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Sample records for dust mite-specific ige

  1. Retrospective Analysis on the Effects of House Dust Mite Specific Immunotherapy for More Than 3 Years in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungsoo; Lee, Hemin; Noh, Seongmin; Bae, Byung Gi; Shin, Jung U; Park, Chang Ook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In extrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD), house dust mites (HDM) play a role in eliciting or aggravating allergic lesions. The nature of skin inflammation in AD has raised a growing interest in allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). Thus, we assessed clinical improvement and laboratory parameters for evaluation of the benefit of long-term SIT. Materials and Methods A total of 217 AD patients who were treated with SIT for at least 3 years were retrospectively assessed, by using their investigator global assessment, pruritus scores, loss of sleep (LOS), total serum IgE, and eosinophil counts collected. Patients were additionally classified into subgroups according to age, initial AD severity and mono- or multi-sensitization to include different individual factors in the evaluation of SIT efficacy. Lastly, we compared laboratory data of good responders to SIT with that of poor responders to SIT. Results Improvement after SIT therapy was observed in 192 out of 217 patients (88.4%). Among these patients, 138 (63.5%) achieved excellent, near-complete or complete clinical remission. Significant reduction of pruritus, LOS, and the mean value of total serum IgE were observed (p<0.01). Better outcome was found in patients younger than 12 years of age (p=0.024). Patients with moderate to severe AD showed better treatment outcomes (p=0.036). Patients sensitized only to HDM had the better response to treatment, but SIT was also effective in multi-sensitized groups (p=1.051). No significant differences in baseline laboratory results were observed between good and poor responders (p>0.05). Conclusion We emphasize the usefulness of long-term HDM SIT as a disease-modifying therapy for AD. PMID:26847292

  2. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  3. The Prevalence of Serum Specific IgE to Superantigens in Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Nan; Shin, Yoo Seob; Yoo, Hye-Soo; Nam, Young Hee; Jin, Hyun Jung; Ye, Young-Min; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterium present in upper respiratory tract, and the toxins it produced are involved in allergic inflammation pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of IgE in association with staphylococcal superantigens in allergic asthma with rhinitis (BAwAR) and allergic rhinitis alone (AR). We recruited 100 patients with BAwAR (group I), 100 patients with AR (group II), and 88 healthy controls (group III). Patients were clinically diagnosed by physicians, and were sensitized to house dust mites. Specific IgE antibodies to staphylococcal superantigen A (SEA), B (SEB), and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) were measured using the ImmunoCAP system. Other clinical parameters were retrospectively analyzed. All specific IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 were detected most frequently in group I (22%, 21%, and 27%), followed by group II (11%, 14%, and 21%) and group III (4.5%, 3.4%, and 2.3%). Absolute values of serum specific IgE to SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 were also significantly higher in group I (0.300±1.533 kU/L, 0.663±2.933 kU/L, and 0.581±1.931 kU/L) and group II (0.502±2.011 kU/L, 0.695±3.337 kU/L, and 1.067±4.688 kU/L) compared to those in group III (0.03±0.133 kU/L, 0.03±0.14 kU/L, and 0.028±0.112 kU/L). The prevalence of serum specific IgE to SEA was significantly higher in group I compared to group II (P=0.025). Blood eosinophil counts were significantly higher in patients with specific IgE to SEA or SEB, and higher serum levels of specific IgE to house dust mites were noted in patients with specific IgE to TSST-1. In conclusion, the present study suggested that IgE responses to staphylococcal superantigens are prevalent in the sera of both BAwAR and AR patients. This may contribute to an augmented IgE response to indoor allergens and eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24843803

  4. Lack of cross-reactivity between the Bacillus thuringiensis derived protein Cry1F in maize grain and dust mite Der p7 protein with human sera positive for Der p7-IgE.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bardina, Luda; Cressman, Robert F; Mattsson, Joel L; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-03-01

    Cry1F protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is effective at controlling lepidopteran pests and a synthetic Cry1F transgene was transferred into maize. For the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops, the allergenic potential of the introduced novel trait(s) is evaluated. Because no single parameter is currently predictive of allergic potential, a 'weight of evidence' approach has been proposed. As part of this assessment, the amino acid (aa) sequence of the Cry1F protein was compared to a database of known allergens using recommended criteria. The Cry1F protein did not show significant similarity or a match of eight contiguous identical aa with any allergen. However, a single six contiguous aa match was identified between Cry1F and the Der p7 protein of the dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. To investigate whether Cry1F was cross-reactive with Der p7, sera from 10 dust mite allergic patients containing Der p 7-specific IgE antibody were used to compare IgE-specific binding. No evidence of cross-reactivity was observed between Cry1F and Der p7. This study provides in vitro IgE sera screening data, that when considered in the context of other bioinformatic data [Hileman R.E., Silvanovich, A., Goodman R.E., Rice E.A., Holleschak G., Astwood J.D., Hefle S.L., 2002. Bioinformatic methods for allergenicity assessment using a comprehensive allergen database. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 128, 280-291; Stadler, M.B., Stadler, B.M., 2003. Allergenicity prediction by protein sequence. FASEB J. 17, 1141-1143.], adds further evidence arguing against the use of a six contiguous identical amino acid search to identify potential cross-reactive allergens. Cry1F is heat labile, rapidly hydrolyzed in an in vitro pepsin resistance assay, not glycosylated and not from an allergenic source. Taken together, these data indicate a lack of allergenic concern for Cry1F. PMID:16406630

  5. IgE immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Debra H; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gould, Hannah J; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    The importance of antibodies in activating immune responses against tumors is now better appreciated with the emergence of checkpoint blockade antibodies and with engineered antibody Fc domains featuring enhanced capacity to focus potent effector cells against cancer cells. Antibodies designed with Fc regions of the IgE class can confer natural, potent, long-lived immune surveillance in tissues through tenacious engagement of high-affinity cognate Fc receptors on distinct, often tumor-resident immune effector cells, and through ability to activate these cells under tumor-induced Th2-biased conditions. Here, we review the properties that make IgE a contributor to the allergic response and a critical player in the protection against parasites, which also support IgE as a novel anti-cancer modality. We discuss IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches in disparate in vitro and in vivo model systems, collectively suggesting the potential of IgE immunotherapies in oncology. Translation toward clinical application is now in progress. PMID:24423620

  6. Mathematics Instruction in IGE and Non-IGE Schools. Working Paper 317. Report from the IGE Evaluation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This report summarizes the data from a comparative study of grades 2 and 5 mathematics instruction and the use of Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP) in IGE and non-IGE settings. These results are part of a five-phase evaluation of the IGE system of elementary schooling. Use of DMP and reported adoption of IGE were not found to be good…

  7. Modification of the late asthmatic reaction by hyposensitization in asthmatic children allergic to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) or grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Van Bever, H P; Bosmans, J; De Clerck, L S; Stevens, W J

    1988-07-01

    The frequency and severity of the late asthmatic reaction (LAR) was studied in asthmatic children allergic to house dust mite (HDM) or grass pollen (GP) with and without hyposensitization (HS). The four groups were comparable according to their severity of asthma. All children were allergic to HDM (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) or GP according to history, skin testing and specific IgE determination via the RAST. The LAR occurred less frequently (29% versus 73%) (P less than 0.001) and was less severe in children receiving HS. The difference was significant between the children allergic to HDM as well as between children allergic to GP. The immediate asthmatic reaction (IAR) was also less severe in children allergic to HDM who received HS, compared to those who never received HS, (P = 0.033) although the PD20 of the HDM challenge (PD20HDM) was not different between the two groups. In children allergic to GP, there was no difference in PD20 of the GP challenge (PD20GP) or in severity of the IAR, whether the children received HS or not. There was no difference between the PD20HDM in patients who developed a LAR and in patients who did not. There was no relation between the type of asthmatic reaction following the allergen provocation test and the level of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and the level of house dust mite-specific IgG (IgGHDM) or grass pollen-specific IgE (IgGGP) in the different groups, determined before the challenge. There was a decrease in the level of IgG containing CIC (IgGCIC) during the LAR. It is concluded that the LAR occurs less frequently and is less severe in asthmatic children who receive HS. PMID:3414914

  8. IgE ELISA using antisera derived from epsilon chain antigenic peptides detects allergen-specific IgE in allergic horses.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Warren V; Pettigrew, Howard D; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2003-05-12

    Equine disease with an allergic etiology is common. Environmental antigens most often implicated as allergens in horses include molds, dusty hay, grass pollen, hay dust mites, and insect saliva. Although intradermal testing with allergen is a useful diagnostic tool for some species, skin testing frequently produces false positive results in horses. Allergen deprivation as a diagnostic tool is often impossible and at best it is ineffective at diagnosing the specific allergic reactivity. Synthesis of IgE after exposure to allergen is the instigator of the allergic process. While IgE exerts its effect after binding strongly to mast cell Fc receptors, the presence of free IgE in the serum can be used to quantify and determine the allergen specificity of the allergic disease. A lack of widely available reagents for detection of equine IgE has limited this approach in horses. We have used the nucleotide sequence of equine IgE to prepare a peptide-based immunogen to elicit equine epsilon chain-specific antisera. Selection of peptides was based on antigenic attributes of the deduced amino acid sequence of the equine epsilon chain. Six peptides were selected for conjugation to carrier molecules and rabbit immunization. Of these, one peptide elicited antisera that was successfully used in enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to screen horse serum from 64 allergic horses for allergen-specific IgE. Twenty-four of the 64 horses showed positive reactivity to one or more of the following allergens: grass, grain mill dust, mosquito, and horsefly. This study demonstrates the usefulness of peptide-based immunogens for development of antisera to rare or difficult to purify antigens such as IgE. Resultant antisera has great usefulness in diagnostic assays for equine allergy and as a research tool. PMID:12730014

  9. Domestic exposure to fungi and total serum IgE levels in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Su, Huey-Jen Jenny; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lei, Huan-Yao; Wang, Jiu-Yao

    2005-08-14

    We measured the number of airborne, viable fungi and house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in the homes of a group of asthmatic children. Blood samples were drawn and the amounts of total and specific serum IgE were determined. The association between the number of fungal colonies, dust mite allergen exposure, and specific and total IgE was evaluated. The number of viable airborne fungi was high (20,543 CFU/m(3)) in those investigated houses. Der p1 concentrations on child's mattress exceeding 2 microg/g were found in 78.6% of the houses. A quantitative dose-response relationship was demonstrated between the exposure to viable, airborne molds and the amount of total IgE (r = 0.4399 and P = .0249) and the level was further increased in children with coexposure to viable fungi and HDM. PMID:16106103

  10. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  11. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on IgE antibody responses in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Terr, A.I.; Moss, R.B.; Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Thirteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and nephritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation because of severe disease refractory to other forms of treatment. Serum samples before and after irradiation were tested for changes in total serum IgE and for changes in specific IgE antibodies to ryegrass pollen, dust mite, cat dander, and Alternaria. There were no statistically significant changes in total or specific IgE from lymphoid irradiation in these patients. The therapy caused a significant decrease in circulating total lymphocyte and Leu-3 (helper/inducer) T-lymphocyte counts. Therefore, reduction in circulating levels of helper/inducer T cells does not appear to influence preexisting levels of IgE antibodies.

  12. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L.; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, though the clinically-related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in helminth-infected population, we performed Immunocap™ tests in filarial-infected and non-infected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins and IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologues were performed. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and non-homologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of Immunocap™ identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologues in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologues in helminths. Mice infected with helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologues in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and brings a new perspective to the Hygiene Hypothesis. PMID:25404363

  13. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis." PMID:25404363

  14. Soluble IgE receptors – elements of the IgE network

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Ruiter, Floortje; van der Mee, John; Fiebiger, Edda

    2011-01-01

    Soluble isoforms of three human IgE Fc receptors, namely FcεRI, FcεRII and galectin-3, can be found in serum. These soluble IgE receptors are a diverse family of proteins unified by the characteristic of interacting with IgE in the extracellular matrix. A truncated form of the alpha-chain of FcεRI, the high affinity IgE receptor, has recently been described as a soluble isoform (sFcεRI). Multiple soluble isoforms of CD23 (sCD23), the low affinity IgE receptor also known as FcεRII, are generated via different mechanisms of extracellular and intracellular proteolysis. The second low affinity IgE receptor, galectin-3, only exists as a secretory protein. We here discuss the physiological roles of these three soluble IgE receptors as elements of the human IgE network. Additionally, we review the potential and current use of sFcεRI, sCD23 and galectin-3 as biomarkers in human disease. PMID:21920387

  15. Role of IgE in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Miguel A; Sagar, Divya; Kolbeck, Roland

    2016-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that IgE plays a significant role in autoimmunity. The presence of circulating self-reactive IgE in patients with autoimmune disorders has been long known but, at the same time, largely understudied. However, studies have shown that the increased IgE concentration is not associated with higher prevalence for atopy and allergy in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. IgE-mediated mechanisms are conventionally known to facilitate degranulation of mast cells and basophils and promote TH2 immunity, mechanisms that are not only central to mounting an appropriate defense against parasitic worms, noxious substances, toxins, venoms, and environmental irritants but that also trigger exuberant allergic reactions in patients with allergies. More recently, IgE autoantibodies have been recognized to participate in the self-inflicted damaging immune responses that characterize autoimmunity. Such autoimmune responses include direct damage on tissue-containing autoantigens, activation and migration of basophils to lymph nodes, and, as observed most recently, induction of type 1 interferon responses from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The importance of IgE as a central pathogenic mechanism in autoimmunity has now been clinically validated by the approval of omalizumab, an anti-IgE mAb, for patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and for the clinical benefit of patients with bullous pemphigoid. In this review we summarize recent reports describing the prevalence of self-reactive IgE and discuss novel findings that incriminate IgE as central in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune disorders. PMID:27264000

  16. IgE responses in mouse and man and the persistence of IgE memory.

    PubMed

    Gould, Hannah J; Ramadani, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and robust recall or 'memory' responses are an essential feature of adaptive immunity. They constitute a defense against reinfection by pathogens, yet arguably do more harm than good in allergic disease. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibodies mediate the allergic reaction characterized by immediate hypersensitivity, a manifestation of IgE memory. The origin of IgE memory remains obscure, mainly due to the low proportion of IgE-expressing B cells in the total B cell population. The recent development of ultrasensitive methods for tracking these cells in vivo has overcome this obstacle, and their use has revealed unexpected pathways to IgE memory in the mouse. Here, we review these findings and consider their bearing on our understanding of IgE memory and allergic disease in man. PMID:25499855

  17. IGES transformer and NURBS in grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.

    1993-01-01

    In the field of Grid Generation and the CAD/CAM, there are numerous geometry output formats which require the designer to spend a great deal of time manipulating geometrical entities in order to achieve a useful sculptured geometrical description for grid generation. Also in this process, there is a danger of losing fidelity of the geometry under consideration. This stresses the importance of a standard geometry definition for the communication link between varying CAD/CAM and grid system. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file is a widely used communication between CAD/CAM and the analysis tools. The scientists at NASA Research Centers - including NASA Ames, NASA Langley, NASA Lewis, NASA Marshall - have recognized this importance and, therefore, in 1992 they formed the committee of the 'NASA-IGES' which is the subset of the standard IGES. This committee stresses the importance and encourages the CFD community to use the standard IGES file for the interface between the CAD/CAM and CFD analysis. Also, two of the IGES entities -- the NURBS Curve (Entity 126) and NURBS Surface (Entity 128) -- which have many useful geometric properties -- like the convex hull property, local control property and affine invariance, also widely utilized analytical geometries can be accurately represented using NURBS. This is important in today grid generation tools because of the emphasis of the interactive design. To satisfy the geometry transformation between the CAD/CAM system and Grid Generation field, the CAGI (Computer Aided Geometry Design) developed, which include the Geometry Transformation, Geometry Manipulation and Geometry Generation as well as the user interface. This paper will present the successful development IGES file transformer and application of NURBS definition in the grid generation.

  18. Primary Immunodeficiencies with Elevated IgE.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Trine H

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a number of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) characterized by elevated Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels have been uncovered and termed as Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). In addition to the elevated levels of IgE, patients with these PIDs display a spectrum of infections by staphylococci and fungi, and in some cases viruses, particularly affecting skin and lungs. Most of these PIDs also have a non-infectious phenotype, comprising musculoskeletal, vascular, and neurological abnormalities. The genetic basis for the majority of conditions with elevated IgE has now been established and includes mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, TYK2, and most recently PGM3 molecules. However, in some patients with the relevant phenotype, mutations in these molecules are not identified, suggesting additional genetic etiologies of HIES not yet discovered. As the immunological and molecular basis of HIES is being unraveled, important insights are emerging that may have implications for our understanding of basic principles of immunology and protective immunity as well as for the pathogenesis and clinical management of patients with these complex and challenging PIDs. In this review, are presented the current knowledge on the clinical presentation, infectious phenotype, and the genetic and immunological pathogenesis of hyper-IgE syndromes as well as some other PIDs with elevated levels of IgE. PMID:25970001

  19. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy. PMID:24592267

  20. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Catharina; Lupinek, Christian; Lundeberg, Lena; Crameri, Reto; Valenta, Rudolf; Scheynius, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors. Aim To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens. Methodology Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53) and moderate AD (n = 126). As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins. Results IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1) and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10), to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD. Conclusion We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD. PMID:27228091

  1. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy. PMID:24592267

  2. Combined effect of smoking habits and occupational exposure to hard metal on total IgE antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, T.; Kusaka, Y.; Morimoto, K. )

    1992-06-01

    A survey was made within a population of workers (n = 706) exposed to hard metal dust (an alloy including cobalt), an agent known to cause occupational allergy. Twenty-seven (4 percent) of 733 workers were eliminated from consideration in this study because of atopic status identified prior to starting work in the plant. Using a Phadebas PRIST, the subjects' total IgE levels were determined and related to their smoking and exposure status. Nonexposed male smokers (n = 135) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (39.7 IU/ml) than did nonexposed subjects who had never smoked (33.1 IU/ml; n = 99); those with a higher Brinkman index (greater than 300), a smoking index obtained by multiplying the number of cigarettes per day by the duration of smoking in years, had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased IgE levels. Although ex-smokers (n = 72) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (73.3 IU/ml) than did those who had never smoked, their serum IgE level declined with age since the time they quit smoking, regardless of their hard metal exposure status. Hard metal (cobalt) exposure may play a significant role as an adjuvant in the production of total IgE. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that hard metal exposure and a smoking habit together arithmetically (p less than 0.05) increased total IgE levels. These two factors may be preventable risk factors for occupational allergy in hard metal workers.

  3. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E Expression Pattern in Lung: Relation to Systemic IgE and Asthma Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Balzar, Silvana; Strand, Matthew; Rhodes, Diane; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated responses contribute to allergy and asthma. Little is understood regarding the relationship of tissue IgE to systemic IgE, inflammation or clinical outcomes. Objectives: To evaluate local IgE expression and cellular inflammation in proximal and distal lung of normal subjects and subjects with asthma of varying severity and relate those tissue parameters to systemic IgE levels, atopy, lung function and history of severe exacerbations of asthma. Methods: Tissue from over 90 subjects with eosinophilic (SAeo+) and non-eosinophilic (SAeo−) severe asthma, mild asthma and normal subjects were immunostained for IgE, signal-amplifying isoform of IgE receptor (FcεRIβ) and markers of mast cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes. Tissue expression of IgE, FcεRIβ, cellular inflammation, serum IgE and atopy were compared. Regression models were used to determine the relationship of local and systemic IgE to lung function and severe exacerbations of asthma. Results: Mast cell-bound IgE was present along airways, but absent in lung parenchyma. While the groups were similar in systemic/serum IgE and atopy, local/tissue IgE was highest in SAeo+ and correlated with eosinophils and lymphocytes (rs=0.52; p<0.0001 and rs=0.23; p=0.03, respectively). Higher local IgE was associated with better lung function, but also with more severe exacerbations of asthma. Conclusion: Local IgE appears to be primarily a component of responses within the mucosal immune compartment and is related to cellular inflammation, lung function and clinical outcomes in asthma. Clinical Implications: Local/airway IgE-related processes rather than systemic markers of atopy may be relevant in determining clinical outcomes in asthma. Capsule Summary: The study reports mucosal distribution of mast cell-bound IgE in human lung and suggests that local IgE and related responses rather than systemic/serum IgE and atopy are more relevant in determining clinical outcomes in

  4. An extended study of seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis simplex IgE antibodies in Norwegian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lin, A H; Nepstad, I; Florvaag, E; Egaas, E; Van Do, T

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, cases of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex infection and allergy in human have increased in countries with high fish consumption. Our aim was to perform an extended seroprevalence study of anti-IgE antibodies against this parasite in Norway, one of the high fish-consuming countries. At the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, two main groups of anonymized serum samples were collected; the first (n = 993) from recently recruited blood donors (designated 'BDO') and the second (n = 414) from patient with total IgE levels ≥1000 kU/l (designated 'IGE+'). The sera were analysed by the ImmunoCAP(®) method for total IgE and IgE antibodies against A. simplex, house dust mite (HDM), shrimp, cod, crab, brine shrimp and shrimp tropomyosin. The A. simplex positive sera were further tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, which uses 2 recombinant (r) major allergens, rAni s 1 and rAni s 7 as target antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting analyses were also performed. Whereas the prevalences by ImmunoCAP(®) were 0.4% and 16.2% in the BDO and IGE+ groups, respectively, analyses with recombinant allergens showed only 0.0% and 0.2%. Cross-reactivity and immunoblotting analyses suggested that most of the ImmunoCAP(®) positive sera were probably false-positive due to cross-sensitization to shrimp and HDM. However, positivity due to other A. simplex antigens should also be considered. Compared with other high fish-consuming countries, we observed a very low seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies in a Norwegian population. PMID:24219706

  5. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies. PMID:606452

  6. IgE Immunotherapy Against Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leoh, Lai Sum

    2015-01-01

    The success of antibody therapy in cancer is consistent with the ability of these molecules to activate immune responses against tumors. Experience in clinical applications, antibody design, and advancement in technology have enabled antibodies to be engineered with enhanced efficacy against cancer cells. This allows re-evaluation of current antibody approaches dominated by antibodies of the IgG class with a new light. Antibodies of the IgE class play a central role in allergic reactions and have many properties that may be advantageous for cancer therapy. IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to be effective in both in vitro and in vivo models of cancer, suggesting the potential use of these approaches in humans. Further studies on the anticancer efficacy and safety profile of these IgE-based approaches are warranted in preparation for translation toward clinical application. PMID:25553797

  7. [A case of pulmonary asbestosis with slightly increased serum IgE concentration and histopathological changes resembling DIP].

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Y; Asai, S; Mashimoto, H; Shimokawa, I; Iwasaki, K; Matsuo, T; Ikeda, T; Minami, H

    1993-02-01

    A 68-year-old male presented with cough and sputum. He had suffered from these symptoms for ten years prior to admission. Chest roentgenogram revealed reticulonodular shadows in the lower fields of both lungs. CT scan of the chest revealed an interstitial pattern in the lower field of both lungs. Honeycombing and bullous pattern were also present in the subpleural area. The patient had a history of dust and asbestos inhalation while working as an electrician. Eosinophilia of the peripheral blood and BALF, and a slightly increased serum IgE concentration were noted. Open lung biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis with intra-alveolar macrophage accumulation and asbestos bodies. The histopathological features resembled UIP and DIP, although DIP is uncommon in pulmonary asbestosis. The slightly increased serum IgE concentration was considered to be an additional effect of asbestos. This is a case of pulmonary asbestosis with intriguing immunological and histopathological features. PMID:8515602

  8. Increased local IgE production induced by common aeroallergens and phenotypic alteration of mast cells in Chinese eosinophilic, but not non-eosinophilic, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Na; Liao, Bo; Ma, Jin; Wang, Bao-Feng; Wang, Heng; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Hong; Schleimer, Robert P.; Liu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) display distinct patterns of inflammation. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of CRSwNP need further investigation. Objective To investigate local immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and phenotype of mast cells in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP in Chinese. Methods Total and specific IgE levels were analyzed by means of the ImmunoCAP system. The molecular steps involved in class switch recombination to IgE were investigated using RT-PCR assays. Mast cell phenotypes, IgE- and high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-positive cells, and allergen binding to specific IgE in sinonasal mucosa were determined by means of immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with controls and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP, local total IgE levels were increased, and local specific IgE to common aeroallergens was more frequently found, in Chinese eosinophilic CRSwNP independent of atopy and without significant association with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. The ε germline gene transcript was also more frequently detected in eosinophilic CRSwNP. The number of IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP. Most IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells were mast cells. Dust mite antigens could bind to IgE on mast cells in situ. The number of mast cells positive for both tryptase and chymase and activated mast cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP and the number of activated mast cells positively correlated with local IgE level, eotaxin-1 level, and eosinophil count in CRSwNP. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The local IgE induced by common aeroallergens may mediate mast cell activation and contribute to subsequent eosinophilic inflammation in Chinese CRSwNP. This study offers a rationale for considering intervention strategies designed to target “local allergy” in eosinophilic CRSwNP. PMID:24597471

  9. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:26666347

  10. DOE DEF RIM-to-IGES. File Writer documentation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, K.L.; Leake, P.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document will define the design specifications for the RIM-to-IGES File Writer Program. It describes the purpose of the File Writer, lists references, defines the structure of the program, and discusses the Fortran/RIM interface.

  11. Associations Between Subjective Symptoms and Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels During Asian Dust Events

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Ikeguchi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Asian dust is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon caused by the displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Mongolian and Chinese deserts. Although the frequency of Asian dust events and atmospheric dust levels have steadily increased in the eastern Asia region, the effects on human health remain poorly understood. In the present study, the impact of Asian dust on human health was determined in terms of allergic reactions. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were tested for a relationship between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and subjective symptoms during a 3-day Asian dust event recorded in April 2012. They filled daily questionnaires on the severity of nasal, pharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms by a self-administered visual analog scale. Serum levels of non-specific IgE and 33 allergen-specific IgE molecules were analyzed. Spearman rank-correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations between nasal symptom scores and 2 microbial-specific IgE levels (Penicillium and Cladosporium). Microbes migrate vast distances during Asian dust events by attaching themselves to dust particles. Therefore, some of these symptoms may be associated with type 1 allergic reactions to certain type of microbes. PMID:25075882

  12. Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis Beyond IgE.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cano, R; Picado, C; Valero, A; Bartra, J

    2016-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mediators derived from mast cells and basophils. Food allergens are the main triggers of anaphylaxis, accounting for 33%-56% of all cases and up to 81% of cases of anaphylaxis in children. Human anaphylaxis is generally thought to be mediated by IgE, with mast cells and basophils as key players, although alternative mechanisms have been proposed. Neutrophils and macrophages have also been implicated in anaphylactic reactions, as have IgG-dependent, complement, and contact system activation. Not all allergic reactions are anaphylactic, and the presence of the so-called accompanying factors (cofactors or augmenting factors) may explain why some conditions lead to anaphylaxis, while in other cases the allergen elicits a milder reaction or is even tolerated. In the presence of these factors, allergic reactions may be induced at lower doses of allergen or become more severe. Cofactors are reported to be relevant in up to 30% of anaphylactic episodes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and exercise are the best-documented cofactors, although estrogens, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, lipid-lowering drugs, and alcohol have also been involved. The mechanisms underlying anaphylaxis are complex and involve several interrelated pathways. Some of these pathways may be key to the development of anaphylaxis, while others may only modulate the severity of the reaction. An understanding of predisposing and augmenting factors could lead to the development of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:27164622

  13. [Classification of allergens by positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis based on specific IgE antibodies in asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, E; Baba, M

    1992-10-01

    Classification and characterization of allergens is important because allergic patients are sensitized by a variety of allergens. One hundred and sixty-one sera from asthmatic children were investigated for specific IgE antibodies against 35 allergens including 20 inhalants and 15 foods by means of the MAST method. We assessed the allergenic properties of the allergens based on positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis. There was a high positive percentage agreement of specific IgE antibodies between house dust and Dermatophagoides spp., a relatively high agreement between 5 molds, cat and dog epithelium, mugwort and wormwood and 5 grasses. Among the food allergens, the positive percentage agreements were relatively high, especially between cow's milk, casein, cheese, and between 3 cereal grains. In the cluster analysis, house dust and Dermatophagoides spp. made a big cluster; therefore 32 allergens except house dust and mites were analyzed. From the results of the cluster analysis, the major cluster consisted of (1) ragweed, (2) mugwort and wormwood, (3) timothy, sweet vernal, velvet and cultivated rye, (4) wheat, barley and rice, (5) molds, (6) cow's milk, casein, soybean and cheese, (7) shrimp and crab, (8) egg white, (9) Japanese cedar, (10) dog epithelium, (11) cat epithelium. The cluster of grass pollens and cereal grains made one cluster. These results tend to confirm the presence of species cross-reactivities within the major classes of allergens. PMID:1482294

  14. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G. F.; Lulu, A. R.; Khateeb, M. I.; Haj, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search to find discriminative serological markers to differentiate between patients with acute brucellosis and those with chronic brucellosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the brucella-specific IgE response in 80 sera from patients with acute brucellosis, 37 sera from patients with chronic brucellosis, 26 sera from patients with positive blood cultures for bacteria other than brucella and 51 sera from healthy controls. The IgE findings were compared to brucella-specific IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG1-4 demonstrated by ELISA, and to microagglutination test (MAT) results. Elevated (positive) antibrucella IgE titres were detected in 89 and 81% of sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis respectively. The predominant antibodies found in patients with acute brucellosis were of the IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG3 types while in chronic brucellosis IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG4 were found. Although IgE can be detected in patients with brucellosis, it does not discriminate between the acute and chronic stages of the disease. PMID:2249721

  15. Selective transport of IgE into ovine mammary secretions.

    PubMed

    Hine, B C; Hunt, P W; Beasley, A M; Windon, R G; Glover, S A; Colditz, I G

    2010-10-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E is actively transported into ovine colostrum. Here we examine the degree of selectivity and the mechanism by which this transfer occurs in sheep. Results indicate that during colostrogenesis in sheep, transfer of immunoglobulins was most selective for IgG1 and IgA followed by IgE, IgM and IgG2. In milk, selectivity was greatest for IgA, followed by IgM, IgE, IgG1 and IgG2. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and poly immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) mediate the transport of IgG1 and IgA across the ovine mammary epithelium respectively. In primates and rodents, the low-affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilonRII, functions to transport IgE across the intestinal epithelium. We therefore investigated the expression of the low-affinity IgE receptor (CD23), pIgR and FcRn transcripts in the ovine mammary gland. The expression profiles of FcRn, pIgR and CD23 mRNA reflected concentrations of their Ig ligands in mammary secretions. These findings suggest a role for CD23 in transport of IgE across the mammary epithelium of sheep. PMID:20226487

  16. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  17. Recreation of the 28-entity IGES test file using the ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    An Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) test file is called the 28 Entity IGES Test File. This file contains 28 geometric and annotation entities which are considered the basic entities that an IGES translator for any CAD system should support. The main purpose was to determine how the IGES preprocessor supports the 28 entities through recreation of the 28 Entity IGES Test File on the ComputerVision CADDS 4X. Test procedure is described and test results are presented.

  18. Persistence of IgE-associated allergy and allergen-specific IgE despite CD4+ T cell loss in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Wollmann, Eva; Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Valenta, Rudolf; Sibanda, Elopy

    2014-01-01

    The infection of CD4+ cells by HIV leads to the progressive destruction of CD4+ T lymphocytes and, after a severe reduction of CD4+ cells, to AIDS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl can suffer from symptoms of IgE-mediated allergy, produce allergen-specific IgE antibody responses and show boosts of allergen-specific IgE production. HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/µl suffering from AIDS and from IgE-mediated allergy were studied. Allergy was diagnosed according to case history, physical examination, skin prick testing (SPT), and serological analyses including allergen microarrays. HIV infection was confirmed serologically and the disease was staged clinically. The predominant allergic symptoms in the studied patients were acute allergic rhinitis (73%) followed by asthma (27%) due to IgE-mediated mast cell activation whereas no late phase allergic symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, a mainly T cell-mediated skin manifestation, were found in patients suffering from AIDS. According to IgE serology allergies to house dust mites and grass pollen were most common besides IgE sensitizations to various food allergens. Interestingly, pollen allergen-specific IgE antibody levels in the patients with AIDS and in additional ten IgE-sensitized patients with HIV infections and low CD4 counts appeared to be boosted by seasonal allergen exposure and were not associated with CD4 counts. Our results indicate that secondary allergen-specific IgE production and IgE-mediated allergic inflammation do not require a fully functional CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoire. PMID:24896832

  19. Dust Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a recent sounding rocket experiment which found charged dust in the Earth's tropical mesosphere. The dust detector was designed to measure small (5000 - 10000 amu.) charged dust particles, most likely of meteoric origin. A 5 km thick layer of positively charged dust was found at an altitude of 90 km, in the vicinity of an observed sporadic sodium layer and sporadic E layer. The observed dust was positively charged in the bulk of the dust layer, but was negatively charged near the bottom.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of IgE mediated food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to collate current knowledge and recent advances in molecular mechanism behind the immediate type hypersensitivity of foods. Food allergy is a growing concern of human health in developed as well as developing countries now days. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity or type I reaction. This review encompasses a wide range of molecular events during IgE mediated reactions like primary exposure of allergens, processing of allergens by antigen presenting cells, role of transcription factors like GATA-3, STAT-6, NF-AT, c-maf, c-kit and NF-κB, Treg cells, toll like receptors, cytokines and chemokines, class switch to IgE, FcεR1 receptor, priming of IgE on mast cells or basophils, signaling events followed by secondary exposure of allergens, degranulation and release of mediators like leukotrienes, histamines, prostaglandins, β-hexosaminidase and ultimately anaphylaxis. This review may be helpful to beginners as well as experts working in the field of allergy and immunology because of the stepwise explanations of molecular mechanisms involved in IgE mediated reactions. PMID:22668720

  1. IgE receptor signaling in food allergy pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oettgen, Hans C; Burton, Oliver T

    2015-10-01

    The pathogenesis of food allergy remains poorly understood. Recent advances in the use of murine models have led to discoveries that mast cells and IgE receptor signaling not only drive immediate hypersensitivity reactions but also exert an immunoregulatory function, promoting the development of allergic sensitivity to foods. We review the evidence that IgE, IgE receptors, key signaling kinases and mast cells impair oral tolerance to ingested foods, preventing the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg) and promoting the acquisition of pro-allergic T helper (Th) 2 responses. We discuss innovative strategies that that could be implemented to counteract these immunoregulatory effects of IgE-mediated mast cell activation, and potentially reverse established sensitization, curing food allergy. PMID:26296054

  2. Cosmic dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, Donald E.; Sandford, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    Dust is a ubiquitous component of our galaxy and the solar system. The collection and analysis of extraterrestrial dust particles is important to exobiology because it provides information about the sources of biogenically significant elements and compounds that accumulated in distant regions of the solar nebula and that were later accreted on the planets. The topics discussed include the following: general properties of interplanetary dust; the carbonaceous component of interplanetary dust particles; and the presence of an interstellar component.

  3. Immunoglobulin E to allergen components of house dust mite in Korean children with allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan Soo; Kang, Sung Hee; Won, Sulmui; Lee, Eu Kyoung; Chun, Yoon Hong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin Tack

    2015-01-01

    Background House dust mites (HDMs) are important sources of indoor allergens. Seventeen components have been identified from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p). Objective Our aim was to define the prevalence of specific IgE to components of Der p in Korea and investigate the clinical features of them in children with allergic disease. Methods We performed a prospective evaluation of 80 HDM sensitized patients with history of allergic rhinitis (AR), atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma and urticaria (UC). Patients underwent ImmunoCAP for total IgE, Der p, Der f, Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10. Results Seventy-nine patients had detectable serum IgE to Der p, 80 patients were sensitized to Der f, 66 patients were sensitized to Der p 1, 63 patients to Der p 2, and 7 patients were sensitized to Der p 10. Der p 1 specific IgE was significantly lower in the UC group compared with the AD and AR group. Total IgE was significantly higher in the Der p 10 sensitized group. Der p 10 serum IgE level was highly correlated with crab and shrimp specific IgE. There was a significant positive correlation between total IgE and specific IgE to Der p and its components and Der f. Conclusion Sensitization to HDM and its components in Korea is similar to previous studies from temperate climate. The determination of Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10 specific IgE helps in obtaining additional information in regards to allergic disease. PMID:26240792

  4. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Massive Dust Storm over Australia     View ... at JPL September 22, 2009 - Massive dust storm over Australia. project:  MISR category:  ... Sep 22, 2009 Images:  Dust Storm location:  Australia and New Zealand ...

  5. Sahara Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Casting Light and Shadows on a Saharan Dust Storm     ... (nadir) camera. High-altitude cirrus clouds cast shadows on the underlying ocean and dust layer, which are visible in shades of ... was unable to retrieve elevation data. However, the edges of shadows cast by the cirrus clouds onto the dust (indicated by blue and cyan ...

  6. Circumstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of dust in the general interstellar medium is inferred from the extinction, polarization, and scattering of starlight; the presence of dark nebulae; interstellar depletions; the observed infrared emission around certain stars and various types of interstellar clouds. Interstellar grains are subject to various destruction mechanisms that reduce their size or even completely destroy them. A continuous source of newly formed dust must therefore be present for dust to exist in the various phases of the interstellar medium (ISM). The working group has the following goals: (1) review the evidences for the formation of dust in the various sources; (2) examine the clues to the nature and composition of the dust; (3) review the status of grain formation theories; (4) examine any evidence for the processing of the dust prior to its injection into the interstellar medium; and (5) estimate the relative contribution of the various sources to the interstellar dust population.

  7. Presence of IgE class antibodies with cardiolipinic and treponemal specificity in syphilis. Quantitative evaluation by IgE prist radio-immuno-assay.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, A D; Ivănescu, M

    1992-01-01

    60 serum samples (reactive in VDRL, ELISA-Reiter, FTA-Abs tests) from 25-45 years old male patients with untreated latent syphilis (EL) (30 cases) and persistent positive treated syphilis (ET+) (30 cases) were tested for IgE by IgE-PRIST. On 30 sera from 25-45 years old male healthy persons, normal mean value for serum IgE was established: 159.63 +/- 124.09 U/ml. Cardiolipin and group treponemal IgE fractions were indirectly calculated by the difference between the specific activity induced by sera as such and that induced by sera absorbed with cardiolipin and group treponemal sorbents. In EL, total IgE level was 197 +/- 107 U/ml; cardiolipin IgE -24.9 +/- 8.3 U/ml and group treponemal IgE 35.8 +/- 6.6 U/ml. In ET, total IgE value was 152.6 +/- 122.5 U/ml, cardiolipin IgE -11 +/- 10.5 and group treponemal IgE -26.6 +/- 14.2 U/ml. Summing up the two specificities, the total specific IgE represent about 1/3 from total IgE in EL and 1/5 in ET+. Taking into account the short half-life (2-3 days) of IgE presence of a significant proportion of specific IgE in those two stages proves, by their continuous synthesis paralleling antigenic stimulation, the presence in various tissular zones of viable treponemas as sources of antigens. PMID:1457821

  8. Cold urticaria, raised IgE and HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, R C; Evans, B; Cream, J J

    1995-01-01

    We present a patient with cold urticaria as an unusual and late cutaneous manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The severe CD4 cell depletion and markedly elevated serum IgE levels in our patient provide some insights into certain aspects of immune regulatory mechanisms. PMID:7636829

  9. CLINICALLY RELEVANT IGE-CROSS-REACTIVITY OF NUT ALLERGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    All data resulting from this study will be catalogued in SDAP .This work will generate important information relating the structure/ physicochemical properties of cross-reactive IgE epitopes to clinical response, and model factors that underlie allergen recognition by the immu...

  10. IGE IN ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERA IS REACTIVE AGAINST MOLD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  11. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  12. A single glycan on IgE is indispensable for initiation of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shade, Kai-Ting C; Platzer, Barbara; Washburn, Nathaniel; Mani, Vinidhra; Bartsch, Yannic C; Conroy, Michelle; Pagan, Jose D; Bosques, Carlos; Mempel, Thorsten R; Fiebiger, Edda; Anthony, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Immunoglobulin ε (IgE) antibodies are the primary mediators of allergic diseases, which affect more than 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. IgE specific for innocuous environmental antigens, or allergens, binds and sensitizes tissue-resident mast cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Subsequent allergen exposure cross-links mast cell-bound IgE, resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and initiation of the allergic cascade. It is well established that precise glycosylation patterns exert profound effects on the biological activity of IgG. However, the contribution of glycosylation to IgE biology is less clear. Here, we demonstrate an absolute requirement for IgE glycosylation in allergic reactions. The obligatory glycan was mapped to a single N-linked oligomannose structure in the constant domain 3 (Cε3) of IgE, at asparagine-394 (N394) in human IgE and N384 in mouse. Genetic disruption of the site or enzymatic removal of the oligomannose glycan altered IgE secondary structure and abrogated IgE binding to FcεRI, rendering IgE incapable of eliciting mast cell degranulation, thereby preventing anaphylaxis. These results underscore an unappreciated and essential requirement of glycosylation in IgE biology. PMID:25824821

  13. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, Dániel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2010-01-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  14. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, D.´niel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-02-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  15. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I.; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. Objective To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Methods Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Results Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. Conclusions IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Clinical Relevance Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can

  16. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... contrast strongly with the dust storm that swept across Iraq and Saudi Arabia on May 13, 2004 (bottom panels). These data products from ... as yellowish ripples that obscure a large part of southern Iraq. The dust is easy to discern over the dark waters of the teardrop-shaped ...

  17. Comparison of IgE expression at the mRNA and protein levels in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, K J; Creany, J; Coelen, R J; Cameron, K J; Holt, B J; Beilharz, M W

    1991-01-01

    The regulating effects of IL-4 and pokeweed mitogen on IgE synthesis in vitro by human peripheral blood leucocytes has been compared with the corresponding effect of these regulators on the expression of IgE mRNA. The latter was measured by dot blot hybridization with an oligonucleotide coding for a unique six amino acid region of the CH epsilon 2 domain. Specificity of the oligonucleotide probe was established by its inability to hybridize with RNA extracted from HMY-2 (IgG) and XQ-15 (IgM) secreting cell lines whilst producing intense signals with RNA extracted from the IgE secreting cell line U266. Whilst IgE mRNA was detected in RNA extracted from PBL of both atopic and control subjects, spontaneous IgE synthesis was restricted to atopic PBL. IL-4 increased both IgE mRNA and IgE synthesis in all PBL samples but PWM, while significantly increasing IgE mRNA expression either failed to modify IgE synthesis or actively suppressed it. The assay system employed to quantitate IgE synthesis in vitro was shown to be inhibited by both IgE binding factors and IgG anti-IgE autoantibodies which are produced in PBL cultures. IgE mRNA levels might therefore more accurately monitor the regulatory effects of IL-4 and PWM on IgE synthesis than quantitation of the IgE by radioimmunoassay. Images Figure 1 PMID:1783428

  18. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR. PMID:27436445

  19. Andromeda's dust

    SciTech Connect

    Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G.; Krause, Oliver; Groves, Brent; Sandstrom, Karin; Klaas, Ulrich; Linz, Hendrik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schmiedeke, Anika; Walter, Fabian; Braun, Robert; Leroy, Adam E-mail: ganiano@ias.u-psud.fr

    2014-01-10

    Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory imaging of M31 is used, with a physical dust model, to construct maps of dust surface density, dust-to-gas ratio, starlight heating intensity, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance, out to R ≈ 25 kpc. The global dust mass is M {sub d} = 5.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, the global dust/H mass ratio is M {sub d}/M {sub H} = 0.0081, and the global PAH abundance is (q {sub PAH}) = 0.039. The dust surface density has an inner ring at R = 5.6 kpc, a maximum at R = 11.2 kpc, and an outer ring at R ≈ 15.1 kpc. The dust/gas ratio varies from M {sub d}/M {sub H} ≈ 0.026 at the center to ∼0.0027 at R ≈ 25 kpc. From the dust/gas ratio, we estimate the interstellar medium metallicity to vary by a factor ∼10, from Z/Z {sub ☉} ≈ 3 at R = 0 to ∼0.3 at R = 25 kpc. The dust heating rate parameter (U) peaks at the center, with (U) ≈ 35, declining to (U) ≈ 0.25 at R = 20 kpc. Within the central kiloparsec, the starlight heating intensity inferred from the dust modeling is close to what is estimated from the stars in the bulge. The PAH abundance reaches a peak q {sub PAH} ≈ 0.045 at R ≈ 11.2 kpc. When allowance is made for the different spectrum of the bulge stars, q {sub PAH} for the dust in the central kiloparsec is similar to the overall value of q {sub PAH} in the disk. The silicate-graphite-PAH dust model used here is generally able to reproduce the observed dust spectral energy distribution across M31, but overpredicts 500 μm emission at R ≈ 2-6 kpc, suggesting that at R = 2-6 kpc, the dust opacity varies more steeply with frequency (with β ≈ 2.3 between 200 and 600 μm) than in the model.

  20. IgE and Mast Cells: The Endogenous Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Oettgen, Hans C; Burton, Oliver T

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) are most familiar as the effectors of type I hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. It is becoming clear however that this pair has important immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive cells of the immune system. In this purview, they act as endogenous adjuvants to ignite evolving immune responses, promote the transition of allergic disease into chronic illness, and disrupt the development of active mechanisms of tolerance to ingested foods. Suppression of IgE-mediated mast cell activation can be exerted by molecules targeting IgE, FcɛRI, or signaling kinases including Syk, or by IgG antibodies acting via inhibitory Fcγ receptors. Recent reports indicate that such interventions have promise in the development of strategies to treat allergic disease. PMID:26073985

  1. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Asthmatic Children Sensitized to House Dust Mite

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei; Hu, Qi; Shen, Lei-Lei; Hu, Ying; Tao, Hai-feng; Li, Hui-fan; Fan, Wen-ting

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The house dust mite is one of the most common allergens worldwide. There is good evidence that house dust mite subcutaneous immunotherapy is efficacious and has long-term benefit in children. However, the evidence of the benefit of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is less convincing. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate that efficacy and safety of dust mite SLIT in children with asthma. Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases until February 2014 were searched. The primary outcome was mean change in asthma symptom score. Secondary outcomes included mean change in serum immunoglobulin G4 (sIgG4), specific Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and medication score. Safety was also assessed. We found that SLIT significantly decreased asthma symptom score (P = 0.007) and increased sIgG4 levels (P = 0.011) greater than control in children (<18 years of age) with asthma. There was no difference between SLIT and control groups in specific D pteronyssinus IgE levels (P = 0.076) and medication score (P = 0.408). The safety profile was similar between groups. Our study indicates that dust mite SLIT therapy was effective in reducing asthma symptoms and in increasing sIgG4 but did not significantly reduce medication scores or specific D pteronyssinus IgE levels. Our findings are not enough to support the use of dust mite SLIT in children with asthma.

  2. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, L.J.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  3. The Design of the IGE Evaluation Project Phase IV Comparative Studies. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This paper outlines the design of two Comparative Studies of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) Evaluation Project. More than 2,000 elementary schools in 25 states use the IGE system. The Evaluation Project was designed to gain a comprehensive view of the system's operation and effectiveness. Phase IV investigated pupil outcomes,…

  4. Alcohol-induced alterations in serum immunoglobulin e (IgE) levels in human subjects.

    PubMed

    González-Quintela, Arturo; Vidal, Carmen; Gude, Francisco

    2002-05-01

    The association of alcohol intake with total serum IgE concentrations in humans is discussed in the present review. The possible relationship of regular alcohol intake with both the risk of allergic sensitization and serum allergen-specific IgE values is also reviewed. Several studies consistently show that total serum IgE concentrations are increased in alcoholics when compared with healthy controls. Total serum IgE levels decrease after ethanol abstinence in alcoholics. Total serum IgE is increased in moderate alcohol consumers with respect to abstainers. Alcohol consumption in mothers may be associated with increased cord blood IgE levels in their offspring. IgE elevation in alcohol consumers is independent of potential confounders such as age, sex, liver disease, cigarette smoking or atopic status. Experimental studies in animals further support that ethanol administration is followed by an increase in serum IgE concentrations. In atopic patients, regular alcohol consumption is associated with increased serum specific IgE levels against some aeroallergens. Preliminary reports suggest that alcohol intake is associated to variable risk of sensitization to some aeroallergens. The possible mechanisms of alcohol-induced alterations in IgE levels and IgE-mediated diseases are discussed. PMID:11991851

  5. Sensitization to house-dust mite and mite fauna in selected children's homes in Kütahya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Cihangir; Yilmaz, Sema

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the house-dust mite allergy and prevalence of house-dust mites in dwellings of children who were tested for specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) and D. farinae on the suspicion of allergic rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma. All dust specimens collected from children's houses were investigated under a light microscope. House-dust mites were found in 31.7% of houses of children with a specific IgE, while the rate was 27.5% in houses of those without a specific IgE. Overall, house dust specimens collected from a total of 92 houses were examined, and mites were found in 27 (29.3%) of them. Both Der p and Der f were found in 38 (92.7%), while mixed allergy (D. pteronyssinus + D. farinae) was found in 3 (7.3%). Der p allergy (100%) was found in all of the allergic children, while no child was found with specific IgE for Der f allergy, except in mixed allergies. PMID:19817266

  6. Exozodiacal dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchner, Marc Jason

    Besides the sun, the most luminous feature of the solar system is a cloud of "zodiacal" dust released by asteroids and comets that pervades the region interior to the asteroid belt. Similar clouds of dust around other stars---exozodiacal clouds---may be the best tracers of the habitable zones of extra-solar planetary systems. This thesis discusses three searches for exozodiacal dust: (1) We observed six nearby main-sequence stars with the Keck telescope at 11.6 microns, correcting for atmosphere-induced wavefront aberrations and deconvolving the point spread function via classical speckle analysis. We compare our data to a simple model of the zodiacal dust in our own system based on COBE DIRBE observations and place upper limits on the density of exozodiacal dust in these systems. (2) We observed Sirius, Altair, and Procyon with the NICMOS Coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope to look for scattered light from exozodiacal dust and faint companions within 10 AU from these stars. (3) The planned nulling capability of the Keck Interferometer should allow it to probe the region <200 milliarcsecond from a bright star and to suppress on-axis starlight by factors of 10 -3 to reveal faint circumstellar material. We model the response of the Keck Interferometer to hypothetical exozodiacal clouds to derive detection limits that account for the effects of stellar leakage, photon noise, noise from null depth fluctuations, and the fact that the cloud's shape is not known a priori. We also discuss the interaction of dust with planets. We used the COBE DIRBE Sky and Zodi Atlas and the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas to search for dynamical signatures of three different planets in the solar system dust complex: (1) We searched the COBE DIRBE Sky and Zodi Atlas for a wake of dust trailing Mars. We compare the DIRBE images to a model Mars wake based on the empirical model of the Earth's wake as seen by the DIRBE. (2) We searched the COBE DIRRE Sky and Zodi Atlas for Tiojan dust near

  7. Two Allergen Model Reveals Complex Relationship Between IgE Cross-Linking and Degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Handlogten, Michael W.; Deak, Peter E.; Bilgicer, Basar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Allergy is an immune response to complex mixtures of multiple allergens yet current models use a single synthetic allergen. Multiple allergens were modeled using two well-defined tetravalent allergens each specific for a distinct IgE thus enabling a systematic approach to evaluate the effect of each allergen and percent of allergen specific IgE on mast cell degranulation. We found the overall degranulation response caused by two allergens is additive for low allergen concentrations or low percent specific IgE, does not change for moderate allergen concentrations with moderate to high percent specific IgE, and is reduced for high allergen concentrations with moderate to high percent specific IgE. These results provide further evidence that supra-optimal IgE cross-linking decreases the degranulation response and establishes the two allergen model as a relevant experimental system to elucidate mast cell degranulation mechanisms. PMID:25308278

  8. Specific IgE in the identification of allergens in allergic rhinitis Malaysian patients.

    PubMed

    Choon-Kook, S; Teck-Soong, S L

    1995-06-01

    The specific serum IgE levels to 20 allergens were determined by enzyme immunoassay in 90 Malaysian patients with allergic rhinitis. Ninety-two percent of patients had elevated IgE to at least 1 of the allergens. The housedust mites D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were the major allergens, elevated IgE to either allergen being present in 86% of the patients. Prick skin tests were carried out in some of the patients, housedust mites, cat fur, dog hair and shrimp were the allergens used. Close correspondence was found between IgE and prick skin tests to the mites. PMID:7488340

  9. 2-DUST: Dust radiative transfer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, Toshiya; Meixner, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    2-DUST is a general-purpose dust radiative transfer code for an axisymmetric system that reveals the global energetics of dust grains in the shell and the 2-D projected morphologies of the shell that are strongly dependent on the mixed effects of the axisymmetric dust distribution and inclination angle. It can be used to model a variety of axisymmetric astronomical dust systems.

  10. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic rhinitis - dust ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are said to have a dust allergy. ...

  11. IgE antibodies and urinary trimethylarsine oxide accounted for 1-7% population attributable risks for eczema in adults: USA NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Population attributable risks from serum IgE and dust miteallergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema are unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine serum IgE and allergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema in adults and to calculate population attributable risks in a national and population-based setting. Data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006, was analyzed. Information on demographics and self-reported ever eczema was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (sub-sample) were also collected during the interview. Adults aged 20-85 were included. Statistical analyses were using chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of all the included American adults (n = 4979), 310 (6.2%) reported ever eczema. Moreover, more eczema cases were observed in female adults but fewer cases in people born in Mexico. There were no significant associations observed between commonly known biomarkers (including vitamin D) and eczema or between dust mite allergens and eczema. Serum D. Farinae (PAR 1.0%), D. Pteronyssinus (PAR 1.1%), cat (PAR 1.8%), dog (PAR 1.6%), and muse (PAR 3.2%) IgE antibodies were associated with eczema. Adults with ever eczema were found to have higher levels of urinary trimethylarsine oxide concentrations (PAR 7.0%) but not other speciated arsenic concentrations. There were no clear associations between other environmental chemicals including heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, parabens, pesticides, nitrate, perchlorate, polycyclic hydrocarbons and eczema as well. Elimination of environmental risks might help delay or stop eczema up to 7% in the adult population. PMID:26233738

  12. IGE and Basic Skills in the 80's: A Case for Effective Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John J.; Bechtol, William M.

    The educational system known as Individually Guided Education (IGE) will become increasingly important as schools enter a period of retrenchment in the 1980's. Four factors necessary for basic skills achievement can be achieved through the use of IGE: (1) strong leadership by the school principal; (2) time spent in direct instruction by the…

  13. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because phenolic compounds can precipitate or complex with proteins, we postulated that interactions of phenolics with IgE antibodies help enhance IgE binding to peanut allergens in Western blots. Three different phenolics, such as, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were examined. Each was mixe...

  14. Unique maturation program of the IgE response in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key event in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergies is the production of IgE antibodies. We show here that IgE+ cells are exceptional because they are largely found outside germinal centers and express, from very early on, a genetic program of plasma cells. In spite of their extra-germinal cente...

  15. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pennington, Luke F.; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Graham, Michelle T.; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Eggel, Alexander; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-05-19

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab–Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, inmore » combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. Furthermore, this combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions.« less

  16. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Luke F.; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Graham, Michelle T.; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Eggel, Alexander; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab–Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, in combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. This combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27194387

  17. Association between egg and staphylococcal superantigen IgE sensitizations in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peck Y

    2014-01-01

    Patients with moderately severe atopic dermatitis (AD) suffer from significant morbidity including secondary infections and psychosocial disturbances. However, there is currently no laboratory test for identifying these patients to implement early treatments. Because IgE sensitization to foods is frequently an early manifestation in infants with AD, this study aims to examine if food IgE levels may identify AD patients with more severe disease, and whether IgE sensitization to food may predict IgE sensitization to staphylococcal superantigens. Fifty-one young children with AD were included in the study. Eczema severity was measured by objective scoring AD. The levels of food and staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE were measured by Phadia ImmunoCAP system. Of the five common food allergens (cow's milk, egg white, soybean, wheat, and peanut), only IgE levels to egg white correlated significantly with eczema severity in young children with AD. IgE sensitization to egg white was significantly associated with IgE sensitization to staphylococcal superantigens in older children. PMID:24992554

  18. Computationally predicted IgE epitopes of walnut allergens contribute to cross-reactivity with peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross reactivity between peanuts and tree nuts implies that similar IgE epitopes are present in their proteins. To determine whether walnut sequences similar to known peanut IgE binding sequences, according to the property distance (PD) scale implemented in the Structural Database of Allergenic Prot...

  19. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Luke F; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Graham, Michelle T; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Eggel, Alexander; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab-Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, in combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. This combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27194387

  20. Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomés, Anna; Glesner, Jill; Vailes, Lisa D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Minor, Wladek; Chapman, Martin D.

    2012-07-11

    House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contact residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  1. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  2. Evidence for a locus regulating total serum IgE levels mapping to chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, D.A.; Xu, J.; Levitt, R.C.

    1994-09-15

    Genetic studies of total serum IgE levels were preformed since high IgE levels correlate with clinical expression of allergy and asthma. Families ascertained through a parent with asthma were genotyped for markers on 5q where there are multiple candidate genes that may influence the control of IgE and inflammation. Evidence for linkage of the IgE phenotype to 5q was obtained by both sib-pair and lod score analysis with evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels from segregation analysis. These findings represent a major step in mapping genes important in the regulation of allergic responses and the pathogenesis of asthma. 52 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Helminth-induced IgE and protection against allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Firdaus; Amoah, Abena S; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response against helminths and allergens is generally characterized by high levels of IgE and increased numbers of Th2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, yet the clinical outcome with respect to immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation is clearly not the same. High levels of IgE are seen to allergens during helminth infections; however, these IgE responses do not translate into allergy symptoms. This chapter summarizes the evidence of the association between helminth infections and allergic disorders. It discusses how helminth infection can lead to IgE cross-reactivity with allergens and how this IgE has poor biological activity. This information is important for developing new diagnostic methods and treatments for allergic disorders in low-to-middle-income countries. PMID:25553796

  4. The 28-entity IGES test file results using ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    The investigation was based on the following steps: (1) Read the 28 Entity IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) Test File into the CAD data base with the IGES post-processor; (2) Make the modifications to the displayed geometries, which should produce the normalized front view and the drawing entity defined display; (3) Produce the drawing entity defined display of the file as it appears in the CAD system after modification to the geometry; (4) Translate the file back to IGES format using IGES pre-processor; (5) Read the IGES file produced by the pre-processor back into the CAD data base; (6) Produce another drawing entity defined display of the CAD display; and (7) Compare the plots resulting from steps 3 and 6 - they should be identical to each other.

  5. Total IgE as a Serodiagnostic Marker to Aid Murine Fur Mite Detection

    PubMed Central

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-01-01

    Mites of 3 genera—Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia—continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

  6. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  7. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias towards the plasma cell (PC) fate,...

  8. Inhibition of CD23-mediated IgE transcytosis suppresses the initiation and development of airway allergic inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epithelium lining the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human IgE receptor, CD23 (Fc'RII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monola...

  9. IgE epitope proximity determines immune complex shape and effector cell activation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Gieras, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Roux, Kenneth H.; Dutta, Moumita; Khodoun, Marat; Zafred, Domen; Cabauatan, Clarissa R.; Lupinek, Christian; Weber, Milena; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Keller, Walter; Finkelman, Fred D.; Valenta, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Background IgE-allergen complexes induce mast cell and basophil activation and thus immediate allergic inflammation. They are also important for IgE-facilitated allergen presentation to T cells by antigen-presenting cells. Objective To investigate whether the proximity of IgE binding sites on an allergen affects immune complex shape and subsequent effector cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Methods We constructed artificial allergens by grafting IgE epitopes in different numbers and proximity onto a scaffold protein. The shape of immune complexes formed between artificial allergens and the corresponding IgE was studied by negative-stain electron microscopy. Allergenic activity was determined using basophil activation assays. Mice were primed with IgE, followed by injection of artificial allergens to evaluate their in vivo allergenic activity. Severity of systemic anaphylaxis was measured by changes in body temperature. Results We could demonstrate simultaneous binding of 4 IgE antibodies in close vicinity to each other. The proximity of IgE binding sites on allergens influenced the shape of the resulting immune complexes and the magnitude of effector cell activation and in vivo inflammation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the proximity of IgE epitopes on an allergen affects its allergenic activity. We thus identified a novel mechanism by which IgE-allergen complexes regulate allergic inflammation. This mechanism should be important for allergy and other immune complex–mediated diseases. PMID:26684291

  10. Glove-derived foreign proteins induce allergen-specific IgE in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Busch, Marion; Schröder, Claudia; Baron, Jens-Malte; Ott, Hagen; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas L; Mahler, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Currently, most medical gloves are produced with a low content of natural rubber latex (NRL) protein. However, they may be substituted by proteins of foreign origin to maintain specific properties of the material. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenicity and immunogenicity of unexpected proteins (i.e., soy and casein) compared with NRL proteins in a murine model in BALB/c mice. All respective allergen sources (extracts from three brands of NRL gloves, soy, and casein) were able to induce significant allergen-specific IgE and IgG(1) responses. On average, the highest IgE induction occurred after immunization with NRL, followed by soy and casein. Certain individuals from each treatment group exhibited levels of specific IgE as high as due to NRL. To analyze further specific IgE responses on a single allergen level, we established a microarray based on recombinant allergens for allergen-specific murine IgE detection. Besides specific IgE against rHev b 3, -6, -7, -8, and -11, specific IgE against kappa-casein could be detected in mice immunized with NRL glove extract, indicating a sensitization potential of the contained foreign protein. The substitution of genuine latex proteins by proteins of foreign origin may lead to a shift and de novo increase in sensitization to the finished products. PMID:18049454

  11. IgE reactivity to carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins in wheat allergy.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae Won; Hong, Jung Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Kyung Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate moieties of different glycoproteins, such as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and galactose α-1,3-galactose, can induce IgE reactivity with varied clinical significance. In this study, the possible participation of glycan from wheat gliadin, with respect to its IgE-binding capacity, was investigated in children with food allergies to wheat. Total IgE and wheat-specific IgE quantification, documentation of history, and/or oral food challenge (OFC) were performed for 52 children. Subjects with positive wheat-specific IgE were characterized as the symptomatic group, never-exposed group, or asymptomatic group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and glycan detection in gliadin were performed. IgE binding to gliadin and deglycosylated gliadin was measured by immunoblotting and ELISA. Gliadin-specific IgE was detected and correlated with wheat-specific IgE in the symptomatic, never-exposed, and asymptomatic groups. The glycan range overlapped significantly with the gliadin range. Deglycosylation of gliadin reduced the allergenicity of gliadin. In gliadin, the allergenicity of the glycan portion was greater in the symptomatic group than in the never-exposed and asymptomatic groups. We conclude that N-glycan in gliadin might exhibit allergenicity as a possible carbohydrate epitope in wheat allergy in children. PMID:25976436

  12. Correlation of serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations in patients with actinic prurigo*

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Lievanos-Estrada, Zahide; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Hojyo-Tomoka, Maria Teresa; Dominguez-Soto, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis, the pathophysiology of which has been hypothesized to involve subtype IV type b (Th2) hypersensitive response, whereby IL4, IL5, and IL13 are secreted and mediate the production of B cells, IgE, and IgG4. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of serum IgE levels and the clinical severity of injuries. METHODS: This case-control study comprised patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of actinic prurigo, as well as clinically healthy subjects, from whom 3cc of peripheral blood was taken for immunoassay. Cases were classified by lesion severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, and chi-square test was performed. RESULTS: We included 21 actinic prurigo patients and 21 subjects without disease; 11 patients with actinic prurigo had elevated serum IgE levels, and 10 had low serum levels. Six actinic prurigo (AP) patients with elevated serum levels of IgE had moderate injuries, 4 had severe injuries, and 1 had minor injuries. Eight out of 10 patients with normal IgE levels presented with minor injuries in the clinical evaluation. The 21 controls did not have increased serum IgE levels. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IgE levels are associated with moderate to severe clinical lesions, suggesting that actinic prurigo entails a type IV subtype b hypersensitivity response in which Th2 cells predominate. PMID:26982774

  13. IgE reactivity to carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins in wheat allergy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae Won; Hong, Jung Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate moieties of different glycoproteins, such as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and galactose α-1,3-galactose, can induce IgE reactivity with varied clinical significance. In this study, the possible participation of glycan from wheat gliadin, with respect to its IgE-binding capacity, was investigated in children with food allergies to wheat. Total IgE and wheat-specific IgE quantification, documentation of history, and/or oral food challenge (OFC) were performed for 52 children. Subjects with positive wheat-specific IgE were characterized as the symptomatic group, never-exposed group, or asymptomatic group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and glycan detection in gliadin were performed. IgE binding to gliadin and deglycosylated gliadin was measured by immunoblotting and ELISA. Gliadin-specific IgE was detected and correlated with wheat-specific IgE in the symptomatic, never-exposed, and asymptomatic groups. The glycan range overlapped significantly with the gliadin range. Deglycosylation of gliadin reduced the allergenicity of gliadin. In gliadin, the allergenicity of the glycan portion was greater in the symptomatic group than in the never-exposed and asymptomatic groups. We conclude that N-glycan in gliadin might exhibit allergenicity as a possible carbohydrate epitope in wheat allergy in children. PMID:25976436

  14. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. Methods A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. Results Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly high levels of serum IgE compared with malaria free apparently healthy controls (with and without helminth infections). Moreover, malaria patients co-infected with intestinal helminths showed high level of serum IgE compared with those malaria patients without intestinal helminths (2198 IU/ml versus 1668 IU/ml). A strong statistically significant association was observed between malaria parasite density and elevated serum IgE levels (2047 IU/ml versus 1778 IU/ml; P = 0.001) with high and low parasitaemia (parasite density >50,000 parasite/μl of blood), respectively. Likewise, helminth egg loads were significantly associated with elevated serum IgE levels (P = 0.003). Conclusions The elevated serum IgE response in malaria patients irrespective of helminth infection and its correlation with malaria parasite density and helminth egg intensity support that malaria infection is also a strong driver of IgE production as compared to helminths. PMID:24886689

  15. Human IgE binding capacity of tryptic peptides from bovine alpha-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Maynard, F; Jost, R; Wal, J M

    1997-08-01

    The specific IgE binding capacity of native bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-La), a globular whey protein, and tryptic peptides was investigated using 19 sera from patients with cow's milk protein allergy. The specific anti-bovine alpha-La IgE titers ranged from 0.6 to 125 IU/ml. Highly purified tryptic peptides from native and disulfide-bond-reduced alpha-La were obtained by reverse phase chromatography. By ELISA technique using immobilized native protein or peptides, 11 of the 19 sera reacted exclusively with intact protein while 8 of them also presented a specific IgE response to different tryptic peptides. Polyclonal IgE population specificity was not related to anti-bovine alpha-La IgE levels. Sequence (17G-K58) and larger peptides sharing this sequence were most strongly and frequently recognized. Competitive ELISA inhibition tests confirmed this IgE-specific response and gave also clear evidence for IgE binding to smaller peptides corresponding to sequences (6C-R10):S-S:(115L-L123) and (109A-L123). IgE binding to native alpha-La and large peptides confirmed the importance of conformational epitope(s). However, in some sera reduced and S-alkylated peptide (59I-K94) exhibited a similar or higher IgE binding capacity than the native corresponding fragment, suggesting the existence of sequential epitope(s) exposed through protein denaturation. Moreover, IgE binding sequences were also located within hydrophobic regions of alpha-La and/or within parts with high sequence homology to human alpha-La. PMID:9250594

  16. Dust agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

  17. Canyon Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03682 Canyon Dust

    These dust slides are located on the wall of Thithonium Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.1N, Longitude 275.7E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Dust Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03677 Linear Clouds

    Dust slides are common in the dust covered region called Lycus Sulci. A large fracture is also visible in this image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 28.1N, Longitude 226.3E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Dust collector

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.T.

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes a dust collector comprising: (a) a housing having inlet means for receiving air to be cleaned; (b) a plurality of filter units within the housing; (c) a first centrifugal fan arranged for drawing air through the units for removing dust from the air; (d) a plurality of ducts each connected to a corresponding one of the units at one end and to the first fan at the other end to provide passages for air from the units to the first fan, the ducts through a portion of their length being arranged in side-by-side relationship; (e) a second centrifugal fan for providing reverse flow of air through the ducts to the units, the second fan providing a high volume of air at low pressure; (f) a transverse duct connected to the second fan and extending transversely of the portion of the plurality of ducts and adjacent thereto: (g) a plurality of openings providing communication between the transverse duct and each of the plurality of ducts; (i) rotatable means engaging the vanes for sequentially moving the vanes between the first and second positions.

  20. Genetic basis of IgE responsiveness: relevance to the atopic diseases.

    PubMed

    Marsh, D G; Neely, J D; Breazeale, D R; Ghosh, B; Freidhoff, L R; Schou, C; Beaty, T H

    1995-01-01

    Genetic analysis of 170 subjects in 11 extended Amish families revealed evidence for linkage of five markers in chromosome 5q31.1 with a gene controlling total serum IgE levels. No linkage was found between these markers and specific IgE antibody levels. Analysis of total IgE within a subset of 128 IgE-antibody-negative sib pairs confirmed evidence for linkage to 5q31.1, especially IL4 (p = 4 x 10(-6)). These and other data suggest that IL4 or a nearby gene regulates IgE production in a non-antigen-specific (noncognate) fashion and provide evidence for a possible link between asthma and the IL4 gene. PMID:7613143

  1. NASA geometry data exchange specification for computational fluid dynamics (NASA IGES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Kerr, Patricia A.; Thorp, Scott A.; Jou, Jin J.

    1994-01-01

    This document specifies a subset of an existing product data exchange specification that is widely used in industry and government. The existing document is called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. This document, a subset of IGES, is intended for engineers analyzing product performance using tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This document specifies how to define mathematically and exchange the geometric model of an object. The geometry is represented utilizing nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves and surfaces. Only surface models are represented; no solid model representation is included. This specification does not include most of the other types of product information available in IGES (e.g., no material properties or surface finish properties) and does not provide all the specific file format details of IGES. The data exchange protocol specified in this document is fully conforming to the American National Standard (ANSI) IGES 5.2.

  2. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  3. Self-reactive IgE exacerbates interferon responses associated with autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Henault, Jill; Riggs, Jeffrey M.; Karnell, Jodi L.; Liarski, Vladimir M.; Li, Jianqing; Shirinian, Lena; Xu, Linda; Casey, Kerry A.; Smith, Michael A.; Khatry, Deepak B.; Izhak, Liat; Clarke, Lorraine; Herbst, Ronald; Ettinger, Rachel; Petri, Michelle; Clark, Marcus R.; Mustelin, Tomas; Kolbeck, Roland; Sanjuan, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Canonically, IgE mediates allergic immune responses by triggering mast cells and basophils to release histamine and Type 2 helper cytokines. Here, we report that in human systemic lupus erythematosus, IgE antibodies specific for double-stranded DNA activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), an immune cell type linked to viral defense, leading to the secretion of substantial amounts of interferon-α. The concentrations of dsDNA-specific IgE found in patient serum correlated with disease severity and greatly potentiated pDC functions by triggering phagocytosis via FcεRI followed by Toll-like receptor 9-mediated DNA sensing in phagosomes. These findings expand the known pathogenic mechanisms of IgE-mediated inflammation beyond those found in allergy and demonstrate that IgE can trigger interferon responses capable of exacerbating self-destructive autoimmune responses. PMID:26692173

  4. Interstellar Dust: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (Editor); Allamandola, Louis J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A coherent picture of the dust composition and its physical characteristics in the various phases of the interstellar medium was the central theme. Topics addressed included: dust in diffuse interstellar medium; overidentified infrared emission features; dust in dense clouds; dust in galaxies; optical properties of dust grains; interstellar dust models; interstellar dust and the solar system; dust formation and destruction; UV, visible, and IR observations of interstellar extinction; and quantum-statistical calculations of IR emission from highly vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules.

  5. Ricin enhances IgE responses by inhibiting a subpopulation of early-activated IgE regulatory CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Sanchez, D; Lee, T H; Kemeny, D M

    1993-01-01

    Ricin, a toxic lectin from castor beans greatly enhances IgE responses to bee venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in high and low IgE responder strains of rat. The increase in IgE is accompanied by a 60% reduction in the number of CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells in the spleen. Optimal enhancement of IgE by ricin occurs when it is given at the same time as the antigen or 24 hr later, suggesting that it acts on cells which were activated as a consequence of immunization. Radio ligand-binding studies with 125I ricin were used to compare the number of ricin binding sites on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. No difference was seen in either the affinity or the number of receptors for ricin on the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of unimmunized rats. In contrast, CD8+ T cells taken from rats which had been immunized with 10 micrograms of PLA2 24 hr earlier demonstrated considerably more ricin receptors (3.9 x 10(7) +/- 2.2 x 10(6) binding sites/cell) than CD4+ T cells (3.19 x 10(6) +/- 1.08 x 10(6) binding sites/cell). However the affinity of the receptors for ricin was unchanged. Cytofluorographic analysis with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled ricin confirmed these observations and indicated that increased ricin binding occurred on a subpopulation of CD8+ T cells. The effect of CD8+ T cells on IgE regulation was investigated by adoptive transfer. 1 x 10(8) highly purified (> 98%) splenic CD8+ T cells collected from Brown Norway rats 3 days after immunization with 10 micrograms of PLA2 were adoptively transferred to naive, syngeneic recipients. The IgE antibody response to PLA2 + A1(OH)3 seen in these animals was reduced by 91%. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from the same donor animals did not induce suppression and nor did adoptive transfer of CD8+ T cells from animals given both ricin and PLA2. However, when recipients of CD8+ T cells taken from rats immunized with PLA2 were immunized with a different antigen [ovalbumin (OVA)] and A1(OH)3 the IgE antibody response was also suppressed

  6. IgE response to two new allergen proteins of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant).

    PubMed

    Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-12-01

    A number of allergens from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) have been previously identified. In this study, we could detect IgE reactivity of two allergic subjects' sera towards two protein bands of molecular mass of about 35 and 15 kDa. As IgE were reactive to both raw and cooked eggplant extracts, a heat-stable nature of these novel allergens is apparent. PMID:26455782

  7. Computationally predicted IgE epitopes of walnut allergens contribute to cross-reactivity with peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Soheila J.; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Chen, Deliang; Comstock, Sarah S.; Ruan, Sanbao; Schein, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cross reactivity between peanuts and tree nuts implies that similar IgE epitopes are present in their proteins. Objective To determine whether walnut sequences similar to known peanut IgE binding sequences, according to the property distance (PD) scale implemented in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP), react with IgE from sera of patients with allergy to walnut and/or peanut. Methods Patient sera were characterized by Western blotting for IgE-binding to nut protein extracts, and to peptides from walnut and peanut allergens, similar to known peanut epitopes as defined by low PD values, synthesized on membranes. Competitive ELISA was used to show that peanut and predicted walnut epitope sequences compete with purified Ara h 2 for binding to IgE in serum from a cross-reactive patient. Results Sequences from the vicilin walnut allergen Jug r 2 which had low PD values to epitopes of the peanut allergen Ara h 2, a 2s-albumin, bound IgE in sera from five patients who reacted to either walnut, peanut or both. A walnut epitope recognized by 6 patients mapped to a surface-exposed region on a model of the N-terminal pro-region of Jug r 2. A predicted walnut epitope competed for IgE binding to Ara h 2 in serum as well as the known IgE epitope from Ara h 2. Conclusions Sequences with low PD value (<8.5) to known IgE epitopes could contribute to cross-reactivity between allergens. This further validates the PD scoring method for predicting cross-reactive epitopes in allergens. PMID:21883278

  8. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells.

    PubMed

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning; Dam, Svend; Lorentzen, Andrea; Miehe, Michaela; Jabs, Frederic; Jakob, Thilo; Plum, Melanie; Spillner, Edzard

    2016-04-01

    TH2-biased immunity to parasites and allergens is often associated with increased levels of antigen-specific and high affinity IgE. The role in reacting against minute amounts of target structures and to provoke severe anaphylactic reactions renders IgE a mechanistically outstanding isotype. IgE represents the least abundant serum antibody isotype and exhibits a variety of peculiarities including structure, extensive glycosylation and effector functions. Despite large progress in antibody technologies, however, the recombinant access to isotypes beyond IgG such as IgE still is scarce. The capacity of expression systems has to meet the complex structural conformations and the extensive posttranslational modifications that are indispensable for biological activity. In order to provide alternatives to mammalian expression systems with often low yield and a more complex glycosylation pattern we established the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the rIgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the IgE isotype. PMID:26943931

  9. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796–0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707–0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (<195 kU/L) predicted the absence of multiple allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history. PMID:27314052

  10. Should milk-specific IgE antibodies be measured in adults in primary care?

    PubMed Central

    Anthoni, Sari; Elg, Peter; Haahtela, Tari; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the association of milk-IgE antibodies in serum to milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms in adults in primary care. Design Open clinical study. Setting Five outpatient clinics in primary care in Southern Finland. Subjects A total of 756 subjects who reported milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms in primary care and as controls 101 subjects with no such symptoms. Methods IgE values for specific food antigens were measured (Pharmacia CAP System) in a total of 857 subjects. All food screen-positive samples (>0.35 IU/l) were analysed further for IgE for untreated skimmed milk (milk-IgE) and for boiled milk. Those found positive for milk-IgE were invited for an open milk challenge test. Results Some 5.4% (46/857) of all subjects had a positive IgE antibody screen for food antigens. Of those with a positive food screen, 28% (13/46) had milk-IgE antibodies comprising 1.5% of the total group screened. The prevalence of milk-IgE was not statistically different between those with milk-related symptoms and those with no such symptoms. IgE antibodies for boiled milk were rare. All specific IgE antibody levels were low. Bloating was the only observed symptom in milk challenge tests. Conclusion IgE antibodies to cow's milk were relatively rare in the adult population and were not indicative of milk protein allergy. The observed IgE levels were low and did not correlate with subjective milk-related symptoms. The measurement of milk-specific IgE in adults should be discouraged in outpatient clinics. PMID:18609255

  11. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  12. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  13. Label-free colorimetric aptasensor for IgE using DNA pseudoknot probe.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chen-Yu; Zhao, Xihong; Wu, Tzu-Heng; Wei, Shih-Chung; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2014-07-01

    The development of simple and low-cost approaches to the detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE) would provide a method for the early diagnosis and prevention of atopic diseases. The current methods of detection are generally tedious, multi-step processes and are limited by the high cost of the labeled proteins. We describe here a label-free structure-switching colorimetric method for the simple measurement of IgE using DNA pseudoknot probes and gold nanoparticles. In the absence of a target the IgE aptamer probe adopts a pseudoknot conformation that dissociates a capture probe from the unmodified gold nanoparticles. However, when IgE binds to the aptamer probe, the pseudoknot is resolved, leading to a favorable hybridization between the 3' terminal loop of the aptamer probe and the capture probe; this induces the aggregation of the gold nanoparticles. As a result, the colorimetric IgE sensor using this structure-switching mechanism is sensitive, specific and convenient, and the assay works even when challenged with complicated biological matrixes such as vaginal fluids. The proposed method is expected to be of great clinical value for IgE detection and could be used, after appropriate design, for sensing applications of other structured aptamers. PMID:24821053

  14. Serum IgE clearance is facilitated by human FcεRI internalization

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Alexandra M.; Wu, Nan; Putnam, Amy L.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Wolters, Paul; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Jeoung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI is constitutively expressed in mast cells and basophils and is required for transmitting stimulatory signals upon engagement of IgE-bound allergens. FcεRI is also constitutively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes in humans; however, the specific functions of the FcεRI expressed by these cells are not completely understood. Here, we found that FcεRI expressed by human blood DC antigen 1–positive (BDCA1+) DCs and monocytes, but not basophils, traffics to endolysosomal compartments under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, IgE bound to FcεRI on BDCA1+ DCs was rapidly endocytosed, transported to the lysosomes, and degraded in vitro. IgE injected into mice expressing human FcεRIα (FCER1A-Tg mice) was endocytosed by conventional DCs and monocytes, and endocytosis was associated with rapid clearance of circulating IgE from these mice. Importantly, this rapid IgE clearance was dependent on monocytes or DCs but not basophils. These findings strongly suggest that constitutive internalization of human FcεRI by DCs and monocytes distinctively contributes to serum IgE clearance. PMID:24569373

  15. Ultrasensitive carbohydrate-peptide SPR imaging microarray for diagnosing IgE mediated peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit A.; Peczuh, Mark W.; Kumar, Challa V.; Rusling, James F

    2014-01-01

    Severity of peanut allergies is linked to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in blood, but diagnostics from assays using glycoprotein allergen mixtures may be inaccurate. Measuring IgEs specific to individual peptide and carbohydrate epitopes of allergenic proteins is promising. We report here the first immunoarray for IgEs utilizing both peptide and carbohydrate epitopes. A surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) microarray was equipped with peptide and β-xylosyl glycoside (BXG) epitopes from major peanut allergen glycoprotein Arachis hypogaea h2 (Ara-h2). A monoclonal anti-IgE antibody was included as positive control. IgEs were precaptured onto magnetic beads loaded with polyclonal anti-IgE antibodies to enhance sensitivity and minimize non-specific binding. As little as 0.1 attomole (0.5 pg/mL) IgE was detected from dilute serum in 45 min. IgEs binding to Ara-h2 peptide and BXG were quantified in 10 μL of patient serum and correlated with standard ImmunoCAP values. PMID:25259443

  16. Increased IgE antibody responses in rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Zetterstroem, O.N.; Nordvall, S.L.; Bjoerksten, B.A.; Ahlstedt, S.; Stelander, M.

    1985-05-01

    Raised serum IgE levels were found in a high proportion of rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke twice daily 5 days a week for 8 wk in a Dontenville-type smoking machine. Levels above 1 ng/ml of IgE were found in nine of 20 animals exposed to cigarette smoke and in five of 20 rats exposed to smoke from cigarettes with 1.45% phenylmethyloxidiazole added for possible protection against the effects of the smoke. None of the 20 control rats exhibited similarly increased serum IgE. Exposure to tobacco smoke did not significantly affect the serum concentrations of IgM and IgG. The development of specific IgE and IgG antibodies was also influenced by tobacco smoke exposure. Rats exposed to ovalbumin aerosol developed increased levels of IgG and IgE antibodies, whereas no effect on the development of antibody titers was found in rats immunized by the subcutaneous route. This study demonstrates that exposure to tobacco smoke increases serum IgE levels and enhances sensitization via the airways by a local effect, thus supporting the mucosal theory of atopy.

  17. 129/SvJ mice have mutated CD23 and hyper IgE

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jill W.; Sturgill, Jamie L.; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor, is hypothesized to function as a negative regulator of IgE production. Upon discovering reduced CD23 surface levels in 129/SvJ inbred mice, we sought to further investigate 129/SvJ CD23 and to examine its influence on IgE levels. Five amino acid substitutions were found in 129/SvJ CD23. Identical mutations were also observed in CD23 from New Zealand Black and 129P1/ReJ mice. 129/SvJ B cells proliferated more rapidly than those from BALB/c after stimulation with IL-4 and CD40 ligand trimer. However, in vitro IgE levels in supernatants from stimulated 129/SvJ B cells were significantly reduced. Contrary to the in vitro findings, the 129/SvJ CD23 mutations correlated with a hyper IgE phenotype in vivo and 129/SvJ were able to clear Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection more rapidly than either BALB/c or C57BL/6. Overall, this study further suggests that CD23 is an important regulatory factor for IgE production. PMID:18828998

  18. Total IgE Distribution in Food Allergy Suspected Patients in Republic of Macedonia (2001-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Mitkovska, Slavica Hristomanova; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Spiroski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE may be considered the hallmark of allergic disorders. It is easily detected in serum and can be measured as total IgE and as allergen-specific IgE. In fact, the serum IgE assay is used to diagnose an allergy. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate, investigate and present the distribution of total serum IgE levels, determined with UniCap system, in food-allergy suspected patients in a Republic of Macedonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study we analyzed retrospectively 8898 consecutive patients that were admitted for allergy testing at the Institute of Immunobiology and Human Genetics during the ten year period between 01.01.2001 and 01.01.2011. Total IgE levels in patient sera were detected with the in vitro system UniCAP100 (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden). RESULTS: When we analyzed the number of patients according to the total IgE groups, we noted that most of the patients have normal levels of total IgE in serum. However, we also discovered a group of patients with elevated levels of total IgE that are greater than 200 kU/L. The average concentration of total serum IgE is higher in women in the age group 6 (6-7 years), followed by a steep decrease in the age group 9 (9-10 years), and after that the average concentrations of total IgE were mostly constant with the exception of a partial increase in the age group 21 (65-69 years). For men, the average serum concentrations of total IgE were highest in the age group of 6 (6-7 years), which was significantly higher than the average concentrations of total IgE in all other age groups. CONCLUSION: The large number of enrolled patients, a particular strength of this study, revealed that average concentrations of total IgE in men are higher than in women and that total IgE did not decrease with age. On the contrary, increased total IgE levels were found in patients aged 65 and 69 of both genders. We continue our work with analyses of the specific IgE antibodies values toward food and the correlation with

  19. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  20. Utility of IgE (total and Aspergillus fumigatus specific) in monitoring for response and exacerbations in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Sehgal, Inderpaul S; Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2016-01-01

    The role of total and specific IgE in monitoring treatment responses in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) remains poorly studied. Here in, we evaluate the utility of total and Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE in the follow-up of ABPA. Eighty-one consecutive treatment-naïve patients of ABPA (acute stage) with pulmonary infiltrates and bronchiectasis underwent measurement of total and A. fumigatus specific IgE at baseline, after 8 weeks of glucocorticoid therapy, and during exacerbations. There was clinical and radiological improvement after treatment with median decline of total IgE by 51.9%. The total IgE declined by at least 35%, 25% and 20% in 69 (85.2%), 76 (93.6%) and 78 (96.3%) patients, respectively. On the other hand, the A. fumigatus specific IgE increased in 42 (51.9%) subjects, and the mean increase was 1.4%, after 8 weeks. Among 13 patients with exacerbation, 12 (92.3%) had a rise of total IgE by >50%. The A. fumigatus specific IgE increased in only five (38.5%) subjects during exacerbation. Thus, the total IgE is a useful test in monitoring treatment responses in ABPA while A. fumigatus specific IgE has limited utility. PMID:26575791

  1. IgE deposition in normal skin of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in relation to clinical and laboratory findings.

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, L S; Westedt, M L; Cats, A; Vermeer, B J; Weltevreden, E F; Bridts, C H; Stevens, W J

    1985-01-01

    Biopsy specimens from apparently normal skin of 28 patients with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were examined for the presence of IgE deposition by a direct immunofluorescence technique. IgE deposition was found in 12 patients (43%) and in none of the 10 controls. This deposition was mainly localised on mast cells, and in three patients perivascular IgE staining was also noted. The skin from nine of the 12 patients also showed deposition of IgM and complement C3 or C4 factor, or both. All 12 patients with skin IgE deposition had raised levels of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in the serum. Nine of these also had IgE RF. IgE-containing circulating immune complexes (IgE CIC), raised serum IgE levels, and extra-articular (EA) manifestations were present in respectively 10, nine, and eight skin IgE positive patients. It is suggested that IgE and IgE CIC may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA and its EA manifestations. Images PMID:3904645

  2. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  3. Expression of the High Affinity IgE Receptor by Neutrophils of Individuals with Allergic Asthma is Both Minimal and Insensitive to Regulation by Serum IgE

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Juanita; Riggs, Emily K.; Fu, Jun; MacGlashan, Donald W.; Fox, Susan A.; Yu, Byung; Tobin, Mary C.; Thomas, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that serum IgE regulates neutrophil FcεRI expression in the same manner as described for other FcεRI+ cells. FcεRI expression by neutrophils of 40 asthma subjects and 20 control subjects did not correlate with serum IgE levels, whereas FcεRI expression by basophils of the same subjects showed a highly significant correlation. The level of FcεRI expression by neutrophils of both asthma and control subjects was approximately 1% of that for basophil FcεRI expression. IgE+ neutrophils were minimally detectable, and FcεRI α subunit was not detected in Western blots of neutrophil membranes and cytosol. The neutrophil FcεRI did not support anti-IgE stimulated superoxide release or IgE-induced increase in neutrophil survival. We conclude that FcεRI expression by neutrophils of both asthma patients and control individuals is minimal at best and that, if present, neutrophil FcεRI expression, unlike that of other human FcεRI+ cells, is not regulated by serum IgE. PMID:19359220

  4. Translation of CODEV Lens Model To IGES Input File

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, T. D.; Carlin, B. B.

    1986-10-01

    The design of modern optical systems is not a trivial task; even more difficult is the requirement for an opticker to accurately describe the physical constraints implicit in his design so that a mechanical designer can correctly mount the optical elements. Typical concerns include setback of baffles, obstruction of clear apertures by mounting hardware, location of the image plane with respect to fiducial marks, and the correct interpretation of systems having odd geometry. The presence of multiple coordinate systems (optical, mechan-ical, system test, and spacecraft) only exacerbates an already difficult situation. A number of successful optical design programs, such as CODEV (1), have come into existence over the years while the development of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) has allowed a number of firms to install "paperless" design systems. In such a system, a part which is entered by keyboard, or pallet, is made into a real physical piece on a milling machine which has received its instructions from the design system. However, a persistent problem is the lack of a link between the optical design programs and the mechanical CAD programs. This paper will describe a first step which has been taken to bridge this gap. Starting with the neutral plot file generated by the CODEV optical design program, we have been able to produce a file suitable for input to the ANVIL (2) and GEOMOD (3) software packages, using the International Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) interface. This is accomplished by software of our design, which runs on a VAX (4) system. A description of the steps to be taken in transferring a design will be provided. We shall also provide some examples of designs on which this technique has been used successfully. Finally, we shall discuss limitations of the existing software and suggest some improvements which might be undertaken.

  5. Electric Dust Devils and Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, N. O.; Yana, C.

    2004-12-01

    Electrical fields measurements in terrestrial dust devils show that they maintain tremendous charge separation and that their electric fields exceeds the breakdown potential (~10 kV/m) of the Martian atmosphere (Farrell et al., 2002, 2003; Krauss et al., 2002; Renno et al., 2004). Typical Martian dust devils are be up to 100 times larger and much stronger than the small terrestrial analogues. Martian dust devils have higher dust content and may produce even stronger electrical fields. Indeed, the dust devils observed in the Pathfinder images have about 700 times the dust content of the local background atmosphere (Metzger et al., 1999). Thus, strong charge separations and electric-field breakdown are likely to occur on Martian dust devils and dust storms. Our theory (Renno et al., 2004) and laboratory experiments in a Mars chamber shows that collisions between sand and dust particles produce non-thermal microwave radiation. The non-thermal microwave emission allows not only the indirect detection of electric activity but also the determination of the physical properties of Martian sand and dust by remote sensing. Besides being geologically important, electrically charged Martian dust devils and dust storms are potential hazards to Landers and will be dangerous to future astronauts exploring its surface. Indeed, the design of adequate mechanical and electrical systems for these Landers cannot progress effectively without a better understanding of Martian dust devils and dust storms. Moreover, ancillary phenomena associated with electrically charged vortices can ionize atmospheric gases and might have important implications for atmosphere chemistry and even habitability.

  6. Flagellin modulates IgE expression in B cells to initiate food allergy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jing; Ma, Na; Zeng, Lu; Mo, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of IgE expression has not been fully understood. Flagellin (FGN) is an important microbial factor in the regulation of immune responses in the intestine. This study tests a hypothesis that FGN plays a crucial role in the isotype switching of IgE in B cells and the initiation of food allergy. In this study, the expression of IgE in B cells was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A mouse model was developed to assess the role of Toll like receptor-5 in the development of IgE-mediated allergic reaction in the intestinal mucosa. The results showed that exposure to FGN suppressed the expression of Bcl6 in B cells via increasing the levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7; the latter up regulated the levels of methylated H3K9 and H3K27, down regulated RNA polymerase II and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at the Bcl6 promoter locus. Exposure to FGN and IL-4 markedly increased the expression of IgE in B cells via activating p300, H3K4, Pol II and STAT6 at the IgE promoter locus. As compared with the sensitized wild mice, the sensitized TLR5-deficient mice showed no detectable OVA-specific IgE in the serum; mast cells in the intestinal mucosa were not activated, no apparent allergic symptoms were evoked after the specific antigen challenge. In conclusion, FGN facilitates the initiation of food allergy in mice by triggering IgE transcription in B cells in a Th2 polarization environment via activating HDAC7 and suppressing Bcl6 expression. PMID:27398157

  7. Seasonal split influenza vaccine induced IgE sensitization against influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Kumagai, Takuji; Nishimura, Naoko; Ozaki, Takao; Okafuji, Teruo; Suzuki, Eitaro; Miyata, Akiko; Okada, Kenji; Ihara, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Although anaphylaxis is an extremely rare vaccine-associated adverse event, it occurred in young children following administration of the 2011/12 seasonal split influenza vaccine, which contained 2-phenoxyethanol as the preservative. These children had high levels of IgE antibodies against influenza vaccine components. We herein investigated why these children were sensitized. One hundred and seventeen series of serum samples were obtained immediately before, and one month after the first and second immunizations with the HA split vaccine of 2011/12. Forty-two sequential serum samples were collected in the acute and convalescent phases (2 and 4 weeks) after natural infection with H1N1 Pdm in 2009. IgE antibodies developed following the vaccination of young children with seasonal split vaccines, whereas no significant IgE response was observed following natural infection with H1N1 Pdm 2009. The prevalence of IgE antibodies was not influenced by outbreaks of H1N1 Pdm. Repeated immunization with the HA split vaccine induced IgE sensitization against the influenza vaccine irrespective of the H1N1, H3N2, or B influenza subtypes. The reasons why anaphylaxis only occurred in recipients of the influenza vaccine containing 2-phenoxyethanol are still being investigated, and the size distribution of antigen particles may have shifted to a slightly larger size. Since the fundamental reason was IgE sensitization, current split formulation for the seasonal influenza vaccine needs to be reconsidered to prevent the induction of IgE sensitization. PMID:26188254

  8. IgE Immunoadsorption Knocks Down the Risk of Food-Related Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Dahdah, Lamia; Ceccarelli, Stefano; Amendola, Silvia; Campagnano, Pietro; Cancrini, Caterina; Mazzina, Oscar; Fiocchi, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    The effects of an immunoadsorption procedure, specifically designed to remove immunoglobulin E (IgE), on food-induced anaphylaxis have never been evaluated. We evaluate the effects of IgE removal on the allergic thresholds to foods. A 6-year-old boy with anaphylaxis to multiple foods and steroid-resistant unstable allergic asthma displayed serum IgE levels of 2800 to 3500 kU/L. To lower IgE serum concentrations, which could be overridden by a high dose of omalizumab, 1.5 plasma volumes were exchanged in 8 apheresis sessions. During the procedure, serum IgE levels fell to 309 kU/L. After the procedure, the threshold of reactivity to baked milk increased from 0.125 to 5 g of milk protein (full tolerance) after the first session, and the threshold of reactivity to hazelnut increased from 0.037 to 0.142 g of protein after the first session, 0.377 g after the eighth, and 1.067 g (full tolerance) after the first administration of omalizumab. Immediately after the sixth IgE immunoadsorption, we started omalizumab therapy. In the next 40 days, the threshold of reactivity to hazelnut increased to 7.730 (full tolerance). Asthma control was obtained, treatment with montelukast was stopped, and fluticasone was tapered from 500 to 175 μg/day. The boy became partially or fully tolerant to all the tested foods, and quality of life was improved. IgE immunoadsorption, used to establish the starting basis for omalizumab administration, is able to increase the tolerance threshold to foods. PMID:26620068

  9. Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Untersmayr, Eva; Bakos, Noémi; Schöll, Isabella; Kundi, Michael; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Szalai, Krisztina; Riemer, Angelika B; Ankersmit, Hendrik J; Scheiner, Otto; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2005-04-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that anti-ulcer drugs, such as H2-receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors, promote the development of immediate type food allergy toward digestion-labile proteins in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the allergological relevance of these findings in humans. In an observational cohort study, we screened 152 adult patients from a gastroenterological outpatient clinic with negative case histories for atopy or allergy, who were medicated with H2-receptor blockers or proton pump inhibitors for 3 months. IgE reactivities to food allergens before and after 3 months of anti-acid treatment were compared serologically. Ten percent of the patients showed a boost of preexisting IgE antibodies and 15% de novo IgE formation toward numerous digestion-labile dietary compounds, like milk, potato, celery, carrots, apple, orange, wheat, and rye flour. Thus, the relative risk to develop food-specific IgE after anti-acid therapy was 10.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-76.48). The long-term effect was evaluated 5 months after therapy. Food-specific IgE could still be measured in 6% of the patients, as well as significantly elevated serum concentrations of ST2, a Th2-specific marker. An unspecific boost during the pollen season could be excluded, as 50 untreated control patients revealed no changes in their IgE pattern. In line with our previous animal experiments, our data strongly suggest that anti-ulcer treatment primes the development of IgE toward dietary compounds in long-term acid-suppressed patients. PMID:15671152

  10. Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Crater wall dust avalanches in southern Arabia Terra.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 10.3, Longitude 24.5 East (335.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  11. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  12. Cross-reactivity between storage and dust mites and between mites and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arlian, Larry G; Morgan, Marjorie S; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Sharra, Denada

    2009-02-01

    Many patients have sensitivities to multiple species of storage and house dust mites. It is not clear if this is because patients have multiple sensitivities to species-specific mite allergens or if these mites share many cross-reacting allergens. Our objective was to further define the cross-allergenicity between several species of storage and house dust mites using crossed-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), immunoblotting, and ELISA. CIE and CRIE reactions revealed that storage mites shared two cross-antigenic molecules and one of these bound IgE in a serum pool from mite allergic patients. Antibody in anti-sera built to each species of mite recognized many SDS-PAGE resolved proteins of other mite species and this suggested the potential for other cross-reactive allergens. Among patient sera, IgE bound to many different proteins but few had IgE that bound to a protein with common molecular weights across the mite species and this suggested mostly species-specific allergens. Antiserum built to each mite species precipitated one protein in shrimp extracts that bound anti-Der p 10 (tropomyosin) and IgE in the serum pool. Anti-Der p 10 showed strong binding to shrimp tropomyosin but very little to any of the mite proteins. ELISA showed the mite extracts contained very little tropomyosin. The storage and dust mites investigated contain mostly species-specific allergens and very small amounts of the pan-allergen tropomyosin compared to shrimp and snail. PMID:18850281

  13. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    PubMed Central

    He, Jin-Shu; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Xiangying, Deng; Zuan, Lim Yok; Jones, Leigh Ann; Ramakrishna, Lakshmi; de Vries, Victor C.; Dolpady, Jayashree; Aina, Hoi; Joseph, Sabrina; Narayanan, Sriram; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Puthia, Manoj; Wong, Glenn; Xiong, Huizhong; Poidinger, Michael; Urban, Joseph F.; Lafaille, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE+ B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias toward the plasma cell (PC) fate, and dependence on sequential switching for the production of high-affinity IgE. We show here that IgE+ GC B cells are unfit to undergo the conventional GC differentiation program due to impaired B cell receptor function and increased apoptosis. IgE+ GC cells fail to populate the GC light zone and are unable to contribute to the memory and long-lived PC compartments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that direct and sequential switching are linked to distinct B cell differentiation fates: direct switching generates IgE+ GC cells, whereas sequential switching gives rise to IgE+ PCs. We propose a comprehensive model for the generation and memory of IgE responses. PMID:24218137

  14. Effects of Bordetella pertussis components on IgE and IgG1 responses.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, K

    1983-01-01

    The effect of dermonecrotic toxin (DNT), fimbrial hemagglutinin (FHA), K-agglutinogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and pertussigen from Bordetella pertussis on the production of IgE and IgG1 antibodies to hen egg albumin (Ea) was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The IgE antibody contents were determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in the skin of Lewis rats, while the IgG1 antibody contents were determined by PCA reactions on the skin of mice using sera that had been heated for 3 hr at 56 C to destroy the IgE antibodies. Among the B. pertussis components tested, pertussigen was the most effective adjuvant for increasing the IgE and IgG1 antibodies to Ea. LPS also moderately increased both types of antibodies, and FHA slightly increased the IgG1 titers. When LPS was given 5 days before Ea, it suppressed both IgE and IgG1 titers while FHA had only slight adjuvant action on both type of antibodies. When each of the components was tested for its ability to modify the adjuvant action of pertussigen, it was found that only DNT interfered significantly with the adjuvanticity of pertussigen when given on the day of immunization with Ea. When the components were given 5 days before Ea, DNT produced significant suppression of only the IgG1 response. LPS, FHA, and K-agglutinogen did not significantly affect the adjuvant action of pertussigen. PMID:6321910

  15. Cellular lesion responsible for exaggerated IgE synthesis accompanying allergic breakthrough

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelletti, J.F.; Katz, D.H.

    1989-05-01

    Appropriate levels of IgE are maintained by a cellular and molecular network composed of (1) a suppressive, Ly-1+, CD4+ T cell-dependent arm that is activated by inappropriate high levels of IgE and (2) an enhancing, CD8+ T cell-dependent arm that controls this suppression in a feedback regulatory manner. Ly-1+ T cells also function to counterbalance (inhibit) the activity of these latter CD8+ T cells. It has been previously shown that Ly-1+ T cells can reverse low-dose irradiation-induced enhancement of IgE antibody responses (i.e., allergic breakthrough). We have analyzed lymphocytes isolated from mice subjected to low-dose irradiation to determine which component of this network is defective in such animals. Stimulation of normal lymphocytes with IgE in vitro resulted in the release of lymphokines that suppress IgE antibody responses. In contrast, similar stimulation of lymphocytes from irradiated mice did not elicit secretion of such suppressive lymphokines, unless the cells were depleted of CD8+ T cells or reconstituted with normal Ly-1+ T cells. Because Ly-1+ T cells of irradiated mice could not reconstitute the response, we conclude that this functional subset of CD4+ T cells, which normally controls CD8+ T cell activity in this network, is defective in animals that exhibit irradiation-induced allergic breakthrough.

  16. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ε26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ε26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6 hours after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ε26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  17. Immature B cells preferentially switch to IgE with increased direct Sμ to Sε recombination

    PubMed Central

    Wesemann, Duane R.; Magee, Jennifer M.; Boboila, Cristian; Calado, Dinis Pedro; Gallagher, Michael P.; Portuguese, Andrew J.; Manis, John P.; Zhou, Xiaolong; Recher, Mike; Rajewsky, Klaus; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class-switch recombination (CSR) replaces initially expressed Cμ (IgM) constant regions (CH) exons with downstream CH exons. Stimulation of B cells with anti-CD40 plus interleukin-4 induces CSR from Cμ to Cγ1 (IgG1) and Cε (IgE), the latter of which contributes to the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. Although Cε CSR can occur directly from Cμ, most mature peripheral B cells undergo CSR to Cε indirectly, namely from Cμ to Cγ1, and subsequently to Cε. Physiological mechanisms that influence CSR to Cγ1 versus Cε are incompletely understood. In this study, we report a role for B cell developmental maturity in IgE CSR. Based in part on a novel flow cytometric IgE CSR assay, we show that immature B cells preferentially switch to IgE versus IgG1 through a mechanism involving increased direct CSR from Cμ to Cε. Our findings suggest that IgE dysregulation in certain immunodeficiencies may be related to impaired B cell maturation. PMID:22143888

  18. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-11-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ɛ26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ɛ26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6h after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ɛ26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  19. Autoimmune Hepatitis in Brazilian Children: IgE and Genetic Polymorphisms in Associated Genes

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Léa Campos; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Marin, Maria Lucia Carnevale; Schneidwind, Karina Rosa; Frade, Amanda Farage; Kalil, Jorge; Miura, Irene Kasue; Pugliese, Renata Pereira Sustovich; Danesi, Vera Lucia Baggio; Porta, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients present hypergammaglobulinemia, periportal CD8+ cytotoxic T cell infiltration, and cirrhosis. Autoantibody profile defines AIH types 1 and 2 in addition to strong association with HLA-DRB1. We previously detected increased IgE serum levels and sought to compare clinical and histological features according to IgE levels in AIH (n = 74, ages 1–14 years) patients. Additionally, we typed 117 patients and 227 controls for functional polymorphisms of IL4, IL13, IL5, and IL4RA genes involved in IgE switching and eosinophil maturation that might contribute to overall genetic susceptibility to AIH. Serum IgE levels were high in 55% of AIH-1, but only in 12% of AIH-2 (P = 0.003) patients. Liver IgE was present in 91.3% of AIH-1 patients. The A alleles at both IL13 rs20541 and IL4RA rs1805011 were associated with AIH-1 (P = 0.024, OR = 1.55 and P < 0.0001, OR = 2.15, resp.). Furthermore, individuals presenting homozygosis for the A allele at IL4RA rs1805011 and HLA-DRB1∗03 and/or ∗13 allele had sixfold greater risk to develop the disease (OR = 14.00, P < 0.001). The novel association suggests an additional role for IgE-linked immune response genes in the pathogenesis of AIH. PMID:26693492

  20. Hazards of explosives dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. For purposes of personnel safety, the spark ignitability of the explosives in the form of unconfined dust layers was also studied. The 20-L data show that most of the explosive dusts were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air and some dusts were even capable of sustaining explosions when dispersed in nitrogen. The finest sizes of explosive dusts were less reactive than the larger sizes; this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. The data for the explosive dusts were compared to those for pure fuel dusts.

  1. Biomonitoring of prenatal analgesic intake and correlation with infantile anti-aeroallergens IgE.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, H; Roeder, S; Mueller, A; Bertsche, T; Borte, M; Rolle-Kampczyk, U; von Bergen, M; Wissenbach, D K

    2016-06-01

    An association between prenatal acetaminophen or ibuprofen intake and an increased risk of asthma and increased IgE level in children is discussed in various epidemiological studies. Although the molecular mechanistic link is still unknown, the question whether or not acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen are safe pain medications during pregnancy arose. In this study, we associate maternal acetaminophen and ibuprofen intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding to infantile asthma phenotypes and elevated IgE level. Therefore, we analysed questionnaires from a local mother-child cohort and monitored drug intake by LC-MS biomonitoring in urine. No association was found between drug intake and any analysed health outcome using questionnaire data. For the information obtained from biomonitoring, no association was found for ibuprofen and acetaminophen intakes during breastfeeding. However, an association between prenatal acetaminophen intake and increased infantile IgEs related to aeroallergens was statistically detected, but not for asthma phenotypes. PMID:27012463

  2. Dendritic cell-bound IgE functions to restrain allergic inflammation at mucosal sites

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Baker, Kristi; Vera, Miguel Pinilla; Singer, Kathleen; Panduro, Marisella; Lexmond, Willem S.; Turner, Devin; Vargas, Sara O.; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Maurer, Dieter; Baron, Rebecca M.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-mediated crosslinking of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to mast cells/basophils via FcεRI, the high affinity IgE Fc-receptor, is a well-known trigger of allergy. In humans, but not mice, dendritic cells (DCs) also express FcεRI that is constitutively occupied with IgE. In contrast to mast cells/basophils, the consequences of IgE/FcεRI signals for DC function remain poorly understood. We show that humanized mice that express FcεRI on DCs carry IgE like non-allergic humans and do not develop spontaneous allergies. Antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking fails to induce maturation or production of inflammatory mediators in human DCs and FcεRI-humanized DCs. Furthermore, conferring expression of FcεRI to DCs decreases the severity of food allergy and asthma in disease-relevant models suggesting anti-inflammatory IgE/FcεRI signals. Consistent with the improved clinical parameters in vivo, antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking on papain or LPS-stimulated DCs inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Migration assays confirm that the IgE-dependent decrease in cytokine production results in diminished recruitment of mast cell progenitors; providing a mechanistic explanation for the reduced mast cell-dependent allergic phenotype observed in FcεRI-humanized mice. Our study demonstrates a novel immune regulatory function of IgE and proposes that DC-intrinsic IgE signals serve as a feedback mechanism to restrain allergic tissue inflammation. PMID:25227985

  3. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2). PMID:22993721

  4. Epidemiological survey of anti-flea IgE in dogs in Japan by using an antigen-specific IgE quantitative measurement method

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Y.; Beugnet, F.

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, an epidemiological survey was performed in dogs from October to December 2008 by using a quantitative measurement method for antigen-specific IgE towards specific Ctenocephalides felis antigens. 214 dogs from 22 veterinary clinics were included. These clinics were located as follows, from North to South: Hokkaido, Aomori, Fukushima, Tochigi, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo (Tama-City and Ota-ku), Kanagawa, Gifu, Niigata, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Hyogo, Kagawa, Ehime, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, Kumamoto and Kagoshima. 110 dogs (51.4%) were seropositive for flea-specific IgE. No differences were associated with gender or breed. This survey confirms that flea infestation in dogs is a common problem in Japan. It especially shows that the infestation also occurs in Northern Japan where fleas are considered uncommon by the vet. PMID:22550629

  5. Syntaxin-4 is essential for IgE secretion by plasma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Arman; DeCourcey, Joseph; Larbi, Nadia Ben; Loughran, Sinéad T.; Walls, Dermot; Loscher, Christine E.

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells resulted in reduction of IgE secretion. •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 also leads to the accumulation of IgE in the cell. •Immuno-fluorescence staining shows co-localisation of IgE and syntaxin-4 in U266 cells. •Findings suggest a critical requirement for syntaxin-4 in IgE secretion from plasma cells. -- Abstract: The humoral immune system provides a crucial first defense against the invasion of microbial pathogens via the secretion of antigen specific immunoglobulins (Ig). The secretion of Ig is carried out by terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes called plasma cells. Despite the key role of plasma cells in the immune response, the mechanisms by which they constitutively traffic large volumes of Ig out of the cell is poorly understood. The involvement of Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in the regulation of protein trafficking from cells has been well documented. Syntaxin-4, a member of the Qa SNARE syntaxin family has been implicated in fusion events at the plasma membrane in a number of cells in the immune system. In this work we show that knock-down of syntaxin-4 in the multiple myeloma U266 human plasma cell line results in a loss of IgE secretion and accumulation of IgE within the cells. Furthermore, we show that IgE co-localises with syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells suggesting direct involvement in secretion at the plasma membrane. This study demonstrates that syntaxin-4 plays a critical role in the secretion of IgE from plasma cells and sheds some light on the mechanisms by which these cells constitutively traffic vesicles to the surface for secretion. An understanding of this machinery may be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and autoimmune disease where over-production of Ig leads to severe pathology in patients.

  6. Effect of maternal lifestyle on cord blood IgE factor.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, T; Morimoto, K; Sasaki, S; Taniguchi, K; Motonaga, M; Akahori, W; Akahori, S; Akahori, T; Ohmori, H; Kuroda, E; Okabe, K; Yugari, K; Yamana, M

    1997-06-01

    During recent decades much interest has been focused on the possibility of predicting and preventing atopic diseases during pregnancy. The idea of being able to detect a predisposition early and take suitable environmental measures in order to avoid overt allergy is an attractive position. Elevated cord IgE of around 1.0 IU/ml has been proposed as a predictor in western children. However, there remains no information about the effect of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on these levels. Total IgE levels were therefore determined using Pharmacia CAP system and PRIST, with sensitivities of 0.01 kU/l and 0.25 kU/l, respectively, from serum samples taken from 1138 Japanese pairs of cord blood and pregnant women responding to a questionnaire regarding 17 health practices, intake of 32 food allergens and 5 environmental factors. Of these, 28 (2.5%) pairs of samples were excluded from further analysis because of high contamination of IgA (> 15.4 mg/ml) in cord blood. Median cord blood IgE was 0.286 kU/l and geometric mean IgE was 66.25 kU/l in maternal sera using CAP system; there was no significant correlation between maternal log (IgE) and cord blood IgE. Similar results were obtained from PRIST, whose correlation with CAP system was significant (r = 0.884, p < 0.001 for maternal and r = 0.765, p < 0.001 for cord blood). Multiple logistic analysis demonstrated that avoidance of simultaneous exposure to hens' eggs and cow's milk (relative risk = 1.3, p < 0.05) as well as soy beans (relative risk = 2.8, p < 0.01) should be advised to mothers with positive allergic histories and/or high total IgE (> 400 IU/ml), especially in women aged more than 35 years who are pregnant with a male child. However, maintenance of healthy lifestyles, especially taking proper exercise and sleeping, and avoidance of inhalant allergens during late pregnancy may be a more important strategy for the reduction of cord blood IgE levels. PMID:9258545

  7. Dust Plume off Mauritania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A thick plume of dust blew off the coast of Mauritania in western Africa on October 2, 2007. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite observed the dust plume as it headed toward the southwest over the Atlantic Ocean. In this image, the dust varies in color from nearly white to medium tan. The dust plume is easier to see over the dark background of the ocean, but the plume stretches across the land surface to the east, as well. The dust plume's structure is clearest along the coastline, where relatively clear air pockets separate distinct puffs of dust. West of that, individual pillows of dust push together to form a more homogeneous plume. Near its southwest tip, the plume takes on yet another shape, with stripes of pale dust fanning out toward the northwest. Occasional tiny white clouds dot the sky overhead, but skies are otherwise clear.

  8. Congruence between international guidelines and mite specific immunotherapy prescribing practices.

    PubMed

    Antonicelli, L; Braschi, M C; Bilò, M B; Angino, A; Pala, A P; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Bonifazi, F

    2011-10-01

    Both rhinitis (ARIA) and asthma (GINA) guidelines recommend allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) tailored to the specific levels of severity of each disease. Real world studies evaluating congruence between these recommendations and prescribing practice in the single patient with comorbidity are lacking. An observational polycentric study was carried out in 518 patients recruited from 34 allergy centers throughout Italy. A questionnaire was administered to each consecutive patient over a span of four months. Taking into account guideline recommendations for both diseases, concomitant in the same patient, three subsets resulted: patients not eligible for SIT (11%); patients eligible for SIT for one disease only (60%); patients eligible for SIT for both diseases (29%). SIT was prescribed in 257 (49.6%) subjects. The level of SIT prescription was about 50% in all three groups. Consistent with the ARIA guidelines, a correlation between the prescription of SIT and the severity of rhinitis was documented (r=0.87; p=0.001). An association with asthma severity was found (p=0.02), but the trend was inconsistent with the GINA recommendations. Young age was the most important factor for SIT prescription both in the eligible for one disease and in the eligible for both diseases subset. The tendency towards worsening of symptoms was a factor for SIT in the eligible for one disease subset. In mite allergic patients with rhinitis and asthma comorbidity, the severity of rhinitis and the young age are the most important factors driving the SIT prescription. The congruence of SIT prescription was better for the ARIA than GINA guidelines. PMID:21628094

  9. House-Dust Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    House-dust allergy is a common cause of perennial allergic rhinitis and extrinsic asthma. Symptoms tend to be worse when the patient is in bed. A positive skin test properly performed and interpreted confirms the diagnosis. The house-dust mite is the most important antigenic component of house-dust. Treatment consists of environmental control directed at reducing the mite content of bedroom dust, plus control of symptoms with drugs. Immunotherapy is controversial. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21286201

  10. Relationship of Organizational Structure and Leadership Behavior to Staff Satisfaction in IGE Schools. Technical Report No. 412.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Diana Reed

    The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship of structural aspects of the school organization and leadership behavior in schools to job satisfaction within Individually Guided Education (IGE) schools, and to determine whether organizational structure or leadership behavior had more impact on job satisfaction in IGE schools. Data…

  11. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     View Larger Image ... these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the height of the dust and an ...

  12. Middle East Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... only some of the dust over eastern Syria and southeastern Turkey can be discerned. The dust is much more obvious in the center panel, ... 18, 2002 - A large dust plume extends across Syria and Turkey. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  13. Dust in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust in…

  14. Niamey Dust Observations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be further studied.

  15. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

    2014-01-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

  16. Evaluation of dust respirators for elimination of mouse aeroallergens.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Miyazawa, H; Kamimura, H; Kimura, M; Yamazaki, S

    1989-01-01

    The efficiency of various dust respirators for eliminating mouse allergens [mouse urine proteins (MUP), pelts proteins (MPP) and serum albumin (MSA)] were evaluated with use of low-volume air samplers and immunochemical methods. Three kinds of dust respirators from one manufacturer which have different efficacy in the exclusion of dust particles were put on the fiber glass filter in each air sampler. Then the air in a mouse housing room was sampled. The allergens passed through the respirators, were trapped in the fiber glass filters, and then extracted from the filters. The allergens of MUP and MPP in the extract were measured by an inhibition method of fluorometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgE antibody and those of MSA measured by a fluorometric sandwich ELISA. The respirator with the lowest capability of exclusion was found to eliminate 65-86% of respective allergens. The other two respirators with higher powers eliminated 98% of MUP. MPP and MSA were eliminated to undetectable levels through these respirators. This study provided a means for the evaluation of dust respirators for animal aeroallergens. PMID:2918688

  17. Potentiation of IgE responses to third-party antigens mediated by Ascaris suum soluble products.

    PubMed

    Lee, T D; McGibbon, A

    1993-01-01

    A reductive approach was used to examine the potentiation of IgE responses by nematode infection. Ascaris homogenized extract, Ascaris pseudocoelomic (body) fluid (ABF) and purified Ascaris allergen (ABA) were tested for their ability to act as protein carriers and as mediators of potentiated IgE responses to third-party (ovalbumin; OVA) responses. All three nematode products were excellent protein carriers for the hapten dinitrophenol and showed significantly better activity in this respect than OVA. Neither ABF nor ABA enhanced the level of the IgE response to the third-party antigen but both prolonged the response markedly. ABF, but not ABA, induced high levels of total circulating IgE when given at the same time as OVA with alum. The data suggest that the enhancement and prolongation of IgE responses by nematodes may be two separate but related activities. PMID:8400897

  18. Interstellar Dust Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Drake, K.; Collette, A.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Postberg, F.; Krueger, H.; Auer, S.

    2010-10-01

    Interstellar grains traversing the inner planetary system have been identified by the Ulysses dust detector. Space dust detectors on other missions confirmed this finding. Analysis of the Stardust collectors is under way to search for and analyze such exotic grains. Interstellar dust particles can be detected and analyzed in the near-Earth space environment. New instrumentation has been developed to determine the origin of dust particles and their elemental composition. A Dust Telescope is a combination of a Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 084501, 2008) together with a high mass resolution mass analyzer for the chemical composition of dust particles in space. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of induced electric signals when a charged grain flies through a position sensitive electrode system. A modern DTS can measure dust particles as small as 0.2 micron in radius and dust speeds up to 100 km/s. Large area chemical analyzers of 0.1 m2 sensitive area have been tested at a dust accelerator and it was demonstrated that they have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass number up to >100 (Earth, Moon and Planets, DOI: 10.1007/s11038-005-9040-z, 2005; Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 014501, 2007). The advanced Dust Telescope is capable of identifying interstellar and interplanetary grains, and measuring their mass, velocity vector, charge, elemental and isotopic compositions. An Active Dust Collector combines a DTS with an aerogel or other dust collector materials, e.g. like the ones used on the Stardust mission. The combination of a DTS with a dust collector provides not only individual trajectories of the collected particles but also their impact time and position on the collector which proves essential in finding collected sub-micron sized grains on the collector.

  19. Galactose-α-1,3-Galactose–Specific IgE Is Associated with Anaphylaxis but Not Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Kelly, Libby A.; Rönmark, Eva; James, Hayley R.; Pochan, Shawna L.; Peters, Edward J.; Lundbäck, Bo; Nganga, Lucy W.; Cooper, Philip J.; Hoskins, Janelle M.; Eapen, Saju S.; Matos, Luis A.; McBride, Dane C.; Heymann, Peter W.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens. Methods: Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131). Measurements and Main Results: Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to α-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results provide a model of an ectoparasite-induced specific IgE response that can increase total serum IgE without creating a risk for asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled. PMID:22281828

  20. Co-stimulation of T cells via CD28 inhibits human IgE production; reversal by pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Pouw-Kraan, C T; Rensink, H J; Rappuoli, R; Aarden, L A

    1995-01-01

    In lymphocyte cultures, IgE production was achieved by stimulating T cells with anti-CD2 and IL-2. Here we show that anti-CD28, in the presence or absence of IL-2, reduces this IgE production approximately 10-fold. This inhibition of IgE production was almost completely reversed by Pertussis toxin (PT). PT had no effect on IgE production when the cells were stimulated in the absence of anti-CD28. No major effects of PT were found on IgM production. PT had no effect on purified B cells, stimulated with IL-4 and anti-CD40. In the presence of saturating amounts of rIL-4 similar results were obtained, albeit the absolute amounts of IgE produced were higher in all situations. Furthermore, PT-induced IgE production was still dependent on IL-4, as was evident from experiments in which anti-IL-4 was added to the culture. The IgE enhancing effect was dependent on the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyltransferase activity of PT, because a mutant molecule lacking this activity was not able to restore anti-CD28-induced inhibition of IgE synthesis. Thus, we show that co-stimulation with anti-CD28 causes an inhibition of T cell-dependent IgE production by B cells, which inhibition can be specifically overcome by PT. An analysis of the molecular pathways underlying this phenomenon may contribute to our understanding of the regulation of IgE synthesis in (patho)physiological conditions. PMID:7882571

  1. Progressive Cross-Reactivity in IgE Responses: an Explanation for the Slow Development of Human Immunity to Schistosomiasis?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Frances M.; Pinot de Moira, Angela; Protasio, Anna V.; Khalife, Jamal; Dickinson, Harriet A.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2012-01-01

    People in regions of Schistosoma mansoni endemicity slowly acquire immunity, but why this takes years to develop is still not clear. It has been associated with increases in parasite-specific IgE, induced, some investigators propose, to antigens exposed during the death of adult worms. These antigens include members of the tegumental-allergen-like protein family (TAL1 to TAL13). Previously, in a group of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males, we showed that IgE responses to three TALs expressed in worms (TAL1, -3, and -5) became more prevalent with age. Now, in a subcohort we examined associations of these responses with resistance to reinfection and use the data to propose a mechanism for the slow development of immunity. IgE was measured 9 weeks posttreatment and at reinfection at 2 years (n = 144). An anti-TAL5 IgE (herein referred to as TAL5 IgE) response was associated with reduced reinfection even after adjusting for age using regression analysis (geometric mean odds ratio, 0.24; P = 0.016). TAL5 IgE responders were a subset of TAL3 IgE responders, themselves a subset of TAL1 responders. TAL3 IgE and TAL5 IgE were highly cross-reactive, with TAL3 the immunizing antigen and TAL5 the cross-reactive antigen. Transcriptional and translational studies show that TAL3 is most abundant in adult worms and that TAL5 is most abundant in infectious larvae. We propose that in chronic schistosomiasis, older individuals have repeatedly experienced IgE antigens exposed when adult worms die (e.g., TAL3) and that this leads to increasing cross-reactivity with antigens of invading larvae (e.g., TAL5). Progressive accumulation of worm/larvae cross-reactivity could explain the age-dependent immunity observed in areas of endemicity. PMID:23006852

  2. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  3. Paradoxical Increase of IgE Binding Components during Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy in Pollinosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Moon-Gyung; Jin, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Yoo-Seob

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) reduces allergen specific IgE (sIgE) levels and achieves clinical and immunological tolerance by modulating innate and adaptive immunological responses. Increased temperature and CO2 concentrations caused by climate changes contribute to an increase of pollen count and allergenicity that influences clinical SIT outcomes. In this study, we investigated the changes of IgE binding components to tree and weed pollens in pollinosis patients who showed a paradoxical increase of serum sIgE level during pollen-SIT. We enrolled nine patients who showed an increasing pattern of serum sIgE level to alder, birch, ragweed and mugwort pollens by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. IgE immunoblot analysis confirmed the intensification or new generation of major IgE binding components that could be induced by climate change. The findings suggest that the regular monitoring of sIgE levels and symptom changes is required to improve the clinical outcomes of SIT in patients undergoing SIT for tree and weed pollens. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045240

  4. Screening for IgE mediated allergy among people working in the Marseilles harbour.

    PubMed

    Panzani, R C; Falagiani, P; Riva, G; Mercier, P; Delord

    1993-01-01

    Screening for IgE mediated allergy by RASTs to professional (castor bean, green coffee, peanut, soy protein, wheat, rice), and non professional (pollens, mites, cat, Alternaria tenuis) air borne antigens among 36 people working in the Marseilles harbour has showed rather unexpected findings: only one case of IgE positivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (class I) and one case of IgE positivity to castor bean seed (Ricinus communis) (class IV). IgG4 specific antibodies against castor bean and green coffee were also measured by an ELISA technique, with eleven cases of positivity to castor bean and only one case to green coffee being recorded. Several explanations can be put forward for the low incidence of IgE responses to the commonest airborne antigens and to the professional antigens (castor bean being the only offender), and for the rather high incidence of specific IgG4 antibodies to castor bean. Most likely, the low incidence of latent atopy is the result of a natural selection among the workers who gave up their job if experiencing of discomfort. As far as the elevated IgG4 antibody levels to castor bean are concerned, these are probably natural blocking antibodies. PMID:8328353

  5. Structural characterization and IgE epitope analysis of arginine kinase from Scylla paramamosain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine kinase (AK) has been reported as the pan-allergen of shellfish, however, there is limited information about its IgE epitopes and structural characteristics. In this study, AK from Scylla paramamosain was purified and characterized. The purified AK was a glycoprotein with the molecular weigh...

  6. Treatment of cashew extracts with Aspergillopepsin reduces IgE binding to cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cashew nuts can cause serious and sometimes life threatening reactions in people that suffer from food allergies. These reactions are mediated by immunoglobulin E binding (IgE) to allergenic cashew proteins. Enzymes from Aspergillus fungal species are used in many industrial and pharmaceutical appli...

  7. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Mattison, Christopher P; Reed, Shawndrika; Wasserman, Richard L; Desormeaux, Wendy A

    2015-08-01

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or cashew allergen (Ana o 2) was treated with or without 5mM sodium oleate at 70°C for 60 min (T1) or under the same conditions with an additional overnight incubation at 37°C (T2). After treatment, the samples were dialyzed and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and for OA content. IgE binding was evaluated by ELISA and western blot, using a pooled serum or plasma from individuals with peanut or cashew allergies. Results showed that OA at a concentration of 5mM reduced IgE binding to the allergens. Peanut sample T2 exhibited a lower IgE binding and a higher OA content (protein-bound) than T1. Cashew allergen T2 also showed a reduction in IgE binding. We conclude that OA reduces the allergenic properties of peanut extract and cashew allergen by binding to the allergens. Our findings indicate that OA in the form of sodium oleate may be potentially useful as a coating to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens. PMID:25766831

  8. Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat Associated With Specific IgE Antibodies to Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Liping; Zhou, Junxiong; Sun, Jin-lu; Sun, Yi; Wu, Kai; Katial, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    A novel delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, associated with tick bites and IgE antibodies against galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (α-gal), was reported in 2009 in the US, Australia and Europe. In this case, serum specific IgE to galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (>100 kU/L) and IgE to multiple non-primate mammalian proteins were positive. However, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. We report the first case in Asia of delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, which was induced by bites from the hard tick, Hematophagous ixodidae. We confirmed the increased concentration of IgE reactive epitopes in non-primate mammalian organs, which may be rich in α-gal proteins in lymphatic and endothelial tissues. All confirmed ticks associated with this disorder in the literature and in our case belonged to the hard tick family. We hypothesize that hard tick saliva is enriched with blood-type substances, such as oligosaccharides, from the non-primate mammal victim's blood after days to weeks of blood sucking, which sensitizes humans through the injection route while blood sucking. PMID:25553269

  9. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  10. A locus regulating total serum IgE maps to chromosome 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Amelung, P.J.; Panhuysen, C.I.M.; Postma, D.S. |

    1994-09-01

    Familial aggregation of allergy has been demonstrated in numerous past studies. However, allergy is a complex disorder which is not inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. Total serum IgE levels correlate with the clinical expression of allergy and asthma and can be utilized as a quantitative measure of the allergic phenotype. We studied 92 families from Northern Holland ascertained through a parent with asthma who were originally studied between 1962-1970. Since there is a large number of candidate genes on chromosome 5q, families were genotyped for markers in this region. These genes either directly or indirectly regulate IgE production and the activation and proliferation of cellular elements that are involved in inflammation associated with allergy and asthma. They include IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and GM-CSF. Segregation analyses revealed recessive inheritance of `high` levels with a mean for the `low` phenotype of 1.51 (32 IU) and 2.52 (331 IU) for the `high` phenotype. Linkage of log IgE with markers on 5q was tested using the sib-pair and the LOD score methods with the genetic model obtained from the segregation analyses. These results provide evidence for a locus controlling IgE levels near the cytokine gene cluster on 5q. This region appears critical in susceptibility to allergy and asthma.

  11. Effect of d-amino acids on IgE binding to peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D-amino acids are formed when L-amino acids are exposed to heat. The objective was to determine the existence of D-amino acids in roasted peanut and their effect on IgE binding. Raw and roasted peanut protein extracts were hydrolyzed in 6 N HCL under vacuum. The hydrolysates were then analyzed for D...

  12. A National Evaluation of the I/D/E/A Change Program for IGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Jon S.

    A survey was conducted to determine attitudes of administrators, teachers, students, and parents of students in schools using the Institute for Development of Educational Activities, Inc. (I/D/E/A) Change Program for Individually Guided Education (IGE). The study took over two years, and reached a sample of the 1,200 schools in 36 states.…

  13. Intrathecal synthesis of IgE in children with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Hernández, Hermes Fundora; Barroso, Jesús Callol; Sanchez-Martinez, Consuelo

    2008-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by the helminth Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging infectious disease in America. The objective of this paper was to determine if the intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin E is produced during the acute phase of the disease. Methods Thirteen patients, mean age 4.5 years were studied; a diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed and serum samples taken. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was quantified by nephelometry. Control patients had other infections or other neurological diseases. Results The mean cell count in the CSF was 500 × 10-6 cells/L and of these 23% were eosinophils. In blood the eosinophils were 13%. The chief symptoms of the patients were migraine, vomiting and fever and 50% presented some meningeal signs. IgE intrathecal synthesis analyzed by the corresponding quotient diagram (Reibergram) was observed in all patients. No intrathecal IgE synthesis was seen in control patients. Conclusion Intrathecal synthesis of IgE demonstrates the participation of this immunoglobulin in the destruction of the third stage larvae of the parasite in the CSF. The test should be considered in our environment as a tool to aid diagnosis. PMID:19032790

  14. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens. PMID:24926808

  15. Paradoxical increase of IgE binding components during allergen-specific immunotherapy in pollinosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Moon-Gyung; Jin, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) reduces allergen specific IgE (sIgE) levels and achieves clinical and immunological tolerance by modulating innate and adaptive immunological responses. Increased temperature and CO2 concentrations caused by climate changes contribute to an increase of pollen count and allergenicity that influences clinical SIT outcomes. In this study, we investigated the changes of IgE binding components to tree and weed pollens in pollinosis patients who showed a paradoxical increase of serum sIgE level during pollen-SIT. We enrolled nine patients who showed an increasing pattern of serum sIgE level to alder, birch, ragweed and mugwort pollens by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. IgE immunoblot analysis confirmed the intensification or new generation of major IgE binding components that could be induced by climate change. The findings suggest that the regular monitoring of sIgE levels and symptom changes is required to improve the clinical outcomes of SIT in patients undergoing SIT for tree and weed pollens. PMID:25045240

  16. Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cashew nuts are included in a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergies. IgE binding to allergens within the nuts can cause allergic reactions that can be severe. Foods containing cashew nuts must be labeled to prevent accidental exposure to people who suffer from allergy to cashew nuts....

  17. Multiple IgE recognition on the major allergen of the Parietaria pollen Par j 2.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valeria; Costa, Maria Assunta; Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; La Grutta, Stefania; Colombo, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between IgE antibodies and allergens is a key event in triggering an allergic reaction. The characterization of this region provides information of paramount importance for diagnosis and therapy. Par j 2 Lipid Transfer Protein is one of the most important allergens in southern Europe and a well-established marker of sensitization in Parietaria pollen allergy. The main aim of this study was to map the IgE binding regions of this allergen and to study the pattern of reactivity of individual Parietaria-allergic patients. By means of gene fragmentation, six overlapping peptides were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their IgE binding activity was evaluated by immunoblotting in a cohort of 79 Parietaria-allergic patients. Our results showed that Pj-allergic patients display a heterogeneous pattern of IgE binding to the different recombinant fragments, and that patients reacted simultaneously against several protein domains spread all the over the molecule, even in fragments which do not contain structural features resembling the native allergen. Our results reveal the presence of a large number of linear and conformational epitopes on the Par j 2 sequence, which probably explains the high allergenic activity of this allergen. PMID:25284812

  18. Crossreactivity of IgE antibody against Dermatophagoides farinae with Limulus polyphemus agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, M; Isoyama, S; Sumazaki, R; Takita, H

    1994-04-01

    Crossreactivity of IgE antibody against Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) with Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA) was examined using RAST and immunoblot analysis. Of 40 Der f-sensitive asthmatic patients, 28 revealed a positive RAST reaction to LPA, while none of 20 Der f-insensitive hay fever patients showed this reaction. LPA-specific RAST levels of the 40 asthmatic patients correlated with their Der f-specific levels. The RAST reactivity to LPA was competitively inhibited by the addition of either soluble Der f or LPA, but not by the specific inhibitory sugar of sialic acid. LPA could also induce histamine release from leucocytes of Der f-sensitive asthmatic patients. IgE immunoblot analyses showed that the positive RAST sera for LPA had a strong IgE binding activity to the 30 kDa and 80 kDa components of Der f body extract, whereas gel filtration studies showed that the high molecular weight fractions above 150 kDa retained antigenic constituents associated with IgE reactivity to LPA. These results suggest that the antigenic materials of Dermatophagoides mites share some determinants with the haemagglutinin of horseshoe crabs. PMID:7518731

  19. Interstellar Dust - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2012-01-01

    The study of the formation and the destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic materials. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar physics and chemistry and in the formation of organic materials, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. Laboratory experiments that are performed under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments to provide information on the nature, the size and the structure of interstellar dust particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. A review of the properties of dust and of the laboratory experiments that are conducted to study the formation processes of dust grains from molecular precursors will be given.

  20. Light Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 October 2004 Many Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images exhibit wild patterns of dark streaks thought to have formed by the passage of many dust devils. The dust devils disrupt the dust coating the martian surface, leaving behind a streak. However, not all dust devils make streaks, and not all dust devil streaks are dark. Some are light---it simply depends upon which is darker, the substrate or the dust that the spinning vortex disrupts. The example of light-toned dust devil streaks shown here is located in southern Schiaparelli Basin near 5.3oS, 343.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.

  1. Inhalation of stable dust extract prevents allergen induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Peters, M; Kauth, M; Schwarze, J; Körner‐Rettberg, C; Riedler, J; Nowak, D; Braun‐Fahrländer, C; von Mutius, E; Bufe, A; Holst, O

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent epidemiological studies have shown that growing up on a traditional farm provides protection from the development of allergic disorders such as hay fever and allergic asthma. We present experimental evidence that substances providing protection from the development of allergic diseases can be extracted from dust collected in stables of animal farms. Methods Stable dust was collected from 30 randomly selected farms located in rural regions of the Alps (Austria, Germany and Switzerland). The dust was homogenised with glass beads and extracted with physiological sodium chloride solution. This extract was used to modulate immune response in a well established mouse model of allergic asthma. Results Treatment of mice by inhalation of stable dust extract during sensitisation to ovalbumin inhibited the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and airway eosinophilia upon challenge, as well as the production of interleukin 5 by splenocytes and of antigen specific IgG1 and IgE. Dust extract also suppressed the generation of human dendritic cells in vitro. The biological activity of the dust extract was not exclusively mediated by lipopolysaccharide. Conclusions Stable dust from animal farms contains strong immune modulating substances. These substances can interfere with the development of both cellular and humoral immunity against allergens, thus suppressing allergen sensitisation, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic asthma. PMID:16244088

  2. Human eosinophils express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Messingham, Kelly N; Holahan, Heather M; Frydman, Alexandra S; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE ≥ 400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  3. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  4. Association Between PTPN22 Polymorphisms and IgE Responses to Staphylococcal Superantigens in Chronic Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Palikhe, Sailesh; Kim, Seung Hyun; Pham, Le Duy; Ye, Young Min; Park, Hae Sim

    2015-05-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase-22 (PTPN22) gene encodes lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp), an inhibitor of T cell activation. A polymorphism of the PTPN22 gene has been found to be associated with chronic urticaria (CU). We investigated the associations between PTPN22 gene polymorphisms and CU characteristics, including serum specific IgE antibodies response to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). CU patients (n=409) and normal healthy controls (n=388) were enrolled in the present study. Serum specific IgE to TSST-1 and SEA were measured by ImmunoCAP®. Five PTPN22 single nucleotide polymorphisms, -1123G>C, 1858C>T, 13145A>G, 14943C>T, and 20628A>G, were genotyped. There were no significant differences in genotype or haplotype frequencies of these polymorphisms between the 2 groups. CU patients carrying the GG genotype at 20628A>G (P=0.035) or haplotype 3 [GGG] (P=0.047) had a significantly higher prevalence of serum specific IgE to TSST-1 compared to non-carriers. Similarly, CT/TT genotype at 14943C>T had a significantly higher prevalence of serum specific IgE to SEA (P=0.045). The findings suggest that the PTPN22 gene polymorphisms at 20628A>G and 14943C>T may enhance serum specific IgE responses to TSST-1 and SEA, which may contribute to CU pathogenesis. PMID:25749762

  5. Decreased Level of IgE is Associated with Breast Cancer and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huayi; Guo, Gang; Jianzhong, Cao; Zheng, Yaqin

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of type I allergic diseases in patients with breast cancer by carrying out a questionnaire survey and IgE detection in a healthy population and in patients with breast cancer. Material/Method There were 309 patients enrolled and they were further divided into the type I allergic disease group, the newly diagnosed breast cancer with type I allergic disease group, the re-visit breast cancer with type I allergic disease group, and the re-visit breast cancer without type I allergic disease group, as well as a healthy control group. Serum total IgE level was detected by immunoassay. Results The IgE value in the healthy population with type I allergic diseases (89.3±51.4 IU/ml) was significantly higher than in those without type I allergic diseases (45.6±65.1 IU/ml). There was no significant difference between IgE values in the re-visit breast cancer patients with type I allergic disease (25.1±65.1 IU/ml) and those without type I allergic disease (23.0±45.9 IU/ml). The area under the ROC curve was 0.618±0.04, sensitivity was 78%, specificity was 47.1%, Youden index was 0.251, and IgE threshold was 32.6 IU/ml. Conclusions The patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were susceptible to type I allergic disease at about the same levels as in the healthy population. There was no correlation between breast cancer and type I allergic disease. PMID:26901362

  6. Purification and characterization of IgE produced by human myeloma cell line, U266.

    PubMed

    Ikeyama, S; Nakagawa, S; Arakawa, M; Sugino, H; Kakinuma, A

    1986-02-01

    Human IgE was isolated for the first time from the supernatant of the culture fluid of a human myeloma cell line, U266. The purification procedure consisted of salting out from the supernatant with ammonium sulfate, affinity chromatography on a lysine-Sepharose 4B column, ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sephacel column, gel filtration and recycling chromatography on a Sephacryl S-300 column and removal of bovine proteins on an anti-bovine serum rabbit IgG-Sepharose 4B column. One hundred and twenty eight milligrams of IgE was recovered from 461 of culture fluid. The purification was extremely simplified by the introduction of immunoaffinity chromatography using the monoclonal antibody prepared by immunizing a mouse with an IgE preparation obtained by the above method: about 3.3 mg was recovered from 960 ml of culture fluid. The purified preparation was homogeneous as judged by the double-immunodiffusion test and end group analysis. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of the preparation coincided with those reported on other preparations obtained from the sera of myeloma patients. Our preparation, however, showed two bands with apparent mol. wts of 240,000 and 230,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When it was reduced with dithiothreitol and analyzed by electrophoresis, it gave two heavy chains and one light chain with apparent mol. wts of 80,000 and 76,000, and 28,000, respectively. On the other hand, the IgE molecule that was synthesized and secreted into the medium in the presence of tunicamycin (0.5 microgram/ml) gave only one heavy chain and one light chain with apparent mol. wts of 62,000 and 28,000, respectively. These results demonstrated that the two IgE molecular species contained in our preparation differed from each other in the carbohydrate moiety in their heavy chains. PMID:3702874

  7. Prenatal exposure to household pets influences fetal IgE production

    PubMed Central

    Aichbhaumik, Niladri; Zoratti, Edward M.; Strickler, Ronald; Wegienka, Ganesa; Ownby, Dennis R.; Havstad, Suzanne; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2013-01-01

    Background Early life pet exposure may protect against allergic sensitization during childhood. Few studies have evaluated the effect of prenatal pet exposure on potential neonatal markers of allergic risk. Objective To investigate whether maternal exposure to pets affects cord blood IgE levels in a population-based, general risk, ethnically mixed birth cohort. Methods Pet keeping during pregnancy was ascertained from women residing in a defined area of Wayne County Michigan and recruited from five staff model obstetric clinics. Maternal venous blood was analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgE along with cord blood total IgE from 1049 infants. Results Compared to infants from households with no cats or dogs kept indoors during pregnancy, infants whose homes had either cats or dogs had significantly reduced mean cord IgE levels [0.34 IU/ml (95%CI 0.30–0.38) vs. 0.24 IU/ml (0.20–0.27) p = 0.025]. Similar effects were apparent in cat-only households [0.21 IU/ml (0.16–0.27), p = 0.020] and dog-only households [0.24 IU/ml (0.19–0.29), p = 0.045]. There was no effect on results when excluding mothers who reported avoiding pets due to allergy-related concerns. Conclusion Mothers with either cats or dogs in their home during pregnancy deliver children with lower cord blood IgE levels compared to mothers who do not live with these pets, supporting the hypothesis that pet exposure influences immune development in a manner that is protective for atopy and is operant even before birth. PMID:18702655

  8. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  9. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if D-amino acids (D-aas) bind and inhibit immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to peanut allergens. D-aas such as D-Asp (aspartic acid), D-Glu (glutamic acid), combined D-[Asp/Glu] and others were each prepared in a cocktail of 9 other D-aas, along with L-amino acids (L-aas) and controls. Each sample was mixed with a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic donors, and tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blots for IgE binding to peanut allergens. Results showed that D-[Asp/Glu] (4 mg/ml) inhibited IgE binding (75%) while D-Glu, D-Asp and other D-aas had no inhibitory effect. A higher inhibition was seen with D-[Asp/Glu] than with L-[Asp/Glu]. We concluded that IgE was specific for D-[Asp/Glu], not D-Asp or D-Glu, and that D-[Asp/Glu] was more reactive than was L-[Asp/Glu] in IgE inhibition. The finding indicates that D-[Asp/Glu] may have the potential for removing IgE or reducing IgE binding to peanut allergens in vitro. PMID:25053052

  10. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs. PMID:27288851

  11. Serum IgE and risk of pancreatic cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO)

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sara H.; Hsu, Meier; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Bracci, Paige M.; Zhou, Mi; Patoka, Joseph; Reisacher, William I.; Wang, Julie; Kurtz, Robert C.; Silverman, Debra T.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have consistently found that self-reported allergies are associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Our aim was to prospectively assess the relationship between serum IgE, a marker of allergy, and risk. This nested case-control study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) included subjects enrolled in 1994-2001 and followed through 2010. There were 283 cases of pancreatic cancer and 544 controls matched on age, gender, race, and calendar date of blood draw. Using the ImmunoCAP system, we measured total IgE (normal, borderline, elevated), IgE to respiratory allergens, and IgE to food allergens (negative or positive) in serum collected at baseline. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. We assessed interactions with age, gender, smoking, body mass index, and time between randomization and case diagnosis. Overall, there was no association between the IgE measures and risk. We found a statistically significant interaction by baseline age: in those aged >65, elevated risks were observed for borderline total IgE (OR=1.43; 95% CI, 0.88-2.32) and elevated total IgE (OR=1.98; 95% CI, 1.16-3.37) and positive IgE to food allergens (OR=2.83; 95% CI, 1.29-6.20); among participants <65, ORs were <1. Other interactions were not statistically significant. The reduced risk of pancreatic cancer associated with self-reported allergies is not reflected in serum IgE. PMID:24718282

  12. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Wayne R

    2015-10-01

    The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations. PMID:26433526

  13. Does Genetic Regulation of IgE Begin In-Utero? Evidence from TH1/TH2 Gene Polymorphisms and Cord Blood Total IgE

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xiumei; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Liu, Xin; Arguelles, Lester; Kumar, Rajesh; Wang, Guoying; Kuptsova-Clarkson, Nataliya; Pearson, Colleen; Ortiz, Kathryn; Bonzagni, Anthony; Apollon, Stephanie; Fu, Lingling; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Schleimer, Robert; Holt, Patrick G.; Bauchner, Howard; Wang, Xiaobin

    2010-01-01

    Background Elucidation of early life factors is critical to understand the development of allergic diseases, especially those manifesting in early life such as food allergies and atopic dermatitis. Cord blood IgE (CBIgE) is a recognized risk factor for the subsequent development of allergic diseases. In contrast to numerous genetic studies of total serum IgE in children and adults, limited genetic studies on CBIgE have been conducted. Objective To test the associations between functional or tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the TH1/TH2 pathway and CBIgE in a large U.S. inner-city birth cohort. Methods CBIgE, measured by Phadia ImmnunoCAP, was analyzed as a continuous and a binary variable. The association of each SNP with the two outcomes was tested using tobit and logistic regression models, respectively, with adjustment for pertinent covariates, ancestral proportion, and multiple testing. Ethnic heterogeneity and gene-gene interactions were also explored. Results Three SNPs (rs1800925, rs2069743 and rs1295686) in the IL13 gene were significantly associated with CBIgE concentration (p≤6×10-4, pFDR<0.05). These SNPs jointly influenced CBIgE in a dose-response manner (ptrend=9×10-8). Significant associations also were observed for SNPs in the IL13RA1 (rs5956080) and STAT6 (rs11172106) genes. Ethnicity-specific genetic effects were observed for SNPs in the IL5 and GATA3 genes. Several gene-gene interactions (including IL13-IL4R and IL13-STAT6 interactions) were detected in relation to CBIgE. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that multiple SNPs were individually and jointly associated with CBIgE, with evidence of gene-gene interactions and ethnic heterogeneity. These findings suggest that genetic regulation of IgE may begin in-utero. PMID:21050946

  14. DUST FORMATION IN MACRONOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Ioka, Kunihito; Nozawa, Takaya E-mail: kunihito.ioka@kek.jp

    2014-07-01

    We examine dust formation in macronovae (as known as kilonovae), which are the bright ejecta of neutron star binary mergers and one of the leading sites of r-process nucleosynthesis. In light of information about the first macronova candidate associated with GRB 130603B, we find that dust grains of r-process elements have difficulty forming because of the low number density of the r-process atoms, while carbon or elements lighter than iron can condense into dust if they are abundant. Dust grains absorb emission from ejecta with an opacity even greater than that of the r-process elements, and re-emit photons at infrared wavelengths. Such dust emission can potentially account for macronovae without r-process nucleosynthesis as an alternative model. This dust scenario predicts a spectrum with fewer features than the r-process model and day-scale optical-to-ultraviolet emission.

  15. Bright Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 June 2004 Martian dust devils sometimes disrupt thin coatings of surface dust to create dark streak patterns on the surface. However, not all dust devils make streaks, and not all dust devil streaks are dark. In Syria Planum, the streaks are lighter than the surrounding plains. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example from Syria near 8.8oS, 103.6oW. The thin coating of surface dust in this region is darker than the substrate beneath it. This is fairly unusual for Mars, because most dust is bright. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/lower left.

  16. Increased serum IgE concentrations during infection and graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S A; Rogers, T R; Perry, D; Hobbs, J R; Riches, P G

    1984-01-01

    Serum IgE concentrations estimated in 25 bone marrow transplant recipients during episodes of infection or graft versus host disease, or both, were raised not only in some patients with acute graft versus host disease but also in many patients with infection. Raised values were not seen in chronic graft versus host disease. The routine estimation of serum IgE in bone marrow transplant recipients had minimal value because of the lack of specificity of the IgE response. PMID:6368605

  17. Human Eosinophils Express the High Affinity IgE Receptor, FcεRI, in Bullous Pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Messingham, Kelly N.; Holahan, Heather M.; Frydman, Alexandra S.; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE≥400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  18. IgE anti Hepatitis B virus surface antigen antibodies detected in serum from inner city asthmatic and non asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Tam, Elizabeth; Norowitz, Kevin B; Chotikanatis, Kobkul; Weaver, Diana; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H; Kohlhoff, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Viral Hepatitis type B (HBV) is a public health concern, but has not been linked to asthma. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G is involved in HBV immune responses; less is known about IgE antibodies (Abs) against HBV in asthma. Given the importance of HBV, we sought to determine whether HBV vaccine contributes to asthma in children, by stimulating specific IgE production. Total IgE, IgE- or IgG-anti-HBVs Abs were studied in vaccinated pediatric asthmatics and non asthmatics. We found: (1) total IgE was higher in asthmatics; (2) total IgE did not correlate with IgE anti-HBVs; (3) IgE anti-HBVs did correlate with IgG-anti-HBVs in all subjects; (4)IgE- and IgG-HBVs Abs were similar in both groups; (5) IgE- or IgG anti-HBVs Abs did not correlate with age. Our findings indicate that HBV vaccination induces IgE responses in asthmatics and non asthmatics. PMID:24374043

  19. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  20. Cometary dust composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Hanner, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    The earth based measurements and in situ sampling of Comet Halley have provided new data about the chemical composition of cometary grains. Recent progress in laboratory studies of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) complement the comet data, allowing inferences about the mineralogy and physical structure of the comet dust to be drawn from the observed elemental composition and infrared spectra. The in situ dust composition measurements at Halley, the composition of IDPs and their relation to comet dust, and the origin of the 3.4 micron hydrocarbon feature is discussed. Related discussion is also presented on aromatic components in comets and the 3.4 micron feature. These topics are briefly summarized.

  1. Operational Dust Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  2. Whither Cometary Dust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper I will discuss recent findings that have important implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of primitive solar system dust, including: - Nesvorny et al. (2010), following up on their dynamical analyses of the zodiacal dust bands as sourced by the breakup of the Karin (5Mya) and Veritas (8Mya) asteroid families, argue that over 90% of the interplanetary dust cloud at 1 AU comes from JFC comets with near-circularized, low inclination orbits. This implies that the noted IPD collections of anhydrous and hydrous dust particles are likely to be from Oort cloud and JFC comets, respectively, not from asteroids and comets as thought in the past. Hydrous dust particles from comets like 85P/Wild2 and 9P/Tempel 1 would be consistent with results from the STARDUST and Deep Impact experiments. - Estimates of the dust particle size distributions (PSDs) in the comae of 85P/Wild2 (Green et al. 2004, 2007) and 73P/SW-3 (Sitko et al. 2010, Vaubaillon & Reach 2010) and in the trails of comets (Reach et al. 2007) have broken power law structure, with a plateau enhancement of particles of 1 mm - 1 cm in size. This size is also the size of most chondritic inclusions, and the predicted size range of the "aggregational barrier", where collisions between dust particles become destructive. - Studies of the albedo and polarization properties of cometary dust (Kolokolova et al. 2007) suggest there are 2 major groupings, one with low scattering capability and one with high. While these families could possibly have been explained by systematics in the PSDs of the emitted dust, independent work by Lisse et al. (2008) on the mineralogy of a number of highly dusty comets has shown evidence for one family of comets with highly crystalline dust and another with highly amorphous dust.

  3. Influence of protein expression system on elicitation of IgE antibody responses: experience with lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Almond, Rachael J; Flanagan, Brian F; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2012-11-15

    With increased interest in genetically modified (GM) crop plants there is an important need to understand the properties that contribute to the ability of such novel proteins to provoke immune and/or allergic responses. One characteristic that may be relevant is glycosylation, particularly as novel expression systems (e.g. bacterial to plant) will impact on the protein glycoprofile. The allergenicity (IgE inducing) and immunogenicity (IgG inducing) properties of wild type native human lactoferrin (NLF) from human milk (hm) and neutrophil granules (n) and a recombinant molecule produced in rice (RLF) have been assessed. These forms of lactoferrin have identical amino acid sequences, but different glycosylation patterns: hmNLF and nNLF have complex glycoprofiles including Lewis (Le)(x) structures, with particularly high levels of Le(x) expressed by nNLF, whereas RLF is simpler and rich in mannose residues. Antibody responses induced in BALB/c strain mice by intraperitoneal exposure to the different forms of lactoferrin were characterised. Immunisation with both forms of NLF stimulated substantial IgG and IgE antibody responses. In contrast, the recombinant molecule was considerably less immunogenic and failed to stimulate detectable IgE, irrespective of endotoxin and iron content. The glycans did not contribute to epitope formation, with equivalent IgE and IgG binding recorded for high titre anti-NLF antisera regardless of whether the immunising NLF or the recombinant molecule were used substrates in the analyses. These data demonstrate that differential glycosylation profiles can have a profound impact on protein allergenicity and immunogenicity, with mannose and Le(x) exhibiting opposing effects. These results have clear relevance for characterising the allergenic hazards of novel proteins in GM crops. PMID:22813905

  4. The Nature of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    The STARDUST mission is designed to collect dust the coma of comet Wild 2 and to collect interstellar dust on a second set of collectors. We have a reasonable idea of what to expect from the comet dust collection because the research community has been studying interplanetary dust particles for many years. It is less clear what we should expect from the interstellar dust. This presentation discusses what we might expect to find on the STARDUST interstellar dust collector.

  5. Combustible dust tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  6. Pathfinder Spies Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This set of images from NASA's 1997 Pathfinder mission highlight the dust devils that gust across the surface of Mars. The right image shows the dusty martian sky as our eye would see it. The left image has been enhanced to expose the dust devils that lurk in the hazy sky.

  7. Dust resuspension without saltation

    PubMed Central

    Loosmore, Gwen A.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Wind resuspension (or entrainment) provides a source of dust and contaminants for the atmosphere. Conventional wind erosion models parameterize dust resuspension flux with a threshold velocity or with a horizontal abrasion flux; in the absence of abrasion the models assume dust flux is transient only. Our experiments with an uncrusted, fine material at relative humidities exceeding 40% show a long-term steady dust flux in the absence of abrasion, which fits the approximate form: Fd = 3.6(u*)3, where Fd is the dust flux (in μg/m2 s), and u* is the friction velocity (in m/s). These fluxes are generally too small to be significant sources of dust in most models of dust emission. However, they provide a potential route to transport contaminants into the atmosphere. In addition, dust release is substantial during the initial transient phase. Comparison with field data suggests that the particle friction Reynolds number may prove a better parameter than u* for correlating fluxes and understanding the potential for abrasion. PMID:20336175

  8. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, Dag; Carpenter, James; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L.; Loftus, David J.; Prisk, G. Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-12-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust properties will be required to provide ground truth for ground-based studies quantifying the toxicity of dust exposure and the associated health risks during future manned lunar missions.

  9. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D-amino acids (D-aas) are reported to bind to IgE antibodies from people with allergy and asthma. The objectives of this study were to determine if D-aas bind or inhibit IgE binding to peanut allergens, and if they are more effective than L-amino acids (L-aas) in this respect. Several D-aa cocktails...

  10. A murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with elevated eosinophils and IgE.

    PubMed

    Kurup, V P; Mauze, S; Choi, H; Seymour, B W; Coffman, R L

    1992-06-15

    A model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was developed by exposing BALB/c mice to Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) Ag. Animals immunized intranasally (i.n.) with soluble AF Ag produced low levels of serum IgE compared to animals given alum precipitated AF Ag i.p. The latter treatment also produced higher levels of serum IgG1 and AF-specific IgG1 than soluble AF given i.p. or i.n.. Blood and lung eosinophilia was detected in mice repeatedly exposed to AF by i.n. but not in the groups injected i.p. Particulate AF Ag-induced striking blood and lung eosinophilia and elevated levels of serum IgE in mice preexposed to AF Ag. The results indicate that route of inoculation and physical nature of Ag determine the immune response and can be manipulated to obtain enhanced IgE, eosinophils, or both in the animal model. PMID:1602128

  11. The amyloid fold of Gad m 1 epitopes governs IgE binding.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Rosa; Martínez, Javier; Castro, Ana; Pedrosa, María; Quirce, Santiago; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Gasset, María

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are polymeric structural states formed from locally or totally unfolded protein chains that permit surface reorganizations, stability enhancements and interaction properties that are absent in the precursor monomers. β-Parvalbumin, the major allergen in fish allergy, forms amyloids that are recognized by IgE in the patient sera, suggesting a yet unknown pathological role for these assemblies. We used Gad m 1 as the fish β-parvalbumin model and a combination of approaches, including peptide arrays, recombinant wt and mutant chains, biophysical characterizations, protease digestions, mass spectrometry, dot-blot and ELISA assays to gain insights into the role of amyloids in the IgE interaction. We found that Gad m 1 immunoreactive regions behave as sequence-dependent conformational epitopes that provide a 1000-fold increase in affinity and the structural repetitiveness required for optimal IgE binding and cross-linking upon folding into amyloids. These findings support the amyloid state as a key entity in type I food allergy. PMID:27597317

  12. The amyloid fold of Gad m 1 epitopes governs IgE binding

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Rosa; Martínez, Javier; Castro, Ana; Pedrosa, María; Quirce, Santiago; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Gasset, María

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are polymeric structural states formed from locally or totally unfolded protein chains that permit surface reorganizations, stability enhancements and interaction properties that are absent in the precursor monomers. β-Parvalbumin, the major allergen in fish allergy, forms amyloids that are recognized by IgE in the patient sera, suggesting a yet unknown pathological role for these assemblies. We used Gad m 1 as the fish β-parvalbumin model and a combination of approaches, including peptide arrays, recombinant wt and mutant chains, biophysical characterizations, protease digestions, mass spectrometry, dot-blot and ELISA assays to gain insights into the role of amyloids in the IgE interaction. We found that Gad m 1 immunoreactive regions behave as sequence-dependent conformational epitopes that provide a 1000-fold increase in affinity and the structural repetitiveness required for optimal IgE binding and cross-linking upon folding into amyloids. These findings support the amyloid state as a key entity in type I food allergy. PMID:27597317

  13. Semiquantitative determination of serum IgE by reagent strips: PRIST/TOTALE correlation.

    PubMed

    Pena, J M; Botey, J; Gutiérrez, V; Eseverri, J L; Marín, A

    1991-06-01

    Due to its great simplicity, the determination of total and specific IgE with a reagent strip could be a screening method for in vitro allergy diagnosis if a correlation with classical techniques is verified. The TOTALE reagent strip for semiquantitative determination of total serum IgE is one of these methods and unites the now classical foundation (anti-IgE/IgE/anti-IgE labeled sandwich) and the ease of the reagent strip technique. In a preliminary evaluation of these methods we compared the PRIST isotopic method to the TOTALE one for serum total IgE. In summary, the most relevant consequences from this comparison are the following ones: a) The initial sample is the same for both: serum. b) No additional equipment or materials other than the serum sample are needed for TOTALE practising. c) The reagent strip has a lower cost and is faster than the PRIST method. d) Correlation coefficients were 0.89 (n = 35) in the range of measurement under study and 0.93 (n = 23) in the range from 5 to 200 U/L. PMID:1669578

  14. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  15. Evidence for two unlinked loci regulating total serum IgE levels

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Levitt, R.C.; Taylor, E.W.

    1995-08-01

    Studies investigating the genetic control of total serum IgE levels are of major importance in understanding basic pathophysiologic mechanisms in atopy and asthma, since IgE levels predict onset and correlate with the clinical expression of these disorders. Previous analysis of data from 92 families, ascertained through a parent with asthma, showed evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels with linkage to chromosome 5q. Since there was significant residual familial correlation in the one-locus segregation analysis, two-locu segregation and linkage analyses were performed. Segregation analyses provided evidence for a second major locus unlinked to the locus on 5q. Utilization of this two-locus model corroborates the previous evidence for linkage between this trait and markers on 5q{sub 31}-q{sub 33}. The LODs for the most informative marker D5S436 increased from 3.00 at 10% recombination to 4.67 at 9% recombination when the two-locus model was used. Additional linkage studies are needed to map this second locus. These results demonstrate the importance of performing multilocus segregation and linkage analyses for quantitative traits that are related to the phenotype of a complex disorder. This approach has given further insight into the genetics of allergy and asthma by providing evidence for a two-locus model. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Development of the Abbott MATRIX Aero assay for the measurement of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, R E; Anawis, M A; Bailey, M; Mangat, D; Frank, P M; Hrusovsky, I G; Hooyman, L; Putterman, C; Defreese, J D

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the quantitation of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human serum to a panel of allergens. The assay system, called the Abbott MATRIX Aero, includes an instrument, reagents and test cell disposables. Each test cell contains fourteen airborne allergens individually localized on a nitrocellulose solid phase. Individual calibration curves for each allergen are established by the manufacturer and included in barcode form with each test kit. Stable factory calibration eliminates the need to establish a calibration curve with each assay run. The instrument automatically incubates, washes, and reads the test cell and prints each result, which ensures assay reproducibility and provides ease-of-use. Analysis of test results shows good agreement with another in vitro assay for specific IgE. The Abbott MATRIX Aero is a sensitive, reproducible and easy-to-use system for the measurement of specific IgE to a panel of fourteen allergens simultaneously using a single, small volume of serum. PMID:1806584

  17. The lunar dust pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2013-07-01

    An analytic model for the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum is presented. It is shown that the dust grain executes oscillatory trajectories, and an expression is derived for the period of oscillation. Simulations used to verify the analytic expression also show that because the trajectories are unstable, dust grains are either ejected from the crater's vicinity or deposited into the crater forming "dust ponds." The model also applies to other airless bodies in the solar system, such as asteroids, and predicts that under certain conditions, particularly near lunar sunset, oscillating dust "canopies" or "swarms" will form over negatively charged craters.

  18. Dust escape from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, Alberto

    2004-08-01

    The Dust ballerina skirt is a set of well defined streams composed of nanometric sized dust particles that escape from the Jovian system and may be accelerated up to >=200 km/s. The source of this dust is Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active body in the Solar system. The escape of dust grains from Jupiter requires first the escape of these grains from Io. This work is basically devoted to explain this escape given that the driving of dust particles to great heights and later injection into the ionosphere of Io may give the particles an equilibrium potential that allow the magnetic field to accelerate them away from Io. The grain sizes obtained through this study match very well to the values required for the particles to escape from the Jovian system.

  19. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  20. Loire Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an active dust devil making its way across the rugged terrain of the Loire Vallis system. The dust devil, seen as a fuzzy, nearly-circular bright feature near the center of the picture, is casting a shadow toward the right/upper right (east/northeast). Unlike some martian dust devils, this one did not make a dark streak on the ground. Many more dust devils occur on Mars than there are dust devil streaks observed on the planet's surface.

    Location near: 18.2oS, 16.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  1. Isidis Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 March 2004 This arrow in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image points to an active dust devil observed in Isidis Planitia near 18.3oN, 268.9oW. The columnar shadow of the dust devil is visible, as is a pencil-thin (at least, pencil-thin at the scale of the image) line created by the vortex as it disrupted the dust that coats the surface. The streak indicates that the dust devil had already traveled more than 3 kilometers (1.9 miles), over craters, large ripples, and ridges, before the MOC took this picture. The dust devil was moving from the northeast (upper right) toward the southwest (lower left). Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  2. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beckett, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  3. Comparison of VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays for detection of specific IgE antibodies in allergic children.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myung Hyun; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    In vitro determination of specific IgE antibodies in serum is the most frequently used method, besides the skin test, for diagnosing allergies. Standardized and reproducible assays of specific IgE antibodies contribute to the quality of diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. This study compared the results and performance characteristics of the Pharmacia CAP system and a new specific IgE method using the VIDAS Stallertest (manufactured by bioMériux). To evaluate their clinical efficiency, the results of the CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were compared with skin prick test (SPT) results. After allergic patients completed SPTs, serum samples were collected and CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were performed to determine specific IgEs for Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, cockroach, and alternaria. For egg and milk, we measured only the correlation between the 2 in vitro assays. When SPT was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the CAP assay was a little higher in respect to all inhalant allergens. There were significant correlations between the results of VIDAS Stallertest and CAP assays for IgE antibodies to inhalant and food allergens. This study indicates that the VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays are feasible and replicable for measuring allergen-specific IgE. PMID:16081590

  4. [Radioimmunologic determination of total IgE and allergen-specific IgE-antibodies in diffuse neurodermitis].

    PubMed

    Pürschel, W; Zeidler, U; Kuse, M

    1975-10-01

    Total IgE levels in sera of 165 patients with atopic dermatitis and 79 patients with dermatoses as well as normal control patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (Phadebas, Pharmacia). Although the mean value for patients with atopic dermatitis was found far above the mean value for normal controls, 38% of patients showed total IgE serum levels within the normal range. Highest IgE serum levels were observed in patients with the generalized form of the disease and in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. No direct correlation however, to severity of disease could be found. In a series of 50 patients prick tests were compared to total IgE serum levels and to levels of allergen specific antibodies determined by radioallergosorbent-test (RAST). Extracts of grass pollens and of animal dandruff were used. There was complete agreement between results of skin testing and RAST in at least 80%. While cross reactions were common with grass pollen extracts in RAST, there was no cross-over with animal dandruff. No correlation was found between titer of allergen specific antibody and severity of skin lesions. IgE specific antibody could be detected in 48% of patients with normal total IgE serum levels and in 82% of patients with elevated values. PMID:1201945

  5. Monoclonal antibody (H107) inhibiting IgE binding to Fc epsilon R(+) human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Noro, N; Yoshioka, A; Adachi, M; Yasuda, K; Masuda, T; Yodoi, J

    1986-08-15

    A hybridoma-producing monoclonal antibody blocking the binding of human IgE to lymphocytes Fc receptor (Fc epsilon R) was established by the fusion of murine myeloma cells. P3X63.653.Ag8, with BALB/c spleen cells immunized with Fc epsilon R(+) human B lymphoblastoid cell line cells, RPMI1788. A clone of the hybridoma (H107) produced a monoclonal IgG2b antibody that inhibited the rosette formation of Fc epsilon R(+) human B lymphoblastoid cell line cells (RPMI1788, RPMI8866, CESS, Dakiki, and IM9) with fixed ox red blood cells (ORBC) conjugated with human IgE (IgE-ORBC). In contrast, the rosette formation with IgG-conjugated ORBC (IgG-ORBC) on Fc gamma R(+), Fc epsilon R(-) Daudi cells were not affected by the H107 antibodies. A close association of Fc epsilon R and the antigenic determinant recognized by H107 antibody was suggested by the following results. First, the bindings of 125I-labeled IgE (125I-IgE) or 125I-labeled H107 IgG2b antibody (125I-H107) to RPMI8866 cells were inhibited by cold human IgE and H107 IgG2b but not by other classes of human Ig (IgA and IgG), MPC11 IgG2b, or unrelated monoclonal antibodies. Second, H107 antibody reacted with Fc epsilon R(+) B cell lines but not with Fc epsilon R(-) B cell lines as determined by an indirect immunofluorescence. Third, Fc epsilon R(+) cells were depleted by the incubation in the dish coated with H107 antibody or IgE but not in the dish coated with unrelated antibodies. Finally, there was a correlation between the increase of Fc epsilon R(+) cells and that of H107(+) cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patients with atopic dermatitis. The surface antigens on Fc epsilon R(+) RPMI8866 cells recognized by H107 antibodies had the molecular size of 45,000 as determined by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. PMID:2942602

  6. Long Term Persistence of IgE Anti-Varicella Zoster Virus in Pediatric and Adult Serum Post Chicken Pox Infection and after Vaccination with Varicella Virus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Josekutty, Joby; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Norowitz, Yitzchok M; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Nowakowski, Maja; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H

    2009-12-01

    The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, RSV), and the ability for IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies in our laboratory were the first to report the presence of IgE anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) in an adolescent patient with shingles. However, the presence and long term persistence of IgE anti VZV antibodies has not been studied in adults. The presence of serum IgE in addition to IgE and IgG anti-VZV antibody in sera were studied in children (N=12) (0-16 y/o) and adults (N=9) (32-76 y/o) with either a past history of (wild type) chicken pox (N=7 children, 9 adults) or 5 years after vaccination with varicella zoster (N=2 children) (Varicella virus vaccine live, Oka/Merck), as well as in non-infected subjects (N=3 children). Of the patients who had a positive history of chicken pox 13 of 16 (81%) contained IgE anti-VZV antibodies; they were both serum IgEHi (>100 IU/ml) and IgELo (<100 IU/ml). Of the patients who were vaccinated, IgE anti-VZV antibodies were undetected. In contrast, serum from the patients without a history of chicken pox or vaccination did not make either IgE or IgG anti-VZV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the existence of IgE anti-VZV antibodies, and its long-term persistence in serum of previously infected subjects. Future studies regarding the functional role of anti-viral IgE and its relationship to VZV are warranted. PMID:23675158

  7. Systemic and mucosal IgE antibody responses of horses to infection with Anoplocephala perfoliata.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, Charles E; Lawson, April L; Coles, Gerald C; Wilson, A Douglas

    2014-01-17

    Infection of horses with Anoplocephala perfoliata induces a severe inflammatory reaction of the caecal mucosa around the site of parasite attachment adjacent to the ileocecal valve. Lesions show epithelial erosion or ulceration of the mucosa with infiltration by eosinophils, lymphocytes and mast cells leading to oedema, gross thickening and fibrosis of the caecal wall. Despite this evidence of an inflammatory reaction to A. perfoliata within the mucosa of the caecum there is little information about the nature of the local immune response to A. perfoliata. An ELISA which assays serum IgG(T) antibodies to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens has been developed as a diagnostic test. However, the specificity of the ELISA remains sub-optimal and the role of other isotypes in the immune response to A. perfoliata has not been reported. This study measured IgA, IgE and IgG(T) antibody responses to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens in sera of 75 horses presented for slaughter. The prevalence of A. perfoliata infection, as confirmed by the presence of parasites in the terminal ileum, caecum or proximal colon, was 55%. A. perfoliata-specific IgG(T) and IgE antibodies were significantly elevated in infected horses compared to controls; IgA antibodies were also detected but did not differ between infected and control horses. Diagnosis by serum IgG(T) ELISA had a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 80%, by comparison the serum IgE ELISA had a sensitivity of just 44% with a specificity of 82% and therefore did not provide an improved diagnostic test. Western blots with sera from infected horses demonstrated IgE-binding to at least 10 separate components of excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens. A similar pattern was also found with IgG(T). Around 30% of horses had high levels of serum IgE which bound fucose-containing carbohydrate antigens on the parasite surface but this was unrelated to the presence of A. perfoliata infection. Immunoperoxidase staining detected

  8. Dust in circumstellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodmann, Jens

    2006-02-01

    This thesis presents observational and theoretical studies of the size and spatial distribution of dust particles in circumstellar disks. Using millimetre interferometric observations of optically thick disks around T Tauri stars, I provide conclusive evidence for the presence of millimetre- to centimetre-sized dust aggregates. These findings demonstrate that dust grain growth to pebble-sized dust particles is completed within less than 1 Myr in the outer disks around low-mass pre-main-sequence stars. The modelling of the infrared spectral energy distributions of several solar-type main-sequence stars and their associated circumstellar debris disks reveals the ubiquity of inner gaps devoid of substantial amounts of dust among Vega-type infrared excess sources. It is argued that the absence of circumstellar material in the inner disks is most likely the result of the gravitational influence of a large planet and/or a lack of dust-producing minor bodies in the dust-free region. Finally, I describe a numerical model to simulate the dynamical evolution of dust particles in debris disks, taking into account the gravitational perturbations by planets, photon radiation pressure, and dissipative drag forces due to the Poynting-Robertson effect and stellar wind. The validity of the code it established by several tests and comparison to semi-analytic approximations. The debris disk model is applied to simulate the main structural features of a ring of circumstellar material around the main-sequence star HD 181327. The best agreement between model and observation is achieved for dust grains a few tens of microns in size locked in the 1:1 resonance with a Jupiter-mass planet (or above) on a circular orbit.

  9. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for each of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  10. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for ease of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  11. Dust torus around Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Antal; Horanyi, Mihaly

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of small dust particles generated via the continuous micrometeoroid bombardment of the Martian moons. In addition to Mar's oblateness, we also consider the radiation pressure perturbation that is complicated by the planet's eccentric orbit and tilted rotational axis. Considering the production rates and the lifetimes of dust grains, we show that particles from Deimos with radii of about 15 micrometers are expected to dominate the population of a permanently present and tilted dust torus. This torus has an estimated peak number density of approximately equals 5 x 10(exp -12)/cu cm and an optical depth of approximately equals 4 x 10(exp -8).

  12. Dust in the Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 24, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), acquired this true-color image of a large cloud of dust blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea. The dust storm has persisted in the region for at least a week. In this image, the brownish dust plume appears to originate about 260 miles (400 km) east of Algiers, Algeria, and is blowing toward the northwest coast of Sardinia, Italy. SeaWiFS flies aboard the OrbView-2 Satellite. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE

  13. Electrostatic dust detector

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2006-05-02

    An apparatus for detecting dust in a variety of environments which can include radioactive and other hostile environments both in a vacuum and in a pressurized system. The apparatus consists of a grid coupled to a selected bias voltage. The signal generated when dust impacts and shorts out the grid is electrically filtered, and then analyzed by a signal analyzer which is then sent to a counter. For fine grids a correlation can be developed to relate the number of counts observed to the amount of dust which impacts the grid.

  14. Effects of Nasal Corticosteroids on Boosts of Systemic Allergen-Specific IgE Production Induced by Nasal Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Cornelia; Lupinek, Christian; Ristl, Robin; Lemell, Patrick; Horak, Friedrich; Zieglmayer, Petra; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear. Aim Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure. Methods Subjects (n = 48) suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1–4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter. Results Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects. Conclusion In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure. Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT00755066 PMID:25705889

  15. Production and immunological analysis of IgE reactive recombinant egg white allergens expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-05-01

    IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance. Use of recombinant proteins for immunotherapy has been beneficial due to the purity of the recombinant proteins compared to natural proteins. In this study, we produced IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins that can be used for future immunotherapy. Using E. coli as an expression system, we successfully produced recombinant versions of Gal d 1, 2 and 3, that were IgE reactive when tested against a pool of egg allergic patients' sera. The IgE reactivity indicates that these recombinant proteins are capable of eliciting an immune response, thus being potential candidates for immunotherapy. We have, for the first time, attempted to produce recombinant versions of all 4 major egg white allergens in E. coli, and successfully produced 3, with only Gal d 4 showing loss of IgE reactivity in the recombinant version. The results suggest that egg allergy in Australian populations may mainly be due to IgE reactivity to Gal d 3 and 4, while Gal d 1 shows higher IgE reactivity. This is the first report of a collective and comparative immunological analysis of all 4 egg white allergens. The significance of this study is the potential use of the IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins in immunotherapy to treat egg allergic patients. PMID:25656803

  16. Dust mite (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  17. Dusts and Molds

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dust can result in sensitization. Symptoms include chills, fever, cough, chest congestion, fatigue, and shortness of ... grain and forage products. Symptoms include cough, fever, chills, body aches, and fatigue. These symptoms appear from ...

  18. 1983 Transatlantic Dust Event

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization (prepared in 2001) shows dust being blown westward over the Atlantic from northern Africa in early 1983, from aerosol measurements taken by Nimbus 7's TOMS instrument. Saharan du...

  19. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  20. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  1. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  2. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  3. Dust and Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... dust, the most common non-spherical aerosol type, from pollution and forest fire particles. Determining aerosol characteristics is a ... higher, indicating the relative abundance of small pollution particles, especially over the Atlantic where the aerosol optical ...

  4. Comparison between sensitivity of autologous skin serum test and autologous plasma skin test in patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria for detection of antibody against IgE or IgE receptor (FcεRIα).

    PubMed

    Sajedi, Vahid; Movahedi, Masoud; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Aghamohamadi, Asghar; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Ghareguzlou, Mohammad; Shafiei, Alireza; Soheili, Habib; Sanajian, Nahal

    2011-06-01

    Intradermal injection of autologous serum and plasma elicit a cutaneous reactivity in almost 45-60% of patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). This reactivity is associated with the presence of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptors. This study was carried out to compare the cutaneous reactivity of autologous serum and plasma skin tests in a series of patients with CIU for diagnosis of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptor. Fifty eight patients with CIU were injected intradermally with autologous serum and plasma (anticoagulated by citrate). Histamine was used as positive control and normal saline as negative control. The study group was checked by routine laboratory tests (CBC, U/A etc), allergens with skin prick tests, and serum IgE level, and auto antibodies against thyroid as well. Duration of urticaria was another factor which was assessed.There was no significant difference between positive ASST and positive APST patients for the above mentioned tests. 77.6% of the patients were Positive for APST and 65.5% were ASST positive. Duration of urticaria was longer in patients with positive ASST and APST than ASST and APST negative patients, although the difference was not statistically significant.Autologus serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) could be used for estimation of duration and severity of urticaria and planning for the treatment. PMID:21625019

  5. The Galileo dust detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Hanner, M. S.; Kissel, J.; Lindblad, B. A.; Linkert, D.; Maas, D.; Morfill, G. E.; Zook, H. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Galileo Dust Detector is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10(sup -19) kg and 10(sup -9) kg in interplanetary space and in the Jovian system, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of the distances to the Sun, to Jupiter and to its satellites, to study its interaction with the Galilean satellites and the Jovian magnetosphere. Surface phenomena of the satellites (like albedo variations), which might be effects of meteoroid impacts will be compared with the dust environment. Electric charges of particulate matter in the magnetosphere and its consequences will be studied; e.g. the effects of the magnetic field on the trajectories of dust particles and fragmentation of particles due to electrostatic disruption. The investigation is performed with an instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles. It is a multi-coincidence detector with a mass sensitivity 10(sup 6) times higher than that of previous in-situ experiments which measured dust in the outer solar system. The instrument weighs 4.2 kg, consumes 2.4 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 24 bits/s in nominal spacecraft tracking mode. On December 29, 1989 the instrument was switched-on. After the instrument had been configured to flight conditions cruise science data collection started immediately. In the period to May 18, 1990 at least 168 dust impacts have been recorded. For 81 of these dust grains, masses and impact speeds have been determined. First flux values are also given.

  6. Hebes Chasma Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in Hebes Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 286.6 East (73.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Comments on Dust Reverberation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.

    2015-09-01

    Dust reverberation is an important technique for studying the inner structure of AGNs and probing the properties of astrophysical dust, and even has some potential as a cosmological probe. We will discuss two recent results that pose a serious limitation to understanding dust reverberation at the present time. First, recent high-cadence monitoring of the UV and optical continuum in two AGNs, NGC 2617 and NGC 5548, have yielded unambiguous lags between variations of the UV continuum and corresponding variations of the continuum at longer wavelengths. In the absence of UV data, this leads to a systematic underestimate of the innermost radius where dust is found. This similarly leads to an underestimate of the size of the broad emission-line region, although it does not affect the AGN black hole mass scale, which calibrates out this effect. Second, broad-band monitoring of continuum variations in the optical through near-IR show that the innermost dust is not necessarily at the 'instantaneous sublimation radius.' The innermost dust can be considerably cooler than expected at the sublimation radius and thus can heat up without sublimating when the central continuum source becomes more luminous (see the poster by Pott).

  8. Argyre Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-363, 17 May 2003

    This summertime Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view of the floor of Argyre Basin shows a plethora of dark streaks thought to have been created by the passage of dust devils. Dust devils are vortices of wind--just as a tornado is a vortex of wind associated with stormy weather on Earth, and the spiraling of water down a bathtub drain is a vortex in a liquid. Dust devils usually form on Mars on relatively calm, quiet, spring and summer afternoons. The passage of a dust devil picks up and disturbs the thin coatings of dust on the martian surface, forming streaks that mark the path that the moving dust devil took. This picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is located near 48.5oS, 43.0oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  9. Ares Vallis Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 May 2004 When it was operating in the Ares/Tiu Valles region of Chryse Planitia, Mars, in 1997, Mars Pathfinder detected dust devils that passed over and near the lander. From orbit, no images of dust devils at the Mars Pathfinder site have yet been acquired, but this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime dust devil near the rim of a 610-meter (670 yards)-diameter impact crater in the same general region as the Mars Pathfinder site. This scene is near 19.6oN, 32.9oW, in part of the Ares Vallis system. The dust devil in this case is not making a streak, as dust devils tend to do in some regions of Mars. The dark feature to the right (east) of the dust devil is its shadow. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  10. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  11. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Michael; Uhlemann, Cora; Haugg, Thomas E-mail: cora.uhlemann@physik.lmu.de

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves.

  12. Prostaglandins E2 signal mediated by receptor subtype EP2 promotes IgE production in vivo and contributes to asthma development

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuhan; Zhao, Chunyan; Wang, Wei; Jin, Rong; Li, Qian; Ge, Qing; Guan, Youfei; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) has been shown to enhance IgE production by B cells in vitro. The physiological and pathological relevance of this phenomenon and the underlying molecular mechanism, however, remain to be elucidated. B cells from wild type and EP2-deficient mice were compared in culture for their responses to PGE2 in terms of IgE class switching and production. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma models were used to evaluate the impact of EP2-deficiency on IgE responses and the development of asthma. PGE2 promoted IgE class switching, generation of IgE+ cells and secretion of IgE by B cells stimulated with LPS+IL4. These effects were much attenuated as a consequence of EP2 deficiency. Consistent with the in vitro data, EP2-deficient mice showed a markedly suppressed IgE antibody response and developed less pronounced airway inflammation in the OVA-induced asthma model. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that PGE2, in an EP2-depedent manner, enhanced STAT6 activation induced by IL-4, thereby promoting the expression of IgE germline and post switch transcripts and the transcription of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Collectively, these data support an important regulatory role of the PGE2-EP2-STAT6 signaling pathway in IgE response and allergic diseases. PMID:26852804

  13. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin selectively enhances spontaneous IgE production in B cells from atopic patients.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-10-01

    The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on spontaneous IgE production was studied in B cells from atopic patients with allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome or bronchial asthma, and from non-atopic subjects. TCDD enhanced spontaneous IgE production in B cells from atopic patients without affecting production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, IgA1 and IgA2, while TCDD failed to induce IgE production in B cells from non-atopic subjects. Purified surface IgE+ (sIgE+) B cells from atopic patients spontaneously produced IgE, while surface IgE- (sIgE-) B cells failed to do so. TCDD enhanced spontaneous IgE production in sIgE+ B cells, while TCDD with or without IL-4 or anti-CD40 mAb failed to induce IgE production in sIgE-B cells. Collectively, TCDD selectively enhanced ongoing IgE production. These results suggest that TCDD may aggravate allergic diseases by enhancing IgE-mediated allergic responses. PMID:14626908

  14. IgE in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Schuyler, Alexander J; Erwin, Elizabeth A; Commins, Scott P; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, the concept of allergy implied an abnormal response to an otherwise benign agent (eg, pollen or food), with an easily identifiable relationship between exposure and disease. However, there are syndromes in which the relationship between exposure to the relevant allergen and the "allergic" disease is not clear. In these cases the presence of specific IgE antibodies can play an important role in identifying the relevant allergen and provide a guide to therapy. Good examples include chronic asthma and exposure to perennial indoor allergens and asthma related to fungal infection. Finally, we are increasingly aware of forms of food allergy in which the relationship between exposure and the disease is delayed by 3 to 6 hours or longer. Three forms of food allergy with distinct clinical features are now well recognized. These are (1) anaphylactic sensitivity to peanut, (2) eosinophilic esophagitis related to cow's milk, and (3) delayed anaphylaxis to red meat. In these syndromes the immunology of the response is dramatically different. Peanut and galactose α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) are characterized by high- or very high-titer IgE antibodies for Ara h 2 and alpha-gal, respectively. By contrast, eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by low levels of IgE specific for milk proteins with high- or very high-titer IgG4 to the same proteins. The recent finding is that patients with alpha-gal syndrome do not have detectable IgG4 to the oligosaccharide. Thus the serum results not only identify relevant antigens but also provide a guide to the nature of the immune response. PMID:27264001

  15. Differential IgE binding to isoallergens from Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Kamath, Sandip D; Koeberl, Martina; Jerry, Dean R; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Campbell, Dianne E; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-11-01

    Fish allergy is a common food allergy, with prevalence rates in the general population ranging between 0.2% and 2.3%. In both adults and children fish ranks in the top eight foods known to cause IgE mediated food allergy. Fish allergy is rarely outgrown and individuals with fish allergy may be allergic to some but not all species of fish. Whilst fish allergy occurs around the world, the characterization of allergenic components of individual species of fish has been largely confined to Northern hemisphere and European fish species. To date allergy to commonly consumed fish in the Asian-Pacific region including barramundi (Asian seabass; Lates calcarifer) have been less well investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize allergenic proteins from barramundi in both fish allergic adult and pediatric patients. Serum from 17 fish allergic adults and children from Australia were characterized by immunoblotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) against raw and heated barramundi. Molecular analysis of identified allergens included genetic sequencing and generation of recombinant isoallergens. Two novel parvalbumin isoforms of the β-type were identified as the only allergens in barramundi and subsequently designated as Lat c 1.0101 and Lat c 1.0201 by the International Union of Immunological Societies. These two isoallergens do not differ in their ability to bind IgE antibodies, but are differentially expressed in barramundi tissue. This study characterized two novel heat stable parvalbumin allergens from barramundi, with differential IgE binding capacity between adults and pediatric patients. PMID:24973736

  16. High IgE sensitization to maize and rice pollen in the highlands of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ramavovololona; Sénéchal, Hélène; Andrianarisoa, Ange; Rakotoarimanana, Vololona; Godfrin, Dominique; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maize and rice are two crops constituting the main food supply in many under-developed and developing countries. Despite the large area devoted to the culture, the sensitization to the pollen from these plants is reported to be low and often considered as an occupational allergy. Methods Sixty five Malagasy pollen allergic patients were clinically and immunochemically investigated with regard to maize and rice pollen allergens. Pollen extracts were electrophoretically separated in 1 and 2 dimensions and IgE and IgG reactivities detected upon immunoblotting. Results When exploring the sensitization profile of Malagasy allergic patients to maize and rice pollen, it appears that a high proportion of these patients consulting during grass pollinating season were sensitized to both pollen as revealed by skin prick testing (62 vs. 59%) and IgE immunoblotting (85 vs. 40%). Several clinically relevant allergens were recognized by patients’ serum IgE in maize and rice pollen extracts. Conclusion The high levels of maize and rice pollen sensitization should be related, in this tropical region, to a specific environmental exposure including i) a proximity of the population to the allergenic sources and ii) a putative exacerbating effect of a highly polluted urban atmosphere on pollen allergenicity. Cross-reactivities between wild and cultivated grasses and also between rice and maize pollen are involved as well as some specific maize sensitizations. The presence of dense urban and peri-urban agriculture, in various African regions and worldwide, could be a high environmental risk factor for people sensitive to maize pollen. PMID:25870739

  17. [Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Díaz, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibáñez Sandín, M D; Ureña Vilardell, V

    1986-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515886

  18. Influence of Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia on total IgE levels in Gabonese patients co-infected with Loa loa.

    PubMed

    Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Moussavou Boussougou, M N; Ovono-Abessolo, F; Owono-Medang, M; Kombila, M

    2014-03-01

    Mansonella (M.) perstans filariasis is widely found in Africa, including Gabon where Loa loa is also endemic. This study reports the total IgE titres according to different bioclinical forms of single or co-infection with L. loa and M. perstans in 138 patients and 20 healthy controls. The median parasite density was significantly higher in cases of loiasis. IgE titres were higher in patients with microscopic dual-infection and in the group of patients with occult loiasis plus M. perstans microfilaraemia (8425 [5292-20,679]KUI/L and 6304 [1045-10,326]KUI/L, respectively), compared to individuals with either microfilaraemic Loa loa (3368 [1414-7074]KUI/L) or Mansonella (4370 [1478-7334]KUI/L) single infections (p<0.01). IgE levels were positively correlated with M. perstans microfilaraemia (rho=0.27; p<0.01). Compared to single infections, dual M. perstans-L. loa infection induces very high total IgE titres. Studies correlating IgE titres and clinical symptoms are needed to confirm the involvement of this immunoglobulin in the pathological processes during filariasis. PMID:24280145

  19. Analysis of IgE binding proteins of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pollen and cross-reactivity with predominant tree pollens.

    PubMed

    Dhyani, Anamika; Arora, Naveen; Gaur, Shailendra N; Jain, Vikram K; Sridhara, Susheela; Singh, Bhanu P

    2006-01-01

    Pollen from the mesquite tree, Prosopis juliflora, is an important source of respiratory allergy in tropical countries. Our aim was to partially characterize the IgE binding proteins of P. juliflora pollen extract and study cross-reactivity with prevalent tree pollen allergens. Intradermal tests with P. juliflora and five other tree pollen extracts were performed on respiratory allergy patients from Bikaner (arid) and Delhi (semi arid). Prosopis extract elicited positive skin reactions in 71/220 of the patients. Sera were collected from 38 of these 71 patients and all demonstrated elevated specific IgE to P. juliflora. Immunoblotting with pooled patients' sera demonstrated 16 IgE binding components, with components of 24, 26, 29, 31, 35, 52, 58, 66 and 95 kDa recognized by more than 80% of individual patients' sera. P. juliflora extract is allergenically potent requiring 73 ng of self-protein for 50% inhibition of IgE binding in ELISA inhibition. Cross-inhibition assays showed close relationship among P. juliflora, Ailanthus excelsa, Cassia siamea and Salvadora persica. IgE binding components of 14, 41, 52 and 66 kDa were shared allergens whereas 26 and 29 kDa were specific to P. juliflora. The findings suggest that purification of cross-reactive allergens will be helpful for diagnosis and immunotherapy of tree pollen allergic patients. PMID:17015148

  20. Diesel-exhaust particulates inoculated by the intranasal route have an adjuvant activity for IgE production in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Takafuji, S.; Suzuki, S.; Koizumi, K.; Tadokoro, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Ikemori, R.; Muranaka, M.

    1987-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that the IgE antibody responses in mice immunized with intraperitoneal injection of the antigens mixed with diesel-exhaust particulates (DEP) were higher than those in the animals immunized with the antigens alone. We examined the adjuvant activity of DEP inoculated by the intranasal route, i.e., the natural entrance of DEP. In 3-week interval immunization, the IgE antibody responses in mice immunized with intranasal inoculation of ovalbumin (OA) mixed with DEP were higher than responses in the animals immunized with OA alone. DEP had an adjuvant activity for anti-OA IgE antibody production, even in a small dose such as 1 micrograms administered with a 3-week interval. Also in 1-week interval immunization, the enhancing effect of DEP on anti-OA IgE antibody production was demonstrated when mice were immunized with intranasal inoculation of OA and DEP. The possibility cannot be excluded that DEP, which are kept buoyant in the environmental atmosphere of urban districts, may exert an adjuvant activity for IgE antibody production after being inhaled into the human body and have some relation to the mechanism of the outbreak of allergic rhinitis caused by pollens in Japan.

  1. IL-4-induced transcription factor NFIL3/E4BP4 controls IgE class switching.

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, Masaki; Levy, Deborah M; McKeag, Lisa; Murray, Keri; Schröder, Andreas J; Canfield, Stephen M; Traver, Geri; Rothman, Paul B

    2010-01-12

    IL-4 signaling promotes IgE class switching through STAT6 activation and the induction of Ig germ-line epsilon (GLepsilon) transcription. Previously, we and others identified a transcription factor, Nfil3, as a gene induced by IL-4 stimulation in B cells. However, the precise roles of nuclear factor, IL-3-regulated (NFIL3) in IL-4 signaling are unknown. Here, we report that NFIL3 is important for IgE class switching. NFIL3-deficient mice show impaired IgE class switching, and this defect is B-cell intrinsic. The induction of GLepsilon transcripts after LPS and IL-4 stimulation is significantly reduced in NFIL3-deficient B cells. Expression of NFIL3 in NFIL3-deficient B cells restores the impairment of IgE production, and overexpression of NFIL3 in the presence of cycloheximide induces GLepsilon transcripts. Moreover, NFIL3 binds to Iepsilon promoter in vivo. Together, these results identify NFIL3 as a key regulator of IL-4-induced GLepsilon transcription in response to IL-4 and subsequent IgE class switching. PMID:20080759

  2. Total IgE in plasma is elevated after traumatic injury and is associated with sepsis syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, J T; Hamilton, R G; Howdieshell, T R; Adkinson, N F; Mansberger, A R

    1992-01-01

    Gamma E immunoglobulin (IgE) is associated with allergic reactions, but has not been described as being activated after trauma or sepsis. Total plasma IgE concentrations were determined in 32 patients with major traumatic injury, 29 patients undergoing elective abdominal operations, and 30 healthy volunteers. Mean total IgE concentrations were 271.7 ng/mL, 52.3 ng/mL, and 41.3 ng/mL, respectively (p less than 0.01 for each comparison with the trauma group). Total IgE concentrations in trauma patients at the time of admission were not significantly different from elective surgical controls, and tended to increase during the intensive care unit stay. In the trauma group, total IgE concentration was significantly greater in the 18 patients that developed sepsis syndrome compared with those that did not (p = 0.034). These data suggest that allergic mechanisms may be involved in the physiologic response to major traumatic injury and sepsis syndrome, or that other cells known to be involved in the immune responses to trauma and sepsis (macrophages, platelets, and B lymphocytes) may become activated by IgE-dependent mechanisms. PMID:1616382

  3. Variable Region Identical IgA and IgE to Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Polysaccharide Manifest Specificity Differences*

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Nakouzi, Antonio; Pohl, Mary Ann; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several groups have shown that isotype switching from IgM to IgG to IgA can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies sharing identical variable (V) regions. However, whether the same applies to IgE is unknown. In this study we compared the fine specificity of V region-identical IgE and IgA to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide and found that these differed in specificity from each other. The IgE and IgA paratopes were probed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with 15N-labeled peptide mimetics of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen (Ag). IgE was found to cleave the peptide at a much faster rate than V region-identical IgG subclasses and IgA, consistent with an altered paratope. Both IgE and IgA were opsonic for C. neoformans and protected against infection in mice. In summary, V-region expression in the context of the ϵ constant (C) region results in specificity changes that are greater than observed for comparable IgG subclasses. These results raise the possibility that expression of certain V regions in the context of α and ϵ C regions affects their function and contributes to the special properties of those isotypes. PMID:25778397

  4. Interstellar and Cometary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, John S.

    1997-01-01

    'Interstellar dust' forms a continuum of materials with differing properties which I divide into three classes on the basis of observations: (a) diffuse dust, in the low-density interstellar medium; (b) outer-cloud dust, observed in stars close enough to the outer edges of molecular clouds to be observed in the optical and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum, and (c) inner-cloud dust, deep within the cores of molecular clouds, and observed only in the infrared by means of absorption bands of C-H, C=O, 0-H, C(triple bond)N, etc. There is a surprising regularity of the extinction laws between diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. The entire mean extinction law from infrared through the observable ultraviolet spectrum can be characterized by a single parameter. There are real deviations from this mean law, larger than observational uncertainties, but they are much smaller than differences of the mean laws in diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. This fact shows that there are processes which operate over the entire distribution of grain sizes, and which change size distributions extremely efficiently. There is no evidence for mantles on grains in local diffuse and outer-cloud dust. The only published spectra of the star VI Cyg 12, the best candidate for showing mantles, does not show the 3.4 micro-m band which appreciable mantles would produce. Grains are larger in outer-cloud dust than diffuse dust because of coagulation, not accretion of extensive mantles. Core-mantle grains favored by J. M. Greenberg and collaborators, and composite grains of Mathis and Whiffen (1989), are discussed more extensively (naturally, I prefer the latter). The composite grains are fluffy and consist of silicates, amorphous carbon, and some graphite in the same grain. Grains deep within molecular clouds but before any processing within the solar system are presumably formed from the accretion of icy mantles on and within the coagulated outer-cloud grains. They should contain a mineral

  5. Suppression of IgE antibody production in SJL mice. V. Effect of irradiation and adult thymectomy on the suppression of IgE antibody production in SJL mice

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, N.; Ovary, Z.

    1983-07-15

    Anti-DNP IgE antibody production was low and transient in SJL mice which were immunized with 1 microgram DNP-Nb and 1 mg A1(OH)/sub 3/. The immunized SJL mice were irradiated (60-540 R) 1 day after challenge. A dose higher than 180 R induced enhancement of anti-DNP IgE antibody production as compared to nonirradiated control mice, suggesting the existence of irradiation-sensitive suppressor cells. Anti-DNP IgE antibody production was suppressed when immunized and irradiated SJL mice were injected with spleen cells from adult-thymectomized SJL mice. The donors of the spleen cells were thymectomized 2 or 4 months previously, and this suggests that the suppressor cells from unprimed mice are long-living T cells.

  6. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  7. Sensitization by subcutaneous route is superior to intraperitoneal route in induction of asthma by house dust mite in a murine mode

    PubMed Central

    Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz Mangueira; de Almeida, Francine Maria; Brüggemann, Thayse Regina; Kalil, Jorge; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Arantes-Costa, Fernanda Magalhães; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To develop a new experimental model of chronic allergic pulmonary disease induced by house dust mite, with marked production of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the airways and remodeling, comparing two different routes of sensitization. Methods The protocol lasted 30 days. BALB/c mice were divided into six groups and were sensitized subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with saline (negative control), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 50 or 500mcg in three injections. Subsequently they underwent intranasal challenge with Der p or saline for 7 days and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last challenge. We evaluated the titration of specific IgE anti-Der p, eosinophilic density in peribronchovascular space and airway remodeling. Results Both animals sensitized intraperitoneally and subcutaneously produced specific IgE anti-Der p. Peribronchovascular eosinophilia increased only in mice receiving lower doses of Der p. However, only the group sensitized with Der p 50mcg through subcutaneously route showed significant airway remodeling. Conclusion In this murine model of asthma, both pathways of sensitization led to the production of specific IgE and eosinophilia in the airways. However, only the subcutaneously route was able to induce remodeling. Furthermore, lower doses of Der p used in sensitization were better than higher ones, suggesting immune tolerance. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this model in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, but it can already be replicated in experiments to create new therapeutic drugs or immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26761554

  8. Dust measurements in tokamaks (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, D. L.; Yu, J. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Hollmann, E. M.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Moyer, R. A.; Muller, S. H.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rosenberg, M.; Smirnov, R. D.; West, W. P.; Boivin, R. L.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N. H.; Hyatt, A. W.; Wong, C. P. C.; Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C. H.; Solomon, W. M.; Ratynskaia, S.

    2008-10-15

    Dust production and accumulation present potential safety and operational issues for the ITER. Dust diagnostics can be divided into two groups: diagnostics of dust on surfaces and diagnostics of dust in plasma. Diagnostics from both groups are employed in contemporary tokamaks; new diagnostics suitable for ITER are also being developed and tested. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g., between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In the DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering is able to resolve particles between 0.16 and 1.6 {mu}m in diameter; using these data the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in two-dimension with a single camera or three-dimension using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is challenging. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, precharacterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase in carbon line (CI, CII, C{sub 2} dimer) and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  9. Determining inert content in coal dust/rock dust mixture

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Ward, Jr., Jack A.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the inert content of a coal dust and rock dust mixture uses a transparent window pressed against the mixture. An infrared light beam is directed through the window such that a portion of the infrared light beam is reflected from the mixture. The concentration of the reflected light is detected and a signal indicative of the reflected light is generated. A normalized value for the generated signal is determined according to the relationship .phi.=(log i.sub.c `log i.sub.co) / (log i.sub.c100 -log i.sub.co) where i.sub.co =measured signal at 0% rock dust i.sub.c100 =measured signal at 100% rock dust i.sub.c =measured signal of the mixture. This normalized value is then correlated to a predetermined relationship of .phi. to rock dust percentage to determine the rock dust content of the mixture. The rock dust content is displayed where the percentage is between 30 and 100%, and an indication of out-of-range is displayed where the rock dust percent is less than 30%. Preferably, the rock dust percentage (RD%) is calculated from the predetermined relationship RD%=100+30 log .phi.. where the dust mixture initially includes moisture, the dust mixture is dried before measuring by use of 8 to 12 mesh molecular-sieves which are shaken with the dust mixture and subsequently screened from the dust mixture.

  10. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  11. IL-1, IL-4 production and IgE levels in acute and chronic fasciolosis before and after triclabendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Allam, A F; Osman, M M; el-Sayed, M H; Demian, S R

    2000-12-01

    IL-1 generation by mononuclear phagocytes, IL-4 production by Th2 lymphocytes and IgE levels in serum were measured in eight patients with acute fasciolosis and seven patients in the chronic stage of the disease before and after triclabendazole treatment. Results were compared with those of a control group of ten individuals. The monocytes and lymphocytes from patients with acute and chronic fasciolosis produced significantly lower levels of IL-1 and IL-4 respectively, particularly in the chronic phase of the disease, as compared to the control. A significant increase in IgE level in both acute and chronic fasciolosis was observed. The level was significantly higher in acute as compared to chronic cases. After treatment with triclabendazole IL-1, IL-4 and IgE levels moved towards the control indicating obvious improvement in the immunological responses of the patients. PMID:11198376

  12. Use of immunoblot technique for detection of human IgE and IgG antibodies to individual silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Dewair, M; Baur, X; Ziegler, K

    1985-10-01

    Allergenic proteins were extracted from one silk batch that was imported to be used as filling material for bed mattresses and rugs. IgE and IgG antibodies to the extracted silk proteins were measured by RAST in sera of nine silk-sensitive persons as well as in sera of healthy control donors. Silk proteins were fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into 12 polypeptides of molecular weights between 14 and 70 kilodaltons. By means of the immunoblot technique, IgE and IgG antibodies to the individual silk polypeptides could be detected. Sera of silk-sensitive persons contained high titers of IgE and low titers of IgG antibodies to the separated silk polypeptides. Sera of control donors contained low IgG antibody titers to a limited number of these polypeptides. PMID:4056241

  13. Clinical and radiological signs of ABPA associated with airways infection with Aspergillus in the absence of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Sunzini, F; Barbato, C; Canofari, C; Lugari, L; Perricone, R; Bergamini, A

    2016-09-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus that mainly affects patients with asthma. For diagnosis, elevated serum IgE level are needed according to Greenberger and Patterson criteria. We report a case of 43 years-old woman who developed ABPA with productive cough, fever and radiological findings of multiple confluent areas of consolidation in both upper lobes. Laboratory tests showed elevated peripheral eosinophil counts (9.3 x 10(3)/ml). In bronchial washing A. galactomannans and A. Fumigatus were isolated, although we found normal levels of serum IgE, and the absence of serum IgG and IgE antibodies to Aspergillus and A. galactomannans. In conclusion, clinical and radiological signs of ABPA can be associated with Aspergillus infection also in the absence of a specific serum antibody reaction. PMID:27608478

  14. Adrenocortical function during prolonged treatment with clobetasone butyrate in children with chronic atopic dermatitis and elevated IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Boner, A L; Richelli, C; De Stefano, G; Antolini, I; Aprili, F; Mengoni, M

    1985-01-01

    Twelve children with chronic atopic dermatitis and elevated IgE levels (age range: 2-13 years; mean age = 8.2 +/- 3.5 years) were selected for the study and treated with clobetasone butyrate (0.05% cream) thrice daily during the first week, then twice daily for three weeks. Adrenocortical function was evaluated at the beginning and the end of treatment period. The results show that there was no statistically significant change in adrenal function during the study period (tetracosactrin test). The results of the immunological studies, namely total IgE using the paper disc radioimmunoassay technique, specific IgE using the radioallergosorbent test and immunoglobulin levels are given. PMID:4018942

  15. Dust cluster explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Vikrant; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2012-09-15

    A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

  16. Conveyor dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbeck, L.

    1999-11-01

    In the past, three different approaches have been used to control dust arising at conveyor load zones. They are: Dust Containment consists of those mechanical systems employed to keep material inside the transfer point with the main material body. Dust Suppression systems increase the mass of suspended dust particles, allowing them to fall from the air stream. Dust Collection is the mechanical capture and return of airborne material after it becomes airborne from the main material body. Previously, these three approaches have always been seen as separate entities. They were offered by separate organizations competing in the marketplace. The three technologies vied for their individual piece of the rock, at the expense of the other technologies (and often at the expense of overall success). There have been considerable amounts of I`m better selling, as well as finger pointing at the other systems when problems arose. Each system claimed its own technology was the best, providing the most effective, most cost-efficient, most maintenance-free solution to fugitive material.

  17. The Ulysses dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Giese, R. H.; Kissel, J.; Maas, D.; McDonnell, A. M.; Morfill, G.; Schwehm, G.; Zook, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Ulysses dust experiment is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10(exp -16) g and 10(exp -6) g in interplanetary space, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of heliocentric distance and ecliptic latitude. Of special interest is the question of what portion is provided by comets, asteroids and interstellar particles. The investigation is performed with an instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction, and electric charge of individual dust particles. It is a multicoincidence detector with a mass sensitivity 10(exp 6) times higher than that of previous in-situ experiments which measured dust in the outer solar system. The instrument weighs 3.8 kg, consumes 2.2 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 8 bits/s in nominal spacecraft tracking mode. On 27 Oct. 1990 the instrument was switched on. The instrument was configured to flight conditions, and science data collection started immediately. At least 44 dust impacts had been recorded by 13 Jan. 1991. Flux values are given covering the heliocentric distance range from 1.04 to 1.7 AU.

  18. Oblique dust density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piel, Alexander; Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Klindworth, Markus

    2007-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of dust density waves in a complex (dusty) plasma under microgravity. The plasma is produced in a radio-frequency parallel-plate discharge (argon, p=15Pa, U=65Vpp). Different sizes of dust particles were used (3.4 μm and 6.4μm diameter). The low-frequency (f 11Hz) dust density waves are naturally unstable modes, which are driven by the ion flow in the plasma. Surprisingly, the wave propagation direction is aligned with the ion flow direction in the bulk plasma but becomes oblique at the boundary of the dust cloud with an inclination of 60^o with respect to the plasma boundary. The experimental results are compared with a kinetic model in the electrostatic approximation [1] and a fluid model [2]. Moreover, the role of dust surface waves is discussed. [1] M. Rosenberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996) [2] A. Piel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205009 (2006)

  19. Dust Streams from Tunisia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On October 6, 2001, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image of a large dust storm blowing northeastward across the Mediterranean Sea from Tunisia. According to Joseph Prospero, professor of atmospheric science at the University of Miami, there is an unusual arc-shaped 'front' to the dust cloud. The storm's shape suggests that the source of the dust is rather small and that the meteorology driving it rather unusual. The dust seems to be coming out of the wadis, dry lakebeds and riverbeds, at the base of the Tell Atlas Mountains in northern Tunisia and eastern Algeria. The dust appears to be blowing toward the island of Sicily, Italy (toward the upper righthand corner). Also notice there is a relatively thin plume of smoke emanating eastward from the top of Mount Etna on Sicily. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. The relevance of tick bites to the production of IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; James, Hayley R.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Pochan, Shawna L.; Workman, Lisa J.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Kocan, Katherine M.; Fahy, John V.; Nganga, Lucy W.; Ronmark, Eva; Cooper, Philip J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, we reported a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat, which is related to serum IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Most of these patients had tolerated meat for many years previously. The implication is that some exposure in adult life had stimulated the production of these IgE antibodies. Objectives To investigate possible causes of this IgE antibody response, focusing on evidence related to tick bites, which are common in the region where these reactions occur. Methods Serum assays were carried out using biotinylated proteins and extracts bound to a streptavidin ImmunoCAP. Results Prospective studies on IgE antibodies in three subjects following tick bites showed an increase in IgE to alpha-gal of twenty-fold or greater. Other evidence included i) a strong correlation between histories of tick bites and IgE to alpha-gal (χ2=26.8, p<0.001), ii) evidence that these IgE antibodies are common in areas where the tick Amblyomma americanum is common, and iii) a significant correlation between IgE antibodies to alpha-gal and IgE antibodies to proteins derived from A. americanum (rs=0.75, p<0.001). Conclusion The results presented here provide evidence that tick bites are a cause, or possibly the only cause, of IgE specific for alpha-gal in this area of the United States. Both the number of subjects becoming sensitized and the titer of IgE antibodies to alpha-gal are striking. Here we report the first example of a response to an ectoparasite giving rise to an important form of food allergy. PMID:21453959

  1. Dust Growth by RF Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Churton, B.; Samarian, A. A.; Coueedel, L.

    2008-09-07

    The effect of the dust particle growth by RF sputtering on glow discharge has been investigated. It has been found that the growth of dust particles modifies the electrical characteristics of the discharge. In particularly, the absolute value of the self-bias voltage decreases during the particle growth due to the electron losses on the dust particles. To find the correlation between the dust growth and the self bias evolution, dust particles have been collected at different times. The dust particle growth rate is found to be linear.

  2. AlgPred: prediction of allergenic proteins and mapping of IgE epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sudipto; Raghava, G. P. S.

    2006-01-01

    In this study a systematic attempt has been made to integrate various approaches in order to predict allergenic proteins with high accuracy. The dataset used for testing and training consists of 578 allergens and 700 non-allergens obtained from A. K. Bjorklund, D. Soeria-Atmadja, A. Zorzet, U. Hammerling and M. G. Gustafsson (2005) Bioinformatics, 21, 39–50. First, we developed methods based on support vector machine using amino acid and dipeptide composition and achieved an accuracy of 85.02 and 84.00%, respectively. Second, a motif-based method has been developed using MEME/MAST software that achieved sensitivity of 93.94 with 33.34% specificity. Third, a database of known IgE epitopes was searched and this predicted allergenic proteins with 17.47% sensitivity at specificity of 98.14%. Fourth, we predicted allergenic proteins by performing BLAST search against allergen representative peptides. Finally hybrid approaches have been developed, which combine two or more than two approaches. The performance of all these algorithms has been evaluated on an independent dataset of 323 allergens and on 101 725 non-allergens obtained from Swiss-Prot. A web server AlgPred has been developed for the predicting allergenic proteins and for mapping IgE epitopes on allergenic proteins (). AlgPred is available at . PMID:16844994

  3. Reduction in IgE reactivity of Pacific mackerel parvalbumin by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Shiomi, Kazuo; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2016-09-01

    Parvalbumin, a major fish allergen, has been reported to be highly thermostable. However, little is known as to whether parvalbumin is stable at more than 100°C. Thermostability of the Pacific mackerel parvalbumin was examined by subjecting heated (20-140°C) muscle extracts to SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. As judged by SDS-PAGE and western blotting with the anti-parvalbumin antiserum recognizing the primary structure, the parvalbumin was not degraded even under severe heating conditions. However, western blotting analysis with the monoclonal antibody recognizing the stereoscopic structure revealed that the parvalbumin undergoes conformational changes in a heating load-dependent manner. Importantly, the IgE reactivity of the parvalbumin determined by ELISA using patient sera was also reduced in a heating load-dependent manner; complete loss of IgE reactivity was induced by heating at 140°C. This study showed that the allergenicity of the Pacific mackerel parvalbumin is considerably less thermostable than assumed for other fish parvalbumins. PMID:27041301

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis and IgE binding properties of peanut seed and testa (skin).

    PubMed

    White, Brittany L; Gökce, Emine; Nepomuceno, Angelito I; Muddiman, David C; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P

    2013-04-24

    To investigate the protein composition and potential allergenicity of peanut testae or skins, proteome analysis was conducted using nanoLC-MS/MS sequencing. Initial amino acid analysis suggested differences in protein compositions between the blanched seed (skins removed) and skin. Phenolic compounds hindered analysis of proteins in skins when the conventional extraction method was used; therefore, phenol extraction of proteins was necessary. A total of 123 proteins were identified in blanched seed and skins, and 83 of the proteins were common between the two structures. The skins contained all of the known peanut allergens in addition to 38 proteins not identified in the seed. Multiple defense proteins with antifungal activity were identified in the skins. Western blotting using sera from peanut-allergic patients revealed that proteins extracted from both the blanched seed and skin bound significant levels of IgE. However, when phenolic compounds were present in the skin protein extract, no IgE binding was observed. These findings indicate that peanut skins contain potentially allergenic proteins; however, the presence of phenolic compounds may attenuate this effect. PMID:23534881

  5. IgE induces proliferation in human airway smooth muscle cells: role of MAPK and STAT3 pathways.

    PubMed

    Redhu, Naresh Singh; Shan, Lianyu; Al-Subait, Duaa; Ashdown, Heather L; Movassagh, Hesam; Lamkhioued, Bouchaib; Gounni, Abdelilah S

    2013-01-01

    Airway remodeling is not specifically targeted by current asthma medications, partly owing to the lack of understanding of remodeling mechanisms, altogether posing great challenges in asthma treatment. Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass due to hyperplasia/hypertrophy contributes significantly to overall airway remodeling and correlates with decline in lung function. Recent evidence suggests that IgE sensitization can enhance the survival and mediator release in inflammatory cells. Human ASM (HASM) cells express both low affinity (FcεRII/CD23) and high affinity IgE Fc receptors (FcεRI), and IgE can modulate the contractile and synthetic function of HASM cells. IgE was recently shown to induce HASM cell proliferation but the detailed mechanisms remain unknown. We report here that IgE sensitization induces HASM cell proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine, EdU incorporation, and manual cell counting. As an upstream signature component of FcεRI signaling, inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) abrogated the IgE-induced HASM proliferation. Further analysis of IgE-induced signaling depicted an IgE-mediated activation of Erk 1/2, p38, JNK MAPK, and Akt kinases. Lastly, lentiviral-shRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing completely abolished the IgE-mediated HASM cell proliferation. Collectively, our data provide mechanisms of a novel function of IgE which may contribute, at least in part, to airway remodeling observed in allergic asthma by directly inducing HASM cell proliferation. PMID:24499258

  6. Adrenergic Regulation of IgE Involves Modulation of CD23 and ADAM10 Expression on Exosomes1

    PubMed Central

    Padro, Caroline J.; Shawler, Todd M.; Gormley, Matthew G.; Sanders, Virginia M.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD23 (sCD23) plays a role in the positive regulation of an IgE response. Engagement of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) on a B cell is known to enhance the level of both sCD23 and IgE, although the mechanism by which this occurs is not completely understood. We report herein that, in comparison to a CD40L/IL-4-primed murine B cell alone, β2AR engagement on a primed B cell increased gene expression of ADAM10, which is the primary sheddase of CD23, and protein expression of both CD23 and ADAM10, in a PKA- and p38 MAPK-dependent manner, and promoted the localization of these proteins to exosomes as early as two days after priming, as determined by both Western blot and flow cytometry, and confirmed by electron microscopy. In comparison to isolated exosomes released from primed B cells alone, the transfer of exosomes released from β2AR agonist-exposed primed B cells to cultures of recipient primed B cells resulted in an increase in the level of IgE produced per cell, without affecting the number of cells producing IgE, as determined by ELISPOT. These effects still occurred when a β2AR antagonist was added along with the transfer to block residual agonist, and failed to occur when exosomes were isolated from β2AR-deficient B cells. These findings suggest that the mechanism responsible for mediating the β2AR-induced increase in IgE involves a shuttling of the β2AR-induced increase in CD23 and ADAM10 proteins to exosomes that subsequently mediate an increase in IgE. PMID:24140643

  7. Functional and phenotypic analysis of human T-cell clones which stimulate IgE production in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Quint, D J; Bolton, E J; McNamee, L A; Solari, R; Hissey, P H; Champion, B R; MacKenzie, A R; Zanders, E D

    1989-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a patient suffering from the hyper IgE syndrome were used to generate phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-expanded T-cell clones (all CD4+, CD8-, CD23-). A selection of the clones was tested for their ability to help IgE secretion by culturing with normal B cells in the presence of solid-phase antibody to CD3. Supernatants were harvested on Day 7 and assayed by ELISA for IgE, IgG and IgM. Lymphokine secretion by the clones was assessed by culturing clones for 24 hr with solid-phase antibody to CD3 followed by assay of the supernatants for IL-2, IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production. In addition, clones were analysed by flow cytometry for CDw29 and CD45R expression. Initial experiments with seven clones indicated that those clones that could help IgE secretion also stimulated optimal IgG and IgM responses. All clones appeared to secrete IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma, although the amounts of each varied. These results confirm recent findings that human T-cell clones do not fall into Tinf (Th1) and Th (Th2) type subsets as described in the mouse. There was no clear correlation between the lymphokines secreted by the clones and their capacity to help IgE production. However, the helper function of the clones for all isotypes, including IgE, appeared to be related to the level of expression of the surface antigen CDw29. PMID:2525520

  8. Determination of allergen specificity by heavy chains in grass pollen allergen–specific IgE antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Flicker, Sabine; Lupinek, Christian; Steinberger, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Background Affinity and clonality of allergen-specific IgE antibodies are important determinants for the magnitude of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation. Objective We sought to analyze the contribution of heavy and light chains of human allergen-specific IgE antibodies for allergen specificity and to test whether promiscuous pairing of heavy and light chains with different allergen specificity allows binding and might affect affinity. Methods Ten IgE Fabs specific for 3 non–cross-reactive major timothy grass pollen allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, and Phl p 5) obtained by means of combinatorial cloning from patients with grass pollen allergy were used to construct stable recombinant single chain variable fragments (ScFvs) representing the original Fabs and shuffled ScFvs in which heavy chains were recombined with light chains from IgE Fabs with specificity for other allergens by using the pCANTAB 5 E expression system. Possible ancestor genes for the heavy chain and light chain variable region–encoding genes were determined by using sequence comparison with the ImMunoGeneTics database, and their chromosomal locations were determined. Recombinant ScFvs were tested for allergen specificity and epitope recognition by means of direct and sandwich ELISA, and affinity by using surface plasmon resonance experiments. Results The shuffling experiments demonstrate that promiscuous pairing of heavy and light chains is possible and maintains allergen specificity, which is mainly determined by the heavy chains. ScFvs consisting of different heavy and light chains exhibited different affinities and even epitope specificity for the corresponding allergen. Conclusion Our results indicate that allergen specificity of allergen-specific IgE is mainly determined by the heavy chains. Different heavy and light chain pairings in allergen-specific IgE antibodies affect affinity and epitope specificity and thus might influence clinical reactivity to allergens. PMID:23206656

  9. The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE), venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), and phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE) were analyzed. Results Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels. PMID:27512356

  10. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    PubMed

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered. PMID:184524

  11. Dust properties from scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, C.; Pagani, L.; Min, M.; Poteet, C.; Whittet, D.; Cambrésy, L.

    2016-05-01

    Dust grains evolve during the life cycle of the interstellar matter. From their birth places to dense molecular clouds, they grow by coagulation and acquire ice mantles, mainly composed of water. These morphological changes affect their optical properties. However, it remains a highly degenerate issue to determine their composition, size distribution, and shape from observations. In particular, using wavelengths associated to dust emission alone is not sufficient to investigate dense cold cores. Fortunately, scattering has turned out to be a powerful tool to investigate molecular clouds from the outer regions to the core. In particular, it is possible to quantify the amount of dust aggregates needed to reproduce observations from 1.25 to 8 μm.

  12. Big Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 January 2004 Northern Amazonis Planitia is famous for its frequent, large (> 1 km high) dust devils. They occur throughout the spring and summer seasons, and can be detected from orbit, even at the 240 meters (278 yards) per pixel resolution of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle instruments. This red wide angle image shows a plethora of large dust devils. The arrow points to an example. Shadows cast by the towering columns of swirling dust point away from the direction of sunlight illumination (sun is coming from the left/lower left). This December 2004 scene covers an area more than 125 km (> 78 mi) across and is located near 37oN, 154oW.

  13. Polar Dust Devil Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of dunes in the martian north polar region is important because it shows one of the highest northern latitude views of streaks thought to be made by passing dust devils. The dark, thin, filamentary streaks on the dunes and on the adjacent plains were probably formed by dust devils. The dunes occur near 76.6oN, 62.7oW. Dust devil streaks are observed on Mars at very high latitudes, such as this, all the way down to the equator. They are also seen at all elevations, from the deepest parts of the Hellas Basin to the summit of Olympus Mons. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  14. Dust control for draglines

    SciTech Connect

    Grad, P.

    2009-09-15

    Monitoring dust levels inside draglines reveals room for improvement in how filtration systems are used and maintained. The Australian firm BMT conducted a field test program to measure airflow parameters, dust fallout rates and dust concentrations, inside and outside the machine house, on four draglines and one shovel. The study involved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The article describes how the tests were made and gives results. It was not possible to say which of the two main filtration systems currently used on Australian draglines - Dynavane or Floseps - performs better. It would appear that more frequent maintenance and cleaning would increase the overall filtration performance and systems could be susceptible to repeat clogging in a short time. 2 figs., 1 photos.

  15. Tikhonravov Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located within a small crater inside Tikhonravov Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.6, Longitude 37.1 East (322.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Lycus Sulci Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches occur on the slopes of Lycus Sulci near Olympus Mons.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 28.1, Longitude 220.4 East (139.6 West). 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in a small canyon within a crater rim northeast of Naktong Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 7.1, Longitude 34.7 East (325.3 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    This region of dust avalanches is located in and around a crater to the west of yesterday's image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.7, Longitude 32.7 East (327.3 West). 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Electric Activity in Dust Devils and Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, R. O.; Yana, C.; Covert, A.; Renno, K.; Wilson, J.

    2005-12-01

    Terrestrial dust devils produce charge separation and electric fields that exceeds the breakdown potential of the thin Martian atmosphere (Farrell et al., 2002, 2003; Krauss et al., 2002; Renno et al., 2004). Typical Martian dust devils are wider, taller and have larger dust content than terrestrial vortices. Thus, charge separation and electric-field breakdown are likely to occur in Martian dust devils and dust storms. We show that theory, laboratory experiments, and field measurements in Arizona suggests that collisions between sand and dust particles at the bottom of dust devils produce non-thermal microwave radiation. The non-thermal microwave emission allows not only the indirect detection of electric activity but could also allow the determination of the physical properties of Martian sand and dust by remote sensing. Besides being geologically important, electrically charged Martian dust devils and dust storms are potential hazards to Landers and at minimum would be an annoyance to future astronauts exploring the planet. Indeed, the design of adequate mechanical and electrical systems for these Landers cannot progress effectively without a better understanding of Martian dust devils and dust storms. Moreover, ancillary phenomena associated with electrically charged vortices can ionize atmospheric gases and might have important implications for atmosphere chemistry and even habitability.

  20. Sabaeus Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-546, 16 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an active dust devil in Sinus Sabaeus, southeast of Schiaparelli Basin. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left (northwest). The dust devil is best recognized by the dark, columnar shadow it casts toward the lower right (southeast). This image is located near 5.4oS, 340.0oW. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  1. Syrian Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil in far western Syria Planum. The dust devil is located near the left-center of the image. It is casting a shadow toward the lower right (southeast).

    Location near: 14.5oS, 109.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  2. Dust Devil Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 6 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    Dust devils, small cyclonic wind storms, are common in the American Southwest and on Mars. As the dust devil moves across the surface it picks up the loose dust, leaving behind a dark track to mark its passage. These dust devil tracks are in the Argyre Basin.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -46.6, Longitude 317.5 East (42.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin

  3. Dust Devils Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in November 2004, shows a group of three large afternoon dust devils occurring within several kilometers of each other in northwestern Amazonis. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and was obtained with a spatial resolution of 12 meters (13 yards) per pixel. This scene is located near 36.2oN, 157.6oW. Sunlight illuminates the dust devils from the left.

  4. Tithonium Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    23 June 2004 The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) captured this chance view of a dust devil (left of the center of the picture) near 2 p.m. local Mars time on 12 April 2004, in western Tithonium Chasma. The dark splotch to the right of the dust devil is its shadow. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left. Tithonium is one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The picture is located near 4.7oS, 89.1oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  5. September Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    8 September 2004 Presently Mars is experiencing late spring in its northern hemisphere, and dust devil activity is picking up as summer approaches. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of a cratered plain in southern Acidalia Planitia was acquired earlier this week on 5 September 2004. The arrow points to a dust devil observed that day. The image is located near 29.2oN, 30.3oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  6. Inverse Association between Prediagnostic IgE Levels and the Risk of Brain Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chong; Cao, Lei; Zhao, Jianping; Ming, Xing; Shang, Ming; Zong, Hailiang; Du, Hai; Li, Kai; He, Xiaoguang; Xu, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    An inverse association between allergic conditions and glioma risk has been suggested in many epidemiological studies. However, the evidence is inadequate to draw robust conclusions for the association between prediagnostic IgE levels and brain tumors risk. The aim of this study was to provide more precise estimates for this association by meta-analysis of all published studies. Overall, 8 individual studies with 2,461 cases and 3,934 controls were included in our study. A decreased risk of brain tumors (RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.61–0.86, P < 0.001) was observed in relation to elevated level of total IgE. The negative association was significant between elevated total IgE level and the risk of glioma (RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.62–0.88, P = 0.001). However, no significant relationship was demonstrated between testing positive for respiratory allergen-specific IgE and brain tumors risk. In addition, the role of prediagnostic IgE levels in brain tumors risk did not alter in men and women. The present study suggests that increased level of total prediagnostic IgE but not respiratory allergen-specific IgE plays a protective role in brain tumors risk, glioma in particular. More studies are warranted for further elucidation of the meningioma risk related to prediagnostic IgE levels. PMID:26448931

  7. Antigen Transfer from Exosomes to Dendritic Cells as an Explanation for the Immune Enhancement Seen by IgE Immune Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Frida; Heyman, Birgitta; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    IgE antigen complexes induce increased specific T cell proliferation and increased specific IgG production. Immediately after immunization, CD23+ B cells capture IgE antigen complexes, transport them to the spleen where, via unknown mechanisms, dendritic cells capture the antigen and present it to T cells. CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor, binds IgE antigen complexes and internalizes them. In this study, we show that these complexes are processed onto B-cell derived exosomes (bexosomes) in a CD23 dependent manner. The bexosomes carry CD23, IgE and MHC II and stimulate antigen specific T-cell proliferation in vitro. When IgE antigen complex stimulated bexosomes are incubated with dendritic cells, dendritic cells induce specific T-cell proliferation in vivo, similar to IgE antigen complexes. This suggests that bexosomes can provide the essential transfer mechanism for IgE antigen complexes from B cells to dendritic cells. PMID:25330118

  8. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  9. Dust Devils Whip by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1120 (February 26, 2007), the navigation camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured one of the best dust devils it's seen in its three-plus year mission. The series of navigation camera images were put together to make a dust devil movie.

    The dust devil column is clearly defined and is clearly bent in the down wind direction. Near the end of the movie, the base of the dust devil becomes much wider. The atmospheric science team thinks that this is because the dust devil encountered some sand and therefore produced a 'saltation skirt,' an apron of material that is thrown out of the dust devil because it is too large to be carried up into suspension.

    Also near the end of the movie the dust devil seems to move faster across the surface. This is because Spirit began taking pictures less frequently, and not because the dust devil sped up.

  10. Circumstellar, Cometary and Interplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovisier, J.

    2000-11-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory made us available for the first time the full infrared spectrum of cosmic dust in a variety of astrophysical environments. I review what we learned from ISO on the composition of dust in the Solar System (cometary and interplanetary) and in circumstellar discs around young or evolved stars, what are the commonalities and parallels between dust in these different environments, and what this tells us on the cosmic dust cycle.

  11. Latex allergens in tire dust and airborne particles.

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, A G; Cass, G R; Weiss, J; Glovsky, M M

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of latex allergy has increased dramatically in the last 15 years due to exposure to natural rubber products. Although historically this health risk has been elevated in hospital personnel and patients, a recent survey has indicated a significant potential risk for the general population. To obtain a wide-spread source for latex exposure, we have considered tire debris. We have searched for the presence of latex allergens in passenger car and truck tire tread, in debris deposited from the atmosphere near a freeway, and in airborne particulate matter samples representative of the entire year 1993 at two sites in the Los Angeles basin (California). After extraction of the samples with phosphate buffered saline, a modified-ELISA inhibition assay was used to measure relative allergen potency and Western blot analyses were used to identify latex allergens. The inhibition studies with the human IgE latex assay revealed inhibition by the tire tread source samples and ambient freeway dust, as well as by control latex sap and latex glove extracts. Levels of extractable latex allergen per unit of protein extracted were about two orders of magnitude lower for tire tread as compared to latex gloves. Western blot analyses using binding of human IgE from latex-sensitive patients showed a band at 34-36 kDa in all tire and ambient samples. Long Beach and Los Angeles, California, air samples showed four additional bands between 50 and 135 kDa. Alternative Western blot analyses using rabbit IgG raised against latex proteins showed a broad band at 30-50 kDa in all samples, with additional bands in the urban air samples similar to the IgE results. A latex cross-reactive material was identified in mountain cedar. In conclusion, the latex allergens or latex cross-reactive material present in sedimented and airborne particulate material, derived from tire debris, and generated by heavy urban vehicle traffic could be important factors in producing latex allergy

  12. High-density IgE recognition of the major grass pollen allergen Phl p 1 revealed with single-chain IgE antibody fragments obtained by combinatorial cloning.

    PubMed

    Madritsch, Christoph; Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Roder, Uwe W; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Flicker, Sabine

    2015-03-01

    The timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 1 belongs to the group 1 of highly cross-reactive grass pollen allergens with a molecular mass of ∼25-30 kDa. Group 1 allergens are recognized by >95% of grass pollen allergic patients. We investigated the IgE recognition of Phl p 1 using allergen-specific IgE-derived single-chain variable Ab fragments (IgE-ScFvs) isolated from a combinatorial library constructed from PBMCs of a grass pollen-allergic patient. IgE-ScFvs reacted with recombinant Phl p 1 and natural group 1 grass pollen allergens. Using synthetic Phl p 1-derived peptides, the binding sites of two ScFvs were mapped to the N terminus of the allergen. In surface plasmon resonance experiments they showed comparable high-affinity binding to Phl p 1 as a complete human IgE-derived Ab recognizing the allergens' C terminus. In a set of surface plasmon resonance experiments simultaneous allergen recognition of all three binders was demonstrated. Even in the presence of the three binders, allergic patients' polyclonal IgE reacted with Phl p 1, indicating high-density IgE recognition of the Phl p 1 allergen. Our results show that multiple IgE Abs can bind with high density to Phl p 1, which may explain the high allergenic activity and sensitizing capacity of this allergen. PMID:25637023

  13. High-Density IgE Recognition of the Major Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 1 Revealed with Single-Chain IgE Antibody Fragments Obtained by Combinatorial Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Madritsch, Christoph; Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Roder, Uwe W.; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Flicker, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 1 belongs to the group 1 of highly cross-reactive grass pollen allergens with a molecular mass of ~25–30 kDa. Group 1 allergens are recognized by >95% of grass pollen allergic patients. We investigated the IgE recognition of Phl p 1 using allergen-specific IgE-derived single-chain variable Ab fragments (IgE-ScFvs) isolated from a combinatorial library constructed from PBMCs of a grass pollen–allergic patient. IgE-ScFvs reacted with recombinant Phl p 1 and natural group 1 grass pollen allergens. Using synthetic Phl p 1–derived peptides, the binding sites of two ScFvs were mapped to the N terminus of the allergen. In surface plasmon resonance experiments they showed comparable high-affinity binding to Phl p 1 as a complete human IgE-derived Ab recognizing the allergens’ C terminus. In a set of surface plasmon resonance experiments simultaneous allergen recognition of all three binders was demonstrated. Even in the presence of the three binders, allergic patients’ polyclonal IgE reacted with Phl p 1, indicating high-density IgE recognition of the Phl p 1 allergen. Our results show that multiple IgE Abs can bind with high density to Phl p 1, which may explain the high allergenic activity and sensitizing capacity of this allergen. PMID:25637023

  14. Chenopodium album pollen profilin (Che a 2): homology modeling and evaluation of cross-reactivity with allergenic profilins based on predicted potential IgE epitopes and IgE reactivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Amini, Akram; sankian, Mojtaba; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2011-04-01

    The inhalation of Chenopodium album (C. album) pollen has been reported as an important cause of allergic respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to produce the recombinant profilin of C. album (rChe a 2) pollen and to investigate its cross-reactivity with other plant-derived profilins based on potential conformational epitopes and IgE reactivity analysis. Che a 2-coding sequence was cloned, expressed, and purified using one step metal affinity chromatography to recover high-purity target protein. We assessed cross-reactivity and predicted IgE potential epitopes among rChe a 2 and other plant-derived profilins. Immunodetection and inhibition assays using sixteen individual sera from C. album allergic patients demonstrated that purified rChe a 2 could be the same as that in the crude extract. The results of inhibition assays among rChe a 2 and other plant-derived profilins were in accordance with those of the homology of predicted conserved conformational regions. In this study, amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that a high degree of IgE cross-reactivity among plant-derived profilins may depend on predicted potential IgE epitopes. PMID:21086179

  15. Gusev Dust Devil, Sol 543

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    One dust devil scoots across the center of the view in this movie clip showing a few dust devils inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The clip consists of frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 543rd martian day, or sol (July 13, 2005).

    Spirit began seeing dust devil activity around the beginning of Mars' spring season. Activity increased as spring continued, but fell off again for about two weeks during a dust storm. As the dust storm faded away, dust devil activity came back. In the mid-afternoons as the summer solstice approached, dust devils were a very common occurrence on the floor of Gusev crater. The early-spring dust devils tended to move southwest-to-northeast, across the dust devil streaks in Gusev seen from orbit. Increasingly as the season progresses, the dust devils are seen moving northwest-to-southeast, in the same direction as the streaks. Scientists are watching for the big dust devils that leave those streaks.

    In this clip, contrast has been enhanced for anything in the images that changes from frame to frame, that is, for the dust moved by wind. The total time elapsed during the taking of these frames was 8 minutes, 21 seconds.

  16. Vacuum Head Removes Sanding Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengle, C. G.; Holt, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum sander prevents sanding dust from entering a work area, since dust particles are drawn off as quickly as they are produced. Tool is useful where dust presents health hazards, interferes with such processes as semiconductor manufacture, or could destroy wet paint or varnish finishes. Could be used to sand such materials as lead paint.

  17. Saharan Dust Cloud

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... was expected to produce dramatic sunsets and possibly a light coating of red-brown dust on vehicles from Florida to Texas. This image, ... far the most common non-spherical atmospheric aerosol, from pollution and forest fire particles, which are typically spherical. This image ...

  18. Dust Plumes off Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Two-toned dust plumes blew northward off the coast of Libya on October 26, 2007, as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite took this picture. While plumes in the west are beige, reminiscent of the Sahara's sands, the plumes in the east are distinctly darker. The differences in color can be traced to the plumes's varied origins.

  19. Nickel refinery dust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel refinery dust ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  20. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Dust Devil Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, C. E.; Escarguel, A.; Horton, W.; Arnas, C.; Couedel, L.; Benkadda, S.

    2013-12-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The horizontal toroidal flow and vertical velocity field are driven by the vertical temperature gradient instability of gravity waves. The critical temperature gradient is derived and the associated eigenmodes for simple models are given. The nonlinear dynamics in the vertical/horizontal flows drive the toroidal flow through a parametric decay process. Methods developed for triboelectric charging of dust are used to compute the electric polarization vector from the charging of the sand particles. Elementary comparisons are made with the data from dust devil observations and research and simulations by Farrell et al. 2004, 2006. The parameters for a proposed Dust Devil laboratory experiment at Aix-Marseille University are presented. Following R. L. Miller et al. JGR 2006 estimates are made of the overall contribution to the mid-latitude aerosol layer in the atmosphere that acts to moderate global climate temperature increases through a negative feedback loop. The problem has an analog in terms of the heating of the boron or beryllium coated steel vacuum vessel walls in tokamaks where the core plasma plays the role of the sun and has a temperature (~ 10keV ) that exceeds that of the core of the sun.

  2. Stellar Ontogeny: From Dust...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the process of star formation. Infrared and radio astronomy, particularly microwave astronomy is used to provide information on different stages of stellar formation. The role of dust and gas which swirl through the interstellar regions of a galaxy and the collapse of a cloud in star formation are also presented. (HM)

  3. Dust devil dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Onishchenko, O.; Couedel, L.; Arnas, C.; Escarguel, A.; Benkadda, S.; Fedun, V.

    2016-06-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the solar heating-driven onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification produced by solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the primary temperature gradient-driven vertical airflows drives a secondary toroidal vortex flow through a parametric interaction in the nonlinear structures. While an external tangential shear flow may initiate energy transfer to the toroidal vortex flow, the nonlinear interactions dominate the transfer of vertical-radial flows into a fast toroidal flow. This secondary flow has a vertical vorticity, while the primary thermal gradient-driven flow produces the toroidal vorticity. Simulations for the complex nonlinear structure are carried out with the passive convection of sand as test particles. Triboelectric charging modeling of the dust is used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Parameters for a Dust Devil laboratory experiment are proposed considering various working gases and dust particle parameters. The nonlinear dynamics of the toroidal flow driven by the temperature gradient is of generic interest for both neutral gases and plasmas.

  4. Collection of cometary dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lell, P.; Igenbergs, E.; Kuczera, H.; Pailer, N.

    Rendezvous Missions to Comets lead to low velocities at the nucleus of the comet. The resulting impact velocity of the cometary dust on a target will range between 10 and 400 m/s. The dust particle which impacts on a target can be collected for a subsequent in-situ analysis. The collection efficiency of a target depends in addition to obvious geometrical conditions upon the surface of the target. The surface characteristics can be divided into two groups: ``dirty'' surfaces, covered with silicate or hydrocarbon compounds (for example vacuum grease), ``clean'' surfaces, like gold (with additional sputtering). This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical investigation of the collection efficiency of ``clean'' targets. Laboratory experiments are described which were conducted at the Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Raumfahrttechnik, and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg. In both experiments an electromagnetic accelerator is used to accelerate different types of dust in vacuum to velocities between 10 and 400 m/s. The target is then examined under the microscope and a secondary ion mass spectrometer (which is a model of the laboratory carried on board of the spacecraft for ``in situ'' analysis). The adhesion of the dust grains at the target is evaluated experimentally in an ultracentrifuge.

  5. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  6. Dust That's Worth Keeping

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-25

    Images taken of interstellar space often display a colorful canvas of portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dispersed throughout the images are interstellar clouds of dust and gas--remnants ejected from stars and supernovae over billions and billions of years. For more than 40 years, astronomers have observed that interstellar dust exhibits a consistent effect at a spectral wavelength of 2,175 angstroms, the equivalent of 5.7 electronvolts in energy on the electromagnetic spectrum. At this wavelength, light from stars is absorbed by dust in the interstellar medium, blocking the stars light from reaching Earth. The 2,175-angstrom feature, which looks like a bump on spectra, is the strongest ultraviolet-visible light spectral signature of interstellar dust and is visible along nearly every observational line of sight. Scientists have sought to solve the mystery of what causes the 2,175-angstrom feature by reproducing the effect in the laboratory. They speculated a number of possibilities, including fullerenes (buckyballs), nanodiamonds, and even interstellar organisms. However, none of these materials fits the data for the unique spectral feature. Limitations in the energy and spatial resolution achievable with electron microscopes and ion microprobes--the two main instruments used to study samples of dust--have also prevented scientists from finding the answer. A collaborative effort led by Livermore physicist John Bradley and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used a new-generation transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoscale ion microprobe to unlock the mystery. The Livermore group includes physicists Zu Rong Dai, Ian Hutcheon, Peter Weber, and Sasa Bajt and postdoctoral researchers Hope Ishii, Giles Graham, and Julie Smith. They collaborated with the University of California at Davis (UCD), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Washington University's Laboratory for Space Sciences in St. Louis, and NASA's Ames

  7. Dust That's Worth Keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Images taken of interstellar space often display a colorful canvas of portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dispersed throughout the images are interstellar clouds of dust and gas--remnants ejected from stars and supernovae over billions and billions of years. For more than 40 years, astronomers have observed that interstellar dust exhibits a consistent effect at a spectral wavelength of 2,175 angstroms, the equivalent of 5.7 electronvolts in energy on the electromagnetic spectrum. At this wavelength, light from stars is absorbed by dust in the interstellar medium, blocking the stars light from reaching Earth. The 2,175-angstrom feature, which looks like a bump on spectra, is the strongest ultraviolet-visible light spectral signature of interstellar dust and is visible along nearly every observational line of sight. Scientists have sought to solve the mystery of what causes the 2,175-angstrom feature by reproducing the effect in the laboratory. They speculated a number of possibilities, including fullerenes (buckyballs), nanodiamonds, and even interstellar organisms. However, none of these materials fits the data for the unique spectral feature. Limitations in the energy and spatial resolution achievable with electron microscopes and ion microprobes--the two main instruments used to study samples of dust--have also prevented scientists from finding the answer. A collaborative effort led by Livermore physicist John Bradley and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used a new-generation transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoscale ion microprobe to unlock the mystery. The Livermore group includes physicists Zu Rong Dai, Ian Hutcheon, Peter Weber, and Sasa Bajt and postdoctoral researchers Hope Ishii, Giles Graham, and Julie Smith. They collaborated with the University of California at Davis (UCD), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Washington University's Laboratory for Space Sciences in St. Louis, and NASA's Ames

  8. Fingerprints in the Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These MISR nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from July 9, 2000 (left) with a spectacularly dusty spring view from April 7, 2001 (middle). The left-hand and middle images are from Terra orbits 2967 and 6928, respectively, and extend from central Manchuria near the top to portions of North and South Korea at the bottom. They are approximately 380 kilometers in width.

    Asia's desert areas are prone to soil erosion, as underground water tables are lowered by prolonged drought and by industrial and agricultural water use. Heavy winds blowing eastward across the arid and sparsely vegetated surfaces of Mongolia and western China pick up large quantities of yellow dust. Airborne dust clouds from the April 2001 storm blew across the Pacific Ocean and were carried as far as North America. The minerals transported in this manner are believed to provide nutrients for both oceanic and land ecosystems.

    According to the Xinhua News Agency in China, nearly one million tons of Gobi Desert dust blow into Beijing each year. During a similar dust outbreak last year, the Associated Press reported that the visibility in Beijing had been reduced the point where buildings were barely visible across city streets, and airline schedules were significantly disrupted. The dust has also been implicated in adverse health effects such as respiratory discomfort and eye irritation.

    The image on the right is a higher resolution MISR nadir-camera view of a portion of the April 7, 2001 dust cloud. It covers an area roughly 250 kilometers wide by 470 kilometers high. When viewed at full magnification, a number of atmospheric wave features, like the ridges and valleys of a fingerprint, are apparent. These are probably induced by surface topography, which can disturb the wind flow. A few small cumulus clouds are also visible, and are casting shadows on the thick lower dust layer.

    Analyses of images such as these constitute one phase of MISR

  9. Reuyl Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 May 2002) The Science The rugged, arcuate rim of the 90 km crater Reuyl dominates this THEMIS image. Reuyl crater is at the southern edge of a region known to be blanketed in thick dust based on its high albedo (brightness) and low thermal inertia values. This thick mantle of dust creates the appearance of snow covered mountains in the image. Like snow accumulation on Earth, Martian dust can become so thick that it eventually slides down the face of steep slopes, creating runaway avalanches of dust. In the center of this image about 1/3 of the way down is evidence of this phenomenon. A few dozen dark streaks can be seen on the bright, sunlit slopes of the crater rim. The narrow streaks extend downslope following the local topography in a manner very similar to snow avalanches on Earth. But unlike their terrestrial counterparts, no accumulation occurs at the bottom. The dust particles are so small that they are easily launched into the thin atmosphere where they remain suspended and ultimately blow away. The apparent darkness of the avalanche scars is due to the presence of relatively dark underlying material that becomes exposed following the passage of the avalanche. Over time, new dust deposition occurs, brightening the scars until they fade into the background. Although dark slope streaks had been observed in Viking mission images, a clear understanding of this dynamic phenomenon wasn't possible until the much higher resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed the details. MOC images also showed that new avalanches have occurred during the time MGS has been in orbit. THEMIS images will allow additional mapping of their distribution and frequency, contributing new insights about Martian dust avalanches. The Story The stiff peaks in this image might remind you of the Alps here on Earth, but they really outline the choppy edge of a large Martian crater over 50 miles wide (seen in the context image at right). While these aren

  10. Assessment of IgE and IgG4 Binding Capacities of Cow's Milk Proteins Selectively Altered by Proteases.

    PubMed

    Charcosset, Alexandre; Adel-Patient, Karine; Dupont, Christophe; Bernard, Hervé

    2016-05-01

    Specific IgE and IgG4 have been reported to play key roles in the context of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA), but the persistence of their epitopes in milk hydrolysates has not been evaluated. Using sera from 32 CMA patients, 6 CMA patients treated by epicutaneous therapy (CM-treated), and 4 CM-tolerant peanut allergic patients, we analyzed the IgE and IgG4 binding capacities related to major milk allergens in processed milk. Different proteases (plasmin, chymosin, α-chymotrypsin, or pepsin) were used progressively and selectively to hydrolyze β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and casein (CN) in milk. We then showed that proteases differentially affect IgE or IgG4 immunoreactivities of CN and β-LG and also that we could not relate IgE and/or IgG4 levels or specificities to milk hydrolysates to the clinical status of the patients. PMID:27015440

  11. IGE Evaluation Phase IV: DMP Descriptive Study Final Report. Report from the Project on Evaluation of Practices in Individualized Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Norman L.; And Others

    Individually Guided Education (IGE) is a complex educational system intended to enable the elementary school to provide an environment where students learn at a rate and in a manner appropriate to their own learning styles. This descriptive study concerns the implementation of the Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP) instructional program,…

  12. The sequential appearance of IgG subclasses and IgE during the course of Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ljungström, I; Hammarström, L; Kociecka, W; Smith, C I

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that IgG1 and IgG4 are the dominant IgG subclasses in the specific response during a chronic helminthic infection. It has also been suggested that IgG4 production results from chronic or repetitive antigenic stimulation and a correlation between IgG4 and IgE levels exists. An outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infection in Poland provided the opportunity to follow the sequential appearance of the IgG subclass and IgE responses in 15 patients during the early stage of Trichinella infection and to compare these observations in sera obtained one year later from the same patients. The results show that the sequential appearance of the IgG subclasses were IgG1 before IgG3 and IgG3 before IgG4. IgG1 antibodies dominated the immune response in all patients. A statistically significant increase in the number of IgG4 positive sera was observed in patients during the chronic stage compared to the findings during the early stage of infection (13% vs 73%; p less than 0.001), supporting the view that IgG4 results from a chronic antigenic stimulation. A correlation between the appearance of IgG4 and IgE was not found. The highest levels of IgE were seen in the first serum samples obtained, with a decrease during the course of infection. PMID:3224442

  13. Proteome and allergenome of Asian wasp, Vespa affinis, venom and IgE reactivity of the venom components.

    PubMed

    Sookrung, Nitat; Wong-din-Dam, Siriporn; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Reamtong, Onrapak; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2014-03-01

    Vespa affinis (Asian wasp, Thai banded tiger wasp, or local name: Tor Hua Seua) causes the most frequent incidence of medically important Hymenoptera sting in South and Southeast Asia. However, data on the venom components attributable to the sting derived-clinical manifestations (local reactions, IgE mediated-anaphylaxis, or systemic envenomation) are lacking. This study provides the first set information on V. affinis venom proteome, allergenome, and IgE reactivity of individual venom components. From 2DE-gel based-proteomics, the venom revealed 93 protein spots, of which proteins in 51 spots could be identified and classified into three groups: typical venom components and structural and housekeeping proteins. Venom proteins in 32 spots reacted with serum IgE of wasp allergic patients. Major allergenic proteins that reacted to IgE of >50% of the wasp allergic patients included PLA1 (100%), arginine kinase (73%), heat shock 70 kDa protein (73.3%), venom allergen-5 (66.7%), enolase (66.7%), PLA1 magnifin (60%), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (60%), hyaluronidase (53.3%), and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (53.3%). The venom minor allergens were GB17876 transcript (40%), GB17291 transcript (20%), malic enzyme (13.3%), aconitate hydratase (6.7%), and phosphoglucomutase (6.7%). The information has diagnostic and clinical implications for future improvement of case diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, component-resolve diagnosis, and design of specific Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. PMID:24437991

  14. Constructing a hybrid molecule with low capacity of IgE binding from Chenopodium album pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Hamid Reza; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan; Afsharzadeh, Danial; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2012-05-30

    Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only remedy to prevent the progression of allergic diseases. Nowadays, using of recombinant allergens with reduced IgE-binding capacity is an ideal tool for allergen immunotherapy. Therefore, in this study we focused on a hybrid molecule (HM) production with reduced IgE reactivity from Chenopodium album pollen allergens. By means of genetic engineering, a head to tail structure of the three allergens of the C. album pollen was designed. The resulting DNA construct coding for a 46kDa HM was inserted into an expression vector and expressed as hexahistidine tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. IgE reactivity of the HM was evaluated by western blotting, inhibition ELISA and in vivo skin prick test and its immunogenic property was tested by proliferation assay. The recombinant HM was expressed and purified by nickel-affinity chromatography. Comparison of the recombinant HM with a mixture of three recombinant allergens, as well as natural allergens in the whole C. album pollen extract via immunological experiments revealed that it has a much lower potential of IgE reactivity. Furthermore, in vivo skin prick tests showed that it has a significantly lower potency to induce cutaneous reactions than the mixture of recombinant wild type allergens and whole extract while, it had been preserved immunogenic properties. Our results have demonstrated that assembling three allergens of C. album in a hybrid molecule can reduce its IgE reactivity. PMID:22504204

  15. Probiotics and diseases of altered IgE regulation: A short review.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics has gained considerable popularity in the marketplace in the US and has been steadily increasing due to consumer interest in potential treatment of various diseases, which may be due to modulation of immune responses. The aim of this review is to present information from representative studies regarding some of the possible applications and clinical effects of probiotic use in diseases of altered immunoglobulin (IgE) regulation (allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD) and food sensitization). Reports in humans are sparse or controversial; there is currently little reliable scientific data that supports the theory that there exists a cause-effect relationship between taking probiotics and alleviation of allergic disease. Unfortunately, these findings are too variable to allow substantial conclusions as to the efficacy and effectiveness of probiotic use in these disease states. PMID:25975426

  16. Genome-wide Association Study and Admixture Mapping Reveal New Loci Associated with Total IgE Levels in Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, Maria; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Levin, Albert M.; Campbell, Catarina D.; Eng, Celeste; Huntsman, Scott; Nishimura, Katherine K.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Mohajeri, Kiana; O'Roak, Brian J.; Hu, Donglei; Mathias, Rasika A.; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Lurmann, Fred; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro C.; Serebrisky, Denise; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Lenoir, Michael A.; Thyne, Shannon M.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Borrell, Luisa N.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Sen, Saunak; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Ober, Carole; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Mack, Steven J.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Eichler, Evan E.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Williams, L. Keoki; Torgerson, Dara G.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a key mediator of allergic inflammation and is frequently elevated in allergic disorders. Objective To identify genetic variants associated with IgE levels in Latinos. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and admixture mapping of total IgE levels in 3,334 Latinos from the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study. Replication was evaluated in 454 Latinos, 1,564 European Americans, and 3,187 African Americans from independent studies. Results We confirmed associations of six genes identified by previous GWAS and identified a novel genome-wide significant association of a polymorphism in ZNF365 with total IgE (rs200076616, p=2.3x10−8). We next identified four admixture mapping peaks (6p21.32-p22.1, 13p22-31, 14q23.2, and 22q13.1) where local African, European, and/or Native American ancestry was significantly associated with IgE levels. The most significant peak was 6p21.32-p22.1, where Native American ancestry was associated with lower levels of IgE (p=4.95x10−8). All but 22q13.1 were replicated in an independent sample of Latinos, and two of the peaks were replicated in African Americans (6p21.32-p22.1 and 14q23.2). Fine mapping of 6p21.32-p22.1 identified six genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms in Latinos, two of which replicated in European Americans. Another SNP was peak-wide significant within 14q23.2 in African Americans (rs1741099, p=3.7x10−6), and replicated in non-African American samples (p=0.011). Conclusion We confirmed genetic associations at six genes, and identified novel associations within ZNF365, HLA-DQA1, and 14q23.2. Our results highlight the importance of studying diverse, multi-ethnic populations to uncover novel loci associated with total IgE levels. PMID:25488688

  17. IgG and IgE Collaboratively Accelerate Expulsion of Strongyloides venezuelensis in a Primary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Makoto; Sasaki, Yuki; Yasuda, Koubun; Takai, Toshiyuki; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Yoshimoto, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    The host deploys a subset of immune responses to expel helminths, which differs depending on the nature of the helminth. Strongyloides venezuelensis, a counterpart of the human pathogen S. stercoralis, naturally infects rodents and has been used as an experimental model. Here we show that induction of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgE is a prerequisite for rapid expulsion of S. venezuelensis during a primary infection. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-deficient (AID−/−) mice, which lack the ability to switch IgM to other isotypes, normally developed T-helper 2 (Th2) cells and intestinal mastocytosis after infection with S. venezuelensis. Although AID−/− mice expelled Nippostrongylus brasiliensis normally, they required a much longer period to expel S. venezuelensis than wild-type (WT) mice. Adoptive transfers of immune sera from S. venezuelensis-infected but not N. brasiliensis-infected mice restored the ability of AID−/− mice to promptly expel S. venezuelensis. Immune serum-derived IgG and IgE induced worm expulsion via Fc γ receptor III (FcγRIII) and Fc ε receptor I (FcεRI), respectively, and a mixture of IgG and IgE showed collaborative effects. Whereas FcγRIII−/− mice or FcεRIα−/− mice normally could expel S. venezuelensis, FcγRIII−/− mice, when their IgE was neutralized by anti-IgE, or FcεRIα−/− mice, when their IgG binding to FcγRIII was blocked by anti-FcγRIII, showed a markedly reduced ability to expel S. venezuelensis. These data reveal that IgG and IgE play redundant roles but act in concert to accelerate S. venezuelensis expulsion. Mast cell-deficient mice, even those equipped with immune serum-derived IgG or IgE, failed to expel S. venezuelensis promptly, suggesting that mast cells are cellular targets of IgG and IgE. PMID:23630966

  18. Biosensor for human IgE detection using shear-mode FBAR devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chung; Shih, Wei-Che; Chang, Wei-Tsai; Yang, Chun-Hung; Kao, Kuo-Sheng; Cheng, Chien-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs) have been evaluated for use as biosensors because of their high sensitivity and small size. This study fabricated a novel human IgE biosensor using shear-mode FBAR devices with c-axis 23°-tilted AlN thin films. Off-axis radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used for deposition of c-axis 23°-tilted AlN thin films. The deposition parameters were adopted as working pressure of 5 mTorr, substrate temperature of 300°C, sputtering power of 250 W, and 50 mm distance between off-axis and on-axis. The characteristics of the AlN thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The frequency response was measured with an HP8720 network analyzer with a CASCADE probe station. The X-ray diffraction revealed (002) preferred wurtzite structure, and the cross-sectional image showed columnar structure with 23°-tilted AlN thin films. In the biosensor, an Au/Cr layer in the FBAR backside cavity was used as the detection layer and the Au surface was modified using self-assembly monolayers (SAMs) method. Then, the antigen and antibody were coated on biosensor through their high specificity property. Finally, the shear-mode FBAR device with k t (2) of 3.18% was obtained, and the average sensitivity for human IgE detection of about 1.425 × 10(5) cm(2)/g was achieved. PMID:25852365

  19. The role of IgE recognition in allergic reactions to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Montañez, M I; Ariza, A; Salas, M; Fernandez, T D; Barbero, N; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2016-02-01

    Betalactam (BL) antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in IgE-mediated reactions. The culprit BL varies according to consumption patterns, with amoxicillin (AX) more prevalent in Southern Europe and penicillin V in Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, the combination of AX and clavulanic acid (CLV) is the most highly consumed BL containing medicine worldwide. Both BLs, AX and CLV, can independently be involved in reactions, which poses a diagnostic challenge. In patients with immediate allergic reactions to AX, two patterns of responses have been described, those responding to benzylpenicillin (cross-reactors) and those selective to AX. In addition, selective reactions to CLV account for around 30% of allergic reactions to the combination AX-CLV. These patterns of IgE recognition could be related to differences in the haptenation process, in the immunological response, or in the BL involved in the first sensitization. In this regard, patients with selective responses to CLV are generally younger than those allergic to AX or benzylpenicillin. So far, no evidence of cross-reactivity between CLV and other BLs has been reported. This shows the importance of an accurate diagnosis of CLV allergy, as patients with selective reactions to CLV could take other BLs including AX. Diagnosis can be performed in vivo and in vitro, although no immunoassay currently exists. Research regarding the CLV antigenic determinants and protein conjugates is essential to improve diagnosis. BLs need to covalently bind to a carrier protein to be immunogenic. The antigenic determinant of AX is the amoxicilloyl amide, but CLV leads to unstable structures, many of which are unknown. Moreover, the nature of the BL-protein conjugates plays an important role in IgE recognition. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the immunochemistry, diagnostic approaches as well as chemical and proteomic studies for both AX and CLV. PMID:26662186

  20. [For an efficient and reasonable accreditation of allergen specific IgE].

    PubMed

    Sarrat, Anne; Brabant, Séverine; Charbonnier, Eric; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Apoil, Pol-André; Bienvenu, Françoise; Jaby, Délia; Lainé, Catherine; Nicaise-Roland, Pascale; Renier, Gilles; Sainte-Laudy, Jean; Tabary, Thierry; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Vigneron, Céline; Lambert, Claude

    2013-01-01

    French medical laboratories must be accredited before November 2016 according to NF/EN/ISO 15189 standard. However, technical accreditation guidelines cannot be applied literally for the determination of specific IgE for several reasons: more than 600 allergen tests, lack of international gold standard, limited external quality controls. Furthermore, the technique for determination of specific IgE is CE DM-IVD marked, common to all specificities, automatised, standardized according to a single calibration curve. Thus, we propose an efficient but reasonable solution conform to the idea of the accreditation by validating the process. We recommend: a flexible extend type A; choice of only one representative allergen (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) for repeatability and precision (20 tests, 2 levels 0.5-1 and 8-12 kUA/L) performed on patients sera, reproducibility (30 consecutive determinations using an Internal Quality Control/IQC), accuracy (IQC and rare External Quality Controls) compared with peers. Sensitivity, specificity, dynamic range, detection threshold are determinated by the provider. Linearity may be checked if the laboratory practices sample dilution for values higher than the upper limit guaranteed by the provider. In the absence of international gold standard, the uncertainty is not measurable. In case of change of instrument, the results obtained by the systems must be compared through 35 tests of different specificities distributed across the range of calibration and including 5 values close to the detection limit. This methodology allows a scientifically effective verification, technically and financially reasonable, to ensure the excellence of the performance of the laboratory with regard to peers and users (allergologists and patients). PMID:23747670

  1. Gusev Dust Devil, sol 532

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows a dust devil seen by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 532nd martian day, or sol (July 2, 2005). The dust-carrying whirlwind is moving across a plain inside Gusev Crater and viewed from Spirit's vantage point on hills rising from the plain. The clip consists of frames taken by Spirit's navigation camera, processed to enhance contrast for anything in the images that changes from frame to frame. The total elapsed time during the taking of these frames was 8 minutes, 48 seconds.

    Spirit began seeing dust devil activity around the beginning of Mars' spring season. Activity increased as spring continued, but fell off again for about two weeks during a dust storm. As the dust storm faded away, dust devil activity came back. In the mid-afternoons as the summer solstice approached, dust devils were a very common occurrence on the floor of Gusev crater. The early-spring dust devils tended to move southwest-to-northeast, across the dust devil streaks in Gusev seen from orbit. Increasingly as the season progresses, the dust devils are seen moving northwest-to-southeast, in the same direction as the streaks. Scientists are watching for the big dust devils that leave those streaks.

  2. Dust in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Christa

    2012-07-01

    Dust grains are an essential component influencing the formation and evolution history of stars and galaxies in the early Universe. Large amounts of dust detected in sub-millimeter galaxies and quasars at high redshift, where the epoch of cosmic evolution was only about 1 Gyr, bear witness to a rapid production of dust. However, the origin of these large dust masses remains unclear. Massive stars ending their lives as either asymptotic giant branch stars or supernovae have been contemplated as the prime sources of dust. Stars more massive than ~3 Msun are short-lived but whether their dust production efficiency is sufficient to account for the large dust masses is unknown. I shall address the challenge of reproducing current dust mass estimates arising from the strong sensitivity to the overall dust productivity of the sources involved, the initial mass function and star formation history. I will discuss the contribution of the stellar dust sources and alternatives, such as grain growth in the interstellar medium, to the dust budget in the high redshift as well as Local Group galaxies.

  3. A Nonsynonymous FCER1B SNP is Associated with Risk of Developing Allergic Rhinitis and with IgE Levels

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Gemma; García-Menaya, Jesús; Campo, Paloma; Cordobés, Concepción; Serón, M Carmen Plaza; Ayuso, Pedro; Esguevillas, Gara; Blanca, Miguel; Agúndez, Jose A.G.; García-Martín, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is associated with elevated serum IgE levels. IgE response is mediated by the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), which is polymorphic. Studies analyzing the association between allergic rhinitis and FcεRI variants have been conducted with controversial results. The objective of this study is to analyze, in 1,041 individuals, the putative clinical association of allergic rhinitis with common polymorphisms in FcεRI subunits genes. These SNPs included FECR1A rs2494262, rs2427837 and rs2251746; FECR1B rs1441586, rs569108 and rs512555; FCER1G rs11587213, rs2070901 and rs11421. Statistically significant differences were observed for the FCER1B rs569108 and rs512555 polymorphisms frequencies when comparing patients with allergic rhinitis without asthma and controls. The OR (95% CI) value for the 237Gly allele (rs569108) is equal to 0.26 (0.08–0.86, P = 0.017) and for the G allele (rs512555) it is equal to 0.27 (0.08–0.88, P = 0.020). These two SNPs are linked (D’ = 1.0, LOD = 56.05). Also observed was a statistically significant trend towards lower IgE values among allergic rhinitis patients with variant alleles for both SNPs. In conclusion, in patients with allergic rhinitis without asthma, the FCER1B rs569108 and rs512555 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of developing allergic rhinitis and with lower IgE levels. PMID:26792385

  4. Inhibition of CD23-mediated IgE transcytosis suppresses the initiation and development of allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Liu, Xiaoyang; Periasamy, Sivakumar; Ma, Aiying; Tang, Jin; Jenkins, Mark; Tuo, Wenbin; Song, Wenxia; Keegan, Achsah D.; Conrad, Daniel H.; Zhu, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human low affinity IgE receptor, CD23 (FcεRII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monolayer in vitro. However, it remains unknown whether the CD23-dependent IgE transfer pathway in AECs initiates and facilitates allergic inflammation in vivo, and whether inhibition of this pathway attenuates allergic inflammation. To this end, we show that in wild-type (WT) mice, epithelial CD23 transcytosed both IgE and ovalbumin (OVA)-IgE complexes across the airway epithelial barrier, while neither type of transcytosis was observed in CD23 knockout (KO) mice. In chimeric mice, OVA sensitization and aerosol challenge of WT/WT (bone-marrow transfer from the WT to WT) or CD23KO/WT (CD23KO to WT) chimeric mice, which express CD23 on radioresistant airway structural cells (mainly epithelial cells) resulted in airway eosinophilia, including collagen deposition and a significant increase in goblet cells, and increased airway hyperreactivity. In contrast, the absence of CD23 expression on airway structural or epithelial cells, but not on hematopoietic cells, in WT/CD23KO (the WT to CD23KO) chimeric mice significantly reduced OVA-driven allergic airway inflammation. In addition, inhalation of the CD23-blocking B3B4 antibody in sensitized WT mice before or during airway challenge suppressed the salient features of asthma, including bronchial hyperreactivity. Taken together, these results identify a previously unproven mechanism in which epithelial CD23 plays a central role in the development of allergic inflammation. Further, our study suggests that functional inhibition of CD23 in the airway is a potential therapeutic approach with which to inhibit the development of asthma. PMID:25783969

  5. Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    SHARIFI, Laleh; KARIMI, Akram; SHOKOUHI SHOORMASTI, Raheleh; MIRI, Sara; HEYDAR NAZHAD, Hassan; BOKAIE, Saied; FAZLOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza; SADEGHNIIAT HAGHIGHI, Khosro; POURPAK, Zahra; MOIN, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group. Methods: All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550) completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups. Results: Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7%) had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6%) of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5%) unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953–17.29) OR=4.059. Nine (34.6%) workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8%) unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45–305.41) OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5). Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201). Conclusion: This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators. PMID:23785679

  6. Influence of experimental alcohol administration on serum immunoglobulin levels: contrasting effects on IgE and other immunoglobulin classes.

    PubMed

    Alonso, M; Gomez-Rial, J; Gude, F; Vidal, C; Gonzalez-Quintela, A

    2012-01-01

    In humans, alcoholic liver disease is associated with hypergammaglobulinemia, particularly with high serum concentrations of IgA. Furthermore, alcohol consumption is associated with high concentrations of IgE and low concentrations of IgG. However, there is little experimental evidence to corroborate these observational findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential short-term effects of alcohol administration on serum immunoglobulin concentrations in mice, and the potential influence of sex and strain on these effects. Eight mouse groups were defined by strain (Swiss vs C57BL/6), sex (male vs female), and experimental procedure (alcohol administration vs control diet). Alcohol was administered in a semi-liquid diet (6.5%v/v); control animals received an isocaloric semi-liquid diet. Immunoglobulin concentrations (IgE, IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3) were measured at baseline and weekly thereafter for 4 weeks. Serum Th1 (interferon-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13) cytokines were measured at week 4. We found significant variations in baseline immunoglobulin concentrations depending upon mouse sex and strain. Alcohol administration was quickly followed by an increase in serum IgE concentrations in all experimental groups. IgE increase was correlated with serum IL-13 increase. In contrast, alcohol administration was not associated with significant changes in serum IgA and IgM concentration, and appeared to decrease IgG subclass concentrations. Alcohol effects on immunoglobulin concentrations were independent of mouse strain and sex. In conclusion, alcohol administration in mice had contrasting effects on IgE and other immunoglobulin classes. This experimental evidence confirms observational results in humans. PMID:23058015

  7. Southern Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    In our final dust devil image we are again looking at the southern hemisphere of Mars. These tracks occur mainly on the northeast side of the topographic ridges. Of course, there are many exceptions, which makes understanding the dynamics that initiate the actual dust devil cyclone difficult.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -47.6, Longitude 317.3 East (42.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at

  8. Plentiful Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 8 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    These dust devil tracks occur on the northern plains of Mars. The majority of the surface seen in the image has been affected by the passage of dust devils.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -54.6, Longitude 79.3 East (280.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the

  9. Layers, Boulders, and Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-364, 18 May 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows the wall of a trough in the Zephyrus Fossae region, west of the Elysium Rise near 27.9oN, 217.5oW. The trough wall has cut through and exposed layered bedrock, visible near the top of the wall. Talus covers the lower portions of the wall; this debris includes many automobile- and house-sized boulder--most of which are seen as dark dots at the base of the slope. Dust has coated and mantled much of this terrain, including some of the boulders. The dark streak near the center of the picture was formed by landsliding (or avalanching) of some of the dust. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  10. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  11. Modeling Europa's dust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, B. S.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Jupiter's moon Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor plume constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus plume, we simulate possible Europa plume configurations, analyze particle number density and surface deposition results, and estimate the expected flux of ice grains on a spacecraft. Due to Europa's high escape speed, observing an active plume will require low-altitude flybys, preferably at altitudes of 5-100 km. At higher altitudes a plume may escape detection. Our simulations provide an extensive library documenting the possible structure of Europa dust plumes, which can be quickly refined as more data on Europa dust plumes are collected.

  12. SplitCore Technology Allows Efficient Production of Virus-Like Particles Presenting a Receptor-Contacting Epitope of Human IgE.

    PubMed

    Baltabekova, A Zh; Shagyrova, Zh S; Kamzina, A S; Voykov, M; Zhiyenbay, Ye; Ramanculov, E M; Shustov, A V

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a central role in type I hypersensitivity including allergy and asthma. Novel treatment strategy envisages development of a therapeutic vaccine designed to elicit autologous blocking antibodies against the IgE. We sought to develop an IgE-epitope antigen that induces antibodies against a receptor-contacting epitope on human IgE molecule. We designed the VLP immunogens which utilize hepatitis B virus core protein (HBcAg) as a carrier, and present arrays of the receptor-contacting epitopes of the human IgE on their surfaces. FG loop from the IgE domain Cε3 was engineered into the HBcAg. Two constructs explore a well-established approach of insertion into a main immunodominant region of the HBcAg. Third construct is different in that the carrier is produced in a form of an assembly of two polypeptide chains which upon expression remain associated in a stable VLP-forming subunit (SplitCore technology). No VLPs were isolated from E.coli expressing the IgE-epitope antigens with contiguous sequences. On the contrary, the SplitCore antigen carrying the FG loop efficiently formed the VLPs. Immunization of mice with the VLPs presenting receptor-contacting epitope of the IgE elicited antibodies recognizing the human IgE in ELISA. PMID:25837568

  13. Complementarity between microarray and immunoblot for the comparative evaluation of IgE repertoire of French and Italian cypress pollen allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Shahali, Y; Nicaise, P; Brázdová, A; Charpin, D; Scala, E; Mari, A; Sutra, J P; Chollet-Martin, S; Sénéchal, H; Poncet, P

    2014-01-01

    Cypress pollen represents the primary cause of respiratory allergies in Mediterranean areas. Patients allergic to Cupressus sempervirens pollen (Cups) (CPA) can be discriminated on the basis of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to a basic 14 kDa protein (BP14) or to high-molecular-weight (HMW) glycoproteins only. Specific IgE repertoires of two differentially exposed CPA cohorts, French and Italian, were investigated using an IgE microarray system (some known major allergens from several allergenic sources) and individual IgE immunoblotting (IB) of whole Cups pollen extract separated by SDS-PAGE (all allergens from one allergenic source: cypress pollen). The prevalence of sensitization to BP14 was higher in French (37 %) than in Italian patients (17 %) and major differences were observed in IgE reactivities to lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). Thirty percent of the Italian CPA (4 % in the French group) had specific IgE against the Parietaria pollen LTP, independently of IB subgroups. Regarding peach LTP sensitization, all Pru p 3+ Italian CPA (10 %) were in the HMW+ subgroup, while Pru p 3+ French CPA (20 %) were all included in the BP14+ subgroup. BP14 sensitization is likely a marker of Cups exposure and is, in French CPA, significantly correlated to Pru p 3 sensitization. The IgE immunoblot and microarray are complementary tools that highlight differences in the subtle sensitization profile between groups of patients in comparative studies. PMID:25152053

  14. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  15. Evolving dust shells

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, H.P.

    1981-06-15

    The reduction of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner canonical formulation of general relativity developed in the first paper of this series is applied to the full time-evolution problem for spherically symmetric charged dust shells. Detailed pictures of shell evolution are produced. Among other things, it is found that under certain well-defined circumstances the asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurfaces of constant time ''pinch off'' and become completely closed, the closure point being a locally naked singularity.

  16. Dust Devil Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark squiggles and streaks created by passing spring and summer dust devils near Pallacopas Vallis in the martian southern hemisphere.

    Location near: 53.9oS, 17.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  17. Dust Devil Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a plethora of dark streaks created by spring and summer dust devil activity in Argyre Planitia.

    Location near: 64.9oS, 8.3oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  18. A Dust Devil Playground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02185 A Dust Devil Playground

    Dust Devil activity in this region between Brashear and Ross Craters is very common. Large regions of dust devil tracks surround the south polar region of Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -55.2N, Longitude 244.2E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Trapping of dust and dust acoustic waves in laboratory plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakara, H.R.; Tanna, V.L.

    1996-08-01

    Trapping of negatively charged dust particles is observed in a hot cathode plasma discharge when a layer of dust is exposed to the plasma. The particles are visible in the scattered He{endash}Ne laser light. The trajectories of individual particles have been photographed. The dust particles are excluded from the sheath region of any object in the plasma. The intensity of scattered light as well as the potential on a floating Langmuir probe show coherent fluctuations in the frequency range 1{endash}15 Hz. After several hours of exposure to the plasma, the dust layer develops striations similar to those on sand dunes. Trapping of dust particles by the plasma and the possible identification of the observed low-frequency fluctuations with dust acoustic waves are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  1. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  2. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. Ths paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  3. Unlike in Children with Allergic Asthma, IgE Transcripts from Preschool Children with Atopic Dermatitis Display Signs of Superantigen-Driven Activation.

    PubMed

    Kerzel, Sebastian; Rogosch, Tobias; Struecker, Benjamin; Maier, Rolf F; Kabesch, Michael; Zemlin, Michael

    2016-06-15

    The IgE repertoire in children with asthma reflects an adaptive B cell response, indicative of Ag-driven selection. However, the same might not apply to atopic dermatitis, which is often the first manifestation of atopy. The objective of our present study was to characterize the IgE repertoire of preschool children with atopic dermatitis with regard to signs of superantigen-like activation, clonal relationship, and indications of Ag selection. Total RNA was isolated from PBMCs of five children with atopic dermatitis. IgE transcripts were amplified, cloned, and sequenced using RT-PCR. We obtained 200 functional IgE sequences, which were compared with 1140 sequences from 11 children with asthma. Whereas variable gene segment of the H Ig chain (VH) gene usage in asthma reflected germline distribution, IgE transcripts from children with atopic dermatitis displayed a dominance of the otherwise scarcely expressed VH2 and VH4 family. Whereas IgE transcripts from children with asthma were highly mutated (7.2%), somatic mutation rate in atopic dermatitis was less than half as high (3.4%). Moreover, the proportion of transcripts that were indicative of Ag selection was reduced to 11% in atopic dermatitis (24% in asthma). In summary, IgE repertoires vary significantly between children with different atopic diseases. Compared with children with asthma, IgE transcripts from preschool children with atopic dermatitis are significantly less mutated, clonally less focused, and less indicative of Ag selection. We consider our data reconcilable with the hypothesis that a superantigen-like activation contributes to the maturation and selection of the IgE repertoire in atopic dermatitis. PMID:27183570

  4. IgE, allergy, and risk of glioma: update from the San Francisco Bay Area Adult Glioma Study in the temozolomide era.

    PubMed

    Wiemels, Joseph L; Wilson, David; Patil, Chirag; Patoka, Joseph; McCoy, Lucie; Rice, Terri; Schwartzbaum, Judith; Heimberger, Amy; Sampson, John H; Chang, Susan; Prados, Michael; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    The consistently observed inverse relationship of allergic conditions with glioma risk and our previous demonstration that immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels also were lower in glioma patients than controls suggest that atopic allergy may be related to a mechanism that inhibits or prevents glioma. We sought to extend these results with a new and larger series of patients (n = 535 with questionnaire data; 393 with IgE measures) and controls (n = 532 with questionnaire data; 470 with IgE measures). As expected, glioma cases were less likely than controls to report history of allergies [among self-reported cases, Odds ratios (OR) = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-0.85]. IgE levels also were lower in glioma cases versus controls (OR per unit log IgE = 0.89, 95% CI (0.82-0.98). However, this inverse relationship was only apparent among cases receiving temozolomide, a treatment which became part of the "standard of care" for glioblastoma patients during the study period. Among patients receiving temozolomide, IgE levels in cases whose blood samples were obtained within 30 days of diagnosis were slightly higher than controls, whereas IgE levels in cases whose blood sample was obtained >60 days after diagnosis were significantly lower than controls (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.71-0.89). Thus, although our results robustly confirm the inverse association between allergy and glioma, the results for IgE are affected by temozolomide treatments which may have influenced IgE levels. These results have implications for the study of immunologic factors in glioma as well as for immunotherapy protocols for treating glioma. PMID:19408307

  5. IgE, Allergy, and Risk of Glioma: Update from the San Francisco Bay Area Adult Glioma Study in the Temozolomide Era

    PubMed Central

    Wiemels, Joseph L.; Wilson, David; Patel, Chirag; Patoka, Joseph; McCoy, Lucie; Rice, Terri; Schwartzbaum, Judith; Heimberger, Amy; Sampson, John H.; Chang, Susan; Prados, Michael; Wiencke, John K.; Wrensch, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The consistently observed inverse relationship of allergic conditions with glioma risk and our previous demonstration that IgE levels also were lower in glioma patients than controls suggest that atopic allergy may be related to a mechanism that inhibits or prevents glioma. We sought to extend these results with a new and larger series of patients (n=535 with questionnaire data; 393 with IgE measures) and controls (n=532 with questionnaire data; 470 with IgE measures). As expected, glioma cases were less likely than controls to report history of allergies (among self-reported cases, OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.41–0.85). IgE levels also were lower in glioma cases versus controls (OR per unit log IgE=0.89, 95% CI (0.82–0.98). However, this inverse relationship was only apparent among cases receiving temozolomide, a treatment which became part of the “standard of care” for glioblastoma patients during the study period. Among patients receiving temozolomide, IgE levels in cases whose blood samples were obtained within 30 days of diagnosis were slightly higher than controls, while IgE levels in cases whose blood sample was obtained >60 days after diagnosis were significantly lower than controls (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.71–0.89). Thus, while our results robustly confirm the inverse association between allergy and glioma, the results for IgE are affected by temozolomide treatments which may have influenced IgE levels. These results have implications for the study of immunologic factors in glioma as well as for immunotherapy protocols for treating glioma. PMID:19408307

  6. Sensitization of skin mast cells with IgE antibodies to Culicoides allergens occurs frequently in clinically healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bettina; Miller, William H; Erb, Hollis N; Lunn, D Paul; Antczak, Douglas F

    2009-11-15

    IgE antibodies are mediators of mast cell degranulation during allergic diseases. The binding of IgE to its high-affinity IgE receptor on mast cell surfaces is called "sensitization" and precedes the development of clinical allergy. Previously, intradermal injection of anti-IgE or the anti-IgG(T) antibody CVS40 induced immediate skin reactions in horses. This suggested that both IgE and IgG(T) sensitize equine skin mast cells. Here, we investigated sensitization to allergen and with IgE or IgG(T) in clinically healthy horses of different age groups. In addition, immediate skin reactions to Culicoides were determined by intradermal testing in non-allergic horses. A total of 14% of the young horses 1-3 years old and 38% of the adult animals showed skin reaction to Culicoides allergen extract. Sensitization with IgE and IgG(T) was evaluated in skin mast cells and peripheral blood basophils to determine whether sensitization with IgG(T) preceded that with IgE in young horses. Anti-IgE stimulated immediate skin reactions in 18 of 21 young horses, but only 7 of them reacted to the anti-IgG(T) antibody CVS40. The equine IgG(T) fraction is composed of IgG3 and IgG5. We used several newly developed monoclonal antibodies to IgG3 and IgG5 for intradermal testing to improve our understanding about the mast cell reaction induced by the anti-IgG(T) antibody CVS40. None of these antibodies induced a skin reaction in young or adult horses. To determine sensitization with IgE in neonates and foals at 6 and 12 weeks of age an in vitro histamine release assay was performed using peripheral blood cells. The histamine concentration released by anti-IgE stimulation from foal basophils increased between birth and 12 weeks of age, while almost no histamine release was observed after anti-IgG(T) treatment of the cells. In summary, IgE was the major immunoglobulin involved in the sensitization of mast cells and basophils in horses at various ages. IgG(T) antibodies did not play a major role

  7. Dust in the Wind: Modern and Ancient Dust Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummer, P. J.; Pierce, J. L.; Benner, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The addition of wind-blown sediments to soils can alter soil grain-size distributions, chemistry, and hydrologic properties, which can substantially affect geomorphic and hydrologic processes. In the Snake River Plain of Idaho, dust deposition has a profound influence on soil development, soil fertility and other soil characteristics. A rigorous study of the movement and chemistry of dust in the Boise area has not been completed. This study will establish a sampling method for dust collection, define the elemental signature of Boise dust and analyze Quaternary loess deposits to determine if the composition of dust in the Boise area has changed. We constructed passive marble samplers to collect wind-blown sediments within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (DCEW) located in the Boise Front foothills about 16 km northeast of Boise, Idaho. Mass flux amounts and the mineralogical composition of dust samples will provide information about the influence of wind-blown sediments on the soils of Dry Creek Experimental Watershed. ICP-MS analysis of samples will define an elemental signature for Boise dust. Comparison of modern dust with ancient loess will improve the understanding of the role of climate change in dust transport. We analyzed hourly wind speed data collected over the past 10 years from three weather stations to investigate trends in the timing of peak wind events. Average annual wind speeds range from 1.29 to 4.91 mph with a total average of 2.82 mph. Analysis of wind speeds indicate that while the majority of the highest wind events occur in the winter, wind events that occur during the summer months may be responsible for transporting dust. Recent large dust storms may have originated from extensive burned rangelands, and/or large plowed agricultural land. Future work will investigate the percentages of organic vs. inorganic material in loess, in order to narrow down possible sources of dust in the Snake River Plain.

  8. Dynamics of a dust crystal with positive and negative dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kourakis, Ioannis; Shukla, Padma Kant; Morfill, Gregor

    2005-10-31

    A dust crystal consisting of charged dust grains of alternating charge sign (.../+/-/+/-/+/...) and mass is considered. Considering the equations of longitudinal motion, a linear dispersion relation is derived from first principles, and then analyzed. Two modes are obtained, including an acoustic mode and an inverse-dispersive optic-like one. The nonlinear aspects of longitudinal dust grain motion are also briefly addressed, via a Boussineq and Korteweg- de Vries description.

  9. Clouds and Dust Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 2 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 180 East (180 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with

  10. Modeling Europa's Dust Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, B.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor plume constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring the properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus plume, we adjust the ejection model by Schmidt et al. [2008] to the conditions at Europa. In this way, we estimate properties of a possible, yet unobserved dust component of the Europa plume. For a size-dependent speed distribution of emerging ice particles we use the model from Kempf et al. [2010] for grain dynamics, modified to run simulations of plumes on Europa. Specifically, we model emission from the two plume locations determined from observations by Roth et al. [2014] and also from other locations chosen at the closest approach of low-altitude flybys investigated in the Europa Clipper study. This allows us to estimate expected fluxes of ice grains on the spacecraft. We then explore the parameter space of Europa dust plumes with regard to particle speed distribution parameters, plume location, and spacecraft flyby elevation. Each parameter set results in a 3-dimensional particle density structure through which we simulate flybys, and a map of particle fallback ('snowfall') on the surface of Europa. Due to the moon's high escape speed, a Europa plume will eject few to no particles that can escape its gravity, which has several further consequences: (i) For given ejection velocity a Europa plume will have a smaller scale height, with a higher particle number densities than the plume on Enceladus, (ii) plume particles will not feed the diffuse Galilean dust ring, (iii) the snowfall pattern on the surface will be more localized about the plume location, and will not induce a global m = 2 pattern as seen on Enceladus, and (iv) safely observing an active plume will require low altitude flybys, preferably at 50

  11. Dust Telescopes and Active Dust Collectors: Linking Dust to Their Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, K. J.; Sternovsky, Z.; Gruen, E.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.; Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Krueger, H.; Postberg, F.

    2010-12-01

    Cosmic dust particles from remote sites and times are treasures of information. By determining the dust particles' source and their elemental properties, we can learn about the environments, where they were formed and processed. Born as stardust in the cool atmospheres of giant stars or in novae and supernovae explosions, the particles are subsequently modified in the interstellar medium. Interplanetary dust that originates from comets and asteroids represents even more processed material at different stages of Solar System evolution. Interstellar and interplanetary dust particles from various sources can be detected and analyzed in the near-Earth space environment. The newly developed instruments Dust Telescope and Active Dust Collector are able to determine the origin of dust particles and provide their elemental composition. A Dust Telescope is a combination of a Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS) [1] together with an analyzer for the chemical composition of dust particles in space. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of induced electric signals when a charged grain flies through a position sensitive electrode system. A modern DTS can measure dust particles as small as 0.2 µm in radius and dust speeds up to 100 km/s. Large area chemical analyzers of 0.1 m2 sensitive area have been tested at a dust accelerator and it was demonstrated that they have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass number up to >100 [2]. The advanced Dust Telescope is capable of identifying interstellar and interplanetary grains, and measuring their mass, velocity vector, charge, elemental and isotopic compositions. An Active Dust Collector combines a DTS with an aerogel or other dust collector materials, e.g. like the ones used on the Stardust mission. The combination of a DTS with a dust collector provides not only individual trajectories of the collected particles but also their impact time and position on the collector which proves essential to

  12. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

    2007-10-09

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ν has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  13. Circumstellar Dust in Symbiotic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkic, T.; Kotnik-Karuza, D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a model of inner dust regions around the cool Mira component of the two symbiotic novae, RR Tel and HM Sge, based on the near-IR photometry, ISO spectra and mid-IR interferometry. The dust properties were determined using the DUSTY code. A compact circumstellar silicate dust shell with inner dust shell temperatures between 900 K and 1300 K and of moderate optical depth can explain all the observations. RR Tel shows the presence of an equatorially enhanced dust density during minimum obscuration. Obscuration events are explained by an increase in optical depth caused by the newly condensed dust. The mass loss rates are significantly higher than in intermediate-period single Miras but in agreement with longer-period O-rich AGB stars.

  14. Anti-neosporal IgG and IgE antibodies in canine neosporosis.

    PubMed

    Jesus, E E V; Almeida, M A O; Atta, A M

    2007-01-01

    Neospora caninum infection provokes neurological disorders, recurrent abortion and death in dogs and cattle. Dogs are both intermediate and definitive host of N. caninum. Thus, the development of sensitive and specific immunoassays to diagnose canine neosporosis is essential to control this disease. This work investigated serum anti-neosporal IgG and IgE antibodies in 140 dogs represented by 30 healthy animals (group I), 11 dogs showing acute N. caninum infection (group II), 50 urban dogs with serological evidence of canine neosporosis in indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (group III) and 49 urban dogs without clinical and laboratory evidences of neosporosis (group IV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western immunoblotting, both using a soluble N. caninum tachyzoite antigen (SNA), investigated these two isotypes of antibodies, while a Urea-ELISA measured the avidity of the IgG antibodies. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies were also investigated in the animals. Anti-neosporal IgG was found in all animals from groups II and III, whereas 32.7% (16/49) of dogs from group IV were reactive. IgG antibodies of low avidity were demonstrated in dogs from group II (median 35.3%), while animals from groups III and IV had IgG antibodies of high avidity (medians of 61.5% and 61.7% respectively). IgE antibodies were found in four (13.3%) and five (16.6%) dogs from groups III and IV respectively. Dogs presenting acute infection (group II) or chronic infection (group III) had IgG antibodies to several neosporal antigens, mainly of 29-30 and 35 kDa, while 13 of 16 dogs from group IV recognized antigens from 14 to 170 kDa. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 36 of 50 (72%) sera from group III and 25 of 49 (51%) sera from group IV. We concluded that IgG-ELISA and Urea-ELISA with SNA may substitute for IFAT in both laboratory routine and epidemiological studies of canine neosporosis. PMID:18035978

  15. Circumstellar dust in symbiotic novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkic, Tomislav; Kotnik-Karuza, Dubravka

    2015-08-01

    Physical properties of the circumstellar dust and associated physical mechanisms play an important role in understanding evolution of symbiotic binaries. We present a model of inner dust regions around the cool Mira component of the two symbiotic novae, RR Tel and HM Sge, based on the long-term near-IR photometry, infrared ISO spectra and mid-IR interferometry. Pulsation properties and long-term variabilities were found from the near-IR light curves. The dust properties were determined using the DUSTY code which solves the radiative transfer. No changes in pulsational parameters were found, but a long-term variations with periods of 20-25 years have been detected which cannot be attributed to orbital motion.Circumstellar silicate dust shell with inner dust shell temperatures between 900 K and 1300 K and of moderate optical depth can explain all the observations. RR Tel showed the presence of an optically thin CS dust envelope and an optically thick dust region outside the line of sight, which was further supported by the detailed modelling using the 2D LELUYA code. Obscuration events in RR Tel were explained by an increase in optical depth caused by the newly condensed dust leading to the formation of a compact dust shell. HM Sge showed permanent obscuration and a presence of a compact dust shell with a variable optical depth. Scattering of the near-IR colours can be understood by a change in sublimation temperature caused by the Mira variability. Presence of large dust grains (up to 4 µm) suggests an increased grain growth in conditions of increased mass loss. The mass loss rates of up to 17·10-6 MSun/yr were significantly higher than in intermediate-period single Miras and in agreement with longer-period O-rich AGB stars.Despite the nova outburst, HM Sge remained enshrouded in dust with no significant dust destruction. The existence of unperturbed dust shell suggests a small influence of the hot component and strong dust shielding from the UV flux. By the use

  16. Der p 5 Crystal Structure Provides Insight into the Group 5 Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.; Gosavi, R; Krahn, J; Edwards, L; Cuneo, M; Glesner, J; Pomes, A; Chapman, M; London, R; Pedersen, L

    2010-01-01

    Group 5 allergens from house dust mites elicit strong IgE antibody binding in mite-allergic patients. The structure of Der p 5 was determined by x-ray crystallography to better understand the IgE epitopes, to investigate the biologic function in mites, and to compare with the conflicting published Blo t 5 structures, designated 2JMH and 2JRK in the Protein Data Bank. Der p 5 is a three-helical bundle similar to Blo t 5, but the interactions of the helices are more similar to 2JMH than 2JRK. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains three dimers of Der p 5 that are not exactly alike. Solution scattering techniques were used to assess the multimeric state of Der p 5 in vitro and showed that the predominant state was monomeric, similar to Blo t 5, but larger multimeric species are also present. In the crystal, the formation of the Der p 5 dimer creates a large hydrophobic cavity of {approx}3000 {angstrom}{sup 3} that could be a ligand-binding site. Many allergens are known to bind hydrophobic ligands, which are thought to stimulate the innate immune system and have adjuvant-like effects on IgE-mediated inflammatory responses.

  17. Carbon in comet dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The association of Halley particle results with data from existing meteoritic materials that can be analyzed in the laboratory is discussed. Comet samples must exist in present collections of meteoritic materials and the Halley results provide clues for identifying them. Although it is not presently possible to positively identify cometary meteorites or cometary interplanetary dust (IDP) samples, it is possible to determine which materials are similar to Halley dust and which ones are distinctly unlike Halley. The properties of these existing Halley-compatible samples provide insight into the possible properties of cometary material. Positive identification of meteoritic comet samples or direct samples returned from a comet nucleus would of course revolutionize our ability to study carbonaceous matter in comets. Modern analytical techniques are very powerful and it is possible to perform elemental, chemical, mineralogical and even limited isotopic analysis on micron-size particles. There is an important synergism between the laboratory studies of collected samples and astronomical data from comets and interstellar grains. To fully interpret results there must be convincing methods for associating a particular class or classes of meteoritic material with comets. Ultimately this will be done by direct comet sample return such as the Rosetta mission under development by ESA. At the present time the only links that can be made involve comparison with sample properties and measurable properties of comets. Unfortunately there is at present no known unique property of cometary dust that allows its absolute identification in the laboratory. The results from Halley encounters and observation do provide much new information on cometary grains. The Halley grain compositions, density, size distribution and scattering properties all provide a basis for future investigations. Other Halley properties such as the presence of polyoxymethylene and the 3.4um emission feature could

  18. Dust and Ocean Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Adding iron to the diet of marine plant life has been shown in shipboard experiments to boost the amount of carbon-absorbing phytoplankton in certain parts of the world's oceans. A new study promises to give scientists their first global picture of the extent of these unique 'iron-limited' ocean regions, an important step in understanding how the ocean's biology controls the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and the ocean. The new study by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory was presented at the American Geophysical Union's annual meeting in San Francisco on Friday, Dec. 15, 2000. Oceanic phytoplankton remove nearly as much carbon from the atmosphere each year as all land-based plants. Identifying the location and size of nutrient-limited areas in the open ocean has challenged oceanographers for nearly a century. The study pinpointed iron-limited regions by seeing which phytoplankton-rich areas of the world's oceans were also areas that received iron from wind-blown dust. In this map, areas with high levels of chlorophyll from phytoplankton and high levels of dust deposition (high correlation coefficients) are indicated in dark brown. Dust deposition was calculated by a 3-year modelled climatology for the years 1996-1998. The chlorophyll measurements are from 1998 observations from the SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) instrument on the OrbView-2 satellite. 'Global, satellite-based analyses such as this gives us insight into where iron deposition may be limiting ocean biological activity,' says lead author David Erickson of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Computer Science and Mathematics Division. 'With this information we will be able to infer how the ocean productivity/iron deposition relationship might shift in response to climate change.' Map Source: David Erickson, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Computer Science and Mathematics Division

  19. Analytical criteria for performance characteristics of IgE binding methods for evaluating safety of biotech food products.

    PubMed

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Ree, Ronald van; Poulsen, Lars K; Bannon, Gary A

    2008-10-01

    There is detailed guidance on how to perform bioinformatic analyses and enzymatic degradation studies for genetically modified crops under consideration for approval by regulatory agencies; however, there is no consensus in the scientific community on the details of how to perform IgE serum studies. IgE serum studies are an important safety component to acceptance of genetically modified crops when the introduced protein is novel, the introduced protein is similar to known allergens, or the crop is allergenic. In this manuscript, we describe the characteristics of the reagents, validation of assay performance, and data analysis necessary to optimize the information obtained from serum testing of novel proteins and genetically modified (GM) crops and to make results more accurate and comparable between different investigations. PMID:18727951

  20. Migration of Asteroidal Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Using the Bulirsh Stoer method of integration, we investigated the migration of dust particles under the gravitational influence of all planets, radiation pressure, Poynting Robertson drag and solar wind drag for equal to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4. For silicate particles such values of correspond to diameters equal to about 40, 9, 4, 2, and 1 microns, respectively [1]. The relative error per integration step was taken to be less than 10sup-8. Initial orbits of the particles were close to the orbits of the first numbered mainbelt asteroids.

  1. Lunar Dust 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Largely due to rock and soil samples returned during the Apollo program, much has been learned about the composition and properties of lunar regolith. Although, for the most part, the mineral composition resembles terrestrial minerals, the characteristics of the lunar environment have led to very different weathering processes. These result in substantial differences in the particle shapes, particle size distributions, and surface chemistry. These differences lead to non-intuitive adhesion, abrasion, and possible health properties that will pose challenges to future lunar missions. An overview of lunar dust composition and properties will be given with a particular emphasis on possible health effects.

  2. Dust coagulation in ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  3. Meteor dust in the ionosphere makes dust plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Scott; Asmus, Heiner

    2013-10-01

    Flights of rocket-borne probes into the ionosphere have returned data from 60-100 km altitude on the occurrence of meteoric dust (Robertson et al., J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys, 2013 in press). The number density of these particles is of order 20,000/cc which exceeds the typical electron density at 60-70 km but is smaller than the electron density typical at 90-100 km. Model equations and rocket data show that the ionosphere makes a transition from the dust particles being almost entirely negatively charged at high altitude to the dust particles being almost equally positive and negative at lower altitudes. The low-altitude result is a consequence of the electron and ion from an ionization event each attaching to dust particles before other processes can occur. Equilibrium is established in which attachment of an electron or ion to a neutral dust particle is equally as probable as it neutralizing a dust particle of the opposite sign. The low altitude region has many more positive and negative dust particles than electrons or ions, hence a dust plasma rather than a dusty plasma.

  4. Serum IgE concentration and other immune manifestations of treatment with gold salts are linked to the MHC and IL4 regions in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kermarrec, N.; Blanpied, C.; Druet, P.

    1996-01-01

    A subset of patients with rheumatoid arthritis occasionally develops skin reactions and glomerulonephritis and exhibits an increase in serum IgE concentration when treated with gold salts. Brown-Norway (BN) rats injected with aurothiopropanolsulfonate (ATPS) also manifest an autoimmune glomerulonephritis and increased serum IgE concentration, whereas Lewis (LEW) rats are resistant to complications. Here, we show linkage between responses to ATPS in a (BN x LEW) F2 cohort and the major histocompatibility complex (RT1) on rat chromosome 20 and between markers in the region of IL4 and other candidate genes on rat chromosome 10. Recently, human serum IgE concentration has been reported to be linked to the IL-4 region. Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that homologous genes could be implicated in ATPS manifestations in the rat and in the regulation of IgE levels in the human. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Low-dose intragastric administration of Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) does not induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) production in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Haas, H; Herzig, K H; André, S; Galle, J; Gronow, A; Gabius, H J

    2001-04-01

    Native Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) poses a potential health threat, when ingested with improperly cooked red kidney beans. Since PHA triggers human basophilic granulocytes in culture to rapidly release considerable amounts of interleukin-(IL-)4 and IL-13, key cytokines for inducing immunoglobulin E (IgE) production, the question was addressed whether this lectin can evoke in vivo IgE production. IgE-low-responder (Sprague-Dawley) rats received PHA (6 mg/rat/day) intragastrically by gavage over a period of 10 days. Up to day 35, there was no IgE induction regardless of whether the animals were boostered subcutaneously with PHA or not, indicating that PHA cannot be regarded as a general IgE inducer in rats. PMID:11788794

  6. The High Affinity IgE Receptor FcεRI Is Expressed by Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Starkl, Philipp; Bevins, Charles L.; Scheiner, Otto; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Wrba, Fritz; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Background IgE antibodies play a paramount role in the pathogenesis of various intestinal disorders. To gain insights in IgE-mediated pathophysiology of the gut, we investigated the expression of the high affinity IgE receptor FcεRI in human intestinal epithelium. Methodology/Principal Findings FcεRI α-chain, as detected by immunohistochemistry, was positive in epithelial cells for eight of eleven (8/11) specimens from colon cancer patients and 5/11 patients with inflammation of the enteric mucosa. The FcεRIα positive epithelial cells co-expressed FcεRIγ, whereas with one exception, none of the samples was positive for the β-chain in the epithelial layer. The functionality of FcεRI was confirmed in situ by human IgE binding. In experiments with human intestinal tumor cell lines, subconfluent Caco-2/TC7 and HCT-8 cells were found to express the α- and γ-chains of FcεRI and to bind IgE, whereas confluent cells were negative for γ-chains. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide the first evidence that the components of a functional FcεRI are in vitro expressed by the human intestinal epithelial cells depending on differentiation and, more importantly, in situ in epithelia of patients with colon cancer or gastrointestinal inflammations. Thus, a contribution of FcεRI either to immunosurveillance or pathophysiology of the intestinal epithelium is suggested. PMID:20126404

  7. Food allergen-specific serum IgG and IgE before and after elimination diets in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Anja; Bexley, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard E W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2011-12-15

    Serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for diets to diagnose adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs with allergic skin disease. Antibody concentrations in blood samples obtained during an unsuccessful diet to help in the choice of diet changes may be influenced by the previous diet. The objective of this paper was to measure food antigen-specific IgE and IgG for the most commonly used 16 food antigens before and after an elimination diet. Levels of food-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dogs had detectable IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb and cows' milk; and detectable IgG antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cows' milk, chicken and turkey. Of 19 dogs with complete data sets, 14 dogs showed clear improvement during diet and in 7 dogs AFR could be diagnosed by deterioration on rechallenge and subsequent improvement on refeeding the diet. Serum was obtained before and 6-8 weeks after beginning such a diet. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-diet levels for any of the individual allergens nor for the total IgE and IgG concentrations of all antigens (P=0.55 and P=0.53 respectively). In these 19 dogs in which an elimination diet was used for the diagnosis of food allergy and in which 14 were probably food allergic and 7 were proven food allergic there were no significant differences in food-specific antibodies before and after an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks. PMID:21955446

  8. Molecular imprint of dust evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimkin, Vitaly; Zhukovska, Svitlana; Wiebe, Dmitri; Semenov, Dmitry; Pavlyuchenkov, Yaroslav; Vasyunin, Anton; Birnstiel, Til; Henning, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Evolution of sub-micron grains is an essential process during early stages of planet formation. The dust growth and sedimentation to the midplane affect a spectral energy distribution. At the same time dust evolution can alter significantly the distribution of gas that is a factor of 100 more massive than dust and can be traced with molecular line observations. We present simulations of protoplanetary disk structure with grain evolution using the ANDES code ("AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation"). ANDES comprises (1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, (2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain chemical network with UV/X-ray-driven processes and surface reactions, (3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and (4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. Such a set of physical processes allows us to assess the impact of dust evolution on the gas component, which is primarily related to radiation field and total available surface for chemical reactions. Considering cases of (i) evolved dust (2 Myr of grain coagulation, fragmentation and sedimentation) and (ii) pristine dust (well- mixed 0.1 micron grains), we found a sufficient changes in disk physical and chemical structure caused by the dust evolution. Due to higher transparency of the evolved disk model UV-shielded molecular layer is shifted closer to the midplane. The presence of big grains in the disk midplane delays the freeze-out of volatile gas-phase species such as CO, while the depletion is still effective in adjacent upper layers. Molecular concentrations of many species are enhanced in the disk model with dust evolution (CO2, NH2CN, HNO, H2O, HCOOH, HCN, CO) which provides an opportunity to use these molecules as tracers of dust evolution.

  9. Dust Devils Seen by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Annotated

    At the Gusev site recently, skies have been very dusty, and on its 421st sol (March 10, 2005) NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit spied two dust devils in action. This pair of images is from the rover's rear hazard-avoidance camera. Views of the Gusev landing region from orbit show many dark streaks across the landscape -- tracks where dust devils have removed surface dust to show relatively darker soil below -- but this is the first time Spirit has photographed an active dust devil.

    Scientists are considering several causes of these small phenomena. Dust devils often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars. Warmed soil and rocks heat the layer of atmosphere closest to the surface, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado. Another possibility is that a flow structure might develop over craters as wind speeds increase. As winds pick up, turbulence eddies and rotating columns of air form. As these columns grow in diameter they become taller and gain rotational speed. Eventually they become self-sustaining and the wind blows them down range.

    One sol before this image was taken, power output from Spirit's solar panels went up by about 50 percent when the amount of dust on the panels decreased. Was this a coincidence, or did a helpful dust devil pass over Spirit and lift off some of the dust?

    By comparing the separate images from the rover's different cameras, team members estimate that the dust devils moved about 500 meters (1,640 feet) in the 155 seconds between the navigation camera and hazard-avoidance camera frames; that equates to about 3 meters per second (7 miles per hour). The dust devils appear to be about 1,100 meters (almost three-quarters of a mile) from the rover.

  10. Electret-based passive dust sampler: sampling of organic dusts.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Hemingway, M A; Wake, D; Thorpe, A

    1996-09-01

    Passive samplers are light, convenient and cheap. However, the sample size tends to be small and a correlation exercise between the results of a passive sampler and a conventional sampler must be carried out. The design principles and mode of action of an electret-based passive dust sampler are described. The device captures dust particles at a rate independent of the velocity of air except when this is very low but dependent on the electrical properties of the dust being sampled. Experimental results are presented of measurements made in bakeries, pig farms, a dairy farm, an arable farm and a rubber-manufacturing plant. Correlation between measurements made with the passive sampler and measurements of inhalable dust performed by other means are reasonable. The results are interpreted in terms of the physical properties of the dust being sampled. PMID:8831282

  11. Dust acoustic dressed soliton with dust charge fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.

    2010-06-15

    Modeling of dust acoustic solitons observed in dusty plasma experiment [Bandyopadhyay et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 065006 (2008)] using the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation showed significant discrepancies in the regime of large amplitudes (or high soliton speed). In this paper, higher order perturbation corrections to the standard KdV soliton are proposed and the resulting dressed soliton is shown to describe the experimental data better, in particular, at high soliton speed. The effects of dust charge fluctuations on the dust acoustic dressed soliton in a dusty plasma system are also investigated. The KdV equation and a linear inhomogeneous equation, governing the evolution of first and second order potentials, respectively, are derived for the system by using reductive perturbation technique. Renormalization procedure is used to obtain nonsecular solutions of these coupled equations. The characteristics of dust acoustic dressed solitons with and without dust charge fluctuations are discussed.

  12. Some Pharmacological Actions of Cotton Dust and Other Vegetable Dusts

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, P. J.

    1962-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of cotton and other vegetable dusts cause contraction of the isolated ileum and tracheal muscle of the guinea-pig, and of isolated human bronchial muscle. The levels of this contractor activity place the dusts of cotton, flax, and jute in the order of the probable incidence of byssinosis occurring in the mills spinning these fibres. Extracts of cotton dust possess a histamine-liberating activity and contain a permeability-increasing component. These actions are of plant origin and are found in the pericarp and bracts of the cotton boll. Histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine have also been found in some cotton dust samples. The formation of histamine by bacterial action in cotton dust does not take place under conditions found in cotton mills. The smooth muscle contractor substance is organic in nature, relatively heat-stable, and dialysable. The relevance of these results to the symptoms of byssinosis is discussed. PMID:14479451

  13. Alopecia universalis associated with impaired interleukin-4 production and low serum IgE level.

    PubMed

    Tokura, Yoshiki; Sugita, Kazunari; Kabashima, Kenji; Ito, Taisuke; Yagi, Hiroaki

    2007-08-01

    A 17-year-old female presented with alopecia universalis, which appeared following widespread eczematous dermatitis. An immunohistochemical study demonstrated that CD8(+) T cells infiltrated into hair follicles with satellite cell necrosis of keratinocytes. The precedence of the autosensitization dermatitis suggested that T cells concerned with the eczematous reaction also attacked hair follicles, or alternatively, that those T cells sequentially activated another population of cytotoxic T cells. We found that she had a continuously low level of serum IgE (<1 units/ml), and this abnormality urged us to investigate interleukin (IL)-4 production of T cells. Although the patient had a normal number of CD4(+) T cells, the production of IL-4, but not IL-10, was profoundly impaired as assessed by a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis, suggesting the possible relationship between the baldness and IL-4 reduction. The autoimmune hair loss might occur via activation of cytotoxic T cells and Th(1) cells as a result of a relief from IL-4 control. PMID:17637364

  14. Damnacanthal inhibits IgE receptor-mediated activation of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vilas, Javier A; Medina, Miguel A; Melo, Fabio R; Pejler, Gunnar; Garcia-Faroldi, Gianni

    2015-05-01

    Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone obtained from the noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.), has been described to possess anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Since mast cells are key players in various inflammatory conditions as well as in cancer, we considered the possibility that the biological actions of damnacanthal, at least partly, could be due to effects on mast cells. Many of the biological activities of mast cells are mediated by IgE receptor cross-linking, which results in degranulation with release of preformed granule mediators, as well as de novo synthesis and release of additional compounds. Here we show that damnacanthal has profound inhibitory activity on mast cell activation through this pathway. The release of the granule compounds beta-hexosaminidase and tryptase release was completely abrogated by damnacanthal at doses that were non-toxic to mast cells. In addition, damnacanthal inhibited activation-dependent pro-inflammatory gene induction, as well as cytokine/chemokine release in response to mast cell stimulation. The mechanism underlying damnacanthal inhibition was linked to impaired phosphorylation of Syk and Akt. Furthermore, damnacanthal inhibited mast cell activation in response to calcium ionophore A23187. Altogether, the data presented here demonstrate that damnacanthal inhibits mast cell activation induced by different stimuli and open a new window for the use of this compound as a mast cell stabilizer. PMID:25656801

  15. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  16. Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies specific for galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Satinover, Shama M.; Hosen, Jacob; Mozena, Jonathan; Borish, Larry; Lewis, Barrett D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate moieties are frequently encountered in food and can elicit IgE responses, the clinical significance of which has been unclear. Recent work, however, has shown that IgE antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), a carbohydrate commonly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins, are capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions. Objective We sought to determine whether IgE antibodies to α-gal are present in sera from patients who report anaphylaxis or urticaria after eating beef, pork, or lamb. Methods Detailed histories were taken from patients presenting to the University of Virginia Allergy Clinic. Skin prick tests (SPTs), intradermal skin tests, and serum IgE antibody analysis were performed for common indoor, outdoor, and food allergens. Results Twenty-four patients with IgE antibodies to α-gal were identified. These patients described a similar history of anaphylaxis or urticaria 3 to 6 hours after the ingestion of meat and reported fewer or no episodes when following an avoidance diet. SPTs to mammalian meat produced wheals of usually less than 4 mm, whereas intradermal or fresh-food SPTs provided larger and more consistent wheal responses. CAP-RAST testing revealed specific IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cow’s milk, cat, and dog but not turkey, chicken, or fish. Absorption experiments indicated that this pattern of sensitivity was explained by an IgE antibody specific for α-gal. Conclusion We report a novel and severe food allergy related to IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope α-gal. These patients experience delayed symptoms of anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria associated with eating beef, pork, or lamb. PMID:19070355

  17. Early recovery from cow's milk allergy is associated with decreasing IgE and increasing IgG4 binding to cow's milk epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Savilahti, Emma M.; Rantanen, Ville; Lin, Jing S.; Karinen, Sirkku; Saarinen, Kristiina M.; Goldis, Marina; Mäkelä, Mika J.; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Savilahti, Erkki; Sampson, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Background Dynamics and balance of allergen specific IgE, IgG4 and IgA binding may contribute to the development of tolerance in cow's milk allergy. Profiling of antibody binding to cow's milk protein epitopes may help in predicting natural history of allergy. Objective To investigate differences in IgE, IgG4 and IgA binding to cow's milk epitopes over time between patients with early recovery or with persisting cow's milk allergy. Methods We studied serum samples at the time of diagnosis (mean age 7 months), one year later and at follow-up (mean age 8.6 years) from 11 patients with persisting IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy at age 8-9 years, and 12 patients who recovered by age 3 years. We measured the binding of IgE, IgG4 and IgA antibodies to sequential epitopes derived from five major cow's milk proteins with a peptide microarray-based immunoassay. We analyzed the data with a novel image processing method together with machine learning prediction. Results IgE epitope binding patterns were stable over time in patients with persisting cow's milk allergy, whereas binding decreased in patients who recovered early. Binding patterns of IgE and IgG4 overlapped. Among patients who recovered early, the signal of IgG4 binding increased while that of IgE decreased over time. IgE and IgG4 binding to a panel of αs1-, αs2-, β-and κ-casein regions predicted outcome with significant accuracy. Conclusions Attaining tolerance to cow's milk is associated with decreased epitope binding by IgE and a concurrent increase in corresponding epitope binding by IgG4. PMID:20462631

  18. [Two cases of allergies due to Anisakis simplex, positive to specific IgE for Ani s 12 allergen].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuri; Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Lee, Min; Shinohara, Rie; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases of immediate allergies to Anisakis after ingestion of seafood. In case 1, after ingestion of flatfish, sea bream and mackerel, wheals and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 5 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum strongly reacted to Ani s 12. In case 2, after ingestion of flatfish and yellowtail, pruritus and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 6 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum reacted to Ani s 1, 4, 6 and 12. In both cases, skin prick tests were negative for suspected seafoods. These data suggests the possibility Ani s 12 is a major allergen of Anisakis allergy besides Ani s 1, 2 and 7. Ani s 12 is an allergen that was first reported in 2011. The reactivity of Ani s 12 specific IgE with ELISA may become useful for the diagnosis of Anisakis allergy. PMID:25634460

  19. Evaluation of IgE Antibodies to Omalizumab (Xolair®) and Their Potential Correlation to Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Dana L; Nakamura, Gerald R; Lowman, Henry B; Fischer, Saloumeh Kadkhodayan

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab (Xolair®) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to human immunoglobulin E (IgE). Omalizumab is used to treat IgE-mediated diseases such as chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and moderate to severe allergic asthma. In pre-marketing clinical trials in patients with asthma, anaphylaxis was reported in 3 of 3,507 (0.1%) patients. In post-marketing spontaneous reports, the frequency of anaphylaxis attributed to omalizumab use was estimated to be at least 0.2% of patients based on an estimated exposure of about 57,300 patients from June 2003 through December 2006. To better understand the risk of anaphylaxis in patients with allergic asthma receiving omalizumab, a post-marketing pharmacosurveillance study was initiated in 2009. As part of this study, an assay was developed to detect antibodies of IgE isotype to omalizumab. Serum samples from patients in the study were evaluated using this assay. Our results indicated that there was no observable correlation between either anaphylaxis or skin test reactivity and the presence of antibodies of IgE isotype to omalizumab. Here, we discuss the development of this assay as well as the results of the immunogenicity assessment. PMID:26340860

  20. Diosgenin attenuates allergen-induced intestinal inflammation and IgE production in a murine model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Hsiung; Ku, Chun-Yao; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2009-10-01

    Diosgenin, the major sapogenin contained in the Chinese yam, has recently been shown to promote systemic T helper 1-type immunity in a murine model of airway hypersensitivity. In this study, we hypothesized that diosgenin might be effective in modulating food allergy. BALB/c mice were either left untreated (naïve; NA) or administered daily with vehicle (VH; olive oil) and/or diosgenin (100 or 200 mg/kg) by gavage throughout the experiment. Except for the NA group, the mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and repeatedly challenged with intragastric OVA to induce intestinal allergic responses. Diosgenin demonstrated a suppressive effect on the intestinal inflammation, including the occurrence of diarrhea, the infiltration and degranulation of mast cells, and the presence of mucin-containing goblet cells in the duodenum. A protective effect by diosgenin on reducing the crypt depth of the intestine was also observed in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. Furthermore, the serum production of OVA-specific IgE, and the total IgE was suppressed. In contrast, OVA-specific IgG (2a) was enhanced by diosgenin treatment in OVA-sensitized mice. These results demonstrated the IN VIVO anti-allergic activity of diosgenin, which is associated with the suppression of IgE production and mast cell infiltration and degranulation. PMID:19343624

  1. The Analysis of the Human High Affinity IgE Receptor FceRIa from Multiple Crystal Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Garman, S.C.; Sechi, S.; Kinet, J.-P.; Jardetzky, T.S.

    2010-03-05

    We have solved the structure of the human high affinity IgE receptor, Fc{var_epsilon}RI{alpha}, in six different crystal forms, showing the structure in 15 different chemical environments. This database of structures shows no change in the overall shape of the molecule, as the angle between domains 1 and 2 (D1 and D2) varies little across the ensemble. However, the receptor has local conformational variability in the C' strand of D2 and in the BC loop of D1. In every crystal form, a residue inserts between tryptophan residues 87 and 110, mimicking the position of a proline from the IgE ligand. The different crystal forms reveal a distribution of carbohydrates lining the front and back surfaces of the structure. An analysis of crystal contacts in the different forms indicates regions where the molecule interacts with other proteins, and reveals a potential new binding site distal to the IgE binding site. The results of this study point to new directions for the design of molecules to inhibit the interaction of Fc{var_epsilon}RI{alpha} with its natural ligand and thus to prevent a primary step in the allergic response.

  2. Ara h 6 complements Ara h 2 as an important marker for IgE reactivity to peanut.

    PubMed

    Koid, Audrey E; Chapman, Martin D; Hamilton, Robert G; van Ree, Ronald; Versteeg, Serge A; Dreskin, Stephen C; Koppelman, Stef J; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    The similarities of two major peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, in molecular size, amino acid sequence, and structure have made it difficult to obtain natural Ara h 6 free of Ara h 2. The objectives of this study were to purify natural Ara h 6 that is essentially free of Ara h 2 and to compare its IgE reactivity and potency in histamine release assays to Ara h 2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the highly purified allergen (<0.01% Ara h 2) revealed a single 14.5 kD band, and the identity of Ara h 6 was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ara h 6 showed a higher seroprevalence in chimeric IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 54) but a weaker biological activity in basophil histamine release assays than Ara h 2. Purified Ara h 6 will be useful for diagnostic IgE antibody assays as well as molecular and cellular studies to investigate the immunological mechanisms of peanut allergy. PMID:24328145

  3. Characterization and crystallization of a recombinant IgE Fab fragment in complex with the bovine β-lactoglobulin allergen

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, Merja Jänis, Janne; Jylhä, Sirpa; Kallio, Johanna M.; Hakulinen, Nina; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Takkinen, Kristiina; Rouvinen, Juha

    2008-01-01

    The high-resolution mass-spectrometric characterization, crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a recombinant IgE Fab fragment in complex with bovine β-lactoglobulin are reported. A D1 Fab fragment containing the allergen-binding variable domains of the IgE antibody was characterized by ESI FT–ICR mass spectrometry and crystallized with bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. X-ray data suitable for structure determination were collected to 2.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.0, b = 100.6, c = 168.1 Å. The three-dimensional structure of the D1 Fab fragment–BLG complex will provide the first insight into IgE antibody–allergen interactions at the molecular level.

  4. [Effects of Celosia argentea and Cucurbita moschata extracts on anti-DNP IgE antibody production in mice].

    PubMed

    Imaoka, K; Ushijima, H; Inouye, S; Takahashi, T; Kojima, Y

    1994-05-01

    We have already reported that the Perilla frutescens extract (PFE) suppressed anti-DNA IgE antibody production in mice. In this study, we prepared extracts of Celosia argentea L. (CAE) and Cucurbita moschata Duch (CME), which are Chinese herbal medicines like Perilla frutescens, and examined the effects on anti-DNP antibody responses in mice. To examine the effects of CAE & CME on primary antibody responses, CAE & CME were intraperitoneally injected the day before primary immunization of DNP-ovalbumin. Anti-DNP antibody production was markedly suppressed. Then, we examined the effects on secondary antibody responses. CEA & CME were injected only the day before secondary immunization. Anti-DNP IgE production was markedly suppressed, but IgG responses were not affected. It was also found that mitogenic activity occurred in CAE & CME dose dependently in vitro. These effects of CAE & CME were superior to that of PFE. These results suggest that CAE & CME may be more useful than PFE for the suppression of IgE antibody in certain allergic disorders. PMID:8031259

  5. Carbon Nanofibers Have IgE Adjuvant Capacity but Are Less Potent Than Nanotubes in Promoting Allergic Airway Responses

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsen, Mari; Marioara, Calin Daniel; Løvik, Martinus

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the possible health impact of nanoparticles. The main objective of this study was to investigate the allergy-promoting capacity of four different carbon nanofiber (CNF) samples in an injection and an airway mouse model of allergy. Secondly, the potency of the CNF was compared to the previously reported allergy-promoting capacity of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the airway model. Ultrafine carbon black particles (ufCBP) were used as a positive control. Particles were given together with the allergen ovalbumin (OVA) either by subcutaneous injection into the footpad or intranasally to BALB/cA mice. After allergen booster, OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum were measured. In the airway model, inflammation was determined as influx of inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages) and by mediators (MCP-1 and TNF-α present in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF)). CNF and CNT both increased OVA-specific IgE levels in the two models, but in the airway model, the CNT gave a significantly stronger IgE response than the CNF. Furthermore, the CNT and not the CNF promoted eosinophil lung inflammation. Our data therefore suggest that nanotube-associated properties are particularly potent in promoting allergic responses. PMID:24024193

  6. Adjuvant activity of diesel-exhaust particulates for the production of IgE antibody in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Muranaka, M.; Suzuki, S.; Koizumi, K.; Takafuji, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Ikemori, R.; Tokiwa, H.

    1986-04-01

    The prevalence rate of allergic rhinitis caused by pollen has strikingly increased in Japan in the last three decades. The number of diesel cars in use has also rapidly increased in the country. This fact urged us to study the effects of particulates emitted from diesel cars on the production of IgE antibody. The primary IgE antibody responses in mice immunized with intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OA) mixed with diesel-exhaust particulates (DEP) were higher than those in the animals immunized with OA alone. This effect of DEP on the production of IgE antibody in mice was also demonstrated when mice were immunized with repeated injections of dinitrophenylated-OA. In addition, persistent IgE-antibody response to major allergen of Japanese cedar pollen (JCPA), a most common pollen causing allergic rhinitis in Japan, was observed in mice immunized with JCPA mixed with DEP but not in the animals immunized with JCPA alone. The results do indicate that the adjuvant activity of DEP can not be excluded as a possible cause of the associated change in the number of diesel cars and allergic rhinitis caused by pollen in Japan.

  7. Innate Immune Responses in House Dust Mite Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Sensitizations to house dust mites (HDM) trigger strong exacerbated allergen-induced inflammation of the skin and airways mucosa from atopic subjects resulting in atopic dermatitis as well as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Initially, the Th2-biased HDM allergic response was considered to be mediated only by allergen B- and T-cell epitopes to promote allergen-specific IgE production as well as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 to recruit inflammatory cells. But this general molecular model of HDM allergenicity must be revisited as a growing literature suggests that stimulations of innate immune activation pathways by HDM allergens offer new answers to the following question: what makes an HDM allergen an allergen? Indeed, HDM is a carrier not only for allergenic proteins but also microbial adjuvant compounds, both of which are able to stimulate innate signaling pathways leading to allergy. This paper will describe the multiple ways used by HDM allergens together with microbial compounds to control the initiation of the allergic response through engagement of innate immunity. PMID:23724247

  8. Anaphylaxis and asthma in a scrimshander due to deer bone dust.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R; Ganz, M A; Roberts, M

    1991-11-01

    A boilermaker who engraved deer bone (scrimshaw) as his artistic vocation developed recurrent anaphylaxis while scraping deer bones. These bones has been boiled in NaClO and dried, leaving residual NaOH and altered deer protein. He had recurrent episodes of anaphylaxis when exposed to the bone dust. The anaphylaxis appears to be the result of exposure of traumatized skin to NaOH and antigen with sufficient absorption of antigen to result in anaphylaxis, although inhalation may have been contributory. The most severe, near fatal episode of anaphylaxis may have been worsened by captopril. The patient's reaction by prick test to protein extracted in buffered saline from the deer bones boiled in NaClO and NaOH but not to natural deer protein suggested IgE antibody against deer protein altered by boiling in alkali. The scrimshander is now working with deer bone after prophylactic therapy and control of exposure. PMID:1958009

  9. Crop dusting or composting?

    PubMed

    Nemec, Patricia B

    2013-09-01

    In the education and training realm of psychiatric rehabilitation, this article uses a composting/crop-dusting metaphor to describe a competency-based framework of staff development. The crop-dusting, or "fly over," approach to training is likened to an aerial dump of information that may have some positive effect on growth if it's done at the right time and in the right place. The composting approach to training makes use of assessment, preparation, delivery, and follow-up. These four phases are linked to the specific training content and individualized to both the organization and the learners. A thorough training assessment examines existing competencies, how the content will be applied on the job, and whether current job expectations and responsibilities will support the use of the new knowledge and skill. Preparation is important in designing the training activities that are so critical to meeting the needs of adult learners and to ensuring their ability to understand and apply the training content. Delivery of the training must include practice opportunities with feedback and opportunities for trainees to work with the new knowledge or skills in a way that will preview, enhance, and clarify using them on the job. Follow-up should be designed from the beginning and is determined by the purpose of the training. Finally, observation and evaluation bring the process full circle by beginning the assessment for the next round of training. PMID:24059634

  10. Dust on the Move

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06763 Dust on the Move

    This dust avalanche is located on the rim material of an unnamed crater to the east of Tikhonravov Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 15.0N, Longitude 43.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Sulfur in Cometary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fomenkova, M. N.

    1997-01-01

    The computer-intensive project consisted of the analysis and synthesis of existing data on composition of comet Halley dust particles. The main objective was to obtain a complete inventory of sulfur containing compounds in the comet Halley dust by building upon the existing classification of organic and inorganic compounds and applying a variety of statistical techniques for cluster and cross-correlational analyses. A student hired for this project wrote and tested the software to perform cluster analysis. The following tasks were carried out: (1) selecting the data from existing database for the proposed project; (2) finding access to a standard library of statistical routines for cluster analysis; (3) reformatting the data as necessary for input into the library routines; (4) performing cluster analysis and constructing hierarchical cluster trees using three methods to define the proximity of clusters; (5) presenting the output results in different formats to facilitate the interpretation of the obtained cluster trees; (6) selecting groups of data points common for all three trees as stable clusters. We have also considered the chemistry of sulfur in inorganic compounds.

  12. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03052 Dust Devil Tracks

    These dust devil tracks are located in the region surrounding Hooke Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 46.6S, Longitude 316.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  14. In vitro synthesis of IgE by human peripheral blood leucocytes: V. Functional heterogeneity within the IgE-B-cell pool.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, K J; Holt, P G; Holt, B J; Cameron, K J; Hobday, J D; Thompson, P; Phillips, M

    1987-01-01

    Fractionation of human peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) B cells by differential sedimentation on a discontinuous Percoll gradient separates B cell subpopulations which vary markedly in rates of spontaneous IgE synthesis, often revealing the presence of active IgE secreting cells which are totally suppressed within unfractionated PBL B cell preparations. The production in vitro of IgE by separated B cell populations from the same individual may respond disparately to an identical population of autologous T cells and to pokeweed mitogen. Kinetic studies revealed major differences in both the rates of release of cell-associated IgE between these B cell populations, and their rates of de novo IgE synthesis. From a methodological viewpoint, the use of this B cell fractionation technique is demonstrated to improve greatly the efficiency of detection of T cell-responsive IgE producing B cells in peripheral blood from atopics, and from a mechanistic standpoint raises the possibility that B cell heterogeneity may modulate the functional expression of IgE-regulatory T cells signals. PMID:3498575

  15. The capacity of interleukin-4 to induce in vitro IgE synthesis by B cells of patients with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Pastorelli, G; Roncarolo, M G; Peronne, C; Tovo, P A; de Vries, J E

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) has been shown to induce IgE synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of normal donors in vitro. However, induction of PBMC of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI) with IL-4 resulted in IgE production in only two out of eight cases tested. PBMC of the first patient that produced IgE in response to IL-4 also secreted normal levels of IL-4 upon activation. PBMC of the second patient secreted very low levels of IL-4 in vitro which may account for the very low serum IgE levels in this patient. Of the other six patients who had very low serum IgE levels and whose PBMC failed to produce IgE in response to IL-4 in vitro, five did not secrete IL-4 upon in vitro activation. The capacity of the T cells to produce IL-4 was intact in the sixth patient. Collectively our data indicate that PBMC of the majority of patients with CVI are defective since they failed to respond appropriately to IL-4 and they failed to produce IL-4, contributing to the view that CVI is a heterogeneous disorder in which a variety of T and B cell defects occur. PMID:2119918

  16. IgA is a more potent inducer of NADPH oxidase activation and degranulation in blood eosinophils than IgE.

    PubMed

    Pleass, Richard J; Lang, Mark L; Kerr, Michael A; Woof, Jenny M

    2007-02-01

    Human eosinophils can mediate both beneficial and detrimental responses in parasitic and allergic diseases. Binding of aggregated immunoglobulin to Fc receptors on eosinophils mediates important defence processes, including generation of activated oxygen species resulting from NADPH oxidase activation, and eosinophil peroxidase release following degranulation. The abilities of a matched set of IgA, IgG and IgE antibodies to elicit such responses in blood-derived eosinophils were compared using a chemiluminescence assay. IgA and IgG, but not IgE, were found to trigger NADPH oxidase activation and degranulation in eosinophils. This non-responsiveness to IgE did not result from receptor blockade by endogenous IgE since no blood-derived IgE was detectable on freshly isolated eosinophils. Moreover, while cross-linking of FcalphaRI by specific mAbs triggered NADPH oxidase activation and degranulation in blood-derived eosinophils, equivalent cross-linking of FcvarepsilonRI or FcvarepsilonRII did not elicit such responses. Therefore IgA is more potent at eliciting activated oxygen species release and degranulation in eosinophils than IgE, suggesting that the importance of IgA in eosinophil activation in immune defence and allergy may have been underestimated. PMID:16777227

  17. Correlation among skin prick test, total and specific IgE UniCAP tests in atopic patients from Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milavec-Puretić, Visnja; Lipozencić, Jasna; Zizić, Vesna; Milavec, Dinko

    2004-01-01

    The correlation of pollen allergens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and animal dender was assessed during a two-year period. Results of skin prick test, total and specific IgE UniCAP tests were compared in atopic patients (AP) with the following diagnoses: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic bronchitis or asthma, allergic urticaria and angioedema. The study included total and specific IgE (in vitro) tests to allergen mixtures (grass, tree, weed) or to single allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), cat and dog fur, feather, etc. Comparison of skin prick test with total and specific IgE UniCAP immunoassay was done in 173 patients, i.e. 107 female and 66 male atopic patients aged 9-76 years. Allergies were most commonly recorded in the 25-35 age group. Total IgE ranged from 8.63 kU/l to >4000 kU/l, with specific IgE ranging from class 1 to class 5. Skin prick test showed high correlation with specific IgE for grass and weed pollen in patients with repiratory allergy (50.28%). Good correlation among all three tests was quite frequently observed. The results suggest that the study should be continued using these three tests in further cases of atopic dermatitis. PMID:15588558

  18. Dust Charge in Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, J.; Kojima, C.; Sekine, W.; Ishihara, O.

    2008-09-07

    Dust charges in a complex helium gas plasma, surrounded by cryogenic liquid, are studied experimentally. The charge is determined by frequency and equilibrium position of damped dust oscillation proposed by Tomme et al.(2000) and is found to decrease with ion temperature of the complex plasma.

  19. Analysis of interplanetary dust collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Pilachowski, L.; Olszewski, E.; Hodge, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles collected in the form of micrometeorites in the stratosphere and meteor ablation spherules in deep sea sediments are possibly a relatively unbiased sample of the micrometeoroid complex near 1 AU. Detailed laboratory analysis of the particles has provided information on physical properties which may be useful in modeling a variety of aspects of interplanetary dust.

  20. PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR FUGITIVE DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of particulate control for fugitive dust. Study results indicate that many Air Quality Control Regions (AQCRs) do not meet ambient air standards for particulates. In a majority of these ACQRs, the emissions from fugitive dust sources are higher...

  1. Sand and Dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Mars is a planet of high scientific interest. Various studies are currently being made that involve vehicles that have landed on Mars. Because Mars is known to experience frequent wind storms, mission planners and engineers require knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of Martian windblown sand and dust, and the processes involved in the origin and evolution of sand and dust storms.

  2. Dust characterization in FTU tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angeli, M.; Maddaluno, G.; Laguardia, L.; Ripamonti, D.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Apicella, M. L.; Conti, C.; Giacomi, G.; Grosso, G.

    2015-08-01

    Dust present in the vessel of FTU has been collected and analysed. Being FTU a device with full metal plasma facing components for the whole life and equipped with a liquid lithium limiter (LLL) make FTU of special interest from a point of view of dust studies. Analyses were conducted by standard dust analysis methods and by dedicated analysis, as X-rays and neutron diffraction, to investigate the presence of lithium compounds due the presence of the LLL in FTU. Dust collected near the LLL presents a different elemental composition, namely Li compounds, compared to the dust collected in the rest of the vessel; in particular LiO2, LiOH, and Li2CO3. On the basis of these results, the formation of Li2CO3 is proposed via a two steps process. Results of fuel retention measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) method show that fuel retention should not be an issue for FTU.

  3. Saharan Dust over the Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Fierce winds ripped across the Sahara Desert this past weekend and blew a large plume of dust out over the Atlantic Ocean. This true color image of the dust event was acquired on February 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The light brown dust trail can be seen forming an arc a few hundred miles off the coast of Western Sahara and Mauritania. Northeasterly winds blowing across the Atlantic have redirected the dust towards Europe where it will likely settle. For more information and current images of dust storms, visit Natural Hazards on the Earth Observatory . Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. Dust storm off Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of Saharan dust storms reach far beyond Africa. Wind-swept deserts spill airborne dust particles out over the Atlantic Ocean where they can enter trade winds bound for Central and North America and the Caribbean. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a dust storm casting an opaque cloud of cloud across the Canary Islands and the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on June 30, 2002. In general it takes between 5 and 7 days for such an event to cross the Atlantic. The dust has been shown to introduce foreign bacteria and fungi that have damaged reef ecosystems and have even been hypothesized as a cause of increasing occurrences of respiratory complaints in places like Florida, where the amount of Saharan dust reaching the state has been increasing over the past 25 years.

  5. Unique Inflammatory Mediators and Specific IgE Levels Distinguish Local from Systemic Reactions after Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Garman, Lori; Smith, Kenneth; Muns, Emily E; Velte, Cathy A; Spooner, Christina E; Munroe, Melissa E; Farris, A Darise; Nelson, Michael R; Engler, Renata J M; James, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Although the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) has an adverse event (AE) profile similar to those of other adult vaccines, 30 to 70% of queried AVA vaccinees report AEs. AEs appear to be correlated with certain demographic factors, but the underlying immunologic pathways are poorly understood. We evaluated a cohort of 2,421 AVA vaccinees and found 153 (6.3%) reported an AE. Females were more likely to experience AEs (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 4.2 to 8.7]; P < 0.0001). Individuals 18 to 29 years of age were less likely to report an AE than individuals aged 30 years or older (OR = 0.31 [95% CI = 0.22 to 0.43]; P < 0.0001). No significant effects were observed for African, European, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian ancestry after correcting for age and sex. Additionally, 103 AEs were large local reactions (LLRs), whereas 53 AEs were systemic reactions (SRs). In a subset of our cohort vaccinated 2 to 12 months prior to plasma sample collection (n = 75), individuals with LLRs (n = 33) had higher protective-antigen (PA)-specific IgE levels than matched, unaffected vaccinated individuals (n = 50; P < 0.01). Anti-PA IgE was not associated with total plasma IgE, hepatitis B-specific IgE, or anti-PA IgG in individuals who reported an AE or in matched, unaffected AVA-vaccinated individuals. IP-10 was also elevated in sera of individuals who developed LLRs (P < 0.05). Individuals reporting SRs had higher levels of systemic inflammation as measured from C-reactive protein (P < 0.01). Thus, LLRs and SRs are mediated by distinct pathways. LLRs are associated with a vaccine-specific IgE response and IP-10, whereas SRs demonstrate increased systemic inflammation without a skewed cytokine profile. PMID:27280620

  6. Peanut oral immunotherapy modifies IgE and IgG4 responses to major peanut allergens

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Brian P.; Lin, Jing; Kulis, Michael; Fu, Zhiyan; Steele, Pamela H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Gimenez, Gustavo; Bardina, Ludmilla; Sampson, Hugh A.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Background Peanut-allergic subjects have highly stable pathologic antibody repertoires to the immunodominant B cell epitopes of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1-3. Objective We used a peptide microarray technique to analyze the effect of treatment with peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) on such repertoires. Methods Measurements of total peanut-specific IgE (psIgE) and psIgG4 were made with CAP-FEIA. We analyzed sera from 22 OIT subjects and 6 controls and measured serum specific IgE and IgG4 binding to epitopes of Ara h 1-3 using a high-throughput peptide microarray technique. Antibody affinity was measured using a competitive peptide microarray as previously described. Results At baseline, psIgE and psIgG4 diversity were similar between subjects and controls, and there was broad variation in epitope recognition. After a median 41 months of OIT, polyclonal psIgG4 increased from a median 0.3 mcg/mL (IQR 0.1-0.43) at baseline to 10.5 mcg/mL (3.95-45.48) (p<0.0001) and included de novo specificities. PsIgE was reduced from a median baseline of 85.45 kUA/L (23.05-101.0) to 7.75 kUA/L (2.58-30.55) (p<0.0001). Affinity was unaffected. Although the psIgE repertoire contracted in most OIT-treated subjects, several subjects generated new IgE specificities even as the total psIgE decreased. Global epitope-specific shifts from IgE to IgG4 binding occurred, including at an informative epitope of Ara h 2. Conclusion OIT differentially alters Ara h 1-3 binding patterns. These changes are variable between subjects, not observed in controls, and include a progressive polyclonal increase in IgG4, with concurrent reduction in IgE amount and diversity. PMID:23199605

  7. Search for Dust Around Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.-Y.; Nathues, A.; Mottola, S.; Sykes, M. V.; Polanskey, C. A.; Joy, S.; Mastrodemos, N.; McFadden, L. A.; Skillman, D.; Memarsadeghi, N.; Hoffmann, M.; Schröder, S. E.; Carsenty, U.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    Since the first but ambiguous evidence of water sublimation activity on Ceres was reported more than two decades ago [1] and the negative results in a number of follow up observations [2], water vapor has recently been unambiguously detected by the Herschel Space Observatory observations [3]. The mechanism of water sublimation on Ceres is still unclear, but the most probable mechanisms include cometary-like sublimation and cryovolcanism. Such sublimation activity could entrain dust grains in the outgassing, resulting in either a dust envelope or dust plumes above the surface of Ceres. Given the much higher escape velocity of ~0.5 km/s on the surface of Ceres compared to those on comets (a few m/s), any dust around Ceres might be short-lived, and/or close to the surface of Ceres. The implications of possible dust around Ceres motivated NASA's Dawn mission to perform a high-sensitivity, high-resolution search for dust around Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft, during its first science orbit around Ceres, will have an excellent opportunity to search for dust at a pixel scale of 1.4 km/pixel from the night-side of Ceres looking close to the direction of the Sun. This observing geometry is the most favorable to search for dust around Ceres due to the significant increase of dust brightness and decrease in the surface brightness of Ceres towards high solar phase angle. Here we report the results of this search for dust around Ceres with Dawn's Framing Camera (FC) [4].

  8. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2015-09-01

    Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies) that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV) wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness), the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution), a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014). 2nd Lecture of the Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  9. Photoluminescence by Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijh, U. P.

    2005-12-01

    In this dissertation talk, I will report on our study of interstellar dust through the process of photoluminescence (PL). We present the discovery of a new band of dust PL, blue luminescence (BL) with λ peak ˜ 370 nm in the proto-planetary nebula known as the Red Rectangle (RR). We attribute this to fluorescence by small, 3-4-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Further analysis reveals additional independent evidence for the presence of small PAHs in this nebula. Detection of BL using long-slit spectroscopic observations in other ordinary reflection nebulae suggests that the BL carrier is an ubiquitous component of the ISM and is not restricted to the particular environment of the RR. We present the spatial distribution of the BL in these nebulae and find that the BL is spatially correlated with IR emission structures attributed to aromatic emission features (AEFs), attributed to PAHs. The carrier of the dust-associated photoluminescence process causing the extended red emission (ERE), known now for over twenty five years, remains unidentified. We constrain the character of the ERE carrier by determining the wavelengths of the radiation that initiates the ERE -- λ < 118 nm. We note that under interstellar conditions most PAH molecules are ionized to the di-cation stage by photons with E > 10.5 eV and that the electronic energy level structure of PAH di-cations is consistent with fluorescence in the wavelength band of the ERE. I will also present first results from ongoing work: Using narrow-band imaging, we present the optical detection of the circum-binary disk of the RR in the light of the BL, and show that the morphology of the BL and ERE emissions in the RR nebula are almost mutually exclusive. It is very suggestive to attribute them to different ionization stages of the same family of carriers such as PAH molecules. Financial support for this study was provided through NSF Grant AST0307307 to The University of Toledo.

  10. Photoluminescence by Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijh, U. P.

    2005-08-01

    In this dissertation, we report on our study of interstellar dust through the process of photoluminescence (PL). We present the discovery of a new band of dust PL, blue luminescence (BL) with λpeak˜370 nm in the proto-planetary nebula known as the Red Rectangle (RR). We attribute this to fluorescence by small, 3-4-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Further analysis reveals additional independent evidence for the presence of small PAHs in this nebula. Detection of BL using long-slit spectroscopic observations in other ordinary reflection nebulae suggests that the BL carrier is an ubiquitous component of the ISM and is not restricted to the particular environment of the RR. We present the spatial distribution of the BL in these nebulae and find that the BL is spatially correlated with IR emission structures attributed to aromatic emission features (AEFs), attributed to PAHs. The carrier of the dust-associated photoluminescence process causing the extended red emission (ERE), known now for over twenty five years, remains unidentified. We constrain the character of the ERE carrier by determining the wavelengths of the radiation that initiates the ERE -- λ < 118 nm. We note that under interstellar conditions most PAH molecules are ionized to the di-cation stage by photons with E > 10.5 eV and that the electronic energy level structure of PAH di-cations is consistent with fluorescence in the wavelength band of the ERE. In the last few chapters of the dissertation we present first results from ongoing work: i) Using narrow-band imaging, we present the optical detection of the circum-binary disk of the RR in the light of the BL, and show that the morphology of the BL and ERE emissions in the RR nebula are almost mutually exclusive. It is very suggestive to attribute them to different ionization stages of the same family of carriers such as PAH molecules. ii) We also present a pure spectrum of the BL free of scattered light, resolved into seven

  11. Serum antibody to Sarcoptes scabiei and house dust mite prior to and during infestation with S. scabiei.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S

    2000-07-01

    In this study, serum antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (SS), Dermatophagoides farinae (DF), and D. pteronyssinus (DP) were determined in 19 healthy, random-source dogs prior to infestation with scabies then again during a primary infestation, cure and challenge infestation with scabies. Prior to scabies infestation, serum of 11 dogs contained faintly detectable amounts of IgE and/or IgG to proteins in SS extract, probably resulting from sensitization to dust mites that share cross-reactive antigenic epitopes with SS. After becoming infested with scabies, the response to SS antigens became stronger with antibodies appearing to more antigens as the scabies infestation progressed. Three of the newly recognized proteins were 170, 155 and 142/133kD and could be used in a diagnostic test since antibodies to them appeared during the primary infestation. In addition, during the primary infestation, 14 of 15 dogs developed IgE to 1-11 new SS proteins in addition to an increase in IgE binding to those proteins recognized prior to infestation. Overall, the strongest antibody responses (IgE and IgG) were exhibited during cure of the first infestation, when dead mites were still present in the stratum corneum. As expected, the antibody response was strong and rapid during challenge when the infestation self-cured. The immunogenic SS proteins identified by serum antibody binding during challenge, when the hosts self-cured, are candidates for inclusion in a vaccine. These candidate proteins are 200, 185, 170, 155, 142/133, 112, 97, 74, 57, 45/42, 32 and 22kD. Some of the proteins in SS that exhibited new or increased antibody binding during the experiment also had IgE and IgG binding to proteins with similar molecular weights in DF and DP extracts. These results illustrate the difficulties involved in understanding and interpreting serum antibody for developing a serological test for the diagnosis of scabies, isolating relevant SS antigens that could be included in a

  12. The Martian Dust Cycle: Observations and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahre, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    The dust cycle is critically important for Mars' current climate system. Suspended atmospheric dust affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere, and thus greatly influences the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere. Evidence for the presence of dust in the Martian atmosphere can be traced back to yellow clouds telescopically observed as early as the early 19th century. The Mariner 9 orbiter arrived at Mars in November of 1971 to find a planet completely enshrouded in airborne dust. Since that time, the exchange of dust between the planet's surface and atmosphere and the role of airborne dust on Mars' weather and climate has been studied using observations and numerical models. The goal of this talk is to give an overview of the observations and to discuss the successes and challenges associated with modeling the dust cycle. Dust raising events on Mars range in size from meters to hundreds of kilometers. During some years, regional storms merge to produce hemispheric or planet encircling dust clouds that obscure the surface and raise atmospheric temperatures by tens of kelvin. The interannual variability of planet encircling dust storms is poorly understood. Although the occurrence and season of large regional and global dust storms are highly variable from one year to the next, there are many features of the dust cycle that occur year after year. A low-level dust haze is maintained during northern spring and summer, while elevated levels of atmospheric dust occur during northern autumn and winter. During years without global-scale dust storms, two peaks in total dust loading are generally observed: one peak occurs before northern winter solstice and one peak occurs after northern winter solstice. Numerical modeling studies attempting to interactively simulate the Martian dust cycle with general circulation models (GCMs) include the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Two dust lifting processes are commonly represented in

  13. Atopy Is Inversely Related to Schistosome Infection Intensity: A Comparative Study in Zimbabwean Villages with Distinct Levels of Schistosoma haematobium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rujeni, Nadine; Nausch, Norman; Bourke, Claire D.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Taylor, David W.; Mutapi, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Background The hygiene hypothesis suggests that parasitic infections protect against allergic diseases by modulating the host's immune responses. Experimental studies indicate that this protection depends on the intensity of parasitic infection, but this observation has not been tested in human populations. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection is related to atopic responses and whether this relationship differs between populations with distinct parasite transmission dynamics. Methods The study was conducted in two villages with different Schistosoma haematobium transmission dynamics, i.e. high (n = 365) and low (n = 307) transmission. Allergic reactivity to the common house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) was measured by skin prick tests and allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atopic responses were related to current infection intensity and schistosome transmission levels. Results Schistosome infection intensity was negatively associated with the skin prick reactivity, mite-specific IgE and the ratio IgE/IgG4 in the high-transmission village. However, when only low levels of infection were analyzed in the 2 villages, there was no correlation between mite-specific responses and infection intensity. Conclusion The relationship between schistosome infection and atopic responses is dependent on the intensity of current schistosome infection. Thus, consistent with results from animal models, with an increasing parasite burden, the immunoregulation of immune responses to allergens appears to become more pronounced. PMID:22398631

  14. Protective effects of a recombinant fragment of human surfactant protein D in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mamta; Madan, Taruna; Waters, Patrick; Parida, Shreemanta K; Sarma, P Usha; Kishore, Uday

    2003-05-01

    Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a carbohydrate pattern recognition immune molecule. It can interact with a range of pathogens, stimulate immune cells and manipulate cytokine profiles during host's immune response. SP-D has also been shown to interact, via its carbohydrate recognition domains, with glycoprotein allergens of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Derp), inhibiting specific IgE isolated from mite-sensitive asthmatic patients from binding these allergens, and blocking subsequent histamine release from sensitized basophils. In the present study, we have examined the protection offered by various doses of intranasal administration of a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity to Derp allergens which showed characteristic high levels of specific IgE antibodies, peripheral blood eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltrates and a Th2 cytokine response. Treatment of Derp mice with rhSP-D led to significant reduction in Derp-specific IgE levels, blood eosinophilia and pulmonary cellular infiltration. The levels of IL-4 and IL-5 were decreased, while those of IL-12 and IFN-gamma were raised in the supernatant of the cultured splenocytes, indicating a Th2 to Th1 polarization. These results suggest that SP-D has a protective role in the modulation of allergic sensitization and in the development of allergic reactions to Derp allergens and highlight potential of the rhSP-D as a therapeutic for pulmonary hypersensitivity. PMID:12706535

  15. Dust in fusion plasmas: theory and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Mendis, D. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Rudakov, D.; Tanaka, Y.; Rognlien, T. D.; Soboleva, T. K.; Shukla, P. K.; Bray, B. D.; West, W. P.; Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C. H.

    2008-09-07

    Dust may have a large impact on ITER-scale plasma experiments including both safety and performance issues. However, the physics of dust in fusion plasmas is very complex and multifaceted. Here, we discuss different aspects of dust dynamics including dust-plasma, and dust-surface interactions. We consider the models of dust charging, heating, evaporation/sublimation, dust collision with material walls, etc., which are suitable for the conditions of fusion plasmas. The physical models of all these processes have been incorporated into the DUST Transport (DUSTT) code. Numerical simulations demonstrate that dust particles are very mobile and accelerate to large velocities due to the ion drag force (cruise speed >100 m/s). Deep penetration of dust particles toward the plasma core is predicted. It is shown that DUSTT is capable of reproducing many features of recent dust-related experiments, but much more work is still needed.

  16. Agglomeration of Dust

    SciTech Connect

    Annaratone, B. M.; Arnas, C.; Elskens, Y.

    2008-09-07

    The agglomeration of the matter in plasma, from the atomic level up to millimetre size particles, is here considered. In general we identify a continuous growth, due to deposition, and two agglomeration steps, the first at the level of tens of nanometres and the second above the micron. The agglomeration of nano-particles is attributed to electrostatic forces in presence of charge polarity fluctuations. Here we present a model based on discrete currents. With increasing grain size the positive charge permanence decreases, tending to zero. This effect is only important in the range of nanometre for dust of highly dispersed size. When the inter-particle distance is of the order of the screening length another agglomeration mechanism dominates. It is based on attractive forces, shadow forces or dipole-dipole interaction, overcoming the electrostatic repulsion. In bright plasma radiation pressure also plays a role.

  17. Dust storm in Chad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Chad (lower left) and the surrounding wetlands are under increasing pressure from desertification. The encroachment of the Sahara occurs with creeping sand dunes and major dust storms, such as the one pictured in this MODIS image from October 28, 2001. The amount of open water (lighter green patch within the darker one) has declined markedly over the last decades and the invasion of dunes is creating a rippled effect through the wetlands that is all too clear in the high-resolution images. Growing population and increasing demands on the lake give it an uncertain future. The loss of such an important natural resource will have profound effects on the people who depend on the rapidly diminishing source of fresh water. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Dust interferometers in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, M.; Nosenko, V.; Thomas, H. M.

    2016-03-01

    An interferometric imaging technique has been proposed to instantly measure the diameter of individual spherical dust particles suspended in a gas discharge plasma. The technique is based on the defocused image analysis of both spherical particles and their binary agglomerates. Above a critical diameter, the defocused images of spherical particles contain stationary interference fringe patterns and the fringe number increases with particle diameters. Below this critical diameter, the particle size has been measured using the rotational interference fringe patterns which appear only on the defocused images of binary agglomerates. In this case, a lower cutoff limit of particle diameter has been predicted, below which no such rotational fringe patterns are observed for the binary agglomerates. The method can be useful as a diagnostics for complex plasma experiments on earth as well as under microgravity conditions.

  19. Colliding Decimeter Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckers, J.; Teiser, J.

    2013-06-01

    Collisional evolution is a key process in planetesimal formation and decimeter bodies play a key role in the different models. However, the outcome of collisions between two dusty decimeter bodies has never been studied experimentally. Therefore, we carried out microgravity collision experiments in the Bremen drop tower. The agglomerates consist of quartz with irregularly shaped micrometer-sized grains and the mean volume filling factor is 0.437 ± 0.004. The aggregates are cylindrical with 12 cm in height and 12 cm in diameter, and typical masses are 1.5 kg. These are the largest and most massive dust aggregates studied in collisions to date. We observed rebound and fragmentation but no sticking in the velocity range between 0.8 and 25.7 cm s-1. The critical fragmentation velocity for split up of an aggregate is 16.2 ± 0.4 cm s-1. At lower velocities the aggregates bounce off each other. In this velocity range, the coefficient of restitution decreases with increasing collision velocity from 0.8 to 0.3. While the aggregates are very weak, the critical specific kinetic energy for fragmentation Q μ = 1 is a factor of six larger than expected. Collisions of large bodies in protoplanetary disks are supposed to be much faster and the generation of smaller fragments is likely. In planetary rings, collision velocities are of the order of a few cm s-1 and are thereby in the same range investigated in these experiments. The coefficient of restitution of dust agglomerates and regolith-covered ice particles, which are common in planetary rings, are similar.

  20. Is the Determination of Specific IgE against Components Using ISAC 112 a Reproducible Technique?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aranguren, Rubén; Lizaso, María T.; Goikoetxea, María J.; García, Blanca E.; Cabrera-Freitag, Paula; Trellez, Oswaldo; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ImmunoCAP ISAC 112 is a fluoro-immunoassay that allows detection of specific IgE to 112 molecular components from 51 allergenic sources. We studied the reliability of this technique intra- and inter- assay, as well as inter-batch- and inter-laboratory-assay. Methods Twenty samples were studied, nineteen sera from polysensitized allergic patients, and the technique calibrator provided by the manufacturer (CTR02). We measured the sIgE from CTR02 and three patients' sera ten times in the same and in different assays. Furthermore, all samples were tested in two laboratories and with two batches of ISAC kit. To evaluate the accuracy of ISAC 112, we contrasted the determinations of CTR02 calibrator with their expected values by T Student test. To analyse the precision, we calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) of the 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, and to analyse the repeatability and the reproducibility, we calculated the intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) to each allergen. Results The results obtained for CTR02 were similar to those expected in 7 of 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, whereas in 8 allergens the results showed significant differences. The mean CV obtained in the CTR02 determinations was of 9.4%, and the variability of sera from patients was of 22.9%. The agreement in the intra- and inter-assay analysis was very good to 94 allergens and good to one. In the inter-batch analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 82 allergens, good to 14, moderate to 5 allergens, poor to one, and bad to 1 allergen. In the inter-laboratory analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 73 allergens, good to 22, moderate to 6 and poor to two allergens. Conclusion The allergen microarray immunoassay, ISAC 112, is a repeatable and reproducible in vitro diagnostic tool for determination of sIgE beyond the own laboratory. PMID:24516646

  1. House dust allergy and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Wayne R.

    2012-01-01

    HDM allergy is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. In many countries childhood asthma is predominantly found in HDM-allergic children with their probability of developing disease being proportional to their IgE antibody titers and the early development of Th2 responses. While the pathogenesis is complex and increasingly linked to infection the immunologically-based allergen immunotherapy and anti-IgE antibody therapy are highly beneficial. Immunotherapy could be a short-term treatment providing lifelong relief but the current regimens depend on repeated administration of allergen over years. Immunological investigations point to a contribution of responses outside the Th2 pathway and multiple potential but unproven control mechanisms. Over half of the IgE antibodies are directed to the group 1 and 2 allergens with most of remainder to the group 4, 5, 7 and 21 allergens. This hierarchy found in high and low responders provides a platform for introducing defined allergens into immunotherapy and defined reagents for investigation. PMID:22894952

  2. Mechanisms for Mars dust storms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leovy, C. B.; Zurek, R. W.; Pollack, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics of the Mars global dust storm are reviewed. At the Mariner 9 encounter, the dust consisted of highly absorbing particles distributed rather uniformly up to great height (about 50 km). These observations together with temperature distributions inferred from the Mariner 9 IRIS by Hanel et al. (1972) are used to estimate global wind systems during the dust storm. The global distribution and direction of light surface streaks indicate that the axisymmetric circulation was a dominant part of flow during the dust storm. The axisymmetric winds may become strong enough to raise dust over wide areas of Mars' tropics under unusual conditions: the incoming solar radiation must be near its seasonal maximum, the static stability must be low, and the atmosphere must be able to absorb and re-emit a sizeable fraction of the incoming radiation. Strong winds around the periphery of the retreating south polar cap would be driven by the temperature gradient at the cap edge and by the mass outflow due to subliming CO2. These polar winds could generate local dust storms, raising the general level of dustiness, and providing the conditions necessary for onset of a global dust storm.

  3. Iron Speciation in Urban Dust

    SciTech Connect

    E Elzinga; Y Gao; J Fitts; R Tappero

    2011-12-31

    An improved understanding of anthropogenic impacts on ocean fertility requires knowledge of anthropogenic dust mineralogy and associated Fe speciation as a critical step toward developing Fe solubility models constrained by mineralogical composition. This study explored the utility of micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy ({mu}-XAS) in characterizing the speciation of Fe in urban dust samples. A micro-focused beam of 10 x 7 {micro}m made possible the measurement of the Fe K edge XAS spectra of individual dust particles in the PM5.6 size fraction collected in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Spectral analysis indicated the presence of mixtures of Fe-containing minerals within individual dust particles; we observed significant magnetite content along with other Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide minerals which could not be conclusively identified. Our data indicate that detailed quantitative determination of Fe speciation requires extended energy scans to constrain the types and relative abundance of Fe species present. We observe heterogeneity in Fe speciation at the dust particle level, which underscores the importance of analyzing a statistically adequate number of particles within each dust sample. Where possible, {mu}-XAS measurements should be complemented with additional characterization techniques such as {mu}-XRD and bulk XAS to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Fe speciation in dust materials. X-ray microprobes should be used to complement bulk methods used to determine particle composition, methods that fail to record particle heterogeneity.

  4. Ulysses dust measurements near Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Grün, E; Zook, H A; Baguhl, M; Fechtig, H; Hanner, M S; Kissel, J; Lindblad, B A; Linkert, D; Linkert, G; Mann, I B

    1992-09-11

    Submicrometer- to micrometer-sized particles were recorded by the Ulysses dust detector within 40 days of the Jupiter flyby. Nine impacts were recorded within 50 Jupiter radii with most of them recorded after closest approach. Three of these impacts are consistent with particles on prograde orbits around Jupiter and the rest are believed to have resulted from gravitationally focused interplanetary dust. From the ratio of the impact rate before the Jupiter flyby to the impact rate after the Jupiter flyby it is concluded that interplanetary dust particles at the distance of Jupiter move on mostly retrograde orbits. On 10 March 1992, Ulysses passed through an intense dust stream. The dust detector recorded 126 impacts within 26 hours. The stream particles were moving on highly inclined and apparently hyperbolic orbits with perihelion distances of >5 astronomical units. Interplanetary dust is lost rather quickly from the solar system through collisions and other mechanisms and must be almost continuously replenished to maintain observed abundances. Dust flux measurements, therefore, give evidence of the recent rates of production from sources such as comets, asteroids, and moons, as well as the possible presence of interstellar grains. PMID:11538054

  5. Lunar Dust: Characterization and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt. Mark J.; Feighery, John

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust is a ubiquitous phenomenon which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. Near term plans to revisit the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond, places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it's potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. The same hold true for assessing the risk it may pose for toxicological health problems if inhaled. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program's Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. This work further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it's characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost. The paper also presents a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware.

  6. Microgravity combustion of dust suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John H. S.; Peraldi, Olivier; Knystautas, Rom

    1993-01-01

    Unlike the combustion of homogeneous gas mixtures, there are practically no reliable fundamental data (i.e., laminar burning velocity, flammability limits, quenching distance, minimum ignition energy) for the combustion of heterogeneous dust suspensions. Even the equilibrium thermodynamic data such as the constant pressure volume combustion pressure and the constant pressure adiabatic flame temperature are not accurately known for dust mixtures. This is mainly due to the problem of gravity sedimentation. In normal gravity, turbulence, convective flow, electric and acoustic fields are required to maintain a dust in suspension. These external influences have a dominating effect on the combustion processes. Microgravity offers a unique environment where a quiescent dust cloud can in principle be maintained for a sufficiently long duration for almost all combustion experiments (dust suspensions are inherently unstable due to Brownian motion and particle aggregation). Thus, the microgravity duration provided by drop towers, parabolic flights, and the space shuttle, can all be exploited for different kinds of dust combustion experiments. The present paper describes some recent studies on microgravity combustion of dust suspension carried out on the KC-135 and the Caravelle aircraft. The results reported are obtained from three parabolic flight campaigns.

  7. Dust Storm in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Along historic Route 66, just southeast of the little town of Amboy, California, lies a dried-up lake. Dry lakebeds are good sources of two things: salt and dust. In this image, the now-parched Bristol Lake offers up both. On April 12, 2007, dust storms menaced the area around Amboy. To the northwest, near Newberry Springs, California, dust hampered visibility and led to a multi-car collision on Interstate 40, killing two people and injuring several others. The same day, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of a dust storm in the dry remains of Bristol Lake. Many small dust clouds boil up from the ground surface, casting their shadows to the northwest. A bright white cloud floating over the dust also throws its shadow onto the ground below. East of the dust storm are salt works that stand out from the surrounding landscape thanks to their straight lines and sharp angles. Dark ground surfaces alternate with mined white salt in a network of stripes. When lakes evaporate, chemicals that had been dissolved in the water stay behind, making dry lake beds an ideal place to find heavy concentrations of minerals, including salt. Besides the salt works, something else appears in stark contrast to this arid place. Lush green fields of irrigated crops appear in the east. Besides their color, their orderly arrangement reveals their human-made origin.

  8. Dust ablation in Pluto's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Based on measurements by dust detectors onboard the Pioneer 10/11 and New Horizons spacecraft the total production rate of dust particles born in the Edgeworth Kuiper Belt (EKB) has been be estimated to be on the order of 5 ṡ 103 kg/s in the approximate size range of 1 - 10 μm. Dust particles are produced by collisions between EKB objects and their bombardment by both interplanetary and interstellar dust particles. Dust particles of EKB origin, in general, migrate towards the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag but their distributions are further sculpted by mean-motion resonances as they first approach the orbit of Neptune and later the other planets, as well as mutual collisions. Subsequently, Jupiter will eject the vast majority of them before they reach the inner solar system. The expected mass influx into Pluto atmosphere is on the order of 200 kg/day, and the arrival speed of the incoming particles is on the order of 3 - 4 km/s. We have followed the ablation history as function of speed and size of dust particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and found that volatile rich particles can fully sublimate due to drag heating and deposit their mass in narrow layers. This deposition might promote the formation of the haze layers observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. This talk will explore the constraints on the composition of the dust particles by comparing the altitude of the deposition layers to the observed haze layers.

  9. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  10. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  11. Saharan dust episodes and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Basagaña, Xavier; Figueras, Francesc; Amoly, Elmira; Tobias, Aurelio; de Nazelle, Audrey; Querol, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    Desert dust is one of the natural contributors to atmospheric particulate matter worldwide. Although particulate pollution has been shown to adversely affect pregnancy, the available evidence on the impact of dust episodes on pregnancy is very scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Saharan dust episodes on pregnancy complications (preeclampsia and bacteriuria) and outcomes (birth weight and gestational age at delivery). This study was based on a cohort of births (N = 3565) that occurred in a major university hospital in Barcelona during 2003-2005. To determine Saharan dust episodes, we developed a two-stage approach based on meteorological evidence of the presence of Saharan dust cloud over the region and unusually high levels of particulate levels on the ground while taking account of traffic sources. The associations between the number of Saharan dust episodes during whole pregnancy as well as each pregnancy trimester and pregnancy complications and outcomes were analysed. There were 152 days (out of 838 days) with Saharan dust cloud over the region from which 45 days were determined as episodic days. We did not observe any statistically significant harmful effect of Saharan dust episodes on our included pregnancy complications and outcomes. However, we observed a small but statistically significant increase in gestational age at delivery in association with the number of episodic days during the third trimester and whole pregnancy (0.8 and 0.5 days respectively). Our findings were not suggestive for any adverse effect of Saharan dust episodes on our included pregnancy complications and outcomes. PMID:21964628

  12. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... US Border Regions US Southwest Locations Abandoned Mines Agricultural Runoff Airplanes and Air Travel Algae Blooms Animal ... Links from MedlinePlus (National Library of Medicine) Air Pollution Asthma Valley Fever More Links Dust Control On ...

  13. Dust Acoustic Wave Excitation in a Plasma with Warm Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Thomas, E., Jr.; Marcus, L.; Fisher, R.; Williams, J. D.; Merlino, R. L.

    2008-11-01

    Measurements of the dust acoustic wave dispersion relation in dusty plasmas formed in glow discharges at the University of Iowa [1] and Auburn University [2] have shown the importance of finite dust temperature effects. The effect of dust grains with large thermal speeds was taken into account using kinetic theory of the ion-dust streaming instability [3]. The results of analytic and numerical calculations of the dispersion relation based on the kinetic theory will be presented and compared with the experimental results. [1] E. Thomas, Jr., R. Fisher, and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Plasmas 14, 123701 (2007). [2] J. D. Williams, E. Thomas Jr., and L. Marcus, Phys. Plasmas 15, 043704 (2008). [3] M. Rosenberg, E. Thomas Jr., and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Plasmas 15, 073701 (2008).

  14. Triton's streaks as windblown dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Chyba, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Explanations for the surface streaks observed by Voyager 2 on Triton's southern hemisphere are discussed. It is shown that, despite Triton's tenuous atmosphere, low-cohesion dust trains with diameters of about 5 micron or less may be carried into suspension by aeolian surface shear stress, given expected geostrophic wind speeds of about 10 m/s. For geyser-like erupting dust plumes, it is shown that dust-settling time scales and expected wind velocities can produce streaks with length scales in good agreement with those of the streaks. Thus, both geyserlike eruptions or direct lifting by surface winds appear to be viable mechanisms for the origin of the streaks.

  15. IgE but not IgG4 Antibodies to Ara h 2 Distinguish Peanut Allergy from Asymptomatic Peanut Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Kumar, Rajesh; Liu, Rong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Guoying; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no available clinical tests that can accurately predict peanut allergy (PA) and/or anaphylaxis. This study is aimed at evaluating whether the component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) IgE and IgG4 tests can 1) distinguish PA from asymptomatic peanut sensitization; and 2) differentiate anaphylactic vs. non-anaphylactic PA. Methods This study included 20 non-atopic controls, 58 asymptomatically peanut-sensitized children, 55 non-anaphylactic and 53 anaphylactic PA cases from the Chicago Food Allergy Study. IgE and IgG4 to 103 allergens were measured using the ImmunoCAP ISAC technology, and were compared among each group of children. The random forest test was applied to estimate each allergen’s ability to predict PA and/or peanut anaphylaxis. Results PA cases (with or without anaphylaxis) had significantly higher IgE reactivity to Ara h 1–3 (peanut allergens) and Gly m 5–6 (soy allergens) than asymptomatically-sensitized children (p<0.00001). Similar but more modest relationships were found for IgG4 to Ara h 2 (p<0.01). IgE to Ara h 2 was the major contributor to accurate discrimination between PA and asymptomatic sensitization. With an optimal cutoff point of 0.65 ISU-E, it conferred 99.1% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, and a 1.2% misclassification rate in the prediction of PA, which represented a higher discriminative accuracy than IgE to whole peanut extract (p=0.008). However, none of the IgE and/or IgG4 tests could significantly differentiate peanut anaphylaxis from non-anaphylactic PA. Conclusions IgE to Ara h 2 can efficiently differentiate clinical PA from asymptomatic peanut sensitization, which may represent a major step forward in the diagnosis of PA. PMID:23094689

  16. Enhanced expression of neuropeptide S (NPS) receptor in eosinophils from severe asthmatics and subjects with total IgE above 100IU/ml.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; James, Anna; Moilanen, Eeva; Pulkkinen, Ville; Daham, Kameran; Saarelainen, Seppo; Laitinen, Tarja; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Kere, Juha; Dahlén, Barbro; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are inflammatory cells of particular relevance to asthma exacerbations. Neuropeptide S (NPS) receptor was identified in a search for asthma susceptibility genes, where the risk haplotypes of the NPS receptor gene associated with total serum IgE above 100IU/ml and asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare expression of NPS receptor in human peripheral blood eosinophils derived from subjects with total serum IgE above and below 100IU/ml and patients with different phenotypes of asthma. Additionally, we aimed to study the function of NPS receptor in human eosinophils. We found higher NPS receptor protein expression in eosinophils derived from subjects with high IgE when compared to those from subjects with low IgE and the level of NPS receptor positively correlated with serum IgE. NPS receptor expression was also higher in eosinophils from patients with severe asthma than in cells from mild asthmatics or healthy controls. The receptor agonist NPS was a chemotactic agent for eosinophils. NPS also increased N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated CD11b integrin levels in eosinophils from subjects with high IgE. Furthermore, eosinophils from those subjects exhibited Ca(2+) mobilization but not cAMP rise in response to NPS. Altogether, NPS receptor may have a pathological role in individuals with severe asthma and/or elevated serum IgE levels as eosinophils from these patients express higher levels of NPS receptor protein and respond to NPS by enhanced migration and adhesion molecule expression. PMID:24239856

  17. Extra-intestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: related to high total IgE levels and atopic sensitization?

    PubMed

    Vara, Ellen Johanne; Valeur, Jørgen; Hausken, Trygve; Lied, Gülen Arslan

    2016-08-01

    Objective We have previously found that high levels of total IgE, but not atopic sensitization, was a significant predictor for functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of extra-intestinal symptoms in IBS patients, and explore their relation to total IgE levels and atopic sensitization. Materials and methods Seventy-one patients with functional GI complaints were included. Severity of GI symptoms, fatigue and musculoskeletal pain was evaluated using the following questionnaires: IBS-Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS), Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), FibroFatigue Scale (FFS), and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) for musculoskeletal pain. Levels of total IgE and specific IgE-antibodies were analyzed. Results Fatigue and musculoskeletal pain were demonstrated in 78.9 and 43.7% of the patients, respectively. IBS-SSS scores were significantly correlated with fatigue scores and musculoskeletal pain. Patients with fatigue and musculoskeletal pain had significantly higher IBS-SSS scores than patients without fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in IBS patients compared to a healthy control group from a previous study. However, neither total IgE nor atopic sensitization was significantly associated with extra-intestinal symptoms. Conclusions IBS, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain were significantly associated. Total IgE levels were higher in IBS patients than healthy controls, but not related to intestinal or extra-intestinal symptom severity. Atopy was not associated with any of the co-morbidities. Thus, the clinical significance of high IgE levels in IBS remains unclear and further studies are warranted to explore a common underlying mechanism for the co-morbid triad of IBS, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain. PMID:27161383

  18. Label-free electrochemical IgE aptasensor based on covalent attachment of aptamer onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid/chitosan nanocomposite modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Khezrian, Somayeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Teymourian, Hazhir; Hallaj, Rahman

    2013-05-15

    A simple, sensitive and label-free aptamer-based biosensor for the detection of human immunoglobulin E (IgE) is developed using the electrochemical transduction method. A special immobilization interface consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid/chitosan nanocomposite (MWCNTs/IL/Chit) is utilized to improve the conductivity and performance characteristics of the biosensor as well as to increase the loading amount of aptamer DNA sequence. A 5'-amino-terminated aptamer is covalently attached onto MWCNTs/IL/Chit modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode via a linker of glutaraldehyde (GA). Methylene blue (MB) is used as an electrochemical indicator which is intercalated into the aptamer through the specific interaction with its guanine bases. In the absence of IgE, MB bound to the aptamer produces a strong differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) signal. But when IgE exists, the intercalated MB releases from the aptamer, resulting an obviously decreased DPV signal. This phenomenon can be applied for human IgE detection. The peak current of MB linearly decreases with the concentration of IgE over a range of 0.5-30 nM with a detection limit of 37 pM. By using Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme, the excellent specificity of this sensing system for the detection of IgE is also demonstrated. Finally, the proposed aptasensor is successfully used to IgE analysis in human serum sample. The obtained result is well agreed with the value obtained by the standard ELISA method. The herein described approach is expected to promote the exploitation of aptamer-based biosensors for protein assays in biochemical and biomedical studies. PMID:23313881

  19. Test of a theory relating to the cross-linking of IgE antibody on the surface of human basophils

    SciTech Connect

    MacGlashan, D.W. Jr.; Dembo, M.; Goldstein, B.

    1985-12-01

    Recent mathematical models of bivalent hapten-induced histamine release from basophils predict that under appropriate conditions histamine release is maximum when cross-link formation is maximum, at a hapten concentration equal to 1/(2K/sub a/), where K/sub a/ is the average affinity constant of the hapten for a single IgE binding site. To test this prediction the authors sensitized human basophils with a monoclonal anti-dinitrophenol IgE and generated histamine release dose-response curves with a bivalent hapten, ..cap alpha..,epsilon-DNP-lysine. The monoclonal IgE has a published affinity constant of 7.1 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ for epsilon-DNP-lysine as determined by equilibrium dialysis. From the position of the maximum of the histamine dose-response curves, both in the presence and in the absence of monovalent DNP hapten, the authors determine that the sensitizing IgE has an intrinsic affinity constant of 6.9 +/- 0.5 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ for such that-DNP-lysine and 1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ for ..cap alpha..-DNP-lysine. The agreement between the two estimates of the epsilon-DNP-lysine affinity constant, one from histamine release experiments involving surface bound IgE and one from binding experiments involving IgE free in solution, 1) is consistent with a central prediction of the theory of cross-linking and 2) indicates that the hapten-binding properties of the IgE are unaffected by its being bound to Fc/sub epsilon/ receptors on the basophil surface. 30 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Down-modulation of antigen-induced activation of murine cultured mast cells sensitized with a highly cytokinergic IgE clone.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Mariko; Kurimune, Yuki; Yamada, Keiko; Hyodo, Nao; Natsuhara, Mayuko; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that several IgE clones can activate mast cells during the sensitization phase even in the absence of antigen. They were found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine release, histamine synthesis, chemotaxis, adhesion, and accelerated maturation of mast cells, although it remains unknown whether antigen-induced responses can be affected by differences of IgE clones. We compared two IgE clones, which were different in the capacity to activate mast cells during sensitization, in terms of potentials to affect antigen-induced degranulation and cytokine releases using IL-3-dependent murine bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs). Antigen-induced degranulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were augmented, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone IgE-3, which did not induce phosphorylation of JNK and cytokine release in the absence of antigen, whereas those were significantly rather decreased, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone SPE-7, one of the most potent cytokinergic IgE clones, which intensively induced phosphorylation of JNK. This attenuated response with SPE-7 was accompanied by decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the cellular proteins including Syk upon antigen stimulation. SP600125, which is known to inhibit JNK, restored the levels of antigen-induced degranulation and phosphorylation of Syk in BMMCs sensitized with higher concentrations of a clone SPE-7 when it was added before sensitization. Treatment with anisomycin, a potent activator of JNK, before IgE sensitization significantly suppressed antigen-induced degranulation. These findings suggest that differences of sensitizing IgE clones can affect antigen-induced responses and activation of JNK during sensitization might suppress antigen-induced activation of mast cells. PMID:27060497

  1. Characterization of indoor home vacuum dust allergens and serum based allergen specific IgE levels in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study was conducted in the Detroit, Michigan area during fall to early winter 2006-2007. Children from 9-13 years of age were recruited into a cross-sectional study to examine biological markers of exposure, effects, and susce...

  2. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  3. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  4. 7 CFR 2902.32 - Dust suppressants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dust suppressants. 2902.32 Section 2902.32... Items § 2902.32 Dust suppressants. (a) Definition. Products formulated to reduce or eliminate the spread of dust associated with gravel roads, dirt parking lots, or similar sources of dust,...

  5. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  6. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  7. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  8. How much dust does Enceladus eject?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Sascha; Southworth, Benjamin; Schmidt, Juergen; Srama, Ralf; Postberg, Frank

    2016-04-01

    There is an ongoing argument how much dust per second the ice volcanoes on Saturn's ice moon eject. By adjusting their plume model to the dust flux measured by the Cassini dust detector during the close Enceladus flyby in 2005, Schmidt et al. (2008) obtained a total dust production rate in the plumes of about

  9. How much dust does Enceladus eject?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Sascha; Srama, Ralf; Postberg, Frank; Schmidt, Juergen

    2016-07-01

    There is an ongoing argument how much dust per second the ice volcanoes on Saturn's ice moon eject. By adjusting their plume model to the dust flux measured by the Cassini dust detector during the close Enceladus flyby in 2005, Schmidt et al. (2008) obtained a total dust production rate in the plumes of about

  10. Development of an electrostatic dust detector for tungsten dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, D.; Hammond, K.; Roquemore, L.; Skinner, C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Next-step fusion reactors, such as ITER, are expected to have large quantities of dust that will present hazards that have yet to be encountered in current fusion devices. To manage the amount of dust within the reactors a real-time dust detector must be implemented to ensure that dust does not reach hazardous levels. An electrostatic device that accomplishes this has already been tested on NSTX and Tore Supra [1,2]. We will present modifications of this device to improve its ruggedness to withstand the conditions that will be present in ITER. The detector consists of two tungsten wires wrapped around a macor cylinder that are biased at 100-300 V. Incident dust causes a measurable transient short circuit. Initial results have demonstrated the detection of tungsten particles. We will also present a potential method of electrostatic cleaning of residual dust from the detector.[4pt] [1] C. H. Skinner et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum., 81, 10E102 (2010)[0pt] [2] H. Roche et al., Phys. Scr., T145, (2011).

  11. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  12. Dust and the Dust Bowl: Connections between 1930's drought and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Sloan, L. C.; Solmon, F.; Snyder, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    There have been a number of investigations into the causes and physical mechanisms of the 1930's Dust Bowl, and together they provide a reasonable explanation of the drought in terms of its length and severity. However no published investigations have considered the possible climatic effects caused by the considerable amount of airborne dust that was generated as a consequence of poor land use management in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In order to investigate the effects of airborne dust on North American climate during the 1930's, we have performed a climate model sensitivity study that isolates the effects of dust on climate in a regional climate model. The results of the study show that an essentially permanent dust cloud existed over North America through the duration of the drought. The dust cloud, which we show was quite thick over its center in the Midwest, blocked enough solar radiation to reduce surface temperatures by about 1 K. In addition, we show that a complex feedback between dust and drought caused a spatial redistribution of precipitation, in which various regions gained or lost an average of about 1 mm/day of precipitation.

  13. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  14. Dust storms - Great Plains, Africa, and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woiceshyn, P. M.; Krauss, R.; Minzner, R.; Shenk, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dust storms in the Great Plains of North America and in the Sahara Desert are analyzed on the basis of imagery from the geostationary Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. The onset time, location and areal extent of the dust storms are studied. Over land surfaces, contrast enhancement techniques are needed to obtain an adequate picture of dust storm development. In addition, infrared imagery may provide a means of monitoring the strong horizontal temperature gradients characteristic of dust cloud boundaries. Analogies between terrestrial dust storms and the airborne rivers of dust created by major Martian dust storms are also drawn.

  15. The Martian dust cycle: A proposed model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of study of martian dust storms, many of their characteristics and associated processes remain enigmatic, including the mechanisms for dust raising, modes of settling, and the nature of dust deposits. However, observations of Mars dust, considerations of terrestrial analogs, theoretical models, and laboratory simulations permit the formulation of a Martian Dust Cycle Model, which consists of three main processes: (1) suspension threshold, (2) transportation, and (3) deposition; two associated processes are also included: (4) dust removal and (5) the addition of new dust to the cycle. Although definitions vary, dust includes particles less than 4 to approx. 60 microns in diameter, which by terrestrial usage includes silt, loess, clay, and aerosolic dust particles. The dust cycle model is explained.

  16. Atmospheric dust and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

  17. Dust in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Described is the use of a commercial computer software package, "Dust," to enhance mathematical learning in the classroom. Samples of mathematics problems presented in this game which is a simulation of an adventure in outer space are presented. (CW)

  18. KEEPING DUST UNDER THE CARPET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of civil engineering fabrics applied to fugitive dust problems. The fabrics, commonly used for ground stabilization, subsurface drainage, railroad construction and maintenance, sediment control, and erosion control, are available from Celanese, ...

  19. Dunes and Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-352, 6 May 2003

    March 6, 2003, is the first day of spring in the martian southern hemisphere. As spring progresses in the south, dust devils will begin to form and sweep up some of the veneer of bright dust that accumulated during the recent autumn and winter seasons.

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows sand dunes in Wirtz Crater. The dark streaks that criss-cross each dune were probably formed by passing dust devils that disrupted or removed some of the thin layer of dust that coats the dunes. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide near 48.3oS, 25.4oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  20. Laser Doppler dust devil measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Jeffreys, H. B.; Kaufman, J. W.; Weaver, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning laser doppler velocimeter (SLDV) system was used to detect, track, and measure the velocity flow field of naturally occurring tornado-like flows (dust devils) in the atmosphere. A general description of the dust devil phenomenon is given along with a description of the test program, measurement system, and data processing techniques used to collect information on the dust devil flow field. The general meteorological conditions occurring during the test program are also described, and the information collected on two selected dust devils are discussed in detail to show the type of information which can be obtained with a SLDV system. The results from these measurements agree well with those of other investigators and illustrate the potential for the SLDV in future endeavors.

  1. Damping of dust-acoustic waves due to dust-dust interactions in dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, U.; Shukla, P. K.

    1998-08-01

    The results of a kinetic model are presented which includes dust-dust collisions as a damping mechanism for the low-phase velocity dust-acoustic waves which have been observed [Pieper and Goree, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1976) 3137] in a dusty plasma device. A comparison of our theoretical results with those of observations exhibits a good agreement, and it also leads to quantitative estimates that are close to the predictions of the modified fluid theory, which has introduced a damping rate in an ad hoc manner.

  2. Photoelectric Charging of Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sickafoose, A.; Colwell, J.; Horanyi, M.; Robertson, S.; Walch, B.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed on the photoelectric charging of dust particles which are either isolated or adjacent to a surface that is also a photoemitter. We find that zinc dust charges to a positive potential of a few volts when isolated in vacuum and that it charges to a negative potential of a few volts when passed by a photoemitting surface. The illumination is an arc lamp emitting wavelengths longer than 200 nm and the emitting surface is a zirconium foil.

  3. Increased levels of IgE and autoreactive, polyreactive IgG in wild rodents: implications for the hygiene hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Devalapalli, A.P.; Lesher, A.; Shieh, K.; Solow, J.S.; Everett, M.L.; Edala, A.S.; Whitt, P.; Long, Renee R.; Newton, N.; Parker, W.

    2006-01-01

    To probe the potential role of Th1 versus Th2 reactivity underlying the hygiene hypothesis, intrinsic levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated antibodies in the serum of wild rodents were compared with that in various strains of laboratory rodents. Studies using rat lung antigens as a target indicated that wild rats have substantially greater levels of autoreactive, polyreactive immunoglobulin G (IgG), but not autoreactive, polyreactive IgM than do laboratory rats, both on a quantitative and qualitative basis. Increased levels of serum IgG and IgE were observed in both wild rats and wild mice relative to their laboratory-raised counterparts, with the effect being most pronounced for IgE levels. Further, wild rats had greater intrinsic levels of both Th1- and Th2-associated IgG subclasses than did lab rats. The habitat (wild versus laboratory raised) had a more substantial impact on immunoglobulin concentration than did age, strain or gender in the animals studied. The presence in wild rodents of increased intrinsic, presumably protective, non-pathogenic responses similar to both autoimmune (autoreactive IgG, Th1-associated) and allergic (IgE, Th2-associated) reactions as well as increased levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated IgG subclasses points toward a generally increased stimulation of the immune system in these animals rather than a shift in the nature of the immunoreactivity. It is concluded that, at least to the extent that feedback inhibition is a controlling element of immunoreactivity, an overly hygienic environment may affect the threshold of both types of immune responses more so than the balance between the different responses.

  4. Induction of reaginic (IgE) gonococcal antibodies in the rat by a common antigen of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Ashton, F E; Vijay, H M; Lavergne, G; Brodeur, B R; Diena, B B

    1979-02-01

    An antigen (ZAB) common to Neisseria gonorrhoeae was prepared by stepwise elution of a crude gonococcal antigen (ZA) from columns of diethylaminoethyl cellulose employing 0.02 M phosphate buffers, pH 7.6, containing increasing concentrations of sodium chloride. Rats immunized with ZAB produced reaginic (IgE) antibody which cross-reacted with ZA prepared from eight gonococcal strains by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test. Heating of the sera at 56 degrees C for 4 h destroyed the PCA activity. The PCA activity of the anti-ZAB rat serum was removed after absorption with ZAB antigen or with rabbit anti-rat IgE but not after absorption with gonococcal lipopolysaccharide or with heat-killed or formalinized gonococci. Treatment of ZAB with trypsin or heating at 100 degrees C for 30 min destroyed or reduced the antigenic activity respectively. Further purification of ZAB by filtration through Sephadex G-100 gave a preparation (ZAB2) which contained the common antigen as shown by the cross-reactivity of anti-ZAB2 rat serum with seven stains of N. gonorrhoeae. Fraction ZAB2 contained material which had a molecular weight less than 13,700 and was associated with the presence of material absorbing at 260 nm. The results of this study indicate that a low molecular weight antigen, which appears to be protein in nature and associated with nuclei acid, is common to the gonococcus and is the main antigenic component inducing reaginic (IgE) antibody in the rat. PMID:108009

  5. Cooperative Interactions of Oligosaccharide and Peptide Moieties of a Glycopeptide Derived from IgE with Galectin-9.

    PubMed

    Nakakita, Shin-Ichi; Itoh, Aiko; Nakakita, Yukari; Nonaka, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Takanori; Nishi, Nozomu

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that galectin-9 suppresses degranulation of mast cells through protein-glycan interaction with IgE. To elucidate the mechanism of the interaction in detail, we focused on identification and structural analysis of IgE glycans responsible for the galectin-9-induced suppression using mouse monoclonal IgE (TIB-141). TIB-141 in combination with the antigen induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells, which was almost completely inhibited by human and mouse galectin-9. Sequential digestion of TIB-141 with lysyl endopeptidase and trypsin resulted in the identification of a glycopeptide (H-Lys13-Try3; 48 amino acid residues) with a single N-linked oligosaccharide near the N terminus capable of neutralizing the effect of galectin-9 and another glycopeptide with two N-linked oligosaccharides (H-Lys13-Try1; 16 amino acid residues) having lower activity. Enzymatic elimination of the oligosaccharide chain from H-Lys13-Try3 and H-Lys13-Try1 completely abolished the activity. Removal of the C-terminal 38 amino acid residues of H-Lys13-Try3 with glutamyl endopeptidase, however, also resulted in loss of the activity. We determined the structures of N-linked oligosaccharides of H-Lys13-Try1. The galectin-9-binding fraction of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides contained asialo- and monosialylated bi/tri-antennary complex type oligosaccharides with a core fucose residue. The structures of the oligosaccharides were consistent with the sugar-binding specificity of galectin-9, whereas the nonbinding fraction contained monosialylated and disialylated biantennary complex type oligosaccharides with a core fucose residue. Although the oligosaccharides linked to H-Lys13-Try3 could not be fully characterized, these results indicate the possibility that cooperative binding of oligosaccharide and neighboring polypeptide structures of TIB-141 to galectin-9 affects the overall affinity and specificity of the IgE-lectin interaction. PMID:26582205

  6. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Jinyoung; Hahn, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Young-Bok; Yu, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, -173 G to C and -794 CATT5-8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The -173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs) for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF -794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the -173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the -794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of allergen-specific IgE

  7. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments.

    PubMed

    Kwaasi, A A; Parhar, R S; al-Mohanna, F A; Harfi, H A; Collison, K S; al-Sedairy, S T

    1998-03-01

    Aeroallergens and antigens in sandstorm dust, extracts of which were skin prick test (SPT) positive in allergic patients, were detected by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Fungi and bacteria isolated by agar settle plates and soil dilution and soil washing methods were enumerated and identified. Cat dander, Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chenopodium, Cladosporium, Bermuda grass, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rumex, cultivated rye, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detected by both methods. Viable microbes including 1892 +/- 325 colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria, and 869 +/- 75 cfu of fungi were isolated per gram of dust by the soil dilution method. Randomly selected microbial colonies on streaking and subculture were found to consist of between two and seven mixed colonies. Fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Mucor, Mycelia sterilia, Penicillium, Pythium, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and some yeasts were isolated. Actinomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were identified, but the bulk of unidentified bacterial isolates were mainly mixed colonies of rods, cocci, coccobacilli, and some filamentous types. Six-hour agar settle-plate counts during sandstorms were 100 and 40% higher for bacteria and fungi, respectively, than without sandstorms. The most abundant aeroallergens were those of Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bermuda grass, Cladosporium, cultivated rye, Prosopis, and cat dander. Pithecellobium dulce, Rumex crispus, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detectable for the first time in Riyadh. IgE reactivities of the dust in man were demonstrated by ELISA using sera from atopic, exposed, and normal subjects. These results indicate that sandstorm dust is a prolific source of potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments, and the methods mentioned here should be routinely used for quick sampling of the environment. PMID:9542605

  8. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  9. Downflow dust filter

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, K.L.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes an industrial dust filter apparatus comprising: a housing including upper, intermediate and lower sections, the upper section having a top opening inlet for particulate laden gases and the lower section tapering downwardly to a particulate outlet; a plurality of vertically arranged substantially cylindrical filters supported in substantially parallel relationship to each other in the intermediate section of the housing, the filters being closed at their upper ends and having their exterior filter surfaces exposed to particulate laden gases from the inlet; at least one horizontal duct extending across the housing beneath the filters, closed at one end and opening at its other end to a clean gas outlet through a side wall of the intermediate housing section; means communicating the lower open end of the filters through the upper walls of the duct so that the duct functions as a clean gas plenum; a plurality of verturis, vertically supported in the duct, on aligned with each filter; and means in the duct for pulse firing a jet of air upwardly through the venturis into the interior of the filters to remove particulates from the outer surfaces thereof.

  10. The Student Dust Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Bagenal, F.; Finley, T.; Christensen, F.; Holland, G.; Bryant, C.; Bunch, N.; Neeland, M.; Chanthawanich, T.; Fernandez, A.; Hoxie, V.; Jenkins, A.; Vaudrin, C.; Krauss, E.; Krauss, O.; Crayton, J.; James, D.; Krauss, C.; Mitchell, C.; Colgan, M.; Grogan, B.; Christofferson, J.

    2005-12-01

    This talk will describe the scientific goals, the technical, and the human challenges of the Student Dust Counter (SDC) experiment for the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) organized a team of students to design, fabricate, test, calibrate, and fly SDC, one of seven science instruments onboard New Horizons. The student team was responsible for all phases of this development under the supervision of LASP professionals. Both undergraduate and graduate students worked on this project, representing a variety of disciplines, including Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science, Physics, Journalism, and Business. The SDC project is part of the EPO effort of the New Horizons mission. Though it is a student project, the requirements for passing all standard NASA milestones for reviews were identical to other experiments. The students performed at a professional level and SDC was delivered on time and within budget. It is now integrated to the spacecraft awaiting the scheduled launch in January of 2006. To date, SDC provided a group of about 20 students an opportunity to learn first hand how to build instruments, and graduate with years of experience in space exploration.

  11. Patterns of IgE responses to multiple allergen components and clinical symptoms at age 11 years

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Angela; Lazic, Nevena; Belgrave, Danielle C.M.; Johnson, Phil; Bishop, Christopher; Mills, Clare; Custovic, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between sensitization to allergens and disease is complex. Objective We sought to identify patterns of response to a broad range of allergen components and investigate associations with asthma, eczema, and hay fever. Methods Serum specific IgE levels to 112 allergen components were measured by using a multiplex array (Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip) in a population-based birth cohort. Latent variable modeling was used to identify underlying patterns of component-specific IgE responses; these patterns were then related to asthma, eczema, and hay fever. Results Two hundred twenty-one of 461 children had IgE to 1 or more components. Seventy-one of the 112 components were recognized by 3 or more children. By using latent variable modeling, 61 allergen components clustered into 3 component groups (CG1, CG2, and CG3); protein families within each CG were exclusive to that group. CG1 comprised 27 components from 8 plant protein families. CG2 comprised 7 components of mite allergens from 3 protein families. CG3 included 27 components of plant, animal, and fungal origin from 12 protein families. Each CG included components from different biological sources with structural homology and also nonhomologous proteins arising from the same biological source. Sensitization to CG3 was most strongly associated with asthma (odds ratio [OR], 8.20; 95% CI, 3.49-19.24; P < .001) and lower FEV1 (P < .001). Sensitization to CG1 was associated with hay fever (OR, 12.79; 95% CI, 6.84-23.90; P < .001). Sensitization to CG2 was associated with both asthma (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 2.05-6.29) and hay fever (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.38-4.61). Conclusions Latent variable modeling with a large number of allergen components identified 3 patterns of IgE responses, each including different protein families. In 11-year-old children the pattern of response to components of multiple allergens appeared to be associated with current asthma and hay fever but not eczema. PMID

  12. Serum IgE, tumor epidermal growth factor receptor expression, and inherited polymorphisms associated with glioma survival.

    PubMed

    Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John K; Wiemels, Joe; Miike, Rei; Patoka, Joe; Moghadassi, Michelle; McMillan, Alex; Kelsey, Karl T; Aldape, Kenneth; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Parsa, Andrew T; Sison, Jennette D; Prados, Michael D

    2006-04-15

    In population-based glioma patients, we examined survival in relation to potentially pertinent constitutive polymorphisms, serologic factors, and tumor genetic and protein alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MDM2, and TP53. Subjects were newly diagnosed adults residing in the San Francisco Bay Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Area during 1991 to 1994 and 1997 to 1999 with central neuropathology review (n = 873). Subjects provided blood for serologic studies of IgE and IgG to four herpes viruses and constitutive specimens for genotyping 22 polymorphisms in 13 genes (n = 471). We obtained 595 of 697 astrocytic tumors for marker studies. We determined treatments, vital status, and other factors using registry, interview, medical record, and active follow-up data. Cox regressions for survival were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, study series, resection versus biopsy only, radiation, and chemotherapy. Using a stringent P < 0.001, glioma survival was associated with ERCC1 C8092A [hazard ratio (HR), 0.72; 95% confidence limits (95% CL), 0.60-0.86; P = 0.0004] and GSTT1 deletion (HR, 1.64; 95% CL, 1.25-2.16; P = 0.0004); glioblastoma patients with elevated IgE had 9 months longer survival than those with normal or borderline IgE levels (HR, 0.62; 95% CL, 0.47-0.82; P = 0.0007), and EGFR expression in anaplastic astrocytoma was associated with nearly 3-fold poorer survival (HR, 2.97; 95% CL, 1.70-5.19; P = 0.0001). Based on our and others' findings, we recommend further studies to (a) understand relationships of elevated IgE levels and other immunologic factors with improved glioblastoma survival potentially relevant to immunologic therapies and (b) determine which inherited ERCC1 variants or other variants in the 19q13.3 region influence survival. We also suggest that tumor EGFR expression be incorporated into clinical evaluation of anaplastic astrocytoma patients. PMID:16618782

  13. What are the main environmental exposures associated with elevated IgE in Cuban infants? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Venero-Fernández, Silvia J; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Mora-Faife, Esperanza de la C; García-García, Gladys; del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Venn, Andrea; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a key role in allergy disease pathogenesis, but little is known about the environmental factors associated with higher IgE levels in infants. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for elevated serum total IgE infants living in Havana. Methods Eight hundred and seventy-seven infants provided blood samples. Data on allergic disease symptoms and a wide range of exposures were collected. Results The median IgE was 35IU/ml (interquartile range 13–96). The risk of having an IgE level above the median was higher for children who had been breastfed for 4 months or more (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.61) and for children who reported cockroaches in their home (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03–1.63). The risk was lower for children whose mother was in paid employment (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54–0.97 compared with those who did not), for children living in homes where gas and electricity were used for cooking (OR 0.45; 95% CI: 0.32–0.62 compared with electricity only) and for children with domestic pets at birth (OR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-1.00). There was no association between paracetamol use and serum IgE levels. Conclusions Associations between gas fuel use and maternal employment indicate that IgE levels in early life are lower in children who may be living in relative affluence. The discrepancy in the effect of early exposure to pets or cockroaches may reflect differences in these allergens, or be confounded by relative affluence. Further investigation of this cohort will determine how these effects translate into the expression of allergic disease in later life. Objectif Les immunoglobulines E (IgE) jouent un rôle clé dans la pathogenèse de la maladie allergique, mais on sait peu sur les facteurs environnementaux associés à des taux plus élevés d'IgE chez les nourrissons. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs de risque pour un taux élevé d'IgE s

  14. Fucoidan prevents C{epsilon} germline transcription and NF{kappa}B p52 translocation for IgE production in B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oomizu, Souichi; Yanase, Yuhki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kameyoshi, Yoshikazu; Hide, Michihiro . E-mail: mhide@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2006-11-24

    Fucoidan, a dietary fiber contained in seaweed, reduces the increase of antigen-specific IgE in mice exposed to ovalbumin. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on IgE production and intracellular events in B cells in vitro. Fucoidan inhibited the production of IgE and C{epsilon} germline transcription in murine B cells induced by IL-4 (100 ng/ml) and anti-CD40 antibodies (10 {mu}g/ml), whereas it stimulated cell proliferation. A significant effect of fucoidan on IgE production was observed when B cells were stimulated with a higher dose (5 {mu}g/ml) of anti-CD40 antibodies, but not when stimulated with lower doses (1.25, 2.5 {mu}g/ml), regardless of the IL-4 concentrations. Moreover, nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B p52, but neither that of NF{kappa}B p65, nor the phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT6 was reduced by fucoidan. These results suggest that fucoidan inhibited IgE production by preventing the NF{kappa}B p52-mediated pathways activated by CD40.

  15. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, N. Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism. PMID:26163514

  16. Effect of walnut (Juglans regia) polyphenolic compounds on ovalbumin-specific IgE induction in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Gershwin, Laurel J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    English walnuts are implicated in severe, IgE-mediated food allergy in humans. We sought to determine if polyphenolic compounds extracted from the edible nut could promote IgE production to a coadministered allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) with or without alum (AL) or polyphenolic-enriched extract via intraperitoneal injection. Serum was analyzed for total IgE and OVA-specific IgE, IgG(1,) and IgG(2a/2b). Coadministration of walnut polyphenolic-enriched extract with antigen and AL increased serum concentrations of antigen-specific IgE and IgG(1). When AL was excluded from the injections, polyphenolic extract tended to enhance OVA-specific IgE and IgG(1) over levels induced by OVA alone, but the increase did not reach significance. Serum IgG(2a/2b) levels were similar between mice receiving OVA/AL and OVA/AL with polyphenolics. Thus, walnut polyphenolic extract enhanced the Th2-skewing effect of an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. This indicates that walnut polyphenolic compounds may play a role in allergic sensitization of genetically predisposed individuals. PMID:20388137

  17. Structural Basis of IgE Binding to α- and γ-Gliadins: Contribution of Disulfide Bonds and Repetitive and Nonrepetitive Domains.

    PubMed

    Mameri, Hamza; Brossard, Chantal; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Gohon, Yann; Paty, Evelyne; Beaudouin, Etienne; Moneret-Vautrin, Denise-Anne; Drouet, Martine; Solé, Véronique; Wien, Frank; Lupi, Roberta; Larré, Colette; Snégaroff, Jacques; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-07-29

    Wheat products cause IgE-mediated allergies. The present study aimed to decipher the molecular basis of α- and γ-gliadin allergenicity. Gliadins and their domains, the repetitive N-terminal and the nonrepetitive C-terminal domains, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Their secondary structures and their IgE binding capacity were compared with those of natural proteins before and after reduction/alkylation. Allergenicity was evaluated with sera from patients who had a wheat food allergy or baker's asthma. The secondary structures of natural and recombinant proteins were slightly different. Compared with natural gliadins, recombinant proteins retained IgE binding but with reduced reactivity. Reduction/alkylation decreased IgE binding for both natural and recombinant gliadins. Although more continuous epitopes were identified in the N-terminal domains of α- and γ-gliadins, both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains contributed to IgE binding. As for other members of the prolamin superfamily, disulfide bonds appear to be of high importance for IgE binding. PMID:26186140

  18. Regulation of DTH and IgE responses by IL-4 and IFN-gamma in immunized mice given pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Mu, H H; Sewell, W A

    1994-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) are cytokines with important functions in regulating immune responses. IFN-gamma may be produced by cells responsible for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), whereas IL-4 is essential for IgE production. Pertussis toxin (PT) from Bordetella pertussis enhances both DTH and IgE responses, and causes enhancement of both IFN-gamma and IL-4 secretion in immunized mice. In the present study, the effects of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against IFN-gamma or IL-4 on DTH, serum IgE and cytokine production were assessed. Treatment with a monoclonal anti-IL-4 antibody at the time of immunization caused a striking increase in DTH responses, and elicited enhanced IFN-gamma expression, while inhibition of the production of IL-4 and IgE was observed. By contrast, injection of a monoclonal anti-IFN-gamma antibody was followed by significant but not complete suppression of DTH reactions. IFN-gamma secretion was also inhibited, whereas IL-4 production and serum IgE were increased. Thus antibodies to IL-4 and IFN-gamma, given at the time of immunization, can profoundly influence the nature of short-term immune responses elicited by PT in immunized mice. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7875744

  19. Galectin and aldolase-like molecules are responsible for the specific IgE response in humans exposed to Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed

    Pou-Barreto, C; Quispe-Ricalde, M A; Morchón, R; Vázquez, C; Genchi, M; Postigo, I; Valladares, B; Simón, F

    2008-01-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is the agent of the heartworm disease in canids and felids, and of pulmonary dirofilariosis in man. Like other filariae, D. immitis harbours endosymbion Wolbachia bacteriae. In this work we analyse the response of specific IgE antibodies against both D. immitis antigens and the Wolbachia surface protein (WSP) in two groups of persons living in an area of canine endemia, one presenting high levels of total IgE (group 1) and other with normal levels (group 2). Infections with D. immitis were demonstrated by the presence of specific IgG in 228 individuals(48.8%) of the group 1 and only in one of the group 2. Specific IgE antibody response against D. immitis antigens was detected only in individuals of the group 1. IgE response against WSP was not detected in any group. The IgE response was directed mainly against two molecules of 33 and 42 kDa of the antigenic extract of D. immitis. These molecules were identified by mass spectrometry as a galectin and an aldolase, respectively. Their possible role in the survival mechanisms of the parasite and their contribution to development of allergic reactions in individuals resident in areas with heartworm disease are discussed. PMID:19067840

  20. IgE Sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus Is Associated with Reduced Lung Function in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fairs, Abbie; Agbetile, Joshua; Hargadon, Beverley; Bourne, Michelle; Monteiro, William R.; Brightling, Christopher E.; Bradding, Peter; Green, Ruth H.; Mutalithas, Kugathasan; Desai, Dhananjay; Pavord, Ian D.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Pashley, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: The importance of Aspergillus fumigatus sensitization and colonization of the airways in patients with asthma is unclear. Objectives: To define the relationship between the clinical and laboratory features of A. fumigatus–associated asthma. Methods: We studied 79 patients with asthma (89% classed as GINA 4 or 5) classified into 3 groups according to A. fumigatus sensitization: (1) IgE-sensitized (immediate cutaneous reactivity > 3 mm and/or IgE > 0.35 kU/L); (2) IgG-only–sensitized (IgG > 40 mg/L); and (3) nonsensitized. These were compared with 14 healthy control subjects. Sputum culture was focused toward detection of A. fumigatus and compared with clinical assessment data. Measurements and Main Results: A. fumigatus was cultured from 63% of IgE-sensitized patients with asthma (n = 40), 39% of IgG-only–sensitized patients with asthma (n = 13), 31% of nonsensitized patients with asthma (n = 26) and 7% of healthy control subjects (n = 14). Patients sensitized to A. fumigatus compared with nonsensitized patients with asthma had lower lung function (postbronchodilator FEV1 % predicted, mean [SEM]: 68 [±5]% versus 88 [±5]%; P < 0.05), more bronchiectasis (68% versus 35%; P < 0.05), and more sputum neutrophils (median [interquartile range]: 80.9 [50.1–94.1]% versus 49.5 [21.2–71.4]%; P < 0.01). In a multilinear regression model, A. fumigatus–IgE sensitization and sputum neutrophil differential cell count were important predictors of lung function (P = 0.016), supported by culture of A. fumigatus (P = 0.046) and eosinophil differential cell count (P = 0.024). Conclusions: A. fumigatus detection in sputum is associated with A. fumigatus–IgE sensitization, neutrophilic airway inflammation, and reduced lung function. This supports the concept that development of fixed airflow obstruction in asthma is consequent upon the damaging effects of airway colonization with A. fumigatus. PMID:20639442