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Sample records for dust mite-specific ige

  1. Retrospective Analysis on the Effects of House Dust Mite Specific Immunotherapy for More Than 3 Years in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungsoo; Lee, Hemin; Noh, Seongmin; Bae, Byung Gi; Shin, Jung U; Park, Chang Ook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In extrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD), house dust mites (HDM) play a role in eliciting or aggravating allergic lesions. The nature of skin inflammation in AD has raised a growing interest in allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). Thus, we assessed clinical improvement and laboratory parameters for evaluation of the benefit of long-term SIT. Materials and Methods A total of 217 AD patients who were treated with SIT for at least 3 years were retrospectively assessed, by using their investigator global assessment, pruritus scores, loss of sleep (LOS), total serum IgE, and eosinophil counts collected. Patients were additionally classified into subgroups according to age, initial AD severity and mono- or multi-sensitization to include different individual factors in the evaluation of SIT efficacy. Lastly, we compared laboratory data of good responders to SIT with that of poor responders to SIT. Results Improvement after SIT therapy was observed in 192 out of 217 patients (88.4%). Among these patients, 138 (63.5%) achieved excellent, near-complete or complete clinical remission. Significant reduction of pruritus, LOS, and the mean value of total serum IgE were observed (p<0.01). Better outcome was found in patients younger than 12 years of age (p=0.024). Patients with moderate to severe AD showed better treatment outcomes (p=0.036). Patients sensitized only to HDM had the better response to treatment, but SIT was also effective in multi-sensitized groups (p=1.051). No significant differences in baseline laboratory results were observed between good and poor responders (p>0.05). Conclusion We emphasize the usefulness of long-term HDM SIT as a disease-modifying therapy for AD. PMID:26847292

  2. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  3. The Prevalence of Serum Specific IgE to Superantigens in Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Nan; Shin, Yoo Seob; Yoo, Hye-Soo; Nam, Young Hee; Jin, Hyun Jung; Ye, Young-Min; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterium present in upper respiratory tract, and the toxins it produced are involved in allergic inflammation pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of IgE in association with staphylococcal superantigens in allergic asthma with rhinitis (BAwAR) and allergic rhinitis alone (AR). We recruited 100 patients with BAwAR (group I), 100 patients with AR (group II), and 88 healthy controls (group III). Patients were clinically diagnosed by physicians, and were sensitized to house dust mites. Specific IgE antibodies to staphylococcal superantigen A (SEA), B (SEB), and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) were measured using the ImmunoCAP system. Other clinical parameters were retrospectively analyzed. All specific IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 were detected most frequently in group I (22%, 21%, and 27%), followed by group II (11%, 14%, and 21%) and group III (4.5%, 3.4%, and 2.3%). Absolute values of serum specific IgE to SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 were also significantly higher in group I (0.300±1.533 kU/L, 0.663±2.933 kU/L, and 0.581±1.931 kU/L) and group II (0.502±2.011 kU/L, 0.695±3.337 kU/L, and 1.067±4.688 kU/L) compared to those in group III (0.03±0.133 kU/L, 0.03±0.14 kU/L, and 0.028±0.112 kU/L). The prevalence of serum specific IgE to SEA was significantly higher in group I compared to group II (P=0.025). Blood eosinophil counts were significantly higher in patients with specific IgE to SEA or SEB, and higher serum levels of specific IgE to house dust mites were noted in patients with specific IgE to TSST-1. In conclusion, the present study suggested that IgE responses to staphylococcal superantigens are prevalent in the sera of both BAwAR and AR patients. This may contribute to an augmented IgE response to indoor allergens and eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24843803

  4. Lack of cross-reactivity between the Bacillus thuringiensis derived protein Cry1F in maize grain and dust mite Der p7 protein with human sera positive for Der p7-IgE.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bardina, Luda; Cressman, Robert F; Mattsson, Joel L; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-03-01

    Cry1F protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is effective at controlling lepidopteran pests and a synthetic Cry1F transgene was transferred into maize. For the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops, the allergenic potential of the introduced novel trait(s) is evaluated. Because no single parameter is currently predictive of allergic potential, a 'weight of evidence' approach has been proposed. As part of this assessment, the amino acid (aa) sequence of the Cry1F protein was compared to a database of known allergens using recommended criteria. The Cry1F protein did not show significant similarity or a match of eight contiguous identical aa with any allergen. However, a single six contiguous aa match was identified between Cry1F and the Der p7 protein of the dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. To investigate whether Cry1F was cross-reactive with Der p7, sera from 10 dust mite allergic patients containing Der p 7-specific IgE antibody were used to compare IgE-specific binding. No evidence of cross-reactivity was observed between Cry1F and Der p7. This study provides in vitro IgE sera screening data, that when considered in the context of other bioinformatic data [Hileman R.E., Silvanovich, A., Goodman R.E., Rice E.A., Holleschak G., Astwood J.D., Hefle S.L., 2002. Bioinformatic methods for allergenicity assessment using a comprehensive allergen database. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 128, 280-291; Stadler, M.B., Stadler, B.M., 2003. Allergenicity prediction by protein sequence. FASEB J. 17, 1141-1143.], adds further evidence arguing against the use of a six contiguous identical amino acid search to identify potential cross-reactive allergens. Cry1F is heat labile, rapidly hydrolyzed in an in vitro pepsin resistance assay, not glycosylated and not from an allergenic source. Taken together, these data indicate a lack of allergenic concern for Cry1F. PMID:16406630

  5. IgE immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Debra H; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gould, Hannah J; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    The importance of antibodies in activating immune responses against tumors is now better appreciated with the emergence of checkpoint blockade antibodies and with engineered antibody Fc domains featuring enhanced capacity to focus potent effector cells against cancer cells. Antibodies designed with Fc regions of the IgE class can confer natural, potent, long-lived immune surveillance in tissues through tenacious engagement of high-affinity cognate Fc receptors on distinct, often tumor-resident immune effector cells, and through ability to activate these cells under tumor-induced Th2-biased conditions. Here, we review the properties that make IgE a contributor to the allergic response and a critical player in the protection against parasites, which also support IgE as a novel anti-cancer modality. We discuss IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches in disparate in vitro and in vivo model systems, collectively suggesting the potential of IgE immunotherapies in oncology. Translation toward clinical application is now in progress. PMID:24423620

  6. Mathematics Instruction in IGE and Non-IGE Schools. Working Paper 317. Report from the IGE Evaluation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This report summarizes the data from a comparative study of grades 2 and 5 mathematics instruction and the use of Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP) in IGE and non-IGE settings. These results are part of a five-phase evaluation of the IGE system of elementary schooling. Use of DMP and reported adoption of IGE were not found to be good…

  7. Modification of the late asthmatic reaction by hyposensitization in asthmatic children allergic to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) or grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Van Bever, H P; Bosmans, J; De Clerck, L S; Stevens, W J

    1988-07-01

    The frequency and severity of the late asthmatic reaction (LAR) was studied in asthmatic children allergic to house dust mite (HDM) or grass pollen (GP) with and without hyposensitization (HS). The four groups were comparable according to their severity of asthma. All children were allergic to HDM (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) or GP according to history, skin testing and specific IgE determination via the RAST. The LAR occurred less frequently (29% versus 73%) (P less than 0.001) and was less severe in children receiving HS. The difference was significant between the children allergic to HDM as well as between children allergic to GP. The immediate asthmatic reaction (IAR) was also less severe in children allergic to HDM who received HS, compared to those who never received HS, (P = 0.033) although the PD20 of the HDM challenge (PD20HDM) was not different between the two groups. In children allergic to GP, there was no difference in PD20 of the GP challenge (PD20GP) or in severity of the IAR, whether the children received HS or not. There was no difference between the PD20HDM in patients who developed a LAR and in patients who did not. There was no relation between the type of asthmatic reaction following the allergen provocation test and the level of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and the level of house dust mite-specific IgG (IgGHDM) or grass pollen-specific IgE (IgGGP) in the different groups, determined before the challenge. There was a decrease in the level of IgG containing CIC (IgGCIC) during the LAR. It is concluded that the LAR occurs less frequently and is less severe in asthmatic children who receive HS. PMID:3414914

  8. IgE ELISA using antisera derived from epsilon chain antigenic peptides detects allergen-specific IgE in allergic horses.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Warren V; Pettigrew, Howard D; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2003-05-12

    Equine disease with an allergic etiology is common. Environmental antigens most often implicated as allergens in horses include molds, dusty hay, grass pollen, hay dust mites, and insect saliva. Although intradermal testing with allergen is a useful diagnostic tool for some species, skin testing frequently produces false positive results in horses. Allergen deprivation as a diagnostic tool is often impossible and at best it is ineffective at diagnosing the specific allergic reactivity. Synthesis of IgE after exposure to allergen is the instigator of the allergic process. While IgE exerts its effect after binding strongly to mast cell Fc receptors, the presence of free IgE in the serum can be used to quantify and determine the allergen specificity of the allergic disease. A lack of widely available reagents for detection of equine IgE has limited this approach in horses. We have used the nucleotide sequence of equine IgE to prepare a peptide-based immunogen to elicit equine epsilon chain-specific antisera. Selection of peptides was based on antigenic attributes of the deduced amino acid sequence of the equine epsilon chain. Six peptides were selected for conjugation to carrier molecules and rabbit immunization. Of these, one peptide elicited antisera that was successfully used in enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to screen horse serum from 64 allergic horses for allergen-specific IgE. Twenty-four of the 64 horses showed positive reactivity to one or more of the following allergens: grass, grain mill dust, mosquito, and horsefly. This study demonstrates the usefulness of peptide-based immunogens for development of antisera to rare or difficult to purify antigens such as IgE. Resultant antisera has great usefulness in diagnostic assays for equine allergy and as a research tool. PMID:12730014

  9. Domestic exposure to fungi and total serum IgE levels in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Su, Huey-Jen Jenny; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lei, Huan-Yao; Wang, Jiu-Yao

    2005-08-14

    We measured the number of airborne, viable fungi and house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in the homes of a group of asthmatic children. Blood samples were drawn and the amounts of total and specific serum IgE were determined. The association between the number of fungal colonies, dust mite allergen exposure, and specific and total IgE was evaluated. The number of viable airborne fungi was high (20,543 CFU/m(3)) in those investigated houses. Der p1 concentrations on child's mattress exceeding 2 microg/g were found in 78.6% of the houses. A quantitative dose-response relationship was demonstrated between the exposure to viable, airborne molds and the amount of total IgE (r = 0.4399 and P = .0249) and the level was further increased in children with coexposure to viable fungi and HDM. PMID:16106103

  10. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  11. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on IgE antibody responses in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Terr, A.I.; Moss, R.B.; Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Thirteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and nephritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation because of severe disease refractory to other forms of treatment. Serum samples before and after irradiation were tested for changes in total serum IgE and for changes in specific IgE antibodies to ryegrass pollen, dust mite, cat dander, and Alternaria. There were no statistically significant changes in total or specific IgE from lymphoid irradiation in these patients. The therapy caused a significant decrease in circulating total lymphocyte and Leu-3 (helper/inducer) T-lymphocyte counts. Therefore, reduction in circulating levels of helper/inducer T cells does not appear to influence preexisting levels of IgE antibodies.

  12. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L.; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, though the clinically-related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in helminth-infected population, we performed Immunocap™ tests in filarial-infected and non-infected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins and IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologues were performed. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and non-homologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of Immunocap™ identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologues in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologues in helminths. Mice infected with helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologues in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and brings a new perspective to the Hygiene Hypothesis. PMID:25404363

  13. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis." PMID:25404363

  14. Soluble IgE receptors – elements of the IgE network

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Ruiter, Floortje; van der Mee, John; Fiebiger, Edda

    2011-01-01

    Soluble isoforms of three human IgE Fc receptors, namely FcεRI, FcεRII and galectin-3, can be found in serum. These soluble IgE receptors are a diverse family of proteins unified by the characteristic of interacting with IgE in the extracellular matrix. A truncated form of the alpha-chain of FcεRI, the high affinity IgE receptor, has recently been described as a soluble isoform (sFcεRI). Multiple soluble isoforms of CD23 (sCD23), the low affinity IgE receptor also known as FcεRII, are generated via different mechanisms of extracellular and intracellular proteolysis. The second low affinity IgE receptor, galectin-3, only exists as a secretory protein. We here discuss the physiological roles of these three soluble IgE receptors as elements of the human IgE network. Additionally, we review the potential and current use of sFcεRI, sCD23 and galectin-3 as biomarkers in human disease. PMID:21920387

  15. Role of IgE in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Miguel A; Sagar, Divya; Kolbeck, Roland

    2016-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that IgE plays a significant role in autoimmunity. The presence of circulating self-reactive IgE in patients with autoimmune disorders has been long known but, at the same time, largely understudied. However, studies have shown that the increased IgE concentration is not associated with higher prevalence for atopy and allergy in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. IgE-mediated mechanisms are conventionally known to facilitate degranulation of mast cells and basophils and promote TH2 immunity, mechanisms that are not only central to mounting an appropriate defense against parasitic worms, noxious substances, toxins, venoms, and environmental irritants but that also trigger exuberant allergic reactions in patients with allergies. More recently, IgE autoantibodies have been recognized to participate in the self-inflicted damaging immune responses that characterize autoimmunity. Such autoimmune responses include direct damage on tissue-containing autoantigens, activation and migration of basophils to lymph nodes, and, as observed most recently, induction of type 1 interferon responses from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The importance of IgE as a central pathogenic mechanism in autoimmunity has now been clinically validated by the approval of omalizumab, an anti-IgE mAb, for patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and for the clinical benefit of patients with bullous pemphigoid. In this review we summarize recent reports describing the prevalence of self-reactive IgE and discuss novel findings that incriminate IgE as central in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune disorders. PMID:27264000

  16. IgE responses in mouse and man and the persistence of IgE memory.

    PubMed

    Gould, Hannah J; Ramadani, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and robust recall or 'memory' responses are an essential feature of adaptive immunity. They constitute a defense against reinfection by pathogens, yet arguably do more harm than good in allergic disease. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibodies mediate the allergic reaction characterized by immediate hypersensitivity, a manifestation of IgE memory. The origin of IgE memory remains obscure, mainly due to the low proportion of IgE-expressing B cells in the total B cell population. The recent development of ultrasensitive methods for tracking these cells in vivo has overcome this obstacle, and their use has revealed unexpected pathways to IgE memory in the mouse. Here, we review these findings and consider their bearing on our understanding of IgE memory and allergic disease in man. PMID:25499855

  17. IGES transformer and NURBS in grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.

    1993-01-01

    In the field of Grid Generation and the CAD/CAM, there are numerous geometry output formats which require the designer to spend a great deal of time manipulating geometrical entities in order to achieve a useful sculptured geometrical description for grid generation. Also in this process, there is a danger of losing fidelity of the geometry under consideration. This stresses the importance of a standard geometry definition for the communication link between varying CAD/CAM and grid system. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file is a widely used communication between CAD/CAM and the analysis tools. The scientists at NASA Research Centers - including NASA Ames, NASA Langley, NASA Lewis, NASA Marshall - have recognized this importance and, therefore, in 1992 they formed the committee of the 'NASA-IGES' which is the subset of the standard IGES. This committee stresses the importance and encourages the CFD community to use the standard IGES file for the interface between the CAD/CAM and CFD analysis. Also, two of the IGES entities -- the NURBS Curve (Entity 126) and NURBS Surface (Entity 128) -- which have many useful geometric properties -- like the convex hull property, local control property and affine invariance, also widely utilized analytical geometries can be accurately represented using NURBS. This is important in today grid generation tools because of the emphasis of the interactive design. To satisfy the geometry transformation between the CAD/CAM system and Grid Generation field, the CAGI (Computer Aided Geometry Design) developed, which include the Geometry Transformation, Geometry Manipulation and Geometry Generation as well as the user interface. This paper will present the successful development IGES file transformer and application of NURBS definition in the grid generation.

  18. Primary Immunodeficiencies with Elevated IgE.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Trine H

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a number of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) characterized by elevated Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels have been uncovered and termed as Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). In addition to the elevated levels of IgE, patients with these PIDs display a spectrum of infections by staphylococci and fungi, and in some cases viruses, particularly affecting skin and lungs. Most of these PIDs also have a non-infectious phenotype, comprising musculoskeletal, vascular, and neurological abnormalities. The genetic basis for the majority of conditions with elevated IgE has now been established and includes mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, TYK2, and most recently PGM3 molecules. However, in some patients with the relevant phenotype, mutations in these molecules are not identified, suggesting additional genetic etiologies of HIES not yet discovered. As the immunological and molecular basis of HIES is being unraveled, important insights are emerging that may have implications for our understanding of basic principles of immunology and protective immunity as well as for the pathogenesis and clinical management of patients with these complex and challenging PIDs. In this review, are presented the current knowledge on the clinical presentation, infectious phenotype, and the genetic and immunological pathogenesis of hyper-IgE syndromes as well as some other PIDs with elevated levels of IgE. PMID:25970001

  19. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Catharina; Lupinek, Christian; Lundeberg, Lena; Crameri, Reto; Valenta, Rudolf; Scheynius, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors. Aim To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens. Methodology Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53) and moderate AD (n = 126). As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins. Results IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1) and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10), to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD. Conclusion We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD. PMID:27228091

  20. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy. PMID:24592267

  1. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy. PMID:24592267

  2. Combined effect of smoking habits and occupational exposure to hard metal on total IgE antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, T.; Kusaka, Y.; Morimoto, K. )

    1992-06-01

    A survey was made within a population of workers (n = 706) exposed to hard metal dust (an alloy including cobalt), an agent known to cause occupational allergy. Twenty-seven (4 percent) of 733 workers were eliminated from consideration in this study because of atopic status identified prior to starting work in the plant. Using a Phadebas PRIST, the subjects' total IgE levels were determined and related to their smoking and exposure status. Nonexposed male smokers (n = 135) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (39.7 IU/ml) than did nonexposed subjects who had never smoked (33.1 IU/ml; n = 99); those with a higher Brinkman index (greater than 300), a smoking index obtained by multiplying the number of cigarettes per day by the duration of smoking in years, had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased IgE levels. Although ex-smokers (n = 72) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (73.3 IU/ml) than did those who had never smoked, their serum IgE level declined with age since the time they quit smoking, regardless of their hard metal exposure status. Hard metal (cobalt) exposure may play a significant role as an adjuvant in the production of total IgE. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that hard metal exposure and a smoking habit together arithmetically (p less than 0.05) increased total IgE levels. These two factors may be preventable risk factors for occupational allergy in hard metal workers.

  3. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E Expression Pattern in Lung: Relation to Systemic IgE and Asthma Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Balzar, Silvana; Strand, Matthew; Rhodes, Diane; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated responses contribute to allergy and asthma. Little is understood regarding the relationship of tissue IgE to systemic IgE, inflammation or clinical outcomes. Objectives: To evaluate local IgE expression and cellular inflammation in proximal and distal lung of normal subjects and subjects with asthma of varying severity and relate those tissue parameters to systemic IgE levels, atopy, lung function and history of severe exacerbations of asthma. Methods: Tissue from over 90 subjects with eosinophilic (SAeo+) and non-eosinophilic (SAeo−) severe asthma, mild asthma and normal subjects were immunostained for IgE, signal-amplifying isoform of IgE receptor (FcεRIβ) and markers of mast cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes. Tissue expression of IgE, FcεRIβ, cellular inflammation, serum IgE and atopy were compared. Regression models were used to determine the relationship of local and systemic IgE to lung function and severe exacerbations of asthma. Results: Mast cell-bound IgE was present along airways, but absent in lung parenchyma. While the groups were similar in systemic/serum IgE and atopy, local/tissue IgE was highest in SAeo+ and correlated with eosinophils and lymphocytes (rs=0.52; p<0.0001 and rs=0.23; p=0.03, respectively). Higher local IgE was associated with better lung function, but also with more severe exacerbations of asthma. Conclusion: Local IgE appears to be primarily a component of responses within the mucosal immune compartment and is related to cellular inflammation, lung function and clinical outcomes in asthma. Clinical Implications: Local/airway IgE-related processes rather than systemic markers of atopy may be relevant in determining clinical outcomes in asthma. Capsule Summary: The study reports mucosal distribution of mast cell-bound IgE in human lung and suggests that local IgE and related responses rather than systemic/serum IgE and atopy are more relevant in determining clinical outcomes in

  4. An extended study of seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis simplex IgE antibodies in Norwegian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lin, A H; Nepstad, I; Florvaag, E; Egaas, E; Van Do, T

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, cases of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex infection and allergy in human have increased in countries with high fish consumption. Our aim was to perform an extended seroprevalence study of anti-IgE antibodies against this parasite in Norway, one of the high fish-consuming countries. At the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, two main groups of anonymized serum samples were collected; the first (n = 993) from recently recruited blood donors (designated 'BDO') and the second (n = 414) from patient with total IgE levels ≥1000 kU/l (designated 'IGE+'). The sera were analysed by the ImmunoCAP(®) method for total IgE and IgE antibodies against A. simplex, house dust mite (HDM), shrimp, cod, crab, brine shrimp and shrimp tropomyosin. The A. simplex positive sera were further tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, which uses 2 recombinant (r) major allergens, rAni s 1 and rAni s 7 as target antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting analyses were also performed. Whereas the prevalences by ImmunoCAP(®) were 0.4% and 16.2% in the BDO and IGE+ groups, respectively, analyses with recombinant allergens showed only 0.0% and 0.2%. Cross-reactivity and immunoblotting analyses suggested that most of the ImmunoCAP(®) positive sera were probably false-positive due to cross-sensitization to shrimp and HDM. However, positivity due to other A. simplex antigens should also be considered. Compared with other high fish-consuming countries, we observed a very low seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies in a Norwegian population. PMID:24219706

  5. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies. PMID:606452

  6. IgE Immunotherapy Against Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leoh, Lai Sum

    2015-01-01

    The success of antibody therapy in cancer is consistent with the ability of these molecules to activate immune responses against tumors. Experience in clinical applications, antibody design, and advancement in technology have enabled antibodies to be engineered with enhanced efficacy against cancer cells. This allows re-evaluation of current antibody approaches dominated by antibodies of the IgG class with a new light. Antibodies of the IgE class play a central role in allergic reactions and have many properties that may be advantageous for cancer therapy. IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to be effective in both in vitro and in vivo models of cancer, suggesting the potential use of these approaches in humans. Further studies on the anticancer efficacy and safety profile of these IgE-based approaches are warranted in preparation for translation toward clinical application. PMID:25553797

  7. [A case of pulmonary asbestosis with slightly increased serum IgE concentration and histopathological changes resembling DIP].

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Y; Asai, S; Mashimoto, H; Shimokawa, I; Iwasaki, K; Matsuo, T; Ikeda, T; Minami, H

    1993-02-01

    A 68-year-old male presented with cough and sputum. He had suffered from these symptoms for ten years prior to admission. Chest roentgenogram revealed reticulonodular shadows in the lower fields of both lungs. CT scan of the chest revealed an interstitial pattern in the lower field of both lungs. Honeycombing and bullous pattern were also present in the subpleural area. The patient had a history of dust and asbestos inhalation while working as an electrician. Eosinophilia of the peripheral blood and BALF, and a slightly increased serum IgE concentration were noted. Open lung biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis with intra-alveolar macrophage accumulation and asbestos bodies. The histopathological features resembled UIP and DIP, although DIP is uncommon in pulmonary asbestosis. The slightly increased serum IgE concentration was considered to be an additional effect of asbestos. This is a case of pulmonary asbestosis with intriguing immunological and histopathological features. PMID:8515602

  8. Increased local IgE production induced by common aeroallergens and phenotypic alteration of mast cells in Chinese eosinophilic, but not non-eosinophilic, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Na; Liao, Bo; Ma, Jin; Wang, Bao-Feng; Wang, Heng; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Hong; Schleimer, Robert P.; Liu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) display distinct patterns of inflammation. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of CRSwNP need further investigation. Objective To investigate local immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and phenotype of mast cells in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP in Chinese. Methods Total and specific IgE levels were analyzed by means of the ImmunoCAP system. The molecular steps involved in class switch recombination to IgE were investigated using RT-PCR assays. Mast cell phenotypes, IgE- and high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-positive cells, and allergen binding to specific IgE in sinonasal mucosa were determined by means of immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with controls and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP, local total IgE levels were increased, and local specific IgE to common aeroallergens was more frequently found, in Chinese eosinophilic CRSwNP independent of atopy and without significant association with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. The ε germline gene transcript was also more frequently detected in eosinophilic CRSwNP. The number of IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP. Most IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells were mast cells. Dust mite antigens could bind to IgE on mast cells in situ. The number of mast cells positive for both tryptase and chymase and activated mast cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP and the number of activated mast cells positively correlated with local IgE level, eotaxin-1 level, and eosinophil count in CRSwNP. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The local IgE induced by common aeroallergens may mediate mast cell activation and contribute to subsequent eosinophilic inflammation in Chinese CRSwNP. This study offers a rationale for considering intervention strategies designed to target “local allergy” in eosinophilic CRSwNP. PMID:24597471

  9. DOE DEF RIM-to-IGES. File Writer documentation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, K.L.; Leake, P.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document will define the design specifications for the RIM-to-IGES File Writer Program. It describes the purpose of the File Writer, lists references, defines the structure of the program, and discusses the Fortran/RIM interface.

  10. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:26666347

  11. Associations Between Subjective Symptoms and Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels During Asian Dust Events

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Ikeguchi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Asian dust is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon caused by the displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Mongolian and Chinese deserts. Although the frequency of Asian dust events and atmospheric dust levels have steadily increased in the eastern Asia region, the effects on human health remain poorly understood. In the present study, the impact of Asian dust on human health was determined in terms of allergic reactions. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were tested for a relationship between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and subjective symptoms during a 3-day Asian dust event recorded in April 2012. They filled daily questionnaires on the severity of nasal, pharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms by a self-administered visual analog scale. Serum levels of non-specific IgE and 33 allergen-specific IgE molecules were analyzed. Spearman rank-correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations between nasal symptom scores and 2 microbial-specific IgE levels (Penicillium and Cladosporium). Microbes migrate vast distances during Asian dust events by attaching themselves to dust particles. Therefore, some of these symptoms may be associated with type 1 allergic reactions to certain type of microbes. PMID:25075882

  12. Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis Beyond IgE.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cano, R; Picado, C; Valero, A; Bartra, J

    2016-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mediators derived from mast cells and basophils. Food allergens are the main triggers of anaphylaxis, accounting for 33%-56% of all cases and up to 81% of cases of anaphylaxis in children. Human anaphylaxis is generally thought to be mediated by IgE, with mast cells and basophils as key players, although alternative mechanisms have been proposed. Neutrophils and macrophages have also been implicated in anaphylactic reactions, as have IgG-dependent, complement, and contact system activation. Not all allergic reactions are anaphylactic, and the presence of the so-called accompanying factors (cofactors or augmenting factors) may explain why some conditions lead to anaphylaxis, while in other cases the allergen elicits a milder reaction or is even tolerated. In the presence of these factors, allergic reactions may be induced at lower doses of allergen or become more severe. Cofactors are reported to be relevant in up to 30% of anaphylactic episodes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and exercise are the best-documented cofactors, although estrogens, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, lipid-lowering drugs, and alcohol have also been involved. The mechanisms underlying anaphylaxis are complex and involve several interrelated pathways. Some of these pathways may be key to the development of anaphylaxis, while others may only modulate the severity of the reaction. An understanding of predisposing and augmenting factors could lead to the development of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:27164622

  13. [Classification of allergens by positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis based on specific IgE antibodies in asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, E; Baba, M

    1992-10-01

    Classification and characterization of allergens is important because allergic patients are sensitized by a variety of allergens. One hundred and sixty-one sera from asthmatic children were investigated for specific IgE antibodies against 35 allergens including 20 inhalants and 15 foods by means of the MAST method. We assessed the allergenic properties of the allergens based on positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis. There was a high positive percentage agreement of specific IgE antibodies between house dust and Dermatophagoides spp., a relatively high agreement between 5 molds, cat and dog epithelium, mugwort and wormwood and 5 grasses. Among the food allergens, the positive percentage agreements were relatively high, especially between cow's milk, casein, cheese, and between 3 cereal grains. In the cluster analysis, house dust and Dermatophagoides spp. made a big cluster; therefore 32 allergens except house dust and mites were analyzed. From the results of the cluster analysis, the major cluster consisted of (1) ragweed, (2) mugwort and wormwood, (3) timothy, sweet vernal, velvet and cultivated rye, (4) wheat, barley and rice, (5) molds, (6) cow's milk, casein, soybean and cheese, (7) shrimp and crab, (8) egg white, (9) Japanese cedar, (10) dog epithelium, (11) cat epithelium. The cluster of grass pollens and cereal grains made one cluster. These results tend to confirm the presence of species cross-reactivities within the major classes of allergens. PMID:1482294

  14. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G. F.; Lulu, A. R.; Khateeb, M. I.; Haj, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search to find discriminative serological markers to differentiate between patients with acute brucellosis and those with chronic brucellosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the brucella-specific IgE response in 80 sera from patients with acute brucellosis, 37 sera from patients with chronic brucellosis, 26 sera from patients with positive blood cultures for bacteria other than brucella and 51 sera from healthy controls. The IgE findings were compared to brucella-specific IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG1-4 demonstrated by ELISA, and to microagglutination test (MAT) results. Elevated (positive) antibrucella IgE titres were detected in 89 and 81% of sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis respectively. The predominant antibodies found in patients with acute brucellosis were of the IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG3 types while in chronic brucellosis IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG4 were found. Although IgE can be detected in patients with brucellosis, it does not discriminate between the acute and chronic stages of the disease. PMID:2249721

  15. Selective transport of IgE into ovine mammary secretions.

    PubMed

    Hine, B C; Hunt, P W; Beasley, A M; Windon, R G; Glover, S A; Colditz, I G

    2010-10-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E is actively transported into ovine colostrum. Here we examine the degree of selectivity and the mechanism by which this transfer occurs in sheep. Results indicate that during colostrogenesis in sheep, transfer of immunoglobulins was most selective for IgG1 and IgA followed by IgE, IgM and IgG2. In milk, selectivity was greatest for IgA, followed by IgM, IgE, IgG1 and IgG2. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and poly immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) mediate the transport of IgG1 and IgA across the ovine mammary epithelium respectively. In primates and rodents, the low-affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilonRII, functions to transport IgE across the intestinal epithelium. We therefore investigated the expression of the low-affinity IgE receptor (CD23), pIgR and FcRn transcripts in the ovine mammary gland. The expression profiles of FcRn, pIgR and CD23 mRNA reflected concentrations of their Ig ligands in mammary secretions. These findings suggest a role for CD23 in transport of IgE across the mammary epithelium of sheep. PMID:20226487

  16. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  17. Recreation of the 28-entity IGES test file using the ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    An Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) test file is called the 28 Entity IGES Test File. This file contains 28 geometric and annotation entities which are considered the basic entities that an IGES translator for any CAD system should support. The main purpose was to determine how the IGES preprocessor supports the 28 entities through recreation of the 28 Entity IGES Test File on the ComputerVision CADDS 4X. Test procedure is described and test results are presented.

  18. Persistence of IgE-associated allergy and allergen-specific IgE despite CD4+ T cell loss in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Wollmann, Eva; Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Valenta, Rudolf; Sibanda, Elopy

    2014-01-01

    The infection of CD4+ cells by HIV leads to the progressive destruction of CD4+ T lymphocytes and, after a severe reduction of CD4+ cells, to AIDS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl can suffer from symptoms of IgE-mediated allergy, produce allergen-specific IgE antibody responses and show boosts of allergen-specific IgE production. HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/µl suffering from AIDS and from IgE-mediated allergy were studied. Allergy was diagnosed according to case history, physical examination, skin prick testing (SPT), and serological analyses including allergen microarrays. HIV infection was confirmed serologically and the disease was staged clinically. The predominant allergic symptoms in the studied patients were acute allergic rhinitis (73%) followed by asthma (27%) due to IgE-mediated mast cell activation whereas no late phase allergic symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, a mainly T cell-mediated skin manifestation, were found in patients suffering from AIDS. According to IgE serology allergies to house dust mites and grass pollen were most common besides IgE sensitizations to various food allergens. Interestingly, pollen allergen-specific IgE antibody levels in the patients with AIDS and in additional ten IgE-sensitized patients with HIV infections and low CD4 counts appeared to be boosted by seasonal allergen exposure and were not associated with CD4 counts. Our results indicate that secondary allergen-specific IgE production and IgE-mediated allergic inflammation do not require a fully functional CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoire. PMID:24896832

  19. Dust Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a recent sounding rocket experiment which found charged dust in the Earth's tropical mesosphere. The dust detector was designed to measure small (5000 - 10000 amu.) charged dust particles, most likely of meteoric origin. A 5 km thick layer of positively charged dust was found at an altitude of 90 km, in the vicinity of an observed sporadic sodium layer and sporadic E layer. The observed dust was positively charged in the bulk of the dust layer, but was negatively charged near the bottom.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of IgE mediated food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to collate current knowledge and recent advances in molecular mechanism behind the immediate type hypersensitivity of foods. Food allergy is a growing concern of human health in developed as well as developing countries now days. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity or type I reaction. This review encompasses a wide range of molecular events during IgE mediated reactions like primary exposure of allergens, processing of allergens by antigen presenting cells, role of transcription factors like GATA-3, STAT-6, NF-AT, c-maf, c-kit and NF-κB, Treg cells, toll like receptors, cytokines and chemokines, class switch to IgE, FcεR1 receptor, priming of IgE on mast cells or basophils, signaling events followed by secondary exposure of allergens, degranulation and release of mediators like leukotrienes, histamines, prostaglandins, β-hexosaminidase and ultimately anaphylaxis. This review may be helpful to beginners as well as experts working in the field of allergy and immunology because of the stepwise explanations of molecular mechanisms involved in IgE mediated reactions. PMID:22668720

  1. IgE receptor signaling in food allergy pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oettgen, Hans C; Burton, Oliver T

    2015-10-01

    The pathogenesis of food allergy remains poorly understood. Recent advances in the use of murine models have led to discoveries that mast cells and IgE receptor signaling not only drive immediate hypersensitivity reactions but also exert an immunoregulatory function, promoting the development of allergic sensitivity to foods. We review the evidence that IgE, IgE receptors, key signaling kinases and mast cells impair oral tolerance to ingested foods, preventing the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg) and promoting the acquisition of pro-allergic T helper (Th) 2 responses. We discuss innovative strategies that that could be implemented to counteract these immunoregulatory effects of IgE-mediated mast cell activation, and potentially reverse established sensitization, curing food allergy. PMID:26296054

  2. Cosmic dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, Donald E.; Sandford, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    Dust is a ubiquitous component of our galaxy and the solar system. The collection and analysis of extraterrestrial dust particles is important to exobiology because it provides information about the sources of biogenically significant elements and compounds that accumulated in distant regions of the solar nebula and that were later accreted on the planets. The topics discussed include the following: general properties of interplanetary dust; the carbonaceous component of interplanetary dust particles; and the presence of an interstellar component.

  3. Immunoglobulin E to allergen components of house dust mite in Korean children with allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan Soo; Kang, Sung Hee; Won, Sulmui; Lee, Eu Kyoung; Chun, Yoon Hong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin Tack

    2015-01-01

    Background House dust mites (HDMs) are important sources of indoor allergens. Seventeen components have been identified from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p). Objective Our aim was to define the prevalence of specific IgE to components of Der p in Korea and investigate the clinical features of them in children with allergic disease. Methods We performed a prospective evaluation of 80 HDM sensitized patients with history of allergic rhinitis (AR), atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma and urticaria (UC). Patients underwent ImmunoCAP for total IgE, Der p, Der f, Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10. Results Seventy-nine patients had detectable serum IgE to Der p, 80 patients were sensitized to Der f, 66 patients were sensitized to Der p 1, 63 patients to Der p 2, and 7 patients were sensitized to Der p 10. Der p 1 specific IgE was significantly lower in the UC group compared with the AD and AR group. Total IgE was significantly higher in the Der p 10 sensitized group. Der p 10 serum IgE level was highly correlated with crab and shrimp specific IgE. There was a significant positive correlation between total IgE and specific IgE to Der p and its components and Der f. Conclusion Sensitization to HDM and its components in Korea is similar to previous studies from temperate climate. The determination of Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10 specific IgE helps in obtaining additional information in regards to allergic disease. PMID:26240792

  4. Sahara Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Casting Light and Shadows on a Saharan Dust Storm     ... (nadir) camera. High-altitude cirrus clouds cast shadows on the underlying ocean and dust layer, which are visible in shades of ... was unable to retrieve elevation data. However, the edges of shadows cast by the cirrus clouds onto the dust (indicated by blue and cyan ...

  5. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Massive Dust Storm over Australia     View ... at JPL September 22, 2009 - Massive dust storm over Australia. project:  MISR category:  ... Sep 22, 2009 Images:  Dust Storm location:  Australia and New Zealand ...

  6. Circumstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of dust in the general interstellar medium is inferred from the extinction, polarization, and scattering of starlight; the presence of dark nebulae; interstellar depletions; the observed infrared emission around certain stars and various types of interstellar clouds. Interstellar grains are subject to various destruction mechanisms that reduce their size or even completely destroy them. A continuous source of newly formed dust must therefore be present for dust to exist in the various phases of the interstellar medium (ISM). The working group has the following goals: (1) review the evidences for the formation of dust in the various sources; (2) examine the clues to the nature and composition of the dust; (3) review the status of grain formation theories; (4) examine any evidence for the processing of the dust prior to its injection into the interstellar medium; and (5) estimate the relative contribution of the various sources to the interstellar dust population.

  7. Presence of IgE class antibodies with cardiolipinic and treponemal specificity in syphilis. Quantitative evaluation by IgE prist radio-immuno-assay.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, A D; Ivănescu, M

    1992-01-01

    60 serum samples (reactive in VDRL, ELISA-Reiter, FTA-Abs tests) from 25-45 years old male patients with untreated latent syphilis (EL) (30 cases) and persistent positive treated syphilis (ET+) (30 cases) were tested for IgE by IgE-PRIST. On 30 sera from 25-45 years old male healthy persons, normal mean value for serum IgE was established: 159.63 +/- 124.09 U/ml. Cardiolipin and group treponemal IgE fractions were indirectly calculated by the difference between the specific activity induced by sera as such and that induced by sera absorbed with cardiolipin and group treponemal sorbents. In EL, total IgE level was 197 +/- 107 U/ml; cardiolipin IgE -24.9 +/- 8.3 U/ml and group treponemal IgE 35.8 +/- 6.6 U/ml. In ET, total IgE value was 152.6 +/- 122.5 U/ml, cardiolipin IgE -11 +/- 10.5 and group treponemal IgE -26.6 +/- 14.2 U/ml. Summing up the two specificities, the total specific IgE represent about 1/3 from total IgE in EL and 1/5 in ET+. Taking into account the short half-life (2-3 days) of IgE presence of a significant proportion of specific IgE in those two stages proves, by their continuous synthesis paralleling antigenic stimulation, the presence in various tissular zones of viable treponemas as sources of antigens. PMID:1457821

  8. CLINICALLY RELEVANT IGE-CROSS-REACTIVITY OF NUT ALLERGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    All data resulting from this study will be catalogued in SDAP .This work will generate important information relating the structure/ physicochemical properties of cross-reactive IgE epitopes to clinical response, and model factors that underlie allergen recognition by the immu...

  9. Cold urticaria, raised IgE and HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, R C; Evans, B; Cream, J J

    1995-01-01

    We present a patient with cold urticaria as an unusual and late cutaneous manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The severe CD4 cell depletion and markedly elevated serum IgE levels in our patient provide some insights into certain aspects of immune regulatory mechanisms. PMID:7636829

  10. IGE IN ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERA IS REACTIVE AGAINST MOLD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  11. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  12. A single glycan on IgE is indispensable for initiation of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shade, Kai-Ting C; Platzer, Barbara; Washburn, Nathaniel; Mani, Vinidhra; Bartsch, Yannic C; Conroy, Michelle; Pagan, Jose D; Bosques, Carlos; Mempel, Thorsten R; Fiebiger, Edda; Anthony, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Immunoglobulin ε (IgE) antibodies are the primary mediators of allergic diseases, which affect more than 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. IgE specific for innocuous environmental antigens, or allergens, binds and sensitizes tissue-resident mast cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Subsequent allergen exposure cross-links mast cell-bound IgE, resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and initiation of the allergic cascade. It is well established that precise glycosylation patterns exert profound effects on the biological activity of IgG. However, the contribution of glycosylation to IgE biology is less clear. Here, we demonstrate an absolute requirement for IgE glycosylation in allergic reactions. The obligatory glycan was mapped to a single N-linked oligomannose structure in the constant domain 3 (Cε3) of IgE, at asparagine-394 (N394) in human IgE and N384 in mouse. Genetic disruption of the site or enzymatic removal of the oligomannose glycan altered IgE secondary structure and abrogated IgE binding to FcεRI, rendering IgE incapable of eliciting mast cell degranulation, thereby preventing anaphylaxis. These results underscore an unappreciated and essential requirement of glycosylation in IgE biology. PMID:25824821

  13. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, Dániel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2010-01-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  14. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, D.´niel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-02-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  15. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I.; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. Objective To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Methods Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Results Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. Conclusions IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Clinical Relevance Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can

  16. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... contrast strongly with the dust storm that swept across Iraq and Saudi Arabia on May 13, 2004 (bottom panels). These data products from ... as yellowish ripples that obscure a large part of southern Iraq. The dust is easy to discern over the dark waters of the teardrop-shaped ...

  17. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR. PMID:27436445

  18. Comparison of IgE expression at the mRNA and protein levels in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, K J; Creany, J; Coelen, R J; Cameron, K J; Holt, B J; Beilharz, M W

    1991-01-01

    The regulating effects of IL-4 and pokeweed mitogen on IgE synthesis in vitro by human peripheral blood leucocytes has been compared with the corresponding effect of these regulators on the expression of IgE mRNA. The latter was measured by dot blot hybridization with an oligonucleotide coding for a unique six amino acid region of the CH epsilon 2 domain. Specificity of the oligonucleotide probe was established by its inability to hybridize with RNA extracted from HMY-2 (IgG) and XQ-15 (IgM) secreting cell lines whilst producing intense signals with RNA extracted from the IgE secreting cell line U266. Whilst IgE mRNA was detected in RNA extracted from PBL of both atopic and control subjects, spontaneous IgE synthesis was restricted to atopic PBL. IL-4 increased both IgE mRNA and IgE synthesis in all PBL samples but PWM, while significantly increasing IgE mRNA expression either failed to modify IgE synthesis or actively suppressed it. The assay system employed to quantitate IgE synthesis in vitro was shown to be inhibited by both IgE binding factors and IgG anti-IgE autoantibodies which are produced in PBL cultures. IgE mRNA levels might therefore more accurately monitor the regulatory effects of IL-4 and PWM on IgE synthesis than quantitation of the IgE by radioimmunoassay. Images Figure 1 PMID:1783428

  19. Andromeda's dust

    SciTech Connect

    Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G.; Krause, Oliver; Groves, Brent; Sandstrom, Karin; Klaas, Ulrich; Linz, Hendrik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schmiedeke, Anika; Walter, Fabian; Braun, Robert; Leroy, Adam E-mail: ganiano@ias.u-psud.fr

    2014-01-10

    Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory imaging of M31 is used, with a physical dust model, to construct maps of dust surface density, dust-to-gas ratio, starlight heating intensity, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance, out to R ≈ 25 kpc. The global dust mass is M {sub d} = 5.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, the global dust/H mass ratio is M {sub d}/M {sub H} = 0.0081, and the global PAH abundance is (q {sub PAH}) = 0.039. The dust surface density has an inner ring at R = 5.6 kpc, a maximum at R = 11.2 kpc, and an outer ring at R ≈ 15.1 kpc. The dust/gas ratio varies from M {sub d}/M {sub H} ≈ 0.026 at the center to ∼0.0027 at R ≈ 25 kpc. From the dust/gas ratio, we estimate the interstellar medium metallicity to vary by a factor ∼10, from Z/Z {sub ☉} ≈ 3 at R = 0 to ∼0.3 at R = 25 kpc. The dust heating rate parameter (U) peaks at the center, with (U) ≈ 35, declining to (U) ≈ 0.25 at R = 20 kpc. Within the central kiloparsec, the starlight heating intensity inferred from the dust modeling is close to what is estimated from the stars in the bulge. The PAH abundance reaches a peak q {sub PAH} ≈ 0.045 at R ≈ 11.2 kpc. When allowance is made for the different spectrum of the bulge stars, q {sub PAH} for the dust in the central kiloparsec is similar to the overall value of q {sub PAH} in the disk. The silicate-graphite-PAH dust model used here is generally able to reproduce the observed dust spectral energy distribution across M31, but overpredicts 500 μm emission at R ≈ 2-6 kpc, suggesting that at R = 2-6 kpc, the dust opacity varies more steeply with frequency (with β ≈ 2.3 between 200 and 600 μm) than in the model.

  20. IgE and Mast Cells: The Endogenous Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Oettgen, Hans C; Burton, Oliver T

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) are most familiar as the effectors of type I hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. It is becoming clear however that this pair has important immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive cells of the immune system. In this purview, they act as endogenous adjuvants to ignite evolving immune responses, promote the transition of allergic disease into chronic illness, and disrupt the development of active mechanisms of tolerance to ingested foods. Suppression of IgE-mediated mast cell activation can be exerted by molecules targeting IgE, FcɛRI, or signaling kinases including Syk, or by IgG antibodies acting via inhibitory Fcγ receptors. Recent reports indicate that such interventions have promise in the development of strategies to treat allergic disease. PMID:26073985

  1. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Asthmatic Children Sensitized to House Dust Mite

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei; Hu, Qi; Shen, Lei-Lei; Hu, Ying; Tao, Hai-feng; Li, Hui-fan; Fan, Wen-ting

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The house dust mite is one of the most common allergens worldwide. There is good evidence that house dust mite subcutaneous immunotherapy is efficacious and has long-term benefit in children. However, the evidence of the benefit of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is less convincing. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate that efficacy and safety of dust mite SLIT in children with asthma. Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases until February 2014 were searched. The primary outcome was mean change in asthma symptom score. Secondary outcomes included mean change in serum immunoglobulin G4 (sIgG4), specific Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and medication score. Safety was also assessed. We found that SLIT significantly decreased asthma symptom score (P = 0.007) and increased sIgG4 levels (P = 0.011) greater than control in children (<18 years of age) with asthma. There was no difference between SLIT and control groups in specific D pteronyssinus IgE levels (P = 0.076) and medication score (P = 0.408). The safety profile was similar between groups. Our study indicates that dust mite SLIT therapy was effective in reducing asthma symptoms and in increasing sIgG4 but did not significantly reduce medication scores or specific D pteronyssinus IgE levels. Our findings are not enough to support the use of dust mite SLIT in children with asthma.

  2. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, L.J.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  3. The Design of the IGE Evaluation Project Phase IV Comparative Studies. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This paper outlines the design of two Comparative Studies of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) Evaluation Project. More than 2,000 elementary schools in 25 states use the IGE system. The Evaluation Project was designed to gain a comprehensive view of the system's operation and effectiveness. Phase IV investigated pupil outcomes,…

  4. Alcohol-induced alterations in serum immunoglobulin e (IgE) levels in human subjects.

    PubMed

    González-Quintela, Arturo; Vidal, Carmen; Gude, Francisco

    2002-05-01

    The association of alcohol intake with total serum IgE concentrations in humans is discussed in the present review. The possible relationship of regular alcohol intake with both the risk of allergic sensitization and serum allergen-specific IgE values is also reviewed. Several studies consistently show that total serum IgE concentrations are increased in alcoholics when compared with healthy controls. Total serum IgE levels decrease after ethanol abstinence in alcoholics. Total serum IgE is increased in moderate alcohol consumers with respect to abstainers. Alcohol consumption in mothers may be associated with increased cord blood IgE levels in their offspring. IgE elevation in alcohol consumers is independent of potential confounders such as age, sex, liver disease, cigarette smoking or atopic status. Experimental studies in animals further support that ethanol administration is followed by an increase in serum IgE concentrations. In atopic patients, regular alcohol consumption is associated with increased serum specific IgE levels against some aeroallergens. Preliminary reports suggest that alcohol intake is associated to variable risk of sensitization to some aeroallergens. The possible mechanisms of alcohol-induced alterations in IgE levels and IgE-mediated diseases are discussed. PMID:11991851

  5. Sensitization to house-dust mite and mite fauna in selected children's homes in Kütahya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Cihangir; Yilmaz, Sema

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the house-dust mite allergy and prevalence of house-dust mites in dwellings of children who were tested for specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) and D. farinae on the suspicion of allergic rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma. All dust specimens collected from children's houses were investigated under a light microscope. House-dust mites were found in 31.7% of houses of children with a specific IgE, while the rate was 27.5% in houses of those without a specific IgE. Overall, house dust specimens collected from a total of 92 houses were examined, and mites were found in 27 (29.3%) of them. Both Der p and Der f were found in 38 (92.7%), while mixed allergy (D. pteronyssinus + D. farinae) was found in 3 (7.3%). Der p allergy (100%) was found in all of the allergic children, while no child was found with specific IgE for Der f allergy, except in mixed allergies. PMID:19817266

  6. Exozodiacal dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchner, Marc Jason

    Besides the sun, the most luminous feature of the solar system is a cloud of "zodiacal" dust released by asteroids and comets that pervades the region interior to the asteroid belt. Similar clouds of dust around other stars---exozodiacal clouds---may be the best tracers of the habitable zones of extra-solar planetary systems. This thesis discusses three searches for exozodiacal dust: (1) We observed six nearby main-sequence stars with the Keck telescope at 11.6 microns, correcting for atmosphere-induced wavefront aberrations and deconvolving the point spread function via classical speckle analysis. We compare our data to a simple model of the zodiacal dust in our own system based on COBE DIRBE observations and place upper limits on the density of exozodiacal dust in these systems. (2) We observed Sirius, Altair, and Procyon with the NICMOS Coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope to look for scattered light from exozodiacal dust and faint companions within 10 AU from these stars. (3) The planned nulling capability of the Keck Interferometer should allow it to probe the region <200 milliarcsecond from a bright star and to suppress on-axis starlight by factors of 10 -3 to reveal faint circumstellar material. We model the response of the Keck Interferometer to hypothetical exozodiacal clouds to derive detection limits that account for the effects of stellar leakage, photon noise, noise from null depth fluctuations, and the fact that the cloud's shape is not known a priori. We also discuss the interaction of dust with planets. We used the COBE DIRBE Sky and Zodi Atlas and the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas to search for dynamical signatures of three different planets in the solar system dust complex: (1) We searched the COBE DIRBE Sky and Zodi Atlas for a wake of dust trailing Mars. We compare the DIRBE images to a model Mars wake based on the empirical model of the Earth's wake as seen by the DIRBE. (2) We searched the COBE DIRRE Sky and Zodi Atlas for Tiojan dust near

  7. Two Allergen Model Reveals Complex Relationship Between IgE Cross-Linking and Degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Handlogten, Michael W.; Deak, Peter E.; Bilgicer, Basar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Allergy is an immune response to complex mixtures of multiple allergens yet current models use a single synthetic allergen. Multiple allergens were modeled using two well-defined tetravalent allergens each specific for a distinct IgE thus enabling a systematic approach to evaluate the effect of each allergen and percent of allergen specific IgE on mast cell degranulation. We found the overall degranulation response caused by two allergens is additive for low allergen concentrations or low percent specific IgE, does not change for moderate allergen concentrations with moderate to high percent specific IgE, and is reduced for high allergen concentrations with moderate to high percent specific IgE. These results provide further evidence that supra-optimal IgE cross-linking decreases the degranulation response and establishes the two allergen model as a relevant experimental system to elucidate mast cell degranulation mechanisms. PMID:25308278

  8. Specific IgE in the identification of allergens in allergic rhinitis Malaysian patients.

    PubMed

    Choon-Kook, S; Teck-Soong, S L

    1995-06-01

    The specific serum IgE levels to 20 allergens were determined by enzyme immunoassay in 90 Malaysian patients with allergic rhinitis. Ninety-two percent of patients had elevated IgE to at least 1 of the allergens. The housedust mites D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were the major allergens, elevated IgE to either allergen being present in 86% of the patients. Prick skin tests were carried out in some of the patients, housedust mites, cat fur, dog hair and shrimp were the allergens used. Close correspondence was found between IgE and prick skin tests to the mites. PMID:7488340

  9. 2-DUST: Dust radiative transfer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, Toshiya; Meixner, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    2-DUST is a general-purpose dust radiative transfer code for an axisymmetric system that reveals the global energetics of dust grains in the shell and the 2-D projected morphologies of the shell that are strongly dependent on the mixed effects of the axisymmetric dust distribution and inclination angle. It can be used to model a variety of axisymmetric astronomical dust systems.

  10. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic rhinitis - dust ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are said to have a dust allergy. ...

  11. IgE antibodies and urinary trimethylarsine oxide accounted for 1-7% population attributable risks for eczema in adults: USA NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Population attributable risks from serum IgE and dust miteallergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema are unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine serum IgE and allergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema in adults and to calculate population attributable risks in a national and population-based setting. Data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006, was analyzed. Information on demographics and self-reported ever eczema was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (sub-sample) were also collected during the interview. Adults aged 20-85 were included. Statistical analyses were using chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of all the included American adults (n = 4979), 310 (6.2%) reported ever eczema. Moreover, more eczema cases were observed in female adults but fewer cases in people born in Mexico. There were no significant associations observed between commonly known biomarkers (including vitamin D) and eczema or between dust mite allergens and eczema. Serum D. Farinae (PAR 1.0%), D. Pteronyssinus (PAR 1.1%), cat (PAR 1.8%), dog (PAR 1.6%), and muse (PAR 3.2%) IgE antibodies were associated with eczema. Adults with ever eczema were found to have higher levels of urinary trimethylarsine oxide concentrations (PAR 7.0%) but not other speciated arsenic concentrations. There were no clear associations between other environmental chemicals including heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, parabens, pesticides, nitrate, perchlorate, polycyclic hydrocarbons and eczema as well. Elimination of environmental risks might help delay or stop eczema up to 7% in the adult population. PMID:26233738

  12. Computationally predicted IgE epitopes of walnut allergens contribute to cross-reactivity with peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross reactivity between peanuts and tree nuts implies that similar IgE epitopes are present in their proteins. To determine whether walnut sequences similar to known peanut IgE binding sequences, according to the property distance (PD) scale implemented in the Structural Database of Allergenic Prot...

  13. IGE and Basic Skills in the 80's: A Case for Effective Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John J.; Bechtol, William M.

    The educational system known as Individually Guided Education (IGE) will become increasingly important as schools enter a period of retrenchment in the 1980's. Four factors necessary for basic skills achievement can be achieved through the use of IGE: (1) strong leadership by the school principal; (2) time spent in direct instruction by the…

  14. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because phenolic compounds can precipitate or complex with proteins, we postulated that interactions of phenolics with IgE antibodies help enhance IgE binding to peanut allergens in Western blots. Three different phenolics, such as, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were examined. Each was mixe...

  15. Unique maturation program of the IgE response in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key event in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergies is the production of IgE antibodies. We show here that IgE+ cells are exceptional because they are largely found outside germinal centers and express, from very early on, a genetic program of plasma cells. In spite of their extra-germinal cente...

  16. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pennington, Luke F.; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Graham, Michelle T.; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Eggel, Alexander; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-05-19

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab–Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, inmore » combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. Furthermore, this combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions.« less

  17. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Luke F.; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Graham, Michelle T.; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Eggel, Alexander; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab–Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, in combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. This combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27194387

  18. Association between egg and staphylococcal superantigen IgE sensitizations in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peck Y

    2014-01-01

    Patients with moderately severe atopic dermatitis (AD) suffer from significant morbidity including secondary infections and psychosocial disturbances. However, there is currently no laboratory test for identifying these patients to implement early treatments. Because IgE sensitization to foods is frequently an early manifestation in infants with AD, this study aims to examine if food IgE levels may identify AD patients with more severe disease, and whether IgE sensitization to food may predict IgE sensitization to staphylococcal superantigens. Fifty-one young children with AD were included in the study. Eczema severity was measured by objective scoring AD. The levels of food and staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE were measured by Phadia ImmunoCAP system. Of the five common food allergens (cow's milk, egg white, soybean, wheat, and peanut), only IgE levels to egg white correlated significantly with eczema severity in young children with AD. IgE sensitization to egg white was significantly associated with IgE sensitization to staphylococcal superantigens in older children. PMID:24992554

  19. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Luke F; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Graham, Michelle T; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Eggel, Alexander; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab-Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, in combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. This combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27194387

  20. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  1. Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomés, Anna; Glesner, Jill; Vailes, Lisa D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Minor, Wladek; Chapman, Martin D.

    2012-07-11

    House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contact residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  2. Helminth-induced IgE and protection against allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Firdaus; Amoah, Abena S; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response against helminths and allergens is generally characterized by high levels of IgE and increased numbers of Th2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, yet the clinical outcome with respect to immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation is clearly not the same. High levels of IgE are seen to allergens during helminth infections; however, these IgE responses do not translate into allergy symptoms. This chapter summarizes the evidence of the association between helminth infections and allergic disorders. It discusses how helminth infection can lead to IgE cross-reactivity with allergens and how this IgE has poor biological activity. This information is important for developing new diagnostic methods and treatments for allergic disorders in low-to-middle-income countries. PMID:25553796

  3. Evidence for a locus regulating total serum IgE levels mapping to chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, D.A.; Xu, J.; Levitt, R.C.

    1994-09-15

    Genetic studies of total serum IgE levels were preformed since high IgE levels correlate with clinical expression of allergy and asthma. Families ascertained through a parent with asthma were genotyped for markers on 5q where there are multiple candidate genes that may influence the control of IgE and inflammation. Evidence for linkage of the IgE phenotype to 5q was obtained by both sib-pair and lod score analysis with evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels from segregation analysis. These findings represent a major step in mapping genes important in the regulation of allergic responses and the pathogenesis of asthma. 52 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. The 28-entity IGES test file results using ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    The investigation was based on the following steps: (1) Read the 28 Entity IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) Test File into the CAD data base with the IGES post-processor; (2) Make the modifications to the displayed geometries, which should produce the normalized front view and the drawing entity defined display; (3) Produce the drawing entity defined display of the file as it appears in the CAD system after modification to the geometry; (4) Translate the file back to IGES format using IGES pre-processor; (5) Read the IGES file produced by the pre-processor back into the CAD data base; (6) Produce another drawing entity defined display of the CAD display; and (7) Compare the plots resulting from steps 3 and 6 - they should be identical to each other.

  5. Total IgE as a Serodiagnostic Marker to Aid Murine Fur Mite Detection

    PubMed Central

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-01-01

    Mites of 3 genera—Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia—continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

  6. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  7. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias towards the plasma cell (PC) fate,...

  8. Inhibition of CD23-mediated IgE transcytosis suppresses the initiation and development of airway allergic inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epithelium lining the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human IgE receptor, CD23 (Fc'RII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monola...

  9. Glove-derived foreign proteins induce allergen-specific IgE in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Busch, Marion; Schröder, Claudia; Baron, Jens-Malte; Ott, Hagen; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas L; Mahler, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Currently, most medical gloves are produced with a low content of natural rubber latex (NRL) protein. However, they may be substituted by proteins of foreign origin to maintain specific properties of the material. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenicity and immunogenicity of unexpected proteins (i.e., soy and casein) compared with NRL proteins in a murine model in BALB/c mice. All respective allergen sources (extracts from three brands of NRL gloves, soy, and casein) were able to induce significant allergen-specific IgE and IgG(1) responses. On average, the highest IgE induction occurred after immunization with NRL, followed by soy and casein. Certain individuals from each treatment group exhibited levels of specific IgE as high as due to NRL. To analyze further specific IgE responses on a single allergen level, we established a microarray based on recombinant allergens for allergen-specific murine IgE detection. Besides specific IgE against rHev b 3, -6, -7, -8, and -11, specific IgE against kappa-casein could be detected in mice immunized with NRL glove extract, indicating a sensitization potential of the contained foreign protein. The substitution of genuine latex proteins by proteins of foreign origin may lead to a shift and de novo increase in sensitization to the finished products. PMID:18049454

  10. IgE epitope proximity determines immune complex shape and effector cell activation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Gieras, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Roux, Kenneth H.; Dutta, Moumita; Khodoun, Marat; Zafred, Domen; Cabauatan, Clarissa R.; Lupinek, Christian; Weber, Milena; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Keller, Walter; Finkelman, Fred D.; Valenta, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Background IgE-allergen complexes induce mast cell and basophil activation and thus immediate allergic inflammation. They are also important for IgE-facilitated allergen presentation to T cells by antigen-presenting cells. Objective To investigate whether the proximity of IgE binding sites on an allergen affects immune complex shape and subsequent effector cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Methods We constructed artificial allergens by grafting IgE epitopes in different numbers and proximity onto a scaffold protein. The shape of immune complexes formed between artificial allergens and the corresponding IgE was studied by negative-stain electron microscopy. Allergenic activity was determined using basophil activation assays. Mice were primed with IgE, followed by injection of artificial allergens to evaluate their in vivo allergenic activity. Severity of systemic anaphylaxis was measured by changes in body temperature. Results We could demonstrate simultaneous binding of 4 IgE antibodies in close vicinity to each other. The proximity of IgE binding sites on allergens influenced the shape of the resulting immune complexes and the magnitude of effector cell activation and in vivo inflammation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the proximity of IgE epitopes on an allergen affects its allergenic activity. We thus identified a novel mechanism by which IgE-allergen complexes regulate allergic inflammation. This mechanism should be important for allergy and other immune complex–mediated diseases. PMID:26684291

  11. IgE reactivity to carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins in wheat allergy.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae Won; Hong, Jung Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Kyung Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate moieties of different glycoproteins, such as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and galactose α-1,3-galactose, can induce IgE reactivity with varied clinical significance. In this study, the possible participation of glycan from wheat gliadin, with respect to its IgE-binding capacity, was investigated in children with food allergies to wheat. Total IgE and wheat-specific IgE quantification, documentation of history, and/or oral food challenge (OFC) were performed for 52 children. Subjects with positive wheat-specific IgE were characterized as the symptomatic group, never-exposed group, or asymptomatic group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and glycan detection in gliadin were performed. IgE binding to gliadin and deglycosylated gliadin was measured by immunoblotting and ELISA. Gliadin-specific IgE was detected and correlated with wheat-specific IgE in the symptomatic, never-exposed, and asymptomatic groups. The glycan range overlapped significantly with the gliadin range. Deglycosylation of gliadin reduced the allergenicity of gliadin. In gliadin, the allergenicity of the glycan portion was greater in the symptomatic group than in the never-exposed and asymptomatic groups. We conclude that N-glycan in gliadin might exhibit allergenicity as a possible carbohydrate epitope in wheat allergy in children. PMID:25976436

  12. IgE reactivity to carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins in wheat allergy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae Won; Hong, Jung Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate moieties of different glycoproteins, such as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and galactose α-1,3-galactose, can induce IgE reactivity with varied clinical significance. In this study, the possible participation of glycan from wheat gliadin, with respect to its IgE-binding capacity, was investigated in children with food allergies to wheat. Total IgE and wheat-specific IgE quantification, documentation of history, and/or oral food challenge (OFC) were performed for 52 children. Subjects with positive wheat-specific IgE were characterized as the symptomatic group, never-exposed group, or asymptomatic group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and glycan detection in gliadin were performed. IgE binding to gliadin and deglycosylated gliadin was measured by immunoblotting and ELISA. Gliadin-specific IgE was detected and correlated with wheat-specific IgE in the symptomatic, never-exposed, and asymptomatic groups. The glycan range overlapped significantly with the gliadin range. Deglycosylation of gliadin reduced the allergenicity of gliadin. In gliadin, the allergenicity of the glycan portion was greater in the symptomatic group than in the never-exposed and asymptomatic groups. We conclude that N-glycan in gliadin might exhibit allergenicity as a possible carbohydrate epitope in wheat allergy in children. PMID:25976436

  13. Correlation of serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations in patients with actinic prurigo*

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Lievanos-Estrada, Zahide; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Hojyo-Tomoka, Maria Teresa; Dominguez-Soto, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis, the pathophysiology of which has been hypothesized to involve subtype IV type b (Th2) hypersensitive response, whereby IL4, IL5, and IL13 are secreted and mediate the production of B cells, IgE, and IgG4. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of serum IgE levels and the clinical severity of injuries. METHODS: This case-control study comprised patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of actinic prurigo, as well as clinically healthy subjects, from whom 3cc of peripheral blood was taken for immunoassay. Cases were classified by lesion severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, and chi-square test was performed. RESULTS: We included 21 actinic prurigo patients and 21 subjects without disease; 11 patients with actinic prurigo had elevated serum IgE levels, and 10 had low serum levels. Six actinic prurigo (AP) patients with elevated serum levels of IgE had moderate injuries, 4 had severe injuries, and 1 had minor injuries. Eight out of 10 patients with normal IgE levels presented with minor injuries in the clinical evaluation. The 21 controls did not have increased serum IgE levels. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IgE levels are associated with moderate to severe clinical lesions, suggesting that actinic prurigo entails a type IV subtype b hypersensitivity response in which Th2 cells predominate. PMID:26982774

  14. Human IgE binding capacity of tryptic peptides from bovine alpha-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Maynard, F; Jost, R; Wal, J M

    1997-08-01

    The specific IgE binding capacity of native bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-La), a globular whey protein, and tryptic peptides was investigated using 19 sera from patients with cow's milk protein allergy. The specific anti-bovine alpha-La IgE titers ranged from 0.6 to 125 IU/ml. Highly purified tryptic peptides from native and disulfide-bond-reduced alpha-La were obtained by reverse phase chromatography. By ELISA technique using immobilized native protein or peptides, 11 of the 19 sera reacted exclusively with intact protein while 8 of them also presented a specific IgE response to different tryptic peptides. Polyclonal IgE population specificity was not related to anti-bovine alpha-La IgE levels. Sequence (17G-K58) and larger peptides sharing this sequence were most strongly and frequently recognized. Competitive ELISA inhibition tests confirmed this IgE-specific response and gave also clear evidence for IgE binding to smaller peptides corresponding to sequences (6C-R10):S-S:(115L-L123) and (109A-L123). IgE binding to native alpha-La and large peptides confirmed the importance of conformational epitope(s). However, in some sera reduced and S-alkylated peptide (59I-K94) exhibited a similar or higher IgE binding capacity than the native corresponding fragment, suggesting the existence of sequential epitope(s) exposed through protein denaturation. Moreover, IgE binding sequences were also located within hydrophobic regions of alpha-La and/or within parts with high sequence homology to human alpha-La. PMID:9250594

  15. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. Methods A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. Results Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly high levels of serum IgE compared with malaria free apparently healthy controls (with and without helminth infections). Moreover, malaria patients co-infected with intestinal helminths showed high level of serum IgE compared with those malaria patients without intestinal helminths (2198 IU/ml versus 1668 IU/ml). A strong statistically significant association was observed between malaria parasite density and elevated serum IgE levels (2047 IU/ml versus 1778 IU/ml; P = 0.001) with high and low parasitaemia (parasite density >50,000 parasite/μl of blood), respectively. Likewise, helminth egg loads were significantly associated with elevated serum IgE levels (P = 0.003). Conclusions The elevated serum IgE response in malaria patients irrespective of helminth infection and its correlation with malaria parasite density and helminth egg intensity support that malaria infection is also a strong driver of IgE production as compared to helminths. PMID:24886689

  16. Canyon Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03682 Canyon Dust

    These dust slides are located on the wall of Thithonium Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.1N, Longitude 275.7E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Dust Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03677 Linear Clouds

    Dust slides are common in the dust covered region called Lycus Sulci. A large fracture is also visible in this image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 28.1N, Longitude 226.3E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Dust collector

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.T.

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes a dust collector comprising: (a) a housing having inlet means for receiving air to be cleaned; (b) a plurality of filter units within the housing; (c) a first centrifugal fan arranged for drawing air through the units for removing dust from the air; (d) a plurality of ducts each connected to a corresponding one of the units at one end and to the first fan at the other end to provide passages for air from the units to the first fan, the ducts through a portion of their length being arranged in side-by-side relationship; (e) a second centrifugal fan for providing reverse flow of air through the ducts to the units, the second fan providing a high volume of air at low pressure; (f) a transverse duct connected to the second fan and extending transversely of the portion of the plurality of ducts and adjacent thereto: (g) a plurality of openings providing communication between the transverse duct and each of the plurality of ducts; (i) rotatable means engaging the vanes for sequentially moving the vanes between the first and second positions.

  19. Dust agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

  20. Self-reactive IgE exacerbates interferon responses associated with autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Henault, Jill; Riggs, Jeffrey M.; Karnell, Jodi L.; Liarski, Vladimir M.; Li, Jianqing; Shirinian, Lena; Xu, Linda; Casey, Kerry A.; Smith, Michael A.; Khatry, Deepak B.; Izhak, Liat; Clarke, Lorraine; Herbst, Ronald; Ettinger, Rachel; Petri, Michelle; Clark, Marcus R.; Mustelin, Tomas; Kolbeck, Roland; Sanjuan, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Canonically, IgE mediates allergic immune responses by triggering mast cells and basophils to release histamine and Type 2 helper cytokines. Here, we report that in human systemic lupus erythematosus, IgE antibodies specific for double-stranded DNA activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), an immune cell type linked to viral defense, leading to the secretion of substantial amounts of interferon-α. The concentrations of dsDNA-specific IgE found in patient serum correlated with disease severity and greatly potentiated pDC functions by triggering phagocytosis via FcεRI followed by Toll-like receptor 9-mediated DNA sensing in phagosomes. These findings expand the known pathogenic mechanisms of IgE-mediated inflammation beyond those found in allergy and demonstrate that IgE can trigger interferon responses capable of exacerbating self-destructive autoimmune responses. PMID:26692173

  1. Genetic basis of IgE responsiveness: relevance to the atopic diseases.

    PubMed

    Marsh, D G; Neely, J D; Breazeale, D R; Ghosh, B; Freidhoff, L R; Schou, C; Beaty, T H

    1995-01-01

    Genetic analysis of 170 subjects in 11 extended Amish families revealed evidence for linkage of five markers in chromosome 5q31.1 with a gene controlling total serum IgE levels. No linkage was found between these markers and specific IgE antibody levels. Analysis of total IgE within a subset of 128 IgE-antibody-negative sib pairs confirmed evidence for linkage to 5q31.1, especially IL4 (p = 4 x 10(-6)). These and other data suggest that IL4 or a nearby gene regulates IgE production in a non-antigen-specific (noncognate) fashion and provide evidence for a possible link between asthma and the IL4 gene. PMID:7613143

  2. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  3. NASA geometry data exchange specification for computational fluid dynamics (NASA IGES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Kerr, Patricia A.; Thorp, Scott A.; Jou, Jin J.

    1994-01-01

    This document specifies a subset of an existing product data exchange specification that is widely used in industry and government. The existing document is called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. This document, a subset of IGES, is intended for engineers analyzing product performance using tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This document specifies how to define mathematically and exchange the geometric model of an object. The geometry is represented utilizing nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves and surfaces. Only surface models are represented; no solid model representation is included. This specification does not include most of the other types of product information available in IGES (e.g., no material properties or surface finish properties) and does not provide all the specific file format details of IGES. The data exchange protocol specified in this document is fully conforming to the American National Standard (ANSI) IGES 5.2.

  4. Interstellar Dust: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (Editor); Allamandola, Louis J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A coherent picture of the dust composition and its physical characteristics in the various phases of the interstellar medium was the central theme. Topics addressed included: dust in diffuse interstellar medium; overidentified infrared emission features; dust in dense clouds; dust in galaxies; optical properties of dust grains; interstellar dust models; interstellar dust and the solar system; dust formation and destruction; UV, visible, and IR observations of interstellar extinction; and quantum-statistical calculations of IR emission from highly vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules.

  5. Ricin enhances IgE responses by inhibiting a subpopulation of early-activated IgE regulatory CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Sanchez, D; Lee, T H; Kemeny, D M

    1993-01-01

    Ricin, a toxic lectin from castor beans greatly enhances IgE responses to bee venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in high and low IgE responder strains of rat. The increase in IgE is accompanied by a 60% reduction in the number of CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells in the spleen. Optimal enhancement of IgE by ricin occurs when it is given at the same time as the antigen or 24 hr later, suggesting that it acts on cells which were activated as a consequence of immunization. Radio ligand-binding studies with 125I ricin were used to compare the number of ricin binding sites on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. No difference was seen in either the affinity or the number of receptors for ricin on the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of unimmunized rats. In contrast, CD8+ T cells taken from rats which had been immunized with 10 micrograms of PLA2 24 hr earlier demonstrated considerably more ricin receptors (3.9 x 10(7) +/- 2.2 x 10(6) binding sites/cell) than CD4+ T cells (3.19 x 10(6) +/- 1.08 x 10(6) binding sites/cell). However the affinity of the receptors for ricin was unchanged. Cytofluorographic analysis with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled ricin confirmed these observations and indicated that increased ricin binding occurred on a subpopulation of CD8+ T cells. The effect of CD8+ T cells on IgE regulation was investigated by adoptive transfer. 1 x 10(8) highly purified (> 98%) splenic CD8+ T cells collected from Brown Norway rats 3 days after immunization with 10 micrograms of PLA2 were adoptively transferred to naive, syngeneic recipients. The IgE antibody response to PLA2 + A1(OH)3 seen in these animals was reduced by 91%. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from the same donor animals did not induce suppression and nor did adoptive transfer of CD8+ T cells from animals given both ricin and PLA2. However, when recipients of CD8+ T cells taken from rats immunized with PLA2 were immunized with a different antigen [ovalbumin (OVA)] and A1(OH)3 the IgE antibody response was also suppressed

  6. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  7. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  8. IgE response to two new allergen proteins of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant).

    PubMed

    Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-12-01

    A number of allergens from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) have been previously identified. In this study, we could detect IgE reactivity of two allergic subjects' sera towards two protein bands of molecular mass of about 35 and 15 kDa. As IgE were reactive to both raw and cooked eggplant extracts, a heat-stable nature of these novel allergens is apparent. PMID:26455782

  9. Computationally predicted IgE epitopes of walnut allergens contribute to cross-reactivity with peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Soheila J.; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Chen, Deliang; Comstock, Sarah S.; Ruan, Sanbao; Schein, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cross reactivity between peanuts and tree nuts implies that similar IgE epitopes are present in their proteins. Objective To determine whether walnut sequences similar to known peanut IgE binding sequences, according to the property distance (PD) scale implemented in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP), react with IgE from sera of patients with allergy to walnut and/or peanut. Methods Patient sera were characterized by Western blotting for IgE-binding to nut protein extracts, and to peptides from walnut and peanut allergens, similar to known peanut epitopes as defined by low PD values, synthesized on membranes. Competitive ELISA was used to show that peanut and predicted walnut epitope sequences compete with purified Ara h 2 for binding to IgE in serum from a cross-reactive patient. Results Sequences from the vicilin walnut allergen Jug r 2 which had low PD values to epitopes of the peanut allergen Ara h 2, a 2s-albumin, bound IgE in sera from five patients who reacted to either walnut, peanut or both. A walnut epitope recognized by 6 patients mapped to a surface-exposed region on a model of the N-terminal pro-region of Jug r 2. A predicted walnut epitope competed for IgE binding to Ara h 2 in serum as well as the known IgE epitope from Ara h 2. Conclusions Sequences with low PD value (<8.5) to known IgE epitopes could contribute to cross-reactivity between allergens. This further validates the PD scoring method for predicting cross-reactive epitopes in allergens. PMID:21883278

  10. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells.

    PubMed

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning; Dam, Svend; Lorentzen, Andrea; Miehe, Michaela; Jabs, Frederic; Jakob, Thilo; Plum, Melanie; Spillner, Edzard

    2016-04-01

    TH2-biased immunity to parasites and allergens is often associated with increased levels of antigen-specific and high affinity IgE. The role in reacting against minute amounts of target structures and to provoke severe anaphylactic reactions renders IgE a mechanistically outstanding isotype. IgE represents the least abundant serum antibody isotype and exhibits a variety of peculiarities including structure, extensive glycosylation and effector functions. Despite large progress in antibody technologies, however, the recombinant access to isotypes beyond IgG such as IgE still is scarce. The capacity of expression systems has to meet the complex structural conformations and the extensive posttranslational modifications that are indispensable for biological activity. In order to provide alternatives to mammalian expression systems with often low yield and a more complex glycosylation pattern we established the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the rIgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the IgE isotype. PMID:26943931

  11. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796–0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707–0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (<195 kU/L) predicted the absence of multiple allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history. PMID:27314052

  12. Should milk-specific IgE antibodies be measured in adults in primary care?

    PubMed Central

    Anthoni, Sari; Elg, Peter; Haahtela, Tari; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the association of milk-IgE antibodies in serum to milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms in adults in primary care. Design Open clinical study. Setting Five outpatient clinics in primary care in Southern Finland. Subjects A total of 756 subjects who reported milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms in primary care and as controls 101 subjects with no such symptoms. Methods IgE values for specific food antigens were measured (Pharmacia CAP System) in a total of 857 subjects. All food screen-positive samples (>0.35 IU/l) were analysed further for IgE for untreated skimmed milk (milk-IgE) and for boiled milk. Those found positive for milk-IgE were invited for an open milk challenge test. Results Some 5.4% (46/857) of all subjects had a positive IgE antibody screen for food antigens. Of those with a positive food screen, 28% (13/46) had milk-IgE antibodies comprising 1.5% of the total group screened. The prevalence of milk-IgE was not statistically different between those with milk-related symptoms and those with no such symptoms. IgE antibodies for boiled milk were rare. All specific IgE antibody levels were low. Bloating was the only observed symptom in milk challenge tests. Conclusion IgE antibodies to cow's milk were relatively rare in the adult population and were not indicative of milk protein allergy. The observed IgE levels were low and did not correlate with subjective milk-related symptoms. The measurement of milk-specific IgE in adults should be discouraged in outpatient clinics. PMID:18609255

  13. Label-free colorimetric aptasensor for IgE using DNA pseudoknot probe.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chen-Yu; Zhao, Xihong; Wu, Tzu-Heng; Wei, Shih-Chung; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2014-07-01

    The development of simple and low-cost approaches to the detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE) would provide a method for the early diagnosis and prevention of atopic diseases. The current methods of detection are generally tedious, multi-step processes and are limited by the high cost of the labeled proteins. We describe here a label-free structure-switching colorimetric method for the simple measurement of IgE using DNA pseudoknot probes and gold nanoparticles. In the absence of a target the IgE aptamer probe adopts a pseudoknot conformation that dissociates a capture probe from the unmodified gold nanoparticles. However, when IgE binds to the aptamer probe, the pseudoknot is resolved, leading to a favorable hybridization between the 3' terminal loop of the aptamer probe and the capture probe; this induces the aggregation of the gold nanoparticles. As a result, the colorimetric IgE sensor using this structure-switching mechanism is sensitive, specific and convenient, and the assay works even when challenged with complicated biological matrixes such as vaginal fluids. The proposed method is expected to be of great clinical value for IgE detection and could be used, after appropriate design, for sensing applications of other structured aptamers. PMID:24821053

  14. Serum IgE clearance is facilitated by human FcεRI internalization

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Alexandra M.; Wu, Nan; Putnam, Amy L.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Wolters, Paul; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Jeoung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI is constitutively expressed in mast cells and basophils and is required for transmitting stimulatory signals upon engagement of IgE-bound allergens. FcεRI is also constitutively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes in humans; however, the specific functions of the FcεRI expressed by these cells are not completely understood. Here, we found that FcεRI expressed by human blood DC antigen 1–positive (BDCA1+) DCs and monocytes, but not basophils, traffics to endolysosomal compartments under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, IgE bound to FcεRI on BDCA1+ DCs was rapidly endocytosed, transported to the lysosomes, and degraded in vitro. IgE injected into mice expressing human FcεRIα (FCER1A-Tg mice) was endocytosed by conventional DCs and monocytes, and endocytosis was associated with rapid clearance of circulating IgE from these mice. Importantly, this rapid IgE clearance was dependent on monocytes or DCs but not basophils. These findings strongly suggest that constitutive internalization of human FcεRI by DCs and monocytes distinctively contributes to serum IgE clearance. PMID:24569373

  15. Ultrasensitive carbohydrate-peptide SPR imaging microarray for diagnosing IgE mediated peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit A.; Peczuh, Mark W.; Kumar, Challa V.; Rusling, James F

    2014-01-01

    Severity of peanut allergies is linked to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in blood, but diagnostics from assays using glycoprotein allergen mixtures may be inaccurate. Measuring IgEs specific to individual peptide and carbohydrate epitopes of allergenic proteins is promising. We report here the first immunoarray for IgEs utilizing both peptide and carbohydrate epitopes. A surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) microarray was equipped with peptide and β-xylosyl glycoside (BXG) epitopes from major peanut allergen glycoprotein Arachis hypogaea h2 (Ara-h2). A monoclonal anti-IgE antibody was included as positive control. IgEs were precaptured onto magnetic beads loaded with polyclonal anti-IgE antibodies to enhance sensitivity and minimize non-specific binding. As little as 0.1 attomole (0.5 pg/mL) IgE was detected from dilute serum in 45 min. IgEs binding to Ara-h2 peptide and BXG were quantified in 10 μL of patient serum and correlated with standard ImmunoCAP values. PMID:25259443

  16. Increased IgE antibody responses in rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Zetterstroem, O.N.; Nordvall, S.L.; Bjoerksten, B.A.; Ahlstedt, S.; Stelander, M.

    1985-05-01

    Raised serum IgE levels were found in a high proportion of rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke twice daily 5 days a week for 8 wk in a Dontenville-type smoking machine. Levels above 1 ng/ml of IgE were found in nine of 20 animals exposed to cigarette smoke and in five of 20 rats exposed to smoke from cigarettes with 1.45% phenylmethyloxidiazole added for possible protection against the effects of the smoke. None of the 20 control rats exhibited similarly increased serum IgE. Exposure to tobacco smoke did not significantly affect the serum concentrations of IgM and IgG. The development of specific IgE and IgG antibodies was also influenced by tobacco smoke exposure. Rats exposed to ovalbumin aerosol developed increased levels of IgG and IgE antibodies, whereas no effect on the development of antibody titers was found in rats immunized by the subcutaneous route. This study demonstrates that exposure to tobacco smoke increases serum IgE levels and enhances sensitization via the airways by a local effect, thus supporting the mucosal theory of atopy.

  17. 129/SvJ mice have mutated CD23 and hyper IgE

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jill W.; Sturgill, Jamie L.; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor, is hypothesized to function as a negative regulator of IgE production. Upon discovering reduced CD23 surface levels in 129/SvJ inbred mice, we sought to further investigate 129/SvJ CD23 and to examine its influence on IgE levels. Five amino acid substitutions were found in 129/SvJ CD23. Identical mutations were also observed in CD23 from New Zealand Black and 129P1/ReJ mice. 129/SvJ B cells proliferated more rapidly than those from BALB/c after stimulation with IL-4 and CD40 ligand trimer. However, in vitro IgE levels in supernatants from stimulated 129/SvJ B cells were significantly reduced. Contrary to the in vitro findings, the 129/SvJ CD23 mutations correlated with a hyper IgE phenotype in vivo and 129/SvJ were able to clear Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection more rapidly than either BALB/c or C57BL/6. Overall, this study further suggests that CD23 is an important regulatory factor for IgE production. PMID:18828998

  18. Total IgE Distribution in Food Allergy Suspected Patients in Republic of Macedonia (2001-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Mitkovska, Slavica Hristomanova; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Spiroski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE may be considered the hallmark of allergic disorders. It is easily detected in serum and can be measured as total IgE and as allergen-specific IgE. In fact, the serum IgE assay is used to diagnose an allergy. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate, investigate and present the distribution of total serum IgE levels, determined with UniCap system, in food-allergy suspected patients in a Republic of Macedonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study we analyzed retrospectively 8898 consecutive patients that were admitted for allergy testing at the Institute of Immunobiology and Human Genetics during the ten year period between 01.01.2001 and 01.01.2011. Total IgE levels in patient sera were detected with the in vitro system UniCAP100 (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden). RESULTS: When we analyzed the number of patients according to the total IgE groups, we noted that most of the patients have normal levels of total IgE in serum. However, we also discovered a group of patients with elevated levels of total IgE that are greater than 200 kU/L. The average concentration of total serum IgE is higher in women in the age group 6 (6-7 years), followed by a steep decrease in the age group 9 (9-10 years), and after that the average concentrations of total IgE were mostly constant with the exception of a partial increase in the age group 21 (65-69 years). For men, the average serum concentrations of total IgE were highest in the age group of 6 (6-7 years), which was significantly higher than the average concentrations of total IgE in all other age groups. CONCLUSION: The large number of enrolled patients, a particular strength of this study, revealed that average concentrations of total IgE in men are higher than in women and that total IgE did not decrease with age. On the contrary, increased total IgE levels were found in patients aged 65 and 69 of both genders. We continue our work with analyses of the specific IgE antibodies values toward food and the correlation with

  19. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  20. IgE deposition in normal skin of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in relation to clinical and laboratory findings.

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, L S; Westedt, M L; Cats, A; Vermeer, B J; Weltevreden, E F; Bridts, C H; Stevens, W J

    1985-01-01

    Biopsy specimens from apparently normal skin of 28 patients with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were examined for the presence of IgE deposition by a direct immunofluorescence technique. IgE deposition was found in 12 patients (43%) and in none of the 10 controls. This deposition was mainly localised on mast cells, and in three patients perivascular IgE staining was also noted. The skin from nine of the 12 patients also showed deposition of IgM and complement C3 or C4 factor, or both. All 12 patients with skin IgE deposition had raised levels of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in the serum. Nine of these also had IgE RF. IgE-containing circulating immune complexes (IgE CIC), raised serum IgE levels, and extra-articular (EA) manifestations were present in respectively 10, nine, and eight skin IgE positive patients. It is suggested that IgE and IgE CIC may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA and its EA manifestations. Images PMID:3904645

  1. Utility of IgE (total and Aspergillus fumigatus specific) in monitoring for response and exacerbations in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Sehgal, Inderpaul S; Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2016-01-01

    The role of total and specific IgE in monitoring treatment responses in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) remains poorly studied. Here in, we evaluate the utility of total and Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE in the follow-up of ABPA. Eighty-one consecutive treatment-naïve patients of ABPA (acute stage) with pulmonary infiltrates and bronchiectasis underwent measurement of total and A. fumigatus specific IgE at baseline, after 8 weeks of glucocorticoid therapy, and during exacerbations. There was clinical and radiological improvement after treatment with median decline of total IgE by 51.9%. The total IgE declined by at least 35%, 25% and 20% in 69 (85.2%), 76 (93.6%) and 78 (96.3%) patients, respectively. On the other hand, the A. fumigatus specific IgE increased in 42 (51.9%) subjects, and the mean increase was 1.4%, after 8 weeks. Among 13 patients with exacerbation, 12 (92.3%) had a rise of total IgE by >50%. The A. fumigatus specific IgE increased in only five (38.5%) subjects during exacerbation. Thus, the total IgE is a useful test in monitoring treatment responses in ABPA while A. fumigatus specific IgE has limited utility. PMID:26575791

  2. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  3. Expression of the High Affinity IgE Receptor by Neutrophils of Individuals with Allergic Asthma is Both Minimal and Insensitive to Regulation by Serum IgE

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Juanita; Riggs, Emily K.; Fu, Jun; MacGlashan, Donald W.; Fox, Susan A.; Yu, Byung; Tobin, Mary C.; Thomas, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that serum IgE regulates neutrophil FcεRI expression in the same manner as described for other FcεRI+ cells. FcεRI expression by neutrophils of 40 asthma subjects and 20 control subjects did not correlate with serum IgE levels, whereas FcεRI expression by basophils of the same subjects showed a highly significant correlation. The level of FcεRI expression by neutrophils of both asthma and control subjects was approximately 1% of that for basophil FcεRI expression. IgE+ neutrophils were minimally detectable, and FcεRI α subunit was not detected in Western blots of neutrophil membranes and cytosol. The neutrophil FcεRI did not support anti-IgE stimulated superoxide release or IgE-induced increase in neutrophil survival. We conclude that FcεRI expression by neutrophils of both asthma patients and control individuals is minimal at best and that, if present, neutrophil FcεRI expression, unlike that of other human FcεRI+ cells, is not regulated by serum IgE. PMID:19359220

  4. Translation of CODEV Lens Model To IGES Input File

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, T. D.; Carlin, B. B.

    1986-10-01

    The design of modern optical systems is not a trivial task; even more difficult is the requirement for an opticker to accurately describe the physical constraints implicit in his design so that a mechanical designer can correctly mount the optical elements. Typical concerns include setback of baffles, obstruction of clear apertures by mounting hardware, location of the image plane with respect to fiducial marks, and the correct interpretation of systems having odd geometry. The presence of multiple coordinate systems (optical, mechan-ical, system test, and spacecraft) only exacerbates an already difficult situation. A number of successful optical design programs, such as CODEV (1), have come into existence over the years while the development of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) has allowed a number of firms to install "paperless" design systems. In such a system, a part which is entered by keyboard, or pallet, is made into a real physical piece on a milling machine which has received its instructions from the design system. However, a persistent problem is the lack of a link between the optical design programs and the mechanical CAD programs. This paper will describe a first step which has been taken to bridge this gap. Starting with the neutral plot file generated by the CODEV optical design program, we have been able to produce a file suitable for input to the ANVIL (2) and GEOMOD (3) software packages, using the International Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) interface. This is accomplished by software of our design, which runs on a VAX (4) system. A description of the steps to be taken in transferring a design will be provided. We shall also provide some examples of designs on which this technique has been used successfully. Finally, we shall discuss limitations of the existing software and suggest some improvements which might be undertaken.

  5. Electric Dust Devils and Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, N. O.; Yana, C.

    2004-12-01

    Electrical fields measurements in terrestrial dust devils show that they maintain tremendous charge separation and that their electric fields exceeds the breakdown potential (~10 kV/m) of the Martian atmosphere (Farrell et al., 2002, 2003; Krauss et al., 2002; Renno et al., 2004). Typical Martian dust devils are be up to 100 times larger and much stronger than the small terrestrial analogues. Martian dust devils have higher dust content and may produce even stronger electrical fields. Indeed, the dust devils observed in the Pathfinder images have about 700 times the dust content of the local background atmosphere (Metzger et al., 1999). Thus, strong charge separations and electric-field breakdown are likely to occur on Martian dust devils and dust storms. Our theory (Renno et al., 2004) and laboratory experiments in a Mars chamber shows that collisions between sand and dust particles produce non-thermal microwave radiation. The non-thermal microwave emission allows not only the indirect detection of electric activity but also the determination of the physical properties of Martian sand and dust by remote sensing. Besides being geologically important, electrically charged Martian dust devils and dust storms are potential hazards to Landers and will be dangerous to future astronauts exploring its surface. Indeed, the design of adequate mechanical and electrical systems for these Landers cannot progress effectively without a better understanding of Martian dust devils and dust storms. Moreover, ancillary phenomena associated with electrically charged vortices can ionize atmospheric gases and might have important implications for atmosphere chemistry and even habitability.

  6. IgE Immunoadsorption Knocks Down the Risk of Food-Related Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Dahdah, Lamia; Ceccarelli, Stefano; Amendola, Silvia; Campagnano, Pietro; Cancrini, Caterina; Mazzina, Oscar; Fiocchi, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    The effects of an immunoadsorption procedure, specifically designed to remove immunoglobulin E (IgE), on food-induced anaphylaxis have never been evaluated. We evaluate the effects of IgE removal on the allergic thresholds to foods. A 6-year-old boy with anaphylaxis to multiple foods and steroid-resistant unstable allergic asthma displayed serum IgE levels of 2800 to 3500 kU/L. To lower IgE serum concentrations, which could be overridden by a high dose of omalizumab, 1.5 plasma volumes were exchanged in 8 apheresis sessions. During the procedure, serum IgE levels fell to 309 kU/L. After the procedure, the threshold of reactivity to baked milk increased from 0.125 to 5 g of milk protein (full tolerance) after the first session, and the threshold of reactivity to hazelnut increased from 0.037 to 0.142 g of protein after the first session, 0.377 g after the eighth, and 1.067 g (full tolerance) after the first administration of omalizumab. Immediately after the sixth IgE immunoadsorption, we started omalizumab therapy. In the next 40 days, the threshold of reactivity to hazelnut increased to 7.730 (full tolerance). Asthma control was obtained, treatment with montelukast was stopped, and fluticasone was tapered from 500 to 175 μg/day. The boy became partially or fully tolerant to all the tested foods, and quality of life was improved. IgE immunoadsorption, used to establish the starting basis for omalizumab administration, is able to increase the tolerance threshold to foods. PMID:26620068

  7. Flagellin modulates IgE expression in B cells to initiate food allergy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jing; Ma, Na; Zeng, Lu; Mo, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of IgE expression has not been fully understood. Flagellin (FGN) is an important microbial factor in the regulation of immune responses in the intestine. This study tests a hypothesis that FGN plays a crucial role in the isotype switching of IgE in B cells and the initiation of food allergy. In this study, the expression of IgE in B cells was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A mouse model was developed to assess the role of Toll like receptor-5 in the development of IgE-mediated allergic reaction in the intestinal mucosa. The results showed that exposure to FGN suppressed the expression of Bcl6 in B cells via increasing the levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7; the latter up regulated the levels of methylated H3K9 and H3K27, down regulated RNA polymerase II and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at the Bcl6 promoter locus. Exposure to FGN and IL-4 markedly increased the expression of IgE in B cells via activating p300, H3K4, Pol II and STAT6 at the IgE promoter locus. As compared with the sensitized wild mice, the sensitized TLR5-deficient mice showed no detectable OVA-specific IgE in the serum; mast cells in the intestinal mucosa were not activated, no apparent allergic symptoms were evoked after the specific antigen challenge. In conclusion, FGN facilitates the initiation of food allergy in mice by triggering IgE transcription in B cells in a Th2 polarization environment via activating HDAC7 and suppressing Bcl6 expression. PMID:27398157

  8. Seasonal split influenza vaccine induced IgE sensitization against influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Kumagai, Takuji; Nishimura, Naoko; Ozaki, Takao; Okafuji, Teruo; Suzuki, Eitaro; Miyata, Akiko; Okada, Kenji; Ihara, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Although anaphylaxis is an extremely rare vaccine-associated adverse event, it occurred in young children following administration of the 2011/12 seasonal split influenza vaccine, which contained 2-phenoxyethanol as the preservative. These children had high levels of IgE antibodies against influenza vaccine components. We herein investigated why these children were sensitized. One hundred and seventeen series of serum samples were obtained immediately before, and one month after the first and second immunizations with the HA split vaccine of 2011/12. Forty-two sequential serum samples were collected in the acute and convalescent phases (2 and 4 weeks) after natural infection with H1N1 Pdm in 2009. IgE antibodies developed following the vaccination of young children with seasonal split vaccines, whereas no significant IgE response was observed following natural infection with H1N1 Pdm 2009. The prevalence of IgE antibodies was not influenced by outbreaks of H1N1 Pdm. Repeated immunization with the HA split vaccine induced IgE sensitization against the influenza vaccine irrespective of the H1N1, H3N2, or B influenza subtypes. The reasons why anaphylaxis only occurred in recipients of the influenza vaccine containing 2-phenoxyethanol are still being investigated, and the size distribution of antigen particles may have shifted to a slightly larger size. Since the fundamental reason was IgE sensitization, current split formulation for the seasonal influenza vaccine needs to be reconsidered to prevent the induction of IgE sensitization. PMID:26188254

  9. Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Untersmayr, Eva; Bakos, Noémi; Schöll, Isabella; Kundi, Michael; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Szalai, Krisztina; Riemer, Angelika B; Ankersmit, Hendrik J; Scheiner, Otto; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2005-04-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that anti-ulcer drugs, such as H2-receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors, promote the development of immediate type food allergy toward digestion-labile proteins in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the allergological relevance of these findings in humans. In an observational cohort study, we screened 152 adult patients from a gastroenterological outpatient clinic with negative case histories for atopy or allergy, who were medicated with H2-receptor blockers or proton pump inhibitors for 3 months. IgE reactivities to food allergens before and after 3 months of anti-acid treatment were compared serologically. Ten percent of the patients showed a boost of preexisting IgE antibodies and 15% de novo IgE formation toward numerous digestion-labile dietary compounds, like milk, potato, celery, carrots, apple, orange, wheat, and rye flour. Thus, the relative risk to develop food-specific IgE after anti-acid therapy was 10.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-76.48). The long-term effect was evaluated 5 months after therapy. Food-specific IgE could still be measured in 6% of the patients, as well as significantly elevated serum concentrations of ST2, a Th2-specific marker. An unspecific boost during the pollen season could be excluded, as 50 untreated control patients revealed no changes in their IgE pattern. In line with our previous animal experiments, our data strongly suggest that anti-ulcer treatment primes the development of IgE toward dietary compounds in long-term acid-suppressed patients. PMID:15671152

  10. Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Crater wall dust avalanches in southern Arabia Terra.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 10.3, Longitude 24.5 East (335.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  11. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  12. Cross-reactivity between storage and dust mites and between mites and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arlian, Larry G; Morgan, Marjorie S; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Sharra, Denada

    2009-02-01

    Many patients have sensitivities to multiple species of storage and house dust mites. It is not clear if this is because patients have multiple sensitivities to species-specific mite allergens or if these mites share many cross-reacting allergens. Our objective was to further define the cross-allergenicity between several species of storage and house dust mites using crossed-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), immunoblotting, and ELISA. CIE and CRIE reactions revealed that storage mites shared two cross-antigenic molecules and one of these bound IgE in a serum pool from mite allergic patients. Antibody in anti-sera built to each species of mite recognized many SDS-PAGE resolved proteins of other mite species and this suggested the potential for other cross-reactive allergens. Among patient sera, IgE bound to many different proteins but few had IgE that bound to a protein with common molecular weights across the mite species and this suggested mostly species-specific allergens. Antiserum built to each mite species precipitated one protein in shrimp extracts that bound anti-Der p 10 (tropomyosin) and IgE in the serum pool. Anti-Der p 10 showed strong binding to shrimp tropomyosin but very little to any of the mite proteins. ELISA showed the mite extracts contained very little tropomyosin. The storage and dust mites investigated contain mostly species-specific allergens and very small amounts of the pan-allergen tropomyosin compared to shrimp and snail. PMID:18850281

  13. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    PubMed Central

    He, Jin-Shu; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Xiangying, Deng; Zuan, Lim Yok; Jones, Leigh Ann; Ramakrishna, Lakshmi; de Vries, Victor C.; Dolpady, Jayashree; Aina, Hoi; Joseph, Sabrina; Narayanan, Sriram; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Puthia, Manoj; Wong, Glenn; Xiong, Huizhong; Poidinger, Michael; Urban, Joseph F.; Lafaille, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE+ B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias toward the plasma cell (PC) fate, and dependence on sequential switching for the production of high-affinity IgE. We show here that IgE+ GC B cells are unfit to undergo the conventional GC differentiation program due to impaired B cell receptor function and increased apoptosis. IgE+ GC cells fail to populate the GC light zone and are unable to contribute to the memory and long-lived PC compartments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that direct and sequential switching are linked to distinct B cell differentiation fates: direct switching generates IgE+ GC cells, whereas sequential switching gives rise to IgE+ PCs. We propose a comprehensive model for the generation and memory of IgE responses. PMID:24218137

  14. Immature B cells preferentially switch to IgE with increased direct Sμ to Sε recombination

    PubMed Central

    Wesemann, Duane R.; Magee, Jennifer M.; Boboila, Cristian; Calado, Dinis Pedro; Gallagher, Michael P.; Portuguese, Andrew J.; Manis, John P.; Zhou, Xiaolong; Recher, Mike; Rajewsky, Klaus; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class-switch recombination (CSR) replaces initially expressed Cμ (IgM) constant regions (CH) exons with downstream CH exons. Stimulation of B cells with anti-CD40 plus interleukin-4 induces CSR from Cμ to Cγ1 (IgG1) and Cε (IgE), the latter of which contributes to the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. Although Cε CSR can occur directly from Cμ, most mature peripheral B cells undergo CSR to Cε indirectly, namely from Cμ to Cγ1, and subsequently to Cε. Physiological mechanisms that influence CSR to Cγ1 versus Cε are incompletely understood. In this study, we report a role for B cell developmental maturity in IgE CSR. Based in part on a novel flow cytometric IgE CSR assay, we show that immature B cells preferentially switch to IgE versus IgG1 through a mechanism involving increased direct CSR from Cμ to Cε. Our findings suggest that IgE dysregulation in certain immunodeficiencies may be related to impaired B cell maturation. PMID:22143888

  15. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-11-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ɛ26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ɛ26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6h after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ɛ26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  16. Autoimmune Hepatitis in Brazilian Children: IgE and Genetic Polymorphisms in Associated Genes

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Léa Campos; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Marin, Maria Lucia Carnevale; Schneidwind, Karina Rosa; Frade, Amanda Farage; Kalil, Jorge; Miura, Irene Kasue; Pugliese, Renata Pereira Sustovich; Danesi, Vera Lucia Baggio; Porta, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients present hypergammaglobulinemia, periportal CD8+ cytotoxic T cell infiltration, and cirrhosis. Autoantibody profile defines AIH types 1 and 2 in addition to strong association with HLA-DRB1. We previously detected increased IgE serum levels and sought to compare clinical and histological features according to IgE levels in AIH (n = 74, ages 1–14 years) patients. Additionally, we typed 117 patients and 227 controls for functional polymorphisms of IL4, IL13, IL5, and IL4RA genes involved in IgE switching and eosinophil maturation that might contribute to overall genetic susceptibility to AIH. Serum IgE levels were high in 55% of AIH-1, but only in 12% of AIH-2 (P = 0.003) patients. Liver IgE was present in 91.3% of AIH-1 patients. The A alleles at both IL13 rs20541 and IL4RA rs1805011 were associated with AIH-1 (P = 0.024, OR = 1.55 and P < 0.0001, OR = 2.15, resp.). Furthermore, individuals presenting homozygosis for the A allele at IL4RA rs1805011 and HLA-DRB1∗03 and/or ∗13 allele had sixfold greater risk to develop the disease (OR = 14.00, P < 0.001). The novel association suggests an additional role for IgE-linked immune response genes in the pathogenesis of AIH. PMID:26693492

  17. Effects of Bordetella pertussis components on IgE and IgG1 responses.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, K

    1983-01-01

    The effect of dermonecrotic toxin (DNT), fimbrial hemagglutinin (FHA), K-agglutinogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and pertussigen from Bordetella pertussis on the production of IgE and IgG1 antibodies to hen egg albumin (Ea) was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The IgE antibody contents were determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in the skin of Lewis rats, while the IgG1 antibody contents were determined by PCA reactions on the skin of mice using sera that had been heated for 3 hr at 56 C to destroy the IgE antibodies. Among the B. pertussis components tested, pertussigen was the most effective adjuvant for increasing the IgE and IgG1 antibodies to Ea. LPS also moderately increased both types of antibodies, and FHA slightly increased the IgG1 titers. When LPS was given 5 days before Ea, it suppressed both IgE and IgG1 titers while FHA had only slight adjuvant action on both type of antibodies. When each of the components was tested for its ability to modify the adjuvant action of pertussigen, it was found that only DNT interfered significantly with the adjuvanticity of pertussigen when given on the day of immunization with Ea. When the components were given 5 days before Ea, DNT produced significant suppression of only the IgG1 response. LPS, FHA, and K-agglutinogen did not significantly affect the adjuvant action of pertussigen. PMID:6321910

  18. Cellular lesion responsible for exaggerated IgE synthesis accompanying allergic breakthrough

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelletti, J.F.; Katz, D.H.

    1989-05-01

    Appropriate levels of IgE are maintained by a cellular and molecular network composed of (1) a suppressive, Ly-1+, CD4+ T cell-dependent arm that is activated by inappropriate high levels of IgE and (2) an enhancing, CD8+ T cell-dependent arm that controls this suppression in a feedback regulatory manner. Ly-1+ T cells also function to counterbalance (inhibit) the activity of these latter CD8+ T cells. It has been previously shown that Ly-1+ T cells can reverse low-dose irradiation-induced enhancement of IgE antibody responses (i.e., allergic breakthrough). We have analyzed lymphocytes isolated from mice subjected to low-dose irradiation to determine which component of this network is defective in such animals. Stimulation of normal lymphocytes with IgE in vitro resulted in the release of lymphokines that suppress IgE antibody responses. In contrast, similar stimulation of lymphocytes from irradiated mice did not elicit secretion of such suppressive lymphokines, unless the cells were depleted of CD8+ T cells or reconstituted with normal Ly-1+ T cells. Because Ly-1+ T cells of irradiated mice could not reconstitute the response, we conclude that this functional subset of CD4+ T cells, which normally controls CD8+ T cell activity in this network, is defective in animals that exhibit irradiation-induced allergic breakthrough.

  19. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ε26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ε26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6 hours after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ε26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  20. Hazards of explosives dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. For purposes of personnel safety, the spark ignitability of the explosives in the form of unconfined dust layers was also studied. The 20-L data show that most of the explosive dusts were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air and some dusts were even capable of sustaining explosions when dispersed in nitrogen. The finest sizes of explosive dusts were less reactive than the larger sizes; this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. The data for the explosive dusts were compared to those for pure fuel dusts.

  1. Biomonitoring of prenatal analgesic intake and correlation with infantile anti-aeroallergens IgE.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, H; Roeder, S; Mueller, A; Bertsche, T; Borte, M; Rolle-Kampczyk, U; von Bergen, M; Wissenbach, D K

    2016-06-01

    An association between prenatal acetaminophen or ibuprofen intake and an increased risk of asthma and increased IgE level in children is discussed in various epidemiological studies. Although the molecular mechanistic link is still unknown, the question whether or not acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen are safe pain medications during pregnancy arose. In this study, we associate maternal acetaminophen and ibuprofen intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding to infantile asthma phenotypes and elevated IgE level. Therefore, we analysed questionnaires from a local mother-child cohort and monitored drug intake by LC-MS biomonitoring in urine. No association was found between drug intake and any analysed health outcome using questionnaire data. For the information obtained from biomonitoring, no association was found for ibuprofen and acetaminophen intakes during breastfeeding. However, an association between prenatal acetaminophen intake and increased infantile IgEs related to aeroallergens was statistically detected, but not for asthma phenotypes. PMID:27012463

  2. Dendritic cell-bound IgE functions to restrain allergic inflammation at mucosal sites

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Baker, Kristi; Vera, Miguel Pinilla; Singer, Kathleen; Panduro, Marisella; Lexmond, Willem S.; Turner, Devin; Vargas, Sara O.; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Maurer, Dieter; Baron, Rebecca M.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-mediated crosslinking of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to mast cells/basophils via FcεRI, the high affinity IgE Fc-receptor, is a well-known trigger of allergy. In humans, but not mice, dendritic cells (DCs) also express FcεRI that is constitutively occupied with IgE. In contrast to mast cells/basophils, the consequences of IgE/FcεRI signals for DC function remain poorly understood. We show that humanized mice that express FcεRI on DCs carry IgE like non-allergic humans and do not develop spontaneous allergies. Antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking fails to induce maturation or production of inflammatory mediators in human DCs and FcεRI-humanized DCs. Furthermore, conferring expression of FcεRI to DCs decreases the severity of food allergy and asthma in disease-relevant models suggesting anti-inflammatory IgE/FcεRI signals. Consistent with the improved clinical parameters in vivo, antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking on papain or LPS-stimulated DCs inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Migration assays confirm that the IgE-dependent decrease in cytokine production results in diminished recruitment of mast cell progenitors; providing a mechanistic explanation for the reduced mast cell-dependent allergic phenotype observed in FcεRI-humanized mice. Our study demonstrates a novel immune regulatory function of IgE and proposes that DC-intrinsic IgE signals serve as a feedback mechanism to restrain allergic tissue inflammation. PMID:25227985

  3. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2). PMID:22993721

  4. Epidemiological survey of anti-flea IgE in dogs in Japan by using an antigen-specific IgE quantitative measurement method

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Y.; Beugnet, F.

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, an epidemiological survey was performed in dogs from October to December 2008 by using a quantitative measurement method for antigen-specific IgE towards specific Ctenocephalides felis antigens. 214 dogs from 22 veterinary clinics were included. These clinics were located as follows, from North to South: Hokkaido, Aomori, Fukushima, Tochigi, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo (Tama-City and Ota-ku), Kanagawa, Gifu, Niigata, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Hyogo, Kagawa, Ehime, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, Kumamoto and Kagoshima. 110 dogs (51.4%) were seropositive for flea-specific IgE. No differences were associated with gender or breed. This survey confirms that flea infestation in dogs is a common problem in Japan. It especially shows that the infestation also occurs in Northern Japan where fleas are considered uncommon by the vet. PMID:22550629

  5. Effect of maternal lifestyle on cord blood IgE factor.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, T; Morimoto, K; Sasaki, S; Taniguchi, K; Motonaga, M; Akahori, W; Akahori, S; Akahori, T; Ohmori, H; Kuroda, E; Okabe, K; Yugari, K; Yamana, M

    1997-06-01

    During recent decades much interest has been focused on the possibility of predicting and preventing atopic diseases during pregnancy. The idea of being able to detect a predisposition early and take suitable environmental measures in order to avoid overt allergy is an attractive position. Elevated cord IgE of around 1.0 IU/ml has been proposed as a predictor in western children. However, there remains no information about the effect of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on these levels. Total IgE levels were therefore determined using Pharmacia CAP system and PRIST, with sensitivities of 0.01 kU/l and 0.25 kU/l, respectively, from serum samples taken from 1138 Japanese pairs of cord blood and pregnant women responding to a questionnaire regarding 17 health practices, intake of 32 food allergens and 5 environmental factors. Of these, 28 (2.5%) pairs of samples were excluded from further analysis because of high contamination of IgA (> 15.4 mg/ml) in cord blood. Median cord blood IgE was 0.286 kU/l and geometric mean IgE was 66.25 kU/l in maternal sera using CAP system; there was no significant correlation between maternal log (IgE) and cord blood IgE. Similar results were obtained from PRIST, whose correlation with CAP system was significant (r = 0.884, p < 0.001 for maternal and r = 0.765, p < 0.001 for cord blood). Multiple logistic analysis demonstrated that avoidance of simultaneous exposure to hens' eggs and cow's milk (relative risk = 1.3, p < 0.05) as well as soy beans (relative risk = 2.8, p < 0.01) should be advised to mothers with positive allergic histories and/or high total IgE (> 400 IU/ml), especially in women aged more than 35 years who are pregnant with a male child. However, maintenance of healthy lifestyles, especially taking proper exercise and sleeping, and avoidance of inhalant allergens during late pregnancy may be a more important strategy for the reduction of cord blood IgE levels. PMID:9258545

  6. Syntaxin-4 is essential for IgE secretion by plasma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Arman; DeCourcey, Joseph; Larbi, Nadia Ben; Loughran, Sinéad T.; Walls, Dermot; Loscher, Christine E.

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells resulted in reduction of IgE secretion. •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 also leads to the accumulation of IgE in the cell. •Immuno-fluorescence staining shows co-localisation of IgE and syntaxin-4 in U266 cells. •Findings suggest a critical requirement for syntaxin-4 in IgE secretion from plasma cells. -- Abstract: The humoral immune system provides a crucial first defense against the invasion of microbial pathogens via the secretion of antigen specific immunoglobulins (Ig). The secretion of Ig is carried out by terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes called plasma cells. Despite the key role of plasma cells in the immune response, the mechanisms by which they constitutively traffic large volumes of Ig out of the cell is poorly understood. The involvement of Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in the regulation of protein trafficking from cells has been well documented. Syntaxin-4, a member of the Qa SNARE syntaxin family has been implicated in fusion events at the plasma membrane in a number of cells in the immune system. In this work we show that knock-down of syntaxin-4 in the multiple myeloma U266 human plasma cell line results in a loss of IgE secretion and accumulation of IgE within the cells. Furthermore, we show that IgE co-localises with syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells suggesting direct involvement in secretion at the plasma membrane. This study demonstrates that syntaxin-4 plays a critical role in the secretion of IgE from plasma cells and sheds some light on the mechanisms by which these cells constitutively traffic vesicles to the surface for secretion. An understanding of this machinery may be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and autoimmune disease where over-production of Ig leads to severe pathology in patients.

  7. Dust Plume off Mauritania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A thick plume of dust blew off the coast of Mauritania in western Africa on October 2, 2007. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite observed the dust plume as it headed toward the southwest over the Atlantic Ocean. In this image, the dust varies in color from nearly white to medium tan. The dust plume is easier to see over the dark background of the ocean, but the plume stretches across the land surface to the east, as well. The dust plume's structure is clearest along the coastline, where relatively clear air pockets separate distinct puffs of dust. West of that, individual pillows of dust push together to form a more homogeneous plume. Near its southwest tip, the plume takes on yet another shape, with stripes of pale dust fanning out toward the northwest. Occasional tiny white clouds dot the sky overhead, but skies are otherwise clear.

  8. Congruence between international guidelines and mite specific immunotherapy prescribing practices.

    PubMed

    Antonicelli, L; Braschi, M C; Bilò, M B; Angino, A; Pala, A P; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Bonifazi, F

    2011-10-01

    Both rhinitis (ARIA) and asthma (GINA) guidelines recommend allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) tailored to the specific levels of severity of each disease. Real world studies evaluating congruence between these recommendations and prescribing practice in the single patient with comorbidity are lacking. An observational polycentric study was carried out in 518 patients recruited from 34 allergy centers throughout Italy. A questionnaire was administered to each consecutive patient over a span of four months. Taking into account guideline recommendations for both diseases, concomitant in the same patient, three subsets resulted: patients not eligible for SIT (11%); patients eligible for SIT for one disease only (60%); patients eligible for SIT for both diseases (29%). SIT was prescribed in 257 (49.6%) subjects. The level of SIT prescription was about 50% in all three groups. Consistent with the ARIA guidelines, a correlation between the prescription of SIT and the severity of rhinitis was documented (r=0.87; p=0.001). An association with asthma severity was found (p=0.02), but the trend was inconsistent with the GINA recommendations. Young age was the most important factor for SIT prescription both in the eligible for one disease and in the eligible for both diseases subset. The tendency towards worsening of symptoms was a factor for SIT in the eligible for one disease subset. In mite allergic patients with rhinitis and asthma comorbidity, the severity of rhinitis and the young age are the most important factors driving the SIT prescription. The congruence of SIT prescription was better for the ARIA than GINA guidelines. PMID:21628094

  9. House-Dust Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    House-dust allergy is a common cause of perennial allergic rhinitis and extrinsic asthma. Symptoms tend to be worse when the patient is in bed. A positive skin test properly performed and interpreted confirms the diagnosis. The house-dust mite is the most important antigenic component of house-dust. Treatment consists of environmental control directed at reducing the mite content of bedroom dust, plus control of symptoms with drugs. Immunotherapy is controversial. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21286201

  10. Relationship of Organizational Structure and Leadership Behavior to Staff Satisfaction in IGE Schools. Technical Report No. 412.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Diana Reed

    The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship of structural aspects of the school organization and leadership behavior in schools to job satisfaction within Individually Guided Education (IGE) schools, and to determine whether organizational structure or leadership behavior had more impact on job satisfaction in IGE schools. Data…

  11. Dust in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust in…

  12. Niamey Dust Observations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be further studied.

  13. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     View Larger Image ... these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the height of the dust and an ...

  14. Middle East Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... only some of the dust over eastern Syria and southeastern Turkey can be discerned. The dust is much more obvious in the center panel, ... 18, 2002 - A large dust plume extends across Syria and Turkey. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  15. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

    2014-01-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

  16. Evaluation of dust respirators for elimination of mouse aeroallergens.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Miyazawa, H; Kamimura, H; Kimura, M; Yamazaki, S

    1989-01-01

    The efficiency of various dust respirators for eliminating mouse allergens [mouse urine proteins (MUP), pelts proteins (MPP) and serum albumin (MSA)] were evaluated with use of low-volume air samplers and immunochemical methods. Three kinds of dust respirators from one manufacturer which have different efficacy in the exclusion of dust particles were put on the fiber glass filter in each air sampler. Then the air in a mouse housing room was sampled. The allergens passed through the respirators, were trapped in the fiber glass filters, and then extracted from the filters. The allergens of MUP and MPP in the extract were measured by an inhibition method of fluorometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgE antibody and those of MSA measured by a fluorometric sandwich ELISA. The respirator with the lowest capability of exclusion was found to eliminate 65-86% of respective allergens. The other two respirators with higher powers eliminated 98% of MUP. MPP and MSA were eliminated to undetectable levels through these respirators. This study provided a means for the evaluation of dust respirators for animal aeroallergens. PMID:2918688

  17. Potentiation of IgE responses to third-party antigens mediated by Ascaris suum soluble products.

    PubMed

    Lee, T D; McGibbon, A

    1993-01-01

    A reductive approach was used to examine the potentiation of IgE responses by nematode infection. Ascaris homogenized extract, Ascaris pseudocoelomic (body) fluid (ABF) and purified Ascaris allergen (ABA) were tested for their ability to act as protein carriers and as mediators of potentiated IgE responses to third-party (ovalbumin; OVA) responses. All three nematode products were excellent protein carriers for the hapten dinitrophenol and showed significantly better activity in this respect than OVA. Neither ABF nor ABA enhanced the level of the IgE response to the third-party antigen but both prolonged the response markedly. ABF, but not ABA, induced high levels of total circulating IgE when given at the same time as OVA with alum. The data suggest that the enhancement and prolongation of IgE responses by nematodes may be two separate but related activities. PMID:8400897

  18. Interstellar Dust Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Drake, K.; Collette, A.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Postberg, F.; Krueger, H.; Auer, S.

    2010-10-01

    Interstellar grains traversing the inner planetary system have been identified by the Ulysses dust detector. Space dust detectors on other missions confirmed this finding. Analysis of the Stardust collectors is under way to search for and analyze such exotic grains. Interstellar dust particles can be detected and analyzed in the near-Earth space environment. New instrumentation has been developed to determine the origin of dust particles and their elemental composition. A Dust Telescope is a combination of a Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 084501, 2008) together with a high mass resolution mass analyzer for the chemical composition of dust particles in space. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of induced electric signals when a charged grain flies through a position sensitive electrode system. A modern DTS can measure dust particles as small as 0.2 micron in radius and dust speeds up to 100 km/s. Large area chemical analyzers of 0.1 m2 sensitive area have been tested at a dust accelerator and it was demonstrated that they have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass number up to >100 (Earth, Moon and Planets, DOI: 10.1007/s11038-005-9040-z, 2005; Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 014501, 2007). The advanced Dust Telescope is capable of identifying interstellar and interplanetary grains, and measuring their mass, velocity vector, charge, elemental and isotopic compositions. An Active Dust Collector combines a DTS with an aerogel or other dust collector materials, e.g. like the ones used on the Stardust mission. The combination of a DTS with a dust collector provides not only individual trajectories of the collected particles but also their impact time and position on the collector which proves essential in finding collected sub-micron sized grains on the collector.

  19. Co-stimulation of T cells via CD28 inhibits human IgE production; reversal by pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Pouw-Kraan, C T; Rensink, H J; Rappuoli, R; Aarden, L A

    1995-01-01

    In lymphocyte cultures, IgE production was achieved by stimulating T cells with anti-CD2 and IL-2. Here we show that anti-CD28, in the presence or absence of IL-2, reduces this IgE production approximately 10-fold. This inhibition of IgE production was almost completely reversed by Pertussis toxin (PT). PT had no effect on IgE production when the cells were stimulated in the absence of anti-CD28. No major effects of PT were found on IgM production. PT had no effect on purified B cells, stimulated with IL-4 and anti-CD40. In the presence of saturating amounts of rIL-4 similar results were obtained, albeit the absolute amounts of IgE produced were higher in all situations. Furthermore, PT-induced IgE production was still dependent on IL-4, as was evident from experiments in which anti-IL-4 was added to the culture. The IgE enhancing effect was dependent on the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyltransferase activity of PT, because a mutant molecule lacking this activity was not able to restore anti-CD28-induced inhibition of IgE synthesis. Thus, we show that co-stimulation with anti-CD28 causes an inhibition of T cell-dependent IgE production by B cells, which inhibition can be specifically overcome by PT. An analysis of the molecular pathways underlying this phenomenon may contribute to our understanding of the regulation of IgE synthesis in (patho)physiological conditions. PMID:7882571

  20. Galactose-α-1,3-Galactose–Specific IgE Is Associated with Anaphylaxis but Not Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Kelly, Libby A.; Rönmark, Eva; James, Hayley R.; Pochan, Shawna L.; Peters, Edward J.; Lundbäck, Bo; Nganga, Lucy W.; Cooper, Philip J.; Hoskins, Janelle M.; Eapen, Saju S.; Matos, Luis A.; McBride, Dane C.; Heymann, Peter W.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens. Methods: Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131). Measurements and Main Results: Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to α-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results provide a model of an ectoparasite-induced specific IgE response that can increase total serum IgE without creating a risk for asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled. PMID:22281828

  1. Progressive Cross-Reactivity in IgE Responses: an Explanation for the Slow Development of Human Immunity to Schistosomiasis?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Frances M.; Pinot de Moira, Angela; Protasio, Anna V.; Khalife, Jamal; Dickinson, Harriet A.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2012-01-01

    People in regions of Schistosoma mansoni endemicity slowly acquire immunity, but why this takes years to develop is still not clear. It has been associated with increases in parasite-specific IgE, induced, some investigators propose, to antigens exposed during the death of adult worms. These antigens include members of the tegumental-allergen-like protein family (TAL1 to TAL13). Previously, in a group of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males, we showed that IgE responses to three TALs expressed in worms (TAL1, -3, and -5) became more prevalent with age. Now, in a subcohort we examined associations of these responses with resistance to reinfection and use the data to propose a mechanism for the slow development of immunity. IgE was measured 9 weeks posttreatment and at reinfection at 2 years (n = 144). An anti-TAL5 IgE (herein referred to as TAL5 IgE) response was associated with reduced reinfection even after adjusting for age using regression analysis (geometric mean odds ratio, 0.24; P = 0.016). TAL5 IgE responders were a subset of TAL3 IgE responders, themselves a subset of TAL1 responders. TAL3 IgE and TAL5 IgE were highly cross-reactive, with TAL3 the immunizing antigen and TAL5 the cross-reactive antigen. Transcriptional and translational studies show that TAL3 is most abundant in adult worms and that TAL5 is most abundant in infectious larvae. We propose that in chronic schistosomiasis, older individuals have repeatedly experienced IgE antigens exposed when adult worms die (e.g., TAL3) and that this leads to increasing cross-reactivity with antigens of invading larvae (e.g., TAL5). Progressive accumulation of worm/larvae cross-reactivity could explain the age-dependent immunity observed in areas of endemicity. PMID:23006852

  2. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  3. A National Evaluation of the I/D/E/A Change Program for IGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Jon S.

    A survey was conducted to determine attitudes of administrators, teachers, students, and parents of students in schools using the Institute for Development of Educational Activities, Inc. (I/D/E/A) Change Program for Individually Guided Education (IGE). The study took over two years, and reached a sample of the 1,200 schools in 36 states.…

  4. Intrathecal synthesis of IgE in children with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Hernández, Hermes Fundora; Barroso, Jesús Callol; Sanchez-Martinez, Consuelo

    2008-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by the helminth Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging infectious disease in America. The objective of this paper was to determine if the intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin E is produced during the acute phase of the disease. Methods Thirteen patients, mean age 4.5 years were studied; a diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed and serum samples taken. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was quantified by nephelometry. Control patients had other infections or other neurological diseases. Results The mean cell count in the CSF was 500 × 10-6 cells/L and of these 23% were eosinophils. In blood the eosinophils were 13%. The chief symptoms of the patients were migraine, vomiting and fever and 50% presented some meningeal signs. IgE intrathecal synthesis analyzed by the corresponding quotient diagram (Reibergram) was observed in all patients. No intrathecal IgE synthesis was seen in control patients. Conclusion Intrathecal synthesis of IgE demonstrates the participation of this immunoglobulin in the destruction of the third stage larvae of the parasite in the CSF. The test should be considered in our environment as a tool to aid diagnosis. PMID:19032790

  5. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens. PMID:24926808

  6. Paradoxical Increase of IgE Binding Components during Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy in Pollinosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Moon-Gyung; Jin, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Yoo-Seob

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) reduces allergen specific IgE (sIgE) levels and achieves clinical and immunological tolerance by modulating innate and adaptive immunological responses. Increased temperature and CO2 concentrations caused by climate changes contribute to an increase of pollen count and allergenicity that influences clinical SIT outcomes. In this study, we investigated the changes of IgE binding components to tree and weed pollens in pollinosis patients who showed a paradoxical increase of serum sIgE level during pollen-SIT. We enrolled nine patients who showed an increasing pattern of serum sIgE level to alder, birch, ragweed and mugwort pollens by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. IgE immunoblot analysis confirmed the intensification or new generation of major IgE binding components that could be induced by climate change. The findings suggest that the regular monitoring of sIgE levels and symptom changes is required to improve the clinical outcomes of SIT in patients undergoing SIT for tree and weed pollens. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045240

  7. Screening for IgE mediated allergy among people working in the Marseilles harbour.

    PubMed

    Panzani, R C; Falagiani, P; Riva, G; Mercier, P; Delord

    1993-01-01

    Screening for IgE mediated allergy by RASTs to professional (castor bean, green coffee, peanut, soy protein, wheat, rice), and non professional (pollens, mites, cat, Alternaria tenuis) air borne antigens among 36 people working in the Marseilles harbour has showed rather unexpected findings: only one case of IgE positivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (class I) and one case of IgE positivity to castor bean seed (Ricinus communis) (class IV). IgG4 specific antibodies against castor bean and green coffee were also measured by an ELISA technique, with eleven cases of positivity to castor bean and only one case to green coffee being recorded. Several explanations can be put forward for the low incidence of IgE responses to the commonest airborne antigens and to the professional antigens (castor bean being the only offender), and for the rather high incidence of specific IgG4 antibodies to castor bean. Most likely, the low incidence of latent atopy is the result of a natural selection among the workers who gave up their job if experiencing of discomfort. As far as the elevated IgG4 antibody levels to castor bean are concerned, these are probably natural blocking antibodies. PMID:8328353

  8. Structural characterization and IgE epitope analysis of arginine kinase from Scylla paramamosain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine kinase (AK) has been reported as the pan-allergen of shellfish, however, there is limited information about its IgE epitopes and structural characteristics. In this study, AK from Scylla paramamosain was purified and characterized. The purified AK was a glycoprotein with the molecular weigh...

  9. Treatment of cashew extracts with Aspergillopepsin reduces IgE binding to cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cashew nuts can cause serious and sometimes life threatening reactions in people that suffer from food allergies. These reactions are mediated by immunoglobulin E binding (IgE) to allergenic cashew proteins. Enzymes from Aspergillus fungal species are used in many industrial and pharmaceutical appli...

  10. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Mattison, Christopher P; Reed, Shawndrika; Wasserman, Richard L; Desormeaux, Wendy A

    2015-08-01

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or cashew allergen (Ana o 2) was treated with or without 5mM sodium oleate at 70°C for 60 min (T1) or under the same conditions with an additional overnight incubation at 37°C (T2). After treatment, the samples were dialyzed and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and for OA content. IgE binding was evaluated by ELISA and western blot, using a pooled serum or plasma from individuals with peanut or cashew allergies. Results showed that OA at a concentration of 5mM reduced IgE binding to the allergens. Peanut sample T2 exhibited a lower IgE binding and a higher OA content (protein-bound) than T1. Cashew allergen T2 also showed a reduction in IgE binding. We conclude that OA reduces the allergenic properties of peanut extract and cashew allergen by binding to the allergens. Our findings indicate that OA in the form of sodium oleate may be potentially useful as a coating to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens. PMID:25766831

  11. Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat Associated With Specific IgE Antibodies to Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Liping; Zhou, Junxiong; Sun, Jin-lu; Sun, Yi; Wu, Kai; Katial, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    A novel delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, associated with tick bites and IgE antibodies against galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (α-gal), was reported in 2009 in the US, Australia and Europe. In this case, serum specific IgE to galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (>100 kU/L) and IgE to multiple non-primate mammalian proteins were positive. However, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. We report the first case in Asia of delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, which was induced by bites from the hard tick, Hematophagous ixodidae. We confirmed the increased concentration of IgE reactive epitopes in non-primate mammalian organs, which may be rich in α-gal proteins in lymphatic and endothelial tissues. All confirmed ticks associated with this disorder in the literature and in our case belonged to the hard tick family. We hypothesize that hard tick saliva is enriched with blood-type substances, such as oligosaccharides, from the non-primate mammal victim's blood after days to weeks of blood sucking, which sensitizes humans through the injection route while blood sucking. PMID:25553269

  12. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  13. A locus regulating total serum IgE maps to chromosome 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Amelung, P.J.; Panhuysen, C.I.M.; Postma, D.S. |

    1994-09-01

    Familial aggregation of allergy has been demonstrated in numerous past studies. However, allergy is a complex disorder which is not inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. Total serum IgE levels correlate with the clinical expression of allergy and asthma and can be utilized as a quantitative measure of the allergic phenotype. We studied 92 families from Northern Holland ascertained through a parent with asthma who were originally studied between 1962-1970. Since there is a large number of candidate genes on chromosome 5q, families were genotyped for markers in this region. These genes either directly or indirectly regulate IgE production and the activation and proliferation of cellular elements that are involved in inflammation associated with allergy and asthma. They include IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and GM-CSF. Segregation analyses revealed recessive inheritance of `high` levels with a mean for the `low` phenotype of 1.51 (32 IU) and 2.52 (331 IU) for the `high` phenotype. Linkage of log IgE with markers on 5q was tested using the sib-pair and the LOD score methods with the genetic model obtained from the segregation analyses. These results provide evidence for a locus controlling IgE levels near the cytokine gene cluster on 5q. This region appears critical in susceptibility to allergy and asthma.

  14. Effect of d-amino acids on IgE binding to peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D-amino acids are formed when L-amino acids are exposed to heat. The objective was to determine the existence of D-amino acids in roasted peanut and their effect on IgE binding. Raw and roasted peanut protein extracts were hydrolyzed in 6 N HCL under vacuum. The hydrolysates were then analyzed for D...

  15. Multiple IgE recognition on the major allergen of the Parietaria pollen Par j 2.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valeria; Costa, Maria Assunta; Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; La Grutta, Stefania; Colombo, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between IgE antibodies and allergens is a key event in triggering an allergic reaction. The characterization of this region provides information of paramount importance for diagnosis and therapy. Par j 2 Lipid Transfer Protein is one of the most important allergens in southern Europe and a well-established marker of sensitization in Parietaria pollen allergy. The main aim of this study was to map the IgE binding regions of this allergen and to study the pattern of reactivity of individual Parietaria-allergic patients. By means of gene fragmentation, six overlapping peptides were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their IgE binding activity was evaluated by immunoblotting in a cohort of 79 Parietaria-allergic patients. Our results showed that Pj-allergic patients display a heterogeneous pattern of IgE binding to the different recombinant fragments, and that patients reacted simultaneously against several protein domains spread all the over the molecule, even in fragments which do not contain structural features resembling the native allergen. Our results reveal the presence of a large number of linear and conformational epitopes on the Par j 2 sequence, which probably explains the high allergenic activity of this allergen. PMID:25284812

  16. Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cashew nuts are included in a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergies. IgE binding to allergens within the nuts can cause allergic reactions that can be severe. Foods containing cashew nuts must be labeled to prevent accidental exposure to people who suffer from allergy to cashew nuts....

  17. Paradoxical increase of IgE binding components during allergen-specific immunotherapy in pollinosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Moon-Gyung; Jin, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) reduces allergen specific IgE (sIgE) levels and achieves clinical and immunological tolerance by modulating innate and adaptive immunological responses. Increased temperature and CO2 concentrations caused by climate changes contribute to an increase of pollen count and allergenicity that influences clinical SIT outcomes. In this study, we investigated the changes of IgE binding components to tree and weed pollens in pollinosis patients who showed a paradoxical increase of serum sIgE level during pollen-SIT. We enrolled nine patients who showed an increasing pattern of serum sIgE level to alder, birch, ragweed and mugwort pollens by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. IgE immunoblot analysis confirmed the intensification or new generation of major IgE binding components that could be induced by climate change. The findings suggest that the regular monitoring of sIgE levels and symptom changes is required to improve the clinical outcomes of SIT in patients undergoing SIT for tree and weed pollens. PMID:25045240

  18. Crossreactivity of IgE antibody against Dermatophagoides farinae with Limulus polyphemus agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, M; Isoyama, S; Sumazaki, R; Takita, H

    1994-04-01

    Crossreactivity of IgE antibody against Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) with Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA) was examined using RAST and immunoblot analysis. Of 40 Der f-sensitive asthmatic patients, 28 revealed a positive RAST reaction to LPA, while none of 20 Der f-insensitive hay fever patients showed this reaction. LPA-specific RAST levels of the 40 asthmatic patients correlated with their Der f-specific levels. The RAST reactivity to LPA was competitively inhibited by the addition of either soluble Der f or LPA, but not by the specific inhibitory sugar of sialic acid. LPA could also induce histamine release from leucocytes of Der f-sensitive asthmatic patients. IgE immunoblot analyses showed that the positive RAST sera for LPA had a strong IgE binding activity to the 30 kDa and 80 kDa components of Der f body extract, whereas gel filtration studies showed that the high molecular weight fractions above 150 kDa retained antigenic constituents associated with IgE reactivity to LPA. These results suggest that the antigenic materials of Dermatophagoides mites share some determinants with the haemagglutinin of horseshoe crabs. PMID:7518731

  19. Interstellar Dust - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2012-01-01

    The study of the formation and the destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic materials. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar physics and chemistry and in the formation of organic materials, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. Laboratory experiments that are performed under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments to provide information on the nature, the size and the structure of interstellar dust particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. A review of the properties of dust and of the laboratory experiments that are conducted to study the formation processes of dust grains from molecular precursors will be given.

  20. Light Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 October 2004 Many Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images exhibit wild patterns of dark streaks thought to have formed by the passage of many dust devils. The dust devils disrupt the dust coating the martian surface, leaving behind a streak. However, not all dust devils make streaks, and not all dust devil streaks are dark. Some are light---it simply depends upon which is darker, the substrate or the dust that the spinning vortex disrupts. The example of light-toned dust devil streaks shown here is located in southern Schiaparelli Basin near 5.3oS, 343.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.

  1. Inhalation of stable dust extract prevents allergen induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Peters, M; Kauth, M; Schwarze, J; Körner‐Rettberg, C; Riedler, J; Nowak, D; Braun‐Fahrländer, C; von Mutius, E; Bufe, A; Holst, O

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent epidemiological studies have shown that growing up on a traditional farm provides protection from the development of allergic disorders such as hay fever and allergic asthma. We present experimental evidence that substances providing protection from the development of allergic diseases can be extracted from dust collected in stables of animal farms. Methods Stable dust was collected from 30 randomly selected farms located in rural regions of the Alps (Austria, Germany and Switzerland). The dust was homogenised with glass beads and extracted with physiological sodium chloride solution. This extract was used to modulate immune response in a well established mouse model of allergic asthma. Results Treatment of mice by inhalation of stable dust extract during sensitisation to ovalbumin inhibited the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and airway eosinophilia upon challenge, as well as the production of interleukin 5 by splenocytes and of antigen specific IgG1 and IgE. Dust extract also suppressed the generation of human dendritic cells in vitro. The biological activity of the dust extract was not exclusively mediated by lipopolysaccharide. Conclusions Stable dust from animal farms contains strong immune modulating substances. These substances can interfere with the development of both cellular and humoral immunity against allergens, thus suppressing allergen sensitisation, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic asthma. PMID:16244088

  2. Human eosinophils express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Messingham, Kelly N; Holahan, Heather M; Frydman, Alexandra S; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE ≥ 400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  3. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  4. Association Between PTPN22 Polymorphisms and IgE Responses to Staphylococcal Superantigens in Chronic Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Palikhe, Sailesh; Kim, Seung Hyun; Pham, Le Duy; Ye, Young Min; Park, Hae Sim

    2015-05-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase-22 (PTPN22) gene encodes lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp), an inhibitor of T cell activation. A polymorphism of the PTPN22 gene has been found to be associated with chronic urticaria (CU). We investigated the associations between PTPN22 gene polymorphisms and CU characteristics, including serum specific IgE antibodies response to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). CU patients (n=409) and normal healthy controls (n=388) were enrolled in the present study. Serum specific IgE to TSST-1 and SEA were measured by ImmunoCAP®. Five PTPN22 single nucleotide polymorphisms, -1123G>C, 1858C>T, 13145A>G, 14943C>T, and 20628A>G, were genotyped. There were no significant differences in genotype or haplotype frequencies of these polymorphisms between the 2 groups. CU patients carrying the GG genotype at 20628A>G (P=0.035) or haplotype 3 [GGG] (P=0.047) had a significantly higher prevalence of serum specific IgE to TSST-1 compared to non-carriers. Similarly, CT/TT genotype at 14943C>T had a significantly higher prevalence of serum specific IgE to SEA (P=0.045). The findings suggest that the PTPN22 gene polymorphisms at 20628A>G and 14943C>T may enhance serum specific IgE responses to TSST-1 and SEA, which may contribute to CU pathogenesis. PMID:25749762

  5. Decreased Level of IgE is Associated with Breast Cancer and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huayi; Guo, Gang; Jianzhong, Cao; Zheng, Yaqin

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of type I allergic diseases in patients with breast cancer by carrying out a questionnaire survey and IgE detection in a healthy population and in patients with breast cancer. Material/Method There were 309 patients enrolled and they were further divided into the type I allergic disease group, the newly diagnosed breast cancer with type I allergic disease group, the re-visit breast cancer with type I allergic disease group, and the re-visit breast cancer without type I allergic disease group, as well as a healthy control group. Serum total IgE level was detected by immunoassay. Results The IgE value in the healthy population with type I allergic diseases (89.3±51.4 IU/ml) was significantly higher than in those without type I allergic diseases (45.6±65.1 IU/ml). There was no significant difference between IgE values in the re-visit breast cancer patients with type I allergic disease (25.1±65.1 IU/ml) and those without type I allergic disease (23.0±45.9 IU/ml). The area under the ROC curve was 0.618±0.04, sensitivity was 78%, specificity was 47.1%, Youden index was 0.251, and IgE threshold was 32.6 IU/ml. Conclusions The patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were susceptible to type I allergic disease at about the same levels as in the healthy population. There was no correlation between breast cancer and type I allergic disease. PMID:26901362

  6. Purification and characterization of IgE produced by human myeloma cell line, U266.

    PubMed

    Ikeyama, S; Nakagawa, S; Arakawa, M; Sugino, H; Kakinuma, A

    1986-02-01

    Human IgE was isolated for the first time from the supernatant of the culture fluid of a human myeloma cell line, U266. The purification procedure consisted of salting out from the supernatant with ammonium sulfate, affinity chromatography on a lysine-Sepharose 4B column, ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sephacel column, gel filtration and recycling chromatography on a Sephacryl S-300 column and removal of bovine proteins on an anti-bovine serum rabbit IgG-Sepharose 4B column. One hundred and twenty eight milligrams of IgE was recovered from 461 of culture fluid. The purification was extremely simplified by the introduction of immunoaffinity chromatography using the monoclonal antibody prepared by immunizing a mouse with an IgE preparation obtained by the above method: about 3.3 mg was recovered from 960 ml of culture fluid. The purified preparation was homogeneous as judged by the double-immunodiffusion test and end group analysis. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of the preparation coincided with those reported on other preparations obtained from the sera of myeloma patients. Our preparation, however, showed two bands with apparent mol. wts of 240,000 and 230,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When it was reduced with dithiothreitol and analyzed by electrophoresis, it gave two heavy chains and one light chain with apparent mol. wts of 80,000 and 76,000, and 28,000, respectively. On the other hand, the IgE molecule that was synthesized and secreted into the medium in the presence of tunicamycin (0.5 microgram/ml) gave only one heavy chain and one light chain with apparent mol. wts of 62,000 and 28,000, respectively. These results demonstrated that the two IgE molecular species contained in our preparation differed from each other in the carbohydrate moiety in their heavy chains. PMID:3702874

  7. Prenatal exposure to household pets influences fetal IgE production

    PubMed Central

    Aichbhaumik, Niladri; Zoratti, Edward M.; Strickler, Ronald; Wegienka, Ganesa; Ownby, Dennis R.; Havstad, Suzanne; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2013-01-01

    Background Early life pet exposure may protect against allergic sensitization during childhood. Few studies have evaluated the effect of prenatal pet exposure on potential neonatal markers of allergic risk. Objective To investigate whether maternal exposure to pets affects cord blood IgE levels in a population-based, general risk, ethnically mixed birth cohort. Methods Pet keeping during pregnancy was ascertained from women residing in a defined area of Wayne County Michigan and recruited from five staff model obstetric clinics. Maternal venous blood was analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgE along with cord blood total IgE from 1049 infants. Results Compared to infants from households with no cats or dogs kept indoors during pregnancy, infants whose homes had either cats or dogs had significantly reduced mean cord IgE levels [0.34 IU/ml (95%CI 0.30–0.38) vs. 0.24 IU/ml (0.20–0.27) p = 0.025]. Similar effects were apparent in cat-only households [0.21 IU/ml (0.16–0.27), p = 0.020] and dog-only households [0.24 IU/ml (0.19–0.29), p = 0.045]. There was no effect on results when excluding mothers who reported avoiding pets due to allergy-related concerns. Conclusion Mothers with either cats or dogs in their home during pregnancy deliver children with lower cord blood IgE levels compared to mothers who do not live with these pets, supporting the hypothesis that pet exposure influences immune development in a manner that is protective for atopy and is operant even before birth. PMID:18702655

  8. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  9. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if D-amino acids (D-aas) bind and inhibit immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to peanut allergens. D-aas such as D-Asp (aspartic acid), D-Glu (glutamic acid), combined D-[Asp/Glu] and others were each prepared in a cocktail of 9 other D-aas, along with L-amino acids (L-aas) and controls. Each sample was mixed with a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic donors, and tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blots for IgE binding to peanut allergens. Results showed that D-[Asp/Glu] (4 mg/ml) inhibited IgE binding (75%) while D-Glu, D-Asp and other D-aas had no inhibitory effect. A higher inhibition was seen with D-[Asp/Glu] than with L-[Asp/Glu]. We concluded that IgE was specific for D-[Asp/Glu], not D-Asp or D-Glu, and that D-[Asp/Glu] was more reactive than was L-[Asp/Glu] in IgE inhibition. The finding indicates that D-[Asp/Glu] may have the potential for removing IgE or reducing IgE binding to peanut allergens in vitro. PMID:25053052

  10. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs. PMID:27288851

  11. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Wayne R

    2015-10-01

    The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations. PMID:26433526

  12. Serum IgE and risk of pancreatic cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO)

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sara H.; Hsu, Meier; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Bracci, Paige M.; Zhou, Mi; Patoka, Joseph; Reisacher, William I.; Wang, Julie; Kurtz, Robert C.; Silverman, Debra T.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have consistently found that self-reported allergies are associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Our aim was to prospectively assess the relationship between serum IgE, a marker of allergy, and risk. This nested case-control study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) included subjects enrolled in 1994-2001 and followed through 2010. There were 283 cases of pancreatic cancer and 544 controls matched on age, gender, race, and calendar date of blood draw. Using the ImmunoCAP system, we measured total IgE (normal, borderline, elevated), IgE to respiratory allergens, and IgE to food allergens (negative or positive) in serum collected at baseline. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. We assessed interactions with age, gender, smoking, body mass index, and time between randomization and case diagnosis. Overall, there was no association between the IgE measures and risk. We found a statistically significant interaction by baseline age: in those aged >65, elevated risks were observed for borderline total IgE (OR=1.43; 95% CI, 0.88-2.32) and elevated total IgE (OR=1.98; 95% CI, 1.16-3.37) and positive IgE to food allergens (OR=2.83; 95% CI, 1.29-6.20); among participants <65, ORs were <1. Other interactions were not statistically significant. The reduced risk of pancreatic cancer associated with self-reported allergies is not reflected in serum IgE. PMID:24718282

  13. Does Genetic Regulation of IgE Begin In-Utero? Evidence from TH1/TH2 Gene Polymorphisms and Cord Blood Total IgE

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xiumei; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Liu, Xin; Arguelles, Lester; Kumar, Rajesh; Wang, Guoying; Kuptsova-Clarkson, Nataliya; Pearson, Colleen; Ortiz, Kathryn; Bonzagni, Anthony; Apollon, Stephanie; Fu, Lingling; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Schleimer, Robert; Holt, Patrick G.; Bauchner, Howard; Wang, Xiaobin

    2010-01-01

    Background Elucidation of early life factors is critical to understand the development of allergic diseases, especially those manifesting in early life such as food allergies and atopic dermatitis. Cord blood IgE (CBIgE) is a recognized risk factor for the subsequent development of allergic diseases. In contrast to numerous genetic studies of total serum IgE in children and adults, limited genetic studies on CBIgE have been conducted. Objective To test the associations between functional or tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the TH1/TH2 pathway and CBIgE in a large U.S. inner-city birth cohort. Methods CBIgE, measured by Phadia ImmnunoCAP, was analyzed as a continuous and a binary variable. The association of each SNP with the two outcomes was tested using tobit and logistic regression models, respectively, with adjustment for pertinent covariates, ancestral proportion, and multiple testing. Ethnic heterogeneity and gene-gene interactions were also explored. Results Three SNPs (rs1800925, rs2069743 and rs1295686) in the IL13 gene were significantly associated with CBIgE concentration (p≤6×10-4, pFDR<0.05). These SNPs jointly influenced CBIgE in a dose-response manner (ptrend=9×10-8). Significant associations also were observed for SNPs in the IL13RA1 (rs5956080) and STAT6 (rs11172106) genes. Ethnicity-specific genetic effects were observed for SNPs in the IL5 and GATA3 genes. Several gene-gene interactions (including IL13-IL4R and IL13-STAT6 interactions) were detected in relation to CBIgE. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that multiple SNPs were individually and jointly associated with CBIgE, with evidence of gene-gene interactions and ethnic heterogeneity. These findings suggest that genetic regulation of IgE may begin in-utero. PMID:21050946

  14. Bright Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 June 2004 Martian dust devils sometimes disrupt thin coatings of surface dust to create dark streak patterns on the surface. However, not all dust devils make streaks, and not all dust devil streaks are dark. In Syria Planum, the streaks are lighter than the surrounding plains. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example from Syria near 8.8oS, 103.6oW. The thin coating of surface dust in this region is darker than the substrate beneath it. This is fairly unusual for Mars, because most dust is bright. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/lower left.

  15. DUST FORMATION IN MACRONOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Ioka, Kunihito; Nozawa, Takaya E-mail: kunihito.ioka@kek.jp

    2014-07-01

    We examine dust formation in macronovae (as known as kilonovae), which are the bright ejecta of neutron star binary mergers and one of the leading sites of r-process nucleosynthesis. In light of information about the first macronova candidate associated with GRB 130603B, we find that dust grains of r-process elements have difficulty forming because of the low number density of the r-process atoms, while carbon or elements lighter than iron can condense into dust if they are abundant. Dust grains absorb emission from ejecta with an opacity even greater than that of the r-process elements, and re-emit photons at infrared wavelengths. Such dust emission can potentially account for macronovae without r-process nucleosynthesis as an alternative model. This dust scenario predicts a spectrum with fewer features than the r-process model and day-scale optical-to-ultraviolet emission.

  16. Human Eosinophils Express the High Affinity IgE Receptor, FcεRI, in Bullous Pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Messingham, Kelly N.; Holahan, Heather M.; Frydman, Alexandra S.; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE≥400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  17. Increased serum IgE concentrations during infection and graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S A; Rogers, T R; Perry, D; Hobbs, J R; Riches, P G

    1984-01-01

    Serum IgE concentrations estimated in 25 bone marrow transplant recipients during episodes of infection or graft versus host disease, or both, were raised not only in some patients with acute graft versus host disease but also in many patients with infection. Raised values were not seen in chronic graft versus host disease. The routine estimation of serum IgE in bone marrow transplant recipients had minimal value because of the lack of specificity of the IgE response. PMID:6368605

  18. IgE anti Hepatitis B virus surface antigen antibodies detected in serum from inner city asthmatic and non asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Tam, Elizabeth; Norowitz, Kevin B; Chotikanatis, Kobkul; Weaver, Diana; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H; Kohlhoff, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Viral Hepatitis type B (HBV) is a public health concern, but has not been linked to asthma. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G is involved in HBV immune responses; less is known about IgE antibodies (Abs) against HBV in asthma. Given the importance of HBV, we sought to determine whether HBV vaccine contributes to asthma in children, by stimulating specific IgE production. Total IgE, IgE- or IgG-anti-HBVs Abs were studied in vaccinated pediatric asthmatics and non asthmatics. We found: (1) total IgE was higher in asthmatics; (2) total IgE did not correlate with IgE anti-HBVs; (3) IgE anti-HBVs did correlate with IgG-anti-HBVs in all subjects; (4)IgE- and IgG-HBVs Abs were similar in both groups; (5) IgE- or IgG anti-HBVs Abs did not correlate with age. Our findings indicate that HBV vaccination induces IgE responses in asthmatics and non asthmatics. PMID:24374043

  19. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  20. Cometary dust composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Hanner, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    The earth based measurements and in situ sampling of Comet Halley have provided new data about the chemical composition of cometary grains. Recent progress in laboratory studies of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) complement the comet data, allowing inferences about the mineralogy and physical structure of the comet dust to be drawn from the observed elemental composition and infrared spectra. The in situ dust composition measurements at Halley, the composition of IDPs and their relation to comet dust, and the origin of the 3.4 micron hydrocarbon feature is discussed. Related discussion is also presented on aromatic components in comets and the 3.4 micron feature. These topics are briefly summarized.

  1. Operational Dust Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  2. Whither Cometary Dust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper I will discuss recent findings that have important implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of primitive solar system dust, including: - Nesvorny et al. (2010), following up on their dynamical analyses of the zodiacal dust bands as sourced by the breakup of the Karin (5Mya) and Veritas (8Mya) asteroid families, argue that over 90% of the interplanetary dust cloud at 1 AU comes from JFC comets with near-circularized, low inclination orbits. This implies that the noted IPD collections of anhydrous and hydrous dust particles are likely to be from Oort cloud and JFC comets, respectively, not from asteroids and comets as thought in the past. Hydrous dust particles from comets like 85P/Wild2 and 9P/Tempel 1 would be consistent with results from the STARDUST and Deep Impact experiments. - Estimates of the dust particle size distributions (PSDs) in the comae of 85P/Wild2 (Green et al. 2004, 2007) and 73P/SW-3 (Sitko et al. 2010, Vaubaillon & Reach 2010) and in the trails of comets (Reach et al. 2007) have broken power law structure, with a plateau enhancement of particles of 1 mm - 1 cm in size. This size is also the size of most chondritic inclusions, and the predicted size range of the "aggregational barrier", where collisions between dust particles become destructive. - Studies of the albedo and polarization properties of cometary dust (Kolokolova et al. 2007) suggest there are 2 major groupings, one with low scattering capability and one with high. While these families could possibly have been explained by systematics in the PSDs of the emitted dust, independent work by Lisse et al. (2008) on the mineralogy of a number of highly dusty comets has shown evidence for one family of comets with highly crystalline dust and another with highly amorphous dust.

  3. Influence of protein expression system on elicitation of IgE antibody responses: experience with lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Almond, Rachael J; Flanagan, Brian F; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2012-11-15

    With increased interest in genetically modified (GM) crop plants there is an important need to understand the properties that contribute to the ability of such novel proteins to provoke immune and/or allergic responses. One characteristic that may be relevant is glycosylation, particularly as novel expression systems (e.g. bacterial to plant) will impact on the protein glycoprofile. The allergenicity (IgE inducing) and immunogenicity (IgG inducing) properties of wild type native human lactoferrin (NLF) from human milk (hm) and neutrophil granules (n) and a recombinant molecule produced in rice (RLF) have been assessed. These forms of lactoferrin have identical amino acid sequences, but different glycosylation patterns: hmNLF and nNLF have complex glycoprofiles including Lewis (Le)(x) structures, with particularly high levels of Le(x) expressed by nNLF, whereas RLF is simpler and rich in mannose residues. Antibody responses induced in BALB/c strain mice by intraperitoneal exposure to the different forms of lactoferrin were characterised. Immunisation with both forms of NLF stimulated substantial IgG and IgE antibody responses. In contrast, the recombinant molecule was considerably less immunogenic and failed to stimulate detectable IgE, irrespective of endotoxin and iron content. The glycans did not contribute to epitope formation, with equivalent IgE and IgG binding recorded for high titre anti-NLF antisera regardless of whether the immunising NLF or the recombinant molecule were used substrates in the analyses. These data demonstrate that differential glycosylation profiles can have a profound impact on protein allergenicity and immunogenicity, with mannose and Le(x) exhibiting opposing effects. These results have clear relevance for characterising the allergenic hazards of novel proteins in GM crops. PMID:22813905

  4. The Nature of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    The STARDUST mission is designed to collect dust the coma of comet Wild 2 and to collect interstellar dust on a second set of collectors. We have a reasonable idea of what to expect from the comet dust collection because the research community has been studying interplanetary dust particles for many years. It is less clear what we should expect from the interstellar dust. This presentation discusses what we might expect to find on the STARDUST interstellar dust collector.

  5. Combustible dust tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  6. Pathfinder Spies Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This set of images from NASA's 1997 Pathfinder mission highlight the dust devils that gust across the surface of Mars. The right image shows the dusty martian sky as our eye would see it. The left image has been enhanced to expose the dust devils that lurk in the hazy sky.

  7. Dust resuspension without saltation

    PubMed Central

    Loosmore, Gwen A.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Wind resuspension (or entrainment) provides a source of dust and contaminants for the atmosphere. Conventional wind erosion models parameterize dust resuspension flux with a threshold velocity or with a horizontal abrasion flux; in the absence of abrasion the models assume dust flux is transient only. Our experiments with an uncrusted, fine material at relative humidities exceeding 40% show a long-term steady dust flux in the absence of abrasion, which fits the approximate form: Fd = 3.6(u*)3, where Fd is the dust flux (in μg/m2 s), and u* is the friction velocity (in m/s). These fluxes are generally too small to be significant sources of dust in most models of dust emission. However, they provide a potential route to transport contaminants into the atmosphere. In addition, dust release is substantial during the initial transient phase. Comparison with field data suggests that the particle friction Reynolds number may prove a better parameter than u* for correlating fluxes and understanding the potential for abrasion. PMID:20336175

  8. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, Dag; Carpenter, James; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L.; Loftus, David J.; Prisk, G. Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-12-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust properties will be required to provide ground truth for ground-based studies quantifying the toxicity of dust exposure and the associated health risks during future manned lunar missions.

  9. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D-amino acids (D-aas) are reported to bind to IgE antibodies from people with allergy and asthma. The objectives of this study were to determine if D-aas bind or inhibit IgE binding to peanut allergens, and if they are more effective than L-amino acids (L-aas) in this respect. Several D-aa cocktails...

  10. Evidence for two unlinked loci regulating total serum IgE levels

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Levitt, R.C.; Taylor, E.W.

    1995-08-01

    Studies investigating the genetic control of total serum IgE levels are of major importance in understanding basic pathophysiologic mechanisms in atopy and asthma, since IgE levels predict onset and correlate with the clinical expression of these disorders. Previous analysis of data from 92 families, ascertained through a parent with asthma, showed evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels with linkage to chromosome 5q. Since there was significant residual familial correlation in the one-locus segregation analysis, two-locu segregation and linkage analyses were performed. Segregation analyses provided evidence for a second major locus unlinked to the locus on 5q. Utilization of this two-locus model corroborates the previous evidence for linkage between this trait and markers on 5q{sub 31}-q{sub 33}. The LODs for the most informative marker D5S436 increased from 3.00 at 10% recombination to 4.67 at 9% recombination when the two-locus model was used. Additional linkage studies are needed to map this second locus. These results demonstrate the importance of performing multilocus segregation and linkage analyses for quantitative traits that are related to the phenotype of a complex disorder. This approach has given further insight into the genetics of allergy and asthma by providing evidence for a two-locus model. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Semiquantitative determination of serum IgE by reagent strips: PRIST/TOTALE correlation.

    PubMed

    Pena, J M; Botey, J; Gutiérrez, V; Eseverri, J L; Marín, A

    1991-06-01

    Due to its great simplicity, the determination of total and specific IgE with a reagent strip could be a screening method for in vitro allergy diagnosis if a correlation with classical techniques is verified. The TOTALE reagent strip for semiquantitative determination of total serum IgE is one of these methods and unites the now classical foundation (anti-IgE/IgE/anti-IgE labeled sandwich) and the ease of the reagent strip technique. In a preliminary evaluation of these methods we compared the PRIST isotopic method to the TOTALE one for serum total IgE. In summary, the most relevant consequences from this comparison are the following ones: a) The initial sample is the same for both: serum. b) No additional equipment or materials other than the serum sample are needed for TOTALE practising. c) The reagent strip has a lower cost and is faster than the PRIST method. d) Correlation coefficients were 0.89 (n = 35) in the range of measurement under study and 0.93 (n = 23) in the range from 5 to 200 U/L. PMID:1669578

  12. Development of the Abbott MATRIX Aero assay for the measurement of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, R E; Anawis, M A; Bailey, M; Mangat, D; Frank, P M; Hrusovsky, I G; Hooyman, L; Putterman, C; Defreese, J D

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the quantitation of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human serum to a panel of allergens. The assay system, called the Abbott MATRIX Aero, includes an instrument, reagents and test cell disposables. Each test cell contains fourteen airborne allergens individually localized on a nitrocellulose solid phase. Individual calibration curves for each allergen are established by the manufacturer and included in barcode form with each test kit. Stable factory calibration eliminates the need to establish a calibration curve with each assay run. The instrument automatically incubates, washes, and reads the test cell and prints each result, which ensures assay reproducibility and provides ease-of-use. Analysis of test results shows good agreement with another in vitro assay for specific IgE. The Abbott MATRIX Aero is a sensitive, reproducible and easy-to-use system for the measurement of specific IgE to a panel of fourteen allergens simultaneously using a single, small volume of serum. PMID:1806584

  13. A murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with elevated eosinophils and IgE.

    PubMed

    Kurup, V P; Mauze, S; Choi, H; Seymour, B W; Coffman, R L

    1992-06-15

    A model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was developed by exposing BALB/c mice to Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) Ag. Animals immunized intranasally (i.n.) with soluble AF Ag produced low levels of serum IgE compared to animals given alum precipitated AF Ag i.p. The latter treatment also produced higher levels of serum IgG1 and AF-specific IgG1 than soluble AF given i.p. or i.n.. Blood and lung eosinophilia was detected in mice repeatedly exposed to AF by i.n. but not in the groups injected i.p. Particulate AF Ag-induced striking blood and lung eosinophilia and elevated levels of serum IgE in mice preexposed to AF Ag. The results indicate that route of inoculation and physical nature of Ag determine the immune response and can be manipulated to obtain enhanced IgE, eosinophils, or both in the animal model. PMID:1602128

  14. The amyloid fold of Gad m 1 epitopes governs IgE binding.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Rosa; Martínez, Javier; Castro, Ana; Pedrosa, María; Quirce, Santiago; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Gasset, María

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are polymeric structural states formed from locally or totally unfolded protein chains that permit surface reorganizations, stability enhancements and interaction properties that are absent in the precursor monomers. β-Parvalbumin, the major allergen in fish allergy, forms amyloids that are recognized by IgE in the patient sera, suggesting a yet unknown pathological role for these assemblies. We used Gad m 1 as the fish β-parvalbumin model and a combination of approaches, including peptide arrays, recombinant wt and mutant chains, biophysical characterizations, protease digestions, mass spectrometry, dot-blot and ELISA assays to gain insights into the role of amyloids in the IgE interaction. We found that Gad m 1 immunoreactive regions behave as sequence-dependent conformational epitopes that provide a 1000-fold increase in affinity and the structural repetitiveness required for optimal IgE binding and cross-linking upon folding into amyloids. These findings support the amyloid state as a key entity in type I food allergy. PMID:27597317

  15. The amyloid fold of Gad m 1 epitopes governs IgE binding

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Rosa; Martínez, Javier; Castro, Ana; Pedrosa, María; Quirce, Santiago; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Gasset, María

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are polymeric structural states formed from locally or totally unfolded protein chains that permit surface reorganizations, stability enhancements and interaction properties that are absent in the precursor monomers. β-Parvalbumin, the major allergen in fish allergy, forms amyloids that are recognized by IgE in the patient sera, suggesting a yet unknown pathological role for these assemblies. We used Gad m 1 as the fish β-parvalbumin model and a combination of approaches, including peptide arrays, recombinant wt and mutant chains, biophysical characterizations, protease digestions, mass spectrometry, dot-blot and ELISA assays to gain insights into the role of amyloids in the IgE interaction. We found that Gad m 1 immunoreactive regions behave as sequence-dependent conformational epitopes that provide a 1000-fold increase in affinity and the structural repetitiveness required for optimal IgE binding and cross-linking upon folding into amyloids. These findings support the amyloid state as a key entity in type I food allergy. PMID:27597317

  16. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  17. The lunar dust pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2013-07-01

    An analytic model for the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum is presented. It is shown that the dust grain executes oscillatory trajectories, and an expression is derived for the period of oscillation. Simulations used to verify the analytic expression also show that because the trajectories are unstable, dust grains are either ejected from the crater's vicinity or deposited into the crater forming "dust ponds." The model also applies to other airless bodies in the solar system, such as asteroids, and predicts that under certain conditions, particularly near lunar sunset, oscillating dust "canopies" or "swarms" will form over negatively charged craters.

  18. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  19. Loire Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an active dust devil making its way across the rugged terrain of the Loire Vallis system. The dust devil, seen as a fuzzy, nearly-circular bright feature near the center of the picture, is casting a shadow toward the right/upper right (east/northeast). Unlike some martian dust devils, this one did not make a dark streak on the ground. Many more dust devils occur on Mars than there are dust devil streaks observed on the planet's surface.

    Location near: 18.2oS, 16.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  20. Isidis Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 March 2004 This arrow in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image points to an active dust devil observed in Isidis Planitia near 18.3oN, 268.9oW. The columnar shadow of the dust devil is visible, as is a pencil-thin (at least, pencil-thin at the scale of the image) line created by the vortex as it disrupted the dust that coats the surface. The streak indicates that the dust devil had already traveled more than 3 kilometers (1.9 miles), over craters, large ripples, and ridges, before the MOC took this picture. The dust devil was moving from the northeast (upper right) toward the southwest (lower left). Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  1. Dust escape from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, Alberto

    2004-08-01

    The Dust ballerina skirt is a set of well defined streams composed of nanometric sized dust particles that escape from the Jovian system and may be accelerated up to >=200 km/s. The source of this dust is Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active body in the Solar system. The escape of dust grains from Jupiter requires first the escape of these grains from Io. This work is basically devoted to explain this escape given that the driving of dust particles to great heights and later injection into the ionosphere of Io may give the particles an equilibrium potential that allow the magnetic field to accelerate them away from Io. The grain sizes obtained through this study match very well to the values required for the particles to escape from the Jovian system.

  2. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beckett, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  3. [Radioimmunologic determination of total IgE and allergen-specific IgE-antibodies in diffuse neurodermitis].

    PubMed

    Pürschel, W; Zeidler, U; Kuse, M

    1975-10-01

    Total IgE levels in sera of 165 patients with atopic dermatitis and 79 patients with dermatoses as well as normal control patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (Phadebas, Pharmacia). Although the mean value for patients with atopic dermatitis was found far above the mean value for normal controls, 38% of patients showed total IgE serum levels within the normal range. Highest IgE serum levels were observed in patients with the generalized form of the disease and in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. No direct correlation however, to severity of disease could be found. In a series of 50 patients prick tests were compared to total IgE serum levels and to levels of allergen specific antibodies determined by radioallergosorbent-test (RAST). Extracts of grass pollens and of animal dandruff were used. There was complete agreement between results of skin testing and RAST in at least 80%. While cross reactions were common with grass pollen extracts in RAST, there was no cross-over with animal dandruff. No correlation was found between titer of allergen specific antibody and severity of skin lesions. IgE specific antibody could be detected in 48% of patients with normal total IgE serum levels and in 82% of patients with elevated values. PMID:1201945

  4. Comparison of VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays for detection of specific IgE antibodies in allergic children.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myung Hyun; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    In vitro determination of specific IgE antibodies in serum is the most frequently used method, besides the skin test, for diagnosing allergies. Standardized and reproducible assays of specific IgE antibodies contribute to the quality of diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. This study compared the results and performance characteristics of the Pharmacia CAP system and a new specific IgE method using the VIDAS Stallertest (manufactured by bioMériux). To evaluate their clinical efficiency, the results of the CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were compared with skin prick test (SPT) results. After allergic patients completed SPTs, serum samples were collected and CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were performed to determine specific IgEs for Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, cockroach, and alternaria. For egg and milk, we measured only the correlation between the 2 in vitro assays. When SPT was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the CAP assay was a little higher in respect to all inhalant allergens. There were significant correlations between the results of VIDAS Stallertest and CAP assays for IgE antibodies to inhalant and food allergens. This study indicates that the VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays are feasible and replicable for measuring allergen-specific IgE. PMID:16081590

  5. Monoclonal antibody (H107) inhibiting IgE binding to Fc epsilon R(+) human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Noro, N; Yoshioka, A; Adachi, M; Yasuda, K; Masuda, T; Yodoi, J

    1986-08-15

    A hybridoma-producing monoclonal antibody blocking the binding of human IgE to lymphocytes Fc receptor (Fc epsilon R) was established by the fusion of murine myeloma cells. P3X63.653.Ag8, with BALB/c spleen cells immunized with Fc epsilon R(+) human B lymphoblastoid cell line cells, RPMI1788. A clone of the hybridoma (H107) produced a monoclonal IgG2b antibody that inhibited the rosette formation of Fc epsilon R(+) human B lymphoblastoid cell line cells (RPMI1788, RPMI8866, CESS, Dakiki, and IM9) with fixed ox red blood cells (ORBC) conjugated with human IgE (IgE-ORBC). In contrast, the rosette formation with IgG-conjugated ORBC (IgG-ORBC) on Fc gamma R(+), Fc epsilon R(-) Daudi cells were not affected by the H107 antibodies. A close association of Fc epsilon R and the antigenic determinant recognized by H107 antibody was suggested by the following results. First, the bindings of 125I-labeled IgE (125I-IgE) or 125I-labeled H107 IgG2b antibody (125I-H107) to RPMI8866 cells were inhibited by cold human IgE and H107 IgG2b but not by other classes of human Ig (IgA and IgG), MPC11 IgG2b, or unrelated monoclonal antibodies. Second, H107 antibody reacted with Fc epsilon R(+) B cell lines but not with Fc epsilon R(-) B cell lines as determined by an indirect immunofluorescence. Third, Fc epsilon R(+) cells were depleted by the incubation in the dish coated with H107 antibody or IgE but not in the dish coated with unrelated antibodies. Finally, there was a correlation between the increase of Fc epsilon R(+) cells and that of H107(+) cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patients with atopic dermatitis. The surface antigens on Fc epsilon R(+) RPMI8866 cells recognized by H107 antibodies had the molecular size of 45,000 as determined by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. PMID:2942602

  6. Long Term Persistence of IgE Anti-Varicella Zoster Virus in Pediatric and Adult Serum Post Chicken Pox Infection and after Vaccination with Varicella Virus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Josekutty, Joby; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Norowitz, Yitzchok M; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Nowakowski, Maja; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H

    2009-12-01

    The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, RSV), and the ability for IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies in our laboratory were the first to report the presence of IgE anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) in an adolescent patient with shingles. However, the presence and long term persistence of IgE anti VZV antibodies has not been studied in adults. The presence of serum IgE in addition to IgE and IgG anti-VZV antibody in sera were studied in children (N=12) (0-16 y/o) and adults (N=9) (32-76 y/o) with either a past history of (wild type) chicken pox (N=7 children, 9 adults) or 5 years after vaccination with varicella zoster (N=2 children) (Varicella virus vaccine live, Oka/Merck), as well as in non-infected subjects (N=3 children). Of the patients who had a positive history of chicken pox 13 of 16 (81%) contained IgE anti-VZV antibodies; they were both serum IgEHi (>100 IU/ml) and IgELo (<100 IU/ml). Of the patients who were vaccinated, IgE anti-VZV antibodies were undetected. In contrast, serum from the patients without a history of chicken pox or vaccination did not make either IgE or IgG anti-VZV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the existence of IgE anti-VZV antibodies, and its long-term persistence in serum of previously infected subjects. Future studies regarding the functional role of anti-viral IgE and its relationship to VZV are warranted. PMID:23675158

  7. Systemic and mucosal IgE antibody responses of horses to infection with Anoplocephala perfoliata.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, Charles E; Lawson, April L; Coles, Gerald C; Wilson, A Douglas

    2014-01-17

    Infection of horses with Anoplocephala perfoliata induces a severe inflammatory reaction of the caecal mucosa around the site of parasite attachment adjacent to the ileocecal valve. Lesions show epithelial erosion or ulceration of the mucosa with infiltration by eosinophils, lymphocytes and mast cells leading to oedema, gross thickening and fibrosis of the caecal wall. Despite this evidence of an inflammatory reaction to A. perfoliata within the mucosa of the caecum there is little information about the nature of the local immune response to A. perfoliata. An ELISA which assays serum IgG(T) antibodies to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens has been developed as a diagnostic test. However, the specificity of the ELISA remains sub-optimal and the role of other isotypes in the immune response to A. perfoliata has not been reported. This study measured IgA, IgE and IgG(T) antibody responses to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens in sera of 75 horses presented for slaughter. The prevalence of A. perfoliata infection, as confirmed by the presence of parasites in the terminal ileum, caecum or proximal colon, was 55%. A. perfoliata-specific IgG(T) and IgE antibodies were significantly elevated in infected horses compared to controls; IgA antibodies were also detected but did not differ between infected and control horses. Diagnosis by serum IgG(T) ELISA had a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 80%, by comparison the serum IgE ELISA had a sensitivity of just 44% with a specificity of 82% and therefore did not provide an improved diagnostic test. Western blots with sera from infected horses demonstrated IgE-binding to at least 10 separate components of excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens. A similar pattern was also found with IgG(T). Around 30% of horses had high levels of serum IgE which bound fucose-containing carbohydrate antigens on the parasite surface but this was unrelated to the presence of A. perfoliata infection. Immunoperoxidase staining detected

  8. Dust in circumstellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodmann, Jens

    2006-02-01

    This thesis presents observational and theoretical studies of the size and spatial distribution of dust particles in circumstellar disks. Using millimetre interferometric observations of optically thick disks around T Tauri stars, I provide conclusive evidence for the presence of millimetre- to centimetre-sized dust aggregates. These findings demonstrate that dust grain growth to pebble-sized dust particles is completed within less than 1 Myr in the outer disks around low-mass pre-main-sequence stars. The modelling of the infrared spectral energy distributions of several solar-type main-sequence stars and their associated circumstellar debris disks reveals the ubiquity of inner gaps devoid of substantial amounts of dust among Vega-type infrared excess sources. It is argued that the absence of circumstellar material in the inner disks is most likely the result of the gravitational influence of a large planet and/or a lack of dust-producing minor bodies in the dust-free region. Finally, I describe a numerical model to simulate the dynamical evolution of dust particles in debris disks, taking into account the gravitational perturbations by planets, photon radiation pressure, and dissipative drag forces due to the Poynting-Robertson effect and stellar wind. The validity of the code it established by several tests and comparison to semi-analytic approximations. The debris disk model is applied to simulate the main structural features of a ring of circumstellar material around the main-sequence star HD 181327. The best agreement between model and observation is achieved for dust grains a few tens of microns in size locked in the 1:1 resonance with a Jupiter-mass planet (or above) on a circular orbit.

  9. Dust torus around Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Antal; Horanyi, Mihaly

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of small dust particles generated via the continuous micrometeoroid bombardment of the Martian moons. In addition to Mar's oblateness, we also consider the radiation pressure perturbation that is complicated by the planet's eccentric orbit and tilted rotational axis. Considering the production rates and the lifetimes of dust grains, we show that particles from Deimos with radii of about 15 micrometers are expected to dominate the population of a permanently present and tilted dust torus. This torus has an estimated peak number density of approximately equals 5 x 10(exp -12)/cu cm and an optical depth of approximately equals 4 x 10(exp -8).

  10. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for each of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  11. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for ease of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  12. Electrostatic dust detector

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2006-05-02

    An apparatus for detecting dust in a variety of environments which can include radioactive and other hostile environments both in a vacuum and in a pressurized system. The apparatus consists of a grid coupled to a selected bias voltage. The signal generated when dust impacts and shorts out the grid is electrically filtered, and then analyzed by a signal analyzer which is then sent to a counter. For fine grids a correlation can be developed to relate the number of counts observed to the amount of dust which impacts the grid.

  13. Dust in the Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 24, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), acquired this true-color image of a large cloud of dust blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea. The dust storm has persisted in the region for at least a week. In this image, the brownish dust plume appears to originate about 260 miles (400 km) east of Algiers, Algeria, and is blowing toward the northwest coast of Sardinia, Italy. SeaWiFS flies aboard the OrbView-2 Satellite. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE

  14. Effects of Nasal Corticosteroids on Boosts of Systemic Allergen-Specific IgE Production Induced by Nasal Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Cornelia; Lupinek, Christian; Ristl, Robin; Lemell, Patrick; Horak, Friedrich; Zieglmayer, Petra; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear. Aim Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure. Methods Subjects (n = 48) suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1–4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter. Results Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects. Conclusion In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure. Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT00755066 PMID:25705889

  15. Production and immunological analysis of IgE reactive recombinant egg white allergens expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-05-01

    IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance. Use of recombinant proteins for immunotherapy has been beneficial due to the purity of the recombinant proteins compared to natural proteins. In this study, we produced IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins that can be used for future immunotherapy. Using E. coli as an expression system, we successfully produced recombinant versions of Gal d 1, 2 and 3, that were IgE reactive when tested against a pool of egg allergic patients' sera. The IgE reactivity indicates that these recombinant proteins are capable of eliciting an immune response, thus being potential candidates for immunotherapy. We have, for the first time, attempted to produce recombinant versions of all 4 major egg white allergens in E. coli, and successfully produced 3, with only Gal d 4 showing loss of IgE reactivity in the recombinant version. The results suggest that egg allergy in Australian populations may mainly be due to IgE reactivity to Gal d 3 and 4, while Gal d 1 shows higher IgE reactivity. This is the first report of a collective and comparative immunological analysis of all 4 egg white allergens. The significance of this study is the potential use of the IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins in immunotherapy to treat egg allergic patients. PMID:25656803

  16. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  17. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  18. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  19. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  20. Dust mite (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  1. Dusts and Molds

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dust can result in sensitization. Symptoms include chills, fever, cough, chest congestion, fatigue, and shortness of ... grain and forage products. Symptoms include cough, fever, chills, body aches, and fatigue. These symptoms appear from ...

  2. 1983 Transatlantic Dust Event

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization (prepared in 2001) shows dust being blown westward over the Atlantic from northern Africa in early 1983, from aerosol measurements taken by Nimbus 7's TOMS instrument. Saharan du...

  3. Dust and Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... dust, the most common non-spherical aerosol type, from pollution and forest fire particles. Determining aerosol characteristics is a ... higher, indicating the relative abundance of small pollution particles, especially over the Atlantic where the aerosol optical ...

  4. The Galileo dust detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Hanner, M. S.; Kissel, J.; Lindblad, B. A.; Linkert, D.; Maas, D.; Morfill, G. E.; Zook, H. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Galileo Dust Detector is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10(sup -19) kg and 10(sup -9) kg in interplanetary space and in the Jovian system, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of the distances to the Sun, to Jupiter and to its satellites, to study its interaction with the Galilean satellites and the Jovian magnetosphere. Surface phenomena of the satellites (like albedo variations), which might be effects of meteoroid impacts will be compared with the dust environment. Electric charges of particulate matter in the magnetosphere and its consequences will be studied; e.g. the effects of the magnetic field on the trajectories of dust particles and fragmentation of particles due to electrostatic disruption. The investigation is performed with an instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles. It is a multi-coincidence detector with a mass sensitivity 10(sup 6) times higher than that of previous in-situ experiments which measured dust in the outer solar system. The instrument weighs 4.2 kg, consumes 2.4 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 24 bits/s in nominal spacecraft tracking mode. On December 29, 1989 the instrument was switched-on. After the instrument had been configured to flight conditions cruise science data collection started immediately. In the period to May 18, 1990 at least 168 dust impacts have been recorded. For 81 of these dust grains, masses and impact speeds have been determined. First flux values are also given.

  5. Comparison between sensitivity of autologous skin serum test and autologous plasma skin test in patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria for detection of antibody against IgE or IgE receptor (FcεRIα).

    PubMed

    Sajedi, Vahid; Movahedi, Masoud; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Aghamohamadi, Asghar; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Ghareguzlou, Mohammad; Shafiei, Alireza; Soheili, Habib; Sanajian, Nahal

    2011-06-01

    Intradermal injection of autologous serum and plasma elicit a cutaneous reactivity in almost 45-60% of patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). This reactivity is associated with the presence of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptors. This study was carried out to compare the cutaneous reactivity of autologous serum and plasma skin tests in a series of patients with CIU for diagnosis of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptor. Fifty eight patients with CIU were injected intradermally with autologous serum and plasma (anticoagulated by citrate). Histamine was used as positive control and normal saline as negative control. The study group was checked by routine laboratory tests (CBC, U/A etc), allergens with skin prick tests, and serum IgE level, and auto antibodies against thyroid as well. Duration of urticaria was another factor which was assessed.There was no significant difference between positive ASST and positive APST patients for the above mentioned tests. 77.6% of the patients were Positive for APST and 65.5% were ASST positive. Duration of urticaria was longer in patients with positive ASST and APST than ASST and APST negative patients, although the difference was not statistically significant.Autologus serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) could be used for estimation of duration and severity of urticaria and planning for the treatment. PMID:21625019

  6. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  7. Comments on Dust Reverberation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.

    2015-09-01

    Dust reverberation is an important technique for studying the inner structure of AGNs and probing the properties of astrophysical dust, and even has some potential as a cosmological probe. We will discuss two recent results that pose a serious limitation to understanding dust reverberation at the present time. First, recent high-cadence monitoring of the UV and optical continuum in two AGNs, NGC 2617 and NGC 5548, have yielded unambiguous lags between variations of the UV continuum and corresponding variations of the continuum at longer wavelengths. In the absence of UV data, this leads to a systematic underestimate of the innermost radius where dust is found. This similarly leads to an underestimate of the size of the broad emission-line region, although it does not affect the AGN black hole mass scale, which calibrates out this effect. Second, broad-band monitoring of continuum variations in the optical through near-IR show that the innermost dust is not necessarily at the 'instantaneous sublimation radius.' The innermost dust can be considerably cooler than expected at the sublimation radius and thus can heat up without sublimating when the central continuum source becomes more luminous (see the poster by Pott).

  8. Hebes Chasma Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in Hebes Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 286.6 East (73.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Argyre Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-363, 17 May 2003

    This summertime Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view of the floor of Argyre Basin shows a plethora of dark streaks thought to have been created by the passage of dust devils. Dust devils are vortices of wind--just as a tornado is a vortex of wind associated with stormy weather on Earth, and the spiraling of water down a bathtub drain is a vortex in a liquid. Dust devils usually form on Mars on relatively calm, quiet, spring and summer afternoons. The passage of a dust devil picks up and disturbs the thin coatings of dust on the martian surface, forming streaks that mark the path that the moving dust devil took. This picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is located near 48.5oS, 43.0oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  10. Ares Vallis Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 May 2004 When it was operating in the Ares/Tiu Valles region of Chryse Planitia, Mars, in 1997, Mars Pathfinder detected dust devils that passed over and near the lander. From orbit, no images of dust devils at the Mars Pathfinder site have yet been acquired, but this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime dust devil near the rim of a 610-meter (670 yards)-diameter impact crater in the same general region as the Mars Pathfinder site. This scene is near 19.6oN, 32.9oW, in part of the Ares Vallis system. The dust devil in this case is not making a streak, as dust devils tend to do in some regions of Mars. The dark feature to the right (east) of the dust devil is its shadow. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.