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Sample records for dunal sobre ninfas

  1. In Vitro Propagation of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal known as Ashwagandha is commonly used in traditional Indian medicine system. It possesses immense therapeutic value against a large number of ailments such as mental diseases, asthma, inflammation, arthritis, rheumatism, tuberculosis, and a variety of other diseases including cancer. The therapeutic potential of W. somnifera is due to the presence of secondary metabolites mainly, tropane alkaloids and withanolides (steroidal lactones). The growing realization of commercial value of the plant has initiated a new demand for in vitro propagation of elite chemotypes of Withania. Micropropagation which is an important tool for rapid multiplication requires optimization of number of factors such as nutrient medium, status of medium (solid and liquid), type of explant, and plant growth regulators. Similarly, an efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration system which is a prerequisite for the development of genetic transformation protocol requires precise manipulation of various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. PMID:27108319

  2. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera dunal.: A possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Maheep; Sharma, Durgesh; Salvi, Mahendra

    2009-11-01

    Present study was carried out to understand the possible mechanism of neuroprotective action of the root extract of Withania somnifera Dunal (WS). The study is focused on WS mediated inhibition of nitric oxide production, which is known to mediate neurodegeneration during stress. Adult mice (28 +/- 5 g) were exposed to restraint stress for 30 days. Activity of NADPH diaphorase (NADPH-d) and factors (Acetylcholine, serotonin and corticosterone), which regulates NADPH-d activity were studied. Treatment with WS extract for 30 days during stress, significantly reversed the stress induced NADPH-d activation. Observations suggest that inhibition of NADPH-d by WS is not a direct effect of extract on NADPH-d, instead it inhibits via suppressing corticosterone release and activating cholineacetyltransferase, which in turn increase serotonin level in hippocampus to inhibit NADPH-d. Together, the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of WS can be attributed to its role in the down regulation of nNOS and neurochemical alterations of specific neurotransmitter systems. These observations thus suggest that WS root extract could be developed as a potential preventive or therapeutic drug for stress induced neurological disorders. PMID:19444606

  3. In Vitro Shoot Cultures and Analysis of Steroidal Lactones in Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2016-01-01

    Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (Solanaceae), also known as 'Panir Bandh' is an important medicinal plant that is extensively used as a home remedy for several diseases in the Indian subcontinent. The plant possesses specific steroidal lactones known as withanolides which show high level of pharmaceutical activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Natural propagation of the plant occurs through Seed but due to unisexual nature of the flowers; chances of Seed setting are very limited and the plant is on the verge of extinction because of overexploitation and reproductive failure. Plant tissue culture techniques offer opportunities for ex situ conservation and mass multiplication of endangered plant species through micropropagation and also enhancement of in vitro biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. In this chapter we present protocols for the mass multiplication of W. coagulans, assessment of clonal fidelity by RAPD, and estimation of bioactive compounds (withanolides) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and reverse phase HPLC developed in our laboratory. PMID:27108323

  4. Elicitation Approaches for Withanolide Production in Hairy Root Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a versatile medicinal plant extensively utilized for production of phytochemical drug preparations. The roots and whole plants are traditionally used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicines, as well as in homeopathy. Several studies provide evidence for an array of pharmaceutical properties due to the presence of steroidal lactones named "withanolides." A number of research groups have focused their attention on the effects of biotic and abiotic elicitors on withanolide production using cultures of adventitious roots, cell suspensions, shoot suspensions, and hairy roots in large-scale bioreactor for producing withanolides. This chapter explains the detailed procedures for induction and establishment of hairy roots from leaf explants of W. somnifera, proliferation and multiplication of hairy root cultures, estimation of withanolide productivity upon elicitation with salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, and quantification of major withanolides by HPLC. The protocol herein described could be implemented for large-scale cultivation of hairy root biomass to improve withanolide production. PMID:26843160

  5. Genetic and phytochemical difference between some Indian and Italian plants of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Scartezzini, P; Antognoni, F; Conte, L; Maxia, A; Troìa, A; Poli, F

    2007-08-01

    The geographical distribution of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is quite wide. However, in Italy, this species is very rare and grows spontaneously only in Sicily and in Sardinia. The PCR-RAPD technique has been utilized in this work to determine the genetic relationship among Sicilian, Sardinian and Indian samples and the HPLC analysis of whitaferin A was used as a marker to evaluate the phytochemical differences. The genetic difference between Indian and Sicilian plants of W. somnifera turned out to be smaller than that between Indian and Sardinian plants of this species. The phytochemical analysis as well showed that the Sardinian specimen strongly differed from the Indian and Sicilian ones in its contents of withaferin A. Our results seem to confirm the hypothesis that the Italian populations of this species may not be indigenous but naturalised. Due to the high withaferin A content of the Sardinian samples, these plants could be used as a source for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:17680504

  6. In vivo and in silico investigation of antidiabetic activity of fruit of withania coagulans Dunal.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Sudhanshu Kumar; Krishnan, Supriya; Sharma, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Prakash, Om; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Awanish

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the antidiabetic activities of methanolic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal (Ashutosh booti) fruit (WCFE) in poloxamer-407 induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rats. The electrochemical behaviour of WCFE with anodic peak of 1.19± 0.01V was found similar to standards used indicating that extract is antioxidant in nature. Unlike diabetic control rats, the WCFE treated diabetic rats presented significant amelioration of glycaemia, insulinamia and lipid dysmetabolism, remarkable reduction of oxidative markers and improved cecal and pancreatic characteristics. HYBRID and FRED docking were performed for 25 documented WCFE botanicals for putative action mechanism concerning three diabetic therapeutic proteins namely PTP-1B, PPAR-γ and DPP-IV fully support the in vivo findings. Botanicals like nicandrenone10 and Acnistin F have shown considerable interaction potential with aforesaid proteins. Results provide pharmacological evidence of WCFE as antihyperglyceamic mediated by interaction of various botanicals with various targets operating in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26238114

  7. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  8. Phytochemical analysis of ten varieties of pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Robert G; Peters, Trisha; Talcott, Stephen T

    2015-02-01

    Pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) is a tree fruit with the potential to become a high-value fruit crop, however, its rapid perishability is a significant obstacle. The objective was to determine the phytochemical content and quality characteristics of pawpaw pulp from ten varieties. This study reports for the first time the mass spectral characterization of phenolic acids and flavonoids of pawpaw, which indicated that the predominant polyphenolic compounds were three phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid hexoside, p-coumaroyl hexoside, and 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and flavonols, particularly (-)-epicatechin, B-type procyanidin dimers and trimers. The relationship between the polyphenolics identified in the current study and future work on polyphenolic oxidase activity will help the process of assessing whether pawpaws should be selected based on potential health benefits, i.e. high polyphenolic content, or increased shelf life in the form of decreased browning that may be afforded pawpaws containing low polyphenolic levels via decreased action of polyphenol oxidase. PMID:25172760

  9. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A.; Langade, Deepak G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. Aims: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Materials and Methods: Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. Results: There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults. PMID:26730141

  10. Stability indicating studies on NMITLI 118RT+ (standardized extract of withania somnifera dunal)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Khandelwal, Kiran; Pachauri, Shakti Deep; Sanghwan, Rajender Singh; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha) is an Indian medicinal plant of great medicinal value; used in many clinically proven conditions. NMITLI-118RT+ is a candidate drug under a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) networking project. It is a chemotype of W. somnifera's root extract, which has been used for the present study. Objectives: The present investigation aims to develop and validate a simple isocratic reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) system for the detection and estimation of Withanolide A (marker compound) and its analytical application for stability indicating studies on NMITLI-118RT+. Material and Methods: A validated RP-HPLC method for Withanolide A was established on a Waters HPLC system and the same was used on NMITLI-118RT+ for quantification and fingerprinting purposes, and for establishing forced degradation, isothermal stress tests, and drug-excipient testing protocols as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Results: A validated method was established, which could detect the marker at a retention time of around 6.3 minutes, with a linearity range of 2-100 μg/mL, by varying the amounts of the said marker, which were estimated in four different batches of NMITLI-118RT+. Photostability as per ICH guidelines suggested a slight loss of the active constituent and maximum degradation was afforded with alkali followed by acid, and then peroxide, in the forced degradation studies. In the drug-excipient studies, the maximum amount of active constituent could be detected in the samples with ethyl cellulose and the least with hydroxy propyl cellulose. Conclusion: The method developed here was simple and rapid. The various stability indicating studies carried out in the present investigation would be useful for formulation development and were suggestive of deciding the recommended storage conditions for NMITLI-118RT+. PMID:25210308

  11. Po-Basin Atmospheric Composition during the Pegasos Field Campaign (summer 2012): Evaluation of ninfa/aodeM Simulation with In-Situ e Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Tony C.; Bonafe, Giovanni; Stortini, Michele; Minguzzi, Enrico; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Giulianelli, Lara; Sandrini, Silvia; Gilardoni, Stefania; Rinaldi, Matteo; Ricciardelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    Within the EU project PEGASOS one of three field campaigns took place in the Po Valley during the summer of 2012. Photochemistry, particle formation, and particle properties related to diurnal evolution of the PBL were investigated through both in-situ and airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT air ship. In addition, 3-D air quality modeling systems were implemented over the Po valley for the summer 2012 to better characterize the atmospheric conditions, in terms of meteorological parameters and chemical composition. In this work, we present a comparison between atmospheric composition simulations carried out by the modeling system NINFA/AODEM with measurements performed during the PEGASOS field campaign for the period 13 June - 12 July 2012. NINFA (Stortini et al., 2007) is based on the chemical transport model CHIMERE (Bessagnet et al., 2008), driven by COSMO-I7, the meteorological Italian Limited Area Model, (Steppeler et al., 2003). Boundary conditions are provided by Prev'air data (www.prevair.org), and emission data input are based on regional, national and European inventory. Besides, a post-processing tool for aerosol optical properties calculation, called AODEM (Landi T. C. 2013) was implemented. Thus, predictions of Aerosol Optical Depth and aerosol extinction coefficient were also used for model comparison to vertical-resolved observations. For this experiment, NINFA/AODEM has been also evaluated by using measurements of size-segregated aerosol samples, number particles concentration and aerosol optical properties collected on hourly basis at the 3 different sampling sites representative of urban background (Bologna), rural background (San Pietro Capofiume) and remote high altitude station (Monte Cimone 2165 ma.s.l.). ). In addition, we focused on new particles formations events and long range transports from Northern Africa observed during the field campaign. References Bessagnet, Bertrand, Laurent Menut, Gabriele Curci, Alma Hodzic, Bruno

  12. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root extract alleviates formalin-induced nociception in mice: involvement of the opioidergic system.

    PubMed

    Orrù, Alessandro; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Tambaro, Simone; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Ruiu, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal extracts (WSEs) may possess therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of inflammation and pain. We aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive property of a WSE in the formalin test and to investigate the involvement of several neurotransmitter systems in this effect. The time spent licking the formalin-injected paw was recorded in CD1 mice after pretreatment with increasing doses of WSE. Also, c-Fos spinal cord expression and the effects of different compounds were investigated under these experimental conditions. Finally, the efficacy of WSE was analyzed following an injection of glutamate. WSE reduced the antinociceptive response during the tonic but not the acute phase of the formalin test and decreased formalin-induced c-Fos expression in spinal neurons. These effects were antagonized by the opioid antagonist naltrexone, whereas GABA, cannabinoid, δ-opioid, and nitric oxide compounds were ineffective. The administration of WSE also reduced nociception and c-Fos expression induced by glutamate injection. These results showed that WSE is effective in assays of chemical-induced nociception, indicating that this plant has potential valuable properties for the treatment of specific painful conditions. The antinocicetive effects of WSE in the formalin test appeared to be specifically mediated by the opioidergic system, although the involvement of the glutamatergic system cannot be excluded. PMID:26397759

  13. Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian ginseng) impairs acquisition and expression of ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference and conditioned place aversion.

    PubMed

    Spina, Liliana; Longoni, Rosanna; Rosas, Michela; Collu, Maria; Peana, Alessandra T; Espa, Elena; Kasture, Sanjay; Cotti, Elisabetta; Acquas, Elio

    2015-11-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian Ginseng) has recently been shown to impair ethanol self-administration. In order to gain further insights on the ability of the Withania somnifera standardised root extract (WSE) to affect the motivational properties of ethanol, this study investigated whether WSE may also affect ethanol (2 g/kg)-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA). To this end male CD-1 mice were conditioned under two distinct schedules: in backward conditioning experiments ethanol was administered before mice were placed in the conditioning apparatus (CPP) while, in forward conditioning experiments, ethanol was administered immediately after removing mice from the apparatus (CPA). Following these schedules, mice developed significant CPP and CPA, respectively. Administration of WSE significantly impaired both the acquisition (50 and 100 mg/kg) and the expression (50 mg/kg) of CPP and CPA without affecting spatial memory (50 mg/kg), as determined by a two-trial memory recognition task. Overall, the study highlights the ability of WSE to interfere with both positive and negative motivational properties of ethanol and suggests that the effects of WSE may target both ethanol's motivational properties and underpinning associative learning mechanisms. In conclusion, these results cast new light on Withania somnifera as an agent potentially useful to counteract distinct aspects of ethanol effects. PMID:26349555

  14. NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Two Paralogs from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Satiander; Lattoo, Surrinder K.; Dhar, Niha; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Dhar, Rekha S.; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, a highly reputed medicinal plant, synthesizes a large array of steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Although its chemical profile and pharmacological activities have been studied extensively during the last two decades, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and identification of key regulatory genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis. Cytochrome P450 reductase is the most imperative redox partner of multiple P450s involved in primary and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We describe here the cloning and characterization of two paralogs of cytochrome P450 reductase from W. somnifera. The full length paralogs of WsCPR1 and WsCPR2 have open reading frames of 2058 and 2142 bp encoding 685 and 713 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that grouping of dual CPRs was in accordance with class I and class II of eudicotyledon CPRs. The corresponding coding sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins, purified and characterized. Recombinant proteins of both the paralogs were purified with their intact membrane anchor regions and it is hitherto unreported for other CPRs which have been purified from microsomal fraction. Southern blot analysis suggested that two divergent isoforms of CPR exist independently in Withania genome. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both genes were widely expressed in leaves, stalks, roots, flowers and berries with higher expression level of WsCPR2 in comparison to WsCPR1. Similar to CPRs of other plant species, WsCPR1 was un-inducible while WsCPR2 transcript level increased in a time-dependent manner after elicitor treatments. High performance liquid chromatography of withanolides extracted from elicitor-treated samples showed a significant increase in two of the key withanolides, withanolide A and withaferin A, possibly indicating the role of WsCPR2 in withanolide biosynthesis

  15. In vitro protective effects of Withania somnifera (L.) dunal root extract against hydrogen peroxide and β-amyloid(1-42)-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Seal, C J; Howes, M J R; Kite, G C; Okello, E J

    2010-10-01

    Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae), also known as 'ashwagandha' in Sanskrit and as 'Indian ginseng', is used widely in Ayurvedic medicine as a nerve tonic and memory enhancer, with antiaging, antistress, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. There is a paucity of data on the potential neuroprotective effects of W. somnifera root, as traditionally used, against H(2)O(2)- and Aβ((1-42))-induced cytotoxicity which are current targets for novel approaches to treat dementia, especially dementia of the Alzheimer's type (AD). In this study, an aqueous extract prepared from the dried roots of W. somnifera was assessed for potential protective effects against H(2)O(2)- and Aβ((1-42))-aggregated fibril cytotoxicity by an MTT assay using a differentiated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line. The results suggest that pretreatments of differentiated PC12 cells with aqueous extracts of W. somnifera root significantly protect differentiated PC12 cells against both H(2)O(2)- and Aβ((1-42))-induced cytotoxicity, in a concentration dependent manner. To investigate the compounds that could explain the observed effects, the W. somnifera extract was analysed by liquid chromatography-serial mass spectrometry and numerous withanolide derivatives, including withaferin A, were detected. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective properties of an aqueous extract of W. somnifera root and may provide some explanation for the putative ethnopharmacological uses of W. somnifera for cognitive and other neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. PMID:20680931

  16. Phytoremediation Potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the Deleterious Effects of Methylmercury on the Reproductive System of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Frenedoso da Silva, Raquel; Missassi, Gabriela; dos Santos Borges, Cibele; Silva de Paula, Eloísa; Hornos Carneiro, Maria Fernanda; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n = 20) were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 μg/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg. PMID:24772420

  17. Phytoremediation potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the deleterious effects of methylmercury on the reproductive system of rats.

    PubMed

    Frenedoso da Silva, Raquel; Missassi, Gabriela; dos Santos Borges, Cibele; Silva de Paula, Eloísa; Hornos Carneiro, Maria Fernanda; Grotto, Denise; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n = 20) were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 μg/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg. PMID:24772420

  18. Application of an index of biotic integrity for dunal, palustrine wetlands: Emphasis on assessment of nonpoint source landfill effects on the Grand Calumet Lagoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, T.P.; Stewart, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Using a newly modified index of biotic integrity for assessing biological integrity of fish communities in dunal, palustrine wetlands, we assessed the non-point source influence of an industrial landfill on the Grand Calument Lagoons. The landfill is primarily an iron and steel manufacturers' slag waste. No sensitive species, hybrids, headwater species, and either few or no simple lithophilic spawning species were collected from any of the sites in the Grand Calumet Lagoons. Species catch-per-unit of effort varied significantly between reaches in the Middle Lagoon and the West Lagoon. The most disturbed areas were adjacent to the industrial landfill and along the southern shore near the outflow from the West Lagoon. Near- and far-field stations processed similar numbers of species and relative abundance. The near-field stations showed an increase in tolerant species, a higher proportion of omnivores and carnivores, and a lower environmental quality rating of 'poor-very poor'. The far-field sites were classified as having 'fair' biological integrity and showed an increase in relative abundance, proportion of sensitive species, and an increase in simple lithophils. The loss of biological integrity in the West Pond was not accurately predicted using the modified index of biological integrity, even though it was rated as extremely degraded by the biological diversity indices. Fish communities were negatively impacted by proximity to the landfill.

  19. Functional and Morphological Correlates in the Drosophila LRRK2 loss-of-function Model of Parkinson’s Disease: Drug Effects of Withania somnifera (Dunal) Administration

    PubMed Central

    Catelani, Tiziano; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Sanna, Enrico; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio

    2016-01-01

    The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) is a simple animal species that contributed significantly to the development of neurobiology whose leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutants (LRRK2) loss-of-function in the WD40 domain represent a very interesting tool to look into physiopathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Accordingly, LRRK2 Dm have also the potential to contribute to reveal innovative therapeutic approaches to its treatment. Withania somnifera Dunal, a plant that grows spontaneously also in Mediterranean regions, is known in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory and protective properties against neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of its standardized root methanolic extract (Wse) on the LRRK2 loss-of-function Dm model of PD. To this end mutant and wild type (WT) flies were administered Wse, through diet, at different concentrations as larvae and adults (L+/A+) or as adults (L-/A+) only. LRRK2 mutants have a significantly reduced lifespan and compromised motor function and mitochondrial morphology compared to WT flies 1% Wse-enriched diet, administered to Dm LRRK2 as L-/A+and improved a) locomotor activity b) muscle electrophysiological response to stimuli and also c) protected against mitochondria degeneration. In contrast, the administration of Wse to Dm LRRK2 as L+/A+, no matter at which concentration, worsened lifespan and determined the appearance of increased endosomal activity in the thoracic ganglia. These results, while confirming that the LRRK2 loss-of-function in the WD40 domain represents a valid model of PD, reveal that under appropriate concentrations Wse can be usefully employed to counteract some deficits associated with the disease. However, a careful assessment of the risks, likely related to the impaired endosomal activity, is required. PMID:26727265

  20. Functional and Morphological Correlates in the Drosophila LRRK2 loss-of-function Model of Parkinson's Disease: Drug Effects of Withania somnifera (Dunal) Administration.

    PubMed

    De Rose, Francescaelena; Marotta, Roberto; Poddighe, Simone; Talani, Giuseppe; Catelani, Tiziano; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Sanna, Enrico; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) is a simple animal species that contributed significantly to the development of neurobiology whose leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutants (LRRK2) loss-of-function in the WD40 domain represent a very interesting tool to look into physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Accordingly, LRRK2 Dm have also the potential to contribute to reveal innovative therapeutic approaches to its treatment. Withania somnifera Dunal, a plant that grows spontaneously also in Mediterranean regions, is known in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory and protective properties against neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of its standardized root methanolic extract (Wse) on the LRRK2 loss-of-function Dm model of PD. To this end mutant and wild type (WT) flies were administered Wse, through diet, at different concentrations as larvae and adults (L+/A+) or as adults (L-/A+) only. LRRK2 mutants have a significantly reduced lifespan and compromised motor function and mitochondrial morphology compared to WT flies 1% Wse-enriched diet, administered to Dm LRRK2 as L-/A+and improved a) locomotor activity b) muscle electrophysiological response to stimuli and also c) protected against mitochondria degeneration. In contrast, the administration of Wse to Dm LRRK2 as L+/A+, no matter at which concentration, worsened lifespan and determined the appearance of increased endosomal activity in the thoracic ganglia. These results, while confirming that the LRRK2 loss-of-function in the WD40 domain represents a valid model of PD, reveal that under appropriate concentrations Wse can be usefully employed to counteract some deficits associated with the disease. However, a careful assessment of the risks, likely related to the impaired endosomal activity, is required. PMID:26727265

  1. Biotechnological interventions in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Singh, Varinder; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kataria, Hardeep; Singh, Baldev; Kaur, Gurcharan; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera is one of the most valued plants and is extensively used in Indian, Unani, and African systems of traditional medicine. It possess a wide array of therapeutic properties including anti-arthritic, anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, chemoprotective, cardioprotective, and recovery from neurodegenerative disorders. With the growing realization of benefits and associated challenges in the improvement of W. somnifera, studies on exploration of genetic and chemotypic variations, identification and characterization of important genes, and understanding the secondary metabolites production and their modulation has gained significant momentum. In recent years, several in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies have facilitated the validation of therapeutic potential of the phytochemicals derived from W. somnifera and have provided necessary impetus for gaining deeper insight into the mechanistic aspects involved in the mode of action of these important pharmaceutically active constituents. The present review highlights some of the current developments and future prospects of biotechnological intervention in this important medicinal plant. PMID:25787309

  2. In Vitro Propagation and Conservation of Withania somnifera (Dunal) L.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nigar; Ahmad, Naseem; Anis, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Plant tissue culture offers several techniques for rapid clonal propagation, germplasm conservation, regeneration of genetically manipulated superior clones, production of phyto-constituents, and ex vitro conservation of valuable phytodiversity. An improved and efficient micropropagation protocol for Withania somnifera (L.), a drug-producing medicinal plant, using juvenile explants (nodal explants) has been developed. Highest multiplication and subsequent elongation of shoots is observed on MS medium containing BA and NAA. The regenerated microshoots roots best on ½ MS medium containing NAA, established in earthen pots containing garden soil and are maintained in the greenhouse with 95 % survival rate. Genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants is confirmed by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting techniques, viz., RAPD and ISSR. No variation is observed in DNA fingerprinting patterns among the micropropagated plants, which are similar to that of the donor plant illustrating their genetic uniformity. PMID:27108326

  3. Estudio muestra importancia de conversaciones tempranas sobre el cuidado en etapa final de la vida

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre la importancia de hablar en forma temprana sobre el cuidado paliativo para asegurar que la atención prestada en la etapa final de la vida sea más acorde con las preferencias de los pacientes.

  4. Mating system in Mexican populations of the annual herb Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Marín, M; Solís-Montero, L; Souto Vilaros, D; Lee, M Y Q

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally, annual colonising species are expected to have high rates of self-fertilisation, although recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that cross-fertilisation can be selected for under heterogeneous pollination environments. Solanum rostratum is a self-compatible annual herb that colonises disturbed habitats. Despite the lack of physiological mechanisms to prevent self-fertilisation, pollen transfer between individuals is expected to be favoured because of its complex floral morphology. In previous studies of S. rostratum it has been shown that anther dimorphism within flowers results in precise pollen placement on the pollinator's body, and the presence of mirror-image floral morphs within plants promotes outcrossing in experimental arrays. However, the mating system of natural populations of S. rostratum has never been assessed, and thus whether it is predominantly selfing or outcrossing remains unknown. We hypothesise that floral and inflorescence morphology of S. rostratum should facilitate cross-fertilisation, making it a predominantly outcrossing despite its lack of a self-incompatibility system. To test this hypothesis, we estimated outcrossing rates by genotyping 700 individuals at 13 microsatellite loci, sampled from four populations across a 690-km transect in the species' native range. We found that populations had mean outcrossing rates of 0.70 ± 0.03, with multiple sires contributing to paternity of each progeny array (average effective number of sires = 8.97 ± 0.57). This indicates that natural populations S. rostratum have relatively high levels of outcrossing, probably facilitated by its floral and inflorescence morphology. We speculate that partial selfing in this species may be an unavoidable consequence of displaying multiple flowers at the same time (geitonogamy), as well as the result of self-pollen transfer by illegitimate visitors. PMID:23294438

  5. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  6. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Three Branch Point Oxidosqualene Cyclases from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal*

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Niha; Rana, Satiander; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Hussain, Aashiq; Dhar, Rekha S.; Vaishnavi, Samantha; Hamid, Abid; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) positioned at a key metabolic subdividing junction execute indispensable enzymatic cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene for varied triterpenoid biosynthesis. Such branch points present favorable gene targets for redirecting metabolic flux toward specific secondary metabolites. However, detailed information regarding the candidate OSCs covering different branches and their regulation is necessary for the desired genetic manipulation. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to characterize members of OSC superfamily from Withania somnifera (Ws), a medicinal plant of immense repute known to synthesize a large array of biologically active steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Three full-length OSC cDNAs, β-amyrin synthase (WsOSC/BS), lupeol synthase (WsOSC/LS), and cycloartenol synthase (WsOSC/CS), having open reading frames of 2289, 2268, and 2277 bp, were isolated. Heterologous expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, LC-MS analyses, and kinetic studies confirmed their monofunctionality. The three WsOSCs were found to be spatially regulated at transcriptional level with WsOSC/CS being maximally expressed in leaf tissue. Promoter analysis of three WsOSCs genes resulted in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements. Further, transcript profiling under methyl jasmonate, gibberellic acid, and yeast extract elicitations displayed differential transcriptional regulation of each of the OSCs. Changes were also observed in mRNA levels under elicitations and further substantiated with protein expression levels by Western blotting. Negative regulation by yeast extract resulted in significant increase in withanolide content. Empirical evidence suggests that repression of competitive branch OSCs like WsOSC/BS and WsOSC/LS possibly leads to diversion of substrate pool toward WsOSC/CS for increased withanolide production. PMID:24770414

  7. Influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal)

    PubMed Central

    Tavhare, Swagata D.; Nishteswar, K.; Shukla, Vinay J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ayurvedic classics have advocated to collect the medicinal plants according to part used and seasons in order to get desired pharmacological action and therapeutic benefits. The logic behind this principle is being validated by recent researches. Aim: To analyze the influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha in Shishira and Greeshma Ritu (winter and summer season). Materials and Methods: Fourteen small crops of Ashwagandha of average size 10 cm were collected on October 7, 2013, from institute campus and then replantation was done at Charaka Herbal Garden, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar in an area of 60 cm × 60 cm (l × b). No fertilizers or pesticides were used. The plants were watered daily and plants were uprooted as per lunar cycles for analysis. Eight samples were collected and observed during Shishira and Greeshma season on Pournima (full moon) and Amavasya (new moon) days. The measurements were taken thrice and average values were taken into consideration for study purpose. The variations in morphological characteristics such as length, breadth, weight, and number of roots and twigs were studied through statistical procedure of principle component analysis, which makes interpretation of all possible related variables. Results: Root weight (RW), pith diameter (PD) and internodal distance (ID) were found to be increased on full moon days as compared to new moon days. The maximum RW was observed during Greeshma Aashadha Pournima. Conclusion: The study has shown a definite influence of lunar cycles on the growth of the plant parts assessed by RW, PD, and ID that have found to be increased on full moon days as compared to new moon days. PMID:27313411

  8. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer con una sección especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  9. Informe del NCI y los CDC sobre el tabaco sin humo

    Cancer.gov

    El primer informe sobre el consumo mundial del tabaco sin humo y sus consecuencias en la salud pública reveló que más de 300 millones de personas en al menos 70 países usan estos productos dañinos.

  10. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  11. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  12. Evaluation and selection of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035

  13. Evaluation and Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035

  14. Metabolic shift from withasteroid formation to phenylpropanoid accumulation in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Sil, Bipradut; Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Jha, Sumita; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2015-07-01

    Cotransformed hairy roots containing a gene that encodes a fungal elicitor protein, β-cryptogein, were established in Withania somnifera, a medicinal plant widely used in Indian systems of medicine. To find out whether β-cryptogein protein endogenously elicits the pathway of withasteroid biosynthesis, withaferin A and withanolide A contents along with transcript accumulation of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and sterol glycosyltransferase (SGT) were analyzed in both cryptogein-cotransformed and normal hairy roots of W. somnifera. It was observed that the withaferin A and withanolide A contents were drastically higher in normal hairy roots than cryptogein-cotransformed ones. Similar trends were also observed on the levels of transcript accumulation. Subsequently, the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), one of the key enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway, was measured in both cryptogein-cotransformed and normal hairy roots of W. somnifera along with the levels of PAL transcript accumulation. Upliftment of PAL activity was observed in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots as compared to the normal ones, and the PAL expression also reflected a similar trend, i.e., enhanced expression in the cryptogein-cotransformed lines. Upliftment of wall-bound ferulic acid accumulation was also observed in the cryptogein-cotransformed lines, as compared to normal hairy root lines. Thus, the outcome of the above studies suggests a metabolic shift from withanolide accumulation to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots of W. somnifera. PMID:25534257

  15. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703

  16. Effect of Withania somnifera Dunal Root Extract on Behavioral Despair Model in Mice: a Possible Role for Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Attari, Mahshid; Jamaloo, Fatemeh; Shadvar, Sahar; Fakhraei, Nahid; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-03-01

    Withania somnifera (WS) possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. WS preparations have a potential therapeutic role in the central nervous system (CNS) related disorders in animal models. In this study, the possible protective effect of acute aqueous WS root extract on behavioral despair was explored and compared with fluoxetine, an antidepressant with selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor activity (SSRI). Further, the probable involvement of nitric oxide (NO) determined to measure immobility time in forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in male mice. Immediately after assessment of locomotor activity, the immobility time was evaluated. WS was administered intraperitoneally (200, 400 mg/kg; i.p.) 60 min before the behavioral tests. To assess the involvement of NO in the possible protective effect of WS, a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor, NG-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 min before the extract administration (400 mg/kg, i.p.), 90 min before the tests. Acute WS extract (200, 400 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the immobility time in FST, P<0.05, P<0.001, respectively and 400 mg/kg proved the most effective dose and this dose was comparable to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p. WS (400 mg/kg, i.p.) also lowered the immobility measure in TST (P<0.05). However, these effects were not related to change in locomotor activity. Moreover, L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not influence the effect of the extract on the behavioral tests. As a consequence, the immobility time was virtually constant between the group received the extract (400 mg/kg) alone, and the group received L-NAME (10 mg/kg) before the extract. It is probable that NO does not mediate this beneficial effect, and WS may affect other neurochemical systems and pathways. PMID:27107520

  17. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012, es una actualización de los índices de casos nuevos, muertes y tendencias de los cánceres más comunes en los Estados Unidos.

  18. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  19. El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975-2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975-2012) indica que continuó la baja de tasas de mortalidad de todos los cánceres juntos, así como de la mayoría de los cánceres en hombres y mujeres de todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales.

  20. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  1. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do

  2. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  3. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  4. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    1999-08-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit. PMID:10552646

  5. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models

    PubMed Central

    Woode, Eric; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and xylopic acid (XA), in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.), used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid. PMID:23248562

  6. A Decade of Molecular Understanding of Withanolide Biosynthesis and In vitro Studies in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: Prospects and Perspectives for Pathway Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Niha; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Bhat, Wajid W.; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K.

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera, a multipurpose medicinal plant is a rich reservoir of pharmaceutically active triterpenoids that are steroidal lactones known as withanolides. Though the plant has been well-characterized in terms of phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and identification of key regulatory genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis. This scenario limits biotechnological interventions for enhanced production of bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, recent emergent trends vis-à-vis, the exploration of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics, and in vitro studies have opened new vistas regarding pathway engineering of withanolide production. During recent years, various strategic pathway genes have been characterized with significant amount of regulatory studies which allude toward development of molecular circuitries for production of key intermediates or end products in heterologous hosts. Another pivotal aspect covering redirection of metabolic flux for channelizing the precursor pool toward enhanced withanolide production has also been attained by deciphering decisive branch point(s) as robust targets for pathway modulation. With these perspectives, the current review provides a detailed overview of various studies undertaken by the authors and collated literature related to molecular and in vitro approaches employed in W. somnifera for understanding various molecular network interactions in entirety. PMID:26640469

  7. Effect of cadmium stress on inductive enzymatic and nonenzymatic responses of ROS and sugar metabolism in multiple shoot cultures of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bhawana; Sangwan, Rajender S; Mishra, Smrati; Jadaun, Jyoti S; Sabir, Farzana; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-09-01

    Withania somnifera is one of the most important medicinal plant and is credited with various pharmacological activities. In this study, in vitro multiple shoot cultures were exposed to different concentrations (5-300 μM) of cadmium (Cd) as cadmium sulphate to explore its ability to accumulate the heavy metal ion and its impact on the metabolic status and adaptive responses. The results showed that supplemental exposure to Cd interfered with N, P, and K uptake creating N, P, and K deficiency at higher doses of Cd that also caused stunting of growth, chlorosis, and necrosis. The study showed that in vitro shoots could markedly accumulate Cd in a concentration-dependent manner. Enzymatic activities and isozymic pattern of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were altered substantially under Cd exposure. Sugar metabolism was also markedly modulated under Cd stress. Various other parameters including contents of photosynthetic pigments, phenolics, tocopherol, flavonoids, reduced glutathione, nonprotein thiol, ascorbate, and proline displayed major inductive responses reflecting their protective role. The results showed that interplay of enzymatic as well as nonenzymatic responses constituted a system endeavor of tolerance of Cd accumulation and an efficient scavenging strategy of its stress implications. PMID:24510215

  8. Light and auxin responsive cytochrome P450s from Withania somnifera Dunal: cloning, expression and molecular modelling of two pairs of homologue genes with differential regulation.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Tripathi, Sandhya; Mishra, Bhawana; Narnoliya, L K; Misra, L N; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2015-11-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) catalyse a wide variety of oxygenation/hydroxylation reactions that facilitate diverse metabolic functions in plants. Specific CYP families are essential for the biosynthesis of species-specialized metabolites. Therefore, we investigated the role of different CYPs related to secondary metabolism in Withania somnifera, a medicinally important plant of the Indian subcontinent. In this study, complete complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of four different CYP genes were isolated and christened as WSCYP93Id, WSCYP93Sm, WSCYP734B and WSCYP734R. These cDNAs encoded polypeptides comprising of 498, 496, 522 and 550 amino acid residues with their deduced molecular mass of 56.7, 56.9, 59.4 and 62.2 kDa, respectively. Phylogenetic study and molecular modelling analysis of the four cloned WSCYPs revealed their categorization into two CYP families (CYP83B1 and CYP734A1) belonging to CYP71 and CYP72 clans, respectively. BLASTp searches showed similarity of 75 and 56 %, respectively, between the two CYP members of CYP83B1 and CYP734A1 with major variances exhibited in their N-terminal regions. The two pairs of homologues exhibited differential expression profiles in the leaf tissues of selected chemotypes of W. somnifera as well as in response to treatments such as methyl jasmonate, wounding, light and auxin. Light and auxin regulated two pairs of WSCYP homologues in a developing seedling in an interesting differential manner. Their lesser resemblance and homology with other CYP sequences suggested these genes to be more specialized and distinct ones. The results on chemotype-specific expression patterns of the four genes strongly suggested their key/specialized involvement of the CYPs in the biosynthesis of chemotype-specific metabolites, though their further biochemical characterization would reveal the specificity in more detail. It is revealed that WSCYP93Id and WSCYP93Sm may be broadly involved in the oxygenation reactions in the plant and, thereby, control various pathways involving such metabolic reactions in the plant. As a representative experimental validation of this notion, WSCYP93Id was heterologouly expressed in Escherichia coli and catalytic capabilities of the recombinant WSCYP93Id protein were evaluated using withanolides as substrates. Optimized assays with some major withanolides (withanone, withaferin A and withanolide A) involving spectrophotometric as well as high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based evaluation (product detection) of the reactions showed conversion of withaferin A to a hydroxylated product. The genes belonging to other CYP group are possibly involved in some specialised synthesis such as that of brassinosteroids. PMID:25687294

  9. Enhanced Biosynthesis of Withanolides by Elicitation and Precursor Feeding in Cell Suspension Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal in Shake-Flask Culture and Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the biosynthesis of major and minor withanolides of Withania somnifera in cell suspension culture using shake-flask culture and bioreactor by exploiting elicitation and precursor feeding strategies. Elicitors like cadmium chloride, aluminium chloride and chitosan, precursors such as cholesterol, mevalonic acid and squalene were examined. Maximum total withanolides detected [withanolide A (7606.75 mg), withanolide B (4826.05 mg), withaferin A (3732.81 mg), withanone (6538.65 mg), 12 deoxy withanstramonolide (3176.63 mg), withanoside IV (2623.21 mg) and withanoside V (2861.18 mg)] were achieved in the combined treatment of chitosan (100 mg/l) and squalene (6 mM) along with 1 mg/l picloram, 0.5 mg/l KN, 200 mg/l L-glutamine and 5% sucrose in culture at 4 h and 48 h exposure times respectively on 28th day of culture in bioreactor. We obtained higher concentrations of total withanolides in shake-flask culture (2.13-fold) as well as bioreactor (1.66-fold) when compared to control treatments. This optimized protocol can be utilized for commercial level production of withanolides from suspension culture using industrial bioreactors in a short culture period. PMID:25089711

  10. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on in vitro flower and fruit formation and withanolides production in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Dev, Gnanajothi Kapil; Selvaraj, Natesan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-03-01

    We studied the influence of sucrose and nitrogen concentration on in vitro flowering and fruit setting in elongated shoots of Withania somnifera. BA (1.5 mg/l) and IAA (0.3 mg/l) on MS medium supplemented with 4% sucrose showed 67% of in vitro flower induction frequency, 9 flowers/shoot, 4 fruits/shoot and 11 seeds/fruit in elongated-shoots. Different concentrations of nitrogen sources (L-glutamine, adenine sulphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate 5-25 mg/l) were tested in combination with 4% sucrose and BA at 1.5 mg/l and IAA at 0.3 mg/l. Highest number of flowers (20 flowers/shoot; 2.2-fold) and fruits (16 fruits/shoot; 3.39-fold), fruit setting (12 seeds/fruit; 1.08-fold) at a higher frequency (88%) were achieved on MS medium augmented with 15 mg/l adenine sulphate with same PGRs and sucrose concentration. The maximum production of withanolide A (0.68 mg/g DW) and withanolide B (0.77 mg/g DW) was recorded in in vitro fruits. Highest accumulation of withaferin A (2 mg/g DW) was quantified from in vitro flowers, whereas, it was low in in vitro fruits (0.49 mg/g DW withaferin A). However, withanone (0.23 mg/g DW) was found accumulated uniformly in both in vitro flowers and fruits compared to control. PMID:25872249

  11. Composition and cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich) Benth.) and Monodora myristica (Gaertn) growing in Chad and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer has become a global public health problem and the search for new control measures is urgent. Investigation of plant products such as essential oils from Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora might lead to new anticancer therapy. In this study, we have investigated the antineoplastic activity of essential oils from fruits of these plants growing in Chad and Cameroon. Methods The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora collected in Chad and Cameroon were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS and investigated for their antiproliferative activity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Results Overall, monoterpenes were mostly found in the six essential oils. Oils from X. aethiopica and X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon mainly contain β-pinene at 24.6%, 28.2%, 35.7% and 32.9% respectively. Monodora myristica oils from both origins contain mainly α-phellandrene at 52.7% and 67.1% respectively. The plant origin did not significantly influence the chemical composition of oils. The six essential oils exerted cytotoxic activity against cancer (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (ARPE-19), with more pronounced effect on neoplastic cells in the majority of cases. The highest selectivity was obtained with the essential oils of X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon (5.87 and 5.54) which were more cytotoxic against MCF-7 than against normal cell line (ARPE-19) with IC50 values of 0.155 μL/mL and 0.166 μL/mL respectively. Conclusions Essential oils from fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora have shown acceptable antineoplastic potency, and might be investigated further in this regard. PMID:24708588

  12. Secondary metabolites and phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes as influenced under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in Withania somnifera Dunal, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2014-11-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of supplemental ultraviolet B (3.6 kJ m(-2)day(-1) above ambient) radiation on secondary metabolites and phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes of Withania somnifera under field conditions at 40, 70, and 100 days after transplantation. Secondary metabolites' (alkaloids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, lignin, phytosterols, saponins, and tannins) concentrations were analysed at the end of the treatments. Activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHI), and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) were also determined. In treated plants, secondary metabolite-concentrations generally increased (higher concentrations being recorded in roots compared to leaves). Anomalies were recorded for lycopene in roots and phytosterols in leaves (all sampling ages); β-carotene declined in leaves at third sampling age. s-UV-B-treated plants depicted decrease in withanolide A content with concomitant increase in withaferin A (two major alkaloids analysed by HPLC) compared to their respective controls. Phenylpropanoid pathway enzyme-activities increased in leaves and roots under s-UV-B treatment, the latter showing greater increase. The study concludes that s-UV-B is a potent factor in increasing the concentrations of secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic pathway enzymes in W. somnifera. PMID:25226342

  13. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  14. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  15. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  16. Sobre a atividade pós-periélica do cometa de órbita parabólica Yanaka (1988r)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    Greenberg, Singh & de Almeida (ApJ, 414: L45-48, 1993) mostraram que a deficiência nas abundâncias observadas de C2 e CN no Cometa Yanaka (1988r) pode ser explicada em termos das propriedades dos seus componentes refratários orgânicos, além do fato que trata-se de um cometa dinamicamente novo, observado através de abertura de fenda pequena projetada muito próximo do núcleo. Neste trabalho, complementamos o estudo sobre a atividade deste cometa de órbita parabólica, através da determinação da lei de potência que exprime sua taxa de produção de H2O (o principal indicador de atividade) na fase pós-periélica, determinamos o raio nuclear efetivo mínimo com sua fração de área ativa e analisamos a emissão de partículas de poeira observadas no contínuo em 625,0 nm.

  17. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    B 13813-4. También se determinó una mayor acumulación de sedimentos a través del tiempo en el cinturón de barro del Río de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (límite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podrían estar relacionadas con la influencia del Río de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente dinámico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente más estable sobre el cinturón de barro en la plataforma continental.

  18. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  19. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  20. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  1. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  2. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas

  3. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de

  4. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group. PMID:23541879

  5. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  6. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos

  7. Nota sobre "Neblina" (Notes on "Neblina")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyne, Jacques

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that the Royal Spanish Academy change the definition of "neblina" in the next edition of the "Dictionary of the Spanish Language" to "niebla ligera" or "light fog," and cites literary usage in support. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  8. Reflecting on Language. (Reflexionando Sobre el Idioma.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazas, Jose Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Covering a 500-year span, this article traces the changes in and evolution of the Spanish language from its earliest written accounts in the eleventh century to the Spanish that was brought by the Conquistadores to the New World. (DS)

  9. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  10. Sobre | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  11. Reflecting on Culture. (Reflexionando Sobre la Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1980-01-01

    The article comments on two articles, previously published in the same journal, which address the relationship between the "little" cultural tradition of Chicanos, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and the "great" tradition of Hispanic arts and letters. Notes similarities among these groups and calls for the banding together of Hispanic artists. (SB)

  12. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una

  13. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua cont

  14. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  15. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  16. The Meanings of Astronomical Observation: An Analysis on the Basis of Relationship with Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Los Sentidos de la Observación Astronómica: un Análisis sobre la Base de la Relación con el Saber.) Os Sentidos da Observação Astronômica: Uma Análise com Base na Relação com o Saber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alberto Eduardo; de Mello Arruda, Sergio; Meneghello Passos, Marinez; Vinicius Domenes Zapparoli, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    This article presents results of a research which aimed to understand the meanings that people construct for astronomical observation. The subjects, students and school teachers, initially received some instruction on how to view astronomical objects through the telescope. After the observation was realized, they were interviewed. The data analysis allowed the creation of 12 categories, later interpreted on the basis of relationship with knowledge (relation to the world, with himself and with others), as presented by Bernard Charlot. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que tuvo como objetivo comprender los sentidos que las personas construyen para la observación astronómica. Los sujetos, los estudiantes y maestros de escuela, recibieron inicialmente algunas instrucciones sobre cómo ver los objetos astronómicos a través del telescopio. Al término de la observación, fueron entrevistados. El análisis de datos permitió la creación de 12 categorías que más tarde fueron interpretadas sobre la base de la relación con el conocimiento (relación con el mundo, consigo mismo y con los demás), tal como presentado por Bernard Charlot. Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que objetivou entender quais os sentidos que as pessoas constroem para a observação astronômica. Os sujeitos da pesquisa, estudantes e professores do ensino médio, receberam inicialmente alguma instrução sobre como visualizar os objetos astronômicos através do telescópio. Após a realização da observação, eles foram entrevistados. A análise dos dados permitiu a elaboração de 12 categorias que foram posteriormente interpretadas com base nas relações com o saber (relação com o mundo, consigo mesmo e com o outro), conforme apresentadas por Bernard Charlot.

  17. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An open-field experiment was conducted to asses the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buen...

  18. Biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida: Post-release evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released as a biological control agent against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) in Sumter County, FL in 2006. Evaluation of beetle feeding damage to TSA plants and changes in the beetle po...

  19. Sources of Resistance to Pepino Mosaic Virus in Solanum habrochaites (Lycopersicon hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging disease on greenhouse tomato. A major tomato germplasm core collection was evaluated for its resistance against PepMV. These accessions included 23 Solanum lycopersicum L., 8 S. pimpinellifolium L., 33 S. peruvianum L., 18 S. chilense (Dunal) Reiche, and ...

  20. Differential performance of tropical soda apple and its biological control agent Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in open and shaded habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth has been released since 2003 in the southeastern United States for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida, G. boliviana can be found on tropical soda apple growing in open pastures as well as in shady wooded areas...

  1. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA since...

  2. Evaluation of mortality factors using life table analysis of Gratiana boliviana, a biological control agent of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (TSA), Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae), has invaded many pastures and natural areas in Florida. The biological control agent Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is providing adequate control of TSA stands in South and Central Florida. However, poor or no es...

  3. ESTABLISHMENT, SPREAD AND INITIAL IMPACTS OF GRATIANA BOLIVIANA (CHRYSOMELIDAE) ON SOLANUM VIARUM IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) is an invasive perennial shrub in southeastern USA. Native to South America, it was first found in Florida in 1988, and it has already invaded more than 400,000 ha of grasslands and conservation areas in 11 states. Currently recommended control tactics for this we...

  4. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA sinc...

  5. Influence of sun and shade conditions on Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) abundance and feeding activity on tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a perennial invasive weed species which has become a serious problem in both agricultural and natural areas of the southeastern United States. A field survey was conducted at a ranch in Madison County, Florida, to assess the effect of sun and shade condi...

  6. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  7. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...

  8. Growth, Flowering and Cold Hardiness of Rockrose in Western Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-three species, cultivars, and hybrid selections of Cistus spp. L., Halimium spp. Spach. (Dunal) and ×Halimiocistus spp. Janch. were evaluated for growth, flowering, and cold hardiness in a landscape trial in Aurora, OR, from 2004 to 2009. Plants were irrigated to aid establishment when plant...

  9. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Florida: A review of key program components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a small shrub native to South America that is invasive in pastures and conservation areas across Florida. Dense patches of tropical soda apple not only reduce cattle stocking rates and limit their movement, but also serve as reservoirs for pests of solan...

  10. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  11. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2) "What…

  12. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Primeros frutos (Initiative about Effectiveness: First Fruits).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin is a follow-up to No. 15 (PS 030 558), which examined some Effectiveness Initiative (EI) projects. This issue presents some beginning efforts to reflect on what has been learned through EI and to draw conclusions. The articles cover the results of EI projects from such angles as their relations with…

  13. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This scholarly journal deals with the study of education. Articles in this second issue are: "La Vertebracion Academica de la Formacion Inicial del Profesorado" (The Academic Backbone of the Initial Formation of Teachers) (Jose M. Esteve); "Deficiencia Visual en el Nino" (Visual Deficiency in the Young Child) (Feli Peralta; Juan Narbona); "The…

  14. [Parenting Information. Informacion Sobre Como Ser Padres Mejores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These five booklets, containing information on how parenting can effect children's school achievement, are part of a series of 22 innovative booklets designed specifically to help parents understand and help their children learn. Booklet #1, "Parents--Teach Your Children to Learn [Before They Go to School]," defines intelligence and suggests…

  15. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the reasons…

  16. Apuntes sobre Latinismos en Espanol (Notes on Latinisms in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez B., L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Several Latinisms appear in Latin American Spanish, which would logically be farther from its Latin roots than Spanish in Spain. The existence of these elements and their importance as linguistic facts is analyzed here. Four words are treated: "Cliente,""cuadrar,""cuarto" and "rabula." (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  17. Reflexiones Sobre Investigacion Educacional (Reflections on Educational Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Educational research can serve to improve education in both developed and developing countries. It can be oriented toward increasing knowledge about the educational reality, generating theories, or confirming immediate educational political decisions. Educational research should be an interdisciplinary undertaking; this variety helps to unify…

  18. Proposiciones Sobre Autonomia Universitaria. (Propositions on University Autonomy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    University autonomy is a concept widely discussed and often misunderstood. In the Latin American context, university autonomy has been regarded as something inherent to the nature of the universities. As long as universities exist, the phenomenon of university autonomy will be present . University autonomy should be examined in the light of such…

  19. Los ojos de la NASA sobre la Tierra

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA cuenta con más de una decena de satélites que estudian la Tierra. Conoce la información que recaban los satélites, junto con Gilberto Colón, asistente especial del subdirector del Centro de...

  20. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

  1. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  2. Emotional Disturbance. Fact Sheet = Problemas Emocionales. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of emotional disturbance. The definition is from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and incidence in 1999-2000 is reported as about 470,000 children and youth. Educational…

  3. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This journal, which provides abstracts of its articles mostly in Spanish and a few in English, contains studies (estudios) and notes (notas) about educational issues, as well as relevant book reviews (recensiones). Studies in this issue (No. 3, 2002) are: "Unprotected Time of Early Adolescence and Intergenerational Relations: A New Educational…

  4. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco, alcohol,…

  5. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  6. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  7. In vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by crude plant extracts from Colombian flora.

    PubMed

    Niño, Jaime; Hernández, Jimmy A; Correa, Yaned M; Mosquera, Oscar M

    2006-11-01

    The methanol extracts from five different plant families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae) collected at Regional Natural Park Ucumarí (Colombia), were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity through the modified Ellman's spectrophotometric method. The best inhibitory activities on this study were shown by the extracts of Solanum leucocarpum Dunal (IC50 = 204.59 mg/l) and Witheringia coccoloboides (Damm) (IC50 = 220.68 mg/l), both plants belonging to the Solanaceae family. PMID:17160288

  8. Four new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) species from South America.

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of "non-spiny" Solanum from South America are described. Solanumlongifilamentum Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is widespread from Ecuador to Bolivia and is most similar to Solanummacrotonum Dunal from Central and northern South America. Solanumantisuyo Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found on the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the widespread lower elevation species Solanumpolytrichostylum Bitter. Solanumarenicola Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found in low elevation habitats on the eastern Andean slopes and in Amazonia of Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the higher elevation species Solanumaloysiifolium Dunal of Bolivia and Argentina. Solanummariae Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Potato clade) is endemic to Cajamarca Department in Peru, and is most similar to the widespread Solanumcaripense Dunal. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:25698893

  9. Four new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) species from South America

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of “non-spiny” Solanum from South America are described. Solanum longifilamentum Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is widespread from Ecuador to Bolivia and is most similar to Solanum macrotonum Dunal from Central and northern South America. Solanum antisuyo Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found on the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the widespread lower elevation species Solanum polytrichostylum Bitter. Solanum arenicola Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found in low elevation habitats on the eastern Andean slopes and in Amazonia of Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the higher elevation species Solanum aloysiifolium Dunal of Bolivia and Argentina. Solanum mariae Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Potato clade) is endemic to Cajamarca Department in Peru, and is most similar to the widespread Solanum caripense Dunal. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:25698893

  10. Ask about Chapter 1: Questions Parents Often Ask about Chapter 1 Programs = Pregunte sobre el capitulo 1: Preguntas que los padres frecuentemente hacen sobre el programa capitulo 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Hampton, NH.

    Chapter 1 is a program funded by the Federal Government to help children who are at a disadvantage in school. Parents have many questions about Chapter 1 programs. This brochure presents many of the questions that parents have asked over the years about how Chapter 1 works. Because every school district's Chapter 1 programs are different, the…

  11. Trabajos de fotometría de moderada precisión, sobre el cometa Halley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parachú, O. A.

    Experimental data to determine the visual magnitude of Comet Halley's head are presented. Two different ways are chosen; one using the photographical contours method and other one determining the visibility beginning time at evening twilight or the visibility extinction time at morning twilight.

  12. Sobre la ensenanza de la literatura hispanoamericana (The Teaching of Hispanoamerican Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Keith

    There are three main problems in teaching Latin American literature: (1) It is difficult to maintain a regional overview, while, at the same time, including a sense of the literary history of Latin America; (2) It is necessary to teach literature so that the material seems worthwhile in its own right and not only as a complement to other…

  13. Profesionalismo: Un estudio fenomenologico sobre experiencias de universitarios en programas de salud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Ortiz, Wilma J.

    Some studies suggest that, upon admission, medicine programs students display eagerness for community service, aspirations to be useful, and to contribute to society's well-being. Those same studies reflect that qualities of idealism, moral nature, and internal motivation, suffer a subsequent diminishing. The researchers inferred that the main reason for this process of change in the mood and disposition of these future physicians lies in the modeling they receive from medical professionals throughout clinical learning activities, by way of behavior and relationships exhibited during daily interaction with peers, patients and the students themselves. This phenomenological study used a cross-sectional sample to explore the experiences of future health workers as they went through didactic and clinical phases of their training curriculum. The study employed semi-structured interviews and reflective journals to explore those experiences and to discover the meanings ascribed by the participants. The analysis revealed that the students defined "professionalism" in terms of scientific knowledge, commitment, respect for human dignity, comradeship, courtesy, empathy, integrity, altruism, motivation. They also described their feelings as they went through the didactic and clinical experiences, and recognized as very important the extracurricular activities of community service, describing them as useful opportunities which contributed to understand their work in terms of a mission dedicated to the achievement of the social benefit. From their individual perspectives, the clinical environment could, in general, be described as congruent with those characteristics of professionalism. During the study we had the opportunity to share, in a little deeper way, the environment... the world... of this small group of young students as we went on trying to decipher their feelings and thoughts. At the end, we realized the richness of their sensibilities, we perceived the intensity of their moral and ethical convictions, we were able to understand their concerns, worries, struggles and efforts. This life event had profound and significant repercussions in our personal and professional life. As a result, and from now on, we will no longer look at our young scholars and apprentices without imagining a noble spirit, with goals which at times could seem unattainable... without completely visualizing or conceiving real hope for a better country.

  14. Recursos de Trabajo: Informacion sobre Carreras (Occupational Resources: Career Information). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    Part of a two-level career education curriculum initially developed for migrant children, the book is the first of three secondary level texts designed to provide high school students with self-awareness, job and role information, and decision-making/goal attaining information related to career education. The text provides job and role information…

  15. Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

  16. Simposio interamericano sobre administracion de la educacion (Inter-American Symposium on Educational Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.

    The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the…

  17. Questions Parents Ask about Schools = Preguntas que hacen los padres sobre las escuelas. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Noting that parents play an important role in the school success of their elementary- and middle-school-aged children, this booklet offers research-based tips to provide both practical guidance and information about a range of education-related topics. Presented in a question-answer format in both English and Spanish versions, the booklet provides…

  18. Homework Tips for Parents = Consejos para los padres sobre la tarea escola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Homework has been a part of students' lives since the beginning of formal school in the United States; the push for increased homework has increased, fueled by rising academic standards. Noting that parents involved can have either a positive or a negative influence on the value of homework, this booklet, in both English and Spanish, offers…

  19. Recopilacion Bibliografica Sobre Investigacion y Cambio Cultural (Bibliographic Compilation about Cultural Investigation and Exchange).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Latinoamericano de Educacion de Adultos, Santiago (Chile).

    The bibliography forms part of a project to define guidelines for a method of cultural investigation in the education of adults. A brief introduction is followed by a list of libraries and the plan for the listing of entries in the bibliography. Entries are arranged alphabetically by author under the following general headings: background on the…

  20. Nueva investigacion sobre kindergarten de dia completo (Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Patricia

    Noting that much of the early research on the effects of all-day kindergarten had serious problems with internal and external validity due to inadequate methodological standards, this Spanish-language digest reviews research conducted in the 1990s. The digest discusses the academic, social, and behavioral effects of all-day kindergarten, as well…

  1. Bibliografia sobre el "bilinguismo" del Paraguay (A Bibliography on Bilingualism in Paraguay)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Bartomeu

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography of ninety-five entries ranging in publication date from 1847 to 1947 brings together information from areas of history, literature, sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, descriptive linguistics, folk-lore and language planning, the central criterion being the relationship of these areas specifically to the bilingual…

  2. Ahorre Energia: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energia en el hogar (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Learn how to save money with Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home, from the U.S. Department of Energy. The Energy Saver guide will help you reduce your monthly energy costs and live more efficiently. This guide takes you through the systems and appliances that consume the most energy in your home, and provides solutions to cut costs for you while saving the environment. The Energy Saver guide also includes transportation tips to help you save money at the pump.

  3. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una componente semidiurna. El modelo analítico planteado en este trabajo, predice el comportamiento de los residuos que se observan en las publicaciones más recientes. Esto abre el camino para plantear una estimación distinta de las incógnitas del problema, basado en el método de colocación por mínimos cuadrados. Ello requiere modelar estadísticamente la señal debida a las componentes de la PRS que no son tomadas en cuenta en el modelo determinista.

  4. Reflexiones Sobre la Capacitacion de Docentes (Reflections on In-Service Teacher Training).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Everyone concerned with educational systems performance agrees that the improvement of teaching qualities is a high priority in any educational effort. Teachers are assigned the role of change agents and are presented with new challenges, e.g., to make education global and permanent, flexible enough to serve in any environment (in or out of the…

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury. Fact Sheet = Lesion Cerebral Traumatica (TBI). Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, offers general information about traumatic brain injury. Information includes a definition, incidence, individual characteristics, and educational implications. The signs of traumatic brain injury are listed and include physical disabilities, difficulties with thinking, and social, behavioral,…

  6. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  7. Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

  8. Preguntas y Respuestas sobre IDEA (Questions and Answers about the IDEA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This digest examines the mandates and requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). (Its scope does not include the IDEA's Part H program.) The digest gives a brief history of the IDEA, procedures for obtaining a copy of the IDEA and its regulations, and procedures for obtaining a copy of an individual state's special…

  9. Las Preguntas Que Hacen los Padres sobre la Escuela (Questions Parents Ask about School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center for…

  10. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose of the…

  11. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  12. Notas sobre los Sonidos Consonantes en Espanol (Notes on Consonant Sounds in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezquerra, Raimundo

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the Spanish phonetic system, as set forth by Navarro Tomas in his "Manual de Pronunciacion Espanola," and discusses the influences exerted by certain sounds over others. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  13. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  14. Curso Introductorio sobre el Sistema DIALOG (Introductory Course on the DIALOG System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ketty

    As an introduction to the use of the DIALOG online retrieval service, this guide presents material that was developed during a fellowship at Carlos III University, School of Library Science and Documentation, Madrid (Spain) and that is based on a course on the same subject taught in English at Texas Women's University. Although the use of DIALOG…

  15. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  16. Consideraciones sobre la Ansiedad en la Primera Infancia (Considerations Concerning Anxiety in Early Infancy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Elsa

    The results of an experience obtained while working with children in the early stages of infancy are presented. They are basically observations taken of a child's reaction to sudden changes, particularly separation from its mother. Anxiety was observed in these infants in diverse circumstances; in some cases it was at a normal level and in others…

  17. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  18. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  19. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Un entorno para el aprendizaje (Initiative about Effectiveness: An Environment for Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin presents articles focusing on the Effectiveness Initiative (EI), a project of the Bernard van Leer Foundation for making a qualitative analysis of those elements of the programs of Early Childhood Development (ECD) that benefit the participants and their communities and cultures. The first article…

  20. Perspectiva sobre una Personalidad Senera: Carmen Fischer Ramirez (Perspective on a Singular Personality: Carmen Fischer Ramirez).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezeda, Dina Alarcon

    1992-01-01

    Traces the career of Carmen Fischer Ramirez, focusing on her work in improving early childhood education in Chile. Reviews her university career, work with the World Organization for Early Childhood Education, and major publications. (AC)

  1. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  2. A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from South Africa related to the cultivated eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, M.S.; Knapp, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new andromonoecious species related to the eggplant and belonging to Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Africa is described. Solanum umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is found in the eastern part of South Africa, and is sympatric with its close relative Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.M-L.Jaeger. It is morphologically very similar to Solanum cerasiferum Dunal of northern tropical Africa. A comparison table with similar and closely related species is provided, as are a distribution map and illustration of Solanum umtuma. PMID:22287927

  3. Niebla ceruchis from Laguna Figueroa: dimorphic spore morphology and secondary compounds localized in pycnidia and apothecia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzien, M.; Margulis, L.

    1988-01-01

    During and after the floods of 1979-80 Niebla ceruchis growing epiphytically on Lycium brevipes was one of the dominant aspects of the vegetation in the coastal dunal complex bordering the microbial mats at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The lichen on denuded branches of Lycium was far more extensively distributed than Lycium lacking lichen. Unusual traits of this Niebla ceruchis strain, namely localization of lichen compounds in the mycobiont reproductive structures (pycnidia and apothecia) and simultaneous presence of bilocular and quadrilocular ascospores, are reported. The abundance of this coastal lichen cover at the microbial mat site has persisted through April 1988.

  4. Stochastic changes affect Solanum wild species following autopolyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Carputo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidy is very common within angiosperms, and several studies are in progress to ascertain the effects of early polyploidization at the molecular, physiological, and phenotypic level. Extensive studies are available only in synthetic allopolyploids. By contrast, less is known about the consequences of autopolyploidization. The current study aimed to assess the occurrence and extent of genetic, epigenetic, and anatomical changes occurring after oryzaline-induced polyploidization of Solanum commersonii Dunal and Solanum bulbocastanum Dunal, two diploid (2n=2×=24) potato species widely used in breeding programmes. Microsatellite analysis showed no polymorphisms between synthetic tetraploids and diploid progenitors. By contrast, analysis of DNA methylation levels indicated that subtle alterations at CG and CHG sites were present in tetraploids of both species. However, no change occurred concurrently in all tetraploids analysed with respect to their diploid parent, revealing a stochastic trend in the changes observed. The morpho-anatomical consequences of polyploidization were studied in leaf main veins and stomata. With only a few exceptions, analyses showed no clear superiority of tetraploids in terms of leaf thickness and area, vessel number, lumen size and vessel wall thickness, stomata pore length and width, guard cell width, and stomatal density compared with their diploid progenitors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are no traits systematically associated with autopolyploidy. PMID:23307917

  5. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  6. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  7. Sobre as inclinações carnais: inflexões do pensamento cristão sobre os desejos e as sensações prazerosas do baixo corporali

    PubMed Central

    RIOS, LUÍS FELIPE; PARKER, RICHARD; TERTO, VERIANO

    2011-01-01

    On carnal inclinations: from early Christianity to the present This study develops a historical review of the meanings of the “flesh” in the West, focusing on its significance in the context of Christianity. Our hope is that a study along these lines can help to illuminate current understandings of questions related to sexuality both within and outside of the religious contexts found in contemporary Brazil. Such questions are of special interest for those who are concerned with both old and new problems found in the field that has come to be known as sexual and reproductive rights, with implications for the field of Public Health. PMID:21980215

  8. The ABCs of Special Education: A Handbook for Parents = El ABS Sobre Educacion Especial: Un Folleto para los Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Preston E., Jr.; Hinton, Valeska S.

    This bilingual handbook is intended to help parents understand their rights under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The following topics are addressed: the Act's legislative history, identification of special education, explanation of P.L. 94-142, parents' rights to know, student records, student testing, students'…

  9. "O Que Diriam Sobre Os Portugueses?????" [What Would You Say about Portuguese People?]: Intercultural Curiosity in Multilingual Chat-Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Sa, Maria Helena; de Carlo, Maddalena; Melo-Pfeifer, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intend to discuss questioning as a sign of Intercultural Communicative Competence in plurilingual environments, stressing the relationship between questioning and the process of developing discovery skills in Romance chat-rooms. Focusing specifically on episodes beginning with intercultural questioning, we will analyse: (1)…

  10. Mobile Library Guidelines. IFLA Professional Report No. 28 [and] Lineamientos sobre Bibliotecas Moviles. Informes Professionales de IFLA: 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestell, Robert

    This publication provides the latest information available on the equipment and operation of mobile libraries operating out of road vehicles. The guide provides details on the establishment of mobile library services, financing, vehicles, furniture and equipment, staffing, collections, service base, and publicity. Some generalizations with regard…

  11. General Information about Learning Disabilities (Fact Sheet Number 7) = Informacion General sobre Impedimentos en el Aprendizaje (Fact Sheet Number 19).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…

  12. Lengua Viva: Un programa de television sobre el habla espontanea (Living Language: A Television Program on Spontaneous Speech)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1975-01-01

    A program shown on Spanish television is a linguistic survey of Spain. Spontaneous conversations were filmed and taped in all regions of the country. It is evident that the mass media are spreading a standard form of speech and that regional differences are becoming blurred. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  13. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal…

  14. El Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo para los Grupos Especiales. Monografias sobre el Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Kenneth B.

    This Spanish translation of ED 132 428 includes the three papers representing Office of Education attempts to face the need for improving delivery of career education to special portions of the population. New additions are brief sections on basic definitions and additional considerations of the significance of work. The first paper, on career…

  15. Una Guia de Consejos Practicos Sobre la Lectura para los Padres (A Guide to Reading Tips for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The No Child Left Behind program changes the federal role in education by asking America's schools to describe their success in terms of what each student accomplishes. The information in this reading guide, presented in Spanish, was developed by the United States Department of Education to assist parents, caregivers, and teachers in understanding…

  16. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  17. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    Electric arc welding processes represent one of the most used techniques on manufacturing processes of mechanical components in modern industry. The electric arc welding processes have been adapted to current needs, becoming a flexible and versatile way to manufacture. Numerical results in the welding process are validated experimentally. The main numerical methods most commonly used today are three: finite difference method, finite element method and finite volume method. The most widely used numerical method for the modeling of welded joints is the finite element method because it is well adapted to the geometric and boundary conditions in addition to the fact that there is a variety of commercial programs which use the finite element method as a calculation basis. The content of this thesis shows an experimental study of a welded joint conducted by means of the MIG welding process of aluminum alloy 6063-T5. The numerical process is validated experimentally by applying the method of finite element through the calculation program ANSYS. The experimental results in this paper are the cooling curves, the critical cooling time t4/3, the weld bead geometry, the microhardness obtained in the welded joint, and the metal heat affected zone base, process dilution, critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the curve TTP. The numerical results obtained in this thesis are: the thermal cycle curves, which represent both the heating to maximum temperature and subsequent cooling. The critical cooling time t4/3 and thermal efficiency of the process are calculated and the bead geometry obtained experimentally is represented. The heat affected zone is obtained by differentiating the zones that are found at different temperatures, the critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the TTP curve. In order to conclude this doctoral thesis, an optimization has been conducted by means of the Taguchi method for welding parameters in order to obtain an improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Para finalizar el trabajo de investigacion se ha realizado una optimizacion, con la aplicacion del metodo de Taguchi, de los parametros de soldeo con el objetivo de obtener una mejora sustancial en las propiedades mecanicas de las uniones metalicas de aluminio.

  18. Ecocardiografía tridimensional. Nuevas perspectivas sobre la caracterización de la válvula mitral

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Jorge; Sitges, Marta; Levine, Robert A.; Hung, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in three-dimensional echocardiography have made it possible to obtain images in real time, without the need for off-line reconstruction. These developments have enabled the technique to become an important tool for both research and daily clinical practice. A substantial proportion of the studies carried out using three-dimensional echocardiography have focused on the mitral valve, the pathophysiology of mitral valve disease and, in particular, functional mitral regurgitation. The aims of this article were to review the contribution of three-dimensional echocardiography to understanding of the functional anatomy of the mitral valve and to summarize the resulting clinical applications and therapeutic implications. PMID:19232192

  19. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Cáncer de 1975 a 2008: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer han seguido disminuyendo desde principios de los noventa entre hombres, mujeres y niños. Los índices de mortalidad disminuyeron en promedio 1,6% por año entre 2004 y 2008.

  20. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and "Tendencias y…

  1. Apuntes sobre la distribución geográfica de Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) en Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is considered the most limiting pest for production and merchandising of solanaceous fruit and vegetables in the Neotropics. The present study updates the geographic distribution of N. elegantalis in areas of major agricultural production of Solanum lycopersicum, S. melong...

  2. Investigación del USGS sobre el ecosistema de arrecifes de coral en el Atlántico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Richey, Julie N.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Toth, Lauren T.; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.

    2015-01-01

    Los arrecifes de coral son estructuras sólidas, biomineralizadas que protegen comunidades costeras actuando como barreras protectoras de peligros tales como los huracanes y los tsunamis. Estos proveen arena a las playas a través de procesos naturales de erosión, fomentan la industria del turismo, las actividades recreacionales y proveen hábitats pesqueros esenciales. La conti-nua degradación mundial de ecosistemas de arrecifes de coral está bien documentada. Existe la necesidad de enfoque y organización de la ciencia para entender los procesos complejos físicos y biológicos e interacciones que están afectando el estado de los arrecifes coralinos y su capacidad para responder a un entorno cambiante.

  3. Personal Safety for Children: A Guide for Parents = Una guia para los padres sobre la seguridad personal de los ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Noting that parents and teachers have the responsibility of safeguarding children and teaching them the skills they need to be safe, this pamphlet, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to help parents talk to their children about how to protect themselves against abduction and exploitation. The pamphlet is organized into six sections.…

  4. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    Electric arc welding processes represent one of the most used techniques on manufacturing processes of mechanical components in modern industry. The electric arc welding processes have been adapted to current needs, becoming a flexible and versatile way to manufacture. Numerical results in the welding process are validated experimentally. The main numerical methods most commonly used today are three: finite difference method, finite element method and finite volume method. The most widely used numerical method for the modeling of welded joints is the finite element method because it is well adapted to the geometric and boundary conditions in addition to the fact that there is a variety of commercial programs which use the finite element method as a calculation basis. The content of this thesis shows an experimental study of a welded joint conducted by means of the MIG welding process of aluminum alloy 6063-T5. The numerical process is validated experimentally by applying the method of finite element through the calculation program ANSYS. The experimental results in this paper are the cooling curves, the critical cooling time t4/3, the weld bead geometry, the microhardness obtained in the welded joint, and the metal heat affected zone base, process dilution, critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the curve TTP. The numerical results obtained in this thesis are: the thermal cycle curves, which represent both the heating to maximum temperature and subsequent cooling. The critical cooling time t4/3 and thermal efficiency of the process are calculated and the bead geometry obtained experimentally is represented. The heat affected zone is obtained by differentiating the zones that are found at different temperatures, the critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the TTP curve. In order to conclude this doctoral thesis, an optimization has been conducted by means of the Taguchi method for welding parameters in order to obtain an improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Para finalizar el trabajo de investigacion se ha realizado un

  5. Liv and Lucky in Liverland. . . Color Us Healthy! A Workbook about Your Liver = Un Cuaderno de trabajo sobre tu higado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This workbook/coloring book, on the liver and good health is designed for primary school students. The 21 line drawings illustrate different aspects of liver function, maintaining a healthy liver, and preventing liver disease. Each page is captioned in both English and Spanish. (ND)

  6. Effect of ground-water recharge on configuration of the water table beneath sand dunes and on seepage in lakes in the sandhills of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of water-level fluctuations in about 30 observation wells and 5 lakes in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in the sandhills of Nebraska indicates water-table configuration beneath sand dunes in this area varies considerably, depending on the configuration of the topography of the dunes. If the topography of an interlake dunal area is hummocky, ground-water recharge is focused at topographic lows causing formation of water-table mounds. These mounds prevent ground-water movement from topographically high lakes to adjacent lower lakes. If a dune ridge is sharp, the opportunity for focused recharge does not exist, resulting in water-table troughs between lakes. Lakes aligned in descending altitudes, parallel to the principal direction of regional ground-water movement, generally have seepage from higher lakes toward lower lakes. ?? 1986.

  7. Protective effect of Dunaliella salina (Volvocales, Chlorophyta) against experimentally induced fibrosarcoma on wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Raja, Rathinam; Hemaiswarya, Shanmugam; Balasubramanyam, Dakshanamoorthy; Rengasamy, Ramasamy

    2007-01-01

    The beta-carotene-yielding microalga, Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teod. maintained in De Walne's medium was harvested and lyophilized. Fibrosarcoma was induced in rats by 20-methylcholanthrene. 0.5 g and 1.0 g of lyophilized D. salina powder was administered to the rats orally through carboxy methyl cellulose. Cisplatin was administered along with vitamin E to compare the protective effect of D. salina against fibrosarcoma. Administration of D. salina decreased the levels of cholesterol and lactate dehydrogenase as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, serum aspartate aminotransaminase, serum alanine aminotransferase, when compared to control. A significant reduction in the levels of hepatic and renal RNA and DNA was observed in the sarcoma rats when treated with D. salina powder. Histopathological studies of tumor tissues showed regenerative and regressive changes. beta-carotene globules isolated from the powder of Dunaliella salina confirmed the presence of 9-cis-beta-carotene and all-trans-beta-carotene. PMID:16713216

  8. Blood-brain barrier permeability of bioactive withanamides present in Withania somnifera fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Vareed, Shaiju K; Bauer, Alison K; Nair, Kavitha M; Liu, Yunbao; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2014-08-01

    The neuroprotective effect of Withania somnifera L. Dunal fruit extract, in rodent models, is known. Withanamides, the primary active constituents in W.somnifera fruit extract exhibited neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cell culture studies. Therefore, we investigated the blood-brain barrier permeability of withanamides in W.somnifera fruit extract in mice using HPLC coupled with high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF/MS) detection. Mice were administered with 250 mg/kg of W.somnifera extract by intraperitoneal injection, and the blood and brain samples analyzed by Q-TOF/MS detection. Four major withanamides were detected in brain and blood of mice administered with W.somnifera extract. The results suggested that the withanamides crossed the blood-brain barrier. These results may help to develop W.somnifera fruit extract as a preventive or therapeutic botanical drug for stress-induced neurological disorders. PMID:24458838

  9. Effect of ground-water recharge on configuration of the water table beneath sand dunes and on seepage in lakes in the sandhills of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    1986-10-01

    Analysis of water-level fluctuations in about 30 observation wells and 5 lakes in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in the sandhills of Nebraska indicates water-table configuration beneath sand dunes in this area varies considerably, depending on the configuration of the topography of the dunes. If the topography of an interlake dunal area is hummocky, ground-water recharge is focused at topographic lows causing formation of water-table mounds. These mounds prevent ground-water movement from topographically high lakes to adjacent lower lakes. If a dune ridge is sharp, the opportunity for focused recharge does not exist, resulting in water-table troughs between lakes. Lakes aligned in descending altitudes, parallel to the principal direction of regional ground-water movement, generally have seepage from higher lakes toward lower lakes.

  10. Novel inter-series hybrids in Solanum, section Petota.

    PubMed

    Dinu, I I; Hayes, R J; Kynast, R G; Phillips, R L; Thill, C A

    2005-02-01

    Sexual hybrids between distantly related Solanum species can undergo endosperm failure, a post-zygotic barrier in inter-species hybridizations. This barrier is explained by the endosperm balance number (EBN) hypothesis, which states that parents must have corresponding EBNs for viable seed formation. Tests for inter-crossability were made involving the Mexican species Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal. (series Pinnatisecta, ApiApi, 1EBN), autotetraploids of this species, Solanum verrucosum Schlechtd. (series Tuberosa, AA, 2EBN), haploids (2x, 2EBN) of the South American S. tuberosum L. (series Tuberosa, A1A1A2A2, 4EBN), and F2 haploid-species hybrids with South American species (AA, 2EBN) S. berthaultii Hawkes, S. sparsipilum (Bitter.) Juz. and Bukasov and S. chacoense Bitter. The development of hybrid endosperms was investigated for these combinations by confocal microscopy with regard to cell-division timing and tissue collapse. Novel sexual diploid (AApi) and triploid (AApiApi) inter-series hybrids were generated from S. verrucosum x S. pinnatisectum crosses by using post-pollination applications of auxin. F1 embryos were rescued in vitro. The hybrid status of recovered plants was verified by microsatellite marker analysis, and the ploidy was determined by chromosome counting. The application of phytohormones in inter-ploidy S. pinnatisectum x S. tuberosum crosses, however, did not delay endosperm collapse, and embryos were not formed. Other diploid, 1EBN species tested in remote hybridizations with Group Tuberosum were S. cardiophyllum Lindl., S. trifidum Correll, and S. tarnii Hawkes and Hjert., series Pinnatisecta, and S. bulbocastanum Dunal., series Bulbocastana. Based on the analysis of post-zygotic reproductive barriers among isolated species of section Petota, we propose strategies to overcome such incompatibilities. PMID:15517147

  11. Guia para Madres y Padres de Familia sobre Educacion Pre-Escolar a Temprana Edad (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet for parents explains what children learn in preschools that employ the Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood and the ways in which learning can be reinforced at home. The first sections of the booklet explain the goals and philosophy of experience-based preschools. Goals include teaching children to love reading and school and to be…

  12. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  13. Conversacion sobre "Tres tristes tigres". Una entrevista de Rita Guibert (A Conversation about "Three Sad Tigers". An Interview with Rita Guibert)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera Infante, Guillermo

    1971-01-01

    Interview took place in London, England, on October 5, 1970 between Cuban writer Guillermo Cabrera Infante and journalist Rita Guibert. Special issue dedicated to contemporary Spanish American literature. (DS)

  14. Steppin' On Up: A Post-Secondary Guide for Migrant Students = Tomando Accion: Una Guia para los Estudiantes Migrantes Sobre Que Hacer Despues de la Escuela Secundaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Stream Migrant Education Program Coordination Center, Portland, OR.

    This bilingual guide (English and Spanish) provides information for migrant students on postsecondary education. The guide includes information on: (1) career planning, involving self-exploration, occupational exploration, and strategies for reaching career objectives; (2) planning for postsecondary education during high school, including a…

  15. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Newsletter, July 1991-December 1992 = Boletin de Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Asuntos Indigenas, Septiembre 1991-Diciembre 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IWGIA Newsletter, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document contains seven consecutive English-language issues of the IWGIA Newsletter, from July 1991 through December 1992, followed by the seven corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide educators with a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  16. Television Viewing = Lo que los padres de estudiantes dotados necesitan saber sobre ver...television. What Parents of Gifted Students Need To Know about...Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    This booklet (Practitioner's Guide), in both an English version and a Spanish version, is intended to help parents apply the findings of research to parental mediation of television viewing by their children, including gifted children. Research facts are briefly summarized and implications for the home are drawn. Suggestions for parents are…

  17. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios = A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents--Spanish/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bilingual Education Office.

    This bilingual handbook, presented in both Spanish and English, is designed to assist parents of language minority students who are residing in California. The book is part of the technical assistance effort of the State Department of Education to clarify the operations of the California schools to language minority parents so they can better…

  18. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios (A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents). Revised Edition. Spanish/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education.

    The handbook, an update of the 1986 handbook, is designed for Spanish-speaking parents of California public school students, and answers commonly-asked questions about the state public education system and its services, particularly those of interest to this population. Information is presented in both Spanish-and English-language sections, in a…

  19. Sobre la convertibilidad de ciertos adjectivos en adverbios en el idioma espanol (Concerning the Convertibility of Some Spanish Adjectives into Adverbs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1971-01-01

    This paper considers Spanish adjectives and the possibility of converting some adjectives into adverbs, keeping the same general significance of a sentence. The conversion of an adjective into an adverb under these circumstances can be accomplished through a transformation which can be applied to a particular logical-semantic structure. The author…

  20. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  1. Tax and Record Keeping Information for Family Child Care = Informacion Sobre los Impuestos y la Documentacion para el Cuidado Infantil en el Hogar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Sandra

    This pamphlet from the Children's Foundation, in both English- and Spanish-language versions, provides advice to child care providers on record-keeping methods. The pamphlet also gives definitions and guidance on business expenses (100% deductible, shared personal and business, and depreciated capital expenses), time-space formula, self-employment…

  2. Parenting Information for Parents: Books 1-3 (Informacion Para Los Padres Sobre La Crianza De Los Hijos: Libros 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These 3 booklets provide ideas, guidelines, and activities for establishing effective parenting and are part of a series of 22 booklets specifically designed to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. The first booklet (booklet #20) discusses preparation for parenthood, infant and toddler developmental stages, the importance…

  3. Kathy Finds Out about the Introduction of Solids. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Descubre Conocimientos sobre la Introduccion de Solidos. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and are designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. This booklet explains that exclusive breastfeeding means giving no water, liquids, or food; breast milk contains sufficient water to satisfy the baby's thirst; at about 6 months,…

  4. Guia para la Ensenanza Combinada de Ingles y Ciencia. Para Padres/sobre Padres. (A Guide to Teaching English and Science Together. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    In the past, students who knew only a little English (called limited English proficient, or LEP), were usually taught only low-level science and mathematics. Now, new science and mathematics teaching methods can help LEP students get a good education in both fields. This guide will help parents know if their children are learning as much as…

  5. Sobre la naturaleza de cinco candidatos a cúmulos abiertos ubicados próximos a la dirección del centro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.

    CCD BVI Johnson-Cousins observations obtained for 1759 stars in 4'×4' regions around the unstudied southern stellar aggregates Ruprecht 103, 124, 129, 146 and 166 are presented. The objects are described as open clusters in the catalogues of star clusters and associations of Alter et al. (1970) and LyngÅ (1987), as well as, in the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO (B) Atlas (Lauberts 1982). Our analysis shows that none of these objects are genuine open clusters, except perhaps Ruprecht 166, since no clear main sequences (MSs) or other meaningful features can be seen in the extracted (V,B-V) and (V,V-I) colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The star sequences seen in the distinct CMDs, specially for Ruprecht 124 and 129, are apparently formed by the superimposition of MS field stars affected by varying amounts of interstellar absorption and/or placed at different distances from the Sun. The CMDs of Ruprecht 166 present a pronounced variation in the luminosity function along the apparent MS, a fact from which we can infer the notion of these stars had a different origin. Star counts carried out within and outside the cluster candidate fields not only support the results that the objects do not present a significant number density contrast with respect to the Galactic disk, but also show that they do not appear to be candidate late stages of star cluster dynamical evolution. Several other stellar aggregates included in open cluster catalogues have previously been disproved as genuine physical systems (see, e.g., Carraro & Patat 1995, MNRAS, 276, 563; Carraro 2000, A&A, 357, 145; Piatti & Clariá 2001, A&A, 370, 931). Thus, the present work implies the potential likelihood of other wrongly classified open clusters.

  6. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  7. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) y de sus parasitoides sobre dietas artificiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the mass rearing system of the coffee berry borer, cbb, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and its African parasitoids: the ectoparasitoids Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Betrem) and Prorops nasuta ((Waterston) (Hymenop...

  8. Simposio sobre Educacion de Ninas: Evidencias, Temas, Acciones. Actas de sesiones. (Symposium on Girls Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and developed implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  9. Tips for Parents on Keeping Children Drug Free = Consejos para Los Padres Sobre Como Mantener a Los Hijos Libres de La Droga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Research shows that recent trends in youth drug use have stabilized; however, the rates of use remain at high levels. It has been shown that the earlier drug use is initiated, the more likely a person is to develop drug problems later in life. Youth substance abuse may lead to many other problems that affect not only the child, but also the…

  10. A+chieving Excellence. A Parent's Guide to Site-Based Decision Making. Noteworthy = A+lcanzar la Excelencia. Un manual para padres sobre como hacer decisiones. Notable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, C. L.

    The parents' guide in English and Spanish versions, offers a synthesis of the Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory's (McRel) "A+chieving Excellence," a 480-page manual on educational decision-making and management. Four sections examine four broad areas in which policies must be established for improving student achievement--efficiency,…

  11. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones fueron transformados numericamente para poder obtener el coeficiente de correlacion de Spearman-Brown para el instrumento (0.661, p < 0.01). El analisis de las contestaciones de los estudiantes refleja percepciones diversas y, en algunos casos, contradictorias con respecto al contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico.

  12. Perspectivas sobre las escuelas charter: Una resena para padres de familia (Perspectives on Charter Schools: A Review for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoo, Saran

    Recently, charter schools have gained popularity with parents, students, and others as alternatives to public schools, but what are charter schools and what effects are they having? This Spanish-language Digest defines charter schools and clarifies some of the administrative and legal details surrounding such schools. The Digest also lays out some…

  13. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12…

  14. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) sobre la dieta artificial Cenibroca modificada.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated system for the mass rearing of coffee berry borer, CBB, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) was developed at the National Biological Control Laboratory, USDA-ARS in the United States. A novel cell design of 32 cell trays (30 x 14.6 x 1.1 cm) and an automated diet dispenser were developed and ...

  15. La influencia del medio interestelar sobre la evolución del remanente de supernova (RSN) G53.6-2.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacani, E. B.; Dubner, G.; Cappa, C.; Testori, J. C.

    G53.6-2.2 is a supernova remnant with an unusual morphology: in the radio band the overall shape can be described as two shells that overlap on the NW side of the remnant. The X-ray emission fills the source and peaks in the region where the radio rings overlap; while in the optical range the emission consists of filaments that correlate with portions of radio rings that overlap in the NW. The aim of the present project is to investigate the neutral hydrogen distribution around the remnant in search for signatures that allow to disclose the role of the surrounding gas in conditioning the observed morphology.

  16. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  17. "Que vienen los lobos!" (Breve nota sobre el plural de los apellidos) ("May The Wolves Come:" [A Brief Note on the Plural of Surnames])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivaldi, Gonzalo Martin

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the problems that arise with the formation of plural forms of surnames in Spanish, problems both with morphology and with ambiguity. Suggestions as to how to lessen problems are made. (Text is in Spanish.) (CLK)

  18. Politica Nacional sobre Discapacidad: Un Informe del Progreso, Diciembre 2000-Diciembre 2001 (National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2000-December 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This report (written in Spanish) of the National Council on Disability (NCD) describes the nation's progress in advancing public policies to increase the inclusion, empowerment, and independence of people with disabilities in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The report covers December 2000 through December 2001. It reviews…

  19. Teorí­as de primer y segundo orden sobre el potencial de ciertas figuras de equilibrio de cuerpos celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbau, Manuel Forner

    2010-11-01

    Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mecánica Celeste es la determinación de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su solución mediante métodos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitación, el generado por su fuerza centrí­fuga y el generado por la fuerza de atracción entre los cuerpos. Los métodos clásicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos métodos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casuí&stica y que permiten una manipulación efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de armónicos esféricos como combinacióon lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios próximos. Se ha elaborado un método analítico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinación del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios próximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema

  20. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  1. Ahorre Energía: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energía en el hogar (Spanish Brochure), Energy Savers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    La versión en castellano de la guía del Departamento de Energía de los Estados Unidos que ayuda a consumidores a ahorrar energía y dinero en el hogar y en las carreteras. The Spanish-language version of U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving energy and money at home and on the road.

  2. The Dyslexia Handbook: Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders = Manual sobre la dislexia: Procedimientos relacionados con la dislexia y otros desordenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This handbook, available in English and Spanish, contains the Texas State Board of Education's approved procedures concerning dyslexia and related disorders and information regarding the state's dyslexia statutes and their relation to the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapters…

  3. Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puriefoy, Wendy D.

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

  4. Consideraciones sobre la investigacion hermeneutica en la educacion en lenguas y culturas extranjeras (Aspects of Applying a Hermeneutic Approach to Foreign Language and Culture Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    Drawing on writings by recent post-modernist thinkers and semioticians, this paper focuses on a combination of hermeneutic and semiotic viewpoints and applies them to defining the nature of interpretation in an educational setting (e.g., text interpretation), the interpreter, and the essence of the act of comprehension and interpretation. The main…

  5. The Portugal Project: Adult Education in a Socio-economic Perspective. Paper for the Course, "Curso sobre Educacao de Adultos." Document No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmie, Thord

    Education is one of the major problems connected with the economic and social distribution of the total resources of the world. Examples of the educational gap between rich and poor countries can be seen by statistical comparisons between Peru and Czechoslavakia and between Guatemala and Denmark which show how unevenly educational resources are…

  6. Conservación de material histórico sobre papel en el Observatorio Astronómico de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguzzi, N.; Tonini, A.; Andreoli, G.; Goldes, G.; Paolantonio, S.; Cequeira, F.; Landi, L.; Alba, J.

    At the recently created Astronomical Museum ``Pte. Sarmiento - Dr. Benjamin Gould", the task of preventive conservation of historic documents has been faced. These materials include: 1) letters exchanged between national authorities and the directors of the Observatory, during the first decades (1870-1880-1890); b) original observation logs from these very first times, containing astrometrical and photometrical data; c) a variety of ancient books and papers; d) administrative documents. The state of conservation of this patrimony was varied: since well-conserved books and letters, to highly degraded logs. The observation logs written by B. Gould and the astronomers who followed him had been stocked in a safe with a permanent humidity of about 70 %, without any ventilation and exposed to the attack of insects of the family ``dermestidae." These conditions could not be worse for the conservation of paper. In order to stop the proccess of degradation and create a healthy environment for written-paper conservation, a team was formed with personnel belonging to the Cultural Area of the Municipality. The tasks being performed on the observation logs are: 1) an initial, mechanical cleaning, performed once the material is extracted from the contaminated safe: by these means, adult insects and pupas are removed 2) a stage of about two weeks of duration, in which the logs are mantained in a vacuum chamber, in orden to completely eliminate the adult, pupa and egg stage insects by anoxia 3) the final mechanical cleaning 4) storage in a clean location. In order to perform these tasks, we work in collaboration with the Environmental Observatory of the City, and the group of Material-Science Research of Fa.M.A.F. Regarding the letters, a mechanical cleaning was performed. After that, the letters were digitized by means of a scanner, inventoried, put inside acid-free polipropylene envelops and filed for conservation, protected from intense light and external sources of contamination. Copies of these letters will be included as exhibits.

  7. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The…

  8. Pick and Choose: A Videotape Series on Nutrition for Migrant Families (Coja y Escoja: Peliculas para Television Sobre la Nutricion para las Familias Migratorias).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    One of the major problems faced by migrant workers throughout the United States is a lack of awareness of the relationship between proper diet and an individual's general health and well being. To help solve this problem was the major objective of the series "Pick and Choose." The three 15-minute programs in the series present information related…

  9. Borrowing Basics. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Prestamos. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module, an introduction to credit, is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to decide when and how to use…

  10. Check It Out. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Cuentas Corientes. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on how to choose and keep a checking account is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to open and keep a…

  11. Resultados de una encuesta sobre posibles reformas ortograficas en el espanol del siglo XX (Results of a Survey Concerning Possible Orthographic Reforms in Twentieth Century Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela Cuellar, Beatriz

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the results of a questionnaire sent to Spanish teachers regarding possible orthographic reforms in Spanish. Changes considered included elimination of certain letters and representation of each phoneme by only one letter. Responses to each question are classified and explained. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  12. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-03-15

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron

  13. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of  Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench) Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don) Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter) Seithe, sect.Lysiphellos (Bitter) Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., Solanum crispum Ruiz & Pav., Solanum laxum Spreng., Solanum seaforthianum Andrews) are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes), preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species. PMID:23794937

  14. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use. PMID:20645769

  15. Bahamian Pleistocene model for some Mississippian oolites

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, R.J. )

    1989-08-01

    San Salvador Island, unlike most Bahamian islands, is a narrow isolated platform surrounded by deep ocean. Therefore, sedimentary deposits on San Salvador must be explained in terms of processes and settings on this narrow, isolated shelf. Pleistocene oolite occurs between Illinoian and Wisconsinan paleosols. Dune ridges of up to 120 ft are composed of Pleistocene cross-bedded oolitic grainstone, whereas interdunal deposits are bioclastic packstone and wackestone containing abundant Chione cancellata. In lower dunal deposits, bioclastic content increases and the degree of sorting decreases. A fenestral porosity zone occurs approximately 5 ft above present-day sea level. In several ridges, oolite drapes over older paleosol-capped bioclastic ridges. During the Sangamonian, sea water flooded the platform, however some remnant Aftonian ridges remained above sea level. As cold water from the surrounding deep ocean warmed on the shelf, ooids were generated and were washed onto beaches and blown into dunes. Remnant ridges restricted water movement and acted as nucleii for eolian ooid dunes. As sea level continued to rise, ooids were replaced by lagoonal bioclastic deposits. Ooid production was restricted to the swash zone along beaches resulting in the mixture of ooids and bioclastic sand in later Sangamonian deposits. Numerous Mississippian oolites display features similar to the Pleistocene oolite of San Salvador Island. Possible comparisons include thick lenses of Ste. Genevieve and Bangor limestones, paleosols in the Ste. Genevieve halo-shaped bodies of Greenbrier oolite, and the relationship of nearly all olites with bioclastic facies.

  16. Eolian paleotopographic highs as stratigraphic traps: origin and distinction

    SciTech Connect

    Eschner, T.B.; Kocurek, G.A.

    1985-02-01

    Significant hydrocarbon accumulations occur where eolian paleotopographic highs are preserved beneath transgressive marine deposits. Paleotopographic highs can represent erosional remnants of an unconformity, or partly preserved eolian dunes, or combinations of both. Paleotopography reflects the extent of modification undergone by eolian units prior to or during transgression. Modification varies between extremes of (1) destruction - where eolian deposits are deeply eroded and the former dunal profile is lost, and (2) preservation - where dunes and interdune areas are preserved nearly intact. The extent of modification that occurs during transgression is controlled primarily by (1) the energy of the transgressing sea, (2) the speed of transgression, and (3) the abundance of sand-stabilizing early cements or plants. High-energy seas destroy dunes through persistent erosion by tides and waves and by initiating dune collapse and mass flowage of dune sands. Preservation occurs where quiescent seas flood interdune areas and create shallow to periodically emergent marine environments, such as interdune sabkhas or tidal flats. Gradual filling of interdune areas with shallow marine sediments can fortify and preserve adjacent dunes. These varied processes that interact between marine and eolian environments to create different types of topography are exemplified in ancient eolian-marine sequences of the Western Interior of North America, and preserved Holocene dunes of coastal Australia. Different types of eolian highs can be recognized by analysis of bounding surfaces in outcrop or core. An understanding of eolian-marine processes and environments that create topography allows for prediction of areas of potential stratigraphic traps.

  17. Mesophilic Actinomycetes in the natural and reconstructed sand dune vegetation zones of Fraser Island, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kurtböke, D I; Neller, R J; Bellgard, S E

    2007-08-01

    The natural coastal habitat of Fraser Island located in the State of Queensland, Australia, has been disturbed in the past for mining of the mineral sand ilmenite. Currently, there is no information available on whether these past mining disturbances have affected the distribution, diversity, and survival of beneficial soil microorganisms in the sand dunes of the island. This in turn could deleteriously affect the success of the natural regeneration, plant growth, and establishment on the sand dunes. To support ongoing restoration efforts at sites like these mesophilic actinomycetes were isolated using conventional techniques, with particular emphasis on the taxa previously reported to produce plant-growth-promoting substances and providing support to mycorrhizal fungi, were studied at disturbed sites and compared with natural sites. In the natural sites, foredunes contained higher densities of micromonosporae replaced by increasing numbers of streptomycete species in the successional dune and finally leading to complex actinomycete communities in the mature hind dunes. Whereas in the disturbed zones affected by previous mining activities, which are currently being rehabilitated, no culturable actinomycete communities were detected. These findings suggest that the paucity of beneficial microflora in the rehabilitated sand dunes may be limiting the successful colonization by pioneer plant species. Failure to establish a cover of plant species would result in the mature hind dune plants being exposed to harsh salt and climatic conditions. This could exacerbate the incidence of wind erosion, resulting in the destabilization of well-defined and vegetated successional dunal zones. PMID:17578635

  18. PCR-identification of Dunaliella salina (Volvocales, Chlorophyta) and its growth characteristics.

    PubMed

    Raja, Rathinam; Hema Iswarya, Shanmugam; Balasubramanyam, Dakshanamoorthy; Rengasamy, Ramasamy

    2007-01-01

    The saline pond microalga, Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teod. maintained in De Walne's (basal) medium under laboratory conditions was confirmed by amplifying the chromosomal DNA of the microalga by PCR with specific primers MA1 and MA2. Seaweed extracts obtained from Sargassum wightii and Ulva lactuca were amended separately at 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% levels to the basal medium in order to assess their potential on the growth and concentration of pigments, viz. Chl a, Chl b and beta-carotene of the alga. beta-Carotene was isolated and visible absorption spectrum was taken at 443 and 475 nm confirmed the presence of 9-cis-beta-carotene and all-trans-beta-carotene isomers. Maximum yield, highest division rate (mu) and highest pigment concentrations were observed in the cells grown in 1.5% S. wightii and 2.0% U. lactuca amended medium and these cells were subjected to DAPI staining. The results of epifluorescence microscopy and image analysis revealed a significant enhancement of the cell and nuclear area of the microalgae. PMID:16697630

  19. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae. PMID:21054161

  20. Evaluation of the potential cardioprotective activity of some Saudi plants against doxorubicin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Osama M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Abdallah, Hossam M; Nagy, Ayman A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of several tumours. However, its cardiac toxicity limits its use at maximum therapeutic doses. Most studies implicated increased oxidative stress as the major determinant of DOX cardiotoxicity. The local Saudi flora is very rich in a variety of plants of quite known folkloric or traditional medicinal uses. Tribulus macropterus Boiss., Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P. S. Green, Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. Karst., Cynomorium coccineum L., Cordia myxa L., Calligonum comosum L' Hér, and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal are Saudi plants known to have antioxidant activities. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effects of methanolic extracts of these seven Saudi plants against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Two plants showed promising cardioprotective potential in the order Calligonum comosum > Cordia myxa. The two plant extracts showed potent in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. They significantly protected against DOX-induced alterations in cardiac oxidative stress markers (GSH and MDA) and cardiac serum markers (CK-MB and LDH activities). Additionally, histopathological examination indicated a protection against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. In conclusion, C. comosum and C. myxa exerted protective activity against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, which is, at least partly, due to their antioxidant effect. PMID:22888535

  1. Molecular mechanisms of hyperthermia-induced apoptosis enhanced by withaferin A.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zheng-Guo; Piao, Jin-Lan; Rehman, Mati U R; Ogawa, Ryohei; Li, Peng; Zhao, Qing-Li; Kondo, Takashi; Inadera, Hidekuni

    2014-01-15

    Hyperthermia is a good therapeutic tool for non-invasive cancer therapy; however, its cytotoxic effects are not sufficient. In the present study, withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone derived from the plant Withania somnifera Dunal, has been investigated for its possible enhancing effects on hyperthermia-induced apoptosis. In HeLa cells, treatment with 0.5 or 1.0μM WA at 44°C for 30min induced significant apoptosis accompanied by decreased intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio and caspase-3 activation, while heat or WA alone did not induce such changes. The upregulation in apoptosis was significantly inhibited by glutathione monoethyl ester, a cell permeable glutathione precursor. Mitochondrial transmembrane potentials were dramatically decreased by the combined treatment, with increases in pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins tBid and Noxa, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Combined treatment with hyperthermia and WA induced significant increases in JNK phosphorylation (p-JNK), and decreases in the phosphorylation of ERK (p-ERK) compared with either treatment alone. These results suggest that WA enhances hyperthermia-induced apoptosis via a mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathway; its underlying mechanism involves elevated intracellular oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction, and JNK activation. PMID:24321857

  2. Repellent effects of various cherry tomato accessions on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Lucini, T; Resende, J T V; Oliveira, J R F; Scabeni, C J; Zeist, A R; Resende, N C V

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on resistance sources to improve the genetic resistance of farm-grown tomatoes to arthropod pests, including phytophagous mites. In the present study, we evaluate the behavior of the two-spotted spider mite on different cherry tomato accessions to identify possible sources of resistance (repellent effect) to this pest. Sixty-four accessions of cherry tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal), were tested. In addition, a commercial cultivar of cherry tomato cv. Sweet Grape (susceptible pattern) and the wild tomato accession Solanum pennellii Correll LA-716 (multiple pest resistance) were evaluated as well. The distance traveled by mites on the leaflet surface over time varied largely among cherry tomato accessions. The wild genotype, S. pennellii LA-716, showed the smallest traveled distance on the leaflet surface (0.8 to 1.1 mm over time), and the variety cv. Sweet Grape was one of the genotypes with highest traveled distance (16.2 to 16.4 mm over time). The cherry tomato accessions 2298-42, RVTC-03, and 6889-53 showed a decrease in the traveled distance by mites over time, similar to that as observed in the wild tomato accession LA716. These accessions showed mite repellence levels similar to those of the wild genotype and may, therefore, be good candidates for breeding programs dealing with resistance to mites. PMID:27050983

  3. Withania somnifera and Its Withanolides Attenuate Oxidative and Inflammatory Responses and Up-Regulate Antioxidant Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Grace Y; Li, Runting; Cui, Jiankun; Hannink, Mark; Gu, Zezong; Fritsche, Kevin L; Lubahn, Dennis B; Simonyi, Agnes

    2016-09-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, commonly known as Ashwagandha, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for promoting health and quality of life. Recent clinical trials together with experimental studies indicated significant neuroprotective effects of Ashwagandha and its constituents. This study is aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of this botanical and its two withanolide constituents, namely, Withaferin A and Withanolide A, using the murine immortalized BV-2 microglial cells. Ashwagandha extracts not only effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in BV-2 cells, but also stimulates the Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway, leading to induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), both in the presence and absence of LPS. Although the withanolides were also capable of inhibiting LPS-induced NO production and stimulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, Withaferin A was tenfold more effective than Withanolide A. In serum-free culture, LPS can also induce production of long thin processes (filopodia) between 4 and 8 h in BV-2 cells. This morphological change was significantly suppressed by Ashwagandha and both withanolides at concentrations for suppressing LPS-induced NO production. Taken together, these results suggest an immunomodulatory role for Ashwagandha and its withanolides, and their ability to suppress oxidative and inflammatory responses in microglial cells by simultaneously down-regulating the NF-kB and upregulating the Nrf2 pathways. PMID:27209361

  4. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

  5. Induction of cell death on Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages by Solanum nudum steroids.

    PubMed

    López, Mary Luz; Vommaro, Rossiane; Zalis, Mariano; de Souza, Wanderley; Blair, Silvia; Segura, Cesar

    2010-06-01

    Solanum nudum Dunal (Solanaceae) is a plant used in traditional medicine in Colombian Pacific Coast, from which five steroids denominated SNs have been isolated. The SNs compounds have antiplasmodial activity against asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum strain 7G8 with an IC(50) between 20-87microM. However, their mode of action is unknown. Steroids regulate important cellular functions including cell growth, differentiation and death. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the effects of S. nudum compounds on P. falciparum asexual blood stages and their association with cell death. We found that trophozoite and schizont stages were the most sensitive to SNs. By Giemsa-stained smears, induction of crisis forms was observed. Transmission electron microscopy of treated parasites showed morphological abnormalities such as a cytoplasm rich in vesicles and myelinic figures. The Mitochondria presented no morphological alterations and the nuclei showed no abnormal chromatin condensation. By the use of S. nudum compounds, cell death in P. falciparum was evident by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation and cytoplasmic acidification. The asexual blood stages of P. falciparum showed some apoptotic-like and autophagic-like cell death characteristics induced by SNs treatment. PMID:20153445

  6. Rwandan female genital modification: elongation of the Labia minora and the use of local botanical species.

    PubMed

    Koster, Marian; Price, Lisa Leimar

    2008-02-01

    The elongation of the labia minora is classified as a Type IV female genital mutilation by the World Health Organization. However, the term mutilation carries with it powerful negative connotations. In Rwanda, the elongation of the labia minora and the use of botanicals to do so is meant to increase male and female pleasure. Women regard these practices as a positive force in their lives. This paper aims to assess whether Rwandan vaginal practices should indeed be considered a form of female genital mutilation and whether the botanicals used by women are detrimental to their health. Research was carried out in the northeast of Rwanda over the course of 13 months. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirteen informants. Two botanicals applied during stretching sessions were identified as Solanum aculeastrum Dunal and Bidens pilosa L. Both have wide medicinal use and contain demonstrated beneficial bioactive compounds. We suggest that it is therefore more appropriate to describe Rwandan vaginal practices as female genital modification rather than mutilation. PMID:18247211

  7. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented. PMID:26988181

  8. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

  9. In Silico Analysis of Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiles Predicts Tumor Cell Response to Withanolides

    PubMed Central

    Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Indian ginseng, winter cherry, Solanaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine. Roots are either chewed or used to prepare beverages (aqueous decocts). The major secondary metabolites of Withania somnifera are the withanolides, which are C-28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids. Withania somnifera extracts exert chemopreventive and anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. The aims of the present in silico study were, firstly, to investigate whether tumor cells develop cross-resistance between standard anticancer drugs and withanolides and, secondly, to elucidate the molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells towards withanolides. Using IC50 concentrations of eight different withanolides (withaferin A, withaferin A diacetate, 3-azerininylwithaferin A, withafastuosin D diacetate, 4-B-hydroxy-withanolide E, isowithanololide E, withafastuosin E, and withaperuvin) and 19 established anticancer drugs, we analyzed the cross-resistance profile of 60 tumor cell lines. The cell lines revealed cross-resistance between the eight withanolides. Consistent cross-resistance between withanolides and nitrosoureas (carmustin, lomustin, and semimustin) was also observed. Then, we performed transcriptomic microarray-based COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses of mRNA expression to identify mRNA expression profiles predicting sensitivity or resistance towards withanolides. Genes from diverse functional groups were significantly associated with response of tumor cells to withaferin A diacetate, e.g. genes functioning in DNA damage and repair, stress response, cell growth regulation, extracellular matrix components, cell adhesion and cell migration, constituents of the ribosome, cytoskeletal organization and regulation, signal transduction, transcription factors, and others.

  10. Effect of Xylopia aethiopica aqueous extract on antioxidant properties of refrigerated Roma tomato variety packaged in low density polyethylene bags.

    PubMed

    Babarinde, Grace Oluwakemi; Adegoke, Gabriel O

    2015-03-01

    Effects of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Richard aqueous extract on the antioxidants of matured tomato fruits at red stage were investigated at 13 ± 2 °C and 80 ± 5 % relative humidity. A sample treated with sodium bicarbonate and untreated samples were included. Samples packaged in low density polyethylene (30 μm thickness) bags were analysed at intervals of 5 days. The treatments revealed statistically significant differences in ascorbic acid content of stored tomato fruits. Fruits treated with 5 % X. aethiopica on day 5 of storage had 21.0 mg/100 g which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than 18.2 mg/100 g in untreated control samples. At 15th day of storage, ascorbic acid was 10.0 and 14.2 mg/100 g in tomato fruits treated with sodium bicarbonate and 5 % X. aethiopica respectively. The carotenoid and lycopene contents were lower in sodium bicarbonate-treated and the untreated control samples than in X. aethiopica-treated sample. The total phenolic contents were better retained in X. aethiopica-treated tomato than in control. Treatment of tomato fruits with X. aethiopica at 4 & 5 % levels significantly retained the qualities evaluated. PMID:25745258

  11. Differential performance of tropical soda apple and its biological control agent Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in open and shaded habitats.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Carlos; Wheeler, Gregory S; Lapointe, Stephen L; Rosskopf, Erin; Overholt, William A

    2011-12-01

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth has been released since 2003 in the southeastern United States for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida, G. boliviana can be found on tropical soda apple growing in open pastures as well as in shady wooded areas. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of light intensity on the performance of tropical soda apple and G. boliviana under greenhouse conditions, and to determine the abundance and mortality of G. boliviana in open and shaded habitats. Leaves growing in the shade were less tough, had higher water and nitrogen content, lower soluble sugars, and less dense and smaller glandular trichomes compared with leaves growing in the open. Plants grew slightly taller and wider under shaded conditions but total biomass was significantly reduced compared with plants grown in the open. In the greenhouse, G. boliviana had higher immature survival, greater folivory, larger adult size, and higher fecundity when reared on shaded plants compared with open plants. Sampling of field populations revealed that the overall abundance of G. boliviana was lower but leaf feeding damage was higher in shaded habitats compared with the open habitats. The percentage of eggs surviving to adult was greater in shaded compared with open habitats. The abundance of predators was higher in the open pasture and was positively correlated with the abundance of G. boliviana. These results indicate that not only plant quality but also habitat structure are important to the performance of weed biological control agents. PMID:22217759

  12. Characterization of As and trace metals embedded in PM10 particles in Puebla City, México.

    PubMed

    Morales-García, S S; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Jonathan, M P; Navarrete-López, M; Herrera-García, M A; Muñoz-Sevilla, N P

    2014-01-01

    Forty-eight air-filter samples (PM10) were analysed to identify the concentration level of partially leached metals (PLMs; As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and V) from Puebla City, México. Samples were collected during 2008 from four monitoring sites: (1) Tecnológico (TEC), (2) Ninfas (NIN), (3) Hermanos Serdán (HS) and (4) Agua Santa (AS). The results indicate that in TEC, As (avg. 424 ng m(-3)), V (avg. 19.2 ng m(-3)), Fe (avg. 1,202 ng m(-3)), Cu (avg. 86.6 ng m(-3)), Cr (41.9 ng m(-3)) and Ni (18.6 ng m(-3)) are on the higher side than other populated regions around the world. The enrichment of PLMs is due to the industrial complexes generating huge dust particles involving various operations. The results are supported by the correlation of metals (Mn, Cd and Co) with Fe indicating its anthropogenic origin and likewise, As with Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Pb and V. The separate cluster of As, Fe and Mn clearly signifies that it is due to continuous eruption of fumaroles from the active volcano Popocatépetl in the region. PMID:23892717

  13. Educacion, Salud y Bienestar para el Nino Preescolar y la Familia (7 de Enero--29 de Febrero de 1996). Informe Curso sobre (Education, Health and Welfare for Small Children. January 7 - February 29, 1996. Report of a Course.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

    This Spanish-language report (with an English summary) describes a course on interagency cooperation held at the Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Center in Haifa, Israel. The course, with 30 Central and South American participants, discusses the necessity of pooling resources and sharing responsibility among institutions in various…

  14. Western Hemisphere Conference on Persons with Disabilities. Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., March 14-18, 1993) = Conferencia Hemisferica Occidental sobre Personas con Discapacidades. Actas de la Conferencia. (Washington, D.C., 14 al 18 de Marzo de 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jerry D., Ed.; And Others

    This document presents the proceedings of a conference which brought together delegates and First Ladies representing western hemisphere nations to address needs and issues affecting people with disabilities in the Americas. It presents the texts of two keynote addresses: "Small Triumphs, Big Victories: A Global View of Persons with Disabilities,"…

  15. Adolescents' Awareness of Environmental Care: Experiences When Writing Short Descriptive Texts in English (Concientización de los adolescentes sobre el cuidado ambiental: experiencias al escribir textos descriptivos cortos en inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo Urrutia, Lorena; Medina Gutiérrez, Ana Stella

    2011-01-01

    Today it is necessary to approach environmental topics with students in an interdisciplinary manner to mitigate the environmental damages that the Earth is suffering. In this paper we report an action-research and innovation study aimed at sensitizing students with respect to the care and preservation of the environment through the writing of…

  16. Guia para Evaluar y Ubicar a Estudiantes de Idiomas Minoritarios. Para Padres/sobre Padres (A Guide to Assessing and Placing Language Minority Students. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This guide helps parents understand how schools assess their child's English language ability and suggests ways for them to help schools place their children in the most useful language program. All districts must decide which students to test, and then how to test them. Some schools attempt to find out the English skills of all students, and…

  17. Regulando la Enfermedad a través de la Definición y la Restricción: Profesionales de la Salud Hablan sobre el VIH/SIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Souhail Malavé; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2009-01-01

    Resumen Las profesiones de la salud tienen un papel social dual. Por un lado, velan por el mantenimiento de la salud de la población protegiendo el bien común. Por el otro, dictaminan las formas saludables, y por lo tanto socialmente apropiadas, de ser, actuar y pensar. Este último papel, está más ligado al control social de la población que a una preocupación altruista hacia la misma. A través de esta supervisión y control, se construyen los sujetos a los cuales todos/as debemos aspirar a ser para gozar de aceptación social. Los/as profesionales de la salud han jugado un rol protagónico en dicho proceso, siendo los agentes que delimitan y definen lo que es enfermo vs. saludable, útil vs. inútil, apropiado vs. inapropiado. En el caso de la epidemia del VIH, este esfuerzo se ha hecho cada vez más vigente ya que estos/as profesionales juegan un papel importante en el tratamiento de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS). Sin embargo, su función está plasmada de definiciones que sirven para criminalizar a las PVVS. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la manera en que una muestra de profesionales de la salud en Puerto Rico construyen a las PVVS. Con este propósito, entrevistamos 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de estas profesiones. Estas entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y sometidas a un análisis de discurso. Los resultados reflejaron que según las personas participantes: 1) la PVVS no es una persona “normal” o funcional bajo los estándares sociales debido a que su salud no se los permite, 2) representa una carga para la sociedad incluyendo familiares, amigos/as, el mundo del trabajo, e incluso para el gobierno, 3) debe ser vigilada porque representa un riesgo para la persona seronegativa que es descrita como saludable y productiva, y 4) necesita que su salud y conducta sexual sean controladas por vía legal y/o por las personas que representan las instituciones sociales, como lo son los/as profesionales de la salud. En este artículo abordamos el potencial rol de la psicología para servir como vehículo de reconstrucción de dichas nociones, tomando en consideración su propio rol en la formación y mantenimiento de dicho sujeto socialmente deseable. PMID:22025907

  18. Mision Informacion: Entrevista a Empleados en el Lugar donde Trabajan; Observar a Obreros mientras Trabajan; Programa sobre Experiencia Laboral (Mission Information: Worksite Interview, Shadow Community Workers, Work Experience Program). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The work-study guide is the third volume in the advanced level of a career education curriculum for elementary-secondary migrant children. Complementing the secondary level job information text and a workbook about decision making and self-awareness, the work-study guide is designed to accompany work exploration and experience programs. It…

  19. Grupo de Trabajo Para la Preparacion del Proyecto Sobre el Desarrolo de Servicias de Bibliotecas y de Informacion Cientifica y Tecnica (Working Group for the Preparation of the Proposal on the Development of Library Services and Scientific and Technical Information).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oficina de Educacion Iberoamericana, Madrid (Spain).

    The Office of Iberoamerican Education, an intergovernmental body based on educational and cultural cooperation for the purpose of disseminating information, documentation, advice, and assistance in the field of education, co-sponsors (with UNESCO) the work represented in this study of library and information planning and facilities in the Andean…

  20. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  1. Students' Perceptions of the Impact of CLIL in a Mexican BA Program (Percepciones de los estudiantes sobre el impacto de la enseñanza de contenido-lengua integrados en un programa de pregrado en México)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asomoza, Alejandra Nuñez

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning is an innovative pedagogical approach used in educational institutions worldwide. This study considers information and experiences from various settings in order to explore content and language integrated learning within the Mexican context. This study reports the perceptions of students in a BA program.…

  2. Como Promover el Exito de las Ninas y las Minorias en las Ciencias y en las Matematicas. Para Padres/sobre Padres (How To Promote the Science and Mathematics Achievement of Females and Minorities. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Some minority and female students traditionally have not been given the help they need to enroll and succeed in mathematics and science classes. Now, however, various approaches are available to give these students the extra attention they need. Parents can help children develop an interest in science and mathematics by: (1) identifying role…

  3. Receta para el Exito. Una Guia Actualizada para Padres sobre el Mejoramiento de las Escuelas de Colorado y Logros Estudiantiles (Recipe for Success: An Updated Parents' Guide to Improving Colorado Schools and Student Achievement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taher, Bonnie; Durr, Pamela

    This Spanish language guide describes ways that parents can help improve student achievement and school quality. It answers such questions as: how to choose the right early-education opportunity for a preschooler; how to make sure a 5-year-old is ready for school; how to help a daughter do well in school; how to work with a daughter's or son's…

  4. La Ninez en Puerto Rico: Resultados del Censo 2000. Un informe de KIDS COUNT/PRB sobre el Censo 2000 (Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    This Spanish-language report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto…

  5. [The EMECAM project: a discussion of the results in the participating cities. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Ballester Díez, F; Sáez Zafra, M; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Daponte Codina, A; Bellido Blasco, J B; Cañada Martínez, A; Abad Díez, J M; Pérez Boíllos, M J; Alonso Fustel, M E; Taracido Trunk, M; Aguinaga Ontoso, I; Guillén Pérez, J J; Ordóñez Iriarte, J M; Saurina Canals, C; Tenías Burillo, J M

    1999-01-01

    This article draws a comparison and provides a discussion of the findings resulting from the local analyses of the 14 cities participating in the EMECAM Project. An analysis is made of the time series related to mortality, pollutants (particles in suspension, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO), temperature and other factors taken from records of public institutions. By using Poisson autoregressive regression, an estimate has been made of the short-term relationship between the number of deaths and the air pollution indicators in each one of the following cities: Barcelona, metropolitan area of Bilbao, Cartagena, Castellón, Gijón, Huelva, Madrid, Pamplona, Seville, Oviedo, Valencia, Vigo, Vitoria and Saragossa. The findings reveal the air pollution figures in our country to be similar to those of other European cities. The levels of the different pollutants point toward road traffic as being the main source of most of this pollution. A relationship has been found between the mortality and different pollutants in most cities, although the results are not homogeneous among the cities and show variability in the different causes under study. In some cities, especially in those having smaller populations, there have been no findings providing any evidence of a relationship, or the findings themselves are not highly consistent. The meta-analysis will provide estimates for all of the cities as a whole and will allow the possibility of making a more clear-cut assessment of the time lag impact of air pollution on the mortality. Worthy of special mention is the participation in this project of public health officers as actively involved researchers. PMID:10410614

  6. Distintas Modalidades de Aproximar la Educacion al Mundo Productivo: Efectos sobre Variables Psico-Sociales en los Alumnos (Distinct Modalities in Approaching Education for the Productive World: Effects of Socio-psychological Variables on Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Abelardo Castro; Carrasco, Decler Martinez; Alegria, Jorge Alegria; Elevancini, Cecilia Maldonado

    2000-01-01

    States that since the 1990s, professional technical education has produced profound transformations in the relationship between education and work in Chile. Examines in a study how modalities of bringing students to the world of work have affected students' socio-psychological characteristics in comparison to training received from traditional…

  7. A Look at the Decisions Hispanic Families Make after the Diagnosis of Deafness = Un estudio sobre las decisiones que toman las familias hispanas despues de un diagnostico de sordera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Annie; Bain, Lisa; Li, Yuelin; Montoya, Louise; Ruperto, Vivian

    This study, written in both English and Spanish, examined the decision-making process of Hispanic families living in the United States who have a child with a hearing loss. Twenty-nine families in four different geographical areas shared their experiences in learning about their child's disability, searching for appropriate interventions, and…

  8. Can We Talk? Helping Families Talk about Self-Esteem, Sex, and Peer Pressure. Training Package = Conversamos? Ayudando a Familias a Hablar sobre la Autoestima, el Sexo, y la Presion de los Amigos. Paquete de Capacitacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappello, Dominic; Newberry, Jerald

    This English and Spanish language multimedia packet comprises an educational curriculum designed to help families talk about self-esteem, sex, and peer pressure with their children in grades 4 through 8. The packet consists of a planning and training manuals, family activity books, and a videotape. The curriculum is comprised of four parent…

  9. A Baseline Study of Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking in the Preschool Classroom (Un Estudio de Base sobre Estrategias para la Promoción de Pensamiento Critico en las Aulas de Preescolar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    León, Jenny Melo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the different incidents of critical thinking in five preschool classrooms in one school, and the instructional strategies preschool teachers employed in the development of children's critical thinking. The participants in this study were five self-contained preschool teachers and their corresponding…

  10. Sobre un Cambio Sintactico en el Espanol Canario: del Indicativo al Subjuntivo y Condicional (Concerning a Syntactic Change in the Spanish of the Canary Islands: From the Indicative to the Subjunctive and Conditional).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Maria Jose

    1995-01-01

    Many sociolinguistic studies validate the importance of the relationship among social variables that satisfactorily explain the correlation between linguistic and social phenomena. The intersection of sex, sociocultural level, and age initiates syntactic change that first appears in the vernacular and progresses to the accepted standard. (52…