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Sample records for durum wheat germplasm

  1. Genome Wide Association Analysis of Leaf Rust Response in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks.) is increasingly impacting durum wheat production with the recent appearance of races with virulence to widely grown cultivars in many durum producing areas worldwide. A highly virulent P. triticina race on durum wheat was recently collected in Kansas....

  2. Development of Durum Wwheat Germplasm with Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight Derived from Emmer Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) is a unique class of commercial wheat specifically for making pasta products. Durum production has been seriously challenged by the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in the United States in the past decade. Although utilization of resistant cultivar...

  3. Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jing; Sun, Daokun; Chen, Liang; You, Frank M.; Wang, Jirui; Peng, Yunliang; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic structure in crops has important implications for plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. Newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are effective in detecting genetic diversity. In the present study, a worldwide durum wheat collection consisting of 150 accessions was used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using 946 polymorphic SNP markers covering the whole genome of tetraploid wheat. Genetic structure was greatly impacted by multiple factors, such as environmental conditions, breeding methods reflected by release periods of varieties, and gene flows via human activities. A loss of genetic diversity was observed from landraces and old cultivars to the modern cultivars released during periods of the Early Green Revolution, but an increase in cultivars released during the Post Green Revolution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity among the 10 mega ecogeographical regions indicated that South America, North America, and Europe possessed the richest genetic variability, while the Middle East showed moderate levels of genetic diversity. PMID:23538839

  4. Association Mapping of Leaf Rust Response in Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) is a main objective for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) breeding.Association mapping on germplasm collections is now being used as an additional approach for the discovery and validation of major genes/QTLs. In this study, a collection of 164 el...

  5. Durum wheat genetic stocks involving chromosome 1E of diploid wheatgrass: Resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is the preferred wheat for preparing pasta products. Current durum cultivars have little resistance to a ravaging fungal disease, Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab. In our Durum Germplasm Enhancement (DGE) project, we previously show...

  6. Relationship between lutein and mycotoxin content in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Rosa M; Sulyok, Michael; Jirsa, Ondřej; Spitzer, Tomáš; Krska, Rudolf; Polišenská, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Levels of lutein and a number of mycotoxins were determined in seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum) and two varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) in order to explore possible relationships amongst these components. Durum wheat cultivars always showed both higher lutein and mycotoxin contents than common wheat cultivars. The mycotoxins detected in both common and durum wheat cultivars were produced by the genera Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Fusarium was the major producer of mycotoxins (26 mycotoxins) followed by Claviceps (14 mycotoxins), which was present only in some cultivars such as Chevalier (common wheat), Lupidur and Selyemdur (both durum wheat), Alternaria (six mycotoxins) and Aspergillus (three mycotoxins). Positive correlations between the levels of lutein and mycotoxins in durum wheat cultivars were found for the following mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), its derivative DON-3-glucoside, moniliformin, culmorin and its derivatives (5-hydroxyculmorin and 15-hydroxyculmorin). PMID:24844356

  7. Insect and mite pests of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses the postharvest arthropod pests of durum wheat and their control. The main internally feeding pests are Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, and S. zeamais. The main externally feeding pests are Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, O. m...

  8. The influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of soft durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum (T. turgidum subsp. durum) wheat production worldwide is substantially less than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Durum kernels are extremely hard; leading to most durum wheat being milled into semolina. Durum wheat production is limited in part due to the relatively limited end-user ...

  9. Association of Agronomic Traits with SNP Markers in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum (Desf.))

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Ren, Jing; Ren, Xifeng; Huang, Sisi; Sabiel, Salih A. I.; Luo, Mingcheng; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Chunjie; Peng, Junhua; Sun, Dongfa

    2015-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between traits of interest and genetic markers based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in molecular plant breeding. In this study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were genotyped using 1,366 SNP markers. The extent of LD on each chromosome was evaluated. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers with ten agronomic traits measured in four consecutive years was analyzed under a mix linear model (MLM). Two hundred and one significant association pairs were detected in the four years. Several markers were associated with one trait, and also some markers were associated with multiple traits. Some of the associated markers were in agreement with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. The function and homology analyses of the corresponding ESTs of some SNP markers could explain many of the associations for plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelets on main spike, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, etc. The SNP associations for the observed traits are generally clustered in specific chromosome regions of the wheat genome, mainly in 2A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, and 6B chromosomes. This study demonstrates that association mapping can complement and enhance previous QTL analyses and provide additional information for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26110423

  10. DURUM WHEAT QUALITY REPORT: 2000/2001 CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially grown cultivars and experimental lines of durum wheat were grown by breeders at cooperative experiment stations throughout the Northern Great Plains areas. Durum was tested for kernel, milling, semolina, and dough properties. Durum was also tested for spaghetti-cooking quality on sele...

  11. Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

  12. High-density molecular characterization and association mapping in Ethiopian durum wheat landraces reveals high diversity and potential for wheat breeding.

    PubMed

    Mengistu, Dejene Kassahun; Kidane, Yosef Gebrehawaryat; Catellani, Marcello; Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Fadda, Carlo; Pè, Mario Enrico; Dell'Acqua, Matteo

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is a key crop worldwide, and yet, its improvement and adaptation to emerging environmental threats is made difficult by the limited amount of allelic variation included in its elite pool. New allelic diversity may provide novel loci to international crop breeding through quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in unexplored material. Here, we report the extensive molecular and phenotypic characterization of hundreds of Ethiopian durum wheat landraces and several Ethiopian improved lines. We test 81 587 markers scoring 30 155 single nucleotide polymorphisms and use them to survey the diversity, structure, and genome-specific variation in the panel. We show the uniqueness of Ethiopian germplasm using a siding collection of Mediterranean durum wheat accessions. We phenotype the Ethiopian panel for ten agronomic traits in two highly diversified Ethiopian environments for two consecutive years and use this information to conduct a genome-wide association study. We identify several loci underpinning agronomic traits of interest, both confirming loci already reported and describing new promising genomic regions. These loci may be efficiently targeted with molecular markers already available to conduct marker-assisted selection in Ethiopian and international wheat. We show that Ethiopian durum wheat represents an important and mostly unexplored source of durum wheat diversity. The panel analysed in this study allows the accumulation of QTL mapping experiments, providing the initial step for a quantitative, methodical exploitation of untapped diversity in producing a better wheat. PMID:26853077

  13. Development of genetic and genomic resources for target breeding in durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum durum) is an important commodity crop in the Northern Great Plains where 32% and 62% of durum wheat acreage in the United States in 2014 was planted in Montana and North Dakota, respectively. In recent years, durum wheat production in North Dakota has suffered serious losses f...

  14. Registration of ‘Snowglenn’ Winter Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snowglenn’ (Reg. No. CV-#####, PI ######) winter durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) developed and tested as VA05WD-40 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Snowglenn was derived from the three-way cross N1291-86 / N1439-83 // ‘Alidur’. Snowglenn is a f...

  15. Osmoregulation capacity in Bulgarian durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Todorovska, Elena Georgieva; Bozhanova, Violeta; Dechev, Dechko; Valkova, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic variation in osmotic adjustment (OA) capacity of five Bulgarian winter durum wheat genotypes and their progenies was determined using a modified method based on the measurement of seedling growth suppression after three-day exposure to osmotic stress induced by 1 mol/L sucrose. The genetic parameters of the studied trait in a diallel crossing scheme, including the selected genotypes and the microsatellite polymorphism at 43 loci, were determined. The old Bulgarian cultivar Apulicum 233 and all hybrid combinations involving this genotype showed higher OA. In the heritability of osmoregulation ability, the non-additive gene effects (specific combining ability) strongly predominated over the additive ones and had a significant impact on the observed high heterosis effect. Distinct polymorphisms were identified between the studied genotypes. Cluster analysis of the phenotypic data obtained from a multiyear test under water-limited conditions and the molecular data, both based on Euclidean distance, showed similar grouping of the genotypes with specific separation of cultivar Apulicum 233 (high OA) in a single cluster. Principal component analysis revealed not only interrelationships between the important agronomic and morpho-physiological traits in Bulgarian durum wheat under water-limited conditions, but also presence of relations between them and some microsatellite loci located near or within known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits. Further studies based on segregating population between genotypes with contrasting levels of OA will allow mapping QTLs for phenotypic traits expressed under water deficit and isolation of genes that can be used as potential markers in marker-assisted selection for drought tolerance. PMID:26019562

  16. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall’Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G. PMID:24368326

  17. The effect of soft kernel texture on the milling properties of soft durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide nearly twenty times more common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is produced than durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum). Durum wheat is predominately milled into coarse semolina due to the extreme hardness of the kernels. Semolina, lacking the versatility of traditional flour, is used primarily ...

  18. Effect of soft kernel texture on the milling properties of soft durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide nearly twenty times more common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is produced than durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum). Durum wheat is predominately milled into coarse semolina due to the extreme hardness of the kernels. Semolina, lacking the versatility of traditional flour, is used primarily ...

  19. Milling behavior of a soft durum wheat line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the initial hybridization of two wild grasses to form the wheat species Triticum turgidum some 0.5 m years ago, the puroindoline genes from both wild species were eliminated, along with their inherent and mysterious ability to soften kernels. Consequently, all durum wheat varieties have very ...

  20. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for cost efficient and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a leaf rust resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf rust resistance sources presently deployed in durum wheat breed...

  1. Chromosome Engineering of Durum Wheat with Alien Chromatin of Diploid Wheatgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum or macaroni wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is an important cereal used for human consumption worldwide. Its high protein content and gluten strength make durum the choice wheat for preparing pasta products. Current durum cultivars have little resistance to Fusarium he...

  2. Cultivar and nitrogen fertilizer rate affect yield and nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimizing nitrogen (N) management and using cultivars with high N use efficiency (NUE) are of great importance for durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) producers in irrigated desert production systems. Field experiments with six durum wheat cultivars (Ocotillo, Orita, Kronos, Havasu, Duraking, and Toppe...

  3. Identification and mapping of quantitative trait loci for Fusarium head blight resistance in emmer and durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, presently threatens durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) production in many durum-growing regions. It is critical to identify useful sources of FHB resistance for durum wheat. A domesticated emmer wheat (T. turgidum subsp. dicoccu...

  4. Preparation and characterization of durum wheat (Triticum durum) straw cellulose nanofibers by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Montaño-Leyva, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Felix, Francisco; Torres-Chávez, Patricia; Ramirez-Wong, Benjamin; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sanchez-Machado, Dalia

    2011-02-01

    Cellulose nanofibers from durum wheat straw ( Triticum durum ) were produced and characterized to study their potential as reinforcement fibers in biocomposites. Cellulose was isolated from wheat straw by chemical treatment. Nanofibers were produced via an electrospinning method using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as the solvent. The nanofibers were 270 ± 97 nm in diameter. Analysis of the FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the chemical treatment of the wheat straw removed hemicellulose and lignin. XRD revealed that the crystallinity of the cellulose was reduced after electrospinning, but nanofibers remained highly crystalline. The glass transition temperature (T(g) value) of the fibers was 130 °C, higher than that of cellulose (122 °C), and the degradation temperature of the fibers was 236 °C. Residual TFA was not present in the nanofibers as assessed by the FT-IR technique. PMID:21207978

  5. Susceptibility of European bread and durum wheat cultivars to Tilletia indica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representative European wheat cultivars were tested under quarantine containment for their susceptibility to Tilletia indica, the cause of Karnal bunt (or partial bunt) of wheat. Fifteen winter, 15 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 11 durum wheat cultivars (Triticum durum) were inoculated by ‘boo...

  6. Identification of chromosomes responsible for crown rot resistance in durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rot (CR), caused by Fusarium species, is the most serious biotic threat to the Australian wheat industry. Compared with common wheat (2n=6x=42), durum wheat (2n=4x=28) is more susceptible to CR. In an effort to understand the genetics of CR resistance in durum wheat, we have analysed three set...

  7. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-23

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  8. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  9. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  10. Catalogue of alleles of gliadin-coding loci in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Melnikova, N V; Kudryavtseva, A V; Kudryavtsev, A M

    2012-02-01

    Gliadins are seed storage proteins which are characterized by high intervarietal polymorphism and can be used as genetic markers. As a result of our work, a considerably extended catalogue of allelic variants of gliadin component blocks was compiled for durum wheat; 74 allelic variants for four gliadin-coding loci were identified for the first time. The extended catalogue includes a total of 131 allelic variants: 16 for locus Gli-A1(d), 19 for locus Gli-B1(d), 41 for locus Gli-A2(d), and 55 for locus Gli-B2(d). The electrophoretic pattern of the standard cultivar and a diagram are provided for every block identified. The number of alleles per family is quite small for loci Gli-A1(d) and Gli-B1(d) of durum wheat, as contrasted to loci Gli-A2(d) and Gli-B2(d) that are characterized by large families including many alleles. The presence of large block families determines a higher diversity of durum wheat for loci Gli-A2(d) and Gli-B2(d) as compared to Gli-A1(d) and Gli-B1(d). The catalogue of allelic variants of gliadin component blocks can be used by seed farmers to identify durum wheat cultivars and evaluate their purity; by breeders, to obtain homogenous cultivars and control the initial stages of selection; by gene bank experts, to preserve native varieties and the original biotypic composition of cultivars. PMID:21946233

  11. The genetic control of the alpha-amylase isozymes of the durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Prokopyk, D O; Antonyuk, M Z; Ternovskaya, T K

    2009-01-01

    The hybridological analysis was provided on several durum wheat genotypes with utilizing three F2 populations developed from the crossing between parental forms that differed in the invariable malt-zone triplet on electrophoretic spectrum of alpha-amylase. Three components of this zone are controlled by three genes with an independent way of inheritance: one of them is located on the 6B or 5B chromosome, and two genes are located on the chromosomes of A subgenome. PMID:19938630

  12. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management

    PubMed Central

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control. PMID:24065979

  13. Influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat is predominantly grown in semi-arid to arid environments where common wheat does not flourish, especially in the Middle East, North Africa, Mediterranean Basin, and portions of North America. Durum kernels are extraordinarily hard when compared to their common wheat counterparts. Due to ...

  14. Effects of durum wheat background on the expression of hexaploid wheat-derived Fusarium head blight resistance genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance sources have been identified in common wheat, but an effective source of resistance to FHB has not found in durum wheat. Here we report preliminary results on the effects of durum background on the expression of hexaploid wheat-derived FHB resistance g...

  15. Potential to breed for mycorrhizal association in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Ellouze, Walid; Hamel, Chantal; DePauw, R M; Knox, R E; Cuthbert, Richard D; Singh, Asheesh K

    2016-03-01

    The selection of genotypes under high soil fertility may alter the effectiveness of mycorrhizal symbioses naturally forming between crop plants and the mycorrhizal fungi residing in cultivated fields. We tested the hypothesis that the mycorrhizal symbiosis of 5 landraces functions better than the mycorrhizal symbiosis of 27 cultivars of durum wheat that were bred after the development of the fertilizer industry. We examined the development of mycorrhiza and the response of these genotypes to mycorrhiza formation after 4 weeks of growth under high and low soil fertility levels in the greenhouse. The durum wheat genotypes were seeded in an established extraradical hyphal network of Rhizophagus irregularis and in a control soil free of mycorrhizal fungi. The percentage of root length colonized by mycorrhizal fungi was lower in landraces (21%) than in cultivars (27%; P = 0.04) and in the most recent releases (29%; P = 0.02), which were selected under high soil fertility levels. Plant growth response to mycorrhiza varied from -36% to +19%. Overall, durum wheat plant breeding in Canada has increased the mycorrhizal development in wheat grown at a low soil fertility level. However, breeding had inconsistent effects on mycorrhizal development and has led to the production of cultivars with patterns of regulation ranging from unimproved to inefficient. PMID:26825726

  16. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  17. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  18. Varietal screening of ozone sensitivity in Mediterranean durum wheat (Triticum durum, Desf.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monga, Robert; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Alonso, Rocìo; Bermejo, Victoria; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Faoro, Franco; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the ozone (O3) sensitivity of five cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum) grown in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) during the 2013 growing season. Two levels of ozone were applied during daylight hours: +50% and -50% of ambient ozone concentration respectively in O3-enriched OTC and charcoal-filtered OTC. Results suggest that the significant differences observed in agronomic parameters, were more cultivar-dependent rather than ozone-dependent. Two cultivars showed a significant reduction of aboveground biomass due to ozone (-19.7% and -25%), however only one of them showed also a significant reduction in grain yield (-16%). Stomatal conductance was significantly reduced by ozone fumigation up to -33% in the afternoon measuring cycle. No significant effects on chlorophyll fluorescence were found, nor correlation was observed between ozone-like symptoms severity (leaf chlorotic/necrotic spots) and yield reduction, suggesting that these parameters cannot be indicative of ozone sensitivity/tolerance. These results may be useful for the selection of durum wheat genotypes more adapted for the cultivation in geographical areas where tropospheric ozone is particularly high, but also for the future definition of consistent dose-response relationships to be used in the ozone risk assessment evaluation for the Mediterranean countries.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid – an allotetraploid between two wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). As shown earlier, even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal ...

  20. Marker-assisted Characterization of Durum Wheat Langdon-Golden Ball Disomic Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The durum wheat cultivar ‘Golden Ball’ (GB) has superior solid stem, which is a source of resistance to wheat sawfly and also a potential source of biofeed for producing biofuel. Dr. Leonard Joppa previously used GB as the chromosome donor and Langdon (LDN) durum as the recipient to develop a compl...

  1. Effects of Fusarium culmorum and water stress on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of water stress on Fusarium foot and root rot in durum wheat were investigated in growth chamber, greenhouse and field tests in Tunisia. In the seedling stage, emergence of six durum wheat cultivars in the growth chamber was significantly reduced by inoculation with Fusarium culmorum and...

  2. Fusarium head blight resistance in durum wheat – progress and challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several sources of FHB resistance have been identified in tetraploid wheat, including durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, genome AABB), emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum, genome AABB), wild emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, genome AABB), Persian wheat (T. turgidum ssp. carthlicum, genome AABB...

  3. Empirical rheology and pasting properties of soft-textured durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hard-textured common wheat (T. aestivum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puroindoline (PIN) proteins are the molecular basis for wheat kernel texture classification and affect flour milling performance. This study aimed at investigating the effect of PINs on kernel physical characteristics and dough rheological properties of common wheat (Alpowa cv, soft wheat) and durum...

  4. The Response of Durum Wheat to the Preceding Crop in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ercoli, Laura; Masoni, Alessandro; Pampana, Silvia; Mariotti, Marco; Arduini, Iduna

    2014-01-01

    Crop sequence is an important management practice that may affect durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) production. Field research was conducted in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons in a rain-fed cold Mediterranean environment to examine the impact of the preceding crops alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on yield and N uptake of four durum wheat varieties. The response of grain yield of durum wheat to the preceding crop was high in 2007-2008 and was absent in the 2008-2009 season, because of the heavy rainfall that negatively impacted establishment, vegetative growth, and grain yield of durum wheat due to waterlogging. In the first season, durum wheat grain yield was highest following alfalfa, and was 33% lower following wheat. The yield increase of durum wheat following alfalfa was mainly due to an increased number of spikes per unit area and number of kernels per spike, while the yield decrease following wheat was mainly due to a reduction of spike number per unit area. Variety growth habit and performance did not affect the response to preceding crop and varieties ranked in the order Levante > Saragolla = Svevo > Normanno. PMID:25401153

  5. The response of durum wheat to the preceding crop in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, Laura; Masoni, Alessandro; Pampana, Silvia; Mariotti, Marco; Arduini, Iduna

    2014-01-01

    Crop sequence is an important management practice that may affect durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) production. Field research was conducted in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons in a rain-fed cold Mediterranean environment to examine the impact of the preceding crops alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on yield and N uptake of four durum wheat varieties. The response of grain yield of durum wheat to the preceding crop was high in 2007-2008 and was absent in the 2008-2009 season, because of the heavy rainfall that negatively impacted establishment, vegetative growth, and grain yield of durum wheat due to waterlogging. In the first season, durum wheat grain yield was highest following alfalfa, and was 33% lower following wheat. The yield increase of durum wheat following alfalfa was mainly due to an increased number of spikes per unit area and number of kernels per spike, while the yield decrease following wheat was mainly due to a reduction of spike number per unit area. Variety growth habit and performance did not affect the response to preceding crop and varieties ranked in the order Levante > Saragolla = Svevo > Normanno. PMID:25401153

  6. Variations in content and extractability of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) Arabinoxylans associated with genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ciccoritti, Roberto; Scalfati, Giulia; Cammerata, Alessandro; Sgrulletta, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Arabinoxylans (AX) represent the most abundant components of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat, constituting about 70% of cell wall polysaccharides. An important property of AX is their ability to form highly viscous water solutions; this peculiarity has a significant impact on the technological characteristics of wheat and determines the physiologically positive influence in consumption. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), the raw material for pasta production, is one of the most important crops in Italy. As part of a large project aimed at improving durum wheat quality, the characterization of the nutritional and technological aspects of whole grains was considered. Particular attention was addressed to identify the best suited genotypes for the production of innovative types of pasta with enhanced functional and organoleptic properties. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variability of AX by examining a group of durum wheat genotypes collected at two localities in Italy for two consecutive years. The environmental influence on AX content and extractability was also evaluated. Variability in the AX fraction contents was observed; the results indicated that AX fractions of durum wheat grain can be affected by the genotype and environment characteristics and the different contribution of genotype and environment to total variation was evidenced. The genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was significant for all examined traits, the variations due to G × E being lower than that of genotype or environment. The data and the statistical analysis allowed identification of the Italian durum wheat varieties that were consistently higher in total arabinoxilans; in addition, principal component analysis biplots illustrated that for arabinoxylan fractions some varieties responded differently in various environment climatic conditions. PMID:21845095

  7. Characterization of Proteins from Grain of Different Bread and Durum Wheat Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Žilić, Slađana; Barać, Miroljub; Pešić, Mirjana; Dodig, Dejan; Ignjatović-Micić, Dragana

    2011-01-01

    The classical Osborne wheat protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins), as well as several proteins from each of the four subunits of gliadin using SDS-PAGE analyses, were determined in the grain of five bread (T. aestivum L.) and five durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) genotypes. In addition, content of tryptophan and wet gluten were analyzed. Gliadins and glutenins comprise from 58.17% to 65.27% and 56.25% to 64.48% of total proteins and as such account for both quantity and quality of the bread and durum wheat grain proteins, respectively. The ratio of gliadin/total glutenin varied from 0.49 to 1.01 and 0.57 to 1.06 among the bread and durum genotypes, respectively. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, bread wheat genotypes had a higher concentration of α + β + γ-subunits of gliadin (on average 61.54% of extractable proteins) than durum wheat (on average 55.32% of extractable proteins). However, low concentration of ω-subunit was found in both bread (0.50% to 2.53% of extractable proteins) and durum (3.65% to 6.99% of extractable proteins) wheat genotypes. On average, durum wheat contained significantly higher amounts of tryptophan and wet gluten (0.163% dry weight (d.w.) and 26.96% d.w., respectively) than bread wheat (0.147% d.w. and 24.18% d.w., respectively). PMID:22016634

  8. Attempted compensation for linkage drag affecting agronomic characteristics of durum wheat 1AS/1DL translocation lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield reduction due to linkage drag caused by introgression of alien chromatin is a major problem for incorporating new genes into durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). Here we report attempts to improve yield of 1AS•1AL-1DL translocation lines of durum wheat that had previously been rep...

  9. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  10. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  11. Identification and molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci for Fusarium head blight resistance in emmer and durum wheat using a single nucleotide polymorphism-based linkage map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, threatens durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) production in many durum-growing regions. It is critical to identify useful sources of FHB resistance for durum wheat. A domesticated emmer wheat (T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum) accessi...

  12. Systems Responses to Progressive Water Stress in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Habash, Dimah Z.; Baudo, Marcela; Hindle, Matthew; Powers, Stephen J.; Defoin-Platel, Michael; Mitchell, Rowan; Saqi, Mansoor; Rawlings, Chris; Latiri, Kawther; Araus, Jose L.; Abdulkader, Ahmad; Tuberosa, Roberto; Lawlor, David W.; Nachit, Miloudi M.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1) and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219) showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat’s response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum line

  13. Heavy metal speciation an uptake to durum wheat from sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H.; Frost, H.L.

    1998-07-01

    This project focused on detection of heavy metal accumulation in durum wheat from sewage sludge or commercial phosphate fertilizer application, using Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Four parts of the durum wheat plants were separated and analyzed (i.e., root, stem, leaves, and grain). Studies compared the metal uptake resulting from sewage sludge application and from commercial fertilizer. Sludges and fertilizers were applied in one application, except for one study which considered the effect of the same sludge dosage, except in two applications. The main objective of this research is to improve the grain quality by minimizing the accumulation of toxic elements in durum wheat.

  14. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Toreti, A.; Ceglar, A.; De Sanctis, G.

    2015-05-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Here, early heat waves over Italy from 1995 to 2013 are identified and characterised and their impact on durum wheat yields is investigated. As expected, results confirm the impact of the 2003 heat waves and highlight a high percentage of concurrence of early heat waves and significant negative yield anomalies in 13 out of 39 durum wheat production areas. In south-eastern Italy (the most important area for durum wheat production), the percentage of concurrent events exceeds 80%.

  15. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Toreti, A.; Ceglar, A.; De Sanctis, G.

    2015-07-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Here, early heat waves over Italy from 1995 to 2013 are identified and characterised and their impact on durum wheat yields is investigated. As expected, results confirm the impact of the 2003 heat wave and highlight a high percentage of concurrence of early heat waves and significant negative yield anomalies in 13 out of 39 durum wheat production areas. In south-eastern Italy (the most important area for durum wheat production), the percentage of concurrent events exceeds 80 %.

  16. TdERF1, an ethylene response factor associated with dehydration responses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum)

    PubMed Central

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Pirrello, Julien; Bernadac, Anne; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and increasing salinization reduce productivity of wheat, the leading crop for human diet. While the complete genome sequence of this crop has not been deciphered, a BAC library screening allowed the isolation of TdERF1, the first ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat. This gene is putatively involved in mediating salt stress tolerance and its characterization provides clues toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptation/tolerance of durum wheat to suboptimal growth conditions. TdERF1 expression is differentially induced by high salt treatment in 2 durum wheat varieties, the salt-tolerant Grecale (GR) and the salt-sensitive Om Rabiaa (OR). To further extend these findings, we show here that the expression of this ERF is correlated with physiological parameters, such as the accumulation of osmo-regulators and membrane integrity, that discriminate between the 2 contrasted wheat genotypes. The data confirm that GR and OR are 2 contrasted wheat genotypes with regard to salt-stress and show that TdERF1 is also induced by water stress with an expression pattern clearly discriminating between the 2 genotypes. These findings suggest that TdERF1 might be involved in responses to salt and water stress providing a potential genetic marker discriminating between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties. PMID:26338450

  17. TdERF1, an ethylene response factor associated with dehydration responses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Pirrello, Julien; Bernadac, Anne; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and increasing salinization reduce productivity of wheat, the leading crop for human diet. While the complete genome sequence of this crop has not been deciphered, a BAC library screening allowed the isolation of TdERF1, the first ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat. This gene is putatively involved in mediating salt stress tolerance and its characterization provides clues toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptation/tolerance of durum wheat to suboptimal growth conditions. TdERF1 expression is differentially induced by high salt treatment in 2 durum wheat varieties, the salt-tolerant Grecale (GR) and the salt-sensitive Om Rabiaa (OR). To further extend these findings, we show here that the expression of this ERF is correlated with physiological parameters, such as the accumulation of osmo-regulators and membrane integrity, that discriminate between the 2 contrasted wheat genotypes. The data confirm that GR and OR are 2 contrasted wheat genotypes with regard to salt-stress and show that TdERF1 is also induced by water stress with an expression pattern clearly discriminating between the 2 genotypes. These findings suggest that TdERF1 might be involved in responses to salt and water stress providing a potential genetic marker discriminating between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties. PMID:26338450

  18. Synthesis of FHB-Tolerant Hybrid Derivatives of Durum Wheat and Durum Alien Addition Lines Involving Wheatgrass Chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is one of the most serious diseases of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB). Depending on environmental conditions favoring the spread of pathogen, the disease greatly reduces grain y...

  19. Floret development of durum wheat in response to nitrogen availability.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Ariel; Savin, Roxana; Slafer, Gustavo A

    2010-10-01

    In Mediterranean durum wheat production, nitrogen (N) fertilization may be important to stabilize and increase yields. Wheat yield responses to N fertilization are usually related to grains per m(2), which in turn is the consequence of processes related to floret development (floret initiation followed by floret death/survival) during stem elongation. The literature is rather scarce in terms of the relevance of floret developmental dynamics, determining the final number of grains in general terms and in particular regarding responsiveness to N. The aim of this study was to determine whether durum wheat responses to N under different water regimes are related to the dynamics of development of floret primordia to produce fertile florets. During the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 growing seasons, experiments with a factorial combination of two N levels (0 and 100 or 250 kg N ha(-1)) and two levels of water availability (rainfed and irrigated) were carried out (although the water regime was only effective in the second season). The response of yield was largely a consequence of that in grain number per spike. Floret initiation was similar for both N levels in each experiment and water regime, for which the survival of a higher proportion of initiated florets was critical in the response of the crop. The diminished rate of floret abortion during the late part of stem elongation in response to N was associated with a slightly accelerated rate of floret development which allowed a higher proportion of the primordia initiated to reach the stage of fertile floret by flowering. PMID:20696655

  20. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were < 50 ?g kg-1 which is less than those in Canada (> 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  1. VIRULENCE PHENOTYPES OF A WORLD-WIDE COLLECTION OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA FROM DURUM WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collections of Puccinia triticina from durum wheat from Argentina, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Mexico, Spain and the U.S., and representative isolates of leaf rust from bread wheat from the United States, were tested for virulence phenotypes on 35 near-isogenic lines of Thatcher wheat. Virulence on Lr1...

  2. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry. PMID:26396371

  3. Agronomic and Quality Characteristics of Two New Sets of Langdon Durum – wWld Emmer Wheat Chromosome Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides) has been a useful source of genes for high grain protein content (GPC) in durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). Prior studies have found other useful genes for agronomic and quality traits in Langdon durum - T. dicoccoides (LDN-DIC) disomic sub...

  4. A consensus framework map of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) suitable for linkage disequilibrium analysis and genome-wide association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics applications in durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat have the potential to boost exploitation of genetic resources and to advance understanding of the genetics of important complex traits (e.g. resilience to environmental and biotic stresses). A dense and accurate consensus map specific for ...

  5. Bound Water in Durum Wheat under Drought Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Rascio, Agata; Platani, Cristiano; Di Fonzo, Natale; Wittmer, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    To study drought stress effects on bound water, adsorption isotherms and pressure-volume curves were constructed for two durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars: Capeiti 8 (drought tolerant) and Creso (drought sensitive). Plants were grown under well-watered and water-stressed conditions in a controlled environment. Differential enthalpy (ΔH) was calculated through van't Hoff analysis of adsorption isotherms at 5 and 20°C, which allowed us to determine the strength of water binding. ΔH reached the most negative values at approximately 0.06 gram H2O/gram dry weight and then increased rapidly for well-watered plants (until 0.10 gram H2O/gram dry weight) or more slowly for drought-stressed plants (until 0.15-0.20 gram H2O/gram dry weight). Bound water values from pressure-volume curves were greater for water-stressed (0.17 gram H2O/gram dry weight) than for well-watered plants (0.09 gram H2O/gram dry weight). They may be estimates of leaf moisture content where ΔH reaches the less negative values and hence some free water appears. With respect to the well-watered plants, tightly bound water tended to be less bound during drought, and more free water was observed in cv Creso compared to cv Capeiti 8 at moisture contents >0.10 gram H2O/gram dry weight. PMID:16668763

  6. Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2014-01-01

    Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2≥0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

  7. SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT DIVERSITY OF A WORLD-WIDE COLLECTION OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA FROM DURUM WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolates of Puccinia triticina collected from durum wheat from Argentina, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Mexico, Spain, and the USA were analyzed with eleven SSR markers in order to determine the genetic relationship between isolates. These isolates were also compared with P. triticina from bread wheat fr...

  8. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E.; Newman, John W.; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch. PMID:27134286

  9. VIRULENCE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A WORLD-WIDE COLLECTION OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA FROM DURUM WHEAT COMPARED TO U.S. BREAD WHEAT RACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina, has recently become more prevalent on durum wheat in Europe, North and South America. We determined the virulence specificities of P. triticina isolates from durum wheat from Argentina, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Mexico, Spain and the USA, and 10 representative...

  10. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 datasets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum...

  11. VIRULENCE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A WORLD-WIDE COLLECTION OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA FROM DURUM WHEAT COMPARED TO US BREAD WHEAT RACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina, has recently become more prevalent on durum wheat in Europe, North and South America. We determined the virulence specificities of P. triticina isolates from durum wheat from Argentina, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Mexico, Spain and the USA, and 10 representative ...

  12. Developing improved durum wheat germplasm by altering the cytoplasmic genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eukaryotic organisms, nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes interact to drive cellular functions. These genomes have co-evolved to form specific nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions that are essential to the origin, success, and evolution of diploid and polyploid species. Hundreds of genetic diseases in h...

  13. Stem rust, tan spot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch, and Hessian fly resistance in Langdon durum - Aegilops tauschii synethetic hexaploid wheat lines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases and pests of wheat incur serious yield and quality losses to wheat grown worldwide. In the current study, we tested synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) lines developed from various Aegilops tauschii lines crossed with the tetraploid durum wheat line Langdon. The SHW lines were tested along wi...

  14. INTERACTION EFFECTS OF FIVE MILLING VARIABLES ON DURUM WHEAT IN THE FIRST BREAK SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interactions among five major milling variables (flute angle, number of corrugations, flute orientation, speed differential of the grinding rolls, and wheat moisture) were investigated from the "First Break" products of a pilot-scale durum mill. A complete factorial design was arranged for statisti...

  15. Greenhouse FHB Reaction of Durum Wheat Expressing Tri101 and a Rice Tip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe), is a serious problem in small grain species such as durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) used for making pasta and semolina. One method being tested to incorporate FHB resistance is gene transfer technology. As previously reported, ...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Jauhar, Prem P; Peterson, Terrance S

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid-an allotetraploid between 2 wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). Even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal imbalance, for example, addition of alien chromosome 1E of diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum. Therefore, one way to broaden its genetic base is to add a desirable chromosome(s) from diploid wild relatives. We attempted chromosomal engineering with chromosomes of a diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum bessarabicum-a source of resistance to some diseases including Fusarium head blight. Several advanced hybrids and alien addition lines were studied using traditional cytology, multicolor fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization, and molecular markers. Hybrid derivatives varied in chromosome number from F1 to F8 generations and in backcross generations. In advanced generations, we exercised selection against 28-chromosome plants and in favor of 30-chromosome plants that helped recover 14 addition lines in the F8 generation, as indicated by the absence of segregation for 29-chromosome plants. Disomic additions showed regular meiosis with 15 bivalents, 14 of durum wheat, and 1 of Th. bessarabicum. The addition lines will facilitate further chromosome engineering work on durum wheat for broadening its genetic base. PMID:23396879

  17. A Transgenic Durum Wheat Line that is Free of Marker Genes and Expresses 1dy10

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a combination of “clean gene” technology and positive selection to generate transgenic durum wheat lines free of herbicide and antibiotic resistance marker genes. Biolistic transformation experiments were carried out using three “minimal gene cassettes” consisting of linear DNA fragments exc...

  18. Modeling Biomass Allocation and Grain Yield in Bread and Durum Wheat under Abiotic Stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry matter (DM) partitioning into stems, leaves, and seed of two wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) genotypes (A and D, respectively) in response to multiple abiotic stresses were quantified and their impact on kernel weight (KW, mg kernel**-1) and grain yield (GY, Mg ha**-1) was evaluated in a ...

  19. Coexpression of the High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit 1Ax1 and Puroindoline Improves Dough Mixing Properties in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  20. Evolutionary history of the mitochondrial genome in Mycosphaerella populations infecting bread wheat, durum wheat and wild grasses.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Stefano F F; Brunner, Patrick C; McDonald, Bruce A

    2011-02-01

    Plant pathogens emerge in agro-ecosystems following different evolutionary mechanisms over different time scales. Previous analyses based on sequence variation at six nuclear loci indicated that Mycosphaerella graminicola diverged from an ancestral population adapted to wild grasses during the process of wheat domestication approximately 10,500 years ago. We tested this hypothesis by conducting coalescence analyses based on four mitochondrial loci using 143 isolates that included four closely related pathogen species originating from four continents. Pathogen isolates from bread and durum wheat were included to evaluate the emergence of specificity towards these hosts in M. graminicola. Although mitochondrial and nuclear genomes differed greatly in degree of genetic variability, their coalescence was remarkably congruent, supporting the proposed origin of M. graminicola through host tracking. The coalescence analysis was unable to trace M. graminicola host specificity through recent evolutionary time, indicating that the specificity towards durum or bread wheat emerged following the domestication of the pathogen on wheat. PMID:21145978

  1. Puroindoline genes introduced into durum wheat reduce milling energy and change milling behavior similar to soft common wheats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain physical characteristics and milling behavior of a durum wheat line in which both wild-type puroindoline alleles were translocated and stabilized after backcrossing (Svevo-Pin) were compared with the parent line (Svevo). The only observed differences between grain characteristics were the mech...

  2. Differential CO2 effect on primary carbon metabolism of flag leaves in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Alvaro; Abadie, Cyril; Gilard, Françoise; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Staudinger, Christiana; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Araus, Jose L; Bourguignon, Jacques; Irigoyen, Juan J; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    C sink/source balance and N assimilation have been identified as target processes conditioning crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 . However, little is known about phenology-driven modifications of C and N primary metabolism at elevated CO2 in cereals such as wheat. Here, we examined the differential effect of elevated CO2 at two development stages (onset of flowering, onset of grain filling) in durum wheat (Triticum durum, var. Sula) using physiological measurements (photosynthesis, isotopes), metabolomics, proteomics and (15) N labelling. Our results show that growth at elevated CO2 was accompanied by photosynthetic acclimation through a lower internal (mesophyll) conductance but no significant effect on Rubisco content, maximal carboxylation or electron transfer. Growth at elevated CO2 altered photosynthate export and tended to accelerate leaf N remobilization, which was visible for several proteins and amino acids, as well as lysine degradation metabolism. However, grain biomass produced at elevated CO2 was larger and less N rich, suggesting that nitrogen use efficiency rather than photosynthesis is an important target for improvement, even in good CO2 -responsive cultivars. PMID:26081746

  3. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  4. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health. PMID:25732000

  5. Structural–functional dissection and characterization of yield-contributing traits originating from a group 7 chromosome of the wheatgrass species Thinopyrum ponticum after transfer into durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gennaro, Andrea; Ceoloni, Carla

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, using chromosome engineering of durum wheat, the underlying genetic determinants of a yield-improving segment from Thinopyrum ponticum (7AgL) were dissected. Three durum wheat–Th. ponticum near-isogenic recombinant lines (NIRLs), with distal portions of their 7AL arm (fractional lengths 0.77, 0.72, and 0.60) replaced by alien chromatin, were field-tested for two seasons under rainfed conditions. Yield traits and other agronomic characteristics of the main shoot and whole plant were measured. Loci for seed number per ear and per spikelet were detected in the proximal 7AgL segment (0.60–0.72). Loci determining considerable increases of flag leaf width and area, productive tiller number per plant, biomass per plant, and grain yield per plant were located in the distally adjacent 0.72–0.77 7AgL segment, while in the most distal portion (0.77–1.00) genetic effects on spikelet number per ear were identified. Contrary to previous reports, trials with the bread wheat T4 translocation line, carrying on 7DL a sizeable 7AgL segment of which those present in the durum wheat-Th. ponticum NIRLs represent fractions, gave no yield advantage. The hypothesis that ABA might be a factor contributing to the 7AgL effects was tested by analysing endogenous ABA contents of the NIRLs and their responses to exogenous ABA application. The 7AgL yield-related loci were shown to be ABA-independent. This study highlights the value of wheat–alien recombinant lines for dissecting the genetic and physiological basis of complex traits present in wild germplasm, and provides a basis for their targeted exploitation in wheat breeding. PMID:24319256

  6. Classification of the waxy condition of durum wheat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy using wavelets and a genetic algorithm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been applied to the problem of differentiating four genotypes of durum wheat: ‘waxy’, wx-A1 null, wx-B1 null and wild type. The test data consisted of 95 NIR reflectance spectra of wheat samples obtained from a USDA-ARS wheat breeding program. A two...

  7. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the..., prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that cleaned durum wheat, instead of cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, is used in its preparation....

  8. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the..., prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that cleaned durum wheat, instead of cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, is used in its preparation....

  9. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the..., prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that cleaned durum wheat, instead of cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, is used in its preparation....

  10. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the..., prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that cleaned durum wheat, instead of cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, is used in its preparation....

  11. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the..., prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that cleaned durum wheat, instead of cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, is used in its preparation....

  12. Rapid Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Durum Wheat by FT-NIR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    De Girolamo, Annalisa; Cervellieri, Salvatore; Visconti, Angelo; Pascale, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used to develop quantitative and classification models for the prediction of deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in durum wheat samples. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to determine DON in wheat samples in the range of <50–16,000 µg/kg DON. The model displayed a large root mean square error of prediction value (1,977 µg/kg) as compared to the EU maximum limit for DON in unprocessed durum wheat (i.e., 1,750 µg/kg), thus making the PLS approach unsuitable for quantitative prediction of DON in durum wheat. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was successfully used to differentiate wheat samples based on their DON content. A first approach used LDA to group wheat samples into three classes: A (DON ≤ 1,000 µg/kg), B (1,000 < DON ≤ 2,500 µg/kg), and C (DON > 2,500 µg/kg) (LDA I). A second approach was used to discriminate highly contaminated wheat samples based on three different cut-off limits, namely 1,000 (LDA II), 1,200 (LDA III) and 1,400 µg/kg DON (LDA IV). The overall classification and false compliant rates for the three models were 75%–90% and 3%–7%, respectively, with model LDA IV using a cut-off of 1,400 µg/kg fulfilling the requirement of the European official guidelines for screening methods. These findings confirmed the suitability of FT-NIR to screen a large number of wheat samples for DON contamination and to verify the compliance with EU regulation. PMID:25384107

  13. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS) in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa) were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium). Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable. PMID:20626919

  14. Development of a diagnostic co-dominant marker for stem rust resistance gene Sr47 introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, abbreviated as Pgt) resistance gene Sr47, originally transferred from Aegilops speltoides to durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) line DAS15, confers a high level of resistance to Pgt race TTKSK (known as Ug99). Recently, the durum Rust...

  15. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice. PMID:27442951

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum cv Stewart) with improved efficiency

    PubMed Central

    He, Y.; Jones, H. D.; Chen, S.; Chen, X. M.; Wang, D. W.; Li, K. X.; Wang, D. S.; Xia, L. Q.

    2010-01-01

    An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated durum wheat transformation system has been developed for the production of 121 independent transgenic lines. This improved system used Agrobacterium strain AGL1 containing the superbinary pGreen/pSoup vector system and durum wheat cv Stewart as the recipient plant. Acetosyringone at 400 μM was added to both the inoculation and cultivation medium, and picloram at 10 mg l−1 and 2 mg l−1 was used in the cultivation and induction medium, respectively. Compared with 200 μM in the inoculation and cultivation media, the increased acetosyringone concentration led to significantly higher GUS (β-glucuronidase) transient expression and T-DNA delivery efficiency. However, no evident effects of acetosyringone concentration on regeneration frequency were observed. The higher acetosyringone concentration led to an improvement in average final transformation efficiency from 4.7% to 6.3%. Furthermore, the concentration of picloram in the co-cultivation medium had significant effects on callus induction and regeneration. Compared with 2 mg l−1 picloram in the co-cultivation medium, increasing the concentration to 10 mg l−1 picloram resulted in improved final transformation frequency from 2.8% to 6.3%, with the highest frequency of 12.3% reached in one particular experiment, although statistical analysis showed that this difference in final transformation efficiency had a low level of significance. Stable integration of foreign genes, their expression, and inheritance were confirmed by Southern blot analyses, GUS assay, and genetic analysis. Analysis of T1 progeny showed that, of the 31 transgenic lines randomly selected, nearly one-third had a segregation ratio of 3:1, while the remainder had ratios typical of two or three independently segregating loci. PMID:20202997

  17. Cloning, expression analysis, and functional characterization of two secretory phospholipases A2 in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta; Trono, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    We previously isolated four cDNAs in durum wheat, TdsPLA2I, TdsPLA2II, TdsPLA2III and TdsPLA2IV, that encode proteins with homology to plant secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) (Verlotta et al., Int. J. Mol. Sci., 14, 2013, 5146-5169). In this study, we have further characterized TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III sequences that, on the basis of our previous findings, might encode sPLA2 isoforms with different features. Functional analysis revealed that, similarly to other known sPLA2s, TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III have an optimum at pH 9.0, require Ca(2+), are heat stable, and are inhibited by the disulfide-bond-reducing agent dithiothreitol. However, differences emerged between these TdsPLA2 isoforms. Transcript analysis revealed that the TdsPLA2III gene is highly up-regulated under different environmental stresses; conversely, the TdsPLA2II gene is expressed at constant levels under almost all of the stress conditions examined. Moreover, TdsPLA2II is saturated at micromolar substrate and Ca(2+) concentrations, whereas TdsPLA2III requires millimolar concentrations to reach maximal activity. This suggests that TdsPLA2II normally functions under optimal conditions in vivo, whereas TdsPLA2III is only partially activated, depending on the specific phospholipid and Ca(2+) levels. Altogether these data lead to the hypothesis that in vivo TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III are differently regulated at both molecular and biochemical level and that TdsPLA2III plays a major role in durum wheat response to adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26706080

  18. REGISTRATION OF ID0602 SPRING WHEAT GERMPLASM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IDO602 (Reg. no. GP-776, PI 620628) is a short stature, medium maturity hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Stations and released in February 2003 for use in research and crop improvement programs. In 9 site-years of irrigated and rain-fed tri...

  19. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming. PMID:22701377

  20. Selenium-enriched durum wheat improves the nutritional profile of pasta without altering its organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    De Vita, Pasquale; Platani, Cristiano; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Colecchia, Salvatore Antonio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Petrozza, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons (2006-07, 2008-09 and 2009-10) to evaluate Se-enriched pasta through foliar fertilization at various rates and timing of application on 4 durum wheat varieties. Our findings confirm the effectiveness of foliar Se fertilization to increase Se concentrations in durum wheat grain, even at high Se rates (120gSeha(-1)). Se fortification was significant across different genotypes, with greater Se accumulation in landraces ('Timilia') and obsolete varieties ('Cappelli'), with respect to modern varieties. The Se content in the grain was increased by up to 35-fold that of the untreated control. The Se concentration decreased during milling (11%), while processing and cooking of pasta did not show significant decreases. This biofortification stategy had no effects on grain quality parameters, except for reduced gluten index in the high-gluten variety PR22D89, as well as for the sensorial properties of the spaghetti. PMID:27507488

  1. Evaluation of the technological and sensory properties of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with different dietary fibres.

    PubMed

    Rakhesh, Nisha; Fellows, Christopher M; Sissons, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of fibres, whether insoluble or soluble, in durum wheat pasta negatively impacts desirable end-use properties, especially if incorporated in significant amounts. Fibres can disrupt the starch-protein matrix of the dough during pasta preparation and can also often swell more readily with water than starch, competing with the starch for water during dough development. Similar degrees of substitution with different fibres gave markedly different impacts on firmness, stickiness, cooking loss and sensory attributes, suggesting that results obtained for one fibre cannot readily be generalized to other fibres. The in vitro starch digestibility of the pastas was significantly reduced when resistant starch, β-glucan-enriched flour, carboxymethyl cellulose or guar gum was incorporated but increased when pollard or inulin was added. In many instances, different sources of the same fibre gave dramatically different impacts on the properties of cooked durum wheat pasta. PMID:24798805

  2. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  3. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  4. Genetic analysis of leaf rust resistance in six durum wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Loladze, Alexander; Kthiri, Dhouha; Pozniak, Curtis; Ammar, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is one of the main fungal diseases limiting durum wheat production. This study aimed to characterize previously undescribed genes for leaf rust resistance in durum wheat. Six different resistant durum genotypes were crossed to two susceptible International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) lines and the resulting F1, F2, and F3 progenies were evaluated for leaf rust reactions in the field and under greenhouse conditions. In addition, allelism tests were conducted. The results of the study indicated that most genotypes carried single effective dominant or recessive seedling resistance genes; the only exception to this was genotype Gaza, which carried one adult plant and one seedling resistance gene. In addition, it was concluded that the resistance genes identified in the current study were neither allelic to LrCamayo or Lr61, nor were they related to Lr3 or Lr14a, the genes that already are either ineffective or are considered to be vulnerable for breeding purposes. A complicated allelic or linkage relationship between the identified genes is discussed. The results of the study will be useful for breeding for durable resistance by creating polygenic complexes. PMID:24906010

  5. Introgression of a 4D chromosomal fragment into durum wheat confers aluminium tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chang; Ryan, Peter R.; Yan, ZeHong; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Aluminium (Al3+) inhibits root growth of sensitive plant species and is a key factor that limits durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) production on acid soils. The aim of this study was to enhance the Al3+ tolerance of an elite durum cultivar by introgression of a chromosomal fragment from hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) that possesses an Al3+ tolerance gene. Methods A 4D(4B) substitution line of durum wheat ‘Langdon’ was backcrossed to ‘Jandaroi’, a current semi-dwarf Australian durum. In the second backcross, using ‘Jandaroi’ as the recurrent parent, a seedling was identified where TaALMT1 on chromosome 4D was recombined with the Rht-B1b locus on chromosome 4B to yield an Al3+-tolerant seedling with a semi-dwarf habit. This seedling was used in a third backcross to generate homozygous sister lines with contrasting Al3+ tolerances. The backcrossed lines were characterized and compared with selected cultivars of hexaploid wheat for their Al3+ and Na+ tolerances in hydroponic culture as well as in short-term experiments to assess their growth on acid soil. Key Results Analysis of sister lines derived from the third backcross showed that the 4D chromosomal fragment substantially enhanced Al3+ tolerance. The ability to exclude Na+ from leaves was also enhanced, indicating that the chromosomal fragment possessed the Kna1 salt tolerance locus. Although Al3+ tolerance of seminal roots was enhanced in acid soil, the development of fine roots was not as robust as found in Al3+-tolerant lines of hexaploid wheat. Analysis of plant characteristics in the absence of Al3+ toxicity showed that the introgressed fragment did not affect total grain yield but reduced the weight of individual grains. Conclusions The results show that it is possible to increase substantially the Al3+ tolerance of an elite durum wheat cultivar by introgression of a 4D chromosomal fragment. Further improvements are possible, such as introducing additional genes to enhance

  6. Growth, physiology and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum) treated with sewage sludge under water stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Boudjabi, Sonia; Kribaa, Mohammed; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, low soil fertility and water deficit considerably limit crop production. The use of sewage sludge as an organic amendment could contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and hence the agronomic production. The study aims to highlight the behaviour of durum wheat to the application of sewage sludge associated with water stress. The assessment focused on morphophysiological parameters of the wheat plant and yield. Under greenhouse conditions, the variety Mohamed Ben Bachir was treated by four water stress levels (100 %, 80 %, 50 % and 30 %). Each stress level comprised five fertilizer treatments: 20, 50 and 100 t/ha of dry sludge, 35 kg/ha of urea, and a control with no fertilization. Results revealed a significant loss in water content and chlorophyll a in leaves. Water stress negatively affected the development of wheat plants by reducing significantly seed yield, leaf area and biomass produced. Plant’s responses to water stress manifested by an accumulation of proline and a decrease in total phosphorus. However, the increasing doses of sewage sludge limited the effect of water stress. Our findings showed an increase in the amount of chlorophyll pigments, leaf area, total phosphorus, biomass and yield. In addition, excessive accumulation of proline (1.11 ± 1.03 µg/g DM) was recorded as a result of the high concentration of sludge (100 t/ha DM). The application of sewage sludge is beneficial for the wheat crop, but the high accumulation of proline in plants treated with high dose of sludge suggests to properly consider this fact. The application of sludge should be used with caution in soils where water is limited. Because the combined effect of these two factors could result in a fatal osmotic stress to crop development. PMID:26417365

  7. Growth, physiology and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum) treated with sewage sludge under water stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Boudjabi, Sonia; Kribaa, Mohammed; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, low soil fertility and water deficit considerably limit crop production. The use of sewage sludge as an organic amendment could contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and hence the agronomic production. The study aims to highlight the behaviour of durum wheat to the application of sewage sludge associated with water stress. The assessment focused on morphophysiological parameters of the wheat plant and yield. Under greenhouse conditions, the variety Mohamed Ben Bachir was treated by four water stress levels (100 %, 80 %, 50 % and 30 %). Each stress level comprised five fertilizer treatments: 20, 50 and 100 t/ha of dry sludge, 35 kg/ha of urea, and a control with no fertilization. Results revealed a significant loss in water content and chlorophyll a in leaves. Water stress negatively affected the development of wheat plants by reducing significantly seed yield, leaf area and biomass produced. Plant's responses to water stress manifested by an accumulation of proline and a decrease in total phosphorus. However, the increasing doses of sewage sludge limited the effect of water stress. Our findings showed an increase in the amount of chlorophyll pigments, leaf area, total phosphorus, biomass and yield. In addition, excessive accumulation of proline (1.11 ± 1.03 µg/g DM) was recorded as a result of the high concentration of sludge (100 t/ha DM). The application of sewage sludge is beneficial for the wheat crop, but the high accumulation of proline in plants treated with high dose of sludge suggests to properly consider this fact. The application of sludge should be used with caution in soils where water is limited. Because the combined effect of these two factors could result in a fatal osmotic stress to crop development. PMID:26417365

  8. The influence of climate on durum wheat quality in Tuscany, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Marta, Anna; Grifoni, D.; Mancini, M.; Zipoli, G.; Orlandini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Climate and meteorological conditions greatly affect agricultural activities, modifying plant responses and determining the quantity and the quality of production. In this respect, the aim of this research was to analyze the quality of winter durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum), in terms of protein content through the use of meteorological information. Meteorological conditions were described utilizing both local weather station data (air temperature, cumulated precipitation) and large-scale information available freely on the internet, such as geopotential height (GPH), sea surface temperature (SST), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. The analysis was carried out for the period 1997-2009 in the Tuscany region, Central Italy. Grain protein was positively correlated with air temperature during the February to June period, and negatively with cumulative precipitation during the entire period from November to June. Protein content was also negatively correlated with 500 hPa GPH over Gibraltar and North-Western Africa during the March to June period and with the SST of the Atlantic Ocean south-west of the Canary Islands during the January to June period. Finally, with regard to the NAO, winter durum wheat quality was positively correlated with the specific index for several months, in particular during the winter period. These results demonstrate that precipitation and air temperature over the production area represent two crucial variables driving the vegeto-productive responses of winter durum wheat. On the other hand, the use of large-scale meteorological information showed great potential from the perspective of a local quality forecast system setup.

  9. Stably Expressed D Genome-derived HMW Glutenin Subunit Genes Transformed Into Different Durum Wheat Genotypes Change Dough Mixing Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glutenin subunits 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 are encoded by chromosome 1D and associated with higher dough strength in hexaploid bread wheats. In order to study the effects of their expression in different durum wheat genotypes, four cultivars commonly grown in the Mediterranean area were co-transformed, vi...

  10. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods. PMID:25130676

  11. SSR Markers Associated with Proline in Drought Tolerant Wheat Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Maqsood, Yasir; Abdin, Zain Ul; Manzoor, Atif; Hassan, Muhammad; Jamil, Amer

    2016-03-01

    Water stress causes major agricultural loss throughout the world as survival of the crops remained under stress and loss in yield. Plants respond to drought stress by means of different adaptive mechanisms such as accumulation of osmoprotectants to counteract the water stress. Amino acid proline is known to occur widely in higher plants and normally accumulates in large quantities as an osmolyte in response to environmental stresses. Biochemical estimation of proline was done in the drought-affected wheat genotypes by spectrophotometric method. Proline promoted a positive effect as root/shoot ratio was enhanced in wheat germplasm under drought stress. SSR primer pairs (45) were tested for polymorphism among selected wheat genotypes. The dendrogram results have shown the wheat genotype association with the levels of proline during induced drought stress. The relationship between pattern of drought responsive biochemical attributes and DNA markers in the selected wheat genotypes was recognized to select drought tolerant genotypes for sowing in drought affected areas of the country. PMID:26637362

  12. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  13. Differences among auxin treatments on haploid production in durum wheat x maize crosses.

    PubMed

    García-Llamas, C; Martín, A; Ballesteros, J

    2004-08-01

    Three doubled haploid lines of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] were crossed with maize (Zea mays L.), and five hormone treatments were applied to test their effect on the production of caryopses, embryos and haploid plants. The auxin treatments consisted of 100 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 5 mg/l or 50 mg/l dicamba and two combination mixtures of 95/5 mg/l and 50/50 mg/l 2,4-D plus dicamba, respectively. Hormones were added to the culture medium of the detached tillers. Differences were not observed among the four hormone treatments that contained dicamba, nevertheless, these treatments significantly increased the production of caryopses, embryos and haploid plants. On average, 8.9 caryopses, 2.6 embryos and 1.3 haploid plants per spike were obtained following the treatment with 100 mg/l 2,4-D, and 15.0 caryopses, 6.0 embryos and 3.0 haploid plants per spike were obtained following the various treatments with dicamba. We propose the application of dicamba alone, or dicamba plus 2,4-D, as a means for improving the yield of haploid plants of durum wheat through crosses with maize. PMID:15048585

  14. Epistasis and genotype-by-environment interaction of grain protein content in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Parental, F1 , F 2 , BC 1 and BC 2 generations of four crosses involving four cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) were evaluated at two sites in Tunisia. A three-parameter model was found inadequate for all cases except crosses Chili x Cocorit 71 at site Sidi Thabet and Inrat 69 x Karim at both sites. In most cases a digenic epistatic model was sufficient to explain variation in generation means. Dominance effects (h) and additive x additive epistasis (i) (when significant) were more important than additive (d) effects and other epistatic components. Considering the genotype-by-environment interaction, the non-interactive model (m, d, h, e) was found adequate. Additive variance was higher than environmental variance in three crosses at both sites. The estimated values of narrow-sense heritability were dependent upon the cross and the sites and were 0%-85%. The results indicate that appropriate choice of environment and selection in later generations would increase grain protein content in durum wheat. PMID:21637615

  15. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  16. Molecular mapping of Yr53, a new gene for stripe rust resistance in durum wheat accession PI 480148 and its transfer to common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. It is essential to identify new genes for effective resistance against the disease. Durum wheat PI 480148, originally from Ethiopia, was resistant in all seedling tests with s...

  17. Carotenoid evolution during short-storage period of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum conv. durum) and tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner) whole-grain flours.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Ortega, Elena; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of storage temperature on carotenoid composition in durum wheat and tritordeum whole-grain flours. For both cereal genotypes, total carotenoid content significantly decreased during storage, following a temperature dependent first-order kinetic model. Individual and total carotenoid content decay were similar for durum wheat, with a maximum at 50 °C at the end of the storage period (94%). In contrast, the evolution of lutein ester fractions in tritordeum showed lower losses than for free lutein (∼ 50%), and consequently the total carotenoid content was less affected (83%). A decrease in the lutein monoesters fraction was observed, coinciding with an increase in the diesterified forms, especially for lutein dilinoleate. These data suggest an esterifying activity in flours different from the enzyme systems operating in vivo (xanthophyll acyl transferase). The formation of lutein diesters, with greater stability, explains the slower carotenoid degradation in tritordeum whole-grain flours. PMID:26304402

  18. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  19. Registration of NC06BGTAG12, and NC06BGTAG13 Powdery Mildew Resistant Wheat Germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm lines NC06BGTAG12 (Reg. no. GP-------, PI 642416), and NC06BGTAG13 (Reg. no. GP-------, PI 612417), were developed and released by the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service and the USDA-ARS in 2006. These germplasms were released because of...

  20. Disentangling homeologous contigs in allo-tetraploid assembly: application to durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Using Next Generation Sequencing, SNP discovery is relatively easy on diploid species and still hampered in polyploid species by the confusion due to homeology. We develop HomeoSplitter; a fast and effective solution to split original contigs obtained by RNAseq into two homeologous sequences. It uses the differential expression of the two homeologous genes in the RNA. We verify that the new sequences are closer to the diploid progenitors of the allopolyploid species than the original contig. By remapping original reads on these new sequences, we also verify that the number of valuable detected SNPs has significantly increased. Thirty accessions of the tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum, A and B genomes) were sequenced in pooled cDNA libraries. Reads were assembled in a de novo durum assembly. Transcriptomes of the diploid species, Aegilops speltoides (close B genome) and Triticum urartu (A genome) were used as reference to benchmark the method. Results HomeoSplitter is a fast and effective solution to disentangle homeologous sequences based on a maximum likelihood optimization. On a benchmark set of 2,505 clusters containing homologous sequences of urartu, speltoides and durum, HomeoSplitter was efficient to build sequences closer to the diploid references and increased the number of valuable SNPs from 188 out of 1,360 SNPs detected when mapping the reads on the de novo durum assembly to 762 out of 1,620 SNPs when mapping on HomeoSplitter contigs. Conclusions The HomeoSplitter program is freely available at http://bioweb.supagro.inra.fr/homeoSplitter/. This work provides a practical solution to the complex problem of disentangling homeologous transcripts in allo-tetraploids, which further allows an improved SNP detection. PMID:24564644

  1. Identification and Characterization of the Sucrose Synthase 2 Gene (Sus2) in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Volpicella, Mariateresa; Fanizza, Immacolata; Leoni, Claudia; Gadaleta, Agata; Nigro, Domenica; Gattulli, Bruno; Mangini, Giacomo; Blanco, Antonio; Ceci, Luigi R.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS), which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for SUS in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo) is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur, and 5-BIL42). The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modeling approaches. The combined results of sucrose synthase 2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield. PMID:27014292

  2. Use of purple durum wheat to produce naturally functional fresh and dry pasta.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; De Simone, Vanessa; De Leonardis, Anna Maria; Giovanniello, Valentina; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Lecce, Lucia; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2016-08-15

    In this study, the effects of different milling procedures (roller-milling vs. stone-milling) and pasta processing (fresh vs. dried spaghetti), and cooking on the antioxidant components and sensory properties of purple durum wheat were investigated. Milling and pasta processing were performed using one purple and one conventional non-pigmented durum wheat genotypes, and the end-products were compared with commercial pasta. The results show that the stone milling process preserved more compounds with high health value (total fibre and carotenoids, and in the purple genotype, also anthocyanins) compared to roller-milling. The drying process significantly (p<0.05) reduced the content of anthocyanins (21.42 μg/g vs. 46.32 μg/g) and carotenoids (3.77 μg/g vs. 4.04 μg/g) with respect to the pasteurisation process involved in fresh pasta production. The sensory properties of pasta from the purple genotype did not significantly differ from commercial wholemeal pasta, and its in vitro glycemic index was even lower. Thus, it is possible to consider this genetic material as a good ingredient for the production of functional foods from cereals naturally rich in bioactive compounds. PMID:27006230

  3. Optimization of durum wheat bread from a selenium-rich cultivar fortified with bran.

    PubMed

    Previtali, Maria Assunta; Mastromatteo, Marcella; Conte, Amalia; De Vita, Pasquale; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    In this work the effect of bran addition (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %) on sensory, nutritional and mechanical properties of bread made from a durum wheat semolina enriched with selenium (cultivar PR22D89) was addressed; traditional and whole-meal bread from the same cultivar PR22D89, without any further bran addition, were also investigated for comparative purpose. In order to improve the durum wheat functional bread, different structuring agents (agar agar, gellan gum, guar seed flour, hydroxy-propyl-cellulose, modified food starch-CAPSUL® and tapioca starch) were firstly screened and then optimized. Sensory, textural and nutritional properties of bread were studied in each step. Results showed that bread from PR22D89 cultivar with addition of bran up to 30 % was completely accepted from the textural, nutritional and sensory points of view with proper utilization of guar seed flour or modified food-starch (2 %). PMID:27162413

  4. Differential Expression of Durum Wheat Gluten Proteome under Water Stress during Grain Filling.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Palermo, Carmen; De Santis, Michele Andrea; Mentana, Annalisa; Pompa, Marianna; Giuzio, Luigia; Masci, Stefania; Centonze, Diego; Flagella, Zina

    2015-07-29

    Environmental stress during grain filling may affect wheat protein composition, thus influencing its final quality. A proteomic approach was used to evaluate changes in storage protein composition under water stress of two Italian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) cultivars, Ciccio and Svevo. The high-molecular-weight glutenin region increased progressively in both cultivars and under two water regimens. The L48-35 region, corresponding to low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin subunits, increased slightly during grain development and decreased under water stress in both cultivars. In particular, an s-type LMW related to superior technological quality was down-expressed in the early-mid period in Svevo and in the mid-late period in Ciccio. Finally, the L<35 region, corresponding to gliadin-like proteins, decreased slightly during grain development and increased under stress in both cultivars. Several α-gliadins, associated with immunological potential, increased their expression under water stress, especially in Svevo in the early-mid stage of grain filling. PMID:26138860

  5. Physico-chemical and metabolomic characterization of KAMUT® Khorasan and durum wheat fermented dough.

    PubMed

    Balestra, Federica; Laghi, Luca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle; Gianotti, Andrea; Rocculi, Pietro; Pinnavaia, GianGaetano

    2015-11-15

    Investigations were made in order to evaluate the influence of the flour type, chemical acidification and fermentation on characteristics of doughs obtained with durum wheat and KAMUT® Khorasan flour. Doughs were observed immediately after mixing, 90 and 360 min of leavening at 30 °C. Fundamental rheology, yeasts heat production by isothermal microcalorimetry and the interaction between water and biopolymers by means of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance were evaluated. In addition aromatic metabolite development was followed by means of the combined application of gas-chromatography and electronic nose. KAMUT® Khorasan flour was found to be more suitable than durum wheat for the fermentation processes tested, especially at acidic conditions, as shown by the increase of the volume and the metabolic heat production by yeast. In acidified dough the pattern of volatile metabolites allowed a clear distinction between the types of dough. Moreover the water/starch proton pool was characterized by higher T2 values in the KAMUT® Khorasan samples. PMID:25977050

  6. Registration of DGE-3, a durum wheat disomic substitution line 1E(1B) involving a wheatgrass chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) alien disomic substitution 1E(1B) line DGE-3 (PI 665473) was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service, Northern Crop Science Lab, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Fargo, ND and released in 2012. It was ...

  7. Registration of DGE-2, a durum wheat disomic alien substitution line 1E(1A) involving a diploid wheatgrass chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 2x = 28; AABB genomes) alien disomic substitution 1E(1A) line DGE-2 (PI 663216) was developed by the USDA–ARS, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Fargo, North Dakota and released in 2011. DGE-2 has 2n = 28 chromosomes, which are...

  8. Association analysis of stem solidness and wheat stem sawfly resistance in a panel of North American spring wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion of the geographical range of the wheat stem sawfly, coupled with the limited number of effective control measures, calls for a need to better characterize and explore genetic variability for resistance in wheat germplasm from North America. An association mapping analysis for stem solidne...

  9. REGISTRATION OF W4909 AND W4910 BREAD WHEAT GERMPLASM LINES WITH HIGH SALINITY TOLERANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although variation in salt tolerance was observed among bread and durum wheat varieties, none of these cultivated crops were as tolerant as some wild annual and perennial Triticeae species. The most salt tolerant are species belonging to the genus Thinopyrum. Some of these species have been crossed...

  10. Interactive effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation on grain yield, canopy temperature, and nitrogen use efficiency in overhead sprinkler-irrigated Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen and irrigation management are crucial in the production of high protein irrigated durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in arid regions. However, as the availability of irrigation water decreases and potential costs and regulation of nitrogen (N) increase, there is a need to understand how ir...

  11. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L.; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q.; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  12. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  13. Diagonal two-dimensional electrophoresis (D-2DE): a new approach to study the effect of osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Kacem, N S; Mauro, S; Muhovski, Y; Delporte, F; Renaut, J; Djekoun, A; Watillon, B

    2016-09-01

    Acclimatization to stress is associated with profound changes in proteome composition. The use of plant cell and tissue culture offers a means to investigate the physiological and biochemical processes involved in the adaptation to osmotic stress. We employed a new proteomic approach to further understand the response of calli to dehydration induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Calli of three durum wheat genotypes Djenah Khetifa, Oued Zenati and Waha were treated with two concentrations of polyethylene glycol to mimic osmotic stress. Changes in protein relative abundance were analyzed using a new electrophoretic approach named diagonal two-dimensional electrophoresis (D-2DE), combined with mass spectrometry. Total proteins were extracted from 30-day-old calli from three durum wheat genotypes that showed contrasting levels of drought stress tolerance in the field. The combination of one-dimensional electrophoresis and D-2DE gave a specific imprint of the protein extracts under osmotic stress, as well as characterizing and identifying individual target proteins. Of the variously expressed proteins, three were selected (globulin, GAPDH and peroxidase) and further analyzed using qRT-PCR at the transcriptome level in order to compare the results with the proteomic data. Western blot analysis was used to further validate the differences in relative abundance pattern. The proteins identified through this technique provide new insights as to how calli respond to osmotic stress. Our method of study provides an original and relevant approach of analyzing the osmotic-responsive mechanisms at the cellular level of durum wheat with agronomic perspectives. PMID:27317377

  14. EVALUATION OF DURUM SPRING WHEAT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO WHEAT STEM SAWFLY (HYMENOPTERA: CEPHIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, is the primary arthropod pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, in the Northern Great Plains. Rotation to non-host crops should decrease infestation of susceptible spring or winter wheats. Information is unavailable on wheat stem sawfly infestation potentia...

  15. Characterization of chromosomal regions containing quantitive trait loci determining specificity towards bread and durum wheat cultivars in the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specificity of the haploid, plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola towards durum (tetraploid, genomes AABB) versus bread (AABBDD) wheat is well documented. To estimate the number of genes involved in host species specificity, we crossed an isolate of M. graminicola collected from bread w...

  16. Molecular speciation and tissue compartmentation of zinc in durum wheat grains with contrasting nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Persson, Daniel Pergament; de Bang, Thomas C; Pedas, Pai R; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail; Andersen, Birgit; Finnie, Christine; Schjoerring, Jan K; Husted, Søren

    2016-09-01

    Low concentration of zinc (Zn) in the endosperm of cereals is a major factor contributing to Zn deficiency in human populations. We have investigated how combined Zn and nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the speciation and localization of Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Zn-binding proteins were analysed with liquid chromatography ICP-MS and Orbitrap MS(2) , respectively. Laser ablation ICP-MS with simultaneous Zn, sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) detection was used for bioimaging of Zn and its potential ligands. Increasing the Zn and N supply had a major impact on the Zn concentration in the endosperm, reaching concentrations higher than current breeding targets. The S concentration also increased, but S was only partly co-localized with Zn. The mutual Zn and S enrichment was reflected in substantially more Zn bound to small cysteine-rich proteins (apparent size 10-30 kDa), whereas the response of larger proteins (apparent size > 50 kDa) was only modest. Most of the Zn-responsive proteins were associated with redox- and stress-related processes. This study offers a methodological platform to deepen the understanding of processes behind endosperm Zn enrichment. Novel information is provided on how the localization and speciation of Zn is modified during Zn biofortification of grains. PMID:27159614

  17. Structural Variation and Content of Arabinoxylans in Endosperm and Bran of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    PubMed

    Marcotuli, Ilaria; Hsieh, Yves S-Y; Lahnstein, Jelle; Yap, Kuok; Burton, Rachel Anita; Blanco, Antonio; Fincher, Geoffrey Bruce; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-04-13

    Arabinoxylans are one group of dietary fiber components in cereal grains, and specific health benefits have been linked with their molecular fine structures and hence with physicochemical properties such as solubility in aqueous media. To characterize the fiber quality for functional foods, starchy endosperm and bran fractions from 11 durum wheat lines were analyzed for total and water-soluble arabinoxylans, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, and bound ferulic acid. The arabinoxylan contents ranged from 11 to 16.4% (w/w) in bran and from 1.5 to 1.8% in the starchy endosperm. Of the starchy endosperm arabinoxylans, 37% was soluble in water. No correlation was found between arabinoxylan content and bound ferulic acid in bran, although a relatively high level of this antioxidant was found in endosperm (38.3 μg/g endosperm flour). Enzymatic fingerprinting was performed to define the major fine structural features of arabinoxylans from both regions of the grain. Five major oligosaccharides released by xylanase hydrolysis were identified and characterized in the 11 durum lines. In addition, DP5, DP6, and DP7 oligosaccharides containing five, six, and seven pentosyl residues, respectively, were purified. PMID:27018210

  18. Relationship of various flour properties with noodle making characteristics among durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Katyal, Mehak; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Davinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2015-12-01

    The grain, flour, dough and noodle making properties of Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated. Varieties having higher grain weight had lower hardness and higher yellow pigment content. Gluten performance index showed positive correlation with α-helix and negative with intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets in gluten. The proportion of extracted polymeric proteins was related to dough strength. Elastic (G') and loss (G″) modulus of dough were positively correlated to intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets and negatively with β-turn+ β-sheets proportion of dough and gluten. PDW291 with exceptionally higher G' and G″ and best noodle making properties showed the presence 90 kDa and 88 kDa polypeptides corresponding to 14+15 and type 2 banding pattern. PMID:26041226

  19. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  20. Effect of raw material on cooking quality and nutritional composition of durum wheat spaghetti.

    PubMed

    Padalino, L; Mastromatteo, M; Lecce, L; Spinelli, S; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the effect of semolina and wholemeal flour from six durum wheat cultivars on the pasta cooking and nutritional quality was evaluated. The wholemeal spaghetti samples showed an improvement in the chemical composition (high protein and insoluble dietary fibre content) but they have a decline in the cooking quality (high cooking loss) with respect to the semolina spaghetti. In particular, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli and Core samples recorded the highest protein and insoluble dietary fibre content, respectively. As compared to the other samples, the wholemeal spaghetti Iride recorded a higher cooking loss. Moreover, the wholemeal spaghetti showed the lowest overall quality due to the low score of elasticity, firmness and colour. Specifically, the wholemeal Cappelli recorded a slight rise of the overall quality with respect to other wholemeal samples. In conclusion, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli was found to be an optimum compromise between the sensory and nutritional quality. PMID:25666412

  1. Proteomic study of a tolerant genotype of durum wheat under salt-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Papa, Roberto; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-02-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress conditions limiting crop growth and productivity. Duilio is a wheat genotype that shows tolerant behavior in both salt-stress and drought-stress conditions. Toward better understanding of the biochemical response to salinity in this genotype of durum wheat, a comparative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis based on normalized spectral abundance factors was conducted on wheat leaf samples subjected to increasing salt-stress levels (100 and 200 mmol L(-1) NaCl) with respect to untreated samples. We found significant changes in 71 proteins for the first stress level, in 83 proteins at the higher salinity level, and in 88 proteins when comparing salt-stress levels with each other. The major changes concerned the proteins involved in primary metabolism and production of energy, followed by those involved in protein metabolism and cellular defense mechanisms. Some indications of different specific physiological and defense mechanisms implicated in increasing tolerance were obtained. The enhanced salinity tolerance in Duilio appeared to be governed by a higher capacity for osmotic homeostasis, a more efficient defense, and an improvement of protection from mechanical stress by increased cell wall lignifications, allowing a better potential for growth recovery. PMID:24337188

  2. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding.

    PubMed

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ricci, Andrea; Salvi, Silvio; Milner, Sara Giulia; Noli, Enrico; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita; Akhunov, Eduard; Scalabrin, Simone; Vendramin, Vera; Ammar, Karim; Blanco, Antonio; Desiderio, Francesca; Distelfeld, Assaf; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Fahima, Tzion; Faris, Justin; Korol, Abraham; Massi, Andrea; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Morgante, Michele; Pozniak, Curtis; N'Diaye, Amidou; Xu, Steven; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 data sets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum) and their ancestor (wild emmer, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). The consensus map harboured 30 144 markers (including 26 626 SNPs and 791 SSRs) half of which were present in at least two component maps. The final map spanned 2631 cM of all 14 durum wheat chromosomes and, differently from the individual component maps, all markers fell within the 14 linkage groups. Marker density per genetic distance unit peaked at centromeric regions, likely due to a combination of low recombination rate in the centromeric regions and even gene distribution along the chromosomes. Comparisons with bread wheat indicated fewer regions with recombination suppression, making this consensus map valuable for mapping in the A and B genomes of both durum and bread wheat. Sequence similarity analysis allowed us to relate mapped gene-derived SNPs to chromosome-specific transcripts. Dense patterns of homeologous relationships have been established between the A- and B-genome maps and between nonsyntenic homeologous chromosome regions as well, the latter tracing to ancient translocation events. The gene-based homeologous relationships are valuable to infer the map location of homeologs of target loci/QTLs. Because most SNP and SSR markers were previously mapped in bread wheat, this consensus map will facilitate a more effective integration and exploitation of genes and QTL for wheat breeding purposes. PMID:25424506

  3. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat. PMID:26924849

  4. Phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from the whole-meal flour of Italian durum wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D'Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components. PMID:25658801

  5. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D’Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components. PMID:25658801

  6. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance of the transformants yeast cells and the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a novel durum wheat catalase.

    PubMed

    Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-12-01

    Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:26555900

  7. Cytological characteristics of F2 hybrids between Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum Desf. with reference to wheat breeding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han-Yan; Liu, Deng-Cai; Yan, Ze-Hong; Wei, Yu-Ming; Zheng, You-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Cytological and agronomic characteristics of a F2 population from Triticum aestivum L. x T. durum Desf. hybrids were analyzed plant by plant. Means of morphologic traits in the F2 population were similar to those of the low-value parent. On average, F2 hybrids had 36.54 chromosomes per plant, indicating that each gamete lost 2.73 chromosomes at meiosis of the F1 generation. More than half of plants had 36-39 chromosomes, so male gametes with 19-21 chromosomes seemed to be superior to the others. The distribution frequency of chromosomes in this study differed from that in a previous report, where a different tetraploid wheat was used. This shows that a different breeding strategy may need to be taken when exploiting a different tetraploid wheat. According to our results, some plants with 42 chromosomes, having all the wheat A, B and D chromosomes, would appear in the F3 population, which provides a chance to obtain stable bread wheat lines from the self-pollinated progenies. Alternatively, the desirable individuals of the F2 population were backcrossed to bread wheat, which is very useful and efficient for the improvement of bread wheat by exploiting desirable genes in durum wheat. PMID:16278508

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci for Grain Yield and Adaptation of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Across a Wide Range of Water Availability

    PubMed Central

    Maccaferri, Marco; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna; Corneti, Simona; Ortega, José Luis Araus; Salem, Moncef Ben; Bort, Jordi; DeAmbrogio, Enzo; del Moral, Luis Fernando Garcia; Demontis, Andrea; El-Ahmed, Ahmed; Maalouf, Fouad; Machlab, Hassan; Martos, Vanessa; Moragues, Marc; Motawaj, Jihan; Nachit, Miloudi; Nserallah, Nasserlehaq; Ouabbou, Hassan; Royo, Conxita; Slama, Amor; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Grain yield is a major goal for the improvement of durum wheat, particularly in drought-prone areas. In this study, the genetic basis of grain yield (GY), heading date (HD), and plant height (PH) was investigated in a durum wheat population of 249 recombinant inbred lines evaluated in 16 environments (10 rainfed and 6 irrigated) characterized by a broad range of water availability and GY (from 5.6 to 58.8 q ha−1). Among the 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affected GY, two major QTL on chromosomes 2BL and 3BS showed significant effects in 8 and 7 environments, with R2 values of 21.5 and 13.8% (mean data of all 16 environments), respectively. In both cases, extensive overlap was observed between the LOD profiles of GY and PH, but not with those for HD. QTL specific for PH were identified on chromosomes 1BS, 3AL, and 7AS. Additionally, three major QTL for HD on chromosomes 2AS, 2BL, and 7BS showed limited or no effects on GY. For both PH and GY, notable epistasis between the chromosome 2BL and 3BS QTL was detected across several environments. PMID:18202390

  9. The Bo1-specific PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of boron tolerance status in a range of exotic durum and bread wheats.

    PubMed

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2008-12-01

    High soil boron (B) constitutes a major soil problem in many parts of the world, particularly in low-rainfall areas and land under irrigation. Low accumulation of B in the shoot or grain of cereal crops is correlated with the maintenance of biomass production and grain yield under high B conditions, suggesting that this trait is an important component of field tolerance. A novel screening protocol to measure B accumulation in aerated and supported hydroponics was validated using a set of known and exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) accessions. Furthermore, B accumulation in two Triticum urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan and 54 Triticum monococcum L. accessions was measured and showed considerable phenotypic variation. However, B accumulation in these lines was higher than that observed in the most tolerant durum or bread wheats. Mapping of high B tolerance in the durum population AUS14010/Yallaroi revealed a locus possibly allelic to Bo1, a major source of B toxicity tolerance previously identified in bread wheat. Here, we show that the Bo1-specific codominant PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of B tolerance status among exotic durum and bread wheat accessions. All tolerant durum accessions assayed carried very similar AWW5L7 marker fragments, indicating wide distribution of this allele among tolerant durum wheats. Three bread wheat accessions had tolerance that was independent of Bo1 and is probably located on chromosome 4A. These lines represent a valuable genetic resource for B toxicity tolerance breeding in wheat. PMID:19088810

  10. Chemical and functional properties of cassava starch, durum wheat semolina flour, and their blends

    PubMed Central

    Oladunmoye, Olufunmilola O; Aworh, Ogugua C; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Elemo, Gloria N

    2014-01-01

    High-quality cassava starch (HQCS) produced from high-yielding low-cyanide improved cassava variety, TMS 30572, was mixed with durum wheat semolina (DWS) on a replacement basis to produce flour samples containing 0, 20, 30, 50, 70, and 100% cassava starch. They were analyzed for chemical composition (proximate, amylose, free sugars, starch, wet gluten, and cyanide) and functional properties (pasting, swelling power, solubility, water absorption, water binding, starch damage, diastatic and α-amylase activity, dough mixing, and stability). Protein, carbohydrate, fat, and ash of flour samples ranged from 0.75–12.31%, 70.87–87.80%, 0.95–4.41%, and 0.12–0.83%, respectively. Cyanide levels in all the flour samples were less than 0.1 ppm. Amylose content varied between 19.49% for cassava and 28.19% for wheat, correlating significantly with protein (r = 0.95, P = 0.004) and ash contents (r = 0.92, P = 0.01) at 5%. DWS and HQCS had similar pasting temperatures (50.2–53°C), while other pasting properties increased with increasing levels of HQCS. Dough mixing stability of samples decreased with increasing levels of HQCS. All the flour samples had α-amylase activity greater than 200. Both HQCS and DWS compare favorably well in swelling power (7.80–9.01%); but the solubility of wheat starch doubled that of cassava. Starch damage varied between 3.3 and 7.2 AACC for semolina and starch, with the latter having higher absorption rate (97%), and the former, higher absorption speed (67 sec). Results obtained showed positive insight into cassava–wheat blend characteristics. Data thus generated provide additional opportunities of exploiting cassava utilization and hence boost its value–addition potentials for product development. PMID:24804071

  11. Characterization of EST-SSR markers in durum wheat EST library and functional analysis of SSR-containing EST fragments.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Ali Akbar; Rashidi Monfared, Sajad

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study is to identify characterization of expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers from EST library of durum wheat and functional analysis of SSR-containing EST sequences for application in comparative genomics and breeding. 19,141 sequences were analyzed among which 18,937 ESTs were selected. Consistent with MISA results, 313 EST-SSRs were yielded. The final EST-SSRs were compared to the GenBank non-redundant database using BLASTX and classified based on these functions. Results indicated that the perfect EST-SSRs are the most frequent. The TTG/CTG imperfect EST-SSR had gamma-gliadin putative function that can be appropriate for durum wheat. Also, the mononucleotides and trinucleotides were the most frequent. Findings suggested that the identified EST-SSRs could be categorized into 83 types. Motifs TTG in trinucleotides and TC in dinucleotides had the highest frequency. TTG is the new motif in durum wheat identified in this study. We identified new EST-SSRs with more than trinucleotide and detected motifs that have potential to code amino acids. Arginine was the most frequent amino acid. Enzymes had the highest frequency among predicted functions. EST-SSRs have been identified in this study can be used for developing ESS-SSR-based detection tool for durum wheat in future studies and will be a useful resource for molecular breeding, genetics, genomics, and environmental stress studies. Motifs coding amino acids could be used as a new source of functional markers and biological study. In addition to, designed new PCR primer pairs are new resources for to identify useful alleles in transcription factors, storage proteins, and enzymes which incorporated them again into the cultivated material. PMID:24652471

  12. Relationship between leaf stages and epistasis for resistance to Stagonospora nodorum in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Bnejdi, Fethi; Saadoun, Mourad; Naouari, Mouna; El Gazzah, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Ten varieties and eight generations (2F1, 2F2, 2B1 and 2B2) of durum wheat derived from two crosses were evaluated for resistance to natural infection by Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) at the 2–3 and 6–7 leaf stages at two sites over two years. There were significant differences in the incidence of SNB between leaf stages in most of the wheat varieties, with resistance being most evident at the 6–7 leaf stage. Separate analyses of the mean values for each generation showed that the genetic mechanism of defense against the pathogen depended upon the leaf stage. At the 2–3 leaf stage, only additive and dominance effects were implicated in the control of SNB for the two crosses at the two sites and for the two replications. For the 6–7 leaf stage, inheritance was more complicated and an epistatic effect was involved. Narrow-sense heritability values (range: 0.63–0.67) were consistent between crosses and leaf stages. These findings indicate a lack of resistance to SNB at the 2–3 leaf stage whereas resistance was observed at the 6–7 leaf stage and involved the genetic mechanisms of plant defense such as epistasis. PMID:22888293

  13. Ear of durum wheat under water stress: water relations and photosynthetic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tambussi, Eduardo A; Nogués, Salvador; Araus, José Luis

    2005-06-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of the ear and flag leaf of well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) were studied in plants grown under greenhouse and Mediterranean field conditions. Gas exchange measurements simultaneously with modulated chlorophyll fluorescence were used to study the response of the ear and flag leaf to CO2 and O2 during photosynthesis. C4 metabolism was identified by assessing the sensitivity of photosynthetic rate and electron transport to oxygen. The presence of CAM metabolism was assessed by measuring daily patterns of stomatal conductance and net CO2 assimilation. In addition, the histological distribution of Rubisco protein in the ear parts was studied by immunocytochemical localisation. Relative water content (RWC) and osmotic adjustment (osmotic potential at full turgor) were also measured in these organs. Oxygen sensitivity of the assimilation rate and electron transport, the lack of Rubisco compartmentalisation in the mesophyll tissues and the gas-exchange pattern at night indicated that neither C4 nor CAM metabolism occurs in the ear of WW or WS plants. Nevertheless, photosynthetic activity of the flag leaf was more affected by WS conditions than that of the ear, under both growing conditions. The lower sensitivity under water stress of the ear than of the flag leaf was linked to higher RWC and osmotic adjustment in the ear bracts and awns. We demonstrate that the better performance of the ear under water stress (compared to the flag leaf) is not related to C4 or CAM photosynthesis. Rather, drought tolerance of the ear is explained by its higher RWC in drought. Osmotic adjustment and xeromorphic traits of ear parts may be responsible. PMID:15645303

  14. Evaluation of Phenolic Antioxidant Capacity in Grains of Modern and Old Durum Wheat Genotypes by the Novel QUENCHERABTS Approach.

    PubMed

    Laus, Maura N; Di Benedetto, Nilde A; Caporizzi, Rossella; Tozzi, Damiana; Soccio, Mario; Giuzio, Luigia; De Vita, Pasquale; Flagella, Zina; Pastore, Donato

    2015-06-01

    The QUENCHERABTS (QUick, Easy, New, CHEap and Reproducible) approach for antioxidant capacity (AC) determination is based on the direct reaction of 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation with fine solid food particles. So, it may resemble the antioxidant action in foods or in human gastrointestinal trait. Here, the QUENCHER approach was used to study AC of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grains. Firstly, it was assessed which kind of antioxidants determines QUENCHER response. This has been performed by comparing AC measured by QUENCHERABTS and that measured by classical TEACABTS (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) in four different extracts from whole flour of 10 durum wheat varieties containing: lipophilic, hydrophilic, insoluble-bound phenolic (IBP) and free-soluble phenolic (FSP) compounds. QUENCHERABTS data were unrelated to AC of water-extractable antioxidants and weakly correlated (r = 0.405, P < 0.05) to AC of the lipophilic ones; on the contrary, QUENCHERABTS response was mainly related to AC of IBP (r = 0.907, P < 0.001) and to a lesser extent of FSP extracts (r = 0.747, P < 0.001). Consistently, correlation was also found with the phenolic content of IBP and FSP (r = 0.760, P < 0.001 and r = 0.522, P < 0.01, respectively), thus confirming that QUENCHERABTS assay mainly assesses AC due to IBP. So, this assay was used in a first screening study to compare AC of bioactive IBP of thirty-six genotypes/landraces covering a century of cultivation in Italy. Interestingly, no relevant AC difference between modern and old genotypes was found, thus suggesting that a century of plant breeding did not decrease phenol-dependent health potential in durum wheat. PMID:25771798

  15. Molecular mapping of genes Yr64 and Yr65 for stripe rust resistance in hexaploid derivatives of durum wheat accessions PI 331260 and PI 480016

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide and resistance is the best control strategy. Durum wheat accessions PI 331260 and PI 480016 were resistant to all tested Pst races. To transfer the resistance genes to common ...

  16. Haplotype analysis of genes for Fusarium head blight resistance in tetraploid wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haplotype analysis at the molecular marker loci associated with the known Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance QTL in wheat can be used to identify resistance genes in the resistant germplasm, and thus provides practical information of pyramiding different sources of resistance for the development ...

  17. Locations of quantitative trait loci conferring Russian wheat aphid resistance in barley germplasm STARS-9301B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko) infestations of barley reduce grain yield and quality and have caused more than $1 billion in losses in the Western United States since 1986. Our objective was to map genes conferring resistance to RWA feeding damage in the germplasm line STARS-93...

  18. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, cultivar Senatore Cappelli) production systems effects on grain and flours functional properties under Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Chami, Ziad Al

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of organic farming is the "production of high quality products". Integrity and vital quality of products should be preserved along the entire production chain. In order to evaluate the effect of organic vs. conventional production systems on durum wheat phenolic acids and antioxidant activity open field experiment has been carried out. During the whole process chain from field to fork, there are various factors influencing the quality of the end product. Organic production should rely on genotypes with high nitrogen use efficiency, disease and pest resistance, weed competitiveness and tolerance especially under Mediterranean conditions. In this study, production systems differed according to the practices and inputs applied to manage the soil fertility and plant protection. In conventional system, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides were used. Whereas, in the two organic systems, cow manure with fertilizers and temporary intercropping with fava bean (Vicia faba) and fertilizers were used to manage soil fertility. Biopesticides were used for plant protection for organic systems. One treatment without inputs was used as a control in order to evaluate environmental site and cultivar effect. Quantity of free, free and conjugated and bounded phenolic acids were evaluated in relation to overall quality and production systems. In addition, antioxidant capacities of each fraction by different assays were assessed. The organic production method assured higher overall quality in paricular functional properties compared to the conventional one. Therefore, understanding the functional links between production systems variables and physiological responses is essential to improve and standardize the quality of organic durum wheat products. Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility management, phenolic acids, antioxidant activity.

  19. Fructan biosynthesis and degradation as part of plant metabolism controlling sugar fluxes during durum wheat kernel maturation

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Sara; Locato, Vittoria; Vergauwen, Rudy; Paradiso, Annalisa; Cecchini, Cristina; Vandenpoel, Liesbeth; Verspreet, Joran; Courtin, Christophe M.; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Van den Ende, Wim; De Gara, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Wheat kernels contain fructans, fructose based oligosaccharides with prebiotic properties, in levels between 2 and 35 weight % depending on the developmental stage of the kernel. To improve knowledge on the metabolic pathways leading to fructan storage and degradation, carbohydrate fluxes occurring during durum wheat kernel development were analyzed. Kernels were collected at various developmental stages and quali-quantitative analysis of carbohydrates (mono- and di-saccharides, fructans, starch) was performed, alongside analysis of the activities and gene expression of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and hydrolysis. High resolution HPAEC-PAD of fructan contained in durum wheat kernels revealed that fructan content is higher at the beginning of kernel development, when fructans with higher DP, such as bifurcose and 1,1-nystose, were mainly found. The changes in fructan pool observed during kernel maturation might be part of the signaling pathways influencing carbohydrate metabolism and storage in wheat kernels during development. During the first developmental stages fructan accumulation may contribute to make kernels more effective Suc sinks and to participate in osmotic regulation while the observed decrease in their content may mark the transition to later developmental stages, transition that is also orchestrated by changes in redox balance. PMID:25750648

  20. Haploid production in durum wheat by the interaction of Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm and 1BL/1RS chromosomal interchange.

    PubMed

    Hsam, S L; Zeller, F J

    1993-09-01

    The present study describes the development of an alloplasmic haploid-inducer in durum wheat cv 'Cando'. This cultivar possesses the homozygous wheat-rye translocation 1BL/1RS from the 6x-wheat cv 'Veery'. The nucleus of 4x-'Cando-Veery 1BL/1RS' was introduced into Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm by initially using (kotschyi)-Salmon as the maternal parent. In the cross of this alloplasmic durum line with 'Cando-Veery 1BL/1RS', which was used as the recurrent pollen parent, haploids (n=14) were produced. The frequency of haploids increased from 5.7% in the F1 generation to 14% in the BC1 generation. The presence of rye chromosome arm 1RS and the concomitant loss of 1BS in '(kotschyi)-Cando-Veery 1BL/1RS' are necessary for haploid induction. Proposals are made which may enable the use of haploids produced by nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:24194002

  1. Transport Pathways—Proton Motive Force Interrelationship in Durum Wheat Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N.; Soccio, Mario; Pastore, Donato

    2014-01-01

    In durum wheat mitochondria (DWM) the ATP-inhibited plant mitochondrial potassium channel (PmitoKATP) and the plant uncoupling protein (PUCP) are able to strongly reduce the proton motive force (pmf) to control mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species; under these conditions, mitochondrial carriers lack the driving force for transport and should be inactive. However, unexpectedly, DWM uncoupling by PmitoKATP neither impairs the exchange of ADP for ATP nor blocks the inward transport of Pi and succinate. This uptake may occur via the plant inner membrane anion channel (PIMAC), which is physiologically inhibited by membrane potential, but unlocks its activity in de-energized mitochondria. Probably, cooperation between PIMAC and carriers may accomplish metabolite movement across the inner membrane under both energized and de-energized conditions. PIMAC may also cooperate with PmitoKATP to transport ammonium salts in DWM. Interestingly, this finding may trouble classical interpretation of in vitro mitochondrial swelling; instead of free passage of ammonia through the inner membrane and proton symport with Pi, that trigger metabolite movements via carriers, transport of ammonium via PmitoKATP and that of the counteranion via PIMAC may occur. Here, we review properties, modulation and function of the above reported DWM channels and carriers to shed new light on the control that they exert on pmf and vice-versa. PMID:24821541

  2. Characterization and mapping of novel chlorophyll deficient mutant genes in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Jia, Jizeng; Xia, Chuan; Liu, Xu; Kong, Xiuying

    2013-06-01

    The yellow-green leaf mutant has a non-lethal chlorophyll-deficient mutation that can be exploited in photosynthesis and plant development research. A novel yellow-green mutant derived from Triticum durum var. Cappelli displays a yellow-green leaf color from the seedling stage to the mature stage. Examination of the mutant chloroplasts with transmission electron microscopy revealed that the shape of chloroplast changed, grana stacks in the stroma were highly variable in size and disorganized. The pigment content, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotene, was decreased in the mutant. In contrast, the chla/chlb ratio of the mutants was increased in comparison with the normal green leaves. We also found a reduction in the photosynthetic rate, fluorescence kinetic parameters and yield-related agronomic traits of the mutant. A genetic analysis revealed that two nuclear recessive genes controlled the expression of this trait. The genes were designated ygld1 and ygld2. Two molecular markers co-segregated with these genes. ygld 1 co-segregated with the SSR marker wmc110 on chromosome 5AL and ygld 2 co-segregated with the SSR marker wmc28 on chromosome 5BL. These results will contribute to the gene cloning and the understanding of the mechanisms underlying chlorophyll metabolism and chloroplast development in wheat. PMID:23853511

  3. Gene expression and physiological responses to salinity and water stress of contrasting durum wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Salima; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco; Araus, José Luis; Serret, Maria Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the relationships between gene expression and the physiological mechanisms remains a bottleneck in breeding for resistance to salinity and drought. This study related the expression of key target genes with the physiological performance of durum wheat under different combinations of salinity and irrigation. The candidate genes assayed included two encoding for the DREB (dehydration responsive element binding) transcription factors TaDREB1A and TaDREB2B, another two for the cytosolic and plastidic glutamine synthetase (TaGS1 and TaGS2), and one for the specific Na(+) /H(+) vacuolar antiporter (TaNHX1). Expression of these genes was related to growth and different trait indicators of nitrogen metabolism (nitrogen content, stable nitrogen isotope composition, and glutamine synthetase and nitrate reductase activities), photosynthetic carbon metabolism (stable carbon isotope composition and different gas exchange traits) and ion accumulation. Significant interaction between genotype and growing conditions occurred for growth, nitrogen content, and the expression of most genes. In general terms, higher expression of TaGS1, TaGS2, TaDREB2B, and to a lesser extent of TaNHX1 were associated with a better genotypic performance in growth, nitrogen, and carbon photosynthetic metabolism under salinity and water stress. However, TaDREB1A was increased in expression under stress compared with control conditions, with tolerant genotypes exhibiting lower expression than susceptible ones. PMID:25869057

  4. Added ingredients affect the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat type-I sourdough.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effect of additional ingredients (baker's yeast, macerated pears, grape must, honey, or water from macerated pears) on the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat-based sourdough. One dough prepared using only flour was used as the control (control-dough). Compared to the control-dough, doughs containing additional ingredients showed higher (P < 0.05) cell numbers of lactic acid bacteria after the first fermentation. Constant pH of ca. 4.0 was found after two (macerated pears or water pears-doughs) to seven (control-dough) back-slopping steps. The use of additional ingredients caused lower microbial diversity, after the first fermentation and in mature sourdoughs. Regardless of the type of ingredient used, OTU belonging to the genus Lactobacillus represented more than 95% of the total Firmicutes in mature sourdoughs. Some metabolic capacities of microbial community of the mature sourdoughs were linked to the additional ingredient. Based on culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated in all the sourdoughs. However, the sourdoughs showed different strains of these two species. Other lactic acid bacterium species were associated to baker's yeast, grape must and macerated pears. The different microbial composition was correlated (r > 0.7, P < 0.05) with several biochemical characteristics of the sourdoughs (e.g., free amino acids and their derivatives). PMID:27554152

  5. Drying of Durum Wheat Pasta and Enriched Pasta: A Review of Modeling Approaches.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Samuel; Mondor, Martin; Moresoli, Christine; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Marcos, Bernard

    2016-05-18

    Models on drying of durum wheat pasta and enriched pasta were reviewed to identify avenues for improvement according to consumer needs, product formulation and processing conditions. This review first summarized the fundamental phenomena of pasta drying, mass transfer, heat transfer, momentum, chemical changes, shrinkage and crack formation. The basic equations of the current models were then presented, along with methods for the estimation of pasta transport and thermodynamic properties. The experimental validation of these models was also presented and highlighted the need for further model validation for drying at high temperatures (>-100°C) and for more accurate estimation of the pasta diffusion and mass transfer coefficients. This review indicates the need for the development of mechanistic models to improve our understanding of the mass and heat transfer mechanisms involved in pasta drying, and to consider the local changes in pasta transport properties and relaxation time for more accurate description of the moisture transport near glass transition conditions. The ability of current models to describe dried pasta quality according to the consumers expectations or to predict the impact of incorporating ingredients high in nutritional value on the drying of these enriched pasta was also discussed. PMID:26053936

  6. Probabilistic assessments of climate change impacts on durum wheat in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrise, R.; Moriondo, M.; Bindi, M.

    2011-05-01

    Recently, the availability of multi-model ensemble prediction methods has permitted a shift from a scenario-based approach to a risk-based approach in assessing the effects of climate change. This provides more useful information to decision-makers who need probability estimates to assess the seriousness of the projected impacts. In this study, a probabilistic framework for evaluating the risk of durum wheat yield shortfall over the Mediterranean Basin has been exploited. An artificial neural network, trained to emulate the outputs of a process-based crop growth model, has been adopted to create yield response surfaces which are then overlaid with probabilistic projections of future temperature and precipitation changes in order to estimate probabilistic projections of future yields. The risk is calculated as the relative frequency of projected yields below a selected threshold. In contrast to previous studies, which suggest that the beneficial effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration over the next few decades would outweigh the detrimental effects of the early stages of climatic warming and drying, the results of this study are of greater concern.

  7. Reuse of microbially treated olive mill wastewater as fertiliser for wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Fausto Cereti, Carlo; Rossini, Francesco; Federici, Federico; Quaratino, Daniele; Vassilev, Nikolay; Fenice, Massimiliano

    2004-01-01

    Free cells of Aspergillus niger were grown on olive mill wastewater (OMW) supplemented with rock phosphate (RP) in an air-lift bioreactor in batch and repeated-batch processes. The fungus grew well and reduced the chemical oxygen demand of the waste by 35% and 64% in the batch and repeated-batch (fourth batch) processes, respectively. Total sugar content was consistently reduced (ca. 60%) in both processes while reduction of total phenols was minimal. RP was solubilised and maximum soluble P was 0.63 and 0.75 gl(-1) in the batch and repeated-batch (third batch), respectively. Several types of OMW+/-RP, microbially-treated or not, were tested in a greenhouse for their fertilising ability on a soil-wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) model system. Beneficial effects were highest using OMW treated by the repeated-batch process. The treated plants showed an increase in seed biomass, spike number, and kernel weight. Harvest index was highest (0.49+/-0.04) after treatment with OMW from the repeated-batch process. PMID:14592741

  8. Quality classification of Italian wheat durum spaghetti by means of different spectrophometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menesatti, P.; Bucarelli, A.

    2007-09-01

    Wheat durum pasta (spaghetti in particular) can be considered as the most typical Italy's food product. Many small or craft pasta factories realize different quality product regarding the use of biological wheat and the application of mild (lower drying temperature) or traditional (bronze draw-plate) technologies, in competition with large industrial enterprises. The application of higher quality standards increases the producing cost and determines higher pasta prices. In order to setup a reliable easy-to-use methodology to distinguish different production technology approaches, spectrophotometric visible and near-infrared (VIS-Nir) techniques were applied on the intact pasta. Eighteen samples of commercial brand spaghetti classified in five different quality production factors (Full industrial - Teflon-drawn, high temperature-short time drying -; semolina from organic cultivations; bronze-drawn treatment; low temperature - long time drying; traditional high quality pasta - bronze-drawn and low temperature drying treatments-) were analyzed by three different spectrometric techniques: a VIS (400 - 700 nm) spectral imaging, a Nir (1000-1700 nm) spectral imaging - both of them acquiring reflected spectral images of spaghetti bundle - and a portable VIS-Nir system (400-800 nm), working with an interactance probe on single spaghetti string. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regressions (PLS) were performed on about 1500 spectral arrays, to test the ability of the systems to distinguish the different pasta products (commercial brands). Reflectance visible data presented highest percentage of correct classification: 98.6% total value, 100% for high quality spaghetti (bronze-drawn and/or low temperature drying). NIR reflectance and VIS-NIR interactance systems presented 85% and 70% of entire correct classification while for high quality pasta the percentages rise up to 75% and 83%

  9. Complete characterization of wheat-alien metaphase I pairing in interspecific hybrids between durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Marta; Benavente, Elena

    2009-05-01

    The pattern of homoeologous metaphase I (MI) pairing has been fully characterized in durum wheat x Aegilops cylindrica hybrids (2n = 4x = 28, ABC(c)D(c)) by an in situ hybridization procedure that has permitted individual discrimination of every wheat and wild constituent genome. One of the three hybrid genotypes examined carried the ph1c mutation. In all cases, MI associations between chromosomes of both species represented around two-third of total. Main results from the analysis are as follows (a) the A genome chromosomes are involved in wheat-wild MI pairing more frequently than the B genome partners, irrespective of the alien genome considered; (b) both durum wheat genomes pair preferentially with the D(c) genome of jointed goatgrass. These findings are discussed in relation to the potential of genetic transference between wheat crops and this weedy relative. It can also be highlighted that inactivation of Ph1 provoked a relatively higher promotion of MI associations involving B genome. PMID:19319503

  10. Creation of a high-amylose durum wheat through mutagenesis of starch synthase II (SSIIa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cereal seeds mutations in one or more starch synthases lead to decreased amylopectin and increased amylose content. Here, the impact of starch synthase IIa (SSIIa or SGP-1) mutations upon durum starch was investigated. A screen of durum accessions identified two lines lacking SGP-A1, the A geno...

  11. Size exclusion HPLC of proteins for evaluation of durum wheat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present research aimed to assess size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) in protein molecular weight distribution determination for quality evaluation of durum semolina. Semolina samples were milled from 13 durum genotypes grown at 7 locations in 2009 and 2010 in ND. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer ...

  12. Responses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and recombinant yeast cells expressing a novel durum wheat manganese superoxide dismutase TdMnSOD to various abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:27152457

  13. Soil inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms promotes plant growth and nutrient transporter genes expression in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Saia, Sergio; Rappa, Vito; Ruisi, Paolo; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Sunseri, Francesco; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso S.; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake. These biotic associations were studied under either low N availability (unfertilized plots) and supplying the soil with an easily mineralizable organic fertilizer. Regardless of N fertilization, at the tillering stage, inoculation with AMF alone or in combination with PGPR increased the aboveground biomass yield compared to the uninoculated control. Inoculation with PGPR enhanced the aboveground biomass yield compared to the control, but only when N fertilizer was added. At the heading stage, inoculation with all microorganisms increased the aboveground biomass and N. Inoculation with PGPR and AMF+PGPR resulted in significantly higher aboveground P compared to the control and inoculation with AMF only when organic N was applied. The role of microbe inoculation in N uptake was elucidated by the expression of nitrate transporter genes. NRT1.1, NRT2, and NAR2.2 were significantly upregulated by inoculation with AMF and AMF+PGPR in the absence of organic N. A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added. The ammonium (NH4+) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3- transporters. Finally, in the absence of organic N, the transcript abundance of P transporters Pht1 and PT2-1 was increased by inoculation with AMF+PGPR, and inoculation with AMF upregulated Pht2 compared to the uninoculated control. These results indicate the soil inoculation with AMF and PGPR (alone or in combination) as a valuable option for farmers to improve yield, nutrient uptake, and the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem. PMID:26483827

  14. Quantitative and qualitative differences in celiac disease epitopes among durum wheat varieties identified through deep RNA-amplicon sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat gluten is important for the industrial quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L.). Gluten proteins are also the source of immunogenic peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease (CD) patients, leading to inflammatory responses in the small intestine. Various peptides with three major T cell epitopes involved in CD are derived from alpha-gliadin fraction of gluten. Alpha-gliadins are encoded by a large multigene family and amino acid variation in the CD epitopes is known to influence the immunogenicity of individual gene family members. Current commercial methods of gluten detection are unable to distinguish between immunogenic and non-immunogenic CD epitope variants and thus to accurately quantify the overall CD epitope load of a given wheat variety. Such quantification is indispensable for correct selection of wheat varieties with low potential to cause CD. Results A 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method was developed for alpha-gliadin transcripts encompassing the three major CD epitopes and their variants. The method was used to screen developing grains on plants of 61 different durum wheat cultivars and accessions. A dedicated sequence analysis pipeline returned a total of 304 unique alpha-gliadin transcripts, corresponding to a total of 171 ‘unique deduced protein fragments’ of alpha-gliadins. The numbers of these fragments obtained in each plant were used to calculate quantitative and quantitative differences between the CD epitopes expressed in the endosperm of these wheat plants. A few plants showed a lower fraction of CD epitope-encoding alpha-gliadin transcripts, but none were free of CD epitopes. Conclusions The dedicated 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method enables 1) the grouping of wheat plants according to the genetic variation in alpha-gliadin transcripts, and 2) the screening for plants which are potentially less CD-immunogenic. The resulting alpha-gliadin sequence database will

  15. Puroindoline allelic diversity in Indian wheat germplasm and identification of new allelic variants

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rohit; Arora, Shaweta; Singh, Kashmir; Garg, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Grain hardness is an important quality trait that influences product development in wheat. This trait is governed by variation in puroindoline proteins (PINA and PINB). Our study evaluated 551 Indian wheat germplasm lines for diversity in Pina and Pinb genes. Eighty-two lines were shortlisted for full length sequencing and grain hardness studies. Sequencing studies identified six unknown alleles: two for the Pina gene and four for the Pinb gene. Five of them were novel with non-synonymous changes in the corresponding amino acid sequences. Identified mutations in the deduced mature proteins and their pre- and pro-peptides influenced the hardness characteristics of the grain. We classified these 82 varieties into different hardness categories with reference to international and Indian systems of classification. The majority of Indian wheat varieties were categorized as hard. This study revealed that unexplored Indian wheat germplasm can be a good source of genetic variability for both Pina and Pinb genes, helping in marker-assisted breeding and in obtaining wheat with different textural properties. PMID:26366114

  16. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Sobia, Tabassum; Muhammad, Ashraf; Chen, XianMing

    2010-09-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases and stripe rust (yellow) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which could limit yields. Thus development and cultivation of genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the most sustainable solution to overcome these diseases. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars that have been grown over the past 60 years. These cultivars were inoculated at the seedling stage with two virulent stripe rust isolates from the United States and two from Pakistan. None of the wheat cultivars were resistant to all tested stripe rust isolates, and 16% of cultivars were susceptible to the four isolates at the seedling stage. The data indicated that none of the Pakistan wheat cultivars contained either Yr5 or Yr15 genes that were considered to be effective against most P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from around the world. Several Pakistan wheat cultivars may have gene Yr10, which is effective against isolate PST-127 but ineffective against PST-116. It is also possible that these cultivars may have other previously unidentified genes or gene combinations. The second objective was to evaluate the 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars for stripe rust resistance during natural epidemics in Pakistan and Washington State, USA. It was found that a higher frequency of resistance was present under field conditions compared with greenhouse conditions. Thirty genotypes (30% of germplasms) were found to have a potentially high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance. The third objective was to determine the genetic diversity in Pakistan wheat germplasms using molecular markers. This study was based on DNA fingerprinting using resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) marker analysis. The highest polymorphism detected with RGAP primer pairs was 40%, 50% and 57% with a mean polymorphism of 36%. A total of 22 RGAP markers were obtained in this study. RGAP, simple

  17. ND 803 spring wheat germplasm combining resistance to scab and leaf diseases with good agronomic and quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of adapted wheat germplasm is essential so that breeding programs can develop superior cultivars, which was the objective of this research. ND 803 is hard red spring wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) line that was developed at North Dakota State University (NDSU) and released by the...

  18. Registration of scab-resistant KY06C-11-3-10 soft red winter wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide that has elicited a widespread resistance-breeding effort. One approach to breeding relies on deployment of exotic quantitative trait loci (QTL) from wheat outside North America. Germplasm line KY06C-11-3-10 (R...

  19. Identification of Yr59 conferring high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in wheat germplasm PI 178759

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Resistant cultivars are the preferred means of control. The spring wheat germplasm ‘PI 178759’ originating from Iraq showed effective resistance to stripe rust in fie...

  20. Registration of the Soft Red Winter Wheat Germplasm MD01W233-06-1 Resistant to Fusarium Head Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) [caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe; telomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch] is a major disease of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the US mid- Atlantic region. The objective of this research was to derive soft red winter wheat (SRWW) germplasm with enhanced ...

  1. Searching for novel sources of field resistance to Ug99 and Ethiopian stem rust races in durum wheat via association mapping.

    PubMed

    Letta, Tesfaye; Maccaferri, Marco; Badebo, Ayele; Ammar, Karim; Ricci, Andrea; Crossa, Jose; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causative agent of stem rust in wheat, is a devastating disease of durum wheat. While more than 50 stem rust resistance (Sr) loci have been identified in wheat, only a few of them have remained effective against Ug99 (TTKSK race) and other durum-specific Ethiopian races. An association mapping (AM) approach based on 183 diverse durum wheat accessions was utilized to identify resistance loci for stem rust response in Ethiopia over four field-evaluation seasons and artificial inoculation with Ug99 and a mixture of durum-specific races. The panel was profiled with simple sequence repeat, Diversity Arrays Technology and sequence-tagged site markers (1,253 in total). The resistance turned out to be oligogenic, with twelve QTL-tagging markers that were significant (P < 0.05) across three or four seasons. R (2) values ranged from 1.1 to 11.3 %.Twenty-four additional single-marker/QTL regions were found to be significant over two seasons. The AM results confirmed the role of Sr13, previously described in bi-parental mapping studies, and the role of chromosome regions putatively harbouring Sr9, Sr14, Sr17 and Sr28. Three minor QTLs were coincident with those reported in hexaploid wheat and five overlapped with those recently reported in the Sebatel × Kristal durum mapping population. Thirteen single-marker/QTL regions were located in chromosome regions where no Sr genes/QTLs have been previously reported. The allelic variation identified in this study is readily available and can be exploited for marker-assisted selection, thus providing additional opportunities for a more durable stem rust resistance under field conditions. PMID:23429902

  2. Genetic Structure of Modern Durum Wheat Cultivars and Mediterranean Landraces Matches with Their Agronomic Performance.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Jose Miguel; Villegas, Dolors; Aranzana, Maria Jose; García Del Moral, Luis F; Royo, Conxita

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 172 durum wheat landraces from 21 Mediterranean countries and 20 modern cultivars were phenotyped in 6 environments for 14 traits including phenology, biomass, yield and yield components. The genetic structure of the collection was ascertained with 44 simple sequence repeat markers that identified 448 alleles, 226 of them with a frequency lower than 5%, and 10 alleles per locus on average. In the modern cultivars all the alleles were fixed in 59% of the markers. Total genetic diversity was HT = 0.7080 and the genetic differentiation value was GST = 0.1730. STRUCTURE software allocated 90.1% of the accessions in five subpopulations, one including all modern cultivars, and the four containing landrace related to their geographic origin: eastern Mediterranean, eastern Balkans and Turkey, western Balkans and Egypt, and western Mediterranean. Mean yield of subpopulations ranged from 2.6 t ha-1 for the western Balkan and Egyptian landraces to 4.0 t ha-1 for modern cultivars, with the remaining three subpopulations showing similar values of 3.1 t ha-1. Modern cultivars had the highest number of grains m-2 and harvest index, and the shortest cycle length. The diversity was lowest in modern cultivars (HT = 0.4835) and highest in landraces from the western Balkans and Egypt (HT = 0.6979). Genetic diversity and AMOVA indicated that variability between subpopulations was much lower (17%) than variability within them (83%), though all subpopulations had similar biomass values in all growth stages. A dendrogram based on simple sequence repeat data matched with the clusters obtained by STRUCTURE, improving this classification for some accessions that have a large admixture. landraces included in the subpopulation from the eastern Balkans and Turkey were separated into two branches in the dendrogram drawn with phenotypic data, suggesting a different origin for the landraces collected in Serbia and Macedonia. The current study shows a reliable relationship between

  3. Genetic Structure of Modern Durum Wheat Cultivars and Mediterranean Landraces Matches with Their Agronomic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Dolors; Aranzana, Maria Jose; García del Moral, Luis F.; Royo, Conxita

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 172 durum wheat landraces from 21 Mediterranean countries and 20 modern cultivars were phenotyped in 6 environments for 14 traits including phenology, biomass, yield and yield components. The genetic structure of the collection was ascertained with 44 simple sequence repeat markers that identified 448 alleles, 226 of them with a frequency lower than 5%, and 10 alleles per locus on average. In the modern cultivars all the alleles were fixed in 59% of the markers. Total genetic diversity was HT = 0.7080 and the genetic differentiation value was GST = 0.1730. STRUCTURE software allocated 90.1% of the accessions in five subpopulations, one including all modern cultivars, and the four containing landrace related to their geographic origin: eastern Mediterranean, eastern Balkans and Turkey, western Balkans and Egypt, and western Mediterranean. Mean yield of subpopulations ranged from 2.6 t ha-1 for the western Balkan and Egyptian landraces to 4.0 t ha-1 for modern cultivars, with the remaining three subpopulations showing similar values of 3.1 t ha-1. Modern cultivars had the highest number of grains m-2 and harvest index, and the shortest cycle length. The diversity was lowest in modern cultivars (HT = 0.4835) and highest in landraces from the western Balkans and Egypt (HT = 0.6979). Genetic diversity and AMOVA indicated that variability between subpopulations was much lower (17%) than variability within them (83%), though all subpopulations had similar biomass values in all growth stages. A dendrogram based on simple sequence repeat data matched with the clusters obtained by STRUCTURE, improving this classification for some accessions that have a large admixture. landraces included in the subpopulation from the eastern Balkans and Turkey were separated into two branches in the dendrogram drawn with phenotypic data, suggesting a different origin for the landraces collected in Serbia and Macedonia. The current study shows a reliable relationship between

  4. Barley germplasm resistant to both Russian wheat aphid and greenbug

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), and greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) are potential pests on winter cereals grown in the southern plains. In outbreak years, both aphids can drastically reduce grain yield of susceptible cultivars. In barley, two single dominant genes, R...

  5. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection.

    PubMed

    Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Junli; Chao, Shiaoman; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs. PMID:27226168

  6. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection

    PubMed Central

    Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Junli; Chao, Shiaoman; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs. PMID:27226168

  7. Study of rust resistance genes in wheat germplasm with DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Asma; Shaheen, Tayyaba; Gulzar, Tahsin; Rahman, Mahmood ur; Jalal, Fatima; Sattar, Summera; Ehsan, Beenish; Iqbal, Zafar; Younas, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is a vital dietary component for human health and widely consumed in the world. Wheat rusts are dangerous pathogens and contribute serious threat to its production. In present study, PCR-Based DNA Markers were employed to check the rust resistance genes among 20 wheat genotypes and 22 markers were amplified. NTSYS-pc 2.2 was used to calculate genetic diversity and Nei and Li's coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.95. Cluster analysis was obtained using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Average) algorithm. Maximum no. of genes (23) was amplified from TW-760010 genotype whereas minimum no of genes (14) were amplified from TW-76005 genotype. The data gained from present study open up new ways to produce new varieties by breeding rust resistant germplasm to avoid the economic and food loss and varieties with improved characteristics. PMID:25097381

  8. Identification and mapping of leaf, stem and stripe rust resistance quantitative trait loci and their interactions in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Pandey, M P; Singh, A K; Knox, R E; Ammar, K; Clarke, J M; Clarke, F R; Singh, R P; Pozniak, C J; Depauw, R M; McCallum, B D; Cuthbert, R D; Randhawa, H S; Fetch, T G

    2013-02-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. tritici Eriks.) and stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) cause major production losses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The objective of this research was to identify and map leaf, stripe and stem rust resistance loci from the French cultivar Sachem and Canadian cultivar Strongfield. A doubled haploid population from Sachem/Strongfield and parents were phenotyped for seedling reaction to leaf rust races BBG/BN and BBG/BP and adult plant response was determined in three field rust nurseries near El Batan, Obregon and Toluca, Mexico. Stripe rust response was recorded in 2009 and 2011 nurseries near Toluca and near Njoro, Kenya in 2010. Response to stem rust was recorded in field nurseries near Njoro, Kenya, in 2010 and 2011. Sachem was resistant to leaf, stripe and stem rust. A major leaf rust quantitative trait locus (QTL) was identified on chromosome 7B at Xgwm146 in Sachem. In the same region on 7B, a stripe rust QTL was identified in Strongfield. Leaf and stripe rust QTL around DArT marker wPt3451 were identified on chromosome 1B. On chromosome 2B, a significant leaf rust QTL was detected conferred by Strongfield, and at the same QTL, a Yr gene derived from Sachem conferred resistance. Significant stem rust resistance QTL were detected on chromosome 4B. Consistent interactions among loci for resistance to each rust type across nurseries were detected, especially for leaf rust QTL on 7B. Sachem and Strongfield offer useful sources of rust resistance genes for durum rust breeding. PMID:23396999

  9. Characterization of Dwarfing Genes in Eastern Winter Wheat Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of 260 historic and modern eastern winter wheat cultivars were evaluated with the markers for Rht-B1, Rht-D1 and Rht8 dwarfing genes. The Rht-D1b dwarfing gene was the most frequent being present in 45% of all lines tested. The Rht-B1b gene was present in 28% of lines and the remaining lines w...

  10. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  11. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  12. Comparison of bed planting-furrow irrigation with conventional planting-flood irrigation in durum wheat (T. durum Desf) in southeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozberk, Irfan; Coskun, Yalçin; Ilkhan, Ali; Köten, Mehmet; Karli, Bahri; Ryan, John

    2009-05-15

    There is no clear consensus regarding the advantages of bed planting with furrow irrigation over conventionally irrigated cropping. This 3-year study from Southeastern Turkey aimed to assess the limits to some input savings in bed planting-furrow irrigation in terms of yields and profitability of durum wheat. Field trials were carried out using a randomized complete block design with six treatments and tree replications: T1: Conventional Planting-Flood Irrigation (CP-FI) with recommended practices for seed rate, chemical fertilizers and chemical weed control; T2: Bed Planting and Furrow Irrigation (BP-FI) with recommended input rates as in T2; T3: BP-FI with 10% input reduction; T4: BP-FI with 20% input reduction; T5: BP-FI with 30% input reduction; T6: BP-FI with 40% input reduction. The trial had four replications at each location over three cropping seasons, i.e., Akçakale (2004-05, 2005-06) and Koruklu (2006-2007). Individual and combined analysis of variance were performed for grain yields, market prices based on quality assessment, protein content and both 1000-kernel and hectoliter weights. Profitability was assessed with partial budget analysis. Except for yields, there was little effect of treatments on the other variables. Based on yields and economic analysis, the conventional system with flood irrigation was superior to the bed and furrow system, even when the inputs were reduced in such a system. The work demonstrates the site-specific nature of any new technology as there are several local biological and economical factors to be considered. PMID:19806807

  13. Variations of the sensory profile of durum wheat Altamura PDO (protected designation of origin) bread during staling.

    PubMed

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Bilancia, Maria Teresa; Caponio, Francesco

    2007-04-01

    The typical sensory characteristics of Altamura PDO (protected designation of origin) bread are due to both the use of durum wheat remilled semolina and the prolonged sponge-dough method based on sourdough. In this paper the sensory properties of Altamura bread were evaluated during a period of 6 days from baking. A total number of 24 descriptors was considered. The obtained results indicated that during the whole storage period many of the desirable characters such as crust consistence, crumb elasticity, crumb cohesiveness, overall aroma, and sour aroma decreased, while the undesirable stale aroma and crumb consistence increased their intensity. In any case, after 4 days from the production crumb color, crumb grain, crumb elasticity, and crumb humidity did not vary significantly. PMID:17995813

  14. Accelerated hydrolysis method to estimate the amino acid content of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) flour using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kabaha, Khaled; Taralp, Alpay; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent

    2011-04-13

    The technique of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was applied to wholegrain wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Balcali 2000) flour in order to speed the preparation of samples for analysis. The resultant hydrolysates were chromatographed and quantified in an automated amino acid analyzer. The effect of different hydrolysis temperatures, times and sample weights was examined using flour dispersed in 6 N HCl. Within the range of values tested, the highest amino acid recoveries were generally obtained by setting the hydrolysis parameters to 150 °C, 3 h and 200 mg sample weight. These conditions struck an optimal balance between liberating amino acid residues from the wheat matrix and limiting their subsequent degradation or transformation. Compared to the traditional 24 h reflux method, the hydrolysates were prepared in dramatically less time, yet afforded comparable ninhydrin color yields. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, the total amino acid recovery corresponded to at least 85.1% of the total protein content, indicating the efficient extraction of amino acids from the flour matrix. The findings suggest that this microwave-assisted method can be used to rapidly profile the amino acids of numerous wheat grain samples, and can be extended to the grain analysis of other cereal crops. PMID:21375298

  15. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Durum Wheat Flour Are Endophytic Components of the Plant during Its Entire Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; Tedone, Luigi; De Mastro, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria and other Firmicutes associated with durum wheat organs and processed products. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus were the main epiphytic and endophytic genera among lactic acid bacteria. Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Staphylococcus completed the picture of the core genus microbiome. The relative abundance of each lactic acid bacterium genus was affected by cultivars, phenological stages, other Firmicutes genera, environmental temperature, and water activity (aw) of plant organs. Lactobacilli, showing the highest sensitivity to aw, markedly decreased during milk development (Odisseo) and physiological maturity (Saragolla). At these stages, Lactobacillus was mainly replaced by Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Enterococcus. However, a key sourdough species, Lactobacillus plantarum, was associated with plant organs during the life cycle of Odisseo and Saragolla wheat. The composition of the sourdough microbiota and the overall quality of leavened baked goods are also determined throughout the phenological stages of wheat cultivation, with variations depending on environmental and agronomic factors. PMID:26187970

  16. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Durum Wheat Flour Are Endophytic Components of the Plant during Its Entire Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; Tedone, Luigi; De Mastro, Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria and other Firmicutes associated with durum wheat organs and processed products. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus were the main epiphytic and endophytic genera among lactic acid bacteria. Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Staphylococcus completed the picture of the core genus microbiome. The relative abundance of each lactic acid bacterium genus was affected by cultivars, phenological stages, other Firmicutes genera, environmental temperature, and water activity (aw) of plant organs. Lactobacilli, showing the highest sensitivity to aw, markedly decreased during milk development (Odisseo) and physiological maturity (Saragolla). At these stages, Lactobacillus was mainly replaced by Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Enterococcus. However, a key sourdough species, Lactobacillus plantarum, was associated with plant organs during the life cycle of Odisseo and Saragolla wheat. The composition of the sourdough microbiota and the overall quality of leavened baked goods are also determined throughout the phenological stages of wheat cultivation, with variations depending on environmental and agronomic factors. PMID:26187970

  17. A comparative analysis of chromosome pairing at metaphase I in interspecific hybrids between durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and the most widespread Aegilops species.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, M; Garcia-Agüero, V; Benavente, E

    2010-07-01

    Homoeologous metaphase I (MI) associations in hybrids between durum wheat and its wild allotetraploid relatives Aegilops neglecta, Ae. triuncialis and Ae. ventricosa have been characterized by a genomic in situ hybridization procedure that allows simultaneous discrimination of A, B and wild species genomes. Earlier results in equivalent hybrids with the wild species Ae. cylindrica and Ae. geniculata have also been considered to comparatively assay the MI pairing pattern of the durum wheat x Aegilops interspecific combinations more likely to occur in nature. The general picture can be drawn as follows. A and B wheat genomes pair with each other less than the 2 wild constituent genomes do in any of the hybrid combinations examined. Interspecific wheat-wild associations account for 60-70% of total MI pairing in all hybrids, except in that derived from Ae. triuncialis, but the A genome is always the wheat partner most frequently involved in MI pairing with the wild homoeologues. Hybrids with Ae. cylindrica, Ae. geniculata and Ae. ventricosa showed similar reduced levels of MI association and virtually identical MI pairing patterns. However, certain recurrent differences were found when the pattern of homoeologous pairing of hybrids from either Ae. triuncialis or Ae. neglecta was contrasted to that observed in the other durum wheat hybrid combinations. In the former case, a remarkable preferential pairing between the wild species constituent genomes U(t) and C(t) seems to be the reason, whereas a general promotion of homoeologous pairing, qualitatively similar to that observed under the effect of the ph1c mutation, appears to occur in the hybrid with Ae. neglecta. It is further discussed whether the results reported here can be extrapolated to the corresponding bread wheat hybrid combinations. PMID:20551603

  18. Registration of the Soft Red Winter Wheat Germplasm MD01W233-06-1 Resistant to Fusarium Head Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MD01W233-06-1 (Reg. No., PI ) is a soft red winter wheat (SRWW) (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm line developed at the University of Maryland and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station in 2009. MD01W233-06-1 was selected from a cross of ‘McCormick’/ ‘Choptank’ made in 2001. McCorm...

  19. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability. PMID:25047068

  20. Molecular mapping of Yr53, a new gene for stripe rust resistance in durum wheat accession PI 480148 and its transfer to common wheat.

    PubMed

    Xu, L S; Wang, M N; Cheng, P; Kang, Z S; Hulbert, S H; Chen, X M

    2013-02-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. It is essential to identify new genes for effective resistance against the disease. Durum wheat PI 480148, originally from Ethiopia, was resistant in all seedling tests with several predominant Pst races in the US under controlled greenhouse conditions and at multiple locations subject to natural infection for several years. To map the resistance gene(s) and to transfer it to common wheat, a cross was made between PI 480148 and susceptible common wheat genotype Avocet S (AvS). Resistant F(3) plants with 42 chromosomes were selected cytologically and by testing with Pst race PST-100. A total of 157 F(4) plants from a single F(3) plant with 2n = 42 tested with PST-100 segregated in a 3 resistant: 1 susceptible ratio, indicating that a single dominant gene from PI 480148 conferred resistance. Using the F(3:4) population and the resistance gene-analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, the gene was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2B. SSR marker Xwmc441 and RGAP marker XLRRrev/NLRRrev ( 350 ) flanked the resistance gene by 5.6 and 2.7 cM, respectively. The effective resistance of the gene to an Australian Pst isolate virulent to Yr5, which is also located on 2BL and confers resistance to all US Pst races, together with an allelism test of the two genes, indicated that the gene from PI 480148 is different from Yr5 and should be a new and useful gene for resistance to stripe rust. Resistant common wheat lines with plant types similar to AvS were selected for use in breeding programs. PMID:23090143

  1. Reduced light and moderate water deficiency sustain nitrogen assimilation and sucrose degradation at low temperature in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Majláth, Imre; Darko, Eva; Palla, Balázs; Nagy, Zoltán; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    The rate of carbon and nitrogen assimilation is highly sensitive to stress factors, such as low temperature and drought. Little is known about the role of light in the simultaneous effect of cold and drought. The present study thus focused on the combined effect of mild water deficiency and different light intensities during the early cold hardening in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.) cultivars with different levels of cold sensitivity. The results showed that reduced illumination decreased the undesirable effects of photoinhibition in the case of net photosynthesis and nitrate reduction, which may help to sustain these processes at low temperature. Mild water deficiency also had a slight positive effect on the effective quantum efficiency of PSII and the nitrate reductase activity in the cold. Glutamine synthesis was affected by light rather than by water deprivation during cold stress. The invertase activity increased to a greater extent by water deprivation, but an increase in illumination also had a facilitating effect on this enzyme. This suggests that both moderate water deficiency and light have an influence on nitrogen metabolism and sucrose degradation during cold hardening. A possible rise in the soluble sugar content caused by the invertase may compensate for the decline in photosynthetic carbon assimilation indicated by the decrease in net photosynthesis. The changes in the osmotic potential can be also correlated to the enhanced level of invertase activity. Both of them were regulated by light at normal water supply, but not at water deprivation in the cold. However, changes in the metabolic enzyme activities and osmotic adjustment could not be directly contributed to the different levels of cold tolerance of the cultivars in the early acclimation period. PMID:26788956

  2. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  3. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements.

    PubMed

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  4. Genome-wide search of stem rust resistance loci at the seedling stage in durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causative agent of stem rust in wheat, is known to rapidly evolve new virulence to resistance genes. While more than 50 stem rust resistance (Sr) loci have been identified in wheat, only a few remain effective, particularly against the highly virulent race Ug99 ...

  5. Role of the durum wheat dehydrin in the function of proteases conferring salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines.

    PubMed

    Saibi, Walid; Zouari, Nabil; Masmoudi, Khaled; Brini, Faiçal

    2016-04-01

    Dehydrins are claimed to stabilize macromolecules against freezing damage, dehydration, ionic or osmotic stresses, thermal stress and re-folding yield. However, their precise function remains unknown. In this context, we report the behavior of protease activities in dehydrin transgenic Arabidopsis lines against the wild type plant under salt stress (100mM NaCl). Indeed, proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. We proved that durum wheat DHN-5 modulates the activity of some proteases, summarized on the promotion of the Cysteinyl protease and the decrease of the Aspartyl protease activity. This fact is also upgraded in salt stress conditions. We conclude that the dehydrin transgenic context encodes salinity tolerance in transgenic lines through the modulation of the interaction not only at transcriptional level but also at protein level and also with the impact of salt stress as an endogenous and exogenous effector on some biocatalysts like proteases. PMID:26751399

  6. Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-01

    Starch and flour properties of different Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated and related to noodle-making properties. Flours were evaluated for pasting properties, protein characteristics (extractable as well as unextractable monomeric and polymeric proteins) and dough rheology (farinographic properties), while starches were evaluated for granule size, thermal, pasting, and rheological properties. Flour peak and final viscosities related negatively to the proportion of monomeric proteins but positively to that of polymeric proteins whereas opposite relations were observed for dough rheological properties (dough-development time and stability). Starches from varieties with higher proportion of large granules showed the presence of less stable amylose-lipids and had more swelling power, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity than those with greater proportion of small granules. Noodle-cooking time related positively to the proportion of monomeric proteins and starch gelatinization temperatures but negatively to that of polymeric proteins and amylose content. Varieties with more proteins resulted in firmer noodles. Noodle-cohesiveness related positively to the proportion of polymeric proteins and amylose-lipids complexes whereas springiness correlated negatively to amylose content and retrogradation tendency of starches. PMID:27413243

  7. Endophytic fungi isolated from wheat (Triticum durum Desf.): evaluation of their antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity and host growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Harzallah, Daoud; Sadrati, Nouari; Zerroug, Amina; Dahamna, Saliha; Bouharati, Saddek

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms calls for inventive research and development strategies. The screening for antimicrobial compounds from endophytes is a promising way to meet the increasing threat of drug-resistant strains of human and plant pathogens. Endophytes may be defined as "microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects". Endophytes are relatively unstudied as potential sources of novel natural products for exploitation in medicine, agriculture, and industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate several isolated fungi from wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Mohamed Ben Bachir variety and to select endophytic fungi for further evaluation of its antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and host growth promotion. A total of 20 endophytic fungi have been isolated. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated for crude ethyl acetate extracts using an agar diffusion assay. All extracts showed inhibitory activity on at least one or more pathogenic microorganism, with an average zone of inhibition varied between 7 mm to 25 mm, a large zone of 23 and 25mm against candida albicans and Escherichia coli respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by beta-carotene/linoleic acid assay. Results showed that 70% of these extracts have antioxidant activity, exhibiting 50, 57% to 78, 96% inhibitions. While 30% from them, their inhibitory activity for oxidation of linoleic acid Were less than 50%. Growth promotion ability of these endophytes was tested on seed germination among ten isolates tested, two isolates showed significant growth promotion effects on wheat seeds. From the present work we can conclude that these microorganisms could be promising source of bioactive compounds, growth promotion and warrant further study. PMID:23878980

  8. Effect of salinity and water stress during the reproductive stage on growth, ion concentrations, Delta 13C, and delta 15N of durum wheat and related amphiploids.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolores; Voltas, Jordi; Araus, José Luis

    2010-08-01

    The physiological performance of durum wheat and two related amphiploids was studied during the reproductive stage under different combinations of salinity and irrigation. One triticale, one tritordeum, and four durum wheat genotypes were grown in pots in the absence of stress until heading, when six different treatments were imposed progressively. Treatments resulted from the combination of two irrigation regimes (100% and 35% of container water capacity) with three levels of water salinity (1.8, 12, and 17 dS m(-1)), and were maintained for nearly 3 weeks. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence and content were measured prior to harvest; afterwards shoot biomass and height were recorded, and Delta(13)C, delta(15)N, and the concentration of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and several ions (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) were analysed in shoot material. Compared with control conditions (full irrigation with Hoagland normal) all other treatments inhibited photosynthesis through stomatal closure, accelerated senescence, and decreased biomass. Full irrigation with 12 dS m(-1) outperformed other stress treatments in terms of biomass production and physiological performance. Biomass correlated positively with N and delta(15)N, and negatively with Na(+) across genotypes and fully irrigated treatments, while relationships across deficit irrigation conditions were weaker or absent. Delta(13)C did not correlate with biomass across treatments, but it was the best trait correlating with phenotypic differences in biomass within treatments. Tritordeum produced more biomass than durum wheat in all treatments. Its low Delta(13)C and high K(+)/Na(+) ratio, together with a high potential growth, may underlie this finding. Mechanisms relating delta(15)N and Delta(13)C to biomass are discussed. PMID:20660293

  9. Accelerated evolution of the mitochondrial genome in an alloplasmic line of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is not only an important crop but also an excellent plant species for nuclear mitochondrial interaction studies. To investigate the level of sequence changes introduced into the mitochondrial genome under the alloplasmic conditions, three mitochondrial genomes of Triticum-Aegilops species w...

  10. Anchoring durum wheat diversity in the reality of traditional agricultural systems: varieties, seed management, and farmers’ perception in two Moroccan regions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional agrosystems are the places were crop species have evolved and continue to evolve under a combination of human and environmental pressures. A better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of crop diversity in these agrosystems is crucial to sustain food security and farmers’ self-reliance. It requires as a first step, anchoring a description of the available diversity in its geographical, environmental, cultural and socio-economic context. Methods We conducted interviews with farmers cultivating durum wheat in two contrasted traditional agrosystems of Morocco in the Pre-Rif (163 farmers) and in the oases of the Atlas Mountains (110 farmers). We documented the varietal diversity of durum wheat, the main characteristics of the farms, the farming and seed management practices applied to durum wheat, and the farmers’ perception of their varieties. Results As expected in traditional agrosystems, farmers largely practiced diversified subsistence agriculture on small plots and relied on on-farm seed production or informal seed exchange networks. Heterogeneity nevertheless prevailed on many variables, especially on the modernization of practices in the Pre-Rif region. Fourteen (resp. 11) traditional and 5 (resp. 3) modern varieties were identified in the Pre-Rif region (resp. in the Atlas Mountains). The majority of farmers grew a single variety, and most traditional varieties were distributed in restricted geographical areas. At the farm level, more than half of the varieties were renewed in the last decade in the Pre-Rif, a more rapid renewal than in the Atlas Mountain. Modern varieties were more prevalent in the Pre-Rif region and were integrated in the traditional practices of seed production, selection and exchange. They were clearly distinguished by the farmers from the landraces, the last ones being appreciated for their quality traits. Conclusions The surveyed traditional agrosystems constitute open, dynamic and heterogeneous

  11. Detailed mapping of the species cytoplasm-specific (scs) gene in durum wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Kristin J; Gehlhar, Sarah B; Maan, Shivcharan S; Kianian, Shahryar F

    2003-01-01

    The compatibility-inducing action of the scs(ti) (species cytoplasm-specific gene derived from Triticum timopheevii) and Vi (vitality) genes can be observed when a durum (T. turgidum) nucleus is placed in T. longissimum cytoplasm. These two genes restore compatibility between an otherwise incompatible nucleus and cytoplasm. The objective of this study was to localize the scs(ti) gene on a linkage map of chromosome 1A, which could eventually be used to clone the gene. The mapping population consisted of 110 F2 individuals derived from crossing a Langdon-T. dicoccoides chromosome 1A substitution line with a euplasmic (normal cytoplasm) line homozygous for the scs(ti) gene. Through a series of testcrosses the genotypes of the 110 individuals were determined: 22 had two copies, 59 had one copy, and 29 had no copy of the scs(ti) gene. Data from RFLP, AFLP, and microsatellite analysis were used to create a linkage map. The flanking marker loci found for the scs(ti) gene were Xbcd12 and Xbcd1449-1A.2 with distances of 2.3 and 0.6 cM, respectively. Nearly 10% of individuals in this population were double recombinant for a genetic interval of <3 cM. A blistering phenotype reminiscent of the phenotype observed in maize brittle-1 mutable was also evident in these individuals. The higher frequency of double recombination within this region and seed-blistering phenotype could be an indication of a transposable element(s) in this locus. PMID:14704192

  12. Evaluation of Protocol for Assessing the Reaction of Rice and Wheat Germplasm to Infection by Meloidogyne graminicola

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Ramesh R.; Duxbury, John M.; Abawai, George

    2012-01-01

    Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola), an important and widespread pathogen, causes high yield losses in rice with limited information on wheat and on efficient management. Absence of uniform screening protocols is contributing to slow progress of host resistance development. To develop an efficient screening protocol, several greenhouse studies were conducted, and effects of incubation period, inoculum level, inoculation method, seedling age, and their interactions on root-galling severity (RGS) ratings and reproductive factor (RF) values of M. graminicola were determined. At 2 eggs/cm3 soil, significantly lower RGS but higher RF values were observed at 60 days than at 45 days of incubation. Meloidogyne graminicola reproduced six times more on rice than on wheat where the RGS index in both crops increased steadily with increasing inoculum levels, but RF increased at lower levels and decreased beyond a maximum at medium inoculum levels. Inoculum level, container size, seedling age, inoculation method, and their interactions impacted nematode infection and reproduction. The protocol was verified on eleven rice germplasm lines and seven wheat cultivars using the resistance index (RI) calculated from RGS and RF, to screen rice and wheat germplasm. PMID:23481227

  13. How can crop intra-specific biodiversity mitigate the vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate change? A case study on durum wheat in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Menenti, Massimo; Bonfante, Antonello; De Lorenzi, Fracesca

    2014-05-01

    Climate evolution may lead to changes in the amount and distribution of precipitations and to reduced water availability, with constraints on the cultivation of some crops. Recently, foreseen crop responses to climate change raise a crucial question for the agricultural stakeholders: are the current production systems resilient to this change? An active debate is in progress about the definition of adaptation of agricultural systems, particularly about the integrated assessment of climate stressors, vulnerability and resilece towards the evaluation of climate impact on agricultural systems. Climate change represents a risk for rain-fed agricultural systems, where irrigations cannot compensate reductions in precipitations. The intra-specific biodiversity of crops can be a resource towards adaptation. The knowledge of the responses to environmental conditions (temperature and water availability) of different cultivars can allow to identify options for adaptation to future climate. Simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, driven by different climate scenarios, can describe present and foreseen soil water regime. The present work deals with a case-study on the adaptive capacity of durum wheat to climate change. The selected study area is a hilly region in Southern Italy (Fortore Beneventano, Campania Region). Two climate cases were studied: "reference" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was run to determine the water regime in some soil units, representative of the soil variability in the study area. From model output, the Relative Evapotranspiration Deficit (RETD) was determined as an indicator of hydrological conditions during the crop growing period for each year and climate case; and periods with higher frequencies of soil water deficits were identified. The timing of main crop development stages was calculated. The occurrence of water deficit at different

  14. Selecting optimal hyperspectral bands to discriminate nitrogen status in durum wheat: a comparison of statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Stellacci, A M; Castrignanò, A; Troccoli, A; Basso, B; Buttafuoco, G

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral data can provide prediction of physical and chemical vegetation properties, but data handling, analysis, and interpretation still limit their use. In this study, different methods for selecting variables were compared for the analysis of on-the-ground hyperspectral signatures of wheat grown under a wide range of nitrogen supplies. Spectral signatures were recorded at the end of stem elongation, booting, and heading stages in 100 georeferenced locations, using a 512-channel portable spectroradiometer operating in the 325-1075-nm range. The following procedures were compared: (i) a heuristic combined approach including lambda-lambda R(2) (LL R(2)) model, principal component analysis (PCA), and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA); (ii) variable importance for projection (VIP) statistics derived from partial least square (PLS) regression (PLS-VIP); and (iii) multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis through maximum R-square improvement (MAXR) and stepwise algorithms. The discriminating capability of selected wavelengths was evaluated by canonical discriminant analysis. Leaf-nitrogen concentration was quantified on samples collected at the same locations and dates and used as response variable in regressive methods. The different methods resulted in differences in the number and position of the selected wavebands. Bands extracted through regressive methods were mostly related to response variable, as shown by the importance of the visible region for PLS and stepwise. Band selection techniques can be extremely useful not only to improve the power of predictive models but also for data interpretation or sensor design. PMID:26922749

  15. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of a pale-green durum wheat mutant shows variations in photosystem components and metabolic deficiencies under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leaf pigment content is an important trait involved in environmental interactions. In order to determine its impact on drought tolerance in wheat, we characterized a pale-green durum wheat mutant (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) under contrasting water availability conditions. Results The pale-green mutant was investigated by comparing pigment content and gene/protein expression profiles to wild-type plants at anthesis. Under well-watered (control) conditions the mutant had lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids, but higher levels of xanthophyll de-epoxidation compared to wild-type. Transcriptomic analysis under control conditions showed that defense genes (encoding e.g. pathogenesis-related proteins, peroxidases and chitinases) were upregulated in the mutant, suggesting the presence of mild oxidative stress that was compensated without altering the net rate of photosynthesis. Transcriptomic analysis under terminal water stress conditions, revealed the modulation of antioxidant enzymes, photosystem components, and enzymes representing carbohydrate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, indicating that the mutant was exposed to greater oxidative stress than the wild-type plants, but had a limited capacity to respond. We also compared the two genotypes under irrigated and rain-fed field conditions over three years, finding that the greater oxidative stress and corresponding molecular changes in the pale-green mutant were associated to a yield reduction. Conclusions This study provides insight on the effect of pigment content in the molecular response to drought. Identified genes differentially expressed under terminal water stress may be valuable for further studies addressing drought resistance in wheat. PMID:24521234

  16. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. PMID:27505458

  17. The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III counteracts the necrotic activity of a Fusarium graminearum xylanase in vitro and in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Moro, Stefano; Sabbadin, Davide; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-08-01

    The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death. PMID:25346411

  18. ASCORBIC ACID CONTROLS MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA IN BREAD AND DURUM WHEAT THROUGH DIRECT EFFECT ON THE PATHOGEN AND INDIRECT ACTION VIA PLANT DEFENCE.

    PubMed

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Magnin-Robert, M; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Tisserant, B; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on wheat. Due to the emergence of fungicide-resistant M. graminicola strains and in an effort to reduce the impact of pesticides on the environment, considerable interest has been devoted to alternative control strategies. The use of natural products, especially through a defense-activating effect on the host, could be considered. Acid ascorbic (AA) is synthesized by plants and most animal cells with antioxidant properties. This study aimed at: (i) assessing the protective effect of an AA-based product on bread (BW) and durum (DW) wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum, respectively) susceptible cultivars against M. graminicola and (ii) investigating the mechanisms involved in wheat protection. Therefore, the foliar application of a formulated AA-based product (50 mg L-) on 3-week-old wheat plants reduced the infection level by more than 75% for both BW and DW. In vitro experiments revealed that AA induced a strong inhibition of spore germination (at 50 mg L.(-1)) and hyphal growth (at 16 mg L.(-1)) for both M. graminicola strains, infecting either BW or DW. Used as a preventive foliar spray on wheat leaves, microscopic observations revealed that AA inhibits in planta spore germination, hyphal growth, leaf penetration, substomatal colonization and eventually sporulation. Moreover, AA treatment also decreased fungal protease and cell wall degrading enzyme activities, putative pathogenicity determinants of M. graminicola. In addition to these effects on the fungus, AA induced defence reactions in both BW and DW. Indeed, in non-inoculated context, eliciting effect was observed on (i) stimulation of enzymatic activities such as lipoxygenase, peroxydase and catalase and (ii) transcript accumulation of genes encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (chitinase class IV, peroxidase). In inoculated condition, accumulation of H2O2 and phenolic compounds

  19. Synthesis of an FHB-Resistant Durum Alien Addition Line with a Pair of Grass Chromosomes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is an important cereal crop widely used for human consumption. Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of durum wheat. Current durum cultivars have very little or no F...

  20. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  1. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  2. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  3. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  4. Barley Germplasm STARS-9577B lacks a Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance Allele at a Quantitative Trait Locus Present in STARS-9301B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) infestations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the western U.S.A. have reduced yield and quality of barley since its introduction in 1986. Resistant germplasm lines have been released and used for cultivar development, including ‘STARS-9577B’, a s...

  5. Optimized PCR Primer Set for Determining Gluten Strength Quality in Soft Wheat Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten strength for effective cracker (biscuit) formation and textures was traditionally achieved mixing 5-15% hard winter wheat with soft wheat in commercial U.S. bakeries. Flour from hard winter wheat has the undesirable effect of increasing dough water absorption. In the 1990’s, a soft re...

  6. The Effect of Rates and Times of Nitrogen Fertilizer on N Accumulation and Remobilization Efficiency at Flag Leaf in Two Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum.durum) Cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, A.; Sarvestani, Z. Tahmasebi; Bagheri, A. R.; Abad, H. Heidari Sharif

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the physiological basis of absorption and transportation of nitrogen by plants has specific importance. In this experiment, a bread cultivar and durum wheat cultivar, were treated with different rates and times of nitrogen application, by using split factorial with on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications at Shiraz region during 2004-2005. Main plots were consisted of two levels of cultivars (Falat and Yavaros) and sub plots included nitrogen rates (40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1) and times of nitrogen application (T1 = all N fertilizer at planting, T2 = 1/2 at planting+1/2 during booting stage and T3 = 1/3 at planting+1/3 during booting stage+1/3 at heading stage). The results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars in flag leaf nitrogen content in maturity stage, N remobilization and its efficiency from flag leaf to grains and also grain protein percentage. Durum wheat was more efficient in nitrogen remobilization and therefore, had a higher grain protein percentage. Increasing in rates and times of nitrogen application had significant effect on most of the measured traits. There were significant interactions between cultivars, rates and times of N application, indicating that durum wheat was more efficient in N remobilization from flag leaf to the grain. It appeared that, N remobilization efficiency was the main factor affecting the grain protein percentage, under the conditions of low N absorption and drought after flowering, in this experiment.

  7. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  8. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  9. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  10. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  11. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha‑1, N1: 110 kg ha‑1, N2: 170 kg ha‑1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3‑, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha‑1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha‑1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days

  12. Use of the electronic nose as a screening tool for the recognition of durum wheat naturally contaminated by deoxynivalenol: a preliminary approach.

    PubMed

    Campagnoli, Anna; Cheli, Federica; Polidori, Carlo; Zaninelli, Mauro; Zecca, Oreste; Savoini, Giovanni; Pinotti, Luciano; Dell'Orto, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    Fungal contamination and the presence of related toxins is a widespread problem. Mycotoxin contamination has prompted many countries to establish appropriate tolerance levels. For instance, with the Commission Regulation (EC) N. 1881/2006, the European Commission fixed the limits for the main mycotoxins (and other contaminants) in food. Although valid analytical methods are being developed for regulatory purposes, a need exists for alternative screening methods that can detect mould and mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains with high sample throughput. In this study, a commercial electronic nose (EN) equipped with metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) sensors was used in combination with a trap and the thermal desorption technique, with the adoption of Tenax TA as an adsorbent material to discriminate between durum wheat whole-grain samples naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and non-contaminated samples. Each wheat sample was analysed with the EN at four different desorption temperatures (i.e., 180 °C, 200 °C, 220 °C, and 240 °C) and without a desorption pre-treatment. A 20-sample and a 122-sample dataset were processed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and classified via classification and regression trees (CART). Results, validated with two different methods, showed that it was possible to classify wheat samples into three clusters based on the DON content proposed by the European legislation: (a) non-contaminated; (b) contaminated below the limit (DON < 1,750 μg/kg); (c) contaminated above the limit (DON > 1,750 μg/kg), with a classification error rate in prediction of 0% (for the 20-sample dataset) and 3.28% (for the 122-sample dataset). PMID:22163882

  13. Use of the Electronic Nose as a Screening Tool for the Recognition of Durum Wheat Naturally Contaminated by Deoxynivalenol: A Preliminary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Anna; Cheli, Federica; Polidori, Carlo; Zaninelli, Mauro; Zecca, Oreste; Savoini, Giovanni; Pinotti, Luciano; Dell’Orto, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    Fungal contamination and the presence of related toxins is a widespread problem. Mycotoxin contamination has prompted many countries to establish appropriate tolerance levels. For instance, with the Commission Regulation (EC) N. 1881/2006, the European Commission fixed the limits for the main mycotoxins (and other contaminants) in food. Although valid analytical methods are being developed for regulatory purposes, a need exists for alternative screening methods that can detect mould and mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains with high sample throughput. In this study, a commercial electronic nose (EN) equipped with metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) sensors was used in combination with a trap and the thermal desorption technique, with the adoption of Tenax TA as an adsorbent material to discriminate between durum wheat whole-grain samples naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and non-contaminated samples. Each wheat sample was analysed with the EN at four different desorption temperatures (i.e., 180 °C, 200 °C, 220 °C, and 240 °C) and without a desorption pre-treatment. A 20-sample and a 122-sample dataset were processed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and classified via classification and regression trees (CART). Results, validated with two different methods, showed that it was possible to classify wheat samples into three clusters based on the DON content proposed by the European legislation: (a) non-contaminated; (b) contaminated below the limit (DON < 1,750 μg/kg); (c) contaminated above the limit (DON > 1,750 μg/kg), with a classification error rate in prediction of 0% (for the 20-sample dataset) and 3.28% (for the 122-sample dataset). PMID:22163882

  14. SYNTHESIS OF AN FHB-RESISTANT DISOMIC DURUM ALIEN ADDITION LINE WITH A PAIR OF DIPLOID WHEATGRASS CHROMOSOMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is an important cereal crop widely used for human consumption. Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a ravaging disease of durum wheat. Current durum cultivars have very little or no...

  15. Development and Verification of Wheat Germplasm Containing Both Sr2 and Fhb1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) and stem rust are two devastating fungal diseases of common wheat prevalent worldwide. Fhb1 is a well-known major quantitative trait locus (QTL) effective against FHB, and Sr2 is the most widely characterized and deployed wheat stem rust adult plant resistance gene. These ...

  16. Progress in Development and MAS of FHB Resistant Wheat Cultivars and Germplasm at Virginia Tech

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To accelerate development of high yielding, FHB resistant SRW wheat lines, we have deployed a combination of top-cross, double haploid, backcross and marker assisted breeding methods. During the 2006 crop year, molecular markers linked to FHB resistance QTL located on wheat chromosomes 3BS, 5AS, 3AS...

  17. NEW FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT RESISTANCE SPRING WHEAT GERMPLASM IDENTIFIED IN THE USDA NATIONAL SMALL GRAIN COLLECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Sources of FHB resistance are limited. The objectives of this study were to screen selected spring wheat accessions in the USDA National Small Grains Collection for FHB reactions using FHB index, visual scabby kernel...

  18. Sources of resistance to stem rust race Ug99 in spring wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks & E. Henn.) race TTKSK (Ug99) with virulence to the majority of the world’s wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties has spread from Uganda throughout eastern and southern Africa, Yemen, and Iran. The identification and spread of vari...

  19. Genotyping by Sequencing Using Specific Allelic Capture to Build a High-Density Genetic Map of Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Yan; Ardisson, Morgane; Ranwez, Vincent; Besnard, Alban; Leroy, Philippe; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Viader, Véronique; Santoni, Sylvain; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequence capture is a promising technology which helps reduce costs for sequencing and genotyping numerous genomic regions in large sets of individuals. Bait sequences are designed to capture specific alleles previously discovered in parents or reference populations. We studied a set of 135 RILs originating from a cross between an emmer cultivar (Dic2) and a recent durum elite cultivar (Silur). Six thousand sequence baits were designed to target Dic2 vs. Silur polymorphisms discovered in a previous RNAseq study. These baits were exposed to genomic DNA of the RIL population. Eighty percent of the targeted SNPs were recovered, 65% of which were of high quality and coverage. The final high density genetic map consisted of more than 3,000 markers, whose genetic and physical mapping were consistent with those obtained with large arrays. PMID:27171472

  20. Genetic variation for the duration of pre-anthesis development in durum wheat and its interaction with vernalization treatment and photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Gavino; Giunta, Francesco; Motzo, Rosella; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-07-01

    A recombinant inbred durum wheat population was grown under three contrasting regimes: long days following vernalization (LDV), long days without vernalization (LD), and short days following vernalization (SDV). The length of several pre-anthesis stages and the number of leaves and the phyllochron were measured. Different groups of genes were involved in determining the phenology in the three treatments, as demonstrated by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. The length of the period required to reach the terminal spikelet stage was correlated with the time to anthesis only in the case of LDV- and LD-grown plants where the timing of anthesis depended on the final leaf number. However, for SDV-grown plants, anthesis date was more dependent on the length of the period between the terminal spikelet stage and anthesis and was independent of leaf number. The involvement of the phyllochron in determining the duration of pre-anthesis development was also treatment-dependent. QTL mapping of the various flowering time associated traits uncovered some novel loci (such as those associated with the phyllochron), in addition to confirming the presence of several well-established loci. PMID:24790112

  1. Comparative effect of salinity on growth, grain yield, water use efficiency, δ(13)C and δ(15)N of landraces and improved durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Chamekh, Zoubeir; Ayadi, Sawsen; Karmous, Chahine; Trifa, Youssef; Amara, Hajer; Boudabbous, Khaoula; Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Supplemental irrigation with low-quality water will be paramount in Mediterranean agriculture in the future, where durum wheat is a major crop. Breeding for salinity tolerance may contribute towards improving resilience to irrigation with brackish water. However, identification of appropriate phenotyping traits remains a bottleneck in breeding. A set of 25 genotypes, including 19 landraces and 6 improved varieties most cultivated in Tunisia, were grown in the field and irrigated with brackish water (6, 13 and 18dSm(-1)). Improved genotypes exhibited higher grain yield (GY) and water use efficiency at the crop level (WUEyield or 'water productivity'), shorter days to flowering (DTF), lower N concentration (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in mature kernels and lower nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) in the flag leaf compared with landraces. GY was negatively correlated with DTF and the δ(13)C and N of mature kernels and was positively correlated with the δ(15)N of the flag leaf. Moreover, δ(13)C of mature kernels was negatively correlated with WUEyield. The results highlight the importance of shorter phenology together with photosynthetic resilience to salt-induced water stress (lower δ(13)C) and nitrogen metabolism (higher N and δ(15)N) for assessing genotypic performance to salinity. PMID:27593462

  2. Characterizing Croatian Wheat Germplasm Diversity and Structure in a European Context by DArT Markers

    PubMed Central

    Novoselović, Dario; Bentley, Alison R.; Šimek, Ruđer; Dvojković, Krešimir; Sorrells, Mark E.; Gosman, Nicolas; Horsnell, Richard; Drezner, Georg; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Narrowing the genetic base available for future genetic progress is a major concern to plant breeders. In order to avoid this, strategies to characterize and protect genetic diversity in regional breeding pools are required. In this study, 89 winter wheat cultivars released in Croatia between 1936 and 2006 were genotyped using 1,229 DArT (diversity array technology) markers to assess the diversity and population structure. In order to place Croatian breeding pool (CBP) in a European context, Croatian wheat cultivars were compared to 523 European cultivars from seven countries using a total of 166 common DArT markers. The results show higher genetic diversity in the wheat breeding pool from Central Europe (CE) as compared to that from Northern and Western European (NWE) countries. The most of the genetic diversity was attributable to the differences among cultivars within countries. When the geographical criterion (CE vs. NWE) was applied, highly significant difference between regions was obtained that accounted for 16.19% of the total variance, revealing that the CBP represents genetic variation not currently captured in elite European wheat. The current study emphasizes the important contribution made by plant breeders to maintaining wheat genetic diversity and suggests that regional breeding is essential to the maintenance of this diversity. The usefulness of open-access wheat datasets is also highlighted. PMID:26941756

  3. Characterizing Croatian Wheat Germplasm Diversity and Structure in a European Context by DArT Markers.

    PubMed

    Novoselović, Dario; Bentley, Alison R; Šimek, Ruđer; Dvojković, Krešimir; Sorrells, Mark E; Gosman, Nicolas; Horsnell, Richard; Drezner, Georg; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Narrowing the genetic base available for future genetic progress is a major concern to plant breeders. In order to avoid this, strategies to characterize and protect genetic diversity in regional breeding pools are required. In this study, 89 winter wheat cultivars released in Croatia between 1936 and 2006 were genotyped using 1,229 DArT (diversity array technology) markers to assess the diversity and population structure. In order to place Croatian breeding pool (CBP) in a European context, Croatian wheat cultivars were compared to 523 European cultivars from seven countries using a total of 166 common DArT markers. The results show higher genetic diversity in the wheat breeding pool from Central Europe (CE) as compared to that from Northern and Western European (NWE) countries. The most of the genetic diversity was attributable to the differences among cultivars within countries. When the geographical criterion (CE vs. NWE) was applied, highly significant difference between regions was obtained that accounted for 16.19% of the total variance, revealing that the CBP represents genetic variation not currently captured in elite European wheat. The current study emphasizes the important contribution made by plant breeders to maintaining wheat genetic diversity and suggests that regional breeding is essential to the maintenance of this diversity. The usefulness of open-access wheat datasets is also highlighted. PMID:26941756

  4. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance gene Sr13 in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause significant yield losses. To combat the disease breeders have deployed resistance genes both individually and in combinations to extend the resistance durability. A new race, TTKSK (Ug99), identified in Uganda in 1999, is virulent...

  5. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a durum wheat Aegilops speltoides chromosome translocation conferring resistance to stem rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust is a serious disease of wheat that has caused historical epidemics, but it has not been a threat in recent decades in North America due to the eradication of the alternate host and deployment of resistant cultivars. However, the recent emergence of Ug99 (or race TTKS) poses a threat to glo...

  6. Analysis of the Lr34/Yr18 rust resistance region in wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insertion/deletion size variant located at the csLV34 locus on chromosome 7D within an intron sequence of a sulphate transporter-like gene tightly linked to the Lr34/Yr18 dual rust resistance was used to examine a global collection of wheat cultivars, landraces and D genome containing diploid and...

  7. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases. Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is one of these diseases that can limit yields in the area. Thus developing and cultivating genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the only sustaina...

  8. Distribution of Rht genes in winter wheat germplasm from the eastern and central United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over seventy percent of wheat cultivars grown worldwide have a semi-dwarf phenotype controlled by the major genes Rht-B1 (formally Rht1), Rht-D1 (formally Rht2) from the Japanese variety ‘Norin10’ and Rht8 from the Korean variety ‘Akakomugi’. The objective of this study was to determine their frequ...

  9. Registration of nineteen spring six-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

  10. Modeling end-use quality in U. S. soft wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be assessed by a wide array of measurements, generally categorized into grain, milling, and baking characteristics. Samples were obtained from four regional nurseries. Selected parameters included: test weight, kernel hardness, kernel size, ke...

  11. Evaluation of germplasm effect on Fe, Zn and Se content in wheat seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrients are essential for human health and crucial for plant survival. The capacity of food crops in acquiring mineral nutrients affects plant growth and potentially the yield and nutrient content in edible tissues/organs. In this study, we selected 20 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions ...

  12. PROPOSED MAJOR POWDERY MILDEW GENES IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN WHEAT GERMPLASM; IN THE PAST TEN YEARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to powdery mildew of wheat is controlled by major genes in adult and seedling stages or quantitative resistance in the adult stage. Entries in the PM nursery from Southern and Eastern US were screened on detached seedling leaves. The observed virulence patterns were then compared to virul...

  13. Registration of seventeen spring two-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

  14. Screening USDA-ARS wheat germplasm for bird cherry-oat aphid tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) can cause significant yield reduction in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) without causing aboveground visual damage signs or symptoms. This lack of obvious aboveground symptom development makes it difficult to use standard aphid tolerance testing protoc...

  15. COMPARATIVE TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF SALT-TOLERANT WHEAT GERMPLASM LINES USING GENOME ARRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salt-tolerant wheat lines W4909 and W4910 were derived from a cross between AJDAj5 (a disomic addition line carrying a pair of Eb chromosomes from Thinopyrum junceum) and Ph1 (a line having the Ph1 allele from Aegilops speltoides, which promotes homoeologous recombination). Both lines have greater ...

  16. A comprehensive survey of soft wheat grain quality in United States germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors, which work in combination to produce specific grain, milling, and baking characteristics. Along with these genetic and environmental factors, the adaptation of the genetics to the given growing environment...

  17. Haplotype Structure and Genetic Diversity at Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTLs in Soft Winter Wheat Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) have been mapped in wheat. Haplotyping strategies make use of previous QTL mapping and molecular marker information. In our study we selected markers reported to be near FHB resistance QTL mapped in Sumai 3, Wuhan 1 ...

  18. Genetic architecture of resistance to stripe rust in a global winter wheat germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and intr...

  19. Interactions of genotype and glutenin subunit composition on breadmaking quality of durum 1AS•1AL-1DL translocation lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual purpose durum (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) wheat, having both good pasta and breadmaking quality, would be an advantage in the market. In this study, we evaluated the effects of genotype and varying HMW and LMW glutenin subunit composition on durum breadmaking quality. Genotypes includ...

  20. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria—An Amazing Defense Tool Against Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N.; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pastore, Donato

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about 15 years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP). Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous) and tissues/organs (etiolated and green) have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel) are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs) and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane toward the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ), the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp) in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K+/H+ antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate hyperosmotic stress

  1. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria-An Amazing Defense Tool Against Hyperosmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pastore, Donato

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about 15 years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP). Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous) and tissues/organs (etiolated and green) have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel) are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs) and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane toward the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ), the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp) in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K(+)/H(+) antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate hyperosmotic stress

  2. Genetic Dissection of Grain Size and Grain Number Trade-Offs in CIMMYT Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F.; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability. PMID:25775191

  3. Genetic dissection of grain size and grain number trade-offs in CIMMYT wheat germplasm.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability. PMID:25775191

  4. Transcriptome analysis of genes related to resistance against powdery mildew in wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanquan; Niu, Zubiao; Bao, Yinguang; Tian, Qiuju; Wang, Honggang; Kong, Lingrang; Feng, Deshun

    2016-09-15

    Wheat powdery mildew, which is mainly caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), seriously damages wheat production. The wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306, being one of the important sources of genes for wheat resistance, is highly resistant to Bgt E09 and to many other powdery mildew physiological races. However, knowledge on the resistance mechanism of SN6306 remains limited. Our study employed high-throughput RNA sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technology (Illumina) to obtain an overview of the transcriptome characteristics of SN6306 and its parent wheat Yannong 15 (YN15) during Bgt infection. The sequencing generated 104,773 unigenes, 9909 of which showed varied expression levels. Among the 9909 unigenes, 1678 unigenes showed 0 reads in YN15. The expression levels in Bgt-inoculated SN6306 and YN15 of exactly 39 unigenes that showed 0 or considerably low reads in YN15 were validated to identify the genes involved in Bgt resistance. Among the 39 unigenes, 12 unigenes were upregulated in SN6306 by 3-45 times. These unigenes mainly encoded kinase, synthase, proteases, and signal transduction proteins, which may play an important role in the resistance against Bgt. To confirm whether the unigenes that showed 0 reads in YN15 are really unique to SN6306, 8 unigenes were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that the selected unigenes are more similar to SN6306 and Th. intermedium than to the wheat cultivar YN15. The sequencing results further confirmed that the unigenes showing 0 reads in YN15 are unique to SN6306 and are most likely derived from Th. intermedium (Host) Nevski. Thus, the genes from Th. intermedium most probably conferred the resistance of SN6306 to Bgt. PMID:27265028

  5. Development of a Set of Stem Rust Susceptible D-Genome Disomic Substitutions Based on Rusty durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn.) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (T. turgidum L. ssp. durum). Prior to the development of molecular techniques, studies of genes for stem rust resistance genes in wheat were com...

  6. Metabolomics Suggests That Soil Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Decreased Free Amino Acid Content in Roots of Durum Wheat Grown under N-Limited, P-Rich Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Saia, Sergio; Ruisi, Paolo; Fileccia, Veronica; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Amato, Gaetano; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a major impact on plant nutrition, defence against pathogens, a plant’s reaction to stressful environments, soil fertility, and a plant’s relationship with other microorganisms. Such effects imply a broad reprogramming of the plant’s metabolic activity. However, little information is available regarding the role of AMF and their relation to other soil plant growth—promoting microorganisms in the plant metabolome, especially under realistic field conditions. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of inoculation with AMF, either alone or in combination with plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), on the metabolome and changes in metabolic pathways in the roots of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown under N-limited agronomic conditions in a P-rich environment. These two treatments were compared to infection by the natural AMF population (NAT). Soil inoculation with AMF almost doubled wheat root colonization by AMF and decreased the root concentrations of most compounds in all metabolic pathways, especially amino acids (AA) and saturated fatty acids, whereas inoculation with AMF+PGPR increased the concentrations of such compounds compared to inoculation with AMF alone. Enrichment metabolomics analyses showed that AA metabolic pathways were mostly changed by the treatments, with reduced amination activity in roots most likely due to a shift from the biosynthesis of common AA to γ-amino butyric acid. The root metabolome differed between AMF and NAT but not AMF+PGPR and AMF or NAT. Because the PGPR used were potent mineralisers, and AMF can retain most nitrogen (N) taken as organic compounds for their own growth, it is likely that this result was due to an increased concentration of mineral N in soil inoculated with AMF+PGPR compared to AMF alone. PMID:26067663

  7. Characterization and molecular mapping of Yr52 for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat germplasm PI 183527.

    PubMed

    Ren, R S; Wang, M N; Chen, X M; Zhang, Z J

    2012-09-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Resistance is the best approach to control the disease. High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) stripe rust resistance has proven to be race non-specific and durable. However, genes conferring high-levels of HTAP resistance are limited in number and new genes are urgently needed for breeding programs to develop cultivars with durable high-level resistance to stripe rust. Spring wheat germplasm PI 183527 showed a high-level of HTAP resistance against stripe rust in our germplasm evaluations over several years. To elucidate the genetic basis of resistance, we crossed PI 183527 and susceptible wheat line Avocet S. Adult plants of parents, F(1), F(2) and F(2:3) progeny were tested with selected races under the controlled greenhouse conditions and in fields under natural infection. PI 183527 has a single dominant gene conferring HTAP resistance. Resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in combination with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) were used to identify markers linked to the resistance gene. A linkage map consisting of 4 RGAP and 7 SSR markers was constructed for the resistance gene using data from 175 F(2) plants and their derived F(2:3) lines. Amplification of nulli-tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines of Chinese Spring with three RGAP markers mapped the gene to the distal region (0.86-1.0) of chromosome 7BL. The molecular map spanned a genetic distance of 27.3 cM, and the resistance gene was narrowed to a 2.3-cM interval flanked by markers Xbarc182 and Xwgp5258. The polymorphism rates of the flanking markers in 74 wheat lines were 74 and 30 %, respectively; and the two markers in combination could distinguish the alleles at the resistance locus in 82 % of tested genotypes. To determine the genetic relationship between this resistance gene and Yr39, a gene also on 7BL conferring HTAP resistance in

  8. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a serious pest of barley in the ...

  9. Registration of Zak ERA8 soft white spring wheat germplasm with enhanced response to ABA and increased seed dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ZakERA8 is a unique mutant line selected from mutagenized soft white spring 'Zak' that has increased seed dormancy as a result of enhanced responsiveness to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during germination. This germplasm was developed by USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA in collaboration with Washingt...

  10. DGE-1, a durum alien disomic addition line with resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scab or Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe., is a serious disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) and current durum cultivars have almost no FHB resistance. Because diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum (2n = 2x = 14; EE...

  11. [Hybrids of Aegilops cylindrica Host with Triticum durum Desf. and T. aestivum L].

    PubMed

    Avsenin, V I; Motsnyĭ, A I; Rybalka, A I; Faĭt, V I

    2003-01-01

    The hybrids of durum and bread wheat with Ae. cylindrica have been obtained without using an embryo rescue technique. The hybrid output (of pollinated flower number) in the field conditions scored 1.0, 15.3 and 10.0% in the crosses T. durum x Ae. cylindrica, Ae. cylindrica x T. durum and T. aestivum x Ae. cylindrica, respectively. A high level of meiotic chromosome pairing between homologous D genomes of bread wheat and Aegilops has been revealed (c = 80.0-83.7%). The possibility of homoeological pairing between wheat and Ae. cylindrica chromosomes has been shown. Herewith, the correlation between the levels of homological and homoeological pairing is absent. The possibilities of genetic material interchange, including between the tetraploid species, as well as the using of Ae. cylindrica cytoplasm for durum wheat breeding are discussed. PMID:12741056

  12. Characterization of chemically modified waxy, partially waxy, and wild type tetraploid wheat starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheats (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) contain two Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS) genes (wx-A1and wx-B1) controlling amylose synthesis; the other major starch polymer in durum wheat is amylopectin. Starches with little or no amylose are “waxy.” A GBSS null (non-producing) gene results ...

  13. SATURATION MAPPING OF THE MAJOR FHB RESISTANCE QTL QFHS.NDSU-3AS IN TETRAPLOID WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum, 2n=4x=28, genomes AABB) worldwide. Sources of effective resistance have not been identified in durum wheat. One source of resistance is the wild tetraploid, T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides. In previous wo...

  14. Geographic Distribution of Stem Rust Resistance in Wheat Landraces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust disease, caused by Puccinia graminis (Pers.) f. sp. tritici, is of renewed concern due to the emergence of new virulent races in East Africa. Landrace accessions of common wheat, Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, and durum wheat, T. turgidum L. subsp. durum, from the National Sma...

  15. Evolutionary Metabolomics Reveals Domestication-Associated Changes in Tetraploid Wheat Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Beleggia, Romina; Rau, Domenico; Laidò, Giovanni; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; De Vita, Pasquale; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nikoloski, Zoran; Papa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Domestication and breeding have influenced the genetic structure of plant populations due to selection for adaptation from natural habitats to agro-ecosystems. Here, we investigate the effects of selection on the contents of 51 primary kernel metabolites and their relationships in three Triticum turgidum L. subspecies (i.e., wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat) that represent the major steps of tetraploid wheat domestication. We present a methodological pipeline to identify the signature of selection for molecular phenotypic traits (e.g., metabolites and transcripts). Following the approach, we show that a reduction in unsaturated fatty acids was associated with selection during domestication of emmer (primary domestication). We also show that changes in the amino acid content due to selection mark the domestication of durum wheat (secondary domestication). These effects were found to be partially independent of the associations that unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids have with other domestication-related kernel traits. Changes in contents of metabolites were also highlighted by alterations in the metabolic correlation networks, indicating wide metabolic restructuring due to domestication. Finally, evidence is provided that wild and exotic germplasm can have a relevant role for improvement of wheat quality and nutritional traits. PMID:27189559

  16. Evolutionary Metabolomics Reveals Domestication-Associated Changes in Tetraploid Wheat Kernels.

    PubMed

    Beleggia, Romina; Rau, Domenico; Laidò, Giovanni; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; De Vita, Pasquale; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nikoloski, Zoran; Papa, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Domestication and breeding have influenced the genetic structure of plant populations due to selection for adaptation from natural habitats to agro-ecosystems. Here, we investigate the effects of selection on the contents of 51 primary kernel metabolites and their relationships in three Triticum turgidum L. subspecies (i.e., wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat) that represent the major steps of tetraploid wheat domestication. We present a methodological pipeline to identify the signature of selection for molecular phenotypic traits (e.g., metabolites and transcripts). Following the approach, we show that a reduction in unsaturated fatty acids was associated with selection during domestication of emmer (primary domestication). We also show that changes in the amino acid content due to selection mark the domestication of durum wheat (secondary domestication). These effects were found to be partially independent of the associations that unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids have with other domestication-related kernel traits. Changes in contents of metabolites were also highlighted by alterations in the metabolic correlation networks, indicating wide metabolic restructuring due to domestication. Finally, evidence is provided that wild and exotic germplasm can have a relevant role for improvement of wheat quality and nutritional traits. PMID:27189559

  17. Progress on development and application of single kernel NIR sorting technology for assessment of FHB resistance in wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeders working on developing Fusarium resistant wheat varieties need to evaluate kernels coming from a multitude of crosses for Fusarium Damaged Kernels (FDKs). We are developing Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopic methods to sort FDKs from sound kernels and to determine DON levels of FDKs non...

  18. Registration of near-isogenic winter wheat germplasm contrasting in Fhb1 for fusarium head blight resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese wheat Ning7840 (Triticum aestivum L.) contains Fhb1, a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, and has been widely used as a resistant parent in breeding programs worldwide, but due to its poor adaptation in the US, its progenies usually exhibit re...

  19. Novel necrotrophic effectors from stagonospora nodorum and corresponding host genes in winter wheat germplasm in the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the necrotrophic fungus Stagonospora nodorum (teleomorph: Phaeosphaeria nodorum), is among the most common diseases of winter wheat in the U.S. New opportunities in resistance breeding have arisen from the recent discovery of several necrotrophic effect...

  20. Cytogenetic and Molecular Characterization of Durum Alien Disomic Addition Line with Enhanced Tolerance to Fusarium Head Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes). Current durum cultivars have very little or no FHB resistance. A wild relative, diploid wheatgrass Lophopyrum elongatum (Hos...

  1. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2008 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the west...

  2. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2010 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the wes...

  3. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions ...

  4. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions...

  5. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2007 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the west...

  6. Novel necrotrophic effectors from Stagonospora nodorum and corresponding host sensitivities in winter wheat germplasm in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Crook, A D; Friesen, T L; Liu, Z H; Ojiambo, P S; Cowger, C

    2012-05-01

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the necrotrophic fungus Stagonospora nodorum (teleomorph: Phaeosphaeria nodorum), is among the most common diseases of winter wheat in the United States. New opportunities in resistance breeding have arisen from the recent discovery of several necrotrophic effectors (NEs, also known as host-selective toxins) produced by S. nodorum, along with their corresponding host sensitivity (Snn) genes. Thirty-nine isolates of S. nodorum collected from wheat debris or grain from seven states in the southeastern United States were used to investigate the production of NEs in the region. Twenty-nine cultivars with varying levels of resistance to SNB, representing 10 eastern-U.S. breeding programs, were infiltrated with culture filtrates from the S. nodorum isolates in a randomized complete block design. Three single-NE Pichia pastoris controls, two S. nodorum isolate controls, and six Snn-differential wheat controls were also used. Cultivar-isolate interactions were visually evaluated for sensitivity at 7 days after infiltration. Production of NEs was detected in isolates originating in each sampled state except Maryland. Of the 39 isolates, 17 produced NEs different from those previously characterized in the upper Great Plains region. These novel NEs likely correspond to unidentified Snn genes in Southeastern wheat cultivars, because NEs are thought to arise under selection pressure from genes for resistance to biotrophic pathogens of wheat cultivars that differ by geographic region. Only 3, 0, and 23% of the 39 isolates produced SnToxA, SnTox1, and SnTox3, respectively, by the culture-filtrate test. A Southern dot-blot test showed that 15, 74, and 39% of the isolates carried the genes for those NEs, respectively; those percentages were lower than those found previously in larger international samples. Only two cultivars appeared to contain known Snn genes, although half of the cultivars displayed sensitivity to culture filtrates

  7. Diversity in Puccinia triticina detected on wheat from 2008 to 2010 and the impact of new races on South African wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of wheat and triticale infected with leaf rust were collected from 2008 to 2010 in South Africa to identify Puccinia triticina races. Races were identified based on their virulence profile on standard differential lines. Eight races were identified from 362 isolates. The dominant races were ...

  8. Ecogeography, genetic diversity, and breeding value of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Korn ex Asch. & Graebn.) Thell.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Körn ex Asch. & Graebn.) Thell. is the allotetraploid (2n=4x=28; genome BBAA) progenitor of cultivated wheat. It is fully compatible with the tetraploid (BBAA) durum wheat (Triticum durum), and can be crossed with the hexaploid (2n=6x=42; BBAADD) wheat (Triticu...

  9. Analysis of agronomic and domestication traits in a durum x cultivated emmer wheat population using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism-based linkage map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum) is tetraploid and considered one of the eight founder crops that spawned the Agricultural Revolution about 10,000 years ago. Cultivated emmer has non-free-threshing seed and a somewhat fragile rachis, but mutations in genes governing these an...

  10. Development, identification and utilization of introgression lines using Chinese endemic and synthetic wheat as donors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liqing; Wei, Bo; Fan, Renchun; Jia, Xu; Wang, Xianping; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2015-08-01

    Chromosome segmental introgression lines (ILs) are an effective way to utilize germplasm resources in crops. To improve agronomic traits of wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum) Shi 4185, four sets of ILs were developed. The donors were Chinese endemic subspecies accessions Yunnan wheat (T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense) YN3, Tibetan semi-wild wheat (T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum) XZ-ZM19450, and Xinjiang wheat (T. aestivum ssp. petropavlovskyi) XJ5, and synthetic wheat HC-XM1620 derived from a cross between T. durum acc. D67.2/P66.270 with Aegilops tauschii acc. 218. Totals of 356, 366, 445 and 457 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were polymorphic between Shi 4185 and YN3, XZ-ZM19450, XJ5 and HC-XM1620, respectively. In total, 991 ILs were identified, including 300 derived from YN3, covering 95% of the genome of Shi 4185, 218 from XZ-ZM19450 (79%), 279 from XJ5 (97%), and 194 from HC-ZX1620 (84%). The sizes and locations of each introgression were determined from a consensus SSR linkage map. Using the ILs, 11 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for plant height (PH), spike length (SL) and grain number per spike (GNS). Comparative analyses of 24 elite ILs with the parents revealed that the four donor parents could be important resources to improve wheat SL and GNS. Our work offers a case for utilizing endemic landraces for QTL mapping and improvement of wheat cultivars using introgression lines. PMID:25545589

  11. Characterization of a New Pm2 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in the Wheat Germplasm Line FG-1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Pengtao; Xu, Hongxng; Li, Lihui; Zhang, Hongxia; Han, Guohao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fu, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Xiaotian; An, Diaoguo

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew has a negative impact on wheat production. Novel host resistance increases the diversity of resistance genes and helps to control the disease. In this study, wheat line FG-1 imported from France showed a high level of powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. An F2 population and F2:3 families from the cross FG-1 × Mingxian 169 both fit Mendelian ratios for a single dominant resistance gene when tested against multiple avirulent Blumeria tritici f. sp. tritici (Bgt) races. This gene was temporarily designated PmFG. PmFG was mapped on the multi-allelic Pm2 locus of chromosome 5DS using seven SSR, 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-derived and two SCAR markers with the flanking markers Xbwm21/Xcfd81/Xscar112 (distal) and Xbwm25 (proximal) at 0.3 and 0.5 cM being the closest. Marker SCAR203 co-segregated with PmFG. Allelism tests between PmFG and documented Pm2 alleles confirmed that PmFG was allelic with Pm2. Line FG-1 produced a significantly different reaction pattern compared to other lines with genes at or near Pm2 when tested against 49 Bgt isolates. The PmFG-linked marker alleles detected by the SNP-derived markers revealed significant variation between FG-1 and other lines with genes at or near Pm2. It was concluded that PmFG is a new allele at the Pm2 locus. Data from seven closely linked markers tested on 31 wheat cultivars indicated opportunities for marker-assisted pyramiding of this gene with other genes for powdery mildew resistance and additional traits. PMID:27200022

  12. Cytogenetic and molecular identification of small-segment chromosome translocation lines from wheat-rye substitution lines to create wheat germplasm with beneficial traits

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei-Fu; Ding, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Li, Ji-Lin; Xiao, Zhi-Min; Xin, Wen-Li; Song, Qing-Jie; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Yan-Bin; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intergeneric crop plant hybrid lines with small-segment chromosome translocations are very useful in plant genetic research and breeding. In this study, to create small-segment chromosome translocations with beneficial agronomic characters, the progeny of wheat-rye substitution lines 5R/5A and 6R/6A were selected from generations F2 to F5 for rye-specific characteristics. A PCR primer and specific simple sequence repeat marker for rye were used in F5 populations to detect rye chromatin and to amplify a specific chromosome band in six translocation lines (06-6-5, 06-6-6, 06-6-9, 6-26-1, 7-23, and 7-33). Fragment pSc119.1 cloned from 7-33 had 99% homology with the big ear gene sequence (GenBank AF512607.1) in wheat. The six lines were further characterized via pollen mother cell meiosis analysis for genetic stability, and chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization for rye chromatin. The results show that line 7-33 was still within the 5R/5A substitution lines and possessed the big ear gene. The other lines all contained small-segment rye chromosome translocations. The results indicated that substitution line hybridization is an effective method for creating small-segment chromosome translocations with useful agronomic traits. Trials for these six wheat-rye translocation lines are justified because they possess many important stably-inherited agronomic characters, including disease resistance and improved yield. PMID:26019483

  13. Saturation and comparative mapping of a major Fusarium head blight resistance QTL in tetraploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of cultivated wheat worldwide. Partial resistance to FHB has been identified in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). However, sources of effective FHB resistance have not been found in durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). A major FHB resista...

  14. Complex Regulation by Apetala2 Domain-Containing Transcription Factors Revealed through Analysis of the Stress-Responsive TdCor410b Promoter from Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Eini, Omid; Yang, Nannan; Pyvovarenko, Tatiana; Pillman, Katherine; Bazanova, Natalia; Tikhomirov, Natalia; Eliby, Serik; Shirley, Neil; Sivasankar, Shoba; Tingey, Scott; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2013-01-01

    Expression of the wheat dehydrin gene Cor410b is induced several fold above its non-stressed levels upon exposure to stresses such as cold, drought and wounding. Deletion analysis of the TdCor410b promoter revealed a single functional C-repeat (CRT) element. Seven transcription factors (TFs) were shown to bind to this CRT element using yeast one-hybrid screens of wheat and barley cDNA libraries, of which only one belonged to the DREB class of TFs. The remaining six encoded ethylene response factors (ERFs) belong to three separate subfamilies. Analysis of binding selectivity of these TFs indicated that all seven could bind to the CRT element (GCCGAC), and that three of the six ERFs could bind both to the CRT element and the ethylene-responsive GCC-box (GCCGCC). The TaERF4 subfamily members specifically bound the CRT element, and did not bind either the GCC-box or DRE element (ACCGAC). Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis identified a single residue Pro42 in the Apetala2 (AP2) domain of TaERF4-like proteins that is conserved in monocotyledonous plants and is responsible for the recognition selectivity of this subfamily. We suggest that both DREB and ERF proteins regulate expression of the Cor410b gene through a single, critical CRT element. Members of the TaERF4 subfamily are specific, positive regulators of Cor410b gene expression. PMID:23527011

  15. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  16. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  17. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  18. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  19. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  20. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification. PMID:26471602

  1. Population divergence in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina is correlated with wheat evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, M; Rodrigue, N; Kolmer, J

    2014-01-01

    Co-evolution of fungal pathogens with their host species during the domestication of modern crop varieties has likely affected the current genetic divergence of pathogen populations. The objective of this study was to determine if the evolutionary history of the obligate rust pathogen on wheat, Puccinia triticina, is correlated with adaptation to hosts with different ploidy levels. Sequence data from 15 loci with different levels of polymorphism were generated. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, Bayesian, maximum likelihood) showed the clear initial divergence of P. triticina isolates collected from Aegilops speltoides (the likely B genome donor of modern wheat) in Israel from the other isolates that were collected from tetraploid (AB genomes) durum wheat and hexaploid (ABD genomes) common wheat. Coalescence-based genealogy samplers also indicated that P. triticina on A. speltoides, diverged initially, followed by P. triticina isolates from durum wheat in Ethiopia and then by isolates from common wheat. Isolates of P. triticina found worldwide on cultivated durum wheat were the most recently coalesced and formed a clade nested within the isolates from common wheat. By a relative time scale, the divergence of P. triticinia as delimited by host specificity appears very recent. Significant reciprocal gene flow between isolates from common wheat and isolates from durum wheat that are found worldwide was detected, in addition to gene flow from isolates on common wheat to isolates on durum wheat in Ethiopia. PMID:24301080

  2. Accumulation of cytokinins in roots and their export to the shoots of durum wheat plants treated with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)

    PubMed Central

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokinin flow from roots to shoots can serve as a long-distance signal important for root-to-shoot communication. In the past, changes in cytokinin flow from roots to shoots have been mainly attributed to changes in the rate of synthesis or breakdown in the roots. The present research tested the possibility that active uptake of cytokinin by root cells may also influence its export to shoots. To this end, we collapsed the proton gradient across root membranes using the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to inhibit secondary active uptake of exogenous and endogenous cytokinins. We report the impact of CCCP on cytokinin concentrations and delivery in xylem sap and on accumulation in shoots of 7-day-old wheat plants in the presence and absence of exogenous cytokinin applied as zeatin. Zeatin treatment increased the total accumulation of cytokinin in roots and shoots but the effect was smaller for the shoots. Immunohistochemical localization of cytokinins using zeatin-specific antibodies showed an increase in immunostaining of the cells adjacent to xylem in the roots of zeatin-treated plants. Inhibition of secondary active cytokinin uptake by CCCP application decreased cytokinin accumulation in root cells but increased both flow from the roots and accumulation in the shoots. The possible importance of secondary active uptake of cytokinins by root cells for the control of their export to the shoot is discussed. PMID:24692646

  3. Cereal Germplasm Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm resources for the cereals are available from several sources. This paper discusses the history of germplasm banks, types of germplasm available and where to request seeds for different cereal species from....

  4. Chromosome engineering of wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr47 in a tetraploid wheat background

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum) line DAS15 carries Sr47, a gene conferring resistance to races of stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), including race TTKSK (Ug99). The Ae. speltoides segment harboring Sr47 accounts for most of the T2BL-2SL•2SS chromosome. Our objective was t...

  5. EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND GENOME-WIDE LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM AMOUNG US WHEAT (TRITICUM AETIVUM L.) GERMPLASM REPRESENTING DIFFERENT MARKET CLASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) were investigated among forty-three US wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) elite cultivars and breeding lines representing seven US wheat market classes using 242 wheat genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributed throughout the whea...

  6. Evaluation of genetic diversity and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium among US wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm representing different market classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) were investigated among forty-three U.S. wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) elite cultivars and breeding lines representing seven U.S. wheat market classes using 242 wheat genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributed throughout the ...

  7. Functionality of Native Tetraploid Wheat Starches: Effects of Waxy Loci Alleles and Amylose Concentration in Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial waxy (reduced-amylose) and fully waxy (amylose-free) tetraploid durum wheats (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) were developed by introgression of null alleles at the Wx-A1 and Wx-B1 loci from common hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum L.). These genotypes were used to investigate the relationships...

  8. Synthesis of FHB-Tolerant Hybrid Derivatives and Durum Alien Addition Lines Involving Wheatgrass Chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is one of the most serious diseases of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB). Depending on environmental conditions favoring the spread of pathogen, the disease greatly reduces grain y...

  9. Registration of fusarium head blight-resistant soft red winter wheat germplasm VA04W-433 and VA04W-474

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Fusarium head blight [FHB; caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe; telomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch] is one of the major diseases of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this research was to develop adapted soft red winter (SRW) wheat germp...

  10. The wheat Phs-A1 pre-harvest sprouting resistance locus delays the rate of seed dormancy loss and maps 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes in UK germplasm.

    PubMed

    Shorinola, Oluwaseyi; Bird, Nicholas; Simmonds, James; Berry, Simon; Henriksson, Tina; Jack, Peter; Werner, Peter; Gerjets, Tanja; Scholefield, Duncan; Balcárková, Barbara; Valárik, Miroslav; Holdsworth, M J; Flintham, John; Uauy, Cristobal

    2016-07-01

    The precocious germination of cereal grains before harvest, also known as pre-harvest sprouting, is an important source of yield and quality loss in cereal production. Pre-harvest sprouting is a complex grain defect and is becoming an increasing challenge due to changing climate patterns. Resistance to sprouting is multi-genic, although a significant proportion of the sprouting variation in modern wheat cultivars is controlled by a few major quantitative trait loci, including Phs-A1 in chromosome arm 4AL. Despite its importance, little is known about the physiological basis and the gene(s) underlying this important locus. In this study, we characterized Phs-A1 and show that it confers resistance to sprouting damage by affecting the rate of dormancy loss during dry seed after-ripening. We show Phs-A1 to be effective even when seeds develop at low temperature (13 °C). Comparative analysis of syntenic Phs-A1 intervals in wheat and Brachypodium uncovered ten orthologous genes, including the Plasma Membrane 19 genes (PM19-A1 and PM19-A2) previously proposed as the main candidates for this locus. However, high-resolution fine-mapping in two bi-parental UK mapping populations delimited Phs-A1 to an interval 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes. This study suggests the possibility that more than one causal gene underlies this major pre-harvest sprouting locus. The information and resources reported in this study will help test this hypothesis across a wider set of germplasm and will be of importance for breeding more sprouting resilient wheat varieties. PMID:27217549

  11. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-Lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the 'Amigo' variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. 'Tm' (Triticum monococcum), 'Astron,' 'Xanthus,' 'Ww2730,' and 'Batis' varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, 'Amigo,' 'Xiaoyan22,' and some '186Tm' samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for '98-10-35,' 'Xiaoyan22,' 'Tp,' 'Tam200,' 'PI high,' and other '186Tm' samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to 'Xinong1376,' because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of laboratory and long-term field experiments in targeted planting

  12. Potato germplasm enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Madison USDA-ARS Germplasm Enhancement Program focuses on the development of parents for breeding programs by putting novel valuable traits into adapted, fertile germplasm. The first germplasm release from this program is five clones with resistance to cold sweetening. These clones are named M1-...

  13. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  14. Genetic and Cytological Characterization of Meiotic Restitution in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seed fertility and microsporogenesis in the hybrids of four tetraploid wheat genotypes crossed with a goat-grass accession were analyzed. Preliminary results indicated that the seed fertility and microsporogenesis in the hybrids were highly dependent on their wheat genotypes. Durum wheat ‘Langd...

  15. Genotyping of U.S. wheat germplasm for presence of stem rust resistance genes Sr24, Sr36 and Sr1RSAmigo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem rust resistance genes Sr24, Sr26, Sr36, and Sr1RSAmigo confer resistance to race TTKSK (= Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt). A collection of 776 cultivars and breeding lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from all growing regions of the United States were screened with simple ...

  16. Cytological and Molecular Characterization of Homoeologous Group-1 Chromosomes in Hybrid Derivatives of a Durum Disomic Alien Addition Line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB). To incorporate FHB resistance from diploid wheatgrass (Lophopyrum elongatum (Host) Á. Löve, 2n = 2x = 14; EE) we produced earlier a stable alien disomic addition line, DGE-1, incorporating...

  17. Multiple leaf measurements improve effectiveness of the cholorophyll meter in drum wheat nitrogen management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple and rapid methods are needed to measure durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) nitrogen (N) status and make on-site N application decisions for increased crop yield and grain quality. Although chlorophyll meters (SPAD meters) have been widely tested for cereal crop N management, significant variatio...

  18. RESPONSE TO AFLATOXIN OF CIMMYT GERMPLASM IN SOUTHERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for safe, nutritious corn requires efforts to develop improved hybrids with better food processing and nutritional qualities. Exotic white lines represent a source of genes for quality traits. The International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) has developed germplasm more t...

  19. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited – tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. Results We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. Conclusions SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat. PMID:24885044

  20. Genome-Wide Identification of MicroRNAs in Leaves and the Developing Head of Four Durum Genotypes during Water Deficit Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haipei; Searle, Iain R.; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S.; Baumann, Ute; Mather, Diane E.; Able, Amanda J.; Able, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses. The miRNA transcriptome (miRNAome) under water deficit stress has been investigated in many plant species, but is poorly characterised in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). Water stress during early reproductive stages can result in significant yield loss in durum wheat and this study describes genotypic differences in the miRNAome between water deficit tolerant and sensitive durum genotypes. Small RNA libraries (96 in total) were constructed from flag leaf and developing head tissues of four durum genotypes, with or without water stress to identify differentially abundant miRNAs. Illumina sequencing detected 110 conserved miRNAs and 159 novel candidate miRNA hairpins with 66 conserved miRNAs and five novel miRNA hairpins differentially abundant under water deficit stress. Ten miRNAs (seven conserved, three novel) were validated through qPCR. Several conserved and novel miRNAs showed unambiguous inverted regulatory profiles between the durum genotypes. Several miRNAs also showed differential abundance between two tissue types regardless of treatment. Predicted mRNA targets (130) of four novel durum miRNAs were characterised using Gene Ontology (GO) which revealed functions common to stress responses and plant development. Negative correlation was observed between several target genes and the corresponding miRNA under water stress. For the first time, we present a comprehensive study of the durum miRNAome under water deficit stress. The identification of differentially abundant miRNAs provides molecular evidence that miRNAs are potential determinants of water stress tolerance in durum wheat. GO analysis of predicted targets contributes to the understanding of genotypic physiological responses leading to stress tolerance capacity. Further functional analysis of specific stress responsive miRNAs and their interaction with targets is

  1. Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Increased Fusarium Head Blight Susceptibility Associated with a Wild Emmer Wheat Chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosome 2A of wild emmer (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) line Israel A increases Fusarium head blight (FHB) severity when present in durum wheat (T. turgidum var. durum) cvc. Langdon (LDN), suggesting that FHB susceptibility genes are located on this chromosome. The goals of this study were ...

  2. Identification of Novel Tan Spot Resistance QTLs Using an SSR-Based Linkage Map of Tetraploid Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum, 2n = 4x = 28, AABB) is an important cereal used for making pasta products. Whole genome genetic maps are powerful tools for the identification of important genes and provide useful information for crop improvement. In this research, a tetraploid whea...

  3. A novel retrotransposon inserted in the dominant Vm-B1 allele confers spring growth habit in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is traditionally divided into winter and spring wheat that either has or lacks a vernalization requirement. In this study, a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between two spring tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) genotypes, durum ‘Lebsock’ and Persian wheat accession PI...

  4. Evaluation of protein content, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins for gamma-irradiated semolina before and after milling of durum wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.

    2009-11-01

    Influenced of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on total nitrogen, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins of semolina was studied. The effect of irradiation before and after milling on previous parameters was also investigated. Protein content of semolina was not affected with gamma irradiation before and after milling. Up to 10 kGy dose, cystine and methionine were not significantly changed, although they increased slightly with increasing irradiation dose. Lysine content decreased significantly ( P≤0.05) at irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy. At 10 kGy dose, lysine decreased 5% and 14% for irradiated semolina and that obtained from irradiated wheat grains, respectively. The bands number and intensity of soluble proteins decreased with increasing irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy, as shown on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Irradiated semolina and semolina obtained from irradiated wheat grains at 10 kGy showed 13 and 15 bands, respectively. Unirradiated sample showed 19 bands.

  5. Wheat domestication: lessons for the future.

    PubMed

    Charmet, Gilles

    2011-03-01

    Wheat was one of the first crops to be domesticated more than 10,000 years ago in the Middle East. Molecular genetics and archaeological data have allowed the reconstruction of plausible domestication scenarios leading to modern cultivars. For diploid einkorn and tetraploid durum wheat, a single domestication event has likely occurred in the Karacadag Mountains, Turkey. Following a cross between tetraploid durum and diploid T. tauschii, the resultant hexaploid bread wheat was domesticated and disseminated around the Caucasian region. These polyploidisation events facilitated wheat domestication and created genetic bottlenecks, which excluded potentially adaptive alleles. With the urgent need to accelerate genetic progress to confront the challenges of climate change and sustainable agriculture, wild ancestors and old landraces represent a reservoir of underexploited genetic diversity that may be utilized through modern breeding methods. Understanding domestication processes may thus help identifying new strategies. PMID:21377616

  6. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Martin, C. R.; Steele, James L.; Dempster, Richard E.

    1992-03-01

    The development of new approaches for wheat hardness assessment may impact the grain industry in marketing, milling, and breeding. This study used image texture features for wheat hardness evaluation. Application of digital imaging to grain for grading purposes is principally based on morphometrical (shape and size) characteristics of the kernels. A composite sample of 320 kernels for 17 wheat varieties were collected after testing and crushing with a single kernel hardness characterization meter. Six wheat classes where represented: HRW, HRS, SRW, SWW, Durum, and Club. In this study, parameters which characterize texture or spatial distribution of gray levels of an image were determined and used to classify images of crushed wheat kernels. The texture parameters of crushed wheat kernel images were different depending on class, hardness and variety of the wheat. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels showed promise for use in class, hardness, milling quality, and variety discrimination.

  7. Introgression and characterization of a goatgrass gene for a high level of resistance to Ug99 stem rust in tetraploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transfer of alien genes to crop plants using chromosome engineering has been infrequently attempted in tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). Here, we report a highly efficient approach for the transfer of two genes conferring resistance to stem rust race Pgt-TTKSK (Ug99) f...

  8. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  10. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  11. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  12. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  13. The compressive strength of wheat endosperm: Comparison of endosperm 'bricks' to the single kernel characterization system.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The three major classes of endosperm texture (“grain hardness”) of soft and hard common, and durum wheat represent and define one of the leading determinants of the milling and end-use quality of wheat. Although these three genetic classes are directly related to the Hardness locus and puroindoline ...

  14. Functionality of Chemically Modified Wild-Type, Partial Waxy and Waxy Starches from Tetraploid Wheats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial waxy (reduced-amylose) and fully waxy (amylose-free) tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) were developed by introgression of null alleles at the Wx-A1 and Wx-B1 loci from common hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum L.). Purified starches were obtained from each genotype, and chemicall...

  15. A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE (SDS) SEDIMENTATION TEST FOR WHEAT MEALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sedimentation tests have long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. However, the use of the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation test AACC International Approved Method 56-70 for durum wheat has not been characterized...

  16. Targeted introgression of stem rust Ug99 resistance from wheatgrasses into pasta and bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 50 years, a number of stem rust resistance (Sr) genes have been transferred from several wheat-related grasses into durum (i.e. pasta) and bread wheat through chromosome translocations and additions. To utilize these genes for controlling the Ug99 races of the stem rust pathogen, we ini...

  17. CANCER MORTALITY IN FOUR NORTHERN WHEAT PRODUCING STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of s...

  18. Reconciling Alternative Models of Phenological Development in Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • Background and Aims Accurately representing development is essential for applying crop simulation models to investigate changes in climate, genotypes, or crop management. Development in wheat (Triticum aestivum , T. durum) is primarily driven by thermal time, but affected by vernalization and ph...

  19. LACIE: Wheat yield models for the United States, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    For abstract, see volume 1 N77-30577. The enclosed maps indicate the areal coverage of the various models for spring (durum and other spring) and winter wheat. The given regions are the combination of several climatic divisions and many times comprise an entire state.

  20. National Date Palm Germplasm Repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates (NCGRCD), located in Riverside, California USA, is a project of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NCGRCD maintains a collection of germplasm of date palm (Phoneix dactylifera ...

  1. Variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in wheats in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen.

    PubMed

    Gebruers, Kurt; Dornez, Emmie; Boros, Danuta; Fraś, Anna; Dynkowska, Wioletta; Bedo, Zoltan; Rakszegi, Mariann; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2008-11-12

    Within the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screening program, the variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in different types of wheat was studied. The wheat types were winter (131 varieties) and spring (20 varieties) wheats (both Triticum aestivum L., also referred to as common wheats), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., 10 varieties), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L., 5 varieties), einkorn wheat (T. monococcum L., 5 varieties), and emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schubler, 5 varieties). Common wheats contained, on average, the highest level of dietary fiber [11.5-18.3% of dry matter (dm)], whereas einkorn and emmer wheats contained the lowest level (7.2-12.8% of dm). Intermediate levels were measured in durum and spelt wheats (10.7-15.5% of dm). Also, on the basis of the arabinoxylan levels in bran, the different wheat types could be divided this way, with ranges of 12.7-22.1% of dm for common wheats, 6.1-14.4% of dm for einkorn and emmer wheats, and 10.9-13.9% of dm for durum and spelt wheats. On average, bran arabinoxylan made up ca. 29% of the total dietary fiber content of wheat. In contrast to what was the case for bran, the arabinoxylan levels in flour were comparable between the different types of wheat. For wheat, in general, they varied between 1.35 and 2.75% of dm. Einkorn, emmer, and durum wheats contained about half the level of mixed-linkage beta-glucan (0.25-0.45% of dm) present in winter, spring, and spelt wheats (0.50-0.95% of dm). All wheat types had Klason lignin, the levels of which varied from 1.40 to 3.25% of dm. The arabinoxylan contents in bran and the dietary fiber contents in wholemeal were inversely and positively related with bran yield, respectively. Aqueous wholemeal extract viscosity, a measure for the level of soluble dietary fiber, was determined to large extent by the level of water-extractable arabinoxylan. In conclusion, the present study revealed substantial variation in the contents of dietary fiber and

  2. Development of high amylose wheat through TILLING

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an important source of food worldwide and the focus of considerable efforts to identify new combinations of genetic diversity for crop improvement. In particular, wheat starch composition is a major target for changes that could benefit human health. Starches with increased levels of amylose are of interest because of the correlation between higher amylose content and elevated levels of resistant starch, which has been shown to have beneficial effects on health for combating obesity and diabetes. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) is a means to identify novel genetic variation without the need for direct selection of phenotypes. Results Using TILLING to identify novel genetic variation in each of the A and B genomes in tetraploid durum wheat and the A, B and D genomes in hexaploid bread wheat, we have identified mutations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in starch branching enzyme IIa genes (SBEIIa). Combining these new alleles of SBEIIa through breeding resulted in the development of high amylose durum and bread wheat varieties containing 47-55% amylose and having elevated resistant starch levels compared to wild-type wheat. High amylose lines also had reduced expression of SBEIIa RNA, changes in starch granule morphology and altered starch granule protein profiles as evaluated by mass spectrometry. Conclusions We report the use of TILLING to develop new traits in crops with complex genomes without the use of transgenic modifications. Combined mutations in SBEIIa in durum and bread wheat varieties resulted in lines with significantly increased amylose and resistant starch contents. PMID:22584013

  3. Evaluation and characterization of high-molecular weight 1D glutenin subunits from Aegilops tauschii in synthetic hexaploid wheats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are major determinants of end-use quality. The objective of this study was to determine the 1Dx and 1Dy HMW subunits present in 44 synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHW) derived by crossing Langdon durum (T. turgidum ...

  4. PHENOTYPIC ASSESSMENT AND MAPPED MARKERS FOR H31, A NEW WHEAT GENE CONFERRING RESISTANCE TO HESSIAN FLY (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new source of resistance to the highly virulent and widespread biotype L of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), was identified in an accession of tetraploid durum wheat, Triticum turgidum Desf., and was introgressed into hexaploid common wheat, T. aestivum L. Genetic analysis revealed th...

  5. Fusarium head blight resistance in U.S. winter wheat cultivars and elite breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium (Fusarium graminearum) head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To characterize FHB resistance in U.S. wheat germplasm, 363 U.S. winter wheat accessions were repeatedly evaluated for FHB resistance. A high correlation (r = 0.73, P < 0.001) for me...

  6. The Tropical and Subtropical Germplasm Repositories of The National Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm collections are viewed as a source of genetic diversity to support crop improvement and agricultural research, and germplasm conservation efforts. The United States Department of Agriculture's National Plant Germplasm Repository System (NPGS) is responsible for administering plant genetic ...

  7. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Dhiraj, B.; Prabhasankar, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina). Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour) and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina) were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C) but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU). Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45%) when compared with control (44.9%) as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N) when compared with control (2.304 N), and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta. PMID:26904601

  8. Kura1 - Trifolium ambiguum germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, in cooperation with University of Wisconsin Madison, announces the release of 'Kura1' a kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum) germplasm. This population was developed cooperatively by University of Wisconsin Madison agronomist K...

  9. RELEASE OF NINETEEN WAXY SPRING WHEATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nineteen spring waxy (amylose-free) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm lines were developed and released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station in cooperation with the Agricultural Experiment Stations of Nor...

  10. Identification and molecular mapping of two QTLs with major effects for resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. Novel sources of resistance are critical for improving FHB resistance levels in wheat. From a large-scale evaluation of germplasm for reactions to FHB, we identified one wheat accession (PI 277012) that consistently showed a h...

  11. Field resistance to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust pathogen in spring wheat landraces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat landraces provide a useful source of genetic variability for breeding and germplasm enhancement. The emergence and spread of newly detected and highly virulent races of the stem rust pathogen (Ug99 and its variants) threaten wheat production globally. Spring wheat landraces from the NSGC wer...

  12. Gene banks offer breeders access to germplasm: Germplasm collections help to preserve genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes a coordinated system for conserving woody landscape plant germplasm in the United States. It provides an overview of the woody landscape plant germplasm collections of the USDA/ARS National Plant Germplasm System, a description of the Woody Landscape Plant Crop Germplasm Comm...

  13. Characterizing Safflower Germplasm with AFLP Molecular Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm with molecular markers is needed to enhance germplasm management and utilization. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was completed in safflower using two selective primer pairs resulting in 102 unambiguous polymor...

  14. Safflower Germplasm: Past, Present, and Future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm collections are a critical resource for development and improving safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars and germplasm. Our objective is to describe the safflower germplasm collection at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS), Pullman WA, USA, in light of past, pre...

  15. New germplasm development using synthetic and other approaches to transfer stem rust resistance from tetraploids to hexaploids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Triticum genus, tetraploid T. turgidum is a useful resource for germplasm improvement of hexaploid common wheat (T. aestivum L.). Several recent studies demonstrated that Pgt race TTKSK resistant genotypes were abundantly present among seven tetraploid subspecies (T. turgidum subsp. carthlic...

  16. Tetraploid Wheat Landraces in the Mediterranean Basin: Taxonomy, Evolution and Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Hugo R.; Campana, Michael G.; Jones, Huw; Hunt, Harriet V.; Leigh, Fiona; Redhouse, David I.; Lister, Diane L.; Jones, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity and the population structure of tetraploid wheat landraces in the Mediterranean basin has received relatively little attention. This is complicated by the lack of consensus concerning the taxonomy of tetraploid wheats and by unresolved questions regarding the domestication and spread of naked wheats. These knowledge gaps hinder crop diversity conservation efforts and plant breeding programmes. We investigated genetic diversity and population structure in tetraploid wheats (wild emmer, emmer, rivet and durum) using nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeats, functional variations and insertion site-based polymorphisms. Emmer and wild emmer constitute a genetically distinct population from durum and rivet, the latter seeming to share a common gene pool. Our population structure and genetic diversity data suggest a dynamic history of introduction and extinction of genotypes in the Mediterranean fields. PMID:22615891

  17. MALFORMATIONS AND OTHER ADVERSE PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN FOUR U.S. WHEAT-PRODUCING STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are widely used in the U.S. and Western Europe in
    grain agriculture and for weed control. Most of the spring and durum wheat
    produced in the U.S. is grown in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and
    South Dakota, with over 85% of th...

  18. Identifying rare FHB-resistant transgressive segregants in intransigent backcross and F2 winter wheat populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch)] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.). FHB-infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) a mycotoxin ...

  19. BIRTH MALFORMATIONS AND OTHER ADVERSE PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN FOUR U.S. WHEAT PRODUCING STATES: RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are widely used in the U.S. and Western Europe for broadleaf weed control in grain farming and park maintenance. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, with over 85% of the a...

  20. Quantification of genetic relationships among A genomes of wheats.

    PubMed

    Brandolini, A; Vaccino, P; Boggini, G; Ozkan, H; Kilian, B; Salamini, F

    2006-04-01

    The genetic relationships of A genomes of Triticum urartu (Au) and Triticum monococcum (Am) in polyploid wheats are explored and quantified by AFLP fingerprinting. Forty-one accessions of A-genome diploid wheats, 3 of AG-genome wheats, 19 of AB-genome wheats, 15 of ABD-genome wheats, and 1 of the D-genome donor Ae. tauschii have been analysed. Based on 7 AFLP primer combinations, 423 bands were identified as potentially A genome specific. The bands were reduced to 239 by eliminating those present in autoradiograms of Ae. tauschii, bands interpreted as common to all wheat genomes. Neighbour-joining analysis separates T. urartu from T. monococcum. Triticum urartu has the closest relationship to polyploid wheats. Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and T. turgidum subsp. durum lines are included in tightly linked clusters. The hexaploid spelts occupy positions in the phylogenetic tree intermediate between bread wheats and T. turgidum. The AG-genome accessions cluster in a position quite distant from both diploid and other polyploid wheats. The estimates of similarity between A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats indicate that, compared with Am, Au has around 20% higher similarity to the genomes of polyploid wheats. Triticum timo pheevii AG genome is molecularly equidistant from those of Au and Am wheats. PMID:16699549

  1. Notice of release of Fanny Germplasm, Carmel Germplasm, and Bonneville Germplasm Searls' prairie clover: Selected class of natural germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three natural-track selected germplasms of Searls' prairie clover (Dalea searlsiae [A. Gray] Barneby [Fabaceae]) have been released for use in revegetation/restoration of semi-arid rangelands in the western US. Searls' prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that is native to Utah, Nevada, Ar...

  2. GERMPLASM ENHANCEMENT FOR RWA RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Plant Science and Water Conservation Research Laboratory, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain r...

  3. Yield, Quality, Water and Nitrogen Use of Durum and Annual Forages in Two-year Rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Available water and nitrogen (N) are typically the biggest constraints to dryland spring durum (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) production in the northern Great Plains (NGP). A common rotation for spring durum is with summer fallow, which is used to accrue additional soil moisture and N for the su...

  4. Molecular mapping of greenbug resistance genes Gb2 and Gb6 in T1AL.1RS wheat-rye translocations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is an important aphid pest of wheat worldwide. Two greenbug resistance genes Gb2 and Gb6 derived from the same donor rye line ‘Insave’, are presented in wheat germplasm lines ‘Amigo’ and ‘GRS1201’ respectively as 1AL.1RS wheat-rye translocations. The alle...

  5. Linkage Disequilibrium and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Laidò, Giovanni; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A.; Colecchia, Salvatore A.; Mastrangelo, Anna M.; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful tool for the identification of quantitative trait loci through the exploitation of the differential decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker loci and genes of interest in natural and domesticated populations. Using a sample of 230 tetraploid wheat lines (Triticum turgidum ssp), which included naked and hulled accessions, we analysed the pattern of LD considering 26 simple sequence repeats and 970 mostly mapped diversity array technology loci. In addition, to validate the potential for association mapping in durum wheat, we evaluated the same genotypes for plant height, heading date, protein content, and thousand-kernel weight. Molecular and phenotypic data were used to: (i) investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity; (ii) study the dynamics of LD across the durum wheat genome, by investigating the patterns of LD decay; and (iii) test the potential of our panel to identify marker–trait associations through the analysis of four quantitative traits of major agronomic importance. Moreover, we compared and validated the association mapping results with outlier detection analysis based on population divergence. Overall, in tetraploid wheat, the pattern of LD is extremely population dependent and is related to the domestication and breeding history of durum wheat. Comparing our data with several other studies in wheat, we confirm the position of many major genes and quantitative trait loci for the traits considered. Finally, the analysis of the selection signature represents a very useful complement to validate marker–trait associations. PMID:24759998

  6. Evidence for stable transformation of wheat by floraldip in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexaploid wheat is one of the world’s most important staple crops but genetic transformation is still challenging. We have developed a floral transformation protocol that does not utilize tissue culture. Three T-DNA wheat transformants have been produced in the germplasm line, Crocus, using this p...

  7. Leaf rust resistance in selected Uruguayan late maturity common wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) is one of the most important diseases of wheat in Uruguay, therefore and breeding for resistance to this disease has been a priority for the INIA wheat breeding development program. Knowledge of the resistance genes present in the germplasm is relevant to bre...

  8. Genetically Divergent Types of the Wheat Leaf Fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a Center of Tetraploid Wheat Diversity.

    PubMed

    Kolmer, J A; Acevedo, M A

    2016-04-01

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya, from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. Single-uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes and for molecular genotypes with 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Nine virulence phenotypes were described among the 193 isolates tested for virulence. Phenotype BBBQJ, found only in Ethiopia, was predominantly collected from tetraploid wheat. Phenotype EEEEE, also found only in Ethiopia, was exclusively collected from tetraploid wheat and was avirulent to the susceptible hexaploid wheat 'Thatcher'. Phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS, found in both Ethiopia and Kenya, were predominantly collected from common wheat. Phenotypes CCMSS, CCPSS, and CBMSS were found in Ethiopia from common wheat at low frequency. Phenotypes TCBSS and TCBSQ were found on durum wheat and common wheat in Kenya. Four groups of distinct SSR genotypes were described among the 48 isolates genotyped. Isolates with phenotypes BBBQJ and EEEEE were in two distinct SSR groups, and isolates with phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS were in a third group. Isolates with CCMSS, CCPSS, CBMSS, TCBSS, and TCBSQ phenotypes were in a fourth SSR genotype group. The diverse host environment of Ethiopia has selected and maintained a genetically divergent population of P. triticina. PMID:26756826

  9. Evolution of the BBAA component of bread wheat during its history at the allohexaploid level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F; Liu, Bao

    2014-07-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence. PMID:24989045

  10. Review of doubled haploid production in durum and common wheat through wheat x maize hybridization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of doubled haploids (DHs) is an important methodology to speed up the process of breeding and development of mapping populations in crops. The procedure for DH production includes two major steps: haploid induction and chromosome doubling. Chromosome doubling of haploid plants has been ...

  11. 75 FR 41963 - Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Service Agency and Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule implements...; Farm Service Agency (FSA); U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Mail Stop 0517, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20250-0517; telephone (202) 720-3463; e-mail to:...

  12. A SNP-Based Molecular Barcode for Characterization of Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, LiFeng; Jia, JiZeng; Kong, XiuYing

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is grown as a staple crop worldwide. It is important to develop an effective genotyping tool for this cereal grain both to identify germplasm diversity and to protect the rights of breeders. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping provides a means for developing a practical, rapid, inexpensive and high-throughput assay. Here, we investigated SNPs as robust markers of genetic variation for typing wheat cultivars. We identified SNPs from an array of 9000 across a collection of 429 well-known wheat cultivars grown in China, of which 43 SNP markers with high minor allele frequency and variations discriminated the selected wheat varieties and their wild ancestors. This SNP-based barcode will allow for the rapid and precise identification of wheat germplasm resources and newly released varieties and will further assist in the wheat breeding program. PMID:26985664

  13. A SNP-Based Molecular Barcode for Characterization of Common Wheat.

    PubMed

    Gao, LiFeng; Jia, JiZeng; Kong, XiuYing

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is grown as a staple crop worldwide. It is important to develop an effective genotyping tool for this cereal grain both to identify germplasm diversity and to protect the rights of breeders. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping provides a means for developing a practical, rapid, inexpensive and high-throughput assay. Here, we investigated SNPs as robust markers of genetic variation for typing wheat cultivars. We identified SNPs from an array of 9000 across a collection of 429 well-known wheat cultivars grown in China, of which 43 SNP markers with high minor allele frequency and variations discriminated the selected wheat varieties and their wild ancestors. This SNP-based barcode will allow for the rapid and precise identification of wheat germplasm resources and newly released varieties and will further assist in the wheat breeding program. PMID:26985664

  14. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CANCER MORTALITY AND WHEAT ACREAGE AS A SURROGATE FOR CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES IN COUNTIES OF OUR NORTHERN STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides which have endocrine disrupting properties, are used widely both in cereal grain agriculture and in non-agricultural settings, such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in four northern stat...

  15. Variation in Kernel Characteristics and Protein Molecular Weight Distribution of Langdon Durum–Wild Emmer Wheat Chromosome Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides (DIC) provides a useful source of genes to improve agronomic and quality characteristics of durum wheat. Research was performed to identify DIC chromosomes that carry useful genes for quality improvement. Langdon-T. dicoccoides substitution lines consisting of...

  16. Building a Comprehensive Collection of Ash Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has conserved seed collections of ash germplasm at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA since the 1970s. When Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was introduced into southeastern MI, the NCRPIS maintained a relatively...

  17. Building a Comprehensive Collection of Ash Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has conserved Fraxinus germplasm at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) since the 1970s. When Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) was first found in the US, the NCRPIS maintained limited seed collections t...

  18. Gossypium Germplasm Resources for Cotton Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a very small fraction of the genetic diversity residing in the Gossypium genus is represented in improved, elite cotton germplasm. Although genetic diversity in elite germplasm is reported to be narrow, diversity on the farm is narrower, due to preferential planting of successful cultivars, an...

  19. The USDA Pearl Millet Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System pearl millet collection is maintained at the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Ga. The germplasm collection contains 1297 unique accessions collected from 31 different countries. The majority of the accessions were collected or d...

  20. REGISTRATION OF MAIZE GERMPLASM LINE GEMS-0067

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 is a partially inbred germplasm line released by Truman State University (TSU) in accordance with the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) protocol. This line is being released for use in the development of genetically diverse, elite, amylomaize class VII parental lines possessing modifie...

  1. High yielding Indica germplasm from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1996, 213 rice accessions were introduced from China for enriching USDA rice germplasm collection. Evaluation for the Chinese germplasm on yield potential, disease resistances and grain quality was conducted in 2000 and 2001. Fifteen accessions yielded in excess of 10,130 kg/ha rough rice that ...

  2. Melon Trait and Germplasm Resources Survey 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucurbit Crop Germplasm Committee (CCGC), which operates under the auspices of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), is composed of ARS, university and industry scientists, and provides guidance to NPGS on matters relating to cucurbit crop and wild related species. The CCGC is res...

  3. Global view of cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the status of several large cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Cotton germplasm collections discussed include those from the US, India, France, China, Australia, Uzbekistan, and Brazil. These collections represent a large portion of the curated cotton germpla...

  4. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project Overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Project (GEM) is a collaborative effort of public and private sector researchers to broaden and enhance the maize germplasm base. The GEM Project has cooperators from 26 private companies, 17 Universities, 7 USDA-ARS Research Units, 1 NGO, and 12 international pub...

  5. The USDA acquires new switchgrass germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., is a highly productive perennial warm season grass native to the United States. Efforts to expand switchgrass germplasm available in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Plant Germplasm System have resulted in the completion of several collection trips fund...

  6. Genome-wide genetic dissection of supernumerary spikelet and related traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), exotic genotypes express a broad range of spike-related traits and could be used as a source of new genes to enrich the germplasm for wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an elite line...

  7. MlNCD1: A novel Aegilops tauschii derived powdery mildew resistance gene identified in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease in wheat, especially in cool maritime climates. A novel Aegilops tauschii derived wheat powdery mildew resistance gene present in the germplasm line NC96BGTD1 was genetically characterized as a monogenic trait in field trials using F2 and F4-derived lines fr...

  8. Synthetic hexaploids derived from under-exploited tetraploids as a new resource for disease resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) (2n = 6x = 42, genome AABBDD), which is developed from the hybridization between tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28, genome AABB) and Aegilops tauschii Coss. (2n = 2x = 14, genome DD), is a useful bridging germplasm for the introgression of desirable...

  9. Evolution of the BBAA Component of Bread Wheat during Its History at the Allohexaploid Level[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Liu, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence. PMID:24989045

  10. A genetic linkage map of the Durum x Triticum dicoccoides backcross population based on SSRs and AFLP markers, and QTL analysis for milling traits.

    PubMed

    Elouafi, I; Nachit, M M

    2004-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var durum) is mainly produced and consumed in the Mediterranean region; it is used to produce several specific end-products; such as local pasta, couscous and burghul. To study the genetics of grain-milling quality traits, chromosomal locations, and interaction with the environment, a genetic linkage map of durum was constructed and the quantitative trait loci QTLs for the milling-related traits, test weight (TW) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW), were identified. The population constituted 114 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross: Omrabi 5 /Triticum dicoccoides 600545// Omrabi 5. TW and TKW were analyzed over 18 environments (sites x years). Single-sequence-repeat markers (SSRs), Amplified-fragment-length-polymorphism markers (AFLPs), and seed storage proteins (SSPs) showed a high level of polymorphism (>60%). The map was constructed with 124 SSRs, 149 AFLPs and 6 SSPs; its length covered 2,288.8 cM (8.2 cM/marker). The map showed high synteny with previous wheat maps, and both SSRs and AFLPs mapped evenly across the genome, with more markers in the B genome. However, some rearrangements were observed. For TW, a high genotypic effect was detected and two QTLs with epistasic effect were identified on 7AS and 6BS, explaining 30% of the total variation. The TKW showed a significant transgressive inheritance and five QTLs were identified, explaining 32% of the total variation, out of which 25% was of a genetic nature, and showing QTLxE interaction. The major TKW-QTLs were around the centromere region of 6B. For both traits, Omrabi 5 alleles had a significant positive effect. This population will be used to determine other QTLs of interest, as its parents are likely to harbor different genes for diseases and drought tolerance. PMID:14676946

  11. Effectiveness of spinosad on four classes of wheat against five stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Arthur, Frank H

    2002-06-01

    Spinosad is a commercial reduced-risk pesticide that is naturally derived. Spinosad's performance was evaluated on four classes of wheat (hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red winter, and durum wheats) against adults of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.); sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); and larvae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Beetle adults (25) or P. interpunctella eggs (50) were exposed to untreated wheat and wheat treated with spinosad at 0.1 and 1 mg (AI)/kg of grain. On all untreated wheat classes, adult beetle mortality ranged from 0 to 6%, and P. interpunctella larval mortality ranged from 10 to 19%. The effects of spinosad on R. dominica and P. interpunctella were consistent across all wheat classes. Spinosad killed all exposed R. dominica adults and significantly suppressed progeny production (84-100%) and kernel damage (66-100%) at both rates compared with untreated wheat. Spinosad was extremely effective against P. interpunctella on all wheat classes at 1 mg/kg, based on larval mortality (97.6-99.6%), suppression of egg-to-adult emergence (93-100%), and kernel damage (95-100%), relative to similar effects on untreated wheats. The effects of spinosad on S. oryzae varied among wheat classes and between spinosad rates. Spinosad was effective against S. oryzae, O. surinamensis and T. castaneun only on durum wheat at 1 mg/kg. Our results suggest spinosad to be a potential grain protectant for R. dominica and P. interpunctella management in stored wheat. PMID:12076013

  12. Using Geostatistical Data Fusion Techniques and MODIS Data to Upscale Simulated Wheat Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrignano, A.; Buttafuoco, G.; Matese, A.; Toscano, P.

    2014-12-01

    Population growth increases food request. Assessing food demand and predicting the actual supply for a given location are critical components of strategic food security planning at regional scale. Crop yield can be simulated using crop models because is site-specific and determined by weather, management, length of growing season and soil properties. Crop models require reliable location-specific data that are not generally available. Obtaining these data at a large number of locations is time-consuming, costly and sometimes simply not feasible. An upscaling method to extend coverage of sparse estimates of crop yield to an appropriate extrapolation domain is required. This work is aimed to investigate the applicability of a geostatistical data fusion approach for merging remote sensing data with the predictions of a simulation model of wheat growth and production using ground-based data. The study area is Capitanata plain (4000 km2) located in Apulia Region, mostly cropped with durum wheat. The MODIS EVI/NDVI data products for Capitanata plain were downloaded from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) remote for the whole crop cycle of durum wheat. Phenological development, biomass growth and grain quantity of durum wheat were simulated by the Delphi system, based on a crop simulation model linked to a database including soil properties, agronomical and meteorological data. Multicollocated cokriging was used to integrate secondary exhaustive information (multi-spectral MODIS data) with primary variable (sparsely distributed biomass/yield model predictions of durum wheat). The model estimates looked strongly spatially correlated with the radiance data (red and NIR bands) and the fusion data approach proved to be quite suitable and flexible to integrate data of different type and support.

  13. Genetic mapping of major-effect seed dormancy quantitative trait loci on chromosome 2B using recombinant substitution lines in tetraploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat cultivars can benefit from having some level of seed dormancy to help reduce seed damage and lower grain quality caused by pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) occurring during wet harvesting conditions. Previously a single chromosome substitution line carrying chromosome 2B of wild emmer in the...

  14. Marker development, saturation mapping, and high-resolution mapping of the Septoria nodorum blotch susceptibility gene Snn3-B1 in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by Parastagonospora nodorum, is a severe foliar and glume disease on durum and common wheat. Pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) are the major determinants for SNB on leaves. One such NE is SnTox3, which evokes programmed cell death and leads to dis...

  15. Identification of Chromosome Locations of Genes Affecting pre-Harvest Sprouting and Seed Dormancy using Chromosome Substitution Lines in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy, the main factor contributing to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance, is a complex trait and strongly influenced by environmental growth conditions. In this study, three sets of single chromosome substitution lines, including 37 genotypes, in a durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. du...

  16. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Tetraploid Wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) Estimated by SSR, DArT and Pedigree Data

    PubMed Central

    Laidò, Giovanni; Mangini, Giacomo; Taranto, Francesca; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio; Cattivelli, Luigi; Marone, Daniela; Mastrangelo, Anna M.; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of a collection of 230 accessions of seven tetraploid Triticum turgidum L. subspecies were investigated using six morphological, nine seed storage protein loci, 26 SSRs and 970 DArT markers. The genetic diversity of the morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the durum wheat compared to the wild and domesticated emmer. Using Bayesian clustering (K = 2), both of the sets of molecular markers distinguished the durum wheat cultivars from the other tetraploid subspecies, and two distinct subgroups were detected within the durum wheat subspecies, which is in agreement with their origin and year of release. The genetic diversity of morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the improved durum cultivars registered after 1990, than in the intermediate and older ones. This marked effect on diversity was not observed for molecular markers, where there was only a weak reduction. At K >2, the SSR markers showed a greater degree of resolution than for DArT, with their identification of a greater number of groups within each subspecies. Analysis of DArT marker differentiation between the wheat subspecies indicated outlier loci that are potentially linked to genes controlling some important agronomic traits. Among the 211 loci identified under selection, 109 markers were recently mapped, and some of these markers were clustered into specific regions on chromosome arms 2BL, 3BS and 4AL, where several genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are involved in the domestication of tetraploid wheats, such as the tenacious glumes (Tg) and brittle rachis (Br) characteristics. On the basis of these results, it can be assumed that the population structure of the tetraploid wheat collection partially reflects the evolutionary history of Triticum turgidum L. subspecies and the genetic potential of landraces and wild accessions for the detection of unexplored alleles. PMID:23826256

  17. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region. PMID:26072587

  18. Genome-wide mapping of spike-related and agronomic traits in a common wheat population derived from a supernumerary parent and an elite parent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), exotic genotypes express a broad range of spike-related traits and could be used as a source of new genes to enrich the germplasm for wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an elite line...

  19. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new QTLs and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a RIL population developed from a cross of an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype with supernumerary spikelets (SS) was used to identify QTLs and n...

  20. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype wi...

  1. Notice of release of Charleston Peak Germplasm: selected class, genetically manipulated track pre-variety germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) announces the release of Charleston Peak Germplasm slender wheatgrass [Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners] as a selected class, genetically manipulated track pre-variety germplasm selected directly from collection D-3269. This collection is uni...

  2. THE TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS AT THE NATIONAL GERMPLASM REPOSITORY IN MIAMI, FL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Subtropical and Tropical USDA, ARS, National Germplasm Repositories (NGR) in Miami, FL; Mayaguez, PR; and Hilo, HI are responsible for the collections of subtropical and tropical fruits, nuts, grasses, and ornamentals for the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). The NPGS is respons...

  3. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.

    PubMed

    Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

    2011-11-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jord

  4. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in wheat and wild relatives: molecular evidence for a multigene family.

    PubMed

    Massa, Alicia N; Beecher, Brian; Morris, Craig F

    2007-05-01

    Wheat polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is the major cause of browning reactions that discolor Asian noodles and other wheat products. It has been hypothesized that genes encoding wheat PPOs may have evolved by gene duplication into a multigene family. Here we characterized PPO genomic sequences from diploid (Triticum monococcum, T. urartu, Aegilops tauschii, and Ae. speltoides), tetraploid (T. turgidum, subspecies dicoccoides and durum) and hexaploid (T. aestivum cultivars Klasic and ID377s) wheat species to gain a better understanding of the structure and organization of PPO genes. DNA fragments were amplified from a highly polymorphic and phylogenetic informative region of the gene. As a result, we obtained highly discriminative sequences. Three distinct PPOs, obtained from the A genome of T. monococcum, provided evidence for gene duplication events (paralogous loci). Furthermore, the number of sequences obtained for bread and durum wheat was higher than the expected number of orthologous loci. Sequence comparison revealed nucleotide and structural diversity, and detected five sequence intron types, all with a common insertion position. This was hypothesized to be homologous to that of intron 2 of previously reported wheat PPOs. A MITE of the Stowaway family accounted for the major difference between the five intervening sequences, and was unique to T. aestivum cv. Klasic. Nucleotide and structural diversity, together with well-resolved phylogenetic trees, provided molecular evidence to support the hypothesis of a PPO multigene family structure and organization. PMID:17468807

  5. Strategy for exploiting exotic germplasm using genetic, morphological, and environmental diversity: the Aegilops tauschii Coss. example.

    PubMed

    Jones, H; Gosman, N; Horsnell, R; Rose, G A; Everest, L A; Bentley, A R; Tha, S; Uauy, C; Kowalski, A; Novoselovic, D; Simek, R; Kobiljski, B; Kondic-Spika, A; Brbaklic, L; Mitrofanova, O; Chesnokov, Y; Bonnett, D; Greenland, A

    2013-07-01

    Hexaploid bread wheat evolved from a rare hybridisation, which resulted in a loss of genetic diversity in the wheat D-genome with respect to the ancestral donor, Aegilops tauschii. Novel genetic variation can be introduced into modern wheat by recreating the above hybridisation; however, the information associated with the Ae. tauschii accessions in germplasm collections is limited, making rational selection of accessions into a re-synthesis programme difficult. We describe methodologies to identify novel diversity from Ae. tauschii accessions that combines Bayesian analysis of genotypic data, sub-species diversity and geographic information that summarises variation in climate and habitat at the collection point for each accession. Comparisons were made between diversity discovered amongst a panel of Ae. tauschii accessions, bread wheat varieties and lines from the CIMMYT synthetic hexaploid wheat programme. The selection of Ae. tauschii accessions based on differing approaches had significant effect on diversity within each set. Our results suggest that a strategy that combines several criteria will be most effective in maximising the sampled variation across multiple parameters. The analysis of multiple layers of variation in ex situ Ae. tauschii collections allows for an informed and rational approach to the inclusion of wild relatives into crop breeding programmes. PMID:23558983

  6. Root uptake and translocation of nickel in wheat as affected by histidine.

    PubMed

    Dalir, Neda; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein

    2015-07-20

    The role of histidine (His) on root uptake, xylem loading and root to shoot transport of nickel (Ni) was investigated in a winter (Triticum aestivum cv. Back Cross) and a durum wheat (Triticum durum cv. Durum) cultivar. Seedlings were grown in a modified Johnson nutrient solution and exposed to 10 μM of Ni and 100 μM of histidine (His) as no His, Ni (10) + His (100) and Ni(His) in a 1:1 mole ratio (1:1) complex. In our study, the presence of vanadate (a metabolic inhibitor) resulted in a significant decrease of root Ni uptake, indicating that a part of Ni uptake by the plant root is energy-dependent. Addition of His significantly increased the Ni content in shoots and roots of both wheat cultivars. The data suggest that the Ni(His) is most likely to be taken up as a complex or receptors at the membrane are able to enhance Ni uptake from Ni(His) complex. This result was indirectly supported by using EDTA as a strong chelating reagent to reduce the uptake of Ni(His) complexes. By using this ligand, the xylem loading of Ni and His was disproportionately reduced. Cycloheximide (a translation inhibitor) strongly decreased the release of His and Ni from the root into the xylem of wheat, suggesting the significance of a symplastic pathway for Ni loading into the xylem. PMID:26162706

  7. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  8. Organic Cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Is Reflected in the Flour-Sourdough Fermentation-Bread Axis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  9. Genetic transformation of wheat via particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Caroline A; Jones, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    Since its first invention in the late 1980s the particle gun has evolved from a basic gunpowder driven machine firing tungsten particles to one more refined which uses helium gas as the propellant to launch alternative heavy metal particles such as gold and silver. The simple principle is that DNA-coated microscopic particles (microcarriers) are accelerated at high speed by helium gas within a vacuum and travel at such a velocity as to penetrate target cells. However, the process itself involves a range of parameters which are open to variation: microparticle type and size, gun settings (rupture pressure, target distance, vacuum drawn, etc.), preparation of components (e.g., gold coating), and preparation of plant tissues. Here is presented a method optimized for transformation of wheat immature embryos using the Bio-Rad PDS-1000/He particle gun to deliver gold particles coated with a gene of interest and the selectable marker gene bar at 650 psi rupture pressure. Following bombardment, various tissue culture phases are used to encourage embryogenic callus formation and regeneration of plantlets and subsequent selection using glufosinate ammonium causes suppression of non-transformed tissues, thus assisting the detection of transformed plants. This protocol has been used successfully to generate transgenic plants for a wide range of wheat varieties, both spring and winter bread wheats (T. aestivum L.) and durum wheats (T. turgidum L.). PMID:24243206

  10. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  11. Root phenotyping of new oilseed crop lesquerella germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of germplasm collections rely on the availability of associated characterization and evaluation data for researchers and germplasm users. The information enables users to select accessions with characters of interest thereby saving time and resources. Most germplasm collections in the US...

  12. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize: Allelic Diversity and Double Haploid Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project is a collaborative effort of public and private sector researchers to broaden and enhance the germplasm base. To date, 235 germplasm lines have been released to cooperators representing approximately 25 races. These lines were selected based on yiel...

  13. Preserving oak (Quercus sp.) germplasm to promote ex situ conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm banks are increasingly used as an ex situ conservation strategy. Germplasm banks are able to maintain extraordinary levels of diversity for long periods at relatively low cost. Studies using seeds – the preferred propagules in plant germplasm banks – have revealed the underlying reasons wh...

  14. Importance of gene flow to germplasm conservation and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene banks conserve and make available valuable germplasm that scientists and plant breeders can deploy to develop useful traits. The USDA National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) manages over 542,000 germplasm accessions. A large part of our work is regenerating accessions when seed numbers decline. ...

  15. Variability in four diverse cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A broad range of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm resources exist with characteristics useful for improving modern cotton cultivars. However, much of this germplasm is not well utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate agronomic and fiber traits of four germplasm populations to...

  16. Registration of USG 3209/Jaypee Wheat Recombinant Inbred Line Mapping Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘USG 3209’/‘Jaypee’ (Reg. No. MP-3, NSL 465777 MAP), is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and submitted to the USDA–ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility in Aberdeen...

  17. Genetic Mapping of a Triticum monococcum-derived Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene in Common Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major fungal disease caused by Blumeria graminis DC f sp. tritici. A microsatellite linkage map was developed for the T. monococcum-derived powdery mildew resistant gene present in the North Carolina germplasm line NCBGT96A6 (NCA6). Genetic analys...

  18. Genetic variation among laboratory accessions of Chinese spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese Spring (CS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is commonly used in genetic research including cytogenetic analysis, molecular mapping, and germplasm development. Aneuploid lines of alien chromosomes in CS background have been used in studies with diverse objectives. Thousands of genomic and cDNA...

  19. Waxy genes from spelt wheat: new alleles for modern wheat breeding and new phylogenetic inferences about the origin of this species

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Carlos; Caballero, Leonor; Martín, Luis M.; Alvarez, Juan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Waxy proteins are responsible for amylose synthesis in wheat seeds, being encoded by three waxy genes (Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1) in hexaploid wheat. In addition to their role in starch quality, waxy loci have been used to study the phylogeny of wheat. The origin of European spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) is not clear. This study compared waxy gene sequences of a Spanish spelt collection with their homologous genes in emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum), durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and common wheat (T. aestivum ssp. aestivum), together with other Asian and European spelt that could be used to determine the origin of European spelt. Methods waxy genes were amplified and sequenced. Geneious Pro software, DNAsp and MEGA5 were used for sequence, nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Key Results Three, four and three new alleles were described for the Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 loci, respectively. Spelt accessions were classified into two groups based on the variation in Wx-B1, which suggests that there were two different origins for the emmer wheat that has been found to be part of the spelt genetic make-up. One of these groups was only detected in Iberian material. No differences were found between the rest of the European spelt and the Asiatic spelt, which suggested that the Iberian material had a different origin from the other spelt sources. Conclusions The results suggested that the waxy gene variability present in wheat is undervalued. The evaluation of this variability has permitted the detection of ten new waxy alleles that could affect starch quality and thus could be used in modern wheat breeding. In addition, two different classes of Wx-B1 were detected that could be used for evaluating the phylogenetic relationships and the origins of different types of wheat. PMID:22984164

  20. Transferable bread wheat EST-SSRs can be useful for phylogenetic studies among the Triticeae species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Y; Ravel, C; Bernard, M; Balfourier, F; Leroy, P; Feuillet, C; Sourdille, P

    2006-08-01

    The genetic similarity between 150 accessions, representing 14 diploidand polyploid species of the Triticeae tribe, was investigated following the UPGMA clustering method. Seventy-three common wheat EST-derived SSR markers (EST-SSRs) that were demonstrated to be transferable across several wheat-related species were used. When diploid species only are concerned, all the accessions bearing the same genome were clustered together without ambiguity while the separation between the different sub-species of tetraploid as well as hexaploid wheats was less clear. Dendrograms reconstructed based on data of 16 EST-SSRs mapped on the A genome confirmed that Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum had closer relationships with Triticum urartu than with Triticum monococcum and Triticum boeoticum, supporting the evidence that T. urartu is the A-genome ancestor of polyploid wheats. Similarly, another tree reconstructed based on data of ten EST-SSRs mapped on the B genome showed that Aegilops speltoides had the closest relationship with T. aestivum and T. durum, suggesting that it was the main contributor of the B genome of polyploid wheats. All these results were expected and demonstrate thus that EST-SSR markers are powerful enough for phylogenetic analysis among the Triticeae tribe. PMID:16736140

  1. Domestication quantitative trait loci in Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of wheat

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Junhua; Ronin, Yefim; Fahima, Tzion; Röder, Marion S.; Li, Youchun; Nevo, Eviatar; Korol, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, is the progenitor of modern tetraploid and hexaploid cultivated wheats. Our objective was to map domestication-related quantitative trait loci (QTL) in T. dicoccoides. The studied traits include brittle rachis, heading date, plant height, grain size, yield, and yield components. Our mapping population was derived from a cross between T. dicoccoides and Triticum durum. Approximately 70 domestication QTL effects were detected, nonrandomly distributed among and along chromosomes. Seven domestication syndrome factors were proposed, each affecting 5–11 traits. We showed: (i) clustering and strong effects of some QTLs; (ii) remarkable genomic association of strong domestication-related QTLs with gene-rich regions; and (iii) unexpected predominance of QTL effects in the A genome. The A genome of wheat may have played a more important role than the B genome during domestication evolution. The cryptic beneficial alleles at specific QTLs derived from T. dicoccoides may contribute to wheat and cereal improvement. PMID:12604784

  2. AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF PARENTAL GERMPLASM - 2001

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent breeding efforts focus on combining disease resistance attributes of traditional germplasm releases with the smooth-root traits that the more recent releases and breeding lines have. Thirteen entries from crosses among these types, as well as two commercial checks, and seven historically impo...

  3. Characterizing Safflower Germplasm with AFLP Molecular Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) accessions from the U.S. germplasm collection were characterized using AFLP (Amplified Length Polymorphisms) markers. Separation and scoring of 392 markers was completed using the Beckman CEQ8000 capillary electrophoresis system. Twelve plants from each of eight...

  4. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  5. Promising Salinity Tolerance in Bermudagrass Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of improved salt tolerant grass germplasm is needed due to the increased use of low quality secondary water sources for turfgrass, and the need for low cost disposal of drainage water on forage land. Typically, studies have focused on several species of grasses and a limited number o...

  6. Relationships Between Oases and Germplasm Collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional date palm oases have served as conservators of date palm genetic resources. There have been only a few studies on the population structure of these oases or evaluations of non-fruit-related characteristics. A system is needed in which regional germplasm repositories for date palm genetic...

  7. REGISTRATION OF BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL GERMPLASM ARS-2622

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ARS-2622 broadleafed birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) germplasm was released by the USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station in August 2002. The merit of ARS-2622 is that it is a rhizome producing population with a broad genetic base. ARS-2622 was developed ...

  8. In Vitro Maintenance of Bermudagrass Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are currently 213 accessions of bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) maintained clonally by the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Georgia as part of the National Plant Germplasm System. These accessions have been traditionally maintained as potted plants in the greenhouse. ...

  9. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  10. Shoot tip cryopreservation of Solanum tuberosum germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid nitrogen storage of vegetatively-propagated germplasm collections is the most economic and reliable long-term preservation method for many of these collections. Over the past 11 years, the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) cryopreserved over 100 different pot...

  11. Rice blast evaluation of newly introduced germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia grisea oryzae) was identified in newly introduced rice germplasm through quarantine when tested in artificially inoculated greenhouse and field nursery tests during the 2007 growing season. Of 229 accessions, 31 we...

  12. Ancient DNA from 8400 Year-Old Çatalhöyük Wheat: Implications for the Origin of Neolithic Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Hatice; Hakki, Erdogan E.; Akkaya, Mahinur S.

    2016-01-01

    Human history was transformed with the advent of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent with wheat as one of the founding crops. Although the Fertile Crescent is renowned as the center of wheat domestication, archaeological studies have shown the crucial involvement of Çatalhöyük in this process. This site first gained attention during the 1961–65 excavations due to the recovery of primitive hexaploid wheat. However, despite the seeds being well preserved, a detailed archaeobotanical description of the samples is missing. In this article, we report on the DNA isolation, amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA of charred wheat grains from Çatalhöyük and other Turkish archaeological sites and the comparison of these wheat grains with contemporary wheat species including T. monococcum, T. dicoccum, T. dicoccoides, T. durum and T. aestivum at HMW glutenin protein loci. These ancient samples represent the oldest wheat sample sequenced to date and the first ancient wheat sample from the Middle East. Remarkably, the sequence analysis of the short DNA fragments preserved in seeds that are approximately 8400 years old showed that the Çatalhöyük wheat stock contained hexaploid wheat, which is similar to contemporary hexaploid wheat species including both naked (T. aestivum) and hulled (T. spelta) wheat. This suggests an early transitory state of hexaploid wheat agriculture from the Fertile Crescent towards Europe spanning present-day Turkey. PMID:26998604

  13. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  14. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  15. A wheat lipid transfer protein (TdLTP4) promotes tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Safi, Hela; Saibi, Walid; Alaoui, Meryem Mrani; Hmyene, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Khaled; Hanin, Moez; Brini, Faïçal

    2015-04-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are members of the family of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-14) that are believed to be involved in plant defense responses. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel gene TdLTP4 encoding an LTP protein from durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum Desf.]. Molecular Phylogeny analyses of wheat TdLTP4 gene showed a high identity to other plant LTPs. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of six helices and nine loop turns. Expression analysis in two local durum wheat varieties with marked differences in salt and drought tolerance, revealed a higher transcript accumulation of TdLTP4 under different stress conditions in the tolerant variety, compared to the sensitive one. The overexpression of TdLTP4 in Arabidopsis resulted in a promoted plant growth under various stress conditions including NaCl, ABA, JA and H2O2 treatments. Moreover, the LTP-overexpressing lines exhibit less sensitivity to jasmonate than wild-type plants. Furthermore, detached leaves from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing TdLTP4 gene showed enhanced fungal resistance against Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea. Together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of TdLTP4 gene in the tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:25703105

  16. Root precursors of microRNAs in wild emmer and modern wheats show major differences in response to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Bala Ani; Kantar, Melda; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs, small regulatory molecules with significant impacts on the transcriptional network of all living organisms, have been the focus of several studies conducted mostly on modern wheat cultivars. In this study, we investigated miRNA repertoires of modern durum wheat and its wild relatives, with differing degrees of drought tolerance, to identify miRNA candidates and their targets involved in drought stress response. Root transcriptomes of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum variety Kızıltan and two Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides genotypes TR39477 and TTD-22 under control and drought conditions were assembled from individual RNA-Seq reads and used for in silico identification of miRNAs. A total of 66 miRNAs were identified from all species, across all conditions, of which 46 and 38 of the miRNAs identified from modern durum wheat and wild genotypes, respectively, had not been previously reported. Genotype- and/or stress-specific miRNAs provide insights into our understanding of the complex drought response. Particularly, miR1435, miR5024, and miR7714, identified only from drought-stress roots of drought-tolerant genotype TR39477, can be candidates for future studies to explore and exploit the drought response to develop tolerant varieties. PMID:26174050

  17. Exploitation of Albanian wheat cultivars: characterization of the flours and lactic acid bacteria microbiota, and selection of starters for sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nionelli, Luana; Curri, Nertila; Curiel, José Antonio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Six Albanian soft and durum wheat cultivars were characterized based on chemical and technological features, showing different attitudes for bread making. Gliadin and glutenin fractions were selectively extracted from flours, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Linja 7 and LVS flours showed the best characteristics, and abundance of high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared through back slopping procedure, and the lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant species. Thirty-eight representative isolates were singly used for sourdough fermentation of soft and durum wheat Albanian flours and their selection was carried out based on growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation, and proteolytic activity. Two different pools of lactic acid bacteria were designed to ferment soft or durum wheat flours. Sourdough fermentation with mixed and selected starters positively affected the quotient of fermentation, concentration of free amino acids, profile of phenolic acids, and antioxidant and phytase activities. This study provided the basis to exploit the potential of wheat Albanian flours based on an integrated approach, which considered the characterization of the flours and the processing conditions. PMID:25084651

  18. Identification of a Protein Network Interacting with TdRF1, a Wheat RING Ubiquitin Ligase with a Protective Role against Cellular Dehydration1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Davide; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Lopez-Torrejon, Gema; Marzin, Stephan; Schweizer, Patrick; Stanca, Antonio Michele; del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Cattivelli, Luigi; Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Plants exploit ubiquitination to modulate the proteome with the final aim to ensure environmental adaptation and developmental plasticity. Ubiquitination targets are specifically driven to degradation through the action of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Genetic analyses have indicated wide functions of ubiquitination in plant life; nevertheless, despite the large number of predicted E3s, only a few of them have been characterized so far, and only a few ubiquitination targets are known. In this work, we characterized durum wheat (Triticum durum) RING Finger1 (TdRF1) as a durum wheat nuclear ubiquitin ligase. Moreover, its barley (Hordeum vulgare) homolog was shown to protect cells from dehydration stress. A protein network interacting with TdRF1 has been defined. The transcription factor WHEAT BEL1-TYPE HOMEODOMAIN1 (WBLH1) was degraded in a TdRF1-dependent manner through the 26S proteasome in vivo, the mitogen-activated protein kinase TdWNK5 [for Triticum durum WITH NO LYSINE (K)5] was able to phosphorylate TdRF1 in vitro, and the RING-finger protein WHEAT VIVIPAROUS-INTERACTING PROTEIN2 (WVIP2) was shown to have a strong E3 ligase activity. The genes coding for the TdRF1 interactors were all responsive to cold and/or dehydration stress, and a negative regulative function in dehydration tolerance was observed for the barley homolog of WVIP2. A role in the control of plant development was previously known, or predictable based on homology, for wheat BEL1-type homeodomain1(WBLH1). Thus, TdRF1 E3 ligase might act regulating the response to abiotic stress and remodeling plant development in response to environmental constraints. PMID:22167118

  19. Modelling ozone stomatal flux of wheat under mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Fernández, I.; Bermejo, V.; Elvira, S.; de la Torre, D.; González, A.; Navarrete, L.; Sanz, J.; Calvete, H.; García-Gómez, H.; López, A.; Serra, J.; Lafarga, A.; Armesto, A. P.; Calvo, A.; Alonso, R.

    2013-03-01

    Correct estimation of leaf-level stomatal conductance (gsto) is central for current ozone (O3) risk assessment of wheat yield loss based on the absorbed O3 phytotoxic dose (POD). The gsto model parameterizations developed in Europe must be checked in the different climatic regions where they are going to be applied in order to reduce the uncertainties associated with the POD approach. This work proposes a new gsto model parameterization for estimating POD of Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under Mediterranean conditions, based on phenological observations over 25 years and gsto field measurements during 5 growing seasons. Results show that POD in the Mediterranean area might be higher than previously estimated. However, caution must be paid when assessing the risk of yield loss for wheat in this area since field validation of O3 impacts is still limited.

  20. Prioritizing quantitative trait loci for root system architecture in tetraploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Maccaferri, Marco; El-Feki, Walid; Nazemi, Ghasemali; Salvi, Silvio; Canè, Maria Angela; Colalongo, Maria Chiara; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Optimization of root system architecture (RSA) traits is an important objective for modern wheat breeding. Linkage and association mapping for RSA in two recombinant inbred line populations and one association mapping panel of 183 elite durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) accessions evaluated as seedlings grown on filter paper/polycarbonate screening plates revealed 20 clusters of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and number, as well as 30 QTLs for root growth angle (RGA). Divergent RGA phenotypes observed by seminal root screening were validated by root phenotyping of field-grown adult plants. QTLs were mapped on a high-density tetraploid consensus map based on transcript-associated Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for bread and durum wheat, thus allowing for an accurate cross-referencing of RSA QTLs between durum and bread wheat. Among the main QTL clusters for root length and number highlighted in this study, 15 overlapped with QTLs for multiple RSA traits reported in bread wheat, while out of 30 QTLs for RGA, only six showed co-location with previously reported QTLs in wheat. Based on their relative additive effects/significance, allelic distribution in the association mapping panel, and co-location with QTLs for grain weight and grain yield, the RSA QTLs have been prioritized in terms of breeding value. Three major QTL clusters for root length and number (RSA_QTL_cluster_5#, RSA_QTL_cluster_6#, and RSA_QTL_cluster_12#) and nine RGA QTL clusters (QRGA.ubo-2A.1, QRGA.ubo-2A.3, QRGA.ubo-2B.2/2B.3, QRGA.ubo-4B.4, QRGA.ubo-6A.1, QRGA.ubo-6A.2, QRGA.ubo-7A.1, QRGA.ubo-7A.2, and QRGA.ubo-7B) appear particularly valuable for further characterization towards a possible implementation of breeding applications in marker-assisted selection and/or cloning of the causal genes underlying the QTLs. PMID:26880749

  1. Prioritizing quantitative trait loci for root system architecture in tetraploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Maccaferri, Marco; El-Feki, Walid; Nazemi, Ghasemali; Salvi, Silvio; Canè, Maria Angela; Colalongo, Maria Chiara; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of root system architecture (RSA) traits is an important objective for modern wheat breeding. Linkage and association mapping for RSA in two recombinant inbred line populations and one association mapping panel of 183 elite durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) accessions evaluated as seedlings grown on filter paper/polycarbonate screening plates revealed 20 clusters of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and number, as well as 30 QTLs for root growth angle (RGA). Divergent RGA phenotypes observed by seminal root screening were validated by root phenotyping of field-grown adult plants. QTLs were mapped on a high-density tetraploid consensus map based on transcript-associated Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for bread and durum wheat, thus allowing for an accurate cross-referencing of RSA QTLs between durum and bread wheat. Among the main QTL clusters for root length and number highlighted in this study, 15 overlapped with QTLs for multiple RSA traits reported in bread wheat, while out of 30 QTLs for RGA, only six showed co-location with previously reported QTLs in wheat. Based on their relative additive effects/significance, allelic distribution in the association mapping panel, and co-location with QTLs for grain weight and grain yield, the RSA QTLs have been prioritized in terms of breeding value. Three major QTL clusters for root length and number (RSA_QTL_cluster_5#, RSA_QTL_cluster_6#, and RSA_QTL_cluster_12#) and nine RGA QTL clusters (QRGA.ubo-2A.1, QRGA.ubo-2A.3, QRGA.ubo-2B.2/2B.3, QRGA.ubo-4B.4, QRGA.ubo-6A.1, QRGA.ubo-6A.2, QRGA.ubo-7A.1, QRGA.ubo-7A.2, and QRGA.ubo-7B) appear particularly valuable for further characterization towards a possible implementation of breeding applications in marker-assisted selection and/or cloning of the causal genes underlying the QTLs. PMID:26880749

  2. Manganese influx and its utilization efficiency in wheat.

    PubMed

    Jhanji, Shalini; Sadana, Upkar Singh; Shankar, Arun; Shukla, Arvind Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Manganese deficiency in wheat has become an important nutritional disorder particularly in alkaline calcareous soils where rice-wheat rotation is followed. This experiment was aimed to study the mechanism of Mn efficiency during various developmental stages in six wheat cultivars grown at two Mn levels viz. 0 and 50 mg Mn kg(-1) soil (Mnapplied as MnSO4 x H20) in pots. The Mn vegetative efficiency calculated on the basis of shoot dry weight at anthesis indicated HD 2967 and PBW 550 (bread wheat) as Mn efficient and durums as Mn inefficient. The efficient cultivars recorded highest values for influx, uptake, shoot dry weight, leaf area/plant, SPAD index, F(v)/F(m)ratio and root length that explained their higher efficiencies whereas inefficiency of durum cultivars was attributed to their smaller roots and lower influx. Under Mn deficiency, PDW 314 and PDW 291 retained 68% and 64%, respectively, of total Mn uptake in vegetative parts (stem and leaves) and lowest in grains 7% and 5%, respectively, whereas PBW 550, BW 9178 and HD 2967 retained 29, 37 and 34% in vegetative parts, and 21, 17 and 15 % in grains, respectively at maturity. Higher utilization efficiency of efficient genotypes also indicated that increased Mn uptake with Mn supply produced more efficiently grains in efficient genotypes but vegetative parts in inefficient genotypes. Hence Mn efficiency of a cultivar could be explained by longer roots, higher uptake, influx and efficiency index during vegetative phase and higher grain yield and utilization efficiency during generative phase. PMID:24956896

  3. Hyperspectral-imaging-based techniques applied to wheat kernels characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Cesare, Daniela; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Single kernels of durum wheat have been analyzed by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Such an approach is based on the utilization of an integrated hardware and software architecture able to digitally capture and handle spectra as an image sequence, as they results along a pre-defined alignment on a surface sample properly energized. The study was addressed to investigate the possibility to apply HSI techniques for classification of different types of wheat kernels: vitreous, yellow berry and fusarium-damaged. Reflectance spectra of selected wheat kernels of the three typologies have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with an HSI system working in near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The hypercubes were analyzed applying principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the high dimensionality of data and for selecting some effective wavelengths. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied for classification of the three wheat typologies. The study demonstrated that good classification results were obtained not only considering the entire investigated wavelength range, but also selecting only four optimal wavelengths (1104, 1384, 1454 and 1650 nm) out of 121. The developed procedures based on HSI can be utilized for quality control purposes or for the definition of innovative sorting logics of wheat.

  4. PLANT OLIGOSACCHARIDES ENHANCE WHEAT DEFENCE RESPONSE AGAINST SEPTORIA LEAF BLOTCH.

    PubMed

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Siah, A; Randoux, B; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P; Rodriguez, R; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Our work provides the first evidence for elicitation and protection effects of preventive treatments with oligosaccharides (20%)-based new formulation (Oligos) against Mycosphaerella graminicola, a major pathogen of bread wheat (BW) and durum wheat (DW). In planta Oligos treatment led to strongly reduced hyphal growth, penetration, mesophyll colonization and fructification. During the necrotrophic phase, Oligos also drastically decreased the production of M. graminicola CWDE activities, such as xylanase and glucanase as well as protease activity in both wheat species, suggesting their correlation with disease severity. Concerning plant defence markers, PR2, Chi 4 precursor-, Per- and LOX-1-encoding genes were up-regulated, while glucanase (GLUC), catalase (CAT) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities and total phenolic compound (PC) accumulation were induced in both (non-inoculated and inoculated contexts. In inoculated context, a localized accumulation of H2O2 and PC at fungal penetration sites and a specific induction of phenylalanine ammonia-Lyase (PAL) enzymatic activity were observed. Moreover, our experiment exhibited some similarities and differences in both wheat species responses. GLUC and CAT activities and H2O2 accumulation were more responsive in DW leaves, while LOX and PAL activities and PC accumulation occurred earlier and to a stronger extent in BW leaves. The tested Oligos formulation showed an interesting resistance induction activity characterized by a high and stable efficiency whatever the wheat species, suggesting it integration in common control strategies against STB on both DW and BW. PMID:27141743

  5. MlAB10: a Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides derived powdery mildew resistance gene identified in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew is an economically important disease in wheat growing areas with a cool maritime environment. Host genetic resistance is the most economical, consistent, and environmentally sound method of control. NC97BGTAB10 is a germplasm line containing powdery mildew resistance introgressed fr...

  6. Genetic diversity for Russian wheat aphid resistance as determined by genome-wide association mapping and inheritance in progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is an increasing problem on barley throughout the world. Genetic resistance has been identified and used to create barley germplasm and cultivars adapted to the US. Several mapping studies have been conducted to identify loci associated with resistance, but questions remain...

  7. QTL Analysis of Pasta Quality using a Composite Microsatellite - SNP Map of Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow color, firmness and low cooking weight loss are important factors for the production of good-quality pasta products. However, the genetic factors underlying those traits are still poorly understood. To fill this gap we developed a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from th...

  8. Spaghetti from durum wheat: effect of drying conditions on heat damage, ultrastructure and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Stuknytė, Milda; Cattaneo, Stefano; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Marti, Alessandra; Micard, Valérie; Hogenboom, John; De Noni, Ivano

    2014-04-15

    The effects of low (LT) or high (HT) temperature drying on ultrastructural, molecular and in vitro digestibility properties of cooked spaghetti were studied. Starch swelling and denaturation/aggregation of proteins occurring at diverse stages, LT or HT drying and cooking, resulted in different in vitro digestibility of spaghetti. For the first time, these differences were assessed in terms of the release of free AA and simple sugars. Indeed, at the end of in vitro digestion, the total amount of released maltotriose, maltose and glucose significantly differentiated digestates of LT and HT spaghetti (12.6 and 15.9 g 100g⁻¹). In the same samples, diverse amounts (16.3 and 12.5 g 100g⁻¹ protein) of free amino acids were found. Chemical artifacts occurring at protein level impaired release of lysine in cooked HT spaghetti after in vitro digestion. These results increase the knowledge on digestibility of LT and HT cooked spaghetti. PMID:24295674

  9. The historical perspective of dryland agriculture: lessons learned from 10,000 years of wheat cultivation.

    PubMed

    Araus, J L; Ferrio, J P; Buxó, R; Voltas, J

    2007-01-01

    Wheat is one of the founder crops of Western agriculture. This study reconstructs agronomic conditions, potential yields, and kernel weight in the beginnings of cultivation of domesticated free-threshing wheat, c. 8000 BC. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions and the dimensions of fossil grains of naked wheat (Triticum aestivum/durum) were analysed. Samples were collected in Tell Halula and Akarçay Tepe, two Neolithic archaeological sites from the Middle Euphrates (the claimed core area for wheat domestication). The samples analysed include the oldest reported remains of naked wheat. Consistently wetter conditions but lower kernel weights were found in the Neolithic compared with the present day. Besides, the estimated yields were clearly beyond what is expected from the gathering of wild stands of cereals. Patterns of phenotypic adaptation achieved by wheat after its diffusion through the Mediterranean were also assessed. On the one hand, the study looked at variation in morphophysiological traits as related to local climate in a set of 68 durum wheat landraces from the Middle Euphrates. On the other hand, an assessment was made of regional adaptation around the Mediterranean Basin in a set of 90 landraces, traditional varieties, and modern cultivars from different origins by characterizing agronomic and morphophysiological variability. Significant relationships were observed between phenotypic variation among landraces from the Middle Euphrates and both minimum temperatures and the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration of the sites of origin. In addition, consistent differences in grain yield, plant structure, and water status were found among genotypes following both north-south and east-west gradients across the Mediterranean. These differences are associated with contrasting environmental and selection pressures. PMID:17050642

  10. Molecular characterization of a diagnostic DNA marker for domesticated tetraploid wheat provides evidence for gene flow from wild tetraploid wheat to hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Jan; Akhunov, Eduard D; Akhunov, Alina R; Deal, Karin R; Luo, Ming-Cheng

    2006-07-01

    All forms of domesticated tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum, genomes AABB) are nearly monomorphic for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) haplotype a at the Xpsr920 locus on chromosome 4A (Xpsr920-A1a), and wild tetraploid wheat is monomorphic for haplotype b. The Xpsr920-A1a/b dimorphism provides a molecular marker for domesticated and wild tetraploid wheat, respectively. Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD) is polymorphic for the 2 haplotypes. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones hybridizing with PSR920 were isolated from Triticum urartu (genomes AA), Triticum monococcum (genomes AmAm), and T. turgidum ssp. durum (genomes AABB) and sequenced. PSR920 is a fragment of a putative ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene (designated ABCT-1). The wheat ABCT-1 gene is more similar to the T. urartu gene than to the T. monococcum gene and diverged from the T. urartu gene about 0.7 MYA. The comparison of the sequence of the wheat A genome BAC clone with that of the T. urartu BAC clone provides the first insight into the microsynteny of the wheat A genome with that of T. urartu. Within 103 kb of orthologous intergenic space, 37 kb of new DNA has been inserted and 36 kb deleted leaving 49.7% of the region syntenic between the clones. The nucleotide substitution rate in the syntenic intergenic space has been 1.6 x 10(-8) nt(-1) year(-1), which is, respectively, 4 and 3 times as great as nucleotide substitution rates in the introns and the third codon positions of the juxtaposed gene. The RFLP is caused by a miniature inverted transposable element (MITE) insertion into intron 18 of the ABCT-A1 gene. Polymerase chain reaction primers were developed for the amplification of the MITE insertion site and its sequencing. The T. aestivum ABCT-A1a haplotype is identical to the haplotype of domesticated tetraploid wheat, and the ABCT-A1b haplotype is identical to that of wild tetraploid wheat. This finding shows for the first time that wild

  11. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored. PMID:24845051

  12. Resistance to recombinant stem rust race TPPKC in hard red spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Klindworth, D L; Miller, J D; Williams, N D; Xu, S S

    2011-08-01

    The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn.) resistance gene SrWld1 conditions resistance to all North American stem rust races and is an important gene in hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars. A sexually recombined race having virulence to SrWld1 was isolated in the 1980s. Our objective was to determine the genetics of resistance to the race. The recombinant race was tested with the set of stem rust differentials and with a set of 36 HRS and 6 durum cultivars. Chromosomal location studies in cultivars Len, Coteau, and Stoa were completed using aneuploid analysis, molecular markers, and allelism tests. Stem rust differential tests coded the race as TPPKC, indicating it differed from TPMKC by having added virulence on Sr30 as well as SrWld1. Genes effective against TPPKC were Sr6, Sr9a, Sr9b, Sr13, Sr24, Sr31, and Sr38. Genetic studies of resistance to TPPKC indicated that Len, Coteau, and Stoa likely carried Sr9b, that Coteau and Stoa carried Sr6, and Stoa carried Sr24. Tests of HRS and durum cultivars indicated that five HRS and one durum cultivar were susceptible to TPPKC. Susceptible HRS cultivars were postulated to have SrWld1 as their major stem rust resistance gene. Divide, the susceptible durum cultivar, was postulated to lack Sr13. We concluded that although TPPKC does not constitute a threat similar to TTKSK and its variants, some cultivars would be lost from production if TPPKC became established in the field. PMID:21573955

  13. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  14. An assessment of wheat breeding gains in hot environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdji, S. M.; Mathews, K.; Reynolds, M.; Crossa, J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wheat, a critical crop for ensuring global food security, has the lowest optimum temperatures among the major cereals, and is already grown in many heat stress areas, thereby increasing risks to production from a warming climate. Historical spring wheat trial data from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) was used to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and yield in major wheat-growing areas, assess the response to future warming, and identify different rates of genetic gains due to variety improvement across environments and breeding nurseries. Results were compared for two nurseries: 1) the Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT), which aims to improve yield potential under optimal environmental conditions, and 2) the Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), where improvements are targeted in semi-arid, rainfed environments, frequently subject to heat and water stress. Yields from 25 years of trial data were paired with reconstructed daily weather data in an empirical model with environmental variables averaged by growth stage. Temperature, radiation, day length and interaction terms between temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were all determined to be significant terms in the model. Results show a detrimental response to warming across all temperatures in the grain-filling, or final growth stage, particularly under low VPD/ humid conditions. A negative response to warming was also observed in the reproductive stage after ~14C, although high VPD conferred no additional benefit, perhaps due to a higher sensitivity and/or exposure to water stress during this period. A projected 2C season average warming was seen to have differential effects between ESWYT and SAWYT, with SAWYT germplasm less sensitive to warming up until ~21C, but an equally negative response to further warming for both nurseries. The regions where wheat is already grown under hot, and sometimes humid, conditions, particularly in south and south

  15. Crop yield and quality, weeds, insects, and water use of durum and selected brassicaceae oilseeds in two-year rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cool-season oilseeds are potential feedstock for biofuel production, but few studies have compared oilseed-durum (Triticum durum Desf.) rotations. We conducted a field trial under dryland conditions for 2007-2010 near Froid, Montana, comparing productivity, water balance, and key weed and arthropod...

  16. Construction and characterization of three wheat bacterial artificial chromosome libraries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjin; Fu, Bisheng; Wu, Kun; Li, Na; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Zhongxia; Lin, Musen; Li, Guoqiang; Wu, Xinyi; Ma, Zhengqiang; Jia, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Wangshuibai, germplasms T. monococcum TA2026 and TA2033. A total of 1,233,792,170,880 and 263,040 clones were picked and arrayed in 384-well plates. On the basis of genome sizes of 16.8 Gb for hexaploid wheat and 5.6 Gb for diploid wheat, the three libraries represented 9.05-, 2.60-, and 3.71-fold coverage of the haploid genomes, respectively. An improved descending pooling system for BAC libraries screening was established. This improved strategy can save 80% of the time and 68% of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the same successful rate as the universal 6D pooling strategy. PMID:25464379

  17. Construction and Characterization of Three Wheat Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenjin; Fu, Bisheng; Wu, Kun; Li, Na; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Zhongxia; Lin, Musen; Li, Guoqiang; Wu,  Xinyi; Ma, Zhengqiang; Jia, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Wangshuibai, germplasms T. monococcum TA2026 and TA2033. A total of 1,233,792,170,880 and 263,040 clones were picked and arrayed in 384-well plates. On the basis of genome sizes of 16.8 Gb for hexaploid wheat and 5.6 Gb for diploid wheat, the three libraries represented 9.05-, 2.60-, and 3.71-fold coverage of the haploid genomes, respectively. An improved descending pooling system for BAC libraries screening was established. This improved strategy can save 80% of the time and 68% of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the same successful rate as the universal 6D pooling strategy. PMID:25464379

  18. Alternatives to Honeybees for Pollinating Clover (Trifolium L.) Germplasm Accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our mission is to increase seed of perennial clover (Trifolium L.) species housed in the USDA, ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) germplasm collection. Each season we grow out 100-125 accessions of clover in Prosser, Washington. Historically, honeybees (Apis mellifera L) have been used as po...

  19. Notice of release of Fowler germplasm green needlegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fowler Germplasm is a new pre-variety germplasm release of green needlegrass developed by artificial selection from five local populations collected in southern Alberta. Selection emphasis was placed on seed yield and germinability. This plant material is expected to be used for restoration and wi...

  20. Citrullus Germplasm Lines Vary in Clomazone Herbicide Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences between Citrullus germplasm lines in clomazone injury were first observed when the herbicide was used for weed control in fields containing germplasm lines of watermelon breeding project at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC. The objectives of this investigation were to asses...

  1. Status of the USA cotton germplasm collection and crop vulnerability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) is a cooperative effort among State, Federal and Private organizations aimed at preserving one of agriculture’s greatest assets, plant genetic diversity. The NPGS serves the scientific community by collecting, storing, and distributing germplasm as well as ...

  2. RECOVERY OF EXOTIC ALLELES IN ENHANCED TROPICAL YELLOW GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancement of overall diversity levels and the incorporation of new favorable traits are major benefits of using exotic germplasm in elite breeding programs. Agronomic deficiencies and poor adaptation often limits use of exotic germplasm in plant breeding programs. To introgress exotic alleles into...

  3. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  4. Utilization of Pee Dee germplasm in upland cotton breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Pee Dee germplasm enhancement program was initiated in 1935. Although initially focused on developing Sea Island cultivars for the southeast US, the program’s long-term objective has been to develop high yielding Upland germplasm with Sea Island fiber properties. The foundation of the P...

  5. Recovery of Exotic Alleles in Enhanced Tropical Yellow Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancement of overall diversity levels and the incorporation of new favorable traits are major benefits of using exotic germplasm in elite breeding programs. Agronomic deficiencies and poor adaptation often limits use of exotic germplasm in plant breeding programs. To introgress exotic alleles into...

  6. Notice of release of Turkey Lake Germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey Lake Germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus) was released by USDA-Agricultural Research Service in 2015 as a selected class of pre-variety germplasm (natural track). This new plant material originates in Gooding County in southern Idaho's Snake River Plain....

  7. Notice of release of: 1)Majestic germplasm and 2) Spectrum germplasm western prairie clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two natural-track selected germplasms of western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright] [Fabaceae] have been released for use in revegetation of semiarid rangelands in the western USA. Western prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that occurs naturally in Idaho, ...

  8. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  9. Length variations of i-type low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in diploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Huang, Z; Wei, Y-M; Yan, Z-H; Ma, Z-C; Zheng, Y-L

    2008-04-01

    Allelic variation of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) is associated with the significant differences of dough quality in bread and durum wheat, and has been widely evaluated at protein level in wheat and its relatives. In this study, a PCR primer set, targeting the high variable repetitive domains, was employed to assay the length variation of i-type LMW-GS genes in the A-genomes of diploid wheats, the diploid progenitors of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. A total of 71 accessions of diploid wheats, belonging to two wild and one cultivated species, were investigated. The higher variations of repetitive length in i-type LMW-GS genes were found in diploid wheats with Nei's genetic variation index (H) of 0.834. The two wild species, T. boeoticum and T. urartu, were found to possess the similar degree of variability, with the Nei's genetic variation index of 0.806 and 0.783, respectively. Less variations were detected in T. monococcum (H = 0.680), a cultivated species domesticated from T. boeoticum. The sufficient variations found in this study could be used as valuable sources for the enrichment of the genetic variations and the alteration of flour-processing properties of the cultivated wheat. To our knowledge, it was the first time that an analysis of length variation targeting a particular group of genes of LMW-GS complex multigene families was conducted. PMID:18666554

  10. Genetic interactions between wheat and rye genomes in triticale : 1. Cytological results.

    PubMed

    Jung, C; Lelley, T; Röbbelen, G

    1985-07-01

    Six primary triticale lines were produced from two advanced breeding lines of Triticum durum and three inbred genotypes of Secale cereale. The wheat and rye parents and the triticale derivatives were crossed in all possible combinations within each species group. Chiasma and univalent frequency of parents and hybrids were determined. The primary triticale lines had more univalents and less chiasmata per pollen mother cell than the corresponding wheat and rye parents together. The parental wheat F1 exhibited negative heterosis for chiasma frequency whereas all rye hybrids had much higher chiasma frequencies than their inbred parents. Triticale F1s generally showed lower chiasma frequencies and more univalents than their parents, but the degree of pairing failure was dependent upon which of the parental species within the triticale, wheat or rye, was in the heterozygous state. F1s with heterozygous wheat genome only showed the least reduction in chiasma number (presumably caused by gene actions within the wheat genome), while F1s with heterozygous rye genome showed high reduction in chiasma frequency and an increase in pairing failure (induced by negative interactions between the heterozygous rye and the wheat genome in triticale). A high correlation was found between the frequency of undisturbed pollen mother cells and the frequency of aneuploids in the subsequent generation. A higher number of aneuploids occurred in those populations which were heterozygous for the rye genome. PMID:24253015

  11. Genetic control of seed proteins in wheat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, H S

    1977-09-01

    Electrophoretic profiles of crude protein extracts from seed of F1 hybrids and reciprocal crosses among diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats were compared with those of their respective parental species. The electrophoretic patterns within each of three pairs of reciprocal crosses, T.boeoticum X T.urartu, T.monococcun X T. urartu and T.dicoccum X T. araraticum, were different from one another but were identical with those of their respective maternal parents. Protein bands characteristic of the paternal parents were missing in F1 hybrid seed suggesting that the major seed proteins in wheat were presumably regulated by genotype of the maternal parent rather than by the seed genotype. However, in another three pairs of reciprocal crosses, T.boeoticum X T. durum, T.dicoccum X T.aestivum and T. zhukovskyi x T. aestivum, protein bands attributable to the paternal parents were present in the F1 hybrid seeds indicating that the seed proteins were not always exclusively regulated by the maternal genotype. The expression of paternal genomes is presumably determined by dosage and genetic affinity of the maternal and paternal genomes in the hybrid endosperm. The maternal regulation of seed protein content is probably accomplished through the maternal control over seed size. The seed protein quality may, however, depend upon the extent of expression of the paternal genome. PMID:24407840

  12. Analysis of TaALMT1 traces the transmission of aluminum resistance in cultivated common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Harsh; Ryan, Peter R; Raman, Rosy; Stodart, Benjamin J; Zhang, Kerong; Martin, Peter; Wood, Rachel; Sasaki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Mackay, Michael; Hebb, Diane M; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2008-02-01

    Allele diversities of four markers specific to intron three, exon four and promoter regions of the aluminum (Al) resistance gene of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) TaALMT1 were compared in 179 common wheat cultivars used in international wheat breeding programs. In wheat cultivars released during the last 93 years, six different promoter types were identified on the basis of allele size. A previous study showed that Al resistance was not associated with a particular coding allele for TaALMT1 but was correlated with blocks of repeated sequence upstream of the coding sequence. We verified the linkage between these promoter alleles and Al resistance in three doubled haploid and one intercross populations segregating for Al resistance. Molecular and pedigree analysis suggest that Al resistance in modern wheat germplasm is derived from several independent sources. Analysis of a population of 278 landraces and subspecies of wheat showed that most of the promoter alleles associated with Al resistance pre-existed in Europe, the Middle East and Asia prior to dispersal of cultivated germplasm around the world. Furthermore, several new promoter alleles were identified among the landraces surveyed. The TaALMT1 promoter alleles found within the spelt wheats were consistent with the hypothesis that these spelts arose on several independent occasions from hybridisations between non-free-threshing tetraploid wheats and Al-resistant hexaploid bread wheats. The strong correlation between Al resistance and Al-stimulated malate efflux from the root apices of 49 diverse wheat genotypes examined was consistent with the previous finding that Al resistance in wheat is conditioned primarily by malate efflux. These results demonstrate that the markers based on intron, exon and promoter regions of TaALMT1 can trace the inheritance of the Al resistance locus within wheat pedigrees and track Al resistance in breeding programmes. PMID:18046532

  13. ‘TAM 112’ Wheat, resistant to greenbug and wheat curl mite and adapted to the dryland production system in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘TAM 112’ (PI 643143), a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an F4 derived line from the cross U1254-7-9-2-1/TXGH10440. U1254-7-9-2 is a USDA-ARS germplasm line from the Plant Science and Entomology Research unit, Manhattan, Kansas. It was developed from the cross TAM 200/TA2460. TA24...

  14. Genetic transformation of wheat via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Caroline A; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    The method described involves an initial incubation of wheat immature embryos in a liquid culture of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain is engineered to contain a binary vector with a gene of interest and a selectable marker gene placed between the T-DNA borders; the T-DNA is the region transferred to the plant cells, thus harnessing the bacterium's natural ability to deliver specific DNA into host cells. Following the initial inoculation with the Agrobacterium, the embryos are co-cultivated for several days after which the Agrobacterium is selectively destroyed using an antibiotic. Tissue culture of the embryos on plant media with a correct balance of hormones allows embryogenic callus formation followed by regeneration of plantlets, and in the later stages of tissue culture a selectable marker (herbicide) is included to minimize the incidence of non-transformed plants. This protocol has been used successfully to generate transformed plants of a wide range of wheat varieties, both spring and winter bread wheats (T. aestivum L.) and durum wheats (T. turgidum L.). PMID:24243208

  15. Wheat Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is a chapter of a book entitled “Wheat: Chemistry and Technology”, the 4th edition, K. Khan and P.R. Shewry (eds.), to be published in 2007 following the 3rd edition, Y. Pomeranz (ed.), published in 1988 by AACC International Inc., St. Paul, MN. The chapter covers the subject area of wh...

  16. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve grain yield, biomass and photosynthesis across enviroinments in modern wheat.

    PubMed

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-10-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving drought resistance in domesticated wheat. Nevertheless, wild germplasm has not been widely used in wheat breeding for abiotic stress resilience. In the current study, a near isogenic line NIL-7A-B-2, introgressed with a drought-related QTL from wild emmer wheat on chromosome 7A, and its recurrent parent, bread wheat cv. BarNir, were investigated under four environments across 2 years-water-limited and well-watered conditions in a rain-protected screen-house (Year 1) and two commercial open field plots under ample precipitation (Year 2). NIL-7A-B-2 exhibited an advantage over BarNir in grain yield and biomass production under most environments. Further physiological analyses suggested that enhanced photosynthetic capacity and photochemistry combined with higher flag leaf area are among the factors underlying the improved productivity of NIL-7A-B-2. These were coupled with improved sink capacity in NIL-7A-B-2, manifested by greater yield components than its parental line. This study provides further support for our previous findings that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles, using marker assisted selection, can enhance grain yield and biomass production across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of yield and drought resistance. PMID:27593460

  17. August Weismann on germ-plasm variation.

    PubMed

    Winther, R G

    2001-01-01

    August Weismann is famous for having argued against the inheritance of acquired characters. However, an analysis of his work indicates that Weismann always held that changes in external conditions, acting during development, were the necessary causes of variation in the hereditary material. For much of his career he held that acquired germ-plasm variation was inherited. An irony, which is in tension with much of the standard twentieth-century history of biology, thus exists - Weismann was not a Weismannian. I distinguish three claims regarding the germ-plasm: (1) its continuity, (2) its morphological sequestration, and (3) its variational sequestration. With respect to changes in Weismann's views on the cause of variation, I divide his career into four stages. For each stage I analyze his beliefs on the relative importance of changes in external conditions and sexual reproduction as causes of variation in the hereditary material. Weissmann believed, and Weismannism denies, that variation, heredity, and development were deeply intertwined processes. This article is part of a larger project comparing commitments regarding variation during the latter half of the nineteenth century. PMID:11859887

  18. Association mapping of Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance in barley as a method to identify diversity in the National Small Grains Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) infestations of barley cause chlorotic leaf spotting and streaking, and prevent unrolling of leaves which traps spikes and reduces grain yield. Resistant accessions identified in the NSGC were used to develop adapted, resistant germplasm and cultivars. This study identified...

  19. Genotyping U.S. wheat germplasn for presence of stem rust resistance genes Sr2, Sr24, Sr26, Sr36 and Sr1RS-Am

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat germplasm from throughout the U.S. was surveyed for the stem rust resistance genes Sr2, Sr24, Sr26, Sr36 and the 1AL.1RS rye translocation that have conferred resistance to race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici identified in Uganda and Kenya. A collection of 804 cultivars and breeding ...

  20. Characterization of two adult-plant stripe rust resistance genes on chromosomes 3BS and 4BL in soft red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease of soft red winter wheat (SRWW) in the eastern U.S. However, very few resistance genes have been characterized in the SRWW germplasm pool. The SRWW line VA96W-270 is known to be resistant to stripe rust race P...

  1. 7 CFR 1413.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... wheat means all varieties of white (amber) durum wheat as defined in the U.S. Standards for Wheat (7 CFR part 810, subpart M) including, but not limited to, hard amber durum wheat and amber durum...

  2. REGISTRATION OF FIVE WHEAT ISOGENIC LINES FOR LEAF RUST AND STRIPE RUST RESISTANCE GENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We reported here the release of four germplasm lines of hard red spring (HRS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) [Yecora Rojo Yr36-GpcB1 (Reg. no. GP-793, PI 638740), Yecora Rojo Lr47 (Reg. No. GP-791, PI 638738), cERN Lr47 (Reg. No. GP-792, PI 638739), and Anza Lr37/Yr17/Sr38 (reg. No. GP-795, PI 638742)...

  3. Reaction of Trifolium repens Cultivars and Germplasms to Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Windham, G. L.; Pederson, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Ten cultivars and 13 germplasms of white clover (Trifolium repens) were evaluated in the greenhouse for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 4. One hundred plants of each cultivar or germplasm were rated for percentage of the root system galled (PRSG) at 60 days after inoculation with root-knot nematode eggs. Tillman (9%) and SRVR (19%) had the highest percentage of resistant plants (PRSG = 0 or 1 on a scale of 0-5 ) for the cultivars and germplasms, respectively. No resistant plants were selected from the cultivars California Ladino or Sacramento, or from the germplasms Brown Loam population or Brown Loam Synthetic #6. Resistant plants identified in this study were used to initiate are current selection program for resistance to M. incognita. PMID:19283168

  4. [The alien genetic variability for amelioration of wheat grain quality characteristics].

    PubMed

    Rybalka, O I

    2008-01-01

    The alien germplasm presented by different wild wheat relatives such as Ae. umbellulata (UU, 2n = 14), Ae. cylindrica (CCDD, 2n = 28), Ae. tauschii (DD, 2n = 14), Ae. ventricosa (DDUnUn, 2n = 28), Ae. variabilis (UUSS, 2n = 28), T. palmovae (AADD, 2n = 28) was involved into interspecific crosses with T. aestivum to produce transfers of exotic Gli/Glu-alleles to cultivated bread wheat varieties. The array of novel exotic Gli/Glu-alleles was introduced into cultivated wheat genome. Considerable negative as well as positive influence of some exotic alleles on bread-making quality characters or endosperm texture was observed. The original interspecific material with improved quality characteristics was recommended to be applied for wheat breeding. PMID:19140427

  5. Molecular characterization of patchouli (Pogostemon spp) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Sandes, S S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Bajay, M M; Batista, C E A; Brito, F A; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alvares-Carvalho, S V; Silva-Mann, R; Blank, A F

    2016-01-01

    Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] is an aromatic, herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves produce an essential oil regularly used by the perfume and cosmetics industries. However, since patchouli from the Philippines and India were described and named Pogostemon patchouli, there has been a divergence in the identity of these species. The objective of the current study was to study the genetic diversity of patchouli accessions in the Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Sergipe using microsatellite and inter simple sequence repeat markers. The results of both types of molecular markers showed that there are two well-defined clusters of accessions that harbor exclusive alleles. It was observed that these two clusters are genetically distant, suggesting that they belong to two different species. Based on the results, two accessions were classified as Pogostemon heyneanus and the remaining accessions were classified as P. cablin. PMID:26909987

  6. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  7. Efficient and transgene-free genome editing in wheat through transient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA or RNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Zong, Yuan; Wang, Yanpeng; Liu, Jinxing; Chen, Kunling; Qiu, Jin-Long; Gao, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    Editing plant genomes is technically challenging in hard-to-transform plants and usually involves transgenic intermediates, which causes regulatory concerns. Here we report two simple and efficient genome-editing methods in which plants are regenerated from callus cells transiently expressing CRISPR/Cas9 introduced as DNA or RNA. This transient expression-based genome-editing system is highly efficient and specific for producing transgene-free and homozygous wheat mutants in the T0 generation. We demonstrate our protocol to edit genes in hexaploid bread wheat and tetraploid durum wheat, and show that we are able to generate mutants with no detectable transgenes. Our methods may be applicable to other plant species, thus offering the potential to accelerate basic and applied plant genome-engineering research. PMID:27558837

  8. Efficient and transgene-free genome editing in wheat through transient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA or RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Zong, Yuan; Wang, Yanpeng; Liu, Jinxing; Chen, Kunling; Qiu, Jin-Long; Gao, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    Editing plant genomes is technically challenging in hard-to-transform plants and usually involves transgenic intermediates, which causes regulatory concerns. Here we report two simple and efficient genome-editing methods in which plants are regenerated from callus cells transiently expressing CRISPR/Cas9 introduced as DNA or RNA. This transient expression-based genome-editing system is highly efficient and specific for producing transgene-free and homozygous wheat mutants in the T0 generation. We demonstrate our protocol to edit genes in hexaploid bread wheat and tetraploid durum wheat, and show that we are able to generate mutants with no detectable transgenes. Our methods may be applicable to other plant species, thus offering the potential to accelerate basic and applied plant genome-engineering research. PMID:27558837

  9. Evolutionary Genomics of Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is the world’s largest and most important food crop for direct human consumption, therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understanding of wheat evolution and gene...

  10. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  11. Subcellular localization and responses of superoxide dismutase isoforms in local wheat varieties subjected to continuous soil drought.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Irada M; Aliyeva, Durna R; Aliyev, Jalal A

    2014-08-01

    Water is a key factor influencing the yield and quality of crops. One of the parameters of plant biological tolerance to constantly changing environmental conditions is the change of activities and numerous molecular forms of antioxidant enzymes. Two durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat varieties contrasting for drought tolerance, such as Barakatli-95 (drought tolerant) and Garagylchyg-2 (drought sensitive) were grown over a wide area in the field. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of soil drought on changes in activities and subcellular localization of superoxide dismutase isoforms. The levels of malondialdehyde, glycine betaine and total proteins were also analyzed. The level of the enzyme activity appeared to depend on the wheat varieties, duration of drought and stages of leaf development. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed the presence of 9 isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in wheat leaves during drought. Mn-SOD was found in the mitochondrial fractions, Fe-SOD in the chloroplast fraction and Cu/Zn-SOD is localized in all subcellular fractions. Wheat leaves contain three different isoforms of SOD (Mn-, Fe-, Cu/Zn-SOD). Three isoforms of Mn-SOD, one isoform of Fe-SOD and five of Cu/Zn-SOD were observed in wheat leaves using 3 mM KCN and 5 mM H2O2 as selective inhibitors. The expression of Mn-SOD was preferentially enhanced by drought stress. It seems that Mn-SOD isoforms more than SOD ones play a major role in the scavenging of superoxide radicals. The observed data showed that status of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD could provide a meaningful tool for depicting drought tolerance of wheat genotype. PMID:24560039

  12. Genetics of tan spot resistance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Faris, Justin D; Liu, Zhaohui; Xu, Steven S

    2013-09-01

    Tan spot is a devastating foliar disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Much has been learned during the past two decades about the genetics of wheat-P. tritici-repentis interactions. Research has shown that the fungus produces at least three host-selective toxins (HSTs), known as Ptr ToxA, Ptr ToxB, and Ptr ToxC, that interact directly or indirectly with the products of the dominant host genes Tsn1, Tsc2, and Tsc1, respectively. The recent cloning and characterization of Tsn1 provided strong evidence that the pathogen utilizes HSTs to subvert host resistance mechanisms to cause disease. However, in addition to host-HST interactions, broad-spectrum, race non-specific resistance QTLs and recessively inherited qualitative 'resistance' genes have been identified. Molecular markers suitable for marker-assisted selection against HST sensitivity genes and for race non-specific resistance QTLs have been developed and used to generate adapted germplasm with good levels of tan spot resistance. Future research is needed to identify novel HSTs and corresponding host sensitivity genes, determine if the recessively inherited resistance genes are HST insensitivities, extend the current race classification system to account for new HSTs, and determine the molecular basis of race non-specific resistance QTLs and their relationships with host-HST interactions at the molecular level. Necrotrophic pathogens such as P. tritici-repentis are likely to become increasingly significant under a changing global climate making it imperative to further characterize the wheat-P. tritici-repentis pathosystem and develop tan spot resistant wheat varieties. PMID:23884599

  13. Genetic diversity for grain nutrients in wild emmer wheat: potential for wheat improvement

    PubMed Central

    Chatzav, Merav; Peleg, Zvi; Ozturk, Levent; Yazici, Atilla; Fahima, Tzion; Cakmak, Ismail; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Micronutrient malnutrition, particularly zinc and iron deficiency, afflicts over three billion people worldwide due to low dietary intake. In the current study, wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides), the progenitor of domesticated wheat, was tested for (1) genetic diversity in grain nutrient concentrations, (2) associations among grain nutrients and their relationships with plant productivity, and (3) the association of grain nutrients with the eco-geographical origin of wild emmer accessions. Methods A total of 154 genotypes, including wild emmer accessions from across the Near Eastern Fertile Crescent and diverse wheat cultivars, were characterized in this 2-year field study for grain protein, micronutrient (zinc, iron, copper and manganese) and macronutrient (calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur) concentrations. Key Results Wide genetic diversity was found among the wild emmer accessions for all grain nutrients. The concentrations of grain zinc, iron and protein in wild accessions were about two-fold greater than in the domesticated genotypes. Concentrations of these compounds were positively correlated with one another, with no clear association with plant productivity, suggesting that all three nutrients can be improved concurrently with no yield penalty. A subset of 12 populations revealed significant genetic variation between and within populations for all minerals. Association between soil characteristics at the site of collection and grain nutrient concentrations showed negative associations between soil clay content and grain protein and between soil-extractable zinc and grain zinc, the latter suggesting that the greatest potential for grain nutrient minerals lies in populations from micronutrient-deficient soils. Conclusions Wild emmer wheat germplasm offers unique opportunities to exploit favourable alleles for grain nutrient properties that were excluded from the domesticated wheat gene pool. PMID

  14. Elemental mapping of biofortified wheat grains using micro X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, I.; Pataco, I. M.; Mourinho, M. P.; Lidon, F.; Reboredo, F.; Pessoa, M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.; Santos, J. P.; Guerra, M.

    2016-06-01

    Micro X-ray fluorescence has been used to obtain elemental maps of biofortified wheat grains. Two varieties of wheat were used in the study, Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum desf. Two treatments, with different nutrient concentration, were applied to the plants during the whole plant growth cycle. From the obtained elemental maps it was possible to extract information regarding the plant's physiological processes under the biofortification procedures. Both macro and micronutrients were mapped, providing useful insight into the posterior food processing mechanisms of this biofortified staple food. We have also shown that these kind of studies can now be performed with laboratory benchtop apparatus, rather than using synchrotron radiation, increasing the overall attractiveness of micro X-ray fluorescence in the study of highly heterogeneous biological samples.

  15. Delineating the role of polyphenol oxidase in the darkening of alkaline wheat noodles.

    PubMed

    Fuerst, E Patrick; Anderson, James V; Morris, Craig F

    2006-03-22

    This study evaluated the effects of inhibitors on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, the effect of the PPO inhibitor tropolone on noodle darkening, and the correlation of PPO activity with darkening of alkaline noodles. The PPO inhibitors tropolone and salicylhydroxamic acid (each at 1 microM) reduced kernel PPO activity by approximately 50% in three hexaploid wheat cultivars but did not inhibit PPO activity in the two very low PPO cultivars, durum Langdon, and the synthetic hexaploid-derived ID580. Tropolone (100 microg/g flour) inhibited alkaline noodle darkening (deltaL*) by 13-25% in the low PPO wheat cultivar, ID377s, and by 39-54% in the high PPO wheat cultivar, Klasic. Alkaline noodle darkening among 502 wheat samples was correlated with kernel PPO activity (r = 0.64). Results substantiate the hypothesis that PPO plays a major role in darkening of alkaline noodles. However, results also indicate that substantial darkening would occur even at zero PPO activity, as measured in the kernel PPO assay. Therefore, darkening of alkaline noodles is probably due to the cultivar-specific level of PPO activity and the presence of at least one additional darkening mechanism. Further investigation is required to identify the phenolic discoloration agent(s) and to determine the potential roles of non-PPO discoloration mechanisms, both enzymatic and nonenzymatic, in wheat products. PMID:16536622

  16. Molecular organization and comparative analysis of chromosome 5B of the wild wheat ancestor Triticum dicoccoides

    PubMed Central

    Ani Akpinar, Bala; Yuce, Meral; Lucas, Stuart; Vrána, Jan; Burešová, Veronika; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is the wild relative of Triticum turgidum, the progenitor of durum and bread wheat, and maintains a rich allelic diversity among its wild populations. The lack of adequate genetic and genomic resources, however, restricts its exploitation in wheat improvement. Here, we report next-generation sequencing of the flow-sorted chromosome 5B of T. dicoccoides to shed light into its genome structure, function and organization by exploring the repetitive elements, protein-encoding genes and putative microRNA and tRNA coding sequences. Comparative analyses with its counterparts in modern and wild wheats suggest clues into the B-genome evolution. Syntenic relationships of chromosome 5B with the model grasses can facilitate further efforts for fine-mapping of traits of interest. Mapping of 5B sequences onto the root transcriptomes of two additional T. dicoccoides genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerances, revealed several thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 584 shared polymorphisms on 228 transcripts were specific to the drought-tolerant genotype. To our knowledge, this study presents the largest genomics resource currently available for T. dicoccoides, which, we believe, will encourage the exploitation of its genetic and genomic potential for wheat improvement to meet the increasing demand to feed the world. PMID:26084265

  17. Molecular basis of adaptation to high soil boron in wheat landraces and elite cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pallotta, Margaret; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hay, Alison; Baumann, Ute; Paull, Jeff; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Environmental constraints severely restrict crop yields in most production environments, and expanding the use of variation will underpin future progress in breeding. In semi-arid environments boron toxicity constrains productivity, and genetic improvement is the only effective strategy for addressing the problem. Wheat breeders have sought and used available genetic diversity from landraces to maintain yield in these environments; however, the identity of the genes at the major tolerance loci was unknown. Here we describe the identification of near-identical, root-specific boron transporter genes underlying the two major-effect quantitative trait loci for boron tolerance in wheat, Bo1 and Bo4 (ref. 2). We show that tolerance to a high concentration of boron is associated with multiple genomic changes including tetraploid introgression, dispersed gene duplication, and variation in gene structure and transcript level. An allelic series was identified from a panel of bread and durum wheat cultivars and landraces originating from diverse agronomic zones. Our results demonstrate that, during selection, breeders have matched functionally different boron tolerance alleles to specific environments. The characterization of boron tolerance in wheat illustrates the power of the new wheat genomic resources to define key adaptive processes that have underpinned crop improvement. PMID:25043042

  18. Scarlet-Rz1, an EMS-generated hexaploid wheat with tolerance to the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Okubara, Patricia Ann; Steber, Camille M; Demacon, Victor L; Walter, Nathalie L; Paulitz, Timothy C; Kidwell, Kimberlee K

    2009-07-01

    The necrotrophic root pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae cause Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, yield-limiting diseases that pose barriers to the adoption of conservation tillage in wheat production systems. Existing control practices are only partially effective, and natural genetic resistance to Rhizoctonia has not been identified in wheat or its close relatives. We report the first genetic resistance/tolerance to R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) germplasm 'Scarlet-Rz1'. Scarlet-Rz1 was derived from the allohexaploid spring wheat cultivar Scarlet using EMS mutagenesis. Tolerant seedlings displayed substantial root and shoot growth after 14 days in the presence of 100-400 propagules per gram soil of R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in greenhouse assays. BC(2)F(4) individuals of Scarlet-Rz1 showed a high and consistent degree of tolerance. Seedling tolerance was transmissible and appeared to be dominant or co-dominant. Scarlet-Rz1 is a promising genetic resource for developing Rhizoctonia-tolerant wheat cultivars because the tolerance trait immediately can be deployed into wheat breeding germplasm through cross-hybridization, thereby avoiding difficulties with transfer from secondary or tertiary relatives as well as constraints associated with genetically modified plants. Our findings also demonstrate the utility of chemical mutagenesis for generating tolerance to necrotrophic pathogens in allohexaploid wheat. PMID:19407984

  19. Production and Identification of Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 2P Translocation Lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Lv, Mingjie; Song, Liqiang; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Li, Lihui; Liu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits that can be transferred to common wheat through breeding programs. The wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and translocation lines can be used as bridge materials to introduce alien chromosomal segments to wheat. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 was highly resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust, which was reported in our previous study. However, some translocation lines induced from II-9-3 have not been reported. In this study, some translocation lines were induced from II-9-3 by 60Co-γ irradiation and gametocidal chromosome 2C and then identified by cytological methods. Forty-nine wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines were obtained and various translcoation types were identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), such as whole-arm, segmental and intercalary translocations. Dual-color FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) was applied to identify the wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations, and the results showed that A. cristatum 2P chromosome segments were translocated to the different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 3B, 5B, 7B, 1D, 4D and 6D. Many different types of wheat-A. cristatum alien translocation lines would be valuable for not only identifying and cloning A. cristatum 2P-related genes and understanding the genetics and breeding effects of the translocation between A. cristatum chromosome 2P and wheat chromosomes, but also providing new germplasm resources for the wheat genetic improvement. PMID:26731742

  20. Production and identification of wheat - Agropyron cristatum (1.4P) alien translocation lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luan, Yang; Wang, Jing-Chang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Jun-Ji; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Ai-Nong; Li, Li-Hui

    2010-06-01

    The P genome of Agropyron Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, contains an abundance of desirable genes that can be utilized as genetic resources to improve wheat. In this study, wheat - Aegilops cylindrica Host gametocidal chromosome 2C addition lines were crossed with wheat - Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. disomic addition line accession II-21 with alien recombinant chromosome (1.4)P. We successfully induced wheat - A. cristatum alien chromosomal translocations for the first time. The frequency of translocation in the progeny was 3.75%, which was detected by molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The translocation chromosomes were identified by dual-color GISH /fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The P genomic DNA was used as probe to detect the (1.4)P chromosome fragment, and pHvG39, pAs1, or pSc119.2 repeated sequences were used as probes to identify wheat translocated chromosomes. The results showed that six types of translocations were identified in the three wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines, including the whole arm or terminal portion of a (1.4)P chromosome. The (1.4)P chromosome fragments were translocated to wheat chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5B, and 3D. The breakpoints were located at the centromeres of 1B and 2B, the pericentric locations of 5BS, and the terminals of 5BL and 3DS. In addition, we obtained 12 addition-deletion lines that contained alien A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P in wheat background. All of these wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines and addition-deletion lines would be valuable for identifying A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P-related genes and providing genetic resources and new germplasm accessions for the genetic improvement of wheat. The specific molecular markers of A. cristatum (1.4)P chromosome have been developed and used to track the (1.4)P chromatin. PMID:20555436