transient expression of GUS gene bombarded at a flight distance of 6 cm and rupture disc pressure/acceleration pressure of 650 psi. Highest stable expression of 52.0 % was noticed in putative transformants on RMBI-K medium. Integration of GUS and npt II genes in the nuclear genome was confirmed through primer specific PCR. DNA blot analysis showed more than one transgene copy in the transformed plantlet genomes. The present study may be used for metabolic engineering and production of biopharmaceuticals by transplastomic technology in this valuable medicinal plant. PMID:27186019

  16. Sympathomimetic effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and catecholamines isolated from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Freire, S M; Torres, L M; Souccar, C; Lapa, A J

    1996-06-01

    The herb Scoparia dulcis L. is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat bronchitis, gastric disorders, haemorrhoids, insect bites and skin wounds, and in oriental medicine to treat hypertension. A previous study has shown that extracts of S. dulcis have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties; in this work the sympathomimetic activity of an ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis L. has been investigated in rodent preparations in-vivo and in-vitro. Administration of the extract (0.5-2 mg kg-1, i.v.) to anaesthetized rats produced dose-related hypertension blocked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (1 mg kg-1). Partition of the extract in chloroform-water yielded an aqueous phase 20 times more potent than the extract; this produced hypertension in either reserpine-treated or pithed rats. In untreated and reserpine-treated rats the same fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) produced concentration-dependent contractions of the vas deferens musculature parallel to those obtained with noradrenaline (10(-8)-10(-4)M). Prazosin (10(-7)M) reduced the maximum contractile effect of the aqueous fraction, and shifted the concentration-response curves for noradrenaline to the right. The aqueous fraction (25 and 50 micrograms mL-1) increased the inotropism of electrically driven left atria of rats, the effect being blocked by propranolol (0.4 microgram mL-1). In preparations of guinea-pig tracheal rings the aqueous fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) relaxed the muscle contraction induced by histamine (10(-4) M) in proportion to the concentration. The effect was antagonized competitively by propranolol (1.5 microM). High-performance liquid-chromatographic analysis of the aqueous fraction revealed the presence of both noradrenaline and adrenaline in the plant extract. The results indicated that both catecholamines may account for the hypertensive and inotropic effects obtained after parenteral administration of S. dulcis extracts. This sympathomimetic activity is

  17. Anti-fatigue activity of Hovenia dulcis on a swimming mouse model through the inhibition of stress hormone expression and antioxidation.

    PubMed

    Na, Chun-Soo; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Jin Beom; Na, Dae-Seung; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Hong, Cheol Yi

    2013-01-01

    Hovenia dulcis (H. dulcis) Thunb., which is distributed in Korea, China, and Japan, has been known to show hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects and enhance physical activity. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to determine the anti-fatigue activity of hot-water extract from H. dulcis peduncle, and to find the reason why H. dulcis extract (HDE)-ingested mice had enhanced physical activity against swimming performance. The mice orally administrated with HDE (HDE-mice) dramatically enhanced their swimming time compared to the control mice. HDE significantly decreased serum levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in mice. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were dramatically decreased in gastrocnemius muscle from both 100 mg/kg of HDE (LHDE) and 200 mg/kg of HDE (HHDE)-ingested mice compared to the control mice. The liver activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased in HHDE-mice with increasing tendency in LHDE-mice. In addition, HHDE-mice significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (T-Chol), and triglyceride (TG). These results suggest that HDE had a significant anti-fatigue effect via its anti-stress and antioxidant activities, and thereby enhanced physical activity in swimming performance. PMID:23895162

  18. Optimization of microwave roasting of almond (Prunus dulcis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave (MW) almond roasting was investigated as an alternative to hot air (HA) roasting. Nonpareil almonds (Prunus dulcis) were roasted at 140°C in a convection oven for different times to achieve light, medium, and dark roasting levels. Several instrumental measurements were taken, establishin...

  19. Phenolic compounds from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Deachathai, S; Mahabusarakam, W; Phongpaichit, S; Taylor, W C; Zhang, Y-J; Yang, C-R

    2006-03-01

    Dulcisxanthones C-F and dulcinone together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The abilities of some of these compounds to act as radical scavengers and antibacterial agents were investigated. PMID:16325214

  20. Endophytic Penicillium citrinum Thom. from Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Annie J; Jayachandran, K; Mathew, Jyothis

    2010-10-01

    Scoparia dulcis of Scrophulariaceae is an annual herb distributed through out the tropics. Penicillium citrinum was obtained from apparently healthy roots, stem, leaves and fruits of this plant. Callus and multiple shoots produced during micropropagation from various explants were also symptomless but showed occurrence of Penicillium citrinum when cultured in Murashige & Skoog liquid medium for the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:22815580

  1. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Scoparia dulcis Extract.

    PubMed

    Babincová, M.; Sourivong, P.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the scavenging capabilities of an extract of Scoparia dulcis (a cosmopolitan weed widespread in Laos and Vietnam) for 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and measured hemoglobin-catalyzed linoleic acid peroxidation with an oxygen electrode. Our results demonstrated strong antioxidant activity corresponding to mitigation of the generation of hydroxyl radicals, a possible rationale for the observed therapeutic effects of this weed. PMID:12639412

  2. Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species. PMID:23929991

  3. Potent Insulin Secretagogue from Scoparia dulcis Linn of Nepalese Origin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Khaga Raj; Adhikari, Achyut; Hafizur, Rahman M; Hameed, Abdul; Raza, Sayed Ali; Kalauni, Surya Kant; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2015-10-01

    Ethno-botanical inspired isolation from plant Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Sweet Broomweed) yielded six compounds, coixol (1), glutinol (2), glutinone (3), friedelin (4), betulinic acid (5), and tetratriacontan-1-ol (6). There structures were identified using mass and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their insulin secretory activity on isolated mice islets and MIN-6 pancreatic β-cell line, and compounds 1 and 2 were found to be potent and mildly active, respectively. Compound 1 was further evaluated for insulin secretory activity on MIN-6 cells. Compound 1 was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity assay against MIN-6, 3T3 cell lines, and islet cells, and in vivo acute toxicity test in mice that was found to be non-toxic. The insulin secretory activity of compounds 1 and 2 supported the ethno-botanic uses of S. dulcis as an anti-diabetic agent. PMID:26178652

  4. Phenolic compounds from the fruit of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Deachathai, S; Mahabusarakam, W; Phongpaichit, S; Taylor, W C

    2005-10-01

    Dulcinoside (1), dulcisisoflavone (2), dulcisxanthone A (3) and sphaerobioside acetate (6) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the green fruit of G. dulcis. Dulcisflavan (4), dulcisxanthone B (5) and isonormangostin (7) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the ripe fruit. Compounds 6 and 7 were synthetic known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The radical scavenging and antibacterial activities of some of the compounds were investigated. PMID:16111726

  5. Phenolic compounds from the seeds of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Deachathai, Suwanna; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2008-01-01

    Dulcisxanthone G, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2-(2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone, together with 13 known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The activities on antibacterial and antioxidation of the isolated compounds were examined. PMID:19023789

  6. Essential oil from leaves of Lippia dulcis grown in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murillo, Bárbara; Quijano-Célis, Clara; Romero, Arturo R; Pino, Jorge A

    2010-04-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile compounds from the leaves of Lippia dulcis Trev. (Verbenaceae) from Colombia was studied by GC and GC/MS. Forty volatile compounds were identified, of which the major ones were alpha-copaene (18.0%), beta-caryophyllene (17.8%), and delta-cadinene (14.7%). The sweet bisabolane sesquiterpenoid, hernandulcin, formed only 1.1% of the leaf oil. PMID:20433082

  7. Analgesic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory principle from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Shikha, H A; Sadhu, S K; Rahman, M T; Datta, B K

    2001-08-01

    Scoparinol, a diterpene, isolated from Scoparia dulcis showed significant analgesic (p < 0.001) and anti-inflammatory activity (p < 0.01) in animals. A sedative action of scoparinol was demonstrated by a marked potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sedation with a significant effect on both onset and duration of sleep (p < 0.05). Measurement of urine volume after administration of scoparinol indicated its significant diuretic action. PMID:11534346

  8. Analgesic activity of a triterpene isolated from Scoparia dulcis L. (Vassourinha).

    PubMed

    Freire, S M; Torres, L M; Roque, N F; Souccar, C; Lapa, A J

    1991-01-01

    Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of water (WE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts of Scoparia dulcis L. were investigated in rats and mice, and compared to the effects induced by Glutinol, a triterpene isolated by purification of EE. Oral administration (p.o.) of either WE or EE (up to 2 g/kg) did not alter the normal spontaneous activity of mice and rats. The sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was prolonged by 2 fold in mice pretreated with 0.5 g/kg EE, p.o. Neither extract altered the tail flick response of mice in immersion test, but previous administration of EE (0.5 g/kg, p.o.) reduced writhings induced by 0.8% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g, i.p.) in mice by 47%. EE (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p.o.) inhibited the paw edema induced by carrageenan in rats by respectively 46% and 58% after 2 h, being ineffective on the paw edema induced by dextran. No significant analgesic or anti-edema effects were detected in animals pretreated with WE (1 g/kg, p.o.). Administration of Glutinol (30 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced writhing induced by acetic acid in mice by 40% and the carrageenan induced paw edema in rats by 73%. The results indicate that the analgesic activity of S. dulcis L. may be explained by an anti-inflammatory activity probably related to the triterpene Glutinol. PMID:1841990

  9. Antiviral agents of plant origin. III. Scopadulin, a novel tetracyclic diterpene from Scoparia dulcis L.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kawasaki, M; Miwa, Y; Taga, T; Morita, N

    1990-04-01

    The structure and stereochemistry of scopadulin, a novel aphidicolane-type diterpene isolated from Scoparia dulcis L. have been established from spectral data and single-crystal X-ray analysis of its acetone solvate. PMID:2379289

  10. Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum water temperature for growth was 27.7°C. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly ( P<0.05) on day 30 at temperatures above 20°C. Lysozyme activity was significantly ( P<0.05) lower at 25°C than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

  11. Acetylated flavonoid glycosides potentiating NGF action from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yushan; Chen, Xigui; Satake, Masayuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2004-04-01

    Three new acetylated flavonoid glycosides, 5,6,4'-trihydroxyflavone 7-O-alpha-L-2,3-di-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-3-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-2,3-di-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), were isolated from Scoparia dulcis together with the known compound eugenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 3 showed an enhancing activity of nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. PMID:15104516

  12. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Ahmed Y; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Kehoe, Patrick G; Sombie, Pierre A E D; Lamien, Charles E; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2011-12-01

    Different extracts were obtained from Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae) by successive extraction with hexane, chloroform, and methanol. These extracts exhibited significant antioxidant capacity in various antioxidant models mediated (xantine oxidase and lipoxygenase) or not mediated (2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, β-carotene bleaching, lipid peroxidation) by enzymes. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to their phytochemical composition in terms of polyphenol and carotenoid contents. The chloroform extract was richest in phytochemicals and had the highest antioxidant activity in the different antioxidant systems. All the extracts exhibited less than 50% inhibition on xanthine oxidase but more than 50% inhibition on lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase. The extracts strongly inhibited lipid peroxidation mediated by lipoxygenase. PMID:21870938

  13. Phytochemical and antimicrobial study of an antidiabetic plant: Scoparia dulcis L.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Ramkumar, K M; Pari, L; Damodaran, P N; Rajeshkannan, V; Suresh, T

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial and antifungal effects of different concentrations of chloroform/methanol fractions of Scoparia dulcis were investigated. The isolated fractions were tested against different bacteria like Salmonella typhii, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris and fungal strains such as Alternaria macrospora, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum. The isolated fractions exhibited significant antimicrobial and antifungal activity against all the tested organisms compared with respective reference drugs. The isolated fractions of S. dulcis showed properties like antimicrobial and antifungal activities that will enable researchers in turn to look for application-oriented principles. PMID:17004904

  14. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  15. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  16. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Pamunuwa, Geethi; Karunaratne, D Nedra; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means. PMID:27594892

  17. In situ volatiles from a single cultivar of Prunus dulcis and their relationship to navel orangeworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis, account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central and San Joaquin valleys of California. Several studies have investigated the various non-volatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC)...

  18. Insulin-secretagogue activity and cytoprotective role of the traditional antidiabetic plant Scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed).

    PubMed

    Latha, Muniappan; Pari, Leelavinothan; Sitasawad, Sandhya; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2004-09-01

    Scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed) has been documented as a traditional treatment of diabetes. The administration of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased the blood glucose with significant increase in plasma insulin level in streptozotocin diabetic rats at the end of 15 days treatment. The insulin secretagogue action of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) was further investigated using isolated pancreatic islets from mice. SPEt at a dose of 10 microg/ml evoked 6.0 fold stimulation of insulin secretion from isolated islets indicating its insulin secretagogue activity. In addition the effect of SPEt on streptozotocin induced cell death and nitric oxide (NO) in terms of nitrite production were also examined. SPEt protected against streptozotocin- mediated cytotoxicity (88%) and NO production in rat insulinoma cell line (RINm5F). Above results suggest the glucose lowering effect of SPEt to be associated with potentiation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Our results revealed the possible therapeutic value of Scoparia dulcis for the better control, management and prevention of diabetes mellitus progression. PMID:15306167

  19. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Karunaratne, D. Nedra

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means. PMID:27594892

  20. Agononida Baba and de saint Laurent, 1996 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheoidea: Munididae) from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    The present paper reports five species of squat lobster, genus Agononida Baba and de Saint Laurent, 1996, of which A. squamosa (Henderson, 1885) and A. cf. variabilis (Baba, 1988) were not previously reported in Chinese waters. All the specimens are kept in the Marine Biological Museum collection in the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. To date, there have been 11 species of this genus recorded from China's seas. A key to those species is provided in this paper.

  1. Pollen and microsporangium development in Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae): a different type of tapetal cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Marina M; Galati, Beatriz G; Zarlavsky, Gabriela; Medan, Diego

    2016-07-01

    Despite that there is some literature on pollen morphology of Rhamnaceae, studies addressing general aspects of the microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and anther development are rare. The aim of this paper is to describe the ultrastructure of pollen grain ontogeny with special attention to tapetum cytology in Hovenia dulcis. Anthers at different stages of development were processed for transmission and scanning electron microscopy, bright-field microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. Different histochemical reactions were carried out. The ultrastructural changes observed during the development of the tapetal cells and pollen grains are described. Large vesicles containing carbohydrates occur in the tapetal cell cytoplasm during the early stages of pollen development. Its origin and composition are described and discussed. This is the first report on the ontogeny and ultrastructure of the pollen grain and related sporophytic structures of H. dulcis. PMID:26277353

  2. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  3. HPTLC analysis of Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae) and its larvicidal potential against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wankhar, Wankupar; Srinivasan, Sakthivel; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the larvicidal activity of Scoparia dulcis aqueous extract against dengue vector and determines its major chemical components. The extract was tested at various concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2 mg/mL against Aedes aegypti larvae. The extracts displayed significant larvicidal efficacy against Ae. aegypt species after 24 h exposure revealing LC50 of 3.3835 (mg/mL) and LC90 of 5.7578 (mg/mL). Finger printing profile carried out by CAMAG automatic TLC sample applicator programmed through WIN CATS software revealed peaks with different Rf values for three different volumes injected: 16, 15 and 18 peaks were spotted for 3, 6 and 9 μL, respectively. Ascending order of Rf values was also ascertained for each peak recorded. This study clearly signifies that S. dulcis extract contains numerous compounds that are known to have larvicidal properties which clearly substantiates its efficacy on Ae. aegypti larvae. PMID:25573588

  4. Modulatory effect of Scoparia dulcis in oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Pari, L

    2003-01-01

    In light of evidence that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress and altered antioxidant status, we investigated the effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extracts (SPEt) (aqueous, ethanolic, and chloroform) in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Significant increases in the activities of insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E were observed in liver, kidney, and brain on treatment with SPEt. In addition, the treated groups also showed significant decreases in blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and hydroperoxide formation in tissues, suggesting its role in protection against lipid peroxidation-induced membrane damage. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that extracts of S. dulcis, especially the aqueous extract, showed a modulatory effect by attenuating the above lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetes. PMID:14977448

  5. Antidiabetic effect of Scoparia dulcis: effect on lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Latha, M

    2005-03-01

    Oxidative damage has been suggested to be a contributory factor in the development and complications of diabetes. The antioxidant effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic medicine in India was studied in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Oral administration of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) (200 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in plasma insulin. The aqueous extract also resulted in decreased free radical formation in tissues (liver and kidney) studied. The decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HPX) and increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) clearly show the antioxidant properties of SPEt in addition to its antidiabetic effect. The effect of SPEt at 200 mg/kg body weight was better than glibenclamide, a reference drug. PMID:15900084

  6. Chemical and biological evaluation on scopadulane-type diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis of Vietnamese origin.

    PubMed

    Phan, Minh Giang; Phan, Tong Son; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2006-04-01

    From the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae) grown in Vietnam, four scopadulane-type diterpenoids (4-7), of which 7 is new and was given the trivial name scopadulcic acid C, together with nine known compounds were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 4-7 were ascertained by applying the modified Mosher's method to iso-dulcinol (6). The isolation of the lignans nirtetralin and niranthin for the first time from S. dulcis is also of chemotaxonomic interest. The cytotoxic activity in KB cells, inhibitory effect on LPS/IFNgamma-induced NO production, inhibition of multidrug resistance (MDR), and antibacterial and antifungal activities of the scopadulane-type diterpenoids 4-7 were examined in this study. PMID:16595962

  7. Therapeutic potency of saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in alloxan induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, P. Saravana; Anaswara, P. V.; Muthuraman, A.; Krishan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is major metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. This leads to alter the multiple organ system. Aims: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis (SRE-SD) using alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model. Material and Methods: The single dose of alloxan was injected for the induction of diabetes in rats. The SRE-SD and glibenclamide were administered for 15 consecutive days from the 3rd day of alloxan administration. Quantity of food and water intake was measured at day 0, and 18. Further, body weight was recorded and blood samples were collected at different time intervals that is, day 0, 3, 8, 13, and 18. The oxidative biomarkers (i.e. thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrite (NO2−) levels were also estimated in the serum sample. Results: The SRE-SD showed a remarkable dose and time-dependent changes in alloxan-induced rise in the level of food consumption and water intake, serum glucose level, TBARS, NO2− and fall in the level of GSH. Further, significant attenuation was observed at 20 and 30 mg/kg of SRE-SD treated group. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that SRE-SD has both antidiabetic and antioxidant effects on the experimental model of diabetes in rat. PMID:25558170

  8. Inhibition of human lipoprotein oxidation by morelloflavone and camboginol from Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Kongkachuay, Suyanee; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2007-06-01

    A biflavonoids, morelloflavone (1) and a prenyltated xanthone, camboginol (2), isolated from the fruits of Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz., exhibited strong antioxidation effects in both Fe2+ -mediated and non-metal induced human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidations. However, a well-known antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), was found less potent than both compounds based on the same test systems. PMID:17613824

  9. Cytokinin induced shoot regeneration and flowering of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae)-an ethnomedicinal herb

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, G; Sankaranarayanan, R; Jeeva, S; Rajarathinam, K

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop an improved protocol for micropropagation of ethnomedicinally important Scoparia dulcis (S. dulcis) L. Methods Explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot bud induction. To enhance the shoot induction, various auxins like 3-indoleacetic acid or 3-indolebutyric acid or α-naphthylacetic acid were tested along with 2.32 M KI and 4.44 µM BAP. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IAA, IBA or NAA. After roots were developed, the plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with vermiculate and sand and kept in growth chamber with 70%–80% humidity under 16 h photoperiod. After acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to the garden and survival percentage was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test (P<0.05). Results An in vitro method was developed to induce high frequency shoots regeneration from stem, mature leaf and young leaf explants of S. dulcis. Shoot induction on young leaf explants was most successful in MS medium supplemented with combination of two cytokinins (2.32 µM KI and 4.44 µM BAP) 2.85 µM IAA, 10% CM and 1 483.79 µM adenine sulfate. A single young leaf explant was capable of producing 59 shoots after 13 days of culture. Flower was induced in medium supplemented with combination of KI and BAP. Conclusions Cytokinins are the key factor to induce the direct shoot regeneration and flowering of S. dulcis. PMID:23569752

  10. Spontaneous poisoning by Hovenia dulcis in dairy cattle in Southwest Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Fabricio; Possa, Marina Gabriela; Faccin, Mayane; Gruchouskei, Leonardo; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Pípole, Fernando; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Elias, Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Livestock poisoning by plants is a frequent occurrence which determines severe losses, such as the fall in the milk and meat production, the cost of expensive treatments, the state of immunosuppression, or even the animal's death. Cattle ingest toxic plants only when there is food shortage, when they cannot select what they eat, or when they ingest food for preference, which is the case of Hovenia dulcis fruits, very rich in sucrose. This plant is widely distributed in the southern and southeastern Brazilian regions. In literature, there are some cases of severe human liver injury associated with a long-term of H. dulcis leaf and fruit tea intake, and only one report regarding spontaneous poisoning of goats caused by this plant ingestion. However, its toxic effects associated with spontaneous ingestion by cattle have never been reported. This paper reports the first case of spontaneous poisoning in cattle by H. dulcis, which occurred in a dairy farm in southwest Paraná, Brazil. Three cattle individuals showed anorexia, ruminal atony, severe diarrhea and neurological tournament, head pressing, blindness, ataxia, and circling. The necropsy of the animals was done, and the remaining alterations were restricted to the digestive system and brain. The clinical signs presented by the animals are characteristic of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), caused by changes in the thiamine metabolism. Furthermore, clinical signs, gross, and microscopic lesions as well as the large amount of the plant throughout the digestive segment led to a diagnosis. PMID:26415955

  11. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Atikur Rahman, Md.; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  12. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Scoparia dulcis (sweet broomweed) in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Latha, Muniappan

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated Scoparia dulcis, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic medicine in India, for its possible antihyperlipidemic effect in rats with streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes. Oral administration of an aqueous extract of S. dulcis plant (200 mg/kg of body weight) to streptozotocin diabetic rats for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum and tissue cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase activity, and very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The decreased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, anti-atherogenic index, and HMG-CoA reductase activity in diabetic rats were also reversed towards normalization after the treatment. Similarly, the administration of S. dulcis plant extract (SPEt) to normal animals resulted in a hypolipidemic effect. The effect was compared with glibenclamide (600 microg/kg of body weight). The results showed that SPEt had antihyperlipidemic action in normal and experimental diabetic rats in addition to its antidiabetic effect. PMID:16579736

  13. Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on plasma and tissue glycoproteins in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Pari, L

    2005-02-01

    The influence of Scoparia dulcis, a traditionally used plant for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was examined in streptozotocin diabetic rats on dearrangement in glycoprotein levels. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. An aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally for 6 weeks. The effect of the Scoparia dulcis extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, plasma and tissue glycoproteins studied was in comparison to glibenclamide. The levels of blood glucose and plasma glycoproteins were increased significantly whereas the level of plasma insulin was significantly decreased in diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the level of sialic acid and elevated levels of hexose, hexosamine and fucose in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Oral administration of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) to diabetic rats led to decreased levels of blood glucose and plasma glycoproteins. The levels of plasma insulin and tissue sialic acid were increased whereas the levels of tissue hexose, hexosamine and fucose were near normal. The present study indicates that Scoparia dulcis possesses a significant beneficial effect on glycoproteins in addition to its antidiabetic effect. PMID:15739907

  14. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability—with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north—increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content to build China’s domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China’s domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China’s soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km3/y irrigation water savings, 41 km3/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  15. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  16. Antitumor-promoting activity of scopadulcic acid B, isolated from the medicinal plant Scoparia dulcis L.

    PubMed

    Nishino, H; Hayashi, T; Arisawa, M; Satomi, Y; Iwashima, A

    1993-01-01

    Scopadulcic acid B (SDB), a tetracyclic diterpenoid isolated from a medicinal plant, Scoparia dulcis L., inhibited the effects of tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in vitro and in vivo; SDB inhibited TPA-enhanced phospholipid synthesis in cultured cells, and also suppressed the promoting effect of TPA on skin tumor formation in mice initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. The potency of SDB proved to be stronger than that of other natural antitumor-promoting terpenoids, such as glycyrrhetinic acid. PMID:8451033

  17. Preparation and characterisation of the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnut polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidant that cleaves glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, the oligosaccharides were prepared by removing the starch from Chinese water chestnuts through hydrolysis using α-amylase and then hydrolysing the remaining polysaccharides with H2O2, during which the oligosaccharide yield was monitored. The yield of oligosaccharide was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Extended reaction times, high temperatures, and high H2O2 concentrations decreased oligosaccharide yield. Under optimum conditions (i.e., reaction time of 4h, reaction temperature of 80°C, and 2.5% H2O2 concentration), the maximum oligosaccharide yield was 3.91%. The oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides exhibited strong hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity when applied at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The results indicate that the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food. PMID:25794714

  18. In Situ Seasonal Study of the Volatile Production of Almonds (Prunus dulcis), var. 'Nonpareil' and Relationship to Navel Orangeworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis, account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central Valley of California. Several studies have investigated the various nonvolatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission of almon...

  19. A comparative study of the antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potential of the fruits and leaves of Spondias dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Shawkat Md. Aminul; Ahmed, Kh Tanvir; Manik, Mohammad Kawsar; Wahid, Md. Arif; Kamal, Chowdhury Shafayat Ibne

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic property of the fruits and leaves of Spondias dulcis (S. dulcis). Methods Methanolic extracts of fruits and leaves of S. dulcis were partitioned with chloroform and dichloromethane. The antioxidant potential of the crude extract and partitioned fractions were evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging potential, reducing potential and total antioxidant capacity by specific standard procedures. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and compared with vincristine sulfate. The thrombolytic activity was compared with streptokinase. Results The methanolic fruit extract exhibited the highest phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity, among the other extracts, with the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity at a concentration of 10 µg/mL (IC50: 1.91 µg/mL) and maximum reducing power at a concentration of 100 µg/mL (EC50: 3.58 µg/mL). Though all extract showed moderate antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains, weak or no activity against fungus. The range of LC50 value of all extracts was 1.335-14.057 µg/mL which was far lower than the cut off index for cytotoxicity. All extracts exhibited statistically significant (P<0.001) thrombolytic activity. Conclusions Our study suggested that S. dulcis exhibits antimicrobial activities against a wide variety of strains while it possesses significant antioxidant, cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity. PMID:23998007

  20. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus. Plastid localization and conversion to a farnesyl diphosphate synthase by mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Sitthithaworn, W; Kojima, N; Viroonchatapan, E; Suh, D Y; Iwanami, N; Hayashi, T; Noji, M; Saito, K; Niwa, Y; Sankawa, U

    2001-02-01

    cDNAs encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) of two diterpene-producing plants, Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus, have been isolated using the homology-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Both clones contained highly conserved aspartate-rich motifs (DDXX(XX)D) and their N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both the full-length and truncated proteins in which the putative targeting sequence was deleted catalyzed the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to produce geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). The structural factors determining the product length in plant GGPPSs were investigated by constructing S. dulcis GGPPS mutants on the basis of sequence comparison with the first aspartate-rich motif (FARM) of plant farnesyl diphosphate synthase. The result indicated that in plant GGPPSs small amino acids, Met and Ser, at the fourth and fifth positions before FARM and Pro and Cys insertion in FARM play essential roles in determination of product length. Further, when a chimeric gene comprised of the putative transit peptide of the S. dulcis GGPPS gene and a green fluorescent protein was introduced into Arabidopsis leaves by particle gun bombardment, the chimeric protein was localized in chloroplasts, indicating that the cloned S. dulcis GGPPS is a chloroplast protein. PMID:11217109

  1. Evolution of China's water issues as framed in Chinese mainstream newspaper.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yonglan; Wei, Yongping; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jing

    2016-03-01

    There is an urgent need globally to trigger fundamental societal changes in water management away from existing unsustainable paradigms. This paper attempts to understand the evolution of newspaper coverage of water issues in China by analyzing water-related articles in a major national newspaper, the People's Daily, over the period 1946-2012 using a content analysis approach. The major findings include the following: (1) water issues were in relatively prominent positions in the newspaper; (2) the reporting of water issues in China experienced three stages: 1946 to the middle of 1980s-flood and drought control and water for food production, the middle of 1980s to 1997-water for economic development, and 1998 to the present-water for the environmental sustainability and economic development; (3) the reporting of water issues in the People's Daily clearly reflected China's top-down water resources management system, and no "real" public opinions on water were reported during the study period; and (4) the People's Daily is just a wind vane of Chinese mainstream values and policies on water. The findings supported the realist assumption that the societal value changes on water issues in China were triggered by a range of factors including biophysical pressure (floods and droughts), political campaign (the Cultural Revolution), macro-economic reform (Reform and Opening-up), water institutional arrangement (the Water Law), and water management reform (the No. 1 Central Document on water reform). While there are similarities and differences between this study and other studies, important implications for more sustainable water management are a need to strengthen academic specialists' and NGO's voices in the newspaper to create a better informed public, and to stimulate practices toward sustainable water use. PMID:26446508

  2. Demand-driven water withdrawals by Chinese industry: a multi-regional input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Z. M.; Zeng, L.; Qiao, H.; Chen, B.

    2016-03-01

    With ever increasing water demands and the continuous intensification of water scarcity arising from China's industrialization, the country is struggling to harmonize its industrial development and water supply. This paper presents a systems analysis of water withdrawals by Chinese industry and investigates demand-driven industrial water uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade based on a multi-regional input-output model. In 2007, the Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply sector ranks first in direct industrial water withdrawal (DWW), and Construction has the largest embodied industrial water use (EWU). Investment, consumption, and exports contribute to 34.6%, 33.3%, and 30.6% of the national total EWU, respectively. Specifically, 58.0%, 51.1%, 48.6%, 43.3%, and 37.5% of the regional EWUs respectively in Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Fujian are attributed to international exports. The total interregional import/export of embodied water is equivalent to about 40% of the national total DWW, of which 55.5% is associated with the DWWs of Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply. Jiangsu is the biggest interregional exporter and deficit receiver of embodied water, in contrast to Guangdong as the biggest interregional importer and surplus receiver. Without implementing effective water-saving measures and adjusting industrial structures, the regional imbalance between water availability and water demand tends to intensify considering the water impact of domestic trade of industrial products. Steps taken to improve water use efficiency in production, and to enhance embodied water saving in consumption are both of great significance for supporting China's water policies.

  3. Morelloflavone from Garcinia dulcis as a novel biflavonoid inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Tuansulong, Ku-Aida; Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Pinkaew, Decha; Fujise, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Morelloflavone, a biflavonoid from Garcinia dulcis previously shown to have hypocholesterolemic activity, was examined for its effect on HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. By using the catalytic domain of house mouse HMG-CoA reductase, morelloflavone was found to inhibit the enzyme activity by competing with HMG-CoA whereas it was non-competitive towards NADPH. The inhibition constants (K(i)) with respect to HMG-CoA and NADPH were 80.87 ± 0.06 µm and 103 ± 0.07 µm, respectively. Both flavonoid subunits of this compound, naringenin and luteolin, equally competed with HMG-CoA with K(i) of 83.58 ± 4.37 µm and 83.59 ± 0.94 µm, respectively, and were also non-competitive with NADPH (K(i) of 182 ± 0.67 µm and 188 ± 0.14 µm, respectively). Due to these findings, we suggest that each subunit of morelloflavone would occupy the active site of the enzyme, thereby blocking access of its substrate. The present study thus demonstrates the ability of morelloflavone from G. dulcis to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase in vitro. As a result, this biflavonoid might serve as a new candidate for the future development of hypocholesterolemic agents. PMID:20734327

  4. Enantioselective Synthesis of Various Cyanohydrins Using Covalently Immobilized Preparations of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Prunus dulcis.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2015-11-01

    The carrier-based and carrier-free (cross-linked enzyme aggregate) covalent immobilizations of Prunus dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase were investigated. The immobilized preparations were tested for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation activity in the biphasic medium. Of the tested preparations, only cross-linked enzyme aggregate of P. dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase (PdHNL-CLEA) achieved the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile with 93% yield and 99% enantiopurity. PdHNL-CLEA was also used in the synthesis of various (R)-cyanohydrins from corresponding aldehydes/ketones and hydrocyanic acid. When 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were used as substrates, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were obtained as 95-95, 85-79, and 2-25%, respectively, after 96 h at pH 4.0 and 5 °C. For acetophenone, 4-fluoroacetophenone, 4-chloroacetophenone, 4-bromoacetophenone, and 4-iodoacetophenone, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were 1-99, 20-84, 11-95, 5-99, and 3-24%, respectively at the same conditions. The results demonstrate PdHNL-CLEA can be effectively used in the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile. PMID:26310798

  5. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  6. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  7. KLOSSIELLA DULCIS N. SP. (APICOMPLEXA: KLOSSIELLIDAE) IN THE KIDNEYS OF PETAURUS BREVICEPS (MARSUPIALIA: PETAURIDAE).

    PubMed

    Ardiaca, Maria; Bennett, Mark D; Montesinos, Andres; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Soriano-Navarro, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Two cases of renal klossiellosis were diagnosed by histopathology in pet sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps). In both cases, parasites were associated with tubular dilation and mild interstitial nephritis. Rare schizonts were seen in the proximal convoluted renal tubular epithelium, whereas all other life cycle stages were found within distal convoluted tubule cells or the urinary space of the structures distal to the loop of Henle. Conventional optical and transmission electron microscopies were used to assess the life stages of the parasite. The morphologic characteristics and measurements observed differ from those of previously described species of Klossiella infecting marsupial hosts, and the name Klossiella dulcis n. sp. is hereby proposed. This is the first report of a Klossiella sp. infection in Petaurus breviceps . PMID:27468038

  8. Scoparic acid A, a beta-glucuronidase inhibitor from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kawasaki, M; Okamura, K; Tamada, Y; Morita, N; Tezuka, Y; Kikuchi, T; Miwa, Y; Taga, T

    1992-12-01

    The 70% EtOH extract of Scoparia dulcis showed inhibitory activity against beta-glucuronidase from bovine liver. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active extract led to the isolation of three labdane-type diterpene acids, scoparic acid A [1] [6-benzoyl-12-hydroxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-18-oic acid], scoparic acid B [2] [6-benzoyl-14,15-dinor-13-oxo-8(17)-labden-18-oic acid], and scoparic acid C [3] [6-benzoyl-15-nor-14-oxo-8(17)-labden-18-oic acid], the structures of which were established by spectral means, including X-ray analysis. Scoparic acid A was found to be a potent beta-glucuronidase inhibitor. PMID:1294695

  9. Antimutagenic action of the triterpene betulinic acid isolated from Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    de Freitas, P L; Dias, A C S; Moreira, V R; Monteiro, S G; Pereira, S R F

    2015-01-01

    The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of triterpene betulinic acid {3b-3-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic} isolated from the roots of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae) were analyzed using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in the wings of Drosophila melanogaster. The mutagenic potential of betulinic acid was evaluated at 3 different concentrations (1.64, 3.28, and 6.57 mM). Antimutagenic activity evaluation was performed by co-treatment trials in which the flies received betulinic acid at 3 different concentrations in addition to 10 mM pro-mutagenic urethane. The results demonstrated that betulinic acid was not capable of causing DNA damage. However, the frequency of small single spots, large spots, and twin spots was significantly reduced. In the high bioactivation cross, betulinic acid was significantly active and exerted enhanced antimutagenic activity, possibly as a desmutagen. PMID:26345907

  10. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

  11. Investigation on traditional medicines of Guarany Indio and studies on diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2011-01-01

      In interviews on the traditional herbal medicines of Tupi-Guarany Indians at the herbal market of Asuncion and questionnaire from their users, it was clarified that various useful medicinal plants are available in Paraguay and most of them are generally used without drying. In the search for bioactive substances from those plants, a β-glucuronidase-inhibitory diterpene called scoparic acid A (SA) was isolated from Scoparia dulcis L. together with scoparic acid B, scoparic acid C, and the aphidicolin-like tetracyclic diterpenes scopadulcic acid A (SDA) and scopadulcic acid B (SDB). HPLC analysis of diterpenes in the individual plants of Paraguayan and Asian S. dulcis revealed the presence of three chemotypes based on major component, i.e., SA type, SDB type, and SDX type containing mainly scopadiol and scopadulciol (SDC). SA and SDB were elucidated to be mainly biosynthesized in the leaves via 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol- 4-phosphate pathway, and a leaf organ culture system containing methyl jasmonate 10 µM was found to enhance the production of diterpenes by activation of Ca-signal transduction systems such as calmodulin and protein kinase C. On the other hand, SDB and SDC were found to show multifaceted pharmacological effects such as inhibitory effects on gastric acid excretion, bone resorption, replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), etc. In addition, SDC was suggested to be applicable to cancer gene therapy using ganciclovir or acyclovir and the HSV-1 thymidine kinase gene called the suicide gene. PMID:21881299

  12. Isolation, purification and identification of etiolation substrate from fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong-Gui; Li, Yi-Xiao; Yuan, Meng-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Fresh cut Chinese water-chestnut is a popular ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit in China. However, it is prone to etiolation and the chemicals responsible for this process are not known yet. To address this problem, we extracted phytochemicals from etiolated Chinese water-chestnut and separated them using MPLC and column chromatography. Four compounds were obtained and their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, TLC, HPLC and NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. We identified these compounds as eriodictyol, naringenin, sucrose and ethyl D-glucoside. Among those, eriodictyol and naringenin were both isolated for the first time in fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut and are responsible for the yellowing of this fruit cutting. PMID:25976800

  13. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    SciTech Connect

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  14. Selective enhancement of scopadulcic acid B production in the cultured tissues of Scoparia dulcis by methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Nkembo, Kasidimoko Marguerite; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2005-07-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on isoprenoid production were evaluated in cultured tissues of Scoparia dulcis. It was found that MeJA suppressed the accumulation of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phytol and beta-sitosterol in the tissues. MeJA, however, remarkably enhanced the production of scopadulcic acid B (SDB), with 10 microM being optimal observed concentration for stimulation of SDB production. The maximum concentration of SDB was observed 6 d after MeJA treatment. PMID:15997134

  15. In vivo inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mesía-Vela, Sonia; Bielavsky, Monica; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Freire, Sonia Maria; Lima-Landman, Maria Teresa R; Souccar, Caden; Lapa, Antonio José

    2007-05-01

    The freeze-dried aqueous extract (AE) from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis was tested for its effects on experimental gastric hypersecretion and ulcer in rodents. Administration of AE to animals with 4h pylorus ligature potently reduced the gastric secretion with ED(50)s of 195 mg/kg (rats) and 306 mg/kg (mice). The AE also inhibited the histamine- or bethanechol-stimulated gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated mice with similar potency suggesting inhibition of the proton pump. Bio-guided purification of the AE yielded a flavonoid-rich fraction (BuF), with a specific activity 4-8 times higher than the AE in the pylorus ligature model. BuF also inhibited the hydrolysis of ATP by H(+),K(+)-ATPase with an IC(50) of 500 microg/ml, indicating that the inhibition of gastric acid secretion of Scoparia dulcis is related to the inhibition of the proton pump. Furthermore, the AE inhibited the establishment of acute gastric lesions induced in rats by indomethacin (ED(50)=313 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethanol (ED(50)=490 mg/kg, p.o.). No influence of the AE on gastrointestinal transit allowed discarding a possible CNS or a cholinergic interaction in the inhibition of gastric secretion by the AE. Collectively, the present data pharmacologically validates the popular use of Scoparia dulcis in gastric disturbances. PMID:17300892

  16. Bioactive Components of Chinese Propolis Water Extract on Antitumor Activity and Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Hongzhuan; Wang, Yuehua; Li, Aifeng; Fu, Chongluo; Wang, Yuanjun; Peng, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    To understand the material basis of antitumor activity of Chinese propolis water extract (CPWE), we developed a simple and efficient method using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography and separated and purified eleven chemical components (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin, and galangin) from CPWE; then we tested the antitumor activities of these eleven components using different human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and A549). Furthermore, cell migration, procaspase 3 level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of effective components from CPWE were investigated. Our data showed that antitumor activities of the eleven components from CPWE were different from each other. CPWE and its effective components induced apoptosis by inhibiting tumor cell migration, activating caspase 3, and promoting ROS production. It can be deduced that the antitumor effects of propolis did not depend on a single component, and there must exist "bioactive components," which also provides a new idea for Chinese propolis quality control. PMID:27123037

  17. Bioactive Components of Chinese Propolis Water Extract on Antitumor Activity and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Hongzhuan; Wang, Yuehua; Li, Aifeng; Fu, Chongluo; Wang, Yuanjun; Peng, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    To understand the material basis of antitumor activity of Chinese propolis water extract (CPWE), we developed a simple and efficient method using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography and separated and purified eleven chemical components (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin, and galangin) from CPWE; then we tested the antitumor activities of these eleven components using different human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and A549). Furthermore, cell migration, procaspase 3 level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of effective components from CPWE were investigated. Our data showed that antitumor activities of the eleven components from CPWE were different from each other. CPWE and its effective components induced apoptosis by inhibiting tumor cell migration, activating caspase 3, and promoting ROS production. It can be deduced that the antitumor effects of propolis did not depend on a single component, and there must exist “bioactive components,” which also provides a new idea for Chinese propolis quality control. PMID:27123037

  18. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Tulasi, Ratna; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao

    2016-01-01

    Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:27005663

  19. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Tulasi, Ratna; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao

    2016-01-01

    Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:27005663

  20. Prevention of enzymatic browning of Chinese yam (Dioscorea spp.) using electrolyzed oxidizing water.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guo-Liang; Shi, Jing-Ying; Song, Zhan-Hua; Li, Fa-De

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) on the prevention of enzymatic browning of fresh-cut "Jiu Jinhuang" Chinese yam were investigated. The yams were immersed in the inhibitors for 25 min at 20 °C. Compared with the tap water (TW) treatment, the chromatic attributes were significantly different after 72 h of storage (P < 0.05). The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.3.1), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), and L -phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) were inhibited when measured at 24 h. The contents of phenolic acids, including gallic and chlorogenic acid, in the group treated with the slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) were higher than those treated with TW and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). The group treated with NEW had the highest total phenol content (P < 0.05, at 24 h), while the group treated with SAEW had the highest flavonoid content (P < 0.05) during storage. Without being treated with inhibitors, the Km and Vmax values of yam PPO were 0.0044 mol/L and 0.02627 U/min, respectively, and the Ki of samples treated with SAEW and citric acid (CA) were 15.6607 and 2.3969 μmol/L, respectively. These results indicate that EOW is beneficial as a browning inhibitor. PMID:25736015

  1. Identification of major phenolic compounds of Chinese water chestnut and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    You, Yanli; Duan, Xuewu; Wei, Xiaoyi; Su, Xinguo; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Jian; Ruenroengklin, Neungnapa; Jiang, Yueming

    2007-01-01

    Chinese water chestnut (CWC) is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate and (+)-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions. PMID:17851436

  2. First record of red filament threadfin bream, Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830) (Perciformes, Nemipteridae), from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ping; Wu, Renxie; Liu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    We collected five specimens of threadfin bream from Beihai, Guangxi, China in March 2010. These were subsequently identified as red filament threadfin bream Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830), being the first record of this species from Chinese waters. N. marginatus is distinguished by the following characteristics: lower border of eye lies above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; mouth oblique, maxillary extending to lower anterior border of pupil; teeth in jaws in several rows, pointed; upper jaw with 3 to 5 pairs of small recurved canines; suborbital with straight lower edge and rounded posterior edge; pectoral fins extending to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pelvic fins reaching to the first or second anal rays; caudal fin forked, upper lobe tails into a short reddish filament; dorsal fin bluish with a yellow margin distally and a broad yellow median band which subdivides posteriorly into 3 small bands.

  3. Effect of water content on strontium retardation factor and distribution coefficient in Chinese loess.

    PubMed

    Huo, Lijuan; Qian, Tianwei; Hao, Junting; Liu, Hongfang; Zhao, Dongye

    2013-12-01

    Geological burial and landfill are often employed for disposal of nuclear wastes. Typically, radionuclides from nuclear facilities transport through the unsaturated zone before reaching the groundwater aquifer. However, transport studies are often conducted under saturated and steady-state flow conditions. This research aimed to examine the effects of unsaturated flow conditions and soil water content (θ) on Sr sorption and retardation in Chinese loess through 1D column transport experiments. Reagent SrCl2 was used as a surrogate for the radioactive isotope ((90)Sr) in the experiment because of their analogous adsorption and transportation characteristics. The spatial distribution of Sr along the column length was determined by segmenting the soil bed and analysing the Sr content in each soil segment following each column breakthrough test. The single-region (SR) and two-region (TR) models were employed to interpret the transport data of Sr as well as a tracer (Br(-)), which resulted in the dispersion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (Rd) under a given set of unsaturated flow conditions. For the tracer, the SR and TR models offered nearly the same goodness of fitting to the breakthrough curves (R(2) ≈ 0.97 for both models). For the highly sorptive Sr, however, the TR model provided better fitting (R(2), 0.80-0.96) to the Sr retention profiles than the SR model (R(2), 0.20-0.89). The Sr retention curves exhibited physical non-equilibrium characteristics, particularly at lower water content of the soil. For the unsaturated soil, D and the pore water velocity (v) displayed a weak linear correlation, which is attributed to the altering dispersivity as the water content varies. A much improved linear correlation was observed between D and v/θ. The retardation factor of Sr increased from 69.1 to 174.2 as θ decreased from 0.46 to 0.26 (cm(3) cm(-3)), while the distribution coefficient (Kd) based on Rd remained nearly unchanged at various θ levels. These

  4. Effect of scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed) plant extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Latha, M

    2004-07-01

    Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plants in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Scoparia dulcis plant extract is tried for prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by streptozotocin injection. A single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight) produced decrease in insulin, hyperglycemia, increased lipid peroxidation (Thiobarbituric reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides) and decreased antioxidant levels (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, ceruloplasmin). Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant (200 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks to diabetic rats significantly increased the plasma insulin and plasma antioxidants and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. The effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extract at 200 mg/kg body weight was better than that of glibenclamide, a reference drug. PMID:15296095

  5. Cloning and characterization of Sdga gene encoding alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein complex in Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Shite, Masato; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2008-11-01

    A homology-based cloning strategy yielded Sdga, a cDNA clone presumably encoding alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein complex, from leaf tissues of Scoparia dulcis. Phylogenetic tree analysis of G-protein alpha-subunits from various biological sources suggested that, unlike in animal cells, classification of Galpha-proteins into specific subfamilies could not be applicable to the proteins from higher plants. Restriction digests of genomic DNA of S. dulcis showed a single hybridized signal in Southern blot analysis, suggesting that Sdga is a sole gene encoding Galpha-subunit in this plant. The expression level of Sdga appeared to be maintained at almost constant level after exposure of the leaves to methyl jasmonate as analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that Sdga plays roles in methyl jasmonate-induced responses of S. dulcis without a notable change in the transcriptional level. PMID:18981590

  6. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature. PMID:26320359

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic characteristics of phytotoxicity caused by fluoride on Spondias dulcis Forst. F. (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna-Santos, Bruno F; Azevedo, Aristéa A; Silva, Luzimar C; Oliva, Marco A

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the symptoms and microscopic damage caused by fluoride on Spondias dulcis, a fluoride-sensitive species. The plants were exposed to simulated fog with fluoride (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1)) for 20 min daily during four consecutive days. Samples from leaflets without any apparent fluoride injury were collected to microscopic analysis. The percentage of necrosed leaf area was measured, and the level of pollutant in the dry matter from the basal and apical portions of the plant was determined. The necroses began 24 h after the first simulation mainly from the base of the leaflets. A higher level of necrosis was observed at the apical portion of the plants, a region of higher fluoride accumulation. The damage on the surface of the leaflets was characterized as plasmolysis, erosion of the epicuticular waxes and epidermal rupture. Structurally, the noticeable accumulation of granules and droplets green stained by toluidine blue in the spongy parenchima and the boundaries of ending veinlets was observed. The limb thickness reduction occurred due to plasmolysis in the mesophyll, showing an apparent correlation with the damage observed on the surface. The parameters observed in the laboratory are promising for field biomonitoring studies. PMID:22832541

  8. Anatomy, Ultrastructure and Chemical Composition of Food Bodies of Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Rafael Andrade; de Oliveira, Alaíde Braga; Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Food bodies (FBs) are structures that promote mutualism between plants and ants, which help protect them against herbivores. The present study aims to describe the anatomical organization, ultrastructure and chemical composition of the FBs in Hovenia dulcis, which represent the first structures of this type described in Rhamnaceae. Methods Leaves in various stages of development were collected and fixed for examination under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Samples of FBs were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance of 1H and 13C. Key Results The FBs vary from globose to conical and are restricted to the abaxial leaf surface, having a mixed origin, including epidermis and parenchyma. The FB epidermis is uniseriate, slightly pilose and has a thin cuticle. The epidermal cells are vacuolated and pigments or food reserves are absent. The parenchyma cells of immature FBs have dense cytoplasm showing mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and plastids. Mature FB cells store oils, which are free in the cytosol and occupy a large portion of the cell lumen. In these cells the plastids accumulate starch. Conclusions The lipids present in FBs are glycerin esters characteristic of plant energy reserves. Ants were observed collecting these FBs, which allows us to infer that these structures mediate plant–ant interactions and can help protect the young plants against herbivores, as these structures are prevalent at this developmental stage. PMID:18413656

  9. Enhanced accumulation of atropine in Atropa belladonna transformed by Rac GTPase gene isolated from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kyouhei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2013-12-01

    Leaf tissues of Atropa belladonna were transformed by Sdrac2, a Rac GTPase gene, that is isolated from Scoparia dulcis, and the change in atropine concentration of the transformants was examined. Re-differentiated A. belladonna overexpressing Sdrac2 accumulated considerable concentration of atropine in the leaf tissues, whereas the leaves of plants transformed by an empty vector accumulated only a very low concentration of the compound. A. belladonna transformed by CASdrac2, a modified Sdrac2 of which translate was expected to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP) permanently, accumulated very high concentrations of atropine (approximately 2.4-fold excess to those found in the wild-type plant in its natural habitat). In sharp contrast, the atropine concentration in transformed A. belladonna prepared with negatively modified Sdrac2, DNSdrac2, expected to bind guanosine diphosphate instead of GTP, was very low. These results suggested that Rac GTPases play an important role in the regulation of secondary metabolism in plant cells and that overexpression of the gene(s) may be capable of enhancing the production of natural products accumulated in higher plant cells. PMID:23852262

  10. Bioactive diterpenoids and flavonoids from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Yang, Qi-Ming; Hu, Hai-Jun; Yang, Li; Yang, Ying-Bo; Chou, Gui-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2014-07-25

    Six new diterpenoids, 4-epi-7α-O-acetylscoparic acid A (1), 7α-hydroxyscopadiol (2), 7α-O-acetyl-8,17β-epoxyscoparic acid A (3), neo-dulcinol (4), dulcinodal-13-one (5), and 4-epi-7α-hydroxydulcinodal-13-one (6), and a new flavonoid, dillenetin 3-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), along with 12 known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis. The 7S absolute configuration of the new diterpenoids 1-4 and 6 was deduced by comparing their NOESY spectra with that of a known compound, (7S)-4-epi-7-hydroxyscoparic acid A (7), which was determined by the modified Mosher's method. The flavonoids scutellarein (11), hispidulin (12), apigenin (15), and luteolin (16) and the terpenoids 4-epi-scopadulcic acid B (9) and betulinic acid (19) showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (with IC50 values in the range 13.7-132.5 μM) than the positive control, acarbose. In addition, compounds 1, 11, 12, 15, 16, and acerosin (17) exhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonistic activity, with EC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 24.9 μM. PMID:24955889

  11. Scoparia dulcis, a traditional antidiabetic plant, protects against streptozotocin induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Latha, Muniappan; Pari, Leelavinothan; Sitasawad, Sandhya; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The experiments were performed on normal and experimental male Wistar rats treated with Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt). The effect of SPEt was tested on streptozotocin (STZ) treated Rat insulinoma cell lines (RINm5F cells) and isolated islets in vitro. Administration of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis by intragastric intubation (po) at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased the blood glucose and lipid peroxidative marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, pancreatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in streptozotocin diabetic rats at the end of 15 days treatment. Streptozotocin at a dose of 10 mug/mL evoked 6-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from isolated islets indicating its insulin secretagogue activity. The extract markedly reduced the STZ-induced lipidperoxidation in RINm5F cells. Further, SPEt protected STZ-mediated cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production in RINm5F cells. Treatment of RINm5F cells with 5 mM STZ and 10 mug of SPEt completely abrogated apoptosis induced by STZ, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. Flow cytometric assessment on the level of intracellular peroxides using fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) confirmed that STZ (46%) induced an intracellular oxidative stress in RINm5F cells, which was suppressed by SPEt (21%). In addition, SPEt also reduced (33%) the STZ-induced apoptosis (72%) in RINm5F cells indicating the mode of protection of SPEt on RIN m5Fcells, islets, and pancreatic beta-cell mass (histopathological observations). Present study thus confirms antihyperglycemic effect of SPEt and also demonstrated the consistently strong antioxidant properties of Scoparia dulcis used in the traditional medicine. PMID:15549711

  12. In vitro and in vivo study of the clastogenicity of the flavone cirsitakaoside extracted from Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Pereira-Martins, S R; Takahashi, C S; Tavares, D C; Torres, L M

    1998-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of the flavone cirsitakaoside extracted from the medicinal herb Scoparia dulcis was evaluated in vitro by using human peripheral blood cultures treated with doses of 5, 10, and 15 microg of the flavone/ml culture medium for 48 h. The compound proved to be mutagenic at the highest concentration tested (15 microg/ml). Furthermore, the proliferative index was significantly reduced in all cultures treated with the flavone, although the mitotic index was not reduced. However, the clastogenic activity of the flavone cirsitakaoside was not observed when Swiss mice were treated orally with doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/animal for 24 h. PMID:10052564

  13. [Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut tissues in relation to hydrogen peroxide accumulation].

    PubMed

    Peng, Li-Tao; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi

    2005-10-01

    Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues in relation to active oxygen species (AOS) metabolism was investigated. Fresh-cut CWC (2 mm thick) and intact CWC were stored at 4 degrees C in trays wrapped with plastic films. Changes in superoxide anion production rate, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were monitored, while contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid, MDA as well as electrolyte leakage were measured. Fresh-cutting of CWC induced activities of SOD, CAT and APX to a certain extent (Fig. 2B and Fig. 3), but simultaneously stimulated superoxide anion production markedly (Fig. 2A), enhanced hydrogen peroxide accumulation and accelerated loss in ascorbic acid (Figs. 4 and 5), which resulted in increased lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage (Fig. 1). Statistics analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation among hydrogen peroxide accumulation, MDA content and electrolyte leakage (Table 1). Histochemical detection with 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine further demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide accumulation increased in fresh-cut CWC during storage (Fig. 5). AOS production rate and activities of SOD, CAT and APX changed little while no obvious hydrogen peroxide accumulation was observed, in intact CWC during storage. PMID:16222096

  14. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of Luidia (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) from Chinese waters with cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ning; Liu, Ruiyu; Yuan, Shuai; Sha, Zhongli

    2013-09-01

    Luidia Forbes (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) are common soft bottom sea stars with 49 described species. Because of substantial morphological diversity, the taxonomy of the genus is complex and hasn't been resolved definitely. In order to resolve general taxonomic issues, and determine species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Luidia, the sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 24 specimens of Luidia, belonging to eight taxa in Chinese waters, were studied. Three sequences of two species in genus Luidia from GenBank were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships. The molecular phylogeny exhibited three main clades, each with strong bootstrap support: Clade A including Luidia quinaria from the Sea of Japan; Clade B including seven nominal species ( L. quinaria von Martens, L. yesoensis Goto, L. changi Liu, Liao and Li, L. orientalis Fisher, L. avicularia Fisher, L. longispina Sladen and L. hardwicki Gray) from Chinese waters; and Clade C including L. maculata Müller & Troschel from Chinese waters. Our molecular phylogeny results support the morphological Quinaria-Group and Alternata-Group assigned by Döderlein. Seven nominal species we sampled do not exhibit genetic distances that are large enough to recognize them as separate species. Cryptic species may exist in' Luidia quinaria' from the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Meaningful morphological characters need further investigation in Luidia.

  15. Wintercuring of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid in response to Xylella fastidiosa infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clonal replicates of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid P 63-61 were inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa strain M23 and evaluated for Almond Leaf Scorch Disease and subsequent wintercuring of infections during three growing seasons. Initial inoculations established gr...

  16. An in situ, seasonal study of volatiles from a single cultivar of Prunus dulcis, and their relationship to navel orangeworm moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis, account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central and San Joaquin valleys of California. Several studies have investigated the various non-volatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC)...

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of (+)-epi-α-bisabolol synthase, catalyzing the first step in the biosynthesis of the natural sweetener, hernandulcin, in Lippia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Attia, Mohamed; Kim, Soo-Un; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2012-11-01

    Hernandulcin, a C15 sesquiterpene ketone, is a natural sweetener isolated from the leaves of Lippia dulcis. It is a promising sugar substitute due to its safety and low caloric potential. However, the biosynthesis of hernandulcin in L. dulcis remains unknown. The first biochemical step of hernandulcin is the synthesis of (+)-epi-α-bisabolol from farnesyl diphosphate, which is presumed to be catalyzed by a unique sesquiterpene synthase in L. dulcis. In order to decipher hernandulcin biosynthesis, deep transcript sequencings (454 and Illumina) were performed, which facilitated the molecular cloning of five new sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs from L. dulcis. In vivo activity evaluation of these cDNAs in yeast identified them as the sesquiterpene synthases for α-copaene/δ-cadinene, bicyclogermacrene, β-caryophyllene, trans-α-bergamotene, and α-bisabolol. The engineered yeast could synthesize a significant amount (~0.3 mg per mL) of α-bisabolol in shake-flask cultivation. This efficient in vivo production was congruent with the competent kinetic properties of recombinant α-bisabolol synthase (K(m) 4.8 μM and k(cat) 0.04 s(-1)). Detailed chemical analyses of the biosynthesized α-bisabolol confirmed its configuration to be (+)-epi-α-bisabolol, the core skeleton of hernandulcin. These results demonstrated that enzymatic, stereoselective synthesis of (+)-epi-α-bisabolol can be achieved, promising the heterologous production of a natural sweetener, hernandulcin. PMID:22867794

  18. Cloning and characterization of a gene encoding Rac/Rop-like monomeric guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Toshiaki; Shite, Masato; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2009-06-01

    A cDNA clone, designated Sd-racrop (969 bp), was isolated from seedlings of Scoparia dulcis. This gene contains an open reading frame encoding the protein of 197 amino acid residues with high homology to Rac/Rop small guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding proteins from various plant sources. In Southern hybridization analysis, the restriction digests prepared from genomic DNA of S. dulcis showed a main signal together with a few weakly hybridized bands. The transcriptional level of Sd-racrop showed a transient decrease by exposure of the leaf tissues of S. dulcis to the ethylene-generating reagent 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid. However, an appreciable increase in gene expression was reproducibly observed upon treatment of the plant with methyl jasmonate. These results suggest that the Sd-racrop product plays roles in ethylene- and methyl jasmonate-induced responses of S. dulcis accompanying the change in the transcriptional level, however, the cellular events mediated by this protein toward these external stimuli would be regulated by various mechanisms. PMID:19483328

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of Scoparia dulcis on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective activity and active constituents of the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis (SDE). The hepatoprotective effect of SDE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) was evaluated on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury. The active constituents were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mice pretreated orally with SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) for five consecutive days before the administering of a single dose of 0.2% CCl(4) (10 ml/kg of bw, ip) showed a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Histological analyses also showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by CCl(4), including vacuole formation, neutrophil infiltration and necrosis. Moreover, SDE decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and elevated the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver as compared to those in the CCl(4) group. Furthermore, SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The quantities of active constituents in SDE were about 3.1 mg luteolin/g extract and 1.1 mg apigenin/g extract. The hepatoprotective mechanisms of SDE were likely associated to the decrease in MDA level and increase in GSH level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx, GRd and GST. These results demonstrated that SDE could alleviate CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury in mice. PMID:20626061

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and betulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study intended to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the 70% ethanol extract from Scoparia dulcis (SDE) and betulinic acid on λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of SDE and betulinic acid was examined by detecting the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the edema paw tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. The betulinic acid content in SDE was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the anti-inflammatory model, the results showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and betulinic acid (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4 and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, SDE and betulinic acid affected the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws. The activities of SOD, GPx and GRd in the liver tissue were increased and the MDA levels in the edema paws were decreased. It is suggested that SDE and betulinic acid possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms appear to be related to the reduction of the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in inflamed tissues, as well as the inhibition of MDA level via increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRd. The analytical result showed that the content of betulinic acid in SDE was 6.25 mg/g extract. PMID:21905284

  1. Benzoxazinoids from Scoparia dulcis (sweet broomweed) with antiproliferative activity against the DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wan-Hsun; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Lu, Rui-Wen; Chen, Shui-Tein; Chang, Chia-Chuan

    2012-11-01

    Sweet broomweed (Scoparia dulcis) is an edible perennial medicinal herb widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Four compounds, (2R)-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one 2-O-β-galactopyranoside [(2R)-HMBOA-2-O-Gal], 3,6-dimethoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (3,6-M2BOA), 3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (3-OH-MBOA), and scutellarein 7-O-β-glucuronamide, along with eight known compounds, including two 7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(2H)-one 3-O-hexopyranosides [(2R)-HMBOA-2-O-Glc and (2R)-HDMBOA-2-O-Glc], 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA), acteoside, sodium scutellarin, p-coumaric acid, and two monosaccharides (fructose and glucose), were isolated from the aqueous extract of S. dulcis. Antiproliferative activities of the six benzoxazinoid compounds against the DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line were assayed, and one of these displayed an IC₅₀ of 65.8 μg/mL. PMID:22944352

  2. Contribution of chlorination to the mutagenic activity of drinking water extracts in Salmonella and Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Lebel, G.

    1986-11-01

    The production of chlorinated by-products through chlorine disinfection of drinking water has been well documented. Natural organic precursors for these chemicals include fulvic and humic acids, the chlorination of which leads to the production of mutagenic compounds. Comparisons of extracts of raw versus treated waters have confirmed that clorination during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the Salmonella (Ames) test. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw and chlorinated water from six municipalities in the Great Lakes region of Canada has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and the micronucleus (MN) induction in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. All extracts of treated (chlorinated), but none of untreated, water were mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of both treated and untreated water samples showed activity in the SCE and MN assays, but no consistent pattern of response with regard to treatment (chlorination) was evident. These data show that chlorination contributes mutagens to drinking water and suggest that mammalian in vitro assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in water samples than the Salmonella test.

  3. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Lei; Johnson, David; Gao, Yong; Mandal, Prashant; Fang, Min; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1) critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2) active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption) decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4) with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism) began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species. PMID:24714585

  4. Scopadulciol, an inhibitor of gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase from Scoparia dulcis, and its structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Asano, S; Mizutani, M; Takeguchi, N; Kojima, T; Okamura, K; Morita, N

    1991-01-01

    A new tetracyclic diterpenoid, scopadulciol [3], together with 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone, glutinol, and acacetin, was isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of Scoparia dulcis collected in Taiwan. Its structure was elucidated to be 6 beta-benzoyl-12-methyl-13-oxo-9(12)a,9(12)b-dihomo-18-podocarpanol on the basis of spectral data. It mildly inhibited hog gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase. Examination of the inhibitory activities of derivatives of scopadulcic acid B [2], including 3, revealed that methylation of the carboxyl group and introduction of an acetyl group or oxime at C-13 or C-18 markedly enhanced the inhibitory activity, while debenzoylation reduced the activity. Among the 30 compounds tested, compound 12, a methyl ester of scopadulcic acid B [2], showed the most potent activity. PMID:1659612

  5. Alteration in Memory and Electroencephalogram Waves with Sub-acute Noise Stress in Albino Rats and Safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Sundareswaran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG) has not yet been reported. Objective: To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Materials and Methods: Eight-arm maze (EAM) and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. Results: The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. Conclusion: These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress. SUMMARY Noise stress exposure causes EEG, behavior, and neurotransmitter alteration in the frontoparietal and occipital regions mainly involved in planning and recognition memoryOnly the noise stress exposed animals showed the significant alteration in the EEG, behavior, and neurotransmittersHowever, these noise stress induced changes in EEG behavior and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extractThese changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia dulcis (adoptogen) on

  6. MODIS-based retrieval of suspended sediment concentration and diffuse attenuation coefficient in Chinese estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoletsky, Leonid; Yang, Xianping; Shen, Fang

    2014-11-01

    Radiative transfer modelling in atmosphere, water, and on the air-water surface was used to create an algorithm and computer code for satellite monitoring Chinese estuarine and coastal waters. The atmospheric part of the algorithm is based on the Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance (REST) model for calculation of optical properties of the atmosphere from the top of the atmosphere to the target; for modelling optical properties from target towards satellite's sensor, an optical reciprocity principle has been used. An algorithm uses estimates derived from three different sources: 1) the MODIS-based software; 2) radiative transfer equations, and 3) well-known empirical relationships between measured parameters and optical depths and transmittances for such atmospheric components as molecules, aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, precipitable water vapor and uniformly mixed gases. Using this model allowed us to derive a reliable relationship relating an important parameter, the diffuse-to-global solar incoming irradiance ratio, to the aerosol optical thickness, solar zenith angle and wavelength. The surface and underwater parts of the algorithm contained theoretical and semi-empirical relationships between inherent (such as absorption, scattering and backscattering coefficients) and apparent (remote-sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd) optical properties, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measured in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area. The first false colour maps of SSC and Kd demonstrated a well accordance with the multi-year field observations in the region, and suggest promise for use of this algorithm for the regular monitoring of Chinese and worldwide natural waters.

  7. Modification and translocation of Rac/Rop guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding proteins of Scoparia dulcis in response to stimulation with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Toshiaki; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2011-01-01

    Translocation of two Rac/Rop guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding proteins from Scoparia dulcis, Sdrac-1 and Sdrac-2, was examined employing transformed belladonna which overproduces these proteins as glutathione-S-transferase-tagged forms. The transferase activities of the fused proteins in microsomal fraction of belladonna markedly increased by the incubation with methyl jasmonate either in Sdrac-1 or Sdrac-2 transformant, while low and constant activities were observed in the untreated control. Recombinant Sdrac-2 protein was found to bind to prenyl chain in the presence of cell extracts prepared from methyl jasmonate-treated S. dulcis, however, Sdrac-1 was palmitoylated by the addition of the cell extracts. These results suggest that both Sdrac-1 and Sdrac-2 translocate to plant membranes by the stimulation with methyl jasmonate, however, targeting of these proteins is triggered by the independent modification mechanisms, palmitoylation for Sdrac-1 and prenylation for Sdrac-2. PMID:21628882

  8. Preparative separation of polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Cui, Jichun

    2016-02-15

    In this study, a preparative separation method was developed for isolation of eleven polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin (MAR) coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis was first "prefractioned" using MAR, which yielded four subfractions. The four subfractions were then isolated by PHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, eleven polyphenols were purified from Chinese propolis including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. The method developed was simple, effective, rapid, scalable and economical, and it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of multiple components from natural products. PMID:26807704

  9. The carbonic anhydrase of the Chinese crab Eriocheir sinensis: Effects of adaption from tap to salt water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsowski, A.; Putzenlechner, M.; Böttcher, K.; Graszynski, K.

    1995-03-01

    In the present investigation we studied the carbonic anhydrase (CA) in various tissues of Chinese crab Eriocheir sinensis which were acclimated to different salinities (0, 10, 20, 30‰). We found only negligible CA activity in haemolymph, heart, hypodermis, antennal gland, leg muscle and digestive gland, irrespective of the acclimation medium. However, high amounts of CA activity were found in the gills. In the case of the posterior gills, a strong dependence on the acclimatization of the animals was demonstrated; the highest activities were found in those adapted to tap water. To investigate the cellular distribution of the CA in the posterior gills, the additional enzyme activities were measured in all fractions of a differential centrifugation of the gill homogenate: Na+/K+-ATP'ase (a marker for the plasmamembrane); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; as marker for the cytosol); and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; as marker for mitochondria). Independent of the acclimation salinity (0 or 36‰ salinity), we found about 70% of CA associated with the highest level of the Na+/K+-ATP'ase in the second 100 000 g pellet (membrane fraction), while only 15% were found in the cytosolic fractions (associated with highest levels of LDH). We conclude that the carbonic anhydrase of posterior gills of the Chinese crab is mainly membrane-bound. Furthermore, the activity of CA shows a strong dependence on the salinity of the water in which the crabs were kept.

  10. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter of black waters in a highly eutrophic Chinese lake: Freshly produced from algal scums?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Niu, Cheng; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-15

    Field campaigns and an incubation experiment were conducted to evaluate the sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in black water spots in highly polluted regions of the Chinese Lake Taihu. A significant positive correlation (p<0.0001) was found between chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and the CDOM absorption coefficient a(350), indicating that algae degradation was likely the primary source of CDOM in black waters. This is supported by our field results that Chl-a, a(350) and the spectral slope ratio (SR) were significantly higher in the black water samples than in the regular samples (p<0.001). Our incubation experiment further substantiated the primary significance of biological CDOM source where a(350) increased with decreasing Chl-a concentrations. After seven days' incubation, a 72.2% decrease and a 74.9% increase were recorded for Chl-a and a(350), respectively, relative to the initial values. Parallel factor analysis identified five fluorescent components. The maximal fluorescence intensity (Fmax) of tryptophan-like C1 and microbial humic-like C3 of black water samples was significantly higher than in the regular water samples (p<0.0005). This is consistent with incubation experiment results showing a rapid increase in Fmax of the two components, emphasizing the priority of the in situ biological CDOM source in black water spots. PMID:26125526

  11. 13C MAS NMR studies of the effects of hydration on the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Tang, H; Belton, P S; Ng, A; Ryden, P

    1999-02-01

    13C NMR with magic angle spinning (MAS) has been employed to investigate the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts over a range of hydration levels. Both single-pulse excitation (SPEMAS) and cross-polarization (CPMAS) experiments were carried out. Hydration led to a substantial increase in signal intensities of galactan and galacturonan in the SPEMAS spectra and a decrease in line width, implying mobilization in the backbone and side chains of pectin. In CPMAS spectra of both samples, noncellulose components showed signal loss as hydration increased. However, the signals of some galacturonan in the 3(1) helix configuration remained in the spectra even when the water content was as high as 110%. Cellulose was unaffected. It is concluded that the pectic polysaccharides experience a distribution of molecular conformations and mobility, whereas cellulose remained as typical rigid solid. PMID:10563925

  12. Water-saving techniques in Chinese agriculture: water-saving irrigation and straw mulching for winter wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guoqiang; Zhu, Zixi; Zheng, Youfei; Fang, Wensong

    2004-01-01

    Based on the relationship between water balance and crop-water, water-saving irrigation model was integrated with monitoring and prediction of soil moisture, forming a system of decision-making of irrigation. It is demonstrated that straw mulching for winter wheat is an effective way to reduce soil evaporation at early stages and increase yield and improve water utilization efficiency. Combination of water-saving irrigation and straw mulching plays an important role in China water-saving agriculture.

  13. Transcriptional activation of a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene, GGPPS2, isolated from Scoparia dulcis by treatment with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Y; Mizuguchi, Y; Taura, F; Kurosaki, F

    2014-10-01

    A cDNA clone, designated SdGGPPS2, was isolated from young seedlings of Scoparia dulcis. The putative amino acid sequence of the translate of the gene showed high homology with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) from various plant sources, and the N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. An appreciable increase in the transcriptional level of SdGGPPS2 was observed by exposure of the leaf tissues of S. dulcis to methyl jasmonate, yeast extract or Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. In contrast, SdGGPPS1, a homologous GGPPS gene of the plant, showed no or only negligible change in the expression level upon treatment with these stimuli. The truncated protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli in which the putative targeting domain was deleted catalyzed the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to liberate geranylgeranyl diphosphate. These results suggested that SdGGPPS2 plays physiological roles in methyl jasmonate and yeast extract-induced metabolism in the chloroplast of S. dulcis cells. PMID:25027024

  14. Effects of total dissolved gas supersaturated water on lethality and catalase activity of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker)*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi-chao; Liu, Xiao-qing; Jiang, Wen; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Shen, Dan-zhou; Gong, Quan

    2012-01-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation caused by dam sluicing can result in gas bubble trauma (GBT) in fish and threaten their survival. In the present study, Chinese suckers (Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker) were exposed to TDG supersaturated water at levels ranging from 120% to 145% for 48 h. The median lethal concentration (LC50) and the median lethal time (LT50) were determined to evaluate acute lethal effects on Chinese suckers. The results showed that the LC50 values of 4, 6, 8, and 10 h were 142%, 137%, 135%, and 130%, respectively. The LT50 values were 3.2, 4.7, 7.8, 9.2, and 43.4 h, respectively, when TDG supersaturated levels were 145%, 140%, 135%, 130%, and 125%. Furthermore, the biological responses in Chinese suckers were studied by assaying the catalase (CAT) activities in gills and muscles at the supersaturation level of 140% within LT50. The CAT activities in the gills and muscle tissues exhibited a regularity of a decrease after an increase. CAT activities in the muscles were increased significantly at 3/5LT50 (P<0.05) and then came back to the normal level. However, there were no significant differences between the treatment group (TDG level of 140%) and the control group (TDG level of 100%) on CAT activities in the gills before 3/5LT50 (P>0.05), but the activities were significantly lower than the normal level at 4/5LT50 and LT50 (P<0.05). PMID:23024046

  15. Effects of total dissolved gas supersaturated water on lethality and catalase activity of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-chao; Liu, Xiao-qing; Jiang, Wen; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Shen, Dan-zhou; Gong, Quan

    2012-10-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation caused by dam sluicing can result in gas bubble trauma (GBT) in fish and threaten their survival. In the present study, Chinese suckers (Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker) were exposed to TDG supersaturated water at levels ranging from 120% to 145% for 48 h. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) and the median lethal time (LT(50)) were determined to evaluate acute lethal effects on Chinese suckers. The results showed that the LC(50) values of 4, 6, 8, and 10 h were 142%, 137%, 135%, and 130%, respectively. The LT(50) values were 3.2, 4.7, 7.8, 9.2, and 43.4 h, respectively, when TDG supersaturated levels were 145%, 140%, 135%, 130%, and 125%. Furthermore, the biological responses in Chinese suckers were studied by assaying the catalase (CAT) activities in gills and muscles at the supersaturation level of 140% within LT(50). The CAT activities in the gills and muscle tissues exhibited a regularity of a decrease after an increase. CAT activities in the muscles were increased significantly at 3/5LT(50) (P<0.05) and then came back to the normal level. However, there were no significant differences between the treatment group (TDG level of 140%) and the control group (TDG level of 100%) on CAT activities in the gills before 3/5LT(50) (P>0.05), but the activities were significantly lower than the normal level at 4/5LT(50) and LT(50) (P<0.05). PMID:23024046

  16. Water quality, nutrient budget, and pollutant loads in Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) farms around East Taihu Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chunfang; Gu, Xiaohong; Huang, Hezhong; Dai, Xiuying; Ye, Yuantu; Shi, Chenjiang

    2012-01-01

    To understand the factors causing frequent outbreaks of harmful algae blooms in the Taihu Lake, China, we studied water quality and nutrient budget in Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) farm ponds in the eastern part of the lake from November 2007 to December 2009. We estimated the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loads. Materials input and output ponds, water exchange, and applied management practices of 838.5-hm2 crab ponds were surveyed using questionnaires. Water quality of 12 ponds, which were located no more than 2 km from East Taihu Lake, were monitored. The results show that water quality in the crab ponds was better than reference data. Feeds, including corn seed, commercial feed, trash fish, and gastropod, were the major sources of N and P input in the crab ponds, contributing 88.7% and 94.9%, respectively. In total, 60.5% of N and 37.3% of P were sequestered by macrophytes, and only 15.7% and 8.5% of them were discharged as effluent. The net loads of N and P in effluent were 16.43 kg/hm2/cycle and 2.16 kg/hm2/cycle, respectively, while the COD load was -17.88 kg/hm2/cycle. This indicated that crab farming caused minor negative impact on the trophic status of the lake area, which was attenuated by macrophytes. However, wastewater purification is still necessary in crab faming.

  17. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  18. Effect of Scoparia dulcis extract on insulin receptors in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: studies on insulin binding to erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Latha, Muniappan; Rao, Chippada Appa

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the insulin-receptor-binding effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extract in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male Wistar rats, using circulating erythrocytes (ER) as a model system. An aqueous extract of S dulcis plant (SPEt) (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally. We measured blood levels of glucose and plasma insulin and the binding of insulin to cell-membrane ER receptors. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. The mean specific binding of insulin to ER was significantly lower in diabetic control rats (DC) (55.0 +/- 2.8%) than in SPEt-treated (70.0 +/- 3.5%)- and glibenclamide-treated (65.0 +/- 3.3%) diabetic rats, resulting in a significant decrease in plasma insulin. Scatchard plot analysis demonstrated that the decrease in insulin binding was accounted for by a lower number of insulin receptor sites per cell in DC rats when compared with SPEt- and glibenclamide-treated rats. High-affinity (Kd1), low-affinity (Kd2), and kinetic analysis revealed an increase in the average receptor affinity in ER from SPEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats having 2.5 +/- 0.15 x 10(10) M(-1) (Kd1); 17.0 +/- 1.0 x 10(-8) M(-1) (Kd2), and 2.0 +/- 0.1 x 10(-10) M(-1) (Kd1); 12.3 +/- 0.9 x 10(-8) M(-1) (Kd2) compared with 1.0 +/- 0.08 x 10(-10) M(-1) (Kd1); 2.7 +/- 0.25 x 10(-8) M(-1) (Kd2) in DC rats. The results suggest an acute alteration in the number of insulin receptors on ER membranes in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with SPEt and glibenclamide significantly improved specific insulin binding, with receptor number and affinity binding (p < 0.001) reaching almost normal non-diabetic levels. The data presented here show that SPEt and glibenclamide increase total ER membrane insulin binding sites with a concomitant significant increase in plasma insulin. PMID:15803960

  19. Antidiabetic effects of scoparic acid D isolated from Scoparia dulcis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Latha, Muniappan; Pari, Leelavinothan; Ramkumar, Kunga Mohan; Rajaguru, Palanisamy; Suresh, Thangaraj; Dhanabal, Thangavel; Sitasawad, Sandhya; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic effect of scoparic acid D (SAD), a diterpenoid isolated from the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. SAD was administered orally at a dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) bodyweight for 15 days. At the end of the experimental period, the SAD-treated STZ diabetic rats showed decreased levels of glucose as compared with diabetic control rats. The improvement in blood glucose levels of SAD-treated rats was associated with a significant increase in plasma insulin levels. SAD at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) bodyweight exhibited a significant effect when compared with other doses. Further, the effect of SAD was tested on STZ-treated rat insulinoma cell lines (RINm5F cells) and isolated islets in vitro. SAD at a dose of 20 microg mL(-1) evoked two-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from isolated islets, indicating its insulin secretagogue activity. Further, SAD protected STZ-mediated cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production in RINm5F cells. The present study thus confirms the antihyperglycaemic effect of SAD and also demonstrated the consistently strong cytoprotective properties of SAD. PMID:19606382

  20. Renal dysfunction from cadmium contamination of irrigation water: dose-response analysis in a Chinese population.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, S.; Yue, L.; Jin, T.; Nordberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    In a cadmium-contaminated area in China and a nearby non-contaminated area, 342 persons were selected for studies of a possible relationship between cadmium dose (i.e. total cadmium intake) and response in terms of renal dysfunction. An increase in urinary excretion of beta-2-microglobulin (UB2M), adjusted for age and sex, was used as an indicator of the response. A statistically significant relationship was found between measured cadmium concentrations in whole blood (range; < 3.5 to > 15 micrograms/l) and UB2M, and there was a statistically significant linear trend. Also, cadmium in urine (< 4 to > 16 micrograms/g creatinine) and UB2M displayed a statistically significant positive relationship when the total data set was analysed for males and females. The relationship between a dose index (obtained from calculated cumulative absorbed doses over a lifetime) and UB2M was statistically significant. The results of this first study on dose-response relationships in a Chinese population are similar to those observed in other populations. PMID:9648356

  1. [Chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of Helicteres guazumifolia (Sterculiaceae), Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae), Scoparia dulcis (Arecaceae) and Solanum subinerme (Solanaceae) from Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Moreno, Shailili

    2011-06-01

    Essential oils, biosynthesized and accumulated in aromatic plants, have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical health, cosmetics, food and agricultural industry. This study aimed to analyze the secondary metabolites in some plant species in order to contribute to their chemotaxonomy. Leaves from Helicteres guazumifolia, Piper tuberculatum, Scoparia dulcis and Solanum subinerme were collected and their essential oils were obtained by means of hydro-distillation. The oil fraction was analyzed and identified by GC/MS. The extraction yields were of 0.004, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.005%, and the oil constituents of 88.00, 89.80, 87.50 and 89.47%, respectively. The principal oils found were: non-terpenoids volatile secondary metabolites (30.28%) in H. guazumifolia; sesquiterpenoids (20.82 and 26.09%) and oxigen derivated (52.19 and 25.18%) in P. tuberculatum and S. dulcis; and oxigen diterpenoids (39.67%) in S. subinerme. The diisobuthylphtalate (13.11%) in H. guazumifolia, (-)-spathulenol (11.37%) in P. tuberculatum and trans-phytol (8.29 and 36.00%) in S. dulcis and S. subinerme, were the principal constituents in their respective essential oils. The diisooctylphtalate were the essential oil common to all species, but the volatile compounds such as trans-pinane, L-linalool, beta-ionone, isophytol, neophytadiene, trans-phytol, dibutylphtalate and methyl hexadecanoate, were only detected in three of these essences. This suggests that these plants may require similar secondary metabolites for their ecological interactions, possibly due to common environmental factors. PMID:21721229

  2. Chinese Lakes Behaviors In The Framework Of Meteorology And Water Management Practices: EO Based Monitoring Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Lai, Xijun; Daillet-Rochette, Sylviane

    2013-12-01

    Yangtze reaches, particularly on the middle and lower ones as the human population, few hundred millions of inhabitants downstream of 3 gorges dam, depend directly on the services that wetlands provide: regulating services such as flood storage; provisioning services such as fishing, and being biodiversity holders. The two largest fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting Lakes, which are very valuable ecosystems in term of biodiversity maintain but also threaded by epidemics, are the core of the monitored area since 2000. This monitoring based on medium and high resolution at a high temporal frequency, ie ca 10 days has allowed characterizing trends on an intra and interring annual basis. A key result is the apparent increase of years with water default since the mid 2000, ie near one year every two years. Results of the dynamic analysis of water height and water surfaces can be now analyzed in term of climatic variations and human activities. Obtained results shown that the meteorology, ie rainfall, at Yangtze's basin scale rather than lakes' basin scale, has a significant impact on water resources. In addition, and this for the first time, the effects management mode of the 3 Gorges reservoir, ie infilling of the reservoir rapidly in October at the beginning of the dry period followed by a slow release of the stocked water appears to reinforce the trends observed in recent drought years.

  3. Involvement of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in biosynthesis of aphidicolin-like tetracyclic diterpene of Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Nkembo, Marguerite Kasidimoko; Lee, Jung-Bum; Nakagiri, Takeshi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2006-05-01

    Specific inhibitors of the MVA pathway (pravastatin) and the MEP pathway (fosmidomycin) were used to interfere with the biosynthetic flux which leads to the production of aphidicolin-like diterpene in leaf organ cultures of Scoparia dulcis. Treatment of leaf organs with fosmidomycin resulted in dose dependent inhibition of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scopadulcic acid B (SDB) and phytol production, and no effect on sterol production was observed. In response to the pravastatin treatment, a significant decrease in sterol and perturbation of SDB production was observed. PMID:16651787

  4. Water quality and small-scale land use mapping in the South-Chinese megacity Guangzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohschoen, R.; Azzam, R.; Baier, K.

    2011-12-01

    Since China adopted its "open-door" policy in 1978/ 79, the Pearl River Delta became one of the most rapid and dynamic urbanizing areas in East Asia due to migration, industrialization and globalization processes. The study area Guangzhou grew from a small town to a megacity with some 15 million inhabitants within less than 30 years. The rapid population growth and the urban and industrial expansion led to a remarkably increasing demand for freshwater, a high water consume and a rising sewage production. While economy and house constructions developed very fast, the expansion of water infrastructures could not keep pace with the urban growth. The consequences arising out of these situations are a serious deterioration of the surface and groundwater resources but also a degradation of living conditions and a threat to human health, particularly of the urban poor. In contrast to other studies that often consider the surface water quality outside Guangzhou, our focus was put on the urban Pearl River and its tributaries as well as urban groundwater and tap water. The study was conducted to spatially investigate the present status of the water quality in view of the concurrent formal and informal anthropogenic influences. Additional land use mapping was undertaken to analyze the interrelations between different land use types and water quality and to determine local pollution hotspots which should be taken into particular consideration of future city planning. Supplementing interviews were hold to find out usage patterns of groundwater and strategies to cope with both insufficient tap water quality and water infrastructures. A total of 74 surface water samples and 16 groundwater samples of privately and publicly accessible wells were taken at the beginning of the rainy season in May 2010. Those samples were partly compared to measurements carried out from 2007-2009, where adequate. Further, 15 tap water samples were taken in 2007/ 08 to draw conclusions about possible

  5. Localization and functional analysis of CHIP28k water channels in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Frigeri, A; Tsai, S T; Verbavatz, J M; Verkman, A S

    1993-10-25

    CHIP28 is a major water transporting protein in erythrocytes and plasma membranes in kidney proximal tubule and thin descending limb of Henle. Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with the coding sequence of cloned rat kidney CHIP28k using expression vectors containing cytomegalovirus or Rous sarcoma virus promoters. Clonal cell populations expressed a 1.3-kilobase mRNA on Northern blot probed by CHIP28k cDNA and a 28-kDa protein on immunoblot probed by a polyclonal CHIP28 antibody. The clone with greatest expression produced approximately 8 x 10(6) copies of CHIP28k protein/cell. Plasma membrane osmotic water permeability (Pf), measured by stopped-flow light scattering, was 0.004 cm/s in control (vector-transfected) cells (10 degrees C) and 0.014 cm/s in the CHIP28k-transfected cells. Pf in CHIP28k-transfected cells had an activation energy of 4.9 kcal/mol and was reversibly inhibited by HgCl2. CHIP28k expression did not affect the transport of protons and the small polar non-electrolytes urea and formamide. CHIP28k immunoreactivity and function was then determined in subcellular fractions. Pf in 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled endocytic vesicles, measured by a stopped-flow fluorescence quenching assay, was 0.002 cm/s (control cells) and 0.011 cm/s (CHIP28k-transfected cells); Pf in transfected cells was inhibited by HgCl2. Immunoblotting of fractionated endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and plasma membranes revealed high densities of CHIP28k (approximately 5000 monomers/microns 2 in plasma membrane) with different glycosylation patterns; functional water transport activity was present only in Golgi and plasma membrane vesicles. Antibody detection of CHIP28k by confocal fluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy revealed localization to plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. These studies establish a stably transfected somatic cell line that strongly expresses functional CHIP28k water channels. As in the original proximal tubule cells

  6. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaumont, J.J.; Sedman, R.M.; Reynolds, S.D.; Sherman, C.D.; Li, L.-H.; Howd, R.A.; Sandy, M.S.; Zeise, L.; Alexeeff, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1987, investigators in Liaoning Province, China, reported that mortality rates for all cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer in 1970-1978 were higher in villages with hexavalent chromium (Cr)-contaminated drinking water than in the general population. The investigators reported rates, but did not report statistical measures of association or precision. METHODS: Using reports and other communications from investigators at the local Jinzhou Health and Anti-Epidemic Station, we obtained data on Cr contamination of groundwater and cancer mortality in 9 study regions near a ferrochromium factory. We estimated:(1) person-years at risk in the study regions, based on census and population growth rate data, (2) mortality counts, based on estimated person-years at risk and previously reported mortality rates, and (3) rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The all-cancer mortality rate in the combined 5 study regions with Cr-contaminated water was negligibly elevated in comparison with the rate in the 4 combined study regions without contaminated water (rate ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.46), but was somewhat more elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.23; 0.97-1.53). Stomach cancer mortality in the regions with contaminated water was more substantially elevated in comparison with the regions without contaminated water (1.82; 1.11-2.91) and the whole province (1.69; 1.12-2.44). Lung cancer mortality was slightly elevated in comparison with the unexposed study regions (1.15; 0.62-2.07), and more strongly elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.78; 1.03-2.87). Mortality from other cancers combined was not elevated in comparison with either the unexposed study regions (0.86; 0.53-1.36) or the whole province (0.92; 0.58-1.38). CONCLUSIONS: While these data are limited, they are consistent with increased stomach cancer risk in a population exposed to Cr in drinking water. ?? 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  7. Thermal stability of texture in Chinese water chestnut may be dependent on 8,8'-diferulic acid (aryltetralyn form).

    PubMed

    Parker, Charlotte C; Parker, Mary L; Smith, Andrew C; Waldron, Keith W

    2003-03-26

    Ferulic acid (FA) cross-links have been implicated in the thermal stability of texture in Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues. The aim of the current study has been to investigate this concept further. CWC tissue strips were measured for their mechanical properties before and after extraction in increasing strengths of alkali. The mechanical properties were related to the associated mode of fracture (cell separation or breakage) at the fracture surfaces and the phenolic composition of the cell walls. CWC tissue softened after prolonged extraction in cold alkali due to an increase in the ease of cell separation. Analysis of wall-bound phenolics demonstrated that most FA moieties, including five of the six dehydrodimers, were released before tissue strength was reduced. Loss of strength was, however, coincident with the loss of 8,8'-diferulic acid, aryltetralin (AT) form. It has been suggested that this dehydrodimer may be particularly concentrated at the edge of the cell faces. These results provide further evidence for the involvement of this dehydrodimer in conferring thermal stability of cell-cell adhesion and hence texture in CWC. However, they do not exclude the other diferulates from involvement in cell adhesion. PMID:12643670

  8. DEVRIESEASIS IN A PLUMED BASILISK (BASILISCUS PLUMIFRONS) AND CHINESE WATER DRAGONS (PHYSIGNATHUS COCINCINUS) IN A ZOOLOGIC COLLECTION.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Christophe; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Brawand, Stefanie Gobeli; Thomann, Andreas; Brodard, Isabelle; Jermann, Thomas; Posthaus, Horst

    2016-03-01

    Devriesea agamarum is a Gram-positive bacterium that was first described in 2008 as a causative agent of disease in lizards. Until today, reports from several countries reported the presence of this bacterium in various lizard species, which suggests a wide distribution among lizard collections. Pathologic lesions ranged from proliferative dermatitis and cheilitis to abscesses in multiple organs and septicemia in single animals, as well as entire groups. Until now, disease caused by D. agamarum has been reported in several lizard species. Because the bacterium is only identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and no commercially available identification systems contain the agent in their database, it may be underdiagnosed. This report describes a series of fatal devrieseasis in plumed basilisks (Basiliscus plumifrons) and Chinese water dragons (Physignathus cocincinus) from a zoologic collection and extends the range of susceptible species. In 3 mo, five animals died with pyogranulomatous lesions in the subcutis, the coelomic cavity, or multiple organs. In all cases, diffuse swelling or focal skin elevations of different body parts were observed. Devriesea agamarum could be isolated from lesions in all animals. A subsequent clinical survey of the lizard collection including bacteriologic investigation of oral cavity swabs indicated that bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were carriers of D. agamarum, which suggests that this species could be a source of infection with this pathogen. PMID:27010288

  9. A new record of blue-spotted seabream Pagrus caeruleostictus from Chinese coastal waters documented from morphology and DNA barcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Liu, Jing; Wu, Renxie

    2015-03-01

    A new record of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes, 1830), collected from the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea in April 2013, was documented based on morphology and cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene barcoding analyses. It can be distinguished by a combination of the following characteristics: head scaled to above eyes; cheeks with 5 or 6 rows of scales; lateral line scales 51-52; 5 rows of scales above the lateral line; 4 and 6 cuspidate teeth in front of upper and lower jaws, respectively, followed by 2 rows of blunter teeth posteriorly; gill rakers on first arch 12 to 15; D XI-XII +9-11; A III +8-9; the first two dorsal spines very short, the third to fifth extended, filamentous in the young; the first pelvic ray filamentous; silvery pink with dark blue spots on back and sides; caudal fin pinkish; other fins bluish or pinkish; the blue spots generally disappear in large specimens. The present report of P. caeruleostictus suggests that its distribution in Chinese coastal waters may be attributed to human effort, since this species is unlikely to have expanded naturally from the eastern Atlantic to the South China Sea, with no other records from the Indian or Pacific Oceans. We recommend that a precautionary approach should be adopted for the management of P. caeruleostictus.

  10. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Comparative Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in Response to Freezing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Ebrahimie, Esameil; Imani, Ali; Houshmand, Saadollah

    2014-01-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond’s transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current reserch, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reporuductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary) to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE) genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomley selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant. PMID:25122458

  11. Response of nitrogen and potassium fertigation to "Waris" almond (Prunus dulcis) under northwestern Himalayan Region of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Ahmed, N

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis) to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012) in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1--100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2--100% RDF through fertigations, T3--75% RDF through fertigation, T4--75% RDF through fertigation (split application), T5--50% RDF through fertigation and T6--50% RDF through fertigation (split application) with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m), nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g), nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha), and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K) were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm(2); 16.75 and 24.26 cm(2); 3.83 and 7.49 cm(2); 0.47 and 1.23 cm(2)), canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m(3)), and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree) were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris. PMID:24587708

  12. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, T.K.; Dharmaraj, S.; Bajaj, Jitendra; Dhanabal, S.P.; Manimaran, S.; Nanjan, M.J.; Razdan, Rema

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was aimed at assessing the hepatoprotective activity of 1:1:1 petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol (PDM) extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. Materials and Methods: The PDM extract (50, 200, and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard, silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) were tested for their antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by measuring aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total proteins in serum, glycogen, lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase levels in liver homogenate and by histopathological analysis of the liver tissue. In addition, the extract was also evaluated for its in vitro antioxidant activity using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. Results: The extract at the dose of 800 mg/kg, p.o., significantly prevented CCl4-induced changes in the serum and liver biochemistry (P < 0.05) and changes in liver histopathology. The above results are comparable to standard, silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.). In the in vitro 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay, the extract showed good free radical scavenging potential (IC 50 38.9 ± 1.0 μg/ml). Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that the PDM extract of Scoparia dulcis L. possesses potential hepatoprotective activity, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging potential, due to the terpenoid constituents. PMID:20442817

  14. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus. cDNA cloning, functional expression, and conversion to a farnesyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Kojima, N; Sitthithaworn, W; Viroonchatapan, E; Suh, D Y; Iwanami, N; Hayashi, T; Sankaw, U

    2000-07-01

    cDNAs encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) of two diterpene producing plants, Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus, were isolated using the homology-based polymerase chain reaction method. Both cloned genes showed high amino acid sequence homology (60-70%) to other plant GGPPSs and contained highly conserved aspartate-rich motifs. The obtained clones were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and showed sufficient GGPPS activity to catalyze the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and isopentenyl diphosphate to form geranylgeranyl diphosphate. To investigate the factor determining the product chain length of plant GGPPSs, S. dulcis GGPPS mutants in which either the small amino acids at the fourth and fifth positions before the first aspartate-rich motif (FARM) were replaced with aromatic amino acids or in which two additional amino acids in FARM were deleted were constructed. Both mutants behaved like FPPS-like enzymes and almost exclusively produced FPP when dimethylallyl diphosphate was used as a primer substrate, and failed to accept FPP as a primer substrate. These results indicate that both small amino acids at the fourth and fifth positions before FARM and the amino acid insertion in FARM play essential roles in product length determination in plant GGPPSs. PMID:10923851

  15. Transgenic fertile Scoparia dulcis L., a folk medicinal plant, conferred with a herbicide-resistant trait using an Ri binary vector.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, M; Son, L; Hayashi, T; Morita, N; Asamizu, T; Mourakoshi, I; Saito, K

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic herbicide-resistant Scoparia dulcis plants were obtained by using an Ri binary vector system. The chimeric bar gene encoding phosphinothricin acetyltransferase flanked by the promoter for cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA and the terminal sequence for nopaline synthase was introduced in the plant genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation by means of scratching young plants. Hairy roots resistant to bialaphos were selected and plantlets (R0) were regenerated. Progenies (S1) were obtained by self-fertilization. The transgenic state was confirmed by DNA-blot hybridization and assaying of neomycin phosphotransferase II. Expression of the bar gene in the transgenic R0 and S1 progenies was indicated by the activity of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase. Transgenic plants accumulated scopadulcic acid B, a specific secondary metabolite of S. dulcis, in amounts of 15-60% compared with that in normal plants. The transgenic plants and progenies showed resistant trait towards bialaphos and phosphinothricin. These results suggest that an Ri binary system is one of the useful tools for the transformation of medicinal plants for which a regeneration protocol has not been established. PMID:24178349

  16. Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on blood glucose, plasma insulin and some polyol pathway enzymes in experimental rat diabetes.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Pari, L

    2004-04-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of the plant Scoparia dulcis (200 mg/kg) on the polyol pathway and lipid peroxidation were examined in the liver of streptozotocin adult diabetic male albino Wistar rats. The diabetic control rats (N = 6) presented a significant increase in blood glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides, and a significant decrease in plasma insulin and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) compared to normal rats (N = 6). Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt, 200 mg kg-1 day-1) and glibenclamide (600 microg kg-1 day-1), a reference drug, were administered by gavage for 6 weeks to diabetic rats (N = 6 for each group) and significantly reduced blood glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin, TBARS, and hydroperoxides, and significantly increased plasma insulin, GPx, GST and GSH activities in liver. The effect of the SPEt was compared with that of glibenclamide. The effect of the extract may have been due to the decreased influx of glucose into the polyol pathway leading to increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma insulin and decreased activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. These results indicate that the SPEt was effective in attenuating hyperglycemia in rats and their susceptibility to oxygen free radicals. PMID:15064821

  17. Symbiotic Bacteria in Gills and Guts of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Differ from the Free-Living Bacteria in Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Yuhong; Chen, Liqiao; Cai, Chunfang; Qiao, Fang; Du, Zhenyu; Li, Erchao

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic animals have a close relationship with water, but differences in their symbiotic bacteria and the bacterial composition in water remains unclear. Wild or domestic Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) and the water in which they live were collected from four sampling sites in Jiangsu and Shanghai, China. Bacterial composition in water, gills or guts of E. sinensis, were compared by high-throughput sequencing using 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of >660,000 sequences indicated that bacterial diversity was higher in water than in gills or guts. Tenericutes and Proteobacteria were dominant phyla in guts, while Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were dominant in gills and water. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that microbiota from gills, guts or water clearly separated into three groups, suggesting that crabs harbor a more specific microbial community than the water in which they live. The dominant OTUs in crab gut were related to Mycoplasmataceae, which were low in abundance in gills, showing that, like mammals, crabs have body-site specific microbiota. OTUs related to Ilumatobacter and Albimonas, which are commonly present in sediment and seawater, were dominant in gills but almost absent from the sampled water. Considering E. sinensis are bottom-dwelling crustacean and they mate in saline water or seawater, behavior and life cycle of crabs may play an important role in shaping the symbiotic bacterial pattern. This study revealed the relationship between the symbiotic bacteria of Chinese mitten crab and their habitat, affording information on the assembly factors of commensal bacteria in aquatic animals. PMID:26820139

  18. Symbiotic Bacteria in Gills and Guts of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Differ from the Free-Living Bacteria in Water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Yuhong; Chen, Liqiao; Cai, Chunfang; Qiao, Fang; Du, Zhenyu; Li, Erchao

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic animals have a close relationship with water, but differences in their symbiotic bacteria and the bacterial composition in water remains unclear. Wild or domestic Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) and the water in which they live were collected from four sampling sites in Jiangsu and Shanghai, China. Bacterial composition in water, gills or guts of E. sinensis, were compared by high-throughput sequencing using 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of >660,000 sequences indicated that bacterial diversity was higher in water than in gills or guts. Tenericutes and Proteobacteria were dominant phyla in guts, while Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were dominant in gills and water. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that microbiota from gills, guts or water clearly separated into three groups, suggesting that crabs harbor a more specific microbial community than the water in which they live. The dominant OTUs in crab gut were related to Mycoplasmataceae, which were low in abundance in gills, showing that, like mammals, crabs have body-site specific microbiota. OTUs related to Ilumatobacter and Albimonas, which are commonly present in sediment and seawater, were dominant in gills but almost absent from the sampled water. Considering E. sinensis are bottom-dwelling crustacean and they mate in saline water or seawater, behavior and life cycle of crabs may play an important role in shaping the symbiotic bacterial pattern. This study revealed the relationship between the symbiotic bacteria of Chinese mitten crab and their habitat, affording information on the assembly factors of commensal bacteria in aquatic animals. PMID:26820139

  19. A new ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction for simultaneous preconcentration flavonoids and anthraquinones from traditional Chinese prescription.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Sha; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiao-Hong; Li, Qing-Shan

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique, ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction (ILWOS-3p-ME) was developed and introduced for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in Chinese herbal formula and its preparations. This technique was performed in one step by using a syringe. High performance liquid chromatography with an UV-detector (HPLC/UV) was subsequently conducted. Two solvents with different densities (organic solvent and ionic liquid with densities less than and higher than water, respectively) were separately placed in a syringe, which was used as an extraction device. A cloudy emulsion was formed by manually shaking the syringe. The mixture was allowed to stand for several minutes; afterward, the emulsion readily separated into three phases: an upper organic solvent extraction phase; a middle aqueous sample phase; and a lower ionic liquid extraction phase. Both the upper and lower layers were transferred to a small Eppendorf (EP) tube. Conducting ILWOS-3P-ME with HPLC/UV, we simultaneously determined the bioactive components of flavonoids and anthraquinones in traditional Chinese medicine. ILWOS-3P-ME is a simple, rapid, practical, and effective method to extract and preconcentrate of different types of trace bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicine simultaneously. PMID:23969331

  20. Elucidating the mechanism by which Gypsum fibrosum, a traditional Chinese medicine, maintains cutaneous water content.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogiue, Naoki; Toyoda, Eri; Nakamura, Marina; Kon, Risako; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Aburada, Takashi; Ishii, Makoto; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Machida, Yoshiaki; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) plays an important role in maintaining the normal water content of the skin. Previously, we revealed that the expression of cutaneous AQP3 increased following oral administration of Gypsum fibrosum (main component: CaSO₄) to mice. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which Gypsum fibrosum increases the expression of cutaneous AQP3 in a keratinocyte cell line. Gypsum fibrosum or CaSO₄ was added to keratinocytes, and the expression level of AQP3, the Ca concentration, the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), and the degrees of phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AQP3 increased significantly 6 h-post addition of Gypsum fibrosum. In keratinocytes treated with Gypsum fibrosum, increases in the concentration of intracellular Ca, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB were observed. Pre-treatment with GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, suppressed the mRNA expression levels of AQP3. Similarly to treatment with Gypsum fibrosum, the addition of CaSO₄ led to the same observations in keratinocytes. It is hypothesized that Gypsum fibrosum causes an increase in the intracellular Ca concentration, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation levels of ERK and CREB, resulting in increased AQP3 expression in keratinocytes. In addition, it is possible that the effect of Gypsum fibrosum is attributable to CaSO₄, based on the results demonstrating that the mechanisms of action of Gypsum fibrosum and CaSO₄ were nearly identical. PMID:23912684

  1. Influence of deficit irrigation strategies on fatty acid and tocopherol concentration of almond (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Taylor, Cathy; Sommer, Karl; Wilkinson, Kerry; Wirthensohn, Michelle

    2015-04-15

    The effects of deficit irrigation on almond fatty acid and tocopherol levels were studied in a field trial. Mature almond trees were subjected to three levels of deficit irrigation (85%, 70% and 55% of potential crop evapotranspiration (ETo), as well as control (100% ETo) and over-irrigation (120% ETo) treatments. Two deficit irrigation strategies were employed: regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and sustained deficit irrigation (SDI). Moderate deficit irrigation (85% RDI and 85% SDI) had no detrimental impact on almond kernel lipid content, but severe and extreme deficiencies (70% and 55%) influenced lipid content. Unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents fluctuated under these treatments, the oleic/linoleic ratio increased under moderate water deficiency, but decreased under severe and extreme water deficiency. Almond tocopherols concentration was relatively stable under deficit irrigation. The variation between years indicated climate has an effect on almond fruit development. In conclusion it is feasible to irrigate almond trees using less water than the normal requirement, without significant loss of kernel quality. PMID:25466095

  2. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  3. Things Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  4. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes. PMID:26213005

  5. In vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of scopadulcic acid B from Scoparia dulcis, Scrophulariaceae, against herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Niwayama, S; Hayashi, T; Nago, R; Ochiai, H; Morita, N

    1988-09-01

    The antiviral activity of five diterpenoids isolated from Scoparia dulcis L., Scrophulariaceae, was examined in vitro against herpes simplex virus type 1. Among these compounds, only scopadulcic acid B was found to inhibit the viral replication with the in vitro therapeutic index of 16.7. The action of scopadulcic acid B was not due to a direct virucidal effect or inhibition of virus attachment to host cells. Single-cycle replication experiments indicated that the compound interfered with considerably early events of virus growth. The influence of scopadulcic acid B on the course of the primary corneal herpes simplex virus infection was investigated by means of a hamster test model. When the treatment was initiated immediately after virus inoculation, scopadulcic acid B, when applied orally or intraperitoneally, effectively prolonged both the appearance of herpetic lesions and the survival time at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day. PMID:2852487

  6. Improved capabilities of the Chinese high-resolution remote sensing satellite GF-1 for monitoring suspended particulate matter (SPM) in inland waters: Radiometric and spatial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Xiaoling; Tian, Liqiao; Huang, Jue; Feng, Lian

    2015-08-01

    Dominated by high dynamic and small-scale variability, remote sensing of inland or coastal waters is frequently impended by insufficient spatial resolutions from conventional ocean color sensors. With the urgent need and the rapid progress in high-resolution earth observation systems (HR), it is critical to assess the capabilities of HR in inland water monitoring. In this study, the radiometric and spatial performance of the Chinese high-resolution GF-1 Wide Field Imager (WFI) data for water quality monitoring were evaluated in term of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sensitivity to suspended particulate matter (SPM) variations and spatial depiction ability. The SNR was statistically estimated from variable moving window method, and the radiometric sensitivity was simulated using the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN) under varied surface and atmospheric conditions. Results indicated that both the SNR and the radiometric sensitivity of the GF-1 WFI were enhanced by 3-5 times than its predecessor (Chinese HJ-1 CCD) or Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and were comparable to Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium-resolution bands (250 and 500 m), which have been extensively applied in inland water environment monitoring. Cross comparisons demonstrated high consistency of the spatial distribution and concentration of SPM maps between GF-1 WFI and Landsat 8 OLI. Furthermore, more than 75% of the spatial variations in high turbid waters were resolved from GF-1 WFI data, whereas the ability dropped to 40% when the spatial resolution was degraded to 250 m (MODIS-like sensors). Overall, GF-1 WFI is extraordinarily promising with an enhanced SNR, an increased spectral sensitivity to SPM variations and an advanced spatial resolution. With the ongoing plans of the successive GF series (2-7), the findings would serve as a reference for forthcoming applications, and are critical

  7. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  8. Chinese Calligraphy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  9. Traditional Chinese drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, John K

    2003-12-01

    More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

  10. Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jennifer Robin

    2004-05-01

    I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

  11. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

    PubMed Central

    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin. PMID:26137233

  12. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. PMID:25289519

  13. Scopadulcic acid B, a new tetracyclic diterpenoid from Scoparia dulcis L. Its structure, H+, K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase inhibitory activity and pharmacokinetic behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Okamura, K; Kakemi, M; Asano, S; Mizutani, M; Takeguchi, N; Kawasaki, M; Tezuka, Y; Kikuchi, T; Morita, N

    1990-10-01

    The structure of scopadulcic acid B (2, SDB), a major ingredient of the Paraguayan herb "Typychá kuratũ" (Scoparia dulcis L.), was elucidated mainly by comparison of its spectral data with that of scopadulcic acid A (1). SDB inhibited both the K(+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of a hog gastric proton pump (H+, K(+)-ATPase) with a value of 20-30 microM for IC50 and proton transport into gastric vesicles. Pharmacokinetic studies of SDB in rats indicated that plasma SDB concentrations after i.v. injection of the sodium salt of SDB (SDB-Na) were described reasonably well by a two-compartment open model with Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of SDB-Na or SDB showed a much slower decline than what was expected following the i. v. study. It was suggested that the sustained plasma level of SDB after oral administration of SDB-Na or SDB was accounted for by relatively slow but efficient gastro-intestinal absorption in rats. PMID:1963813

  14. Scopadulciol, Isolated from Scoparia dulcis, Induces β-Catenin Degradation and Overcomes Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Ligand Resistance in AGS Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Rolly G; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-04-24

    Scopadulciol (1), a scopadulan-type diterpenoid, was isolated from Scoparia dulcis along with three other compounds (2-4) by an activity-guided approach using the TCF reporter (TOP) luciferase-based assay system. A fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) revealed that compound 1 was cytotoxic to AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The treatment of AGS cells with 1 decreased β-catenin levels and also inhibited its nuclear localization. The pretreatment of AGS cells with a proteasome inhibitor, either MG132 or epoxomicin, protected against the degradation of β-catenin induced by 1. The 1-induced degradation of β-catenin was also abrogated in the presence of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity. Compound 1 inhibited TOP activity in AGS cells and downregulated the protein levels of cyclin D1, c-myc, and survivin. Compound 1 also sensitized AGS cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by increasing the levels of the death receptors, DR4 and DR5, and decreasing the level of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Collectively, our results demonstrated that 1 induced the p53- and proteasome-dependent degradation of β-catenin, which resulted in the inhibition of TCF/β-catenin transcription in AGS cells. Furthermore, 1 enhanced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant AGS when combined with TRAIL. PMID:25793965

  15. Nitrogen fertilization effect on dryland soil water balance and winter wheat yield in the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous N fertilization to dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for a long period may have detrimental effect on grain yield due to high water consumption and soil acidity development. We evaluated the effect of five N fertilization rates (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg N ha-1) on soil water b...

  16. Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

  17. Estimation of soil loss by water erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau using Universal Soil Loss Equation and GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzer, S.; Seitz, F.; Eicker, A.; Güntner, A.; Wattenbach, M.; Menzel, A.

    2013-06-01

    For the estimation of soil loss by erosion in the strongly affected Chinese Loess Plateau we applied the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) using a number of input data sets (monthly precipitation, soil types, digital elevation model, land cover and soil conservation measures). Calculations were performed in ArcGIS and SAGA. The large-scale soil erosion in the Loess Plateau results in a strong non-hydrological mass change. In order to investigate whether the resulting mass change from USLE may be validated by the gravity field satellite mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), we processed different GRACE level-2 products (ITG, GFZ and CSR). The mass variations estimated in the GRACE trend were relatively close to the observed sediment yield data of the Yellow River. However, the soil losses resulting from two USLE parameterizations were comparatively high since USLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio. Most eroded soil stays in the study area and only a fraction is exported by the Yellow River. Thus, the resultant mass loss appears to be too small to be resolved by GRACE.

  18. Crosslinked enzyme aggregates of hydroxynitrile lyase partially purified from Prunus dulcis seeds and its application for the synthesis of enantiopure cyanohydrins.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Deniz; Tükel, S Seyhan; Alagöz, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxynitrile lyases are powerful catalysts in the synthesis of enantiopure cyanohydrins which are key synthons in the preparations of a variety of important chemicals. The response surface methodology including three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize immobilization of hydroxynitrile lyase purified partially from Prunus dulcis seeds as crosslinked enzyme aggregates (PdHNL-CLEAs). The quadratic model was developed for predicting the response and its adequacy was validated with the analysis of variance test. The optimized immobilization parameters were initial glutaraldehyde concentration, ammonium sulfate saturation concentration, and crosslinking time, and the response was relative activity of PdHNL-CLEA. The optimal conditions were determined as initial glutaraldehyde concentration of 25% w/v, ammonium sulfate saturation concentration of 43% w/v, and crosslinking time of 18 h. The preparations of PdHNL-CLEA were examined for the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile, (R)-2-chloromandelonitrile, (R)-3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile, (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl butyronitrile, (R)-4-bromomandelonitrile, (R)-4-fluoromandelonitrile, and (R)-4-nitromandelonitrile from their corresponding aldehydes and hydrocyanic acid. After 96-h reaction time, the yield-enantiomeric excess values (%) were 100-99, 100-21, 100-99, 83-91, 100-99, 100-72, and 100-14%, respectively, for (R)-mandelonitrile, (R)-2-chloromandelonitrile, (R)-3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile, (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl butyronitrile, (R)-4-bromomandelonitrile, (R)-4-fluoromandelonitrile, and (R)-4-nitromandelonitrile. The results show that PdHNL-CLEA offers a promising potential for the preparation of enantiopure (R)-mandelonitrile, (R)-3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile, (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl butyronitrile, and (R)-4-bromomandelonitrile with a high yield and enantiopurity. PMID:24799464

  19. Evidence for induction of oxidative stress caused by chronic exposure of Chinese residents to arsenic contained in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Jingbo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Yoshito; Sun, Guifan; Yoshida, Takahiko; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Hopenhayn-Rich, Claudia; Shimojo, Nobuhiro

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of experimental animals or cultured cells to arsenic induces oxidative stress, but, to date, no examination of this phenomenon in humans has been reported. In this study we conducted a cross-sectional study in Wuyuan, Inner Mongolia, China, to explore the relationship between chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water and oxidative stress in humans. Thirty-three inhabitants who had been drinking tube-well water with high concentrations of inorganic arsenic (mean value = 0.41 mg/L) for about 18 years constituted the high-exposure group, and 10 residents who lived nearby but were exposed to much lower concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water (mean value = 0.02 mg/L) were selected as the low-exposure comparison group. Results of the present study indicated that although the activity for superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood did not differ significantly between the two groups, the mean serum level of lipid peroxides (LPO) was significantly higher among the high-exposed compared with the low-exposed group. Elevated serum LPO concentrations were correlated with blood levels of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. In addition, they showed an inverse correlation with nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) levels in whole blood. The subjects in the high-arsenic-exposure group had mean blood NPSH levels 57.6% lower than those in the low-exposure group. Blood NPSH levels were inversely correlated with the concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites in blood and with the ratio of monomethylarsenic to inorganic arsenic. These results provide evidence that chronic exposure to arsenic from drinking water in humans results in induction of oxidative stress, as indicated by the reduction in NPSH and the increase in LPO. Some possible mechanisms for the arsenic-induced oxidative stress are discussed. PMID:11940449

  20. Chinese Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, William C.

    2012-01-01

    When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

  1. Inhibition of LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation in RAW 264.7 cells show anti-atherogenic properties of a foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Sinjitha S.; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Bhatt, Praveena; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidation of low density lipoproteins and their further uptake by macrophages is known to result in the formation of foam cells, which are critical in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signalling cascades. Thus, powerful dietary antioxidants are receiving attention for the reversal of such pathological states. Materials and Methods: Extracts of Scoparia dulcis have been used as tea and health drinks with various health promoting effects. In the present study, we examined the reactive oxygen scavenging potential as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic efficacies, using leaf extracts obtained after successive extraction with various solvents. Results: A methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 570 μg/ml, caused hydrogen peroxide scavenging (28.9 µg/ml) and anti-inflammatory effects by improving human erythrocyte membrane stabilisation (about 86%). The methanol extract also efficiently inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidation of low density lipoproteins, thus preventing foam cell formation in cultured RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, phytochemical screening of the extracts showed high accumulation of flavonoids. Conclusions: The foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis has a strong anti-atherogenic potential and this property could be attributed maybe due to presence of flavonoids since HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of myricetin and rutin in the methanol extract. PMID:24991098

  2. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  3. Local Immune Responses of the Chinese Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum Larvae: Crucial Insights for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; Zheng, Mao; He, Yongkang; Yu, Xinling; McManus, Donald P.; Meeusen, Els N. T.

    2013-01-01

    Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN) a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines

  4. Blood Biomarkers of Late Pregnancy Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and Fetal Growth Measures and Gestational Age in a Chinese Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zeng, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Chen, Hai-Xia; Miao, Dong-Yue; Li, Li; Cheng, Ying-Hui; Li, Min; Wang, Fan; You, Ling; Wang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Pan; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that elevated exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water during gestation may result in adverse birth outcomes. However, the findings of these studies remain inconclusive. Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine the association between blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and fetal growth and gestational age. Methods: We recruited 1,184 pregnant women between 2011 and 2013 in Wuhan and Xiaogan City, Hubei, China. Maternal blood THM concentrations, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM), were measured as exposure biomarkers during late pregnancy. We estimated associations with gestational age and fetal growth indicators [birth weight, birth length, and small for gestational age (SGA)]. Results: Total THMs (TTHMs; sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) were associated with lower mean birth weight (–60.9 g; 95% CI: –116.2, –5.6 for the highest vs. lowest tertile; p for trend = 0.03), and BDCM and DBCM exposures were associated with smaller birth length (e.g., –0.20 cm; 95% CI: –0.37, –0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of DBCM; p for trend = 0.02). SGA was increased in association with the second and third tertiles of TTHMs (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.32, 6.42 and OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.01, 5.03; p for trend = 0.08). Conclusions: Our results suggested that elevated maternal THM exposure may adversely affect fetal growth. Citation: Cao WC, Zeng Q, Luo Y, Chen HX, Miao DY, Li L, Cheng YH, Li M, Wang F, You L, Wang YX, Yang P, Lu WQ. 2016. Blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water and fetal growth measures and gestational age in a Chinese cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:536–541; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409234 PMID:26340795

  5. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  6. Application of otolith shape analysis for stock discrimination and species identification of five goby species (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in the northern Chinese coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Cao, Liang; Liu, Jinhu; Zhao, Bo; Shan, Xiujuan; Dou, Shuozeng

    2014-09-01

    We tested the use of otolith shape analysis to discriminate between species and stocks of five goby species ( Ctenotrypauchen chinensis, Odontamblyopus lacepedii, Amblychaeturichthys hexanema, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, and Acanthogobius hasta) found in northern Chinese coastal waters. The five species were well differentiated with high overall classification success using shape indices (83.7%), elliptic Fourier coefficients (98.6%), or the combination of both methods (94.9%). However, shape analysis alone was only moderately successful at discriminating among the four stocks (Liaodong Bay, LD; Bohai Bay, BH; Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary HRE, and Jiaozhou Bay, JZ stocks) of A. hasta (50%-54%) and C. stigmatias (65.7%-75.8%). For these two species, shape analysis was moderately successful at discriminating the HRE or JZ stocks from other stocks, but failed to effectively identify the LD and BH stocks. A large number of otoliths were misclassified between the HRE and JZ stocks, which are geographically well separated. The classification success for stock discrimination was higher using elliptic Fourier coefficients alone (70.2%) or in combination with shape indices (75.8%) than using only shape indices (65.7%) in C. stigmatias whereas there was little difference among the three methods for A. hasta. Our results supported the common belief that otolith shape analysis is generally more effective for interspecific identification than intraspecific discrimination. Moreover, compared with shape indices analysis, Fourier analysis improves classification success during inter- and intra-species discrimination by otolith shape analysis, although this did not necessarily always occur in all fish species.

  7. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  8. Effect of ammonium-based, non-sulfate fertilizers on CH 4 emissions from a paddy field with a typical Chinese water management regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Haibo; Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Mei, Baoling; Xie, Baohua; Wang, Rui; Deng, Jia; Cui, Feng; Zhu, Jianguo

    2011-02-01

    The effects of ammonium-based, non-sulfate fertilizers, such as urea and/or ammonium phosphate (NH 4H 2PO 4), on methane (CH 4) emissions from paddy rice fields deserve attention, as they are being used increasingly for rice cultivation. A four-year field campaign was conducted in the Yangtze River Delta from 2004 to 2007 to assess the effects of different application rates of urea plus NH 4H 2PO 4 on the CH 4 emissions from a paddy rice field. The experimental field was under a typical Chinese water regime that follows a flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding-moist irrigation mode. Over the course of four years, the mean cumulative CH 4 emissions during the rice seasons were 221, 136 and 112 kg C ha -1 for nitrogen addition rates of 0, 150 and 250 kg N ha -1, respectively. Compared to the treatment without nitrogen amendments, the 150 kg N ha -1 decreased the CH 4 emissions by 6-59% ( P < 0.01 in one year, but not statistically significant in the others). When the addition rate was further increased to 250 kg N ha -1, the CH 4 emissions were significantly reduced by 35-53% ( P < 0.01) compared to the no-nitrogen treatment. Thus, an addition rate of 250 kg N ha -1, which has been commonly adopted in the delta region in the past two decades, can be regarded as an effective management measure as regards increasing rice yields while reducing CH 4 emissions. Considering that doses of ammonium-based, non-sulfate fertilizers higher than 250 kg N ha -1 currently are, and most likely will continue to be, commonly applied for paddy rice cultivation in the Yangtze River Delta and other parts of China, the inhibitory effects on CH 4 emissions from rice production are expected to be pronounced at the regional scale. However, further studies are required to provide more concrete evidence about this issue. Moreover, further research is needed to determine whether N management measures are also effective in view of net greenhouse gas fluxes (including CH 4, nitrous oxide, ammonia

  9. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  10. How does Chinese loess become magnetized?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2010-03-01

    Despite nearly three decades of paleomagnetic research on the extensive Chinese loess deposits, a convincing explanation has yet to be developed for how Chinese loess becomes magnetized. To address this problem, we conducted re-deposition experiments using weakly consolidated Holocene Chinese loess that was disaggregated in the laboratory, and compare our results with published paleomagnetic data. We simulated a depositional remanent magnetization (DRM) associated with dry deposition of eolian sediments, and a post-depositional remanent magnetization (PDRM) in which the sediment was water-saturated after deposition. The simulated DRM faithfully records the declination of the applied field, but with systematic inclination flattening. Addition of minor water slightly improves recording of the applied field, but inclination flattening persists. Reliable recording of the applied field occurs for PDRM simulation in water-saturated sediment. Our synthesis of paleomagnetic data from Chinese loess indicates that time-averaged paleomagnetic directions are often indistinguishable from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) field, but in many cases inclinations are shallower than for a GAD field. We conclude that the Chinese loess is magnetized by a combination of DRM and PDRM mechanisms, with water content providing the dominant control on which mechanism aligns the detrital mineral fraction. Where pedogenesis causes neoformation of magnetic minerals, an additional chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) will occur. The magnetization of Chinese loess therefore appears to be controlled by a complex time-varying combination of DRM, PDRM and CRM mechanisms.

  11. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.

    PubMed

    Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-03-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination. PMID:20033298

  12. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. II. Comparison of mutagenic effects at five genetic markers induced by retort process water plus near ultraviolet light in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Strniste, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line heterozygous at the adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) locus was used for selection of induced mutants resistant to 8-azaadenine (8AA), 6-thioguanine (6TG), ouabain (OUA), emetine (EMT) and diphtheria toxin (DIP). The expression times necessary for optimizing the number of mutants recovered at the different loci have been determined using the known direct acting mutagen, far ultraviolet light (FUV), and a complex aqueous organic mixture (shale oil process water) activated with near ultraviolet light (NUV). The results indicate that optimal expression times following treatment with either mutagen was between 2 and 8 days. For CHO cells treated with shale oil process water and subsequently exposed to NUV a linear dose response for mutant induction was observed for all five genetic loci. At 10% surviving fraction of cells, between 35- and 130-fold increases above backgound mutation frequencies were observed for the various markers examined.

  13. Images of Chinese and Chinese Americans Mirrored in Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Mingshui

    1994-01-01

    Examines how 73 picture storybooks portrayed Chinese and Chinese Americans and how the books reflect the Chinese culture. Finds that most present positive images of Chinese and Chinese Americans, that cultural inauthenticity is the main flaw of many books, and that more picture books are needed that feature flesh and blood contemporary Chinese and…

  14. Geographic structure evidenced in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker (A. catenella - group IV (Whedon & Kofoid) Balech) along Japanese and Chinese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Genovesi, Benjamin; Berrebi, Patrick; Nagai, Satoshi; Reynaud, Nathalie; Wang, Jinhui; Masseret, Estelle

    2015-09-15

    The intra-specific diversity and genetic structure within the Alexandrium pacificum Litaker (A. catenella - Group IV) populations along the Temperate Asian coasts, were studied among individuals isolated from Japan to China. The UPGMA dendrogram and FCA revealed the existence of 3 clusters. Assignment analysis suggested the occurrence of gene flows between the Japanese Pacific coast (cluster-1) and the Chinese Zhejiang coast (cluster-2). Human transportations are suspected to explain the lack of genetic difference between several pairs of distant Japanese samples, hardly explained by a natural dispersal mechanism. The genetic isolation of the population established in the Sea of Japan (cluster-3) suggested the existence of a strong ecological and geographical barrier. Along the Pacific coasts, the South-North current allows limited exchanges between Chinese and Japanese populations. The relationships between Temperate Asian and Mediterranean individuals suggested different scenario of large-scale dispersal mechanisms. PMID:26188429

  15. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive called monosodium glutamate (MSG) has ... Reports of serious reactions to Chinese food first appeared in ... thought to be the cause of these symptoms. There have been many ...

  16. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  17. Chinese-Mandarin; Chinese Character Exercise Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This writing exercise book, designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course, consists of step-by-step illustrations for copying 825 characters in the Chinese writing system. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.] (AMM)

  18. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  19. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  20. Computers and Chinese Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierman, Frank A.; Barber, Elizabeth

    This survey of the field of Chinese language computational linguistics was prepared as a background study for the Chinese Linguistics Project at Princeton. Since the authors' main purpose was "critical reconnaissance," quantitative emphasis is on systems with which they are most familiar. The complexity of the Chinese writing system has presented…

  1. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty. PMID:25296517

  2. Taiwanese, Chinese treatment facilities installed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-19

    This article reports on water treatment facilities from a U.S. company installed in a major Taiwanese refinery and in two mainland Chinese oil fields. Chinese Petroleum Corp. recently installed a wastewater treatment plant at its Kaohsiung, Taiwan, refinery. The treatment plant was needed because of expansion of the refinery's naphtha-cracking facilities at the 446,500-b/d refinery, the largest refinery, in terms of crude charging capacity, in the Asia/Pacific region. The same system has also gone into two oil field applications in the People's Republic of China: the Zhongyuan and Shengli oil fields. The system is designed for a total wastewater flow rate of 10,000 cu m/hr. The system and its treatment requirements are summarized.

  3. Chinese Whispers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    In discrete networks, disconnection is often the critical factor that controls system function. The quality of network behaviour may be described by graph-theoretic indices such as the Cheeger constant, or through context-specific models. For water and sediment transport, one primary distinction is between unchannelled and channelled flow: diffusive sediment transport in the former providing poor connectivity and the progressive dominance of advective processes leading to better connected channelization. Within the channel network, Fryir's terminology of buffers, barriers and blankets describe types of disconnection that control water and sediment movement which are crucial to, for example, flood management. In the long term and at coarse scales, network connectivity is controlled by disconnection across divides and through sea level change. Willett has proposed a network analysis that shows catchments whose headwaters are threatened by capture and distributions of fish have provided evidence of the efficacy and rate of these processes, in Africa and elsewhere. Is there common ground between these approaches that can be applied to modelling the behaviour of social and other networks? The critical role of poor connections seems to be at least one significant common thread.

  4. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shopping Tips Food Safety Common Questions Learn More Water Printer-friendly It’s important for your body to have plenty of fluids each day. Water helps you digest food, absorb nutrients from food, ...

  5. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water (like a lake) or to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells ... Too much harmful algae (say: AL-jay) in freshwater or seawater can make beaches unsafe for people. ...

  6. Chinese by Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  7. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  8. Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Sing, Ed.

    This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

  9. The Chinese negotiation.

    PubMed

    Graham, John L; Lam, N Mark

    2003-10-01

    Most Westerners preparing for a business trip to China like to arm themselves with a list of etiquette how-tos. "Carry a boatload of business cards," tipsters say. "Bring your own interpreter." "Speak in short sentences." "Wear a conservative suit." Such advice can help get companies in the door and even through the first series of business transactions. But it won't sustain the prolonged, year-in, year-out associations Chinese and Western businesses can now achieve. The authors' work with dozens of companies and thousands of American and Chinese executives over the past 20 years has demonstrated that a superficial adherence to etiquette rules gets executives only so far. They have witnessed communication breakdowns between American and Chinese businesspeople time and time again. The root cause: the American side's failure to understand the much broader context of Chinese culture and values, a problem that too often leaves Western negotiators flummoxed and flailing. American and Chinese approaches often appear incompatible. Americans see Chinese negotiators as inefficient, indirect, and even dishonest, while the Chinese see American negotiators as aggressive, impersonal, and excitable. Such perceptions have deep cultural origins. Yet those who know how to navigate these differences can develop thriving, mutually profitable, and satisfying business relationships. Four cultural threads have bound the Chinese people together for some 5,000 years, and these show through in Chinese business negotiations. They are agrarianism, morality, the Chinese pictographic language, and wariness of strangers. Most Western businesspeople often find those elements mysterious and confusing. But ignore them at any time during the negotiation process, and the deal can easily fall apart. PMID:14521100

  10. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.0001). Both the field campaigns and the laboratory contamination experiment revealed that CDOM fluorescence at 275/342 nm was the most responsive wavelength to the point-source contamination in the lake. Our results suggest that pollutants in Lake Qiandao had the highest concentrations in the river mouths of upstream inflow tributaries and the single wavelength at 275/342 nm may be adapted for online or in situ fluorescence measurements as an early warning of contamination events. This study demonstrates the potential utility of CDOM fluorescence to monitor water quality in surface drinking water sources. PMID:26397467

  11. Chinese Language Guide. Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay Area Bilingual Education League, Berkeley, CA.

    This comprehensive Chinese language development guide for bilingual Chinese-English educators contains fifteen objectives along with related learning activities to be taught in the Chinese bilingual program. The guide emphasizes audio-lingual skill development and involves Chinese games, songs, foods, and holidays. (Author/AM)

  12. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

  13. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  14. Growth dynamics of Chinese wingnut (Pterocarya stenoptera) seedlings and its effects on soil chemical properties under simulated water change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region of Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yujing; Li, Changxiao; Li, Jian; Schneider, Rebecca; Lamberts, William

    2013-10-01

    Pterocarya stenoptera is a native deciduous tree species and a candidate for reforestation in the riparian zones of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region of Yangtze River in China. Water treatments of continuous flooding (CF) and periodic flooding-drought (PF) were applied to examine the growth dynamics of 4-month-old P. stenoptera seedlings and its effects on soil chemical properties. Results showed that P. stenoptera seedlings in both CF and PF significantly decreased leaf biomass accumulation and the height and diameter growth as compared to that in control (CK; treatment with well-watered, well-drained soil), respectively. There was no significant difference in stem biomass among the three groups, but root biomass in PF showed severe reduction compared to that in both CK and CF. Total biomass in PF was significantly decreased compared to that in CK, but comparable to that in CF. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between CF and CK in total biomass. Water treatments in the unplanted soil pots significantly influenced soil pH, soil organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen (AN) contents, in contrast to no significant effects in total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) contents. In P. stenoptera soils, there were significant effects by water treatment, time, and treatment × time in the eight tested soil chemical properties, except treatment in TK and time effect in OM content. Compared to unplanted soils, the growth of P. stenoptera seedlings significantly increased soil pH value and OM, TN, TP, and TK contents, while decreasing AN, AP, and AK contents in CK group, augmented the mean value of each of the tested soil chemical properties with an exception of AK content in CF group, and increased soil pH value and TN, AN, TP, and AP contents with no significant differences in OM, TK, and AK contents in PF group. Given the fact that TN and TP contents significantly

  15. The Chinese in Britain.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y M; Chan, C

    1997-01-01

    "This research note offers a brief historical perspective on the relationship between Hong Kong and Britain and describes the demographic profile of the Chinese community in Britain...[using] information obtained from the 1991 [UK] Census.... The data analysis shows that the Chinese population is widely dispersed and increasing rapidly, and is characterised by a high child-bearing capacity and a low rate of unemployment." PMID:12179828

  16. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenxian; Shi, Zhanliang; Zhang, Aimin; Guo, Jinkao

    2015-03-01

    Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield potential and water-saving were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semidwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-saving gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding

  17. Urinary arsenic metabolism in a Western Chinese population exposed to high-dose inorganic arsenic in drinking water: Influence of ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Songbo; Wu, Jie; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Feifei; Qiu, Chuanying; Song, Li; Wu, Yu; Liao, Yongjian; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns of individuals exposed to a high concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water, an epidemiological investigation was conducted with 155 individuals living in a village where the arsenic concentration in the drinking water was 969 μg/L. Blood and urine samples were collected from 66 individuals including 51 cases with skin lesions and 15 controls without skin lesions. The results showed that monomethylated arsenic (MMA), the percentage of MMA (%MMA) and the ratio of MMA to iAs (MMA/iAs) were significantly increased in patients with skin lesions as compared to controls, while dimethylated arsenic (DMA), the percentage of DMA (%DMA) and the ratio of DMA to MMA (DMA/MMA) were significantly reduced. The percent DMA of individuals with the Ala/Asp genotype of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) was significantly lower than those with Ala/Ala. The percent MMA of individuals with the A2B/A2B genotype of arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) was significantly lower than those with AB/A2B. The iAs and total arsenic (tAs) content in the urine of a Tibetan population were significantly higher than that of Han and Hui ethnicities, whereas MMA/iAs was significantly lower than that of Han and Hui ethnicities. Our results showed that when exposed to the same arsenic environment, different individuals exhibited different urinary arsenic metabolism patterns. Gender and ethnicity affect these differences and above polymorphisms may be effectors too. - Highlights: • We first survey a village with high iAs content in the drinking water (969 μg/L). • 90 villagers suffered typical skin lesions with a morbidity rate of 58%. • Cases exhibited higher %MMA and MMA/iAs, and lower %DMA and DMA/MMA than controls. • Gender and ethnicity affect the differences of iAs methylation metabolism levels. • GSTO1 and AS3MT gene polymorphisms may be factors too.

  18. Chinese health beliefs of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L; Surood, Shireen

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study examines the cultural health beliefs held by older Chinese in Canada. Methods. Chinese surnames are randomly selected from the local Chinese telephone directories. Telephone screening is then conducted to identify eligible Chinese people 55 years of age or older to take part in a face-to-face interview to complete a structured survey questionnaire. Results. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicate that the health beliefs of the older Chinese are loaded onto three factors related to beliefs about traditional health practices, beliefs about traditional Chinese medicine, and beliefs about preventive diet. Education, religion, country of origin, length of residency in Canada, and city of residency are the major correlates of the various Chinese health beliefs scales. Discussion. The findings support the previous prescriptive knowledge about Chinese health beliefs and illustrate the intragroup sociocultural diversity that health practitioners should acknowledge in their practice. PMID:19144968

  19. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  20. Shuttle ban for Chinese journalists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2011-07-01

    A bill passed in April by the US Congress has banned representatives of the Chinese government's news agency Xinhua from the launch site at the Kennedy Space Center as well as preventing NASA from hosting "official Chinese visitors".

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... C, eds. A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Medicine . River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2003. Manheimer ... YC, eds. A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Medicine . River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2003. Vickers ...

  2. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  3. Nutrient elements in large Chinese estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing

    1996-07-01

    Based on comprehensive observations since 1983, this study summarizes major features of nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) in large Chinese river/estuary systems. Elevated nutrient element levels were observed in Chinese rivers, when compared to large and less disturbed aquatic systems (e.g. the Amazon, Zaire and Orinoco). Data from this study are similar to those obtained from the polluted and/or eutrophic rivers in Europe and North America (e.g. the Rhóne and Loire). Nutrient elements may have either conservative or active distributions, or both, in the mixing zone, depending on the element and the estuary. For example, non-conservative behaviors were observed in the upper estuary, where nutrient elements may be remobilized due to the strong desorption and variations of the fresh water end-member, but conservative distributions were found afterwards in the lower estuary. Outside the riverine effluent plumes, nutrient elements may be depleted in surface waters relative to elevated bioproduction, whereas the regeneration with respect to decomposition of organic material and/or nitrification/denitrification offshore, may sustain high levels of nutrient elements in near-bottom waters. Laboratory experiment data generally compares well with field observations. The high fluxes and area] yields of nutrient elements from large Chinese rivers, indicate the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and domestic waste drainage over watersheds in China.

  4. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    PubMed

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  5. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  6. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  7. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  8. Distribution of Chinese names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2013-03-01

    We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

  9. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  10. Being Chinese or Being Different: Chinese Undergraduates' Use of Discourses of Chineseness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skyrme, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Myths about "the Chinese learner" developed from an outsider perspective abound in the Western world. The focus of this article, however, is how discourses of Chineseness were used by the Chinese international students themselves who, as undergraduate students in a New Zealand university, were the subjects of my doctoral research. It…

  11. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  12. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to semiconductor…

  13. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  14. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  15. The Imperative in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Anne Yue

    A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

  16. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  17. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  18. Chinese biobanking initiatives.

    PubMed

    Gan, Rongxing; Wang, Huiyuan; Song, Yutong; Fan, Jinli; Xiong, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Due to the requirement for comprehensive clinical research efforts in China, the importance of biobanking in modern clinical research is outlined in this overview. Hospitals, universities, and research institutes have been well organized as fundamental resources for Chinese biobanking initiatives and the resulting bio-sample collections. Here, a brief history and time line of development of biobanking in China will be introduced, as well as strategic designs for future biobanking development. PMID:25686040

  19. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  20. Chinese Songs We Can Sing and Chinese Instrumental Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific.

    This booklet includes a number of Chinese songs (with English translations) designed for use with a tape recording produced by the Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific, Educational Foundations, University of Hawaii. A pronunciation key and a listing of cassette recordings of Chinese instrumental music are provided. (EB)

  1. Survey of acrylamide levels in Chinese foods.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; Yuan, Y; Liu, J; Zhao, G; Hu, X

    2008-01-01

    A survey of levels of acrylamide (AA) in 349 food products obtained from the Chinese market was conducted. AA was determined by an liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method in four different matrices ranged from 0.8 to 10 µg kg(-1) and from 4.0 to 25 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results from this survey indicated that AA was present in all samples except drinking water and tea. AA contents in different samples varied greatly according to the raw materials and processing conditions. The highest level of AA was found in potato products, with an average level of 1467 µg kg(-1). Preliminary estimates of AA exposure and risk assessment of AA from foods in the Chinese population were performed using a combination of data obtained in the present survey and 2002 dietary consumption survey carried out in 2002 for the Chinese population. The average dietary exposure of AA was estimated to be 0.38 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), which is relatively low compared with the result reported by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Furthermore, the margin of exposure for neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity of AA was calculated to be 1318, 5250, and 787, respectively. PMID:24784803

  2. Chinese American Experience: San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit encourages students to explore the history and current situation of Chinese Americans. Organized around five lesson plans, the unit's first lesson begins with the students' own perceptions of Chinese Americans, followed by a quiz that provides relevant background information. The second lesson examines the general history of Chinese…

  3. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  4. Contradictions in Chinese Language Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    The Draft of the Second Chinese Character Simplification Scheme proposed by the Chinese Committee on Language Reform, published in 1977, is discussed. The political history of the draft and current uncertainty about character simplification are examined, and a rigorous methodology for determining the success rate of a script reform is proposed.…

  5. Retroflex Endings in Ancient Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1973-01-01

    Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese retroflex endings (syllable-final consonants) based on internal phonological evidence in Modern Chinese. Paper read at the December 1972 meeting of the Kukeo Hakhoe (The National Language Association of Korea); research supported by the Social Science Research Council, Committee for Korean Studies. (RS)

  6. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  7. A Chinese Zodiac Mathematical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John F., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Helps students identify the animal that corresponds to the year of their birth according to the Chinese zodiac. Defines the structure of the Chinese zodiac so that the subsets of compatibles and opposites form closed substructures with interesting mathematical properties. (ASK)

  8. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    PubMed

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216

  9. Migration Problems of Chinese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christina C.; Cochran, Larry R.

    1988-01-01

    Used case study approach to focus on adjustment decisions of 15 female Chinese college students who emigrated from Hong Kong to Vancouver, British Columbia. Common themes of conflict involved Chinese and Western value opposition, the need for personal development, and the fear of social isolation. Six different patterns of client adjustment were…

  10. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  11. The Commoditization of Chinese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Hill

    1989-01-01

    Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)

  12. Chinese Armillary Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.

  13. Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

  14. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  15. Chinese medicine and martial arts.

    PubMed

    Koh, T C

    1981-01-01

    Wushu (Martial Arts), mistakenly known in the West as Kung-Fu, is a system of Chinese boxing which is closely linked with the traditional practice of Chinese medicine. Many of the masters (Sifu) are Chinese physicians who often recommend health exercises and the soft form of martial arts to their patients, while the hard form is suitable for sport and self-defense. Martial arts is a great discipline for body and mind, suitable for all who treasure physical and mental health. PMID:6764088

  16. Biogas: the Chinese experience

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-10-01

    This article details the history of biogas in China and its development as a renewable energy source. There are 7.2 million biogas plants that benefit directly 35 million rural people. The average family digester costs $20 to $40 and can easily be made by unskilled technical workers. The design of a typical digester is described together with its maintenance and recovery of gas. The uses of biogas in China are numerous and solves most of the major energy problems of rural life such as village cooking, and fuel for irrigation pumps and farm tractors. The utilizing of human, animal and agricultural waste is in itself a large benefit and a list of other benefits to the Chinese is given.

  17. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. The Chinese healthcare challenge

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Guilhem

    2015-01-01

    Investments in the extension of health insurance coverage, the strengthening of public health services, as well as primary care and better hospitals, highlights the emerging role of healthcare as part of China’s new growth regime, based on an expansion of services, and redistributive policies. Such investments, apart from their central role in terms of relief for low-income people, serve to rebalance the Chinese economy away from export-led growth toward the domestic market, particularly in megacity-regions as Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, which confront the challenge of integrating migrant workers. Based on the paper by Gusmano and colleagues, one would expect improvements in population health for permanent residents of China’s cities. The challenge ahead, however, is how to address the growth of inequalities in income, wealth and the social wage. PMID:25774379

  19. Kunming experiences water shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Chaozhen

    1983-07-17

    This article examines a Chinese city's measures to plan the water supply and conserve water, and to ensure a regular supply of water to drink and use in production. The Kunming city government called an emergency mobilization meeting on water conservation. Kunming has suffered from a severe lack of rainfall over the past 2 years. In order to overcome the present water shortage, it was decided to publicize the importance of planning the water supply and water conservation; to set limits on the amount of water used and to crack down on large consumers of water; and to make further rational and scientific uses of water. The Kunming government has proposed saving 20% of the water now being consumed.

  20. ANALYZING DRINKING WATER FOR DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the mid 19th Century, Chinese workers on the North American transcontinental railroad suffered less illness than other groups. While generally mysterious at the time, today the reason is obvious. The Chinese preference for tea required heating the water, thus killing many path...

  1. Chinese Swing Back to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetz, Frank; Yu, Ying-king

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of science education in the People's Republic of China since the 1950s, and discusses the new Chinese emphasis on "theory" and "expertness" to produce the scientists necessary for China's development and modernization. (GA)

  2. Chinese Constellations and Star Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Star observations can be traced back to as early as the twenty-third century BC in ancient China. By the fifth century BC, the Chinese had named the 28 asterisms that formed the basic reference points for the Chinese equatorial coordinate system. By the first century BC, the Chinese had developed a unique system of constellations that reflected Chinese cosmological ideas with the central theme of the correlation between Heaven and Man. Star charts have been discovered on tomb ceilings dating back to Han times. But most of them are illustrative in their presentation of stars. The Dunhuang star maps from the ninth century, the star maps in the Xin yixiang fa yao of the eleventh century, and the Suzhou Astronomical Planisphere of the thirteenth century are examples of precise star maps from ancient China.

  3. The Chinese Cult of Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Sylvia H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the cult of examinations continues to affect both teachers and students in China, and concludes that any serious reform of Chinese education depends on thoroughly rethinking the role of examinations in learning. (SR)

  4. Bulimia nervosa in the Chinese.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, U

    1993-12-01

    Typical DSM-III-R bulimia nervosa with self-induced vomiting was found in 2 women of Hong Kong Chinese origin and a Chinese man from Malaysia. All 3 cases had a family history of obesity. In 2 of the cases a period of weight gain and in the third case frank obesity preceded the onset of the eating disorder. Cultural transition seemed to play an important part in the onset and maintenance of the eating disorder. PMID:8293034

  5. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying of the Chinese wolfberry fruits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maosheng; Ding, Changjiang

    2016-01-01

    The conventional methods of drying Chinese wolfberry fruits cause loss of active ingredients and the drying time is very long. In order to explore and investigate the new method of drying Chinese wolfberry fruits, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying system was used to drying for Chinese wolfberry fruits with a multiple needle-to-plate electrode on five levels alternating voltage at 0, 20, 24, 28 and 32 kV and a multiple needle-to-plate electrode on a level direct voltage at 28 kV. The drying rate, the moisture rate, shrinkage rate, rehydration ratio, and Vitamin C contents of Chinese wolfberry were measured. Ten different mathematical drying models were also determined and compared to simulate drying curves based on the root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and the coefficient of correlation. Each drying treatment was carried out at (25 ± 2) °C, the drying relative humidity was (30 ± 5) % and all samples were dehydrated until they reached the final moisture content (17 ± 1)/100 g. The results showed that the drying rate of Chinese wolfberry was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and improved by 1.8777, 2.0017, 2.3676 and 2.6608 times, respectively, at 20, 24, 28 and 32 kV, compared to that of the control in the 5 h. The drying rate with multiple needles-to-plate electrode under AC electric field is faster than that with a multiple needle-to-plate electrode under DC electric field and the mass transfer enhancement factor heightened with the increase of voltage. The EHD drying treatments have a significant effect on rehydration ratio, and Vitamin C contents of Chinese wolfberry, but no significant differences was observed in shrinkage rate of Chinese wolfberry. The specific energy consumption of EHD drying (kJ·kg(-1) water) were significantly influenced by the alternating voltage, it heightened with the increase of voltage. The Parabolic model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of

  6. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print. PMID:25711130

  7. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publication, the development of publishing bibliometric data from Chinese databases, the prospect of an Open Access publication model in China, the issue of language bias in literature reviews and the quality of Chinese journals are discussed. Epidemiologists are encouraged to search the Chinese bibliographic databases for Chinese journal articles. PMID:18826604

  8. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries and embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. M.; Hong, G.-H.; Ye, X. W.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, X. L.

    2009-01-01

    that in the winter. In the embayment, the exchange flow dominated the water budgets, resulting in average system salinity approaching the China seas salinity where river discharge is limited. The major Chinese estuaries and embayment transport 1.0-3.1% of nitrogen, 0.2-0.5% of phosphorus and 3% of silicon necessary for phytoplankton growth for the China Seas. This demonstrates regenerated nutrients in water column and sediments and nutrients transport fluxes between the China Seas and open ocean play an important role for phytoplankton growth. Atmospheric deposition may be another important source of nutrients for the China Seas.

  9. [Cataplasma of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-yuan; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yun-bin; Xue, Jing; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2003-01-01

    The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) transdermal plaster (also known as "cataplasma") are flexible adhesive patches used for treatment of pain, resulted from arthritis, sprain and bruise, tendovaginitis, lumbar spine protrude, neuralgia, hyperosteogeny ache, abdominal discomfort and metastatic cancer, etc. Since the 1980's, investigators in China have used this modern patch delivery system for herbal drugs and obtained satisfactory results especially from the treatment of various types of pain associated with bone diseases, abdominal discomfort, and tumors, etc. The production of TCM cataplasma was successfully scaled up in early 90's and the commercial product line for an antirheumatic agent was first established in Shanghai by Leiyunshang Group. Thus far, a number of products in the form of TCM cataplasma became commercially available in the market, and clinical investigations with these products indicated that topically applicable herbal preparations, especially in the form of cataplasma, are preferred formulations with respect to the treatment comfort of the patient. Compared to the traditional preparations which utilize rubber and rosin as adhesives, cataplasma is advantageous in that the lipophilic and hydrophilic ingredients of the herbal extracts are solubilized and then "gellified" with the organic polymers, and that the drug matrix containing up to 40%-70% of water serves as a "drug reservoir" that will sustain the quick and continuous release of herbal ingredients over several days across the skin. While there are conventional remedies for palliation of pain and discomfort associated with bone diseases or cancers, administration of oral medicinal herbs combined with topical agents such as TCM cataplasma may significantly alleviate the symptoms and improve their quality of life. This article provides a review on three aspects, which include the process development, characteristics and developmental status of TCM cataplasma, and future development of

  10. Effect of Flavourzyme on proteolysis, antioxidant capacity and sensory attributes of Chinese sausage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Qiao, Yan; Zou, Yufeng; Huang, Ming; Kang, Zhuangli; Zhou, Guanghong

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Flavourzyme, at levels of 0 (control) 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 LAPU/kg raw meat, on the proteolysis, antioxidant capacity and sensory attributes of Chinese sausage made at 50 °C for 48 h. Results showed that Flavourzyme addition in Chinese sausage accelerated protein degradation, which was reflected by the increase of non-protein nitrogen and appearance of new protein bands in both water-soluble and salt-soluble proteins. By adding Flavourzyme, texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters decreased significantly, and aroma, taste and texture scores were enhanced, respectively. The best sensory attributes were obtained at 8 and 12 LAPU/kg Flavourzyme dose. Besides, Flavourzyme addition enhanced antioxidant capacity, lowered water activity and TBARS values of Chinese sausage. Therefore, moderate Flavourzyme addition is a novel method with great potential to improve eating properties and storage stability of Chinese sausage. PMID:24831062