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Sample records for dutch elm disease

  1. Birds and Dutch elm disease control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    Brief, factual review of information on effect of DDT and other insecticides on birds. One program for control of elm disease caused 22% decrease in number of adult birds and 56% mortality of nestlings. Quail fed 3 oz. of DDT per ton of food had 16% reduction in young hatched and 500% increase in defective chicks. Quail fed same dosage during winter and breeding seasons had 30% decrease in fertile eggs and 800% increase in defective chicks. More than 90% of their chicks died in first 6 weeks although fed no insecticide. Almost equally bad results came from feeding Pheasants diets with about 1 oz. DDT per ton. Other common insecticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons) also caused lowered chick survival and higher percentages of crippled chicks. From field data we know that 2 lbs. DDT/acre can affect birds and has even worse effects on cold-blooded animals. Efforts to control elm disease have left as much as 196 lbs. DDT/acre in top 3 inches of soil. Earthworms concentrate DDT in their tissues. Thus the treated areas can be traps for birds and other animals. What can be done? 1) In control of elm disease, use minimum effective amount of insecticide; mist blowers use less than sprayers. 2) Avoid applications during migration and nesting seasons. It has been reported that adequate control can be obtained with dormant sprays and that foliar applications may not be required. Tables of this paper show effects of DDT on reproduction of Quail, relative toxicity to quail of 8 insecticides, and amounts of 7 insecticides required to cause 40% or more decrease in Quail reproduction. These comparisons demonstrate that Aldrin, Endrin, and Dieldrin are 20 to 200 times as toxic as DDT and that Heptachlor and Chlordane are only slightly less toxic than Dieldrin. Methoxychlor and Strobane are less toxic to Quail than is DDT.

  2. Leaf trait dissimilarities between Dutch elm hybrids with a contrasting tolerance to Dutch elm disease

    PubMed Central

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Čaňová, Ingrid; Lagaňa, Rastislav; Kučerová, Veronika; Moravčík, Michal; Priwitzer, Tibor; Urban, Josef; Dvořák, Miloň; Krajňáková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies have shown that Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causative agent of Dutch elm disease (DED), is able to colonize remote areas in infected plants of Ulmus such as the leaf midrib and secondary veins. The objective of this study was to compare the performances in leaf traits between two Dutch elm hybrids ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ which possess a contrasting tolerance to DED. Trait linkages were also tested with leaf mass per area (LMA) and with the reduced Young's modulus of elasticity (MOE) as a result of structural, developmental or functional linkages. Methods Measurements and comparisons were made of leaf growth traits, primary xylem density components, gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields between mature plants of ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ grown under field conditions. A recently developed atomic force microscopy technique, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping, was used to reveal nanomechanical properties of the cell walls of tracheary elements such as MOE, adhesion and dissipation. Key Results ‘Dodoens’ had significantly higher values for LMA, leaf tissue thickness variables, tracheary element lumen area (A), relative hydraulic conductivity (RC), gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields. ‘Groeneveld’ had stiffer cell walls of tracheary elements, and higher values for water-use efficiency and leaf water potential. Leaves with a large carbon and nutrient investment in LMA tended to have a greater leaf thickness and a higher net photosynthetic rate, but LMA was independent of RC. Significant linkages were also found between the MOE and some vascular traits such as RC, A and the number of tracheary elements per unit area. Conclusions Strong dissimilarities in leaf trait performances were observed between the examined Dutch elm hybrids. Both hybrids were clearly separated from each other in the multivariate leaf trait space. Leaf growth, vascular and gas

  3. Transgenic American elm shows reduced Dutch elm disease symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Liang, Haiying; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2007-07-01

    The American elm (Ulmus americana L.) was once one of the most common urban trees in eastern North America until Dutch-elm disease (DED), caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, eliminated most of the mature trees. To enhance DED resistance, Agrobacterium was used to transform American elm with a transgene encoding the synthetic antimicrobial peptide ESF39A, driven by a vascular promoter from American chestnut. Four unique, single-copy transgenic lines were produced and regenerated into whole plants. These lines showed less wilting and significantly less sapwood staining than non-transformed controls after O. novo-ulmi inoculation. Preliminary observations indicated that mycorrhizal colonization was not significantly different between transgenic and wild-type trees. Although the trees tested were too young to ensure stable resistance was achieved, these results indicate that transgenes encoding antimicrobial peptides reduce DED symptoms and therefore hold promise for enhancing pathogen resistance in American elm. PMID:17310333

  4. Do mites phoretic on elm bark beetles contribute to the transmission of Dutch elm disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, John C.; Konrad, Heino; Blomquist, Stacy R.; Kirisits, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) is a destructive vascular wilt disease of elm ( Ulmus) trees caused by the introduced Ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. In Europe, this DED pathogen is transmitted by elm bark beetles in the genus Scolytus. These insects carry phoretic mites to new, suitable habitats. The aim of this study was to record and quantify conidia and ascospores of O. novo-ulmi on phoretic mites on the three elm bark beetle species Scolytus multistriatus, Scolytus pygmaeus, and Scolytus scolytus. Spores of O. novo-ulmi were found on four of the ten mite species phoretic on Scolytus spp. These included Elattoma fraxini, Proctolaelaps scolyti, Pseudotarsonemoides eccoptogasteri, and Tarsonemus crassus. All four species had spores attached externally to their body surfaces. However, T. crassus carried most spores within its sporothecae, two paired pocket-like structures adapted for fungal transmission. Individuals of Pr. scolyti also had O. novo-ulmi conidia and ascospores frequently in their digestive system, where they may remain viable. While E. fraxini and P. eccoptogasteri rarely had spores attached to their bodies, large portions of Pr. scolyti and T. crassus carried significant numbers of conidia and/or ascospores of O. novo-ulmi. P. scolyti and T. crassus, which likely are fungivores, may thus contribute to the transmission of O. novo-ulmi, by increasing the spore loads of individual Scolytus beetles during their maturation feeding on twigs of healthy elm trees, enhancing the chance for successful infection with the pathogen. Only S. scolytus, which is the most efficient vector of O. novo-ulmi in Europe, carried high numbers of Pr. scolyti and T. crassus, in contrast to S. multistriatus and S. pygmaeus, which are known as less efficient vectors. The high efficiency of S. scolytus in spreading Dutch elm disease may be partly due to its association with these two mites and the hyperphoretic spores of O. novo-ulmi they carry.

  5. Dutch elm disease. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the spread and control of Dutch elm disease. Dutch elm disease is a lethal fungal disease in elm trees which is transmitted via bark beetles. Topics included methods to treat the disease and to control the disease-carrying beetle, biochemistry and genetic information on the disease fungus and its phytotoxin, ecological effects of the disease, evidence of fungicide tolerance by the disease fungus, and attempts to breed disease resistant elm trees. Distribution of Dutch elm disease in Iran, Scotland, the United States, Yugoslavia, and Sweden is described. This information is useful, for example, in the development of methods for detection and treatment of Dutch elm disease. (Contains a minimum of 128 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease Reduces Presence of Xylem Endophytic Fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Juan A.; Witzell, Johanna; Blumenstein, Kathrin; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Helander, Marjo; Sieber, Thomas N.; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:23468900

  7. Bird mortality following DDT spray for Dutch elm disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wurster, D.H.; Wurster, C.F.; Strickland, W.N.

    1965-01-01

    Avian populations in Hanover, N. H., a town that has sprayed its elms with DDT for many years in an attempt to control Dutch elm disease, were compared with those in Norwich, Vt., a town 1 mile (1.6 km) west of Hanover that has never sprayed. Hanover applied 109 lb DDT/acre (2.1 kg/hectare) in April 1963, then used Methoxychlor in April 1964. Population surveys were taken regularly during spring and early summer of these years, dead birds were collected in both towns, and 106 birds were analyzed for DDT, DDE, and DDD. Severe mortality of both resident and migrant birds occurred in Hanover during spring 1963, and the evidence implicates DDT as its cause. Robin loss was estimated at 70% of the resident population, or 350 to 400 individuals, but mortality among other species of widely varied feeding habits was also substantial. Feeding habits suggest that some birds acquired the toxicant by eating living insects carrying DDT, presenting the paradox of survival of the intended DDT victims, and death, instead, of insectivorous birds. Organ and whole bird analyses are presented and criteria for establishing cause of death are discussed. Most of the DDT had been converted to DDE and DDD, and residues were found in all organs analyzed. Robin mortality was reduced, but not eliminated following Methoxychlor application in 1964; these losses were believed caused by residual DDT in the soil. There was no evidence DDT poisoning among other species in 1964, though the dead birds collected were not analyzed.

  8. Host responses and metabolic profiles of wood components in Dutch elm hybrids with a contrasting tolerance to Dutch elm disease

    PubMed Central

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Kačík, František; Olčák, Dušan; Kučerová, Veronika; Krajňáková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Changes occurring in the macromolecular traits of cell wall components in elm wood following attack by Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causative agent of Dutch elm disease (DED), are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare host responses and the metabolic profiles of wood components for two Dutch elm (Ulmus) hybrids, ‘Groeneveld’ (a susceptible clone) and ‘Dodoens’ (a tolerant clone), that have contrasting survival strategies upon infection with the current prevalent strain of DED. Methods Ten-year-old plants of the hybrid elms were inoculated with O. novo-ulmi ssp. americana × novo-ulmi. Measurements were made of the content of main cell wall components and extractives, lignin monomer composition, macromolecular traits of cellulose and neutral saccharide composition. Key Results Upon infection, medium molecular weight macromolecules of cellulose were degraded in both the susceptible and tolerant elm hybrids, resulting in the occurrence of secondary cell wall ruptures and cracks in the vessels, but rarely in the fibres. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that loss of crystalline and non-crystalline cellulose regions occurred in parallel. The rate of cellulose degradation was influenced by the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio in lignin. Both hybrids commonly responded to the medium molecular weight cellulose degradation with the biosynthesis of high molecular weight macromolecules of cellulose, resulting in a significant increase in values for the degree of polymerization and polydispersity. Other responses of the hybrids included an increase in lignin content, a decrease in relative proportions of d-glucose, and an increase in proportions of d-xylose. Differential responses between the hybrids were found in the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio in lignin. Conclusions In susceptible ‘Groeneveld’ plants, syringyl-rich lignin provided a far greater degree of protection from cellulose degradation than in ‘Dodoens’, but

  9. The pathogen causing Dutch elm disease makes host trees attract insect vectors

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Geoff; Gries, Regine; von Reuß, Stephan H; Rahe, James E; McIntosh, Rory; König, Wilfried A; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Dutch elm disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi which is transmitted by the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes. We have found that four semiochemicals (the monoterpene (−)-β-pinene and the sesquiterpenes (−)-α-cubebene, (+)-spiroaxa-5,7-diene and (+)-δ-cadinene) from diseased American elms, Ulmus americana, synergistically attract H. rufipes, and that sesquiterpene emission is upregulated in elm trees inoculated with O. novo-ulmi. The fungus thus manipulates host trees to enhance their apparency to foraging beetles, a strategy that increases the probability of transportation of the pathogen to new hosts. PMID:16271975

  10. Simultaneous induction of jasmonic acid and disease-responsive genes signifies tolerance of American elm to Dutch elm disease.

    PubMed

    Sherif, S M; Shukla, M R; Murch, S J; Bernier, L; Saxena, P K

    2016-01-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by three fungal species in the genus Ophiostoma, is the most devastating disease of both native European and North American elm trees. Although many tolerant cultivars have been identified and released, the tolerance mechanisms are not well understood and true resistance has not yet been achieved. Here we show that the expression of disease-responsive genes in reactions leading to tolerance or susceptibility is significantly differentiated within the first 144 hours post-inoculation (hpi). Analysis of the levels of endogenous plant defense molecules such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) in tolerant and susceptible American elm saplings suggested SA and methyl-jasmonate as potential defense response elicitors, which was further confirmed by field observations. However, the tolerant phenotype can be best characterized by a concurrent induction of JA and disease-responsive genes at 96 hpi. Molecular investigations indicated that the expression of fungal genes (i.e. cerato ulmin) was also modulated by endogenous SA and JA and this response was unique among aggressive and non-aggressive fungal strains. The present study not only provides better understanding of tolerance mechanisms to DED, but also represents a first, verified template for examining simultaneous transcriptomic changes during American elm-fungus interactions. PMID:26902398

  11. Simultaneous induction of jasmonic acid and disease-responsive genes signifies tolerance of American elm to Dutch elm disease

    PubMed Central

    Sherif , S. M.; Shukla, M. R.; Murch, S. J.; Bernier, L.; Saxena, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by three fungal species in the genus Ophiostoma, is the most devastating disease of both native European and North American elm trees. Although many tolerant cultivars have been identified and released, the tolerance mechanisms are not well understood and true resistance has not yet been achieved. Here we show that the expression of disease-responsive genes in reactions leading to tolerance or susceptibility is significantly differentiated within the first 144 hours post-inoculation (hpi). Analysis of the levels of endogenous plant defense molecules such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) in tolerant and susceptible American elm saplings suggested SA and methyl-jasmonate as potential defense response elicitors, which was further confirmed by field observations. However, the tolerant phenotype can be best characterized by a concurrent induction of JA and disease-responsive genes at 96 hpi. Molecular investigations indicated that the expression of fungal genes (i.e. cerato ulmin) was also modulated by endogenous SA and JA and this response was unique among aggressive and non-aggressive fungal strains. The present study not only provides better understanding of tolerance mechanisms to DED, but also represents a first, verified template for examining simultaneous transcriptomic changes during American elm-fungus interactions. PMID:26902398

  12. Bird mortality after spraying for Dutch elm disease with DDT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wurster, C.F.; Wurster, D.H.; Strickland, W.N.

    1965-01-01

    In Hanover, New Hampshire, where elms were sprayed with DDT, 151 dead birds were found; 10 dead birds were found in Norwich, Vermont, where no DDT was used. Chemical analyses of dead birds, observation of symptoms of DDT poisoning, and a population decline after spraying all indicate severe mortality among certain species in Hanover.

  13. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  14. Effects on wildlife of DDT used for control of Dutch elm disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benton, A.H.

    1951-01-01

    During the summer of 1949 studies were conducted at Princeton, New Jersey, to determine the effects on wildlife of DDT used in the control of Dutch elm disease. Direct mortality was determined by intensive search for dead birds after spraying. Twenty-six songbirds, one bat, and one gray squirrel were found. Of 11 dead birds from a study area of approximately 20 acres only one was an adult. Songbird populations were determined by censuses before and after spraying on a study area and on a similar unsprayed check area. The number of all breeding birds showed a 19.6 percent decrease on both the study and check areas during the week immediately following spraying. About two weeks after spraying the population in the treated area began to increase and within another week was back to prespray level. When only those species common to both sprayed and unsprayed areas are considered a population decline of 22 percent was measured in the sprayed area while the check area showed a 6 percent increase in numbers over the same period. Nestling mortality was studied in both areas. Among 18 young found on the study area during and following spraying 8 (44%) survived. Death of two broods of catbirds occurred four days after spraying. Of 21 young found on the check area 15 (71%) survived.

  15. Diversity in yeast-mycelium dimorphism response of the Dutch elm disease pathogens: the inoculum size effect.

    PubMed

    Wedge, Marie-Ève; Naruzawa, Erika Sayuri; Nigg, Martha; Bernier, Louis

    2016-06-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by the dimorphic fungi Ophiostoma ulmi, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, and Ophiostoma himal-ulmi. A cell population density-dependent phenomenon related to quorum sensing was previously shown to affect the reversible transition from yeast-like to mycelial growth in liquid shake cultures of O. novo-ulmi NRRL 6404. Since the response to external stimuli often varies among DED fungal strains, we evaluated the effect of inoculum size on 8 strains of the 3 species of DED agents by determining the proportion of yeast and mycelium produced at different spore inoculum concentrations in defined liquid shake medium. The results show that not all DED fungi strains respond similarly to inoculum size effect, since variations were observed among strains. It is thus possible that the different strains belonging to phylogenetically close species use different signalling molecules or molecular signalling pathways to regulate their growth mode via quorum-sensing mechanisms. PMID:27068623

  16. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Pivovaroff, Alexandria L.; Santiago, Louis S.; Rolshausen, Philippe E.

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance toward vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management. PMID:24971084

  17. Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor’s transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease

    PubMed Central

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Venturas, Martin; Cervera, María Teresa; Gil, Luis; Collada, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Elms, especially Ulmus minor and U. americana, are carrying out a hard battle against Dutch elm disease (DED). This vascular wilt disease, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, appeared in the twentieth century and killed millions of elms across North America and Europe. Elm breeding and conservation programmes have identified a reduced number of DED tolerant genotypes. In this study, three U. minor genotypes with contrasted levels of tolerance to DED were exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses in order to (i) obtain a de novo assembled transcriptome of U. minor using 454 pyrosequencing, (ii) perform a functional annotation of the assembled transcriptome, (iii) identify genes potentially involved in the molecular response to environmental stress, and (iv) develop gene-based markers to support breeding programmes. A total of 58,429 putative unigenes were identified after assembly and filtering of the transcriptome. 32,152 of these unigenes showed homology with proteins identified in the genome from the most common plant model species. Well-known family proteins and transcription factors involved in abiotic, biotic or both stresses were identified after functional annotation. A total of 30,693 polymorphisms were identified in 7,125 isotigs, a large number of them corresponding to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 27,359). In a subset randomly selected for validation, 87% of the SNPs were confirmed. The material generated may be valuable for future Ulmus gene expression, population genomics and association genetics studies, especially taking into account the scarce molecular information available for this genus and the great impact that DED has on elm populations. PMID:26257751

  18. Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor's transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease.

    PubMed

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Venturas, Martin; Cervera, María Teresa; Gil, Luis; Collada, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Elms, especially Ulmus minor and U. americana, are carrying out a hard battle against Dutch elm disease (DED). This vascular wilt disease, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, appeared in the twentieth century and killed millions of elms across North America and Europe. Elm breeding and conservation programmes have identified a reduced number of DED tolerant genotypes. In this study, three U. minor genotypes with contrasted levels of tolerance to DED were exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses in order to (i) obtain a de novo assembled transcriptome of U. minor using 454 pyrosequencing, (ii) perform a functional annotation of the assembled transcriptome, (iii) identify genes potentially involved in the molecular response to environmental stress, and (iv) develop gene-based markers to support breeding programmes. A total of 58,429 putative unigenes were identified after assembly and filtering of the transcriptome. 32,152 of these unigenes showed homology with proteins identified in the genome from the most common plant model species. Well-known family proteins and transcription factors involved in abiotic, biotic or both stresses were identified after functional annotation. A total of 30,693 polymorphisms were identified in 7,125 isotigs, a large number of them corresponding to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 27,359). In a subset randomly selected for validation, 87% of the SNPs were confirmed. The material generated may be valuable for future Ulmus gene expression, population genomics and association genetics studies, especially taking into account the scarce molecular information available for this genus and the great impact that DED has on elm populations. PMID:26257751

  19. Functional Annotation of the Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Genome: Insights into the Phytopathogenicity of the Fungal Agent of Dutch Elm Disease

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, André M.; Dufour, Josée; Bouvet, Guillaume F.; Jacobi, Volker; Nigg, Martha; Henrissat, Bernard; Laroche, Jérôme; Levesque, Roger C.; Bernier, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi is responsible for the pandemic of Dutch elm disease that has been ravaging Europe and North America for 50 years. We proceeded to annotate the genome of the O. novo-ulmi strain H327 that was sequenced in 2012. The 31.784-Mb nuclear genome (50.1% GC) is organized into 8 chromosomes containing a total of 8,640 protein-coding genes that we validated with RNA sequencing analysis. Approximately 53% of these genes have their closest match to Grosmannia clavigera kw1407, followed by 36% in other close Sordariomycetes, 5% in other Pezizomycotina, and surprisingly few (5%) orphans. A relatively small portion (∼3.4%) of the genome is occupied by repeat sequences; however, the mechanism of repeat-induced point mutation appears active in this genome. Approximately 76% of the proteins could be assigned functions using Gene Ontology analysis; we identified 311 carbohydrate-active enzymes, 48 cytochrome P450s, and 1,731 proteins potentially involved in pathogen–host interaction, along with 7 clusters of fungal secondary metabolites. Complementary mating-type locus sequencing, mating tests, and culturing in the presence of elm terpenes were conducted. Our analysis identified a specific genetic arsenal impacting the sexual and vegetative growth, phytopathogenicity, and signaling/plant–defense–degradation relationship between O. novo-ulmi and its elm host and insect vectors. PMID:25539722

  20. RNAseq Analysis Highlights Specific Transcriptome Signatures of Yeast and Mycelial Growth Phases in the Dutch Elm Disease Fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Martha; Laroche, Jérôme; Landry, Christian R; Bernier, Louis

    2015-11-01

    Fungal dimorphism is a complex trait and our understanding of the ability of fungi to display different growth morphologies is limited to a small number of model species. Here we study a highly aggressive dimorphic fungus, the ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, which is a model in plant pathology and the causal agent of Dutch elm disease. The two growth phases that this fungus displays, i.e., a yeast phase and mycelial phase, are thought to be involved in key steps of disease development. We used RNAseq to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles that are associated with yeast and mycelial growth phases in vitro. Our results show a clear molecular distinction between yeast and mycelial phase gene expression profiles. Almost 12% of the gene content is differentially expressed between the two phases, which reveals specific functions related to each growth phase. We compared O. novo-ulmi transcriptome profiles with those of two model dimorphic fungi, Candida albicans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Few orthologs showed similar expression regulation between the two growth phases, which suggests that, globally, the genes associated with these two life forms are poorly conserved. This poor conservation underscores the importance of developing specific tools for emerging model species that are distantly related to the classical ones. Taken together, our results provide insights into transcriptome regulation and molecular specificity in O. novo-ulmi and offer a new perspective for understanding fungal dimorphism. PMID:26384770

  1. RNAseq Analysis Highlights Specific Transcriptome Signatures of Yeast and Mycelial Growth Phases in the Dutch Elm Disease Fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Martha; Laroche, Jérôme; Landry, Christian R.; Bernier, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Fungal dimorphism is a complex trait and our understanding of the ability of fungi to display different growth morphologies is limited to a small number of model species. Here we study a highly aggressive dimorphic fungus, the ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, which is a model in plant pathology and the causal agent of Dutch elm disease. The two growth phases that this fungus displays, i.e., a yeast phase and mycelial phase, are thought to be involved in key steps of disease development. We used RNAseq to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles that are associated with yeast and mycelial growth phases in vitro. Our results show a clear molecular distinction between yeast and mycelial phase gene expression profiles. Almost 12% of the gene content is differentially expressed between the two phases, which reveals specific functions related to each growth phase. We compared O. novo-ulmi transcriptome profiles with those of two model dimorphic fungi, Candida albicans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Few orthologs showed similar expression regulation between the two growth phases, which suggests that, globally, the genes associated with these two life forms are poorly conserved. This poor conservation underscores the importance of developing specific tools for emerging model species that are distantly related to the classical ones. Taken together, our results provide insights into transcriptome regulation and molecular specificity in O. novo-ulmi and offer a new perspective for understanding fungal dimorphism. PMID:26384770

  2. Hybridization and introgression patterns between native red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and exotic, invasive Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.) examined using species-specific microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. While Siberian elm is highly tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED), red elm populations in North America have been decimated by DED. In order to study ...

  3. Hybridization and introgression between the exotic Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila, and the native Field elm, U. minor, in Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to the first Dutch elm disease (DED) pandemic, Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila, was planted to replace the native elm, U. minor, in Italy. The potential for hybridization between these two species is high and repeated hybridization could result in the genetic swamping of the native species an...

  4. Long-term impact of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi on leaf traits and transpiration of branches in the Dutch elm hybrid 'Dodoens'.

    PubMed

    Plichta, Roman; Urban, Josef; Gebauer, Roman; Dvořák, Miloň; Ďurkovič, Jaroslav

    2016-03-01

    To better understand the long-term impact of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier on leaf physiology in 'Dodoens', a Dutch elm disease-tolerant hybrid, measurements of leaf area, leaf dry mass, petiole anatomy, petiole hydraulic conductivity, leaf and branch water potential, and branch sap flow were performed 3 years following an initial artificial inoculation. Although fungal hyphae were detected in fully expanded leaves, neither anatomical nor morphological traits were affected, indicating that there was no impact from the fungal hyphae on the leaves during leaf expansion. In contrast, however, infected trees showed both a lower transpiration rate of branches and a lower sap flow density. The long-term persistence of fungal hyphae inside vessels decreased the xylem hydraulic conductivity, but stomatal regulation of transpiration appeared to be unaffected as the leaf water potential in both infected and non-infected trees was similarly driven by the transpirational demands. Regardless of the fungal infection, leaves with a higher leaf mass per area ratio tended to have a higher leaf area-specific conductivity. Smaller leaves had an increased number of conduits with smaller diameters and thicker cell walls. Such a pattern could increase tolerance towards hydraulic dysfunction. Measurements of water potential and theoretical xylem conductivity revealed that petiole anatomy could predict the maximal transpiration rate. Three years following fungal inoculation, phenotypic expressions for the majority of the examined traits revealed a constitutive nature for their possible role in Dutch elm disease tolerance of 'Dodoens' trees. PMID:26843210

  5. Sequence analysis of the chitin synthase A gene of the Dutch elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi indicates a close association with the human pathogen Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Hintz, W E

    1999-09-01

    Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed according to conserved regions of the chitin synthase gene family and used to amplify a 621 basepair (bp) fragment from genomic DNA of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causal agent of Dutch elm disease. The amplification product was used as a hybridization probe to screen a library of genomic DNA sequences and to retrieve a full-length chitin synthase gene (chsA). The putative coding region of the gene was 2619 bp long, lacked introns, and encoded a polypeptide of 873 amino acids. Based on the similarity of the predicted amino acid sequence to the full-length chsC gene of Aspergillus nidulans and chsA gene of Ampelomyces quisqualis, the O. novo-ulmi chsA was classified as a Class I chitin synthase. The phylogenies constructed, according to a subregion of all available chitin synthases, showed that O. novo-ulmi consistently clustered most closely with the human pathogen Sporothrix schenckii, recently classified as a member of the mitosporic Ophiostomataceae. Disruption of the chsA gene locus had no obvious effects on the growth or morphology of the fungus. PMID:10524253

  6. Elm leaf beetle performance on ozone-fumigated elm. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, J.H.; Hall, R.W.; Townsend, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Leaves (1986) from elm hybrids ('Pioneer', 'Homestead', '970') previously fumigated in open-top chambers with ozone or with charcoal-filtered air (CFA) were evaluated for water and nitrogen content or were fed to adult elm leaf beetles (ELB), Xanthogaleruca = (Pyrrhalta) luteola (Muller), to determine host suitability for beetle fecundity and survivorship. ELB females fed ozone-fumigated leaves laid significantly fewer eggs than females fed CFA-fumigated leaves. Leaf nitrogen or water content was unaffected. Hybrid '970' (1988) was fumigated with CFA or with ozone concentrations to determine effects on ELB fecundity, leaf consumption, and survivorship. Significantly fewer eggs were laid at the higher concentration of ozone. Because higher levels of ozone are found in urban areas and because municipalities often replace American elms, Ulmus americana L., with Dutch elm disease-resistant elm hybrids that are susceptible to ELB defoliation, it is important to explore the relationships between ozone sensitivity of elm and susceptibility to ELB herbivory before recommending replacement use of these elms to municipal arborists. The study was conducted to determine whether ozone pollution influences host quality of elm for ELB and how ELB fecundity, leaf consumption rate, and survivorship are affected.

  7. Slippery Elm

    MedlinePlus

    Slippery elm is a tree. The inner bark (not the whole bark) is used as medicine. People take slippery elm for coughs, sore throat, colic, diarrhea, constipation, hemorrhoids, irritable bowel syndrome ( ...

  8. Conservation of genetic diversity in slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) in Wisconsin despite the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forest trees tend to be genetically diverse, a condition related to their longevity, outcrossing mating system and extensive gene flow that maintains high levels of genetic diversity within populations. Forest pest epidemics are responsible for many historic and contemporary population declines repo...

  9. Slippery Elm

    MedlinePlus

    ... as medicine. People take slippery elm for coughs, sore throat, colic, diarrhea, constipation, hemorrhoids, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ... gout, rheumatism, cold sores, boils, abscesses, ulcers, toothaches, sore throat, and as a lubricant to ease labor. In ...

  10. PERKINELMER ELM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PerkinElmer Elm (formerly the AirBase CanarIT) is a multi-sensor air quality monitoring device that measures particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and several other atmospheric components. PM, VOCs, and NO2

  11. Influence of a Ceratocystis ulmi Toxin on Water Relations of Elm (Ulmus americana)

    PubMed Central

    Van Alfen, Neal K.; Turner, Neil C.

    1975-01-01

    Water-soluble glycopeptides isolated from cultures of Ceratocystis ulmi have been reported to be toxins involved in Dutch elm disease. The influence of the glycopeptides on the water relations of Ulmus americana seedlings was tested by placing cut stems in glycopeptide preparations. After 4 hours in 200 micrograms per milliliter toxin the stem conductance of the seedlings was reduced by 79% and the leaf water potential was reduced by 3 bars to that at which the seedlings wilted, the stomata closed, and transpiration decreased. Decrease in stem conductance as the mode of action of the toxin was further confirmed by forcing toxin through the stem and petiole of elm and measuring the effects on stem conductance. High molecular weight dextrans were found to mimic the action of toxin on stem and petiole conductance, and their ability to do so was found to be correlated with their molecular weight. As low as 4 micrograms of toxin or dextrans were found to measurably decrease the stem and petiole conductance of elms. Disruption of the water-conducting system of elms and other plants by small quantities of high molecular weight compounds may be a factor in diseases with wilting symptoms. PMID:16659073

  12. Compliance of Disease Awareness Campaigns in Printed Dutch Media with National and International Regulatory Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Leonardo Alves, Teresa; Martins de Freitas, Auramarina F.; van Eijk, Martine E. C.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The European legislation prohibits prescription-only medicines' advertising but allows pharmaceutical companies to provide information to the public on health and diseases, provided there is no direct or indirect reference to a pharmaceutical product. Various forms of promotion have become increasingly common in Europe including “disease-oriented” campaigns. Objectives To explore examples of disease awareness campaigns by pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, by assessing their compliance with the World Health Organization (WHO) Ethical Criteria for medicinal drug promotion and the Dutch guidelines for provision of information by pharmaceutical companies. Methods Materials referring to health/disease and treatments published in the most widely circulated newspapers and magazines were collected from March to May 2012. An evaluation tool was developed based on relevant underlying principles from the WHO ethical criteria and Dutch self-regulation guidelines. Collected disease awareness advertisements were used to pilot the evaluation tool and to explore the consistency of information provided with the WHO and Dutch criteria. Findings Eighty materials met our inclusion criteria; 71 were published in newspapers and 9 in magazines. The large majority were news items but 21 were disease awareness advertisements, of which 5 were duplicates. Fifteen out of the 16 disease awareness campaigns were non-compliant with current guidelines mainly due to lack of balance (n = 12), absence of listed author and/or sponsor (n = 8), use of misleading or incomplete information (n = 5) and use of promotional information (n = 5). None mentioned a pharmaceutical product directly. Conclusion Disease Awareness Campaigns are present in Dutch printed media. Although no brand names were mentioned, the lack of compliance of disease awareness campaigns with the current regulations is alarming. There were information deficiencies and evidence of information

  13. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L.) was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27) in controls to 65.3% (±4.60). Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59) by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable

  14. Elm bark beetle in Holocene peat deposits and the northwest European elm decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Sarah H. E.; Edwards, Kevin J.

    2004-09-01

    The elm decline of 5000 14C yr ago has been the most widely discussed phenomenon in post-glacial vegetation history. This pan-European reduction of elm populations, echoed in the decimation of elmwoods in Europe during the twentieth century, has attracted a series of interrelated hypotheses involving climate change, human activity, disease and soil deterioration. The elm bark beetle (Scolytus scolytus L.) is an essential component of disease explanations. We present evidence for the presence of the beetle over a prolonged period (ca. 7950-4910 yr BP [8800-5660 cal. yr BP]) from a lowland raised mire deposit in northeast Scotland, with its final appearance at this site, and the first and only appearance in another mire of a single scolytid find, around the time of the elm decline. The subfossil S. scolytus finds are not only the first from Scotland, but they also represent the most comprehensive sequence of finds anywhere. Copyright

  15. VIEW OF ELM DRIVE FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH ELM CIRCLE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ELM DRIVE FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH ELM CIRCLE. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis in patients of Dutch origin is related to Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    van Duinen, S.G.; Castano, E.M.; Prelli, F.; Bots, G.T.A.B.; Luyendijk, W.; Frangione, B.

    1987-08-01

    Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis in Dutch patients is an autosomal dominant form of vascular amyloidosis restricted to the leptomeninges and cerebral cortex. Clinically the disease is characterized by cerebral hemorrhages leading to an early death. Immunohistochemical studies of five patients revealed that the vascular amyloid deposits reacted intensely with an antiserum raised against a synthetic peptide homologous to the Alzheimer disease-related ..beta..-protein. Silver stain-positive, senile plaque-like structures were also labeled by the antiserum, yet these lesions lacked the dense amyloid cores present in typical plaques of Alzheimer disease. No neurofibrillary tangles were present. Amyloid fibrils were purified from the leptomeningeal vessels of one patient who clinically had no signs of dementia. The protein had a molecular weight of approx. 4000 and its partial amino acid sequence to position 21 showed homology to the ..beta..-protein of Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome. These results suggest that hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis of Dutch origin is pathogenetically related to Alzheimer disease and support the concept that the initial amyloid deposition in this disorder occurs in the vessel walls before damaging the brain parenchyma. Thus, deposition of ..beta..-protein in brain tissue seems to be related to a spectrum of diseases involving vascular syndromes, progressive dementia, or both.

  17. Domestic exposure to legionellae for Dutch Legionnaires' disease patients.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Linda P B; Yzerman, Ed P F; Bruin, Jacob P; Den Boer, Jeroen W

    2004-11-01

    The source of infection for travelers who develop Legionnaires' disease (LD) shortly after a journey abroad is difficult to ascertain. Infection is likely to have occurred abroad, but could also have occurred at the patient's own residence. The authors conducted a case-control study to determine risk for acquiring LD at home in the Netherlands after traveling abroad. They compared homes of 44 traveling LD patients with 44 homes of nontraveling LD patients, using logistic regression models. Geographic distribution was confounding the association between traveling and presence of Legionella spp. in residences; adjustment was necessary. In traveler's homes, legionellae were present more often, with crude and adjusted OR (95% CI) being 1.6 (0.5-5.0) and 1.4 (0.4-4.4), respectively. The authors' findings indicate that the patient's residence can be a potential source of infection after traveling. PMID:16599008

  18. Energy and resource allocation: a dynamic model of the Dutch disease. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, M.; Sachs, J.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that a domestic-response discovery gives rise to wealth effects that cause a squeeze of the tradeable-good sector of an open economy. The decline of the manufacturing sector following an energy discovery has been termed the Dutch disease, and has been investigated in many recent studies. The authors' model extends the principally static analyses to date by allowing for: (1) short-run capital specificity and long-run capital mobility; (2) international capital flows; and (3) far-sighted intertemporal optimzing behavior by households and firms. The model is solved by numerical simulation. 9 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Alpha-chain disease with involvement of the respiratory tract in a Dutch child

    PubMed Central

    Stoop, J. W.; Ballieux, R. E.; Hijmans, W.; Zegers, B. J. W.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of an 8-year-old girl of pure Dutch extraction who, since age 4, has shown unclassifiable skin changes, marked eosinophilia and diffuse infiltrative pulmonary changes with enlarged mediastinal lymph glands, dyspnoea and impaired diffusion. The patient's serum contained a large amount of proteins related to the Fc-fragment of IgA. She developed a pharyngeal tumour with the histological characteristics of a paragranuloma. The mucosa of the lower air passages is regarded as a possible site of origin of the abnormal serum protein. The disease was therefore interpreted as a disorder of the secretory IgA system, and this patient could well represent the respiratory form of the alpha-chain disease, described so far. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:4111693

  20. Mutation of the Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid Gene in Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage, Dutch Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Efrat; Carman, Mark D.; Fernandez-Madrid, Ivan J.; Power, Michael D.; Lieberburg, Ivan; van Duinen, Sjoerd G.; Bots, Gerard Th. A. M.; Luyendijk, Willem; Frangione, Blas

    1990-06-01

    An amyloid protein that precipitates in the cerebral vessel walls of Dutch patients with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis is similar to the amyloid protein in vessel walls and senile plaques in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Cloning and sequencing of the two exons that encode the amyloid protein from two patients with this amyloidosis revealed a cytosine-to-guanine transversion, a mutation that caused a single amino acid substitution (glutamine instead of glutamic acid) at position 22 of the amyloid protein. The mutation may account for the deposition of this amyloid protein in the cerebral vessel walls of these patients, leading to cerebral hemorrhages and premature death.

  1. CTLA4 +49 A/G and CT60 polymorphisms in Dutch coeliac disease patients.

    PubMed

    van Belzen, Martine J; Mulder, Chris J J; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pearson, Peter L; Houwen, Roderick H J; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2004-09-01

    Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder, characterised by villous atrophy of the small intestine, which results from a T-cell-mediated response to gluten-derived peptides. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is involved in the regulation of T-cell activation and the CTLA4 +49 A/G polymorphism in exon 1 has been implicated in several autoimmune disorders, including coeliac disease. However, this polymorphism was recently excluded as being the causal variant in Graves' disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism and type I diabetes mellitus. This causal variant was mapped to the 3' region of CTLA4, with the CT60 polymorphism showing the strongest association. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the CTLA4 gene in coeliac disease in the Dutch population. The +49 A/G and CT60 polymorphisms were genotyped in a case-control cohort of 215 patients and controls. The frequency of the +49 G-allele was increased in cases, although not significantly. However, the frequency of the CT60 G-allele was increased with borderline significance in coeliac disease patients (P = 0.048), although the genotype distributions did not show a significant difference between cases and controls. These results indicate the involvement of the CTLA4 gene in coeliac disease development. The haplotype carrying the CT60 G-allele was shown to be associated with lower mRNA levels of the soluble CTLA-4 isoform, providing a possible mechanism for the T-cell-mediated destruction of the small intestine. PMID:15199380

  2. Inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and medication: Cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Tim R A; Wintjens, Dion S J; Jeuring, Steven F G; Wassink, Maartje H H; Romberg-Camps, Marielle J L; Oostenbrug, Liekele E; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Hameeteman, Wim H; Zeegers, Maurice P; Masclee, Ad A; Jonkers, Daisy M; Pierik, Marie J

    2016-09-15

    The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has changed since the mid-1990s (e.g., use of thiopurines/anti-TNFα agents, improved surveillance programs), possibly affecting cancer risk. To establish current cancer risk in IBD, updates are warranted from cohorts covering this time span, and detailed enough to study associations with phenotype and medication. We studied intestinal-, extra-intestinal- and overall cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort. In total, 1,157 Crohn's disease (CD) and 1,644 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed between 1991 and 2011, and followed until 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CD and UC separately, as well as for gender-, phenotype-, disease duration-, diagnosis era- and medication groups. We found an increased risk for colorectal cancer in CD patients with colon involvement (SIR 2.97; 95% CI 1.08-6.46), but not in the total CD or UC population. In addition, CD patients were at increased risk for hematologic- (2.41; 1.04-4.76), overall skin- (1.55; 1.06-2.19), skin squamous cell- (SCC; 3.83; 1.83-7.04) and overall cancer (1.28; 1.01-1.60), whereas UC patients had no increased risk for extra-intestinal- and overall cancer. Finally, in a medication analysis on CD and UC together, long-term immunosuppression exposure (>12 months) was associated with an increased risk for hematologic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, SCC and overall cancer, and this increase was mainly attributed to thiopurines. IBD patients with long-term immunosuppression exposure can be considered as having a higher cancer risk, and our data support the advice in recent IBD guidelines to consider skin cancer screening in these patients. PMID:27170593

  3. Establishment of invasive and non-invasive reporter systems to investigate American elm-Ophiostoma novo-ulmi interactions.

    PubMed

    Sherif, S; Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Saxena, P K

    2014-10-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by ascomycete fungi in the Ophiostoma genus, is the most devastating disease of American elm (Ulmus americana) trees. Cerato ulmin (CU), a hydrophobin secreted by the fungus, has been implicated in the development of DED, but its role in fungal pathogenicity and virulence remains uncertain and controversial. Here, we describe reporter systems based on the CU promoter and three reporter proteins (GFP, GUS and LUC), developed as research tools for quantitative and qualitative studies of DED in vitro, in vivo and in planta. A strain of the aggressive species Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was transformed with the reporter constructs using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and the fungal transformants, namely M75-GFP, M75-GUS and M75-LUC, were examined for mitotic stability after repeated subcultures. The intensity of GFP fluorescence was strong in M75-GFP spores and hyphae, allowing microscopic investigations of spore structure, fungal morphogenesis and fungal development. The interaction of M75-GFP and U. americana callus cells was explored with scanning laser confocal microscopy facilitating qualitative studies on fungal strategies for the invasion and penetration of elm cells. M75-GUS was generated to provide an invasive, yet quantitative approach to study fungal-plant interactions in vitro and in planta. The generation of M75-LUC transformants was aimed at providing a non-destructive quantitative approach to study the role of CU in vivo. The sensitivity, low background signal and linearity of LUC assays all predict a very reliable approach to investigate and re-test previously claimed roles of this CU in fungal pathogenicity. These reporter systems provide new tools to investigate plant-pathogen interactions in this complex pathosystem and may aid in better understanding the development of DED. PMID:25139300

  4. Inflation, employment, and the Dutch Disease in oil-exporting countries: a short-run disequilibrium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    van Wijnbergen, S.

    1984-05-01

    The author uses nontraded goods and labor shortages in the Gulf countries, the decline of the traded goods sector in oil producers (''Dutch Disease''), and the absence of employment benefits of higher oil revenues in Latin American oil producers. Higher oil revenues can be likened to a transfer putting pressure on non-oil traded (NT) goods prices and drawing resources out of the T sector. The slope of the wage indexation line determines whether classical unemployment or repressed inflation results. Various policy measures are analyzed. 3 references, 8 figures.

  5. A review of ELMs in divertor tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.N.

    1996-05-23

    This paper reviews what is known about edge localized modes (ELMs), with an emphasis on their effect on the scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas. ELM effects have been measured in the ASDEX-U, C-Mod, COMPASS-D, DIII-D, JET, JFT-2M,JT-60U, and TCV tokamaks and are reported here. At least three types of ELMs have been identified and their salient features determined. Type-1 giant ELMs can cause the sudden loss of up to 10-15% of the plasma stored energy but their amplitude ({Delta}W/W) does not increase with increasing power. Type- 3 ELMs are observed near the H-mode power threshold and produce small energy dumps (1-3% of the stored energy). All ELMs increase the scrape- off layer plasma and produce particle fluxes on the divertor targets which are as much as ten times larger that the quiescent phase between ELMs. The divertor heat pulse is largest on the inner target, unlike that of L-Mode or quiescent H-mode; some tokamaks report radial structure in the heat flux profile which is suggestive of islands or helical structures. The power scaling of Type-1 ELM amplitude and frequency have been measured in several tokamaks and has recently been applied to predictions of the ELM Size in ITER. Concern over the expected ELM amplitude has led to a number of experiments aimed at demonstrating active control of ELMs. Impurity gas injection with feedback control on the radiation loss in ASDEX-U suggests that a promising mode of operation (the CDH-mode) with a very small type-3 ELMs can be maintained with heating power sell above the H-mode threshold, where giant type-1 ELMs can be maintained with heating power well above the H-mode threshold, where Giant type-1 ELMs are normally observed. While ELMs have many potential negative effects, the beneficial effect of ELMs in providing density control and limiting the core plasma impurity content in high confinement H- mode discharges should not be overlooked.

  6. Diseases of flounder ( Platichthys Flesus L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea, and their relation to stress factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick Vethaak, A.

    In 1988 a survey was conducted on the occurrence of gross pathologies in flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea in relation to stress factors, especially near fresh-water drainage sluices. A total of 9608 flounder were collected from 16 sites in June and September. Diseases recorded were: skin ulcers (affecting 7.7% of fish); fin rot (2.8%; only included in the study in September); lymphocystis (3.7%); skeletal deformities (0.3%); liver nematode infections (5.0%); intestinal cysts of the parasite Glugea sp. (0.4%); and liver nodules (pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions) (< 0.1%). Prevalences of skin ulcers and fin rot in Wadden Sea flounder are considerably higher than in those captured off the Dutch North Sea coast or in the Elbe estuary in Germany. These high disease levels in the Wadden Sea, however, are largely due to extremely high prevalences of skin ulcers observed near the drainage sluices of Lake IJssel, indicating a localized effect. Fin rot occurs at relatively high prevalences over the whole study area, but the data should be interpreted with some caution, due to diagnostic problems. Associations with possible disease determinants were investigated and causal hypotheses formulated. In general fish seem to develop skin diseases at sites with strong salinity fluctuations. Nutritional deficiencies possibly related to strong salinity fluctuations, high bacterial loads in the environment and obstacles to fish migration through sluices are amongst the most likely factors determining the locally high levels of skin ulcers. Although not established, it is possible that pollution-related factors and contaminant bioavailability are important. The stress imposed by a combination of these factors may adversely affect the immune system, making the fish vulnerable to opportunistic bacterial infection.

  7. Multiple independent variants in 6q21-22 associated with susceptibility to celiac disease in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations.

    PubMed

    Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Bevova, Marianna R; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Monsuur, Alienke; Koskinen, Lotta L E; van't Slot, Ruben; Mulder, Chris; Mearin, M Luisa; Korponay-Szabo, Ilma R; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle; Kere, Juha; Mäki, Markku; Wijmenga, Cisca; Saavalainen, Päivi

    2011-06-01

    Celiac disease is an inflammatory enteropathy caused by intolerance to gluten. Previous linkage studies in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations have revealed a locus on chromosome 6q21-22 conferring susceptibility to celiac disease. This locus has previously been implicated in susceptibility to other autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease and type 1 diabetes. We performed fine mapping on 446 independent individuals with celiac disease and 641 controls of Dutch origin, testing 872 tagging SNPs in a 22 Mb region of chromosome 6. The 12 most promising SNPs were followed up in 2071 individuals from 284 Finnish and 357 Hungarian celiac disease families to identify risk variants in this region. Multiple markers in the region were significantly associated with celiac disease in the Dutch material. Two SNPs, rs9391227 and rs4946111, were significantly associated with celiac disease in the Finnish population. The association to rs9391227 represents the strongest association signal found in the Finnish (P = 0.003, OR 0.66) as well as the combined Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations (P = 3.6 × 10(-5), OR 0.76). The rs9391227 is situated downstream of the HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HACE1) gene and is contained within a region of strong linkage disequilibrium enclosing HACE1. Two additional, independent, susceptibility variants in the 6q21-22 region were also found in a meta-analysis of the three populations. The 6q21-22 region was confirmed as a celiac disease susceptibility locus and harbors multiple independent associations, some of which may implicate ubiquitin-pathways in celiac disease susceptibility. PMID:21326284

  8. Multiple independent variants in 6q21-22 associated with susceptibility to celiac disease in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations

    PubMed Central

    Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Bevova, Marianna R; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Monsuur, Alienke; Koskinen, Lotta LE; Slot, Ruben van't; Mulder, Chris; Mearin, M Luisa; Korponay-Szabo, Ilma R; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle; Kere, Juha; Mäki, Markku; Wijmenga, Cisca; Saavalainen, Päivi

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an inflammatory enteropathy caused by intolerance to gluten. Previous linkage studies in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations have revealed a locus on chromosome 6q21-22 conferring susceptibility to celiac disease. This locus has previously been implicated in susceptibility to other autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease and type 1 diabetes. We performed fine mapping on 446 independent individuals with celiac disease and 641 controls of Dutch origin, testing 872 tagging SNPs in a 22 Mb region of chromosome 6. The 12 most promising SNPs were followed up in 2071 individuals from 284 Finnish and 357 Hungarian celiac disease families to identify risk variants in this region. Multiple markers in the region were significantly associated with celiac disease in the Dutch material. Two SNPs, rs9391227 and rs4946111, were significantly associated with celiac disease in the Finnish population. The association to rs9391227 represents the strongest association signal found in the Finnish (P=0.003, OR 0.66) as well as the combined Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations (P=3.6 × 10−5, OR 0.76). The rs9391227 is situated downstream of the HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HACE1) gene and is contained within a region of strong linkage disequilibrium enclosing HACE1. Two additional, independent, susceptibility variants in the 6q21-22 region were also found in a meta-analysis of the three populations. The 6q21-22 region was confirmed as a celiac disease susceptibility locus and harbors multiple independent associations, some of which may implicate ubiquitin-pathways in celiac disease susceptibility. PMID:21326284

  9. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M.T.E.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample’s prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these. PMID:26295247

  10. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors.

    PubMed

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M T E

    2015-08-01

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample's prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these. PMID:26295247

  11. Modelling of edge localised modes and edge localised mode control [Modelling of ELMs and ELM control

    SciTech Connect

    Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Chang, C. S.; Ferraro, N.; Sugiyama, L.; Waelbroeck, F.; Xu, X. Q.; Loarte, A.; Futatani, S.

    2015-02-07

    Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in ITER Q = 10 H-mode plasmas are likely to lead to large transient heat loads to the divertor. In order to avoid an ELM induced reduction of the divertor lifetime, the large ELM energy losses need to be controlled. In ITER, ELM control is foreseen using magnetic field perturbations created by in-vessel coils and the injection of small D2 pellets. ITER plasmas are characterised by low collisionality at a high density (high fraction of the Greenwald density limit). These parameters cannot simultaneously be achieved in current experiments. Thus, the extrapolation of the ELM properties and the requirements for ELM control in ITER relies on the development of validated physics models and numerical simulations. Here, we describe the modelling of ELMs and ELM control methods in ITER. The aim of this paper is not a complete review on the subject of ELM and ELM control modelling but rather to describe the current status and discuss open issues.

  12. Modelling of edge localised modes and edge localised mode control [Modelling of ELMs and ELM control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Chang, C. S.; Ferraro, N.; Sugiyama, L.; Waelbroeck, F.; Xu, X. Q.; Loarte, A.; Futatani, S.

    2015-02-07

    Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in ITER Q = 10 H-mode plasmas are likely to lead to large transient heat loads to the divertor. In order to avoid an ELM induced reduction of the divertor lifetime, the large ELM energy losses need to be controlled. In ITER, ELM control is foreseen using magnetic field perturbations created by in-vessel coils and the injection of small D2 pellets. ITER plasmas are characterised by low collisionality at a high density (high fraction of the Greenwald density limit). These parameters cannot simultaneously be achieved in current experiments. Thus, the extrapolation of the ELM properties andmore » the requirements for ELM control in ITER relies on the development of validated physics models and numerical simulations. Here, we describe the modelling of ELMs and ELM control methods in ITER. The aim of this paper is not a complete review on the subject of ELM and ELM control modelling but rather to describe the current status and discuss open issues.« less

  13. Study of the ELM fluctuation characteristics during the mitigation of type-I ELMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, A. V.; Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Donné, A. J. H.; Wolfrum, E.; Fischer, R.; Viezzer, E.; Schneider, P.; Manz, P.; Suttrop, W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    2015-08-01

    Transitions from type-I to small edge localized modes (ELMs) and back are studied using the electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) diagnostic on the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). ECEI measurements show that the average poloidal velocity of temperature fluctuations of both type-I ELM onsets and small ELMs is the same and is close to 5-6 km s-1. Radially, the temperature fluctuations are distributed in the same narrow 2 cm region between 0.975≤slant {ρ\\text{pol}}≤slant 1.025 with associated poloidal mode numbers m=96+/- 18 and toroidal mode numbers n=16+/- 4 . The observed fluctuations related to both type-I ELMs and small ELMs vary over the transition simultaneously, however, showing slightly different behaviour. The similarities between type-I ELMs and small ELMs observed via AUG suggest that they have the same nature and evolve together. In the transition phase a temperature fluctuation mode (‘inter-ELM mode’) appears, which becomes continuous in the mitigated ELM phase and might cause the ELM mitigation. The mode characteristics (velocity, frequency and wave number) obtained in the analysis can be further used for direct comparison in various code simulations.

  14. 'A necessary evil that does not "really" cure disease': The domestication of biomedicine by Dutch holistic general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Raaphorst, Nadine; Houtman, Dick

    2016-05-01

    Against the background of studies about the domestication of complementary and alternative medicine into biomedical settings, this article studies how biomedicine is integrated into holistic settings. Data from 19 in-depth interviews with Dutch holistic general practitioners who combine complementary and alternative medicine with conventional treatments demonstrate that they do not believe that conventional biomedicine 'really' cures patients. They feel that it merely suppresses the physical symptoms of a disease, leaving the more fundamental and non-physical causes intact. As a consequence, they use conventional biomedicine for strictly practical and instrumental reasons. This is the case in life-threatening or acute situations, understood as non-physical causes of disease having been left untreated with complementary and alternative medicine for too long. More mundane reasons for its use are the need to take patients' demands for biomedical treatment seriously or to obey authoritative rules, regulations and protocols. The integration of biomedicine into complementary and alternative medicine, then, follows the same logic of domestication of complementary and alternative medicine into biomedicine: it is made subordinate to the prevailing model of health and illness and treated as a practical add-on that does not 'really' cure people. PMID:25944912

  15. Rabies in the Dutch East Indies a century ago - a spatio-temporal case study in disease emergence.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to spread through the Indonesian archipelago. During the past 20 years, several islands - including Flores, Ambon and Bali - that had historically been free of rabies have become infected. However, the Dutch East Indies (a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II) had been infected since the 1880s. The spread of rabies is a lesson in the emergence of an infectious disease. Reports of human cases treated for rabies and livestock rabies cases from the 1880s to 1917 were compiled. The spatial and temporal distribution of these cases was analyzed using maps, spatial statistics and time-series techniques. The first confirmed case of rabies was reported in 1889 from the Batavia [Jakarta] district (although disease suspicion was reported as early as 1884). During the 1890s rabies was already commonly reported from Java and the east coast of Sumatra, and by the late 1890s, from Celebes [Sulawesi]. Between 1900 and 1916, cases were reported from other parts of Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi, and from Borneo, the Moluccas and other outlying islands. Between 1897 and 1916, a total of 8826 human cases treated for rabies were reported and between 1908 and 1917, 1033 livestock cases were reported. Most (97.5%) human cases treated were attributed to rabid dogs. Increasing numbers of reports were observed during the period. Between 1908 and 1916 the correlation between human and livestock case reports was 64.2%, and at the district level it was 75.9%. Moderate correlations (>40%) were found between human cases and livestock cases reported up to six months previously. Based on year of first report from each district, human cases were strongly clustered (Moran's autocorrelation 0.47, P=0.005). The most likely spatio-temporal cluster of reported cases of humans treated for rabies originated from the west coast of Sumatra between 1899 and 1905, and other clusters were identified in west Java (1898-1899), the district of Batavia and in east Java

  16. Spoken Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in spoken Dutch is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. The book is divided into five major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening comprehension, and (4)…

  17. Reduction of ELM energy loss by pellet injection for ELM pacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, N.; Aiba, N.; Takizuka, T.; Oyama, N.

    2013-12-01

    The energy loss caused by the edge-localized mode (ELM) needs to be reduced for ITER operations with ELMy H-mode plasmas. The reduction in ELM energy loss by pellet injection for ELM pacing is studied by an integrated core/scrape-off layer/divertor transport code TOPICS-IB with a magnetohydrodynamic stability code and a pellet model taking account of the E × B drift of the pellet plasma cloud. It is found that the energy loss can be significantly reduced by a pellet injected to the pedestal plasma equivalent to that at the middle timing in the natural ELM cycle, whose pressure height is only about 5% lower than that of the natural ELM onset. In this case, pellet injection from the low-field side enables a small pellet, with about 1-2% of pedestal particle content and a speed high enough to approach the pedestal top, to reduce the energy loss significantly. With the above suitable conditions for ELM pacing, a pellet penetrates deep into the pedestal and triggers high-n ballooning modes with localized eigenfunctions near the pedestal top, where n is the toroidal mode number. Under suitable conditions, ELM pacing with reduced energy loss is successfully demonstrated in simulations, in which the gas puff reduction and the enhancement of divertor pumping can compensate for the core density increase due to additional particle fuelling by the pacing pellet.

  18. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELM CITY PLANT (A. FRANCIS WALKER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELM CITY PLANT (A. FRANCIS WALKER, 1905-07) FROM SECOND AVENUE ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF ENTRANCE. THIS STRUCTURE WAS ORIGINALLY BUILT AS THE ELM CITY COTTON MILL OF CALLAWAY MILLS. NOTE RESERVOIR IN FOREGROUND. THIS PHOTOGRAPH IS THE LEFT SIDE OF A PANORAMA VIEW THAT INCLUDES HAER Nos. GA-128-2 AND GA-128-3. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  19. 2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM CITY PLANT FROM SECOND AVENUE. NOTE ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN CENTER AND NEWER ADDITIONS TO THIS STILL OPERATIONAL TEXTILE MILL. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  20. ELMs and the H-Mode Pedestal in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, R; Sabbagh, S; Bush, C; Fredrickson, E; Menard, J; Stutman, D; Tritz, K; Bell, M; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Gates, D; Johnson, D; Kaita, R; Kaye, S; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; Mueller, D; Raman, R; Roquemore, A; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T

    2004-06-04

    We report on the behavior of ELMs in NBI-heated H-mode plasmas in NSTX. It is observed that the size of Type I ELMs, characterized by the change in plasma energy, decreases with increasing density, as observed at conventional aspect ratio. It is also observed that the Type I ELM size decreases as the plasma equilibrium is shifted from a symmetric double-null toward a lower single-null configuration. Type III ELMs have also been observed in NSTX, as well as a high-performance regime with small ELMs which we designate Type V. These Type V ELMs are consistent with high bootstrap current operation and density approaching Greenwald scaling. The Type V ELMs are characterized by an intermittent n=1 MHD mode rotating counter to the plasma current. Without active pumping, the density rises continuously through the Type V phase. However, efficient in-vessel pumping should allow density control, based on particle containment time estimates.

  1. ELMs and the H-mode Pedestal in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    R. Maingi; S.A. Sabbagh; C.E. Bush; E.D. Fredrickson; J.E. Menard; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; J.A. Boedo; D.A. Gates; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; D. Mueller; R. Raman; A.L. Roquemore; V.A. Soukhanovskii; T. Stevenson

    2004-07-16

    We report on the behavior of ELMs in NBI-heated H-mode plasmas in NSTX. It is observed that the size of Type I ELMs, characterized by the change in plasma energy, decreases with increasing density, as observed at conventional aspect ratio. It is also observed that the Type I ELM size decreases as the plasma equilibrium is shifted from a symmetric double-null toward a lower single-null configuration. Type III ELMs have also been observed in NSTX, as well as a high-performance regime with small ELMs which we designate Type V. These Type V ELMs are consistent with high bootstrap current operation and density approaching Greenwald scaling. The Type V ELMs are characterized by an intermittent n=1 MHD mode rotating counter to the plasma current. Without active pumping, the density rises continuously through the Type V phase. However, efficient in-vessel pumping should allow density control, based on particle containment time estimates.

  2. Disease prevalence in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Dutch Wadden Sea as indicator of environmental quality: A summary of 1988-2005 surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vethaak, A. D.

    2013-09-01

    In 1988, epizootics of ulcer disease in the flatfish flounder in the Dutch Wadden Sea were reported near freshwater drainage sluices of IJsselmeer Lake, locally affecting up to 38.9% of fish. Other diseases such as fin rot and lymphocystis were less frequent, but followed a similar pattern. Results of follow-up surveys in the Wadden Sea in 1994-2005 confirm previous findings and also show significantly elevated ulcer prevalences at other smaller drainage works. The most likely stress factors that contributed to the development of the epizootics at these sites include osmotic stress, adverse water quality conditions including chemical contaminants, nutritional deficiencies, and obstruction to fish migration. It was shown that discharges of IJsselmeer Lake freshwater in 1988-96 had a wide effect on the prevalence and distribution of ulcers and lymphocystis in the western Wadden Sea. A general reduction in disease prevalence in flounder in the entire Dutch Wadden Sea was observed during 1988-2005, which was most likely due to a general improvement in water quality and locally improved habitat conditions for flounder near drainage sluices. Ulcer prevalences outside the two IJsselmeer Lake sluices (Den Oever and Kornwerderzand) declined in this period from approximately 30% to 10% for medium-sized fish. Other skin diseases have also displayed a downward trend at both sites in recent years, with prevalences falling sharply to below 1%. Elsewhere in the Wadden Sea and the Ems-Dollard estuary, disease prevalences have declined towards natural background levels (< 1%). It is concluded that skin diseases, especially ulcers, are useful indicators of environmental quality in the Wadden Sea.

  3. Edge Localised Modes (ELMs): Experiments and Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J. W.; Kirk, A.

    2008-05-14

    Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) are periodic disturbances of the plasma periphery occurring in tokamaks with an H-mode edge transport barrier. As a result, a fraction of the plasma energy present in the confined hot edge plasma is transferred to the open field lines in the divertor region, ultimately appearing at the divertor target plates. These events can result in high transient heat loads being deposited on the divertor target plates in large tokamaks, potentially causing damage in devices such as ITER. Consequently it is important to find means to mitigate their effects, either avoiding them or, at least, controlling them. This in turn means it is essential to understand the physics causing ELMs so that appropriate steps can be taken. It is generally agreed that ELMs originate as MHD instability caused by the steep plasma pressure gradients or edge plasma current present in H-mode, the so-called 'peeling-ballooning' model. Normally this is considered to be an ideal MHD instability but resistivity may be involved. Much less clear is the non-linear evolution of these instabilities and the mechanisms by which the confined edge plasma is transferred to the divertor plasma. There is evidence for the non-linear development of 'filamentary' structures predicted by theory, but the reconnection processes by which these are detached from the plasma core remain uncertain. In this paper the experimental and theoretical evidence for the peeling-ballooning model is presented, drawing data from a number of tokamaks, e.g. JET, DIII-D, ASDEX-Upgrade, MAST etc. Some theoretical models for the non-linear evolution of ELMs are discussed; as well as ones related to the 'peeling-ballooning' model, other candidate models for the ELM cycle are mentioned. The consequential heat loads on divertor target plates are discussed. Based on our current understanding of the physics of ELMs, means to avoid them, or mitigate their consequences, are described, e.g. the use of plasma shaping or

  4. Construct Validity of the Dutch Version of the 12-Item Partners in Health Scale: Measuring Patient Self-Management Behaviour and Knowledge in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lenferink, Anke; Effing, Tanja; Harvey, Peter; Battersby, Malcolm; Frith, Peter; van Beurden, Wendy; van der Palen, Job; Paap, Muirne C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The 12-item Partners in Health scale (PIH) was developed in Australia to measure self-management behaviour and knowledge in patients with chronic diseases, and has undergone several changes. Our aim was to assess the construct validity and reliability of the latest PIH version in Dutch COPD patients. Methods The 12 items of the PIH, scored on a self-rated 9-point Likert scale, are used to calculate total and subscale scores (knowledge; coping; recognition and management of symptoms; and adherence to treatment). We used forward-backward translation of the latest version of the Australian PIH to define a Dutch PIH (PIH(Du)). Mokken Scale Analysis and common Factor Analysis were performed on data from a Dutch COPD sample to investigate the psychometric properties of the Dutch PIH; and to determine whether the four-subscale solution previously found for the original Australian PIH could be replicated for the Dutch PIH. Results Two subscales were found for the Dutch PIH data (n = 118); 1) knowledge and coping; 2) recognition and management of symptoms, adherence to treatment. The correlation between the two Dutch subscales was 0.43. The lower-bound of the reliability of the total scale equalled 0.84. Factor analysis indicated that the first two factors explained a larger percentage of common variance (39.4% and 19.9%) than could be expected when using random data (17.5% and 15.1%). Conclusion We recommend using two PIH subscale scores when assessing self-management in Dutch COPD patients. Our results did not support the four-subscale structure as previously reported for the original Australian PIH. PMID:27564410

  5. Toward integrated multi-scale simulations for a full ELM cycle with ELM dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xueqiao

    2015-11-01

    The high-fidelity BOUT + + two-fluid and Gyro-Landau-Fluid code suites have demonstrated significant recent progresses toward integrated multi-scale simulations for a full ELM cycle with ELM dynamics. In order to improve the computational efficiency for a full ELM cycle with ELM dynamics, the basic set of dynamical equations has been separated into equations in the fluctuating and averaged parts over binormal direction. The two parts are advanced together in time but with different time steps, and dynamically exchange the turbulence fluxes and averaged profiles. Nonlinear ELM simulations show three stages of an ELM event: (1) a linear growing phase; (2) a fast crash phase; and (3) a slow inward propagation phase lasting until the core heating flux balances the ELM energy loss and the ELM is terminated. To better understand the inter-ELM pedestal dynamics during the pedestal recovery, BOUT + + simulations started from a kinetic equilibrium reconstruction using measured plasma profiles from DIII-D show that quasi-coherent fluctuations (QCFs) can provide the necessary transport to limit and saturate the H-mode pedestal gradient. The simulations predict that (1) QCFs are localized in the pedestal region as observed on DIII-D; (2) the QCFs are near marginal instability for ideal ballooning modes combined with drift-Alfven wave modes; (3) the dominant mode is around n =15, kθρi = 0.034, comparable to the measured value of 0.04; (4) the frequency of the mode is around 80kHz, close to that of the measured QCF; and (5) particle transport is smaller than the heat transport. BOUT + + simulations have also been performed to elucidate the nature and underlying physics mechanisms of the weakly-quasi-coherent mode (WCM) with higher collisionality, which causes particle transport in I-mode pedestals of Alcator C-Mod. Key simulation results are that (1) there is no ideal peeling-ballooning mode instability for the I-mode studied; (2) a strong instability exists at n >= 20; (3

  6. Patterns of Hybridization and Introgression Between Invasive Ulmus Pumila (Ulmaceae) and Native U. Rubra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. While Siberian elm is highly tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED), red elm populations in North America have been strongly affected by DED. Putative p...

  7. Advances in understanding and utilising ELM control in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, I. T.; de la Luna, E.; Lang, P. T.; Liang, Y.; Alper, B.; Denner, P.; Frigione, D.; Garzotti, L.; Ham, C. J.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Jachmich, S.; Kocsis, G.; Lennholm, M.; Lupelli, I.; Rimini, F. G.; Sips, A. C. C.; Contributors, JET

    2016-01-01

    Edge localised mode (ELM) control may be essential to develop ITER scenarios with a reasonable lifetime of divertor components, whilst ELM pacing may be essential to develop stationary ITER scenarios with a tungsten divertor. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have mitigated ELMs in high collisionality plasmas in JET. The efficacy of RMPs in mitigating the ELMs is found to depend on plasma shaping, with the change in magnetic boundary achieved when non-axisymmetric fields are applied facilitating access to small ELM regimes. The understanding of ELM pacing by vertical kicks or pellets has also been improved in a range of pedestal conditions in JET ({{T}\\text{ped}}=0.7 –1.3 keV) encompassing the ITER-expected domain ({β\\text{N}}=1.4 –2.4, H 98(y, 2)  =  0.8–1.2, {{f}\\text{GW}}∼ 0.7 ). ELM triggering is reliable provided the perturbation is above a threshold which depends on pedestal parameters. ELM triggering is achieved even in the first 10% of the natural ELM cycle suggesting no inherent maximum frequency. At high normalised pressure, the peeling-ballooning modes are stabilised as predicted by ELITE, necessitating a larger perturbation from either kicks or pellets in order to trigger ELMs. Both kicks and pellets have been used to pace ELMs for tungsten flushing. This has allowed stationary plasma conditions with low gas injection in plasmas where the natural ELM frequency is such that it would normally preclude stationary conditions.

  8. Adaptive Online Sequential ELM for Concept Drift Tackling.

    PubMed

    Budiman, Arif; Fanany, Mohamad Ivan; Basaruddin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    A machine learning method needs to adapt to over time changes in the environment. Such changes are known as concept drift. In this paper, we propose concept drift tackling method as an enhancement of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) and Constructive Enhancement OS-ELM (CEOS-ELM) by adding adaptive capability for classification and regression problem. The scheme is named as adaptive OS-ELM (AOS-ELM). It is a single classifier scheme that works well to handle real drift, virtual drift, and hybrid drift. The AOS-ELM also works well for sudden drift and recurrent context change type. The scheme is a simple unified method implemented in simple lines of code. We evaluated AOS-ELM on regression and classification problem by using concept drift public data set (SEA and STAGGER) and other public data sets such as MNIST, USPS, and IDS. Experiments show that our method gives higher kappa value compared to the multiclassifier ELM ensemble. Even though AOS-ELM in practice does not need hidden nodes increase, we address some issues related to the increasing of the hidden nodes such as error condition and rank values. We propose taking the rank of the pseudoinverse matrix as an indicator parameter to detect "underfitting" condition. PMID:27594879

  9. Adaptive Online Sequential ELM for Concept Drift Tackling

    PubMed Central

    Basaruddin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    A machine learning method needs to adapt to over time changes in the environment. Such changes are known as concept drift. In this paper, we propose concept drift tackling method as an enhancement of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) and Constructive Enhancement OS-ELM (CEOS-ELM) by adding adaptive capability for classification and regression problem. The scheme is named as adaptive OS-ELM (AOS-ELM). It is a single classifier scheme that works well to handle real drift, virtual drift, and hybrid drift. The AOS-ELM also works well for sudden drift and recurrent context change type. The scheme is a simple unified method implemented in simple lines of code. We evaluated AOS-ELM on regression and classification problem by using concept drift public data set (SEA and STAGGER) and other public data sets such as MNIST, USPS, and IDS. Experiments show that our method gives higher kappa value compared to the multiclassifier ELM ensemble. Even though AOS-ELM in practice does not need hidden nodes increase, we address some issues related to the increasing of the hidden nodes such as error condition and rank values. We propose taking the rank of the pseudoinverse matrix as an indicator parameter to detect “underfitting” condition. PMID:27594879

  10. [Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the mentally retarded: guidelines of a multidisciplinary consensus work group. Dutch Association of Physicians in Care of Mentally Handicapped].

    PubMed

    Gimbel, H

    2000-06-10

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is more frequent among people with intellectual disability than among the intellectually normal population. Also GORD is more serious in this population. The diagnosis is often missed, because most intellectually disabled cannot express their complaints of GORD. For that reason a multidisciplinary working group of the Dutch Association of physicians active in the care of persons with a mental handicap has developed guidelines. The working group recommends endoscopy in case of a (alarm) symptoms: haematemesis, prolonged vomiting, irondeficiency anaemia e.c.i., and a 24 hour oesophageal pH test in case of b (aspecific) symptoms: recurrent pneumonia, refusal of food, regurgitation, rumination, dental erosions. In general most patients are cured with drug treatment (omeprazol or another proton pump inhibitor). If symptoms are not improved after 6 months of optimal treatment, surgical treatment may be considered. PMID:10876695

  11. ELM control strategies and tools: status and potential for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, P. T.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Baylor, L. R.; Becoulet, M.; Cavinato, M.; Clement-Lorenzo, S.; Daly, E.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Gribov, Y.; Horton, L. D.; Lowry, C.; Martin, Y.; Neubauer, O.; Oyama, N.; Schaffer, M. J.; Stork, D.; Suttrop, W.; Thomas, P.; Tran, M.; Wilson, H. R.; Kavin, A.; Schmitz, O.

    2013-04-01

    Operating ITER in the reference inductive scenario at the design values of Ip = 15 MA and QDT = 10 requires the achievement of good H-mode confinement that relies on the presence of an edge transport barrier whose pedestal pressure height is key to plasma performance. Strong gradients occur at the edge in such conditions that can drive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities resulting in edge localized modes (ELMs), which produce a rapid energy loss from the pedestal region to the plasma facing components (PFC). Without appropriate control, the heat loads on PFCs during ELMs in ITER are expected to become significant for operation in H-mode at Ip = 6-9 MA operation at higher plasma currents would result in a very reduced life time of the PFCs. Currently, several options are being considered for the achievement of the required level of ELM control in ITER; this includes operation in plasma regimes which naturally have no or very small ELMs, decreasing the ELM energy loss by increasing their frequency by a factor of up to 30 and avoidance of ELMs by actively controlling the edge with magnetic perturbations. Small/no ELM regimes obtained by influencing the edge stability (by plasma shaping, rotational shear control, etc) have shown in present experiments a significant reduction of the ELM heat fluxes compared to type-I ELMs. However, so far they have only been observed under a limited range of pedestal conditions depending on each specific device and their extrapolation to ITER remains uncertain. ELM control by increasing their frequency relies on the controlled triggering of the edge instability leading to the ELM. This has been presently demonstrated with the injection of pellets and with plasma vertical movements; pellets having provided the results more promising for application in ITER conditions. ELM avoidance/suppression takes advantage of the fact that relatively small changes in the pedestal plasma and magnetic field parameters seem to have a large stabilizing

  12. Psychometric validation of the Dutch translation of the quality of life in reflux and dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire is one of the best-characterized disease-specific instruments that captures health-related problems and symptom-patterns in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This paper reports the psychometric validation of a Dutch translation of the QOLRAD questionnaire in gastroenterology outpatients with GERD. Methods Patients completed the QOLRAD questionnaire at visit 1 (baseline), visit 2 (after 2, 4 or 8 weeks of acute treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg once daily), and visit 4 (after 6 months with on-demand esomeprazole 40 mg once daily or continuous esomeprazole 20 mg once daily). Symptoms were assessed at each visit, and patient satisfaction was assessed at visits 2 and 4. Results Of the 1166 patients entered in the study, 97.3% had moderate or severe heartburn and 55.5% had moderate or severe regurgitation at baseline. At visit 2, symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation were mild or absent in 96.7% and 97.7%, respectively, and 95.3% of patients reported being satisfied with the treatment. The internal consistency and reliability of the QOLRAD questionnaire (range: 0.83-0.92) supported construct validity. Convergent validity was moderate to low. Known-groups validity was confirmed by a negative correlation between the QOLRAD score and clinician-assessed severity of GERD symptoms. Effect sizes (1.15-1.93) and standardized response means (1.17-1.86) showed good responsiveness to change. GERD symptoms had a negative impact on patients' lives. Conclusions The psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the QOLRAD questionnaire were found to be satisfactory, with good reliability and responsiveness to change, although convergent validity was at best moderate. PMID:20716328

  13. ELM-Induced Plasma Wall Interactions in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, D L; Boedo, J A; Yu, J H; Brooks, N H; Fenstermacher, M E; Groth, M; Hollmann, E M; Lasnier, C J; McLean, A G; Moyer, R A; Stangeby, P C; Tynan, G R; Wampler, W R; Watkins, J G; West, W P; Wong, C C; Zeng, L; Bastasz, R J; Buchenauer, D; Whaley, J

    2008-05-14

    Intense transient fluxes of particles and heat to the main chamber components induced by edge localized modes (ELMs) are of serious concern for ITER. In DIII-D, plasma interaction with the outboard chamber wall is studied using Langmuir probes and optical diagnostics including a fast framing camera. Camera data shows that ELMs feature helical filamentary structures localized at the low field side of the plasma and aligned with the local magnetic field. During the nonlinear phase of an ELM, multiple filaments are ejected from the plasma edge and propagate towards the outboard wall with velocities of 0.5-0.7 km/s. When reaching the wall, filaments result in 'hot spots'--regions of local intense plasma-material interaction (PMI) where the peak incident particle and heat fluxes are up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those between ELMs. This interaction pattern has a complicated geometry and is neither toroidally nor poloidally symmetric. In low density/collisionality H-mode discharges, PMI at the outboard wall is almost entirely due to ELMs. In high density/collisionality discharges, contributions of ELMs and inter-ELM periods to PMI at the wall are comparable. A Midplane Material Evaluation Station (MiMES) has been recently installed in order to conduct in situ measurements of erosion/redeposition at the outboard chamber wall, including those caused by ELMs.

  14. Translation, validation, and norming of the Dutch language version of the SF-36 Health Survey in community and chronic disease populations.

    PubMed

    Aaronson, N K; Muller, M; Cohen, P D; Essink-Bot, M L; Fekkes, M; Sanderman, R; Sprangers, M A; te Velde, A; Verrips, E

    1998-11-01

    The primary objectives of this research were to translate, validate, and generate normative data on the SF-36 Health Survey for use among Dutch-speaking residents of the Netherlands. Translation of the SF-36 into Dutch followed the stepwise, iterative procedures developed by the IQOLA Project. Following extensive pilot testing, the SF-36 was administered to: (1) a random sample of adult residents of Amsterdam (n = 4172); (2) a random, nationwide sample of adults (n = 1742); (3) a sample of migraine sufferers (n = 423); and (4) a sample of cancer patients undergoing active anti-neoplastic treatment (n = 485). Data quality across the four studies was consistently high. The rates of missing data ranged from 1% to 5% at the item level, and from 1.2% to 2.6% at the scale level. Multitrait scaling analysis confirmed the hypothesized scale structure of the SF-36 and associated scale scoring in all four samples. Cronbach's alpha coefficients surpassed the 0.70 criterion for group comparisons in all but one case (the Social Functioning scale in the cancer sample), with a mean alpha coefficient across all scales and samples of 0.84. Known-group comparisons yielded consistent support for the validity of the SF-36. In the two community samples, statistically significant differences in SF-36 mean scale scores were observed as a function of age, gender, and the prevalence of chronic health conditions. In the migraine and cancer samples, mean SF-36 scale scores varied significantly as a function of various indicators of disease severity. The SF-36 profiles for the two community samples were highly similar. The cancer sample yielded the lowest SF-36 scores, with the migraine sample holding an intermediate position. On-going studies will generate data on the responsiveness of the SF-36 to within-group changes in health over time. Efforts are underway to translate and validate the questionnaire for use among ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. PMID:9817123

  15. Microsatellite loci development for red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and cross-species amplification with Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ulmus pumila is an elm species, non-native to the United States which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra. In order to study the genetic structure and hybridization patterns between these two elm species, we developed fifteen primer pairs for microsatellite loci in U. rubra and tested their cross-amplifica...

  16. Dutch surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    van Gulik, Thomas M; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of Nagasaki, called Decima. Western culture and science reached the Japanese exclusively through the Dutch on Decima. Health care on Decima was provided by Dutch barber-surgeons, who introduced Western surgical practice in Japan. Official interpreters were the only Japanese allowed on Decima. It was from among these interpreters that the first Japanese surgeons arose who, having mastered the Dutch language, translated several Dutch anatomic and surgical texts. Genpaku Sugita translated a Dutch anatomy textbook into Japanese, which was completed in 1774. This book, entitled Kaitai Shinsho [New Book on Anatomy], was the first Western scientific monograph to be translated entirely into Japanese. Several Dutch surgical schools were founded through which Dutch surgery, known in Japan as "surgery of the red-haired" was propagated. According to the custom of the surgical guilds in Holland, certificates were granted to Japanese apprentices who had completed their training in Dutch surgery. About 60 Dutch surgeons had served on Decima up to 1850, providing the basis for surgery to develop in Japan. Among them, Philipp Franz von Siebold was an exceptional scholar who also had a great impact in making Japanese culture known to the Western world. PMID:15599736

  17. The ELM Survey. VI. Eleven New Double Degenerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Canton, Paul; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2015-10-01

    We present the discovery of 11 new double degenerate systems containing extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs). Our radial velocity observations confirm that all of the targets have orbital periods ≤slant 1 day. We perform spectroscopic fits and provide a complete set of physical and binary parameters. We review and compare recent evolutionary calculations and estimate that the systematic uncertainty in our mass determinations due to differences in the evolutionary models is small (≈ 0.01 M⊙). Five of the new systems will merge due to gravitational wave radiation within a Hubble time, bringing the total number of merger systems found in the ELM Survey to 38. We examine the ensemble properties of the current sample of ELM WD binaries, including the period distribution as a function of effective temperature, and the implications for the future evolution of these systems. We also revisit the empirical boundaries of instability strip of ELM WDs and identify new pulsating ELM WD candidates. Finally, we consider the kinematic properties of our sample of ELM WDs and estimate that a significant fraction of the WDs from the ELM Survey are members of the Galactic halo. Based on observations obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  18. Patterns of ELM impacts on the JET wall components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y.; Bécoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Benkadda, S.; Beyer, P.; Figarella, C.; Garbet, X.; Monier-Garbet, P.; JET Team

    2003-03-01

    Numerical analysis of the images in visible light from the JET tangential camera show that the edge localised mode (ELM) events are characterised by impacts on the low-field side components. The increase of emission is not restricted to the components closest to the plasma. One finds also that the deposition on the low-field side components does not exhibit any poloidal or toroidal symmetry and varies from ELM to ELM. Conversely the increase of emission on the divertor baffles, or the top protection tiles, is close to axisymmetric.

  19. Numerical Modelling of the Nonlinear ELM Cycle in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Wingen, A; Evans, T E; Lasnier, C J; Spatschek, K H

    2009-06-02

    A numerical model of the nonlinear evolution of edge localized modes (ELMs) in tokmaks is presented. In the model discussed here it is assumed that thermoelectric currents flow in short connection length flux tubes, initially established by error fields or other non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations. Magnetic perturbations resulting from the currents are incorporated into the magnetic topology. The predictions are compared to measurements at the DIII-D tokamak. Excellent agreement between the calculated magnetic structures on the vessel wall and camera observations during an ELM cycle is shown. The ELM collapse process is discussed.

  20. First Observation Of ELM Pacing With Vertical Jogs In A Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S P; Canik, J M; Maingi, R; Bell, R; Gates, d; Goldston, R; Hawryluk, R; Le Blanc, B P; Menard, J; Sontag, A C; Sabbagh, S

    2010-07-15

    Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies. __________________________________________________

  1. Comparison of ELM heat loads in snowflake and standard divertors

    SciTech Connect

    Rognlien, T D; Cohen, R H; Ryutov, D D; Umansky, M V

    2012-05-08

    An analysis is given of the impact of the tokamak divertor magnetic structure on the temporal and spatial divertor heat flux from edge localized modes (ELMs). Two configurations are studied: the standard divertor where the poloidal magnetic field (B{sub p}) varies linearly with distance (r) from the magnetic null and the snowflake where B{sub p} varies quadratrically with r. Both one and two-dimensional models are used to analyze the effect of the longer magnetic field length between the midplane and the divertor plate for the snowflake that causes a temporal dilation of the ELM divertor heat flux. A second effect discussed is the appearance of a broad region near the null point where the poloidal plasma beta can substantially exceed unity, especially for the snowflake configuration during the ELM; such a condition is likely to drive additional radial ELM transport.

  2. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  3. VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH FACILITY 708 ON LEFT. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH FACILITY 708 ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH NORFOLK PINE ON RIGHT. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH NORFOLK PINE ON RIGHT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 46. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM THE OLMSTED ELM IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM THE OLMSTED ELM IN THE SOUTH LAWN TO THE ROCK GARDEN. (NOTE: HISTORIC ENGLISH YEW ON RIGHT, CRAB APPLE IN CENTER VIEW). - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  6. ELM induced tungsten melting and its impact on tokamak operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenen, J. W.; Arnoux, G.; Bazylev, B.; Matthews, G. F.; Jachmich, S.; Balboa, I.; Clever, M.; Dejarnac, R.; Coffey, I.; Corre, Y.; Devaux, S.; Frassinetti, L.; Gauthier, E.; Horacek, J.; Knaup, M.; Komm, M.; Krieger, K.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A.; Mertens, Ph.; Pitts, R. A.; Puetterich, T.; Rack, M.; Stamp, M.; Sergienko, G.; Tamain, P.; Thompson, V.

    2015-08-01

    In JET-ILW dedicated melt exposures were performed using a sequence of 3MA/2.9T H-Mode JET pulses with an input power of PIN = 23 MW, a stored energy of ∼6 MJ and regular type I ELMs at ΔWELM = 0.3 MJ and fELM ∼ 30 Hz. In order to assess the risk of starting ITER operations with a full W divertor, one of the task was to measure the consequences of W transients melting due to ELMs. JET is the only tokamak able to produce transients/ ELMs large enough (>300 kJ per ELM) to facilitate melting of tungsten. Such ELMs are comparable to mitigated ELMs expected in ITER. By moving the outer strike point (OSP) onto a dedicated leading edge the base temperature was raised within ∼1 s to allow transient ELM-driven melting during the subsequent 0.5 s. Almost 1 mm (∼6 mm3) of W was moved by ∼ 150 ELMs within 5 subsequent discharges. Significant material losses in terms of ejections into the plasma were not observed. There is indirect evidence that some small droplets (∼ 80 μm) were ejected. The impact on the main plasma parameters is minor and no disruptions occurred. The W-melt gradually moved along the lamella edge towards the high field side, driven by j × B forces. The evaporation rate determined is 100 times less than expected from steady state melting and thus only consistent with transient melting during individual ELMs. IR data, spectroscopy, as well as melt modeling point to transient melting. Although the type of damage studied in these JET experiments is unlikely to be experienced in ITER, the results do strongly support the design strategy to avoid exposed edges in the ITER divertor. The JET experiments required a surface at normal incidence and considerable pre-heating to produce tungsten melting. They provide unique experimental evidence for the absence of significant melt splashing at events resembling mitigated ELMs on ITER and establish a unique experimental benchmark for the simulations being used to study transient shallow melting on ITER W

  7. Resistance to Antibiotics and Antifungal Medicinal Products: Can Complementary and Alternative Medicine Help Solve the Problem in Common Infection Diseases? The Introduction of a Dutch Research Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Esther T.; Jong, Miek C.; Gravendeel, Barbara; Van Leeuwen, Willem B.; Baars, Erik W.

    2015-01-01

    The increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide, rising numbers of deaths and costs associated with this, and the fact that hardly any new antimicrobial drugs have been developed during the last decade have increased the interest in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapeutic interventions, if proven safe and effective. Observational studies on clinical CAM practices demonstrate positive effects of treatment of infections with CAM therapies (clinical effects, patient satisfaction) in combination with small percentages of antibiotics prescription. However, Cochrane reviews and other studies demonstrate that in most instances the quality of clinical trials on CAM treatment of infections is currently too low to provide sufficient evidence. Therefore a Dutch consortium on (in vitro and clinical) scientific research on CAM and antibiotic resistance has been formed. The aim and objective of the consortium is to establish an enduring partnership and to develop expertise to further develop and investigate safe and effective CAM treatments for infectious diseases of humans (and animals). A first ongoing project on the development of safe and effective biobased CAM antimycotics in women with (recurrent) vaginal candidiasis infection is introduced. PMID:26539227

  8. Long-term time series prediction using OP-ELM.

    PubMed

    Grigorievskiy, Alexander; Miche, Yoan; Ventelä, Anne-Mari; Séverin, Eric; Lendasse, Amaury

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an Optimally Pruned Extreme Learning Machine (OP-ELM) is applied to the problem of long-term time series prediction. Three known strategies for the long-term time series prediction i.e. Recursive, Direct and DirRec are considered in combination with OP-ELM and compared with a baseline linear least squares model and Least-Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM). Among these three strategies DirRec is the most time consuming and its usage with nonlinear models like LS-SVM, where several hyperparameters need to be adjusted, leads to relatively heavy computations. It is shown that OP-ELM, being also a nonlinear model, allows reasonable computational time for the DirRec strategy. In all our experiments, except one, OP-ELM with DirRec strategy outperforms the linear model with any strategy. In contrast to the proposed algorithm, LS-SVM behaves unstably without variable selection. It is also shown that there is no superior strategy for OP-ELM: any of three can be the best. In addition, the prediction accuracy of an ensemble of OP-ELM is studied and it is shown that averaging predictions of the ensemble can improve the accuracy (Mean Square Error) dramatically. PMID:24365536

  9. What's Missing in Dutch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weverink, Meike

    An often-noted contrast between child and adult language is that young children produce sentences both with and without lexical subjects even if subjects are obligatory in the adult system. However, in Dutch, there is no such structural difference between the earliest stages of Dutch child grammar and the adult stage where subjects are concerned.…

  10. [Dutch government invests in existing biobanks].

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Margreet; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Wijmenga, Cisca; Kiemeney, Lambertus A

    2010-01-01

    Modern research, aimed at discovering factors that influence health and disease, requires large collections of data and samples. Collaboration between biobanks is therefore essential. The Dutch hub in the network of biobanks, the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-NL), is one of the major Dutch biobanking initiatives. It is sponsored by the Dutch government through the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). BBMRI-NL sets up collaboration between approximately 150 existing clinical and population biobanks in the Netherlands, and forms the link with the European BBMRI initiative. BBMRI-NL aims at enrichment and harmonization of existing Dutch biobanks, at data management and analysis, and at laying the legal, social and ethical foundations, in order to improve access and inter-operability, and to render the information and organization up to date. Other major Dutch initiatives are String of Pearls and LifeLines. Together these will create the conditions needed for Dutch researchers to further develop their strong position in the international biobanking field. PMID:21029488

  11. Functional categorization of unique expressed sequence tags obtained from the yeast-like growth phase of the elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The highly aggressive pathogenic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi continues to be a serious threat to the American elm (Ulmus americana) in North America. Extensive studies have been conducted in North America to understand the mechanisms of virulence of this introduced pathogen and its evolving population structure, with a view to identifying potential strategies for the control of Dutch elm disease. As part of a larger study to examine the genomes of economically important Ophiostoma spp. and the genetic basis of virulence, we have constructed an expressed sequence tag (EST) library using total RNA extracted from the yeast-like growth phase of O. novo-ulmi (isolate H327). Results A total of 4,386 readable EST sequences were annotated by determining their closest matches to known or theoretical sequences in public databases by BLASTX analysis. Searches matched 2,093 sequences to entries found in Genbank, including 1,761 matches with known proteins and 332 matches with unknown (hypothetical/predicted) proteins. Known proteins included a collection of 880 unique transcripts which were categorized to obtain a functional profile of the transcriptome and to evaluate physiological function. These assignments yielded 20 primary functional categories (FunCat), the largest including Metabolism (FunCat 01, 20.28% of total), Sub-cellular localization (70, 10.23%), Protein synthesis (12, 10.14%), Transcription (11, 8.27%), Biogenesis of cellular components (42, 8.15%), Cellular transport, facilitation and routes (20, 6.08%), Classification unresolved (98, 5.80%), Cell rescue, defence and virulence (32, 5.31%) and the unclassified category, or known sequences of unknown metabolic function (99, 7.5%). A list of specific transcripts of interest was compiled to initiate an evaluation of their impact upon strain virulence in subsequent studies. Conclusions This is the first large-scale study of the O. novo-ulmi transcriptome. The expression profile obtained from the yeast

  12. Optimization of RMP Coils for ELM Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Someswar; Evans, T. E.; Orlov, D. M.

    2015-11-01

    Advanced DIII-D RMP coils with improved capabilities are studied using a vacuum island overlap width (VIOW) criterion. Changes in characteristics of the RMP field produced by different geometrical parameters using both ex-vessel (C- and O-) and in-vessel (I- and CP-) coils are discussed. By reducing the poloidal span of each coil, the spacing between them and varying the geometric angle between the coils and the plasma, the resonant field can be adjusted to optimize the edge VIOW criterion while minimizing core resonances. Three separate phase scans using a combination of the as built I-coils and proposed CP-coils are compared for three different equilibria. Two of these equilibria have different edge safety factors and the third one has a different gap between plasma and wall than the standard equilibrium scenario of DIII D. The scan results show that the VIOW correlation criterion is well satisfied in all three cases, resulting in a new way to optimize the RMP coils for the future reactors in order to achieve the ELM suppression criterion over a significantly wider range of fusion plasma operating scenarios. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under DE-FG02-05ER54809 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  13. Strengthening infectious disease surveillance in a Dutch-German crossborder area using a real-time information exchange system.

    PubMed

    ter Waarbeek, Henriëtte; Hoebe, Christian; Freund, Hermann; Bochat, Verena; Kara-Zaïtr, Chakib

    2011-06-01

    International outbreaks are occurring much faster than before and require rapid trans-national detection and response. Never before has there been a more urgent need for improved crossborder collaboration on harmonisation of surveillance and response systems despite varying legislations. In the Euregion Maas Rhine, the Public Health Services of South Limburg in the Netherlands and Aachen in Germany agreed to join forces to work on a collaborative tool for sharing real-time infectious disease data. Both units had already implemented an adapted version of HPZone (a web-based software suite for managing infectious diseases at the local level). The collaborative work was realised through finding solutions to five key challenges. First, Euregional disease protocols were agreed commensurate with national guidelines. Secondly, a minimal dataset for infectious disease exchange information was negotiated taking into consideration international health regulations and differences in legislation. Thirdly, a mature risk assessment model for infectious disease was augmented to account for transborder spread and Euregional impact. Fourthly, protocol alert rules were negotiated on triggers for early warning. Finally, a crossborder dashboard, as a component of HPVista and encapsulating the four previous deliverables into a secure web-based system, was developed. HPVista is the parent application to HPZone and enables wider incident command and control regionally, nationally and internationally. The dashboard has facilities for displaying what, when, where and how cases, contacts and outbreaks happen in the crossborder area. It also provides secure communications for further discussion and exchange of other key information not currently shared electronically. The collaborative work embedded in the modified HPZone and HPVista versions with real-time surveillance and geographical information system mapping readily facilitates the systematic analysis of crossborder health incidents in

  14. Features of spontaneous and pellet-induced ELMs on the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, C. H.; Nie, L.; Feng, Z.; Ji, X. Q.; Yao, K.; Zhu, G. L.; Liu, Yi; Cui, Z. Y.; Yan, L. W.; Wang, Q. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Duan, X. R.

    2012-11-01

    The pellet pacing ELM mitigation concept is being tested in some tokamaks such as ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D and JET. By increasing the ELM frequency, the ELM size can be reduced and eventually suppressed to meet the lifetime requirements on ITER target plates. In the HL-2A tokamak, ELMy H-mode operation is routinely performed and small type-III ELMs with a high repetition rate and some type-I (or possibly large type-III) ELM events are observed. Large ELMs are often preceded by strong coherent magnetic oscillations, and produce obvious perturbations on plasma current Ip, electron density \\bar {n}_{edge} at the edge, stored energy WE, etc. The coherent magnetic oscillations before an ELM crash or during the ELM are measured by toroidal and poloidal Mirnov coils and analysed by the wavelet technique to study the spectral characteristics of the short time ELM events. Pellet injection experiments are performed in type-III ELMy H-mode plasmas and ELM-free H-mode plasmas to study the physics of pellet triggering ELM. The analyses of pellet-induced ELMs and spontaneous ELMs are presented. Because the pellet size is relatively large, it induces magnetic oscillations lasting longer than that of a natural ELM.

  15. Titration of Marek's disease cell-associated vaccine virus (CVI 988) of reconstituted vaccine and vaccine ampoules from Dutch hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J M; Verschuren, S B E

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one outbreaks of Marek's disease (MD) were reported in the Netherlands and retrospectively analyzed. The outbreaks occurred mostly in vaccinated commercial layer and a few breeder flocks of several breeds; however, the cause of the outbreaks could not be established. Therefore, in a prospective study, the occurrence of true vaccine failures was assessed onfive hatcheries. The plaque-forming units (PFU) of MD vaccine per chicken dose were determined through in vitro assays on vacine ampoules (2 to 5 per hatchery) and samples of reconstituted vaccine (approximately 22 per hatchery). All forty reconstituted vaccine samples of hatcheries 1 and 4 showed PFU doses <10(3). In hatchery 4, 14 samples showed extreme low PFU (< or = 10 PFU). In hatcheries 2, 3, and 5, the numbers of MD vaccine suspensions with a titer > or = 10(3) PFU, which is the standard required, were 1 (5%), 17 (77%), and 3 (14%), respectively. Some vaccine ampoules showed < 10(3) PFU per chicken dose. This study shows the usefulness to assess the PFU per chicken dose of reconstituted MD vaccine and vaccine ampoules to unravel true vaccine failures, which could result in disease outbreaks in the field. PMID:14708997

  16. Power deposition in the JET divertor during ELMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, S.; Chankin, A.; Ciric, D.; Coad, J. P.; Falter, J.; Gauthier, E.; Lingertat, J.; Puppin, S.

    The power deposited in the JET divertor during ELMs has been evaluated using an infrared camera specifically designed for fast measurements. The first results [E. Gauthier, A. Charkin, S. Clement et al., Proc. 24th Euro. conf. on contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Berchtesgaden, 1997 (European Physical Society, 1998), vol. 21A, p. 61.] indicated that during type I ELMs, surface temperatures in excess of 2000°C were measured, leading to peak power fluxes in the order of 4 GW/m 2. The time integrated power flux exceeded the measured plasma energy loss per ELM by a factor of four. The reasons for this discrepancy are studied in this paper. Redeposited carbon layers of up to 40 μm have been found on the divertor surface in the places where the highest temperatures are measured. The impact of such layers on the power flux evaluation has been studied with numerical calculations, and a controlled simulation of ELM heating has been performed in the JET neutral beam test facility. It is found that neglecting the existence of layers on the surface in a 2D calculation can lead to overestimating the power by a factor of 3, whereas the error in the calculation of the energy is much smaller. An energy based calculation reduces the peak power during type I ELMs to values around 1.2 GW/m 2.

  17. Stability and ELM Characterization in I-Mode Pedestals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walk, J. R.; Hughes, J. W.; Snyder, P. B.; Hubbard, A. E.; Terry, J. L.; White, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Baek, S. G.; Cziegler, I.; Edlund, E.

    2014-10-01

    The I-mode is a novel high-confinement regime explored on Alcator C-Mod, notable for its formation of an H-mode-like temperature pedestal without the accompanying density pedestal, maintaining L-mode particle confinement. I-mode exhibits a number of desirable properties for a reactor regime: among them, it naturally lacks large ELMs, avoiding the need for externally-applied ELM suppression. However, under certain conditions small, intermittent ELM-like events are seen. These events exhibit a range of phenomena in terms of edge and pedestal behavior, particularly for the ELM trigger - the majority of events are synchronized with the sawtooth heat pulse reaching the edge. The stationary pedestal structure is stable against peeling-ballooning MHD as calculated by ELITE in all cases, necessitating treatment of transient pedestal modification to characterize these events. We characterize these ELM events in terms of edge behavior, particularly the modification of the temperature pedestal, edge turbulence and fluctuations, and peeling-ballooning MHD stability. This work is supported by USDoE Award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  18. ELM: the status of the 2010 eukaryotic linear motif resource

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Cathryn M.; Diella, Francesca; Via, Allegra; Puntervoll, Pål; Gemünd, Christine; Chabanis-Davidson, Sophie; Michael, Sushama; Sayadi, Ahmed; Bryne, Jan Christian; Chica, Claudia; Seiler, Markus; Davey, Norman E.; Haslam, Niall; Weatheritt, Robert J.; Budd, Aidan; Hughes, Tim; Paś, Jakub; Rychlewski, Leszek; Travé, Gilles; Aasland, Rein; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Linding, Rune; Gibson, Toby J.

    2010-01-01

    Linear motifs are short segments of multidomain proteins that provide regulatory functions independently of protein tertiary structure. Much of intracellular signalling passes through protein modifications at linear motifs. Many thousands of linear motif instances, most notably phosphorylation sites, have now been reported. Although clearly very abundant, linear motifs are difficult to predict de novo in protein sequences due to the difficulty of obtaining robust statistical assessments. The ELM resource at http://elm.eu.org/ provides an expanding knowledge base, currently covering 146 known motifs, with annotation that includes >1300 experimentally reported instances. ELM is also an exploratory tool for suggesting new candidates of known linear motifs in proteins of interest. Information about protein domains, protein structure and native disorder, cellular and taxonomic contexts is used to reduce or deprecate false positive matches. Results are graphically displayed in a ‘Bar Code’ format, which also displays known instances from homologous proteins through a novel ‘Instance Mapper’ protocol based on PHI-BLAST. ELM server output provides links to the ELM annotation as well as to a number of remote resources. Using the links, researchers can explore the motifs, proteins, complex structures and associated literature to evaluate whether candidate motifs might be worth experimental investigation. PMID:19920119

  19. Scaling Relationships for ELM Diverter Heat Flux on DIII D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E. A.; Makowski, M. A.; Leonard, A. W.

    2015-11-01

    Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) are periodic plasma instabilities that occur during H-mode operation in tokamaks. Left unmitigated, these instabilities result in concentrated particle and heat fluxes at the divertor and stand to cause serious damage to the plasma facing components of tokamaks. The purpose of this research is to find scaling relationships that predict divertor heat flux due to ELMs based on plasma parameters at the time of instability. This will be accomplished by correlating characteristic ELM parameters with corresponding plasma measurements and analyzing the data for trends. One early assessment is the effect of the heat transmission coefficient ? on the in/out asymmetry of the calculated ELM heat fluxes. Using IR camera data, further assessments in this study will continue to emphasize in/out asymmetry in ELMs, as this has important implications for ITER operation. Work supported in part by the US DOE, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-FC02-04ER54698, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  20. The position of the Dutch Farmers' Union on lessons learned and future prevention and control of foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, M P; Osinga, K J

    2002-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has devastated animal husbandry in The Netherlands frequently in the past and still constitutes a threat. The use of vaccination reduced the number of outbreaks in The Netherlands in the 20th Century. However, the desire of some member states of the European Community not to use vaccination led to a new strategy based on stamping-out of infected and contagious farms and to strict transportation regulations. In 2001, this proved very disruptive to the wider rural economy, such as the recreational and tourism sectors. The policy also caused severe animal welfare problems and psychological problems among farmers and their families. This raised questions about the wider, and not only veterinary or agricultural, implications of control strategies of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). The technology seems to be in place for a return to the use of protective vaccination against FMDV during an outbreak, provided the Office International des Epizooties (OIE: World organisation for animal health) and European Commission (EC) receive data that substantiate the reliability of differentiating tests such as the 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for use in individual animals. Research is in progress but may not be able to produce these data until 2003 or 2004. High potency vaccines should be used to elicit sufficient immunity within three to four days. During an FMD crisis, farmers should be assisted to find markets for products from areas affected by FMDV. The human dimension of any FMD outbreak must be dealt with sufficiently in any contingency plan. PMID:12523719

  1. Syntactic Persistence in Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Kolk, Herman H. J.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that showed effects of "structure priming," the tendency to repeat syntactic structure across successive sentences. These effects were demonstrated in Dutch, a previously untested language. All experiments studied spoken sentence production. (Author/JL)

  2. Perspectives and experiences of Dutch multiple sclerosis patients and multiple sclerosis-specialized neurologists on injectable disease-modifying treatment

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Leo H; Heerings, Marco A; Jongen, Peter J; van der Hiele, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background The adherence to treatment with injectable disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) may benefit from adequate information provision and management of expectations. The communication between patients and physicians is very important in this respect. The current study investigated the perspectives and experiences of the MS patients and neurologists concerning the choice and course of treatment with DMDs in the Netherlands. Methods The MS patients (aged 18–60 years; diagnosed with MS at least a year ago, currently treated with injectable DMD treatment) and MS-specialized neurologists (practicing for ≥3 years, treating ≥15 MS patients/month on average, and spending >60% of their time in clinical practice) were asked to complete semistructured Internet-based questionnaires. The neurologists in this study were not necessarily the treating neurologists of the participating MS patients. Results In all, 107 MS patients and 18 MS-specialized neurologists completed the questionnaires. The MS-specialized neurologists in this study reported discussing most of the suggested treatment goals with their patients. The MS patients indicated that certain important treatment goals, ie, reduction in disease progression, reduction or prolongation of time to long-term disability, and reduction in new magnetic resonance imaging lesions, were not discussed with them. More than one-quarter of the patients (27%) would appreciate more information about their treatment. We found evidence for suboptimal patient adherence to MS therapy (23% indicated taking a treatment break) due to diverse side effects, lack of efficacy, or practical issues. As compared to these patient reports, the scale of poor adherence was overestimated by more than half of the neurologists (on average, 30% estimated treatment breaks). Conclusion The MS patients and MS-specialized neurologists in this study differ in their experiences and perspectives on information provision and adherence

  3. ELM mitigation via rotating resonant magnetic perturbations on MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, A. J.; Kirk, A.; Cahyna, P.; Chapman, I. T.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J. R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Kripner, L.; Peterka, M.

    2015-08-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produces splitting of the divertor strike point due to the interaction of the RMP field and the plasma field. The application of a rotating RMP field causes the strike point splitting to rotate, distributing the particle and heat flux evenly over the divertor. The RMP coils in MAST have been used to generate a rotating perturbation with a toroidal mode number n = 3. The ELM frequency is doubled with the application of the RMP rotating field, whilst maintaining the H mode. During mitigation, the ELM peak heat flux is seen to be reduced by 50% for a halving in the ELM energy and motion of the strike point, consistent with the rotation of the applied RMP field, is seen using high spatial resolution (1.5 mm at the target) heat flux profiles measured using infrared (IR) thermography.

  4. Ethnicity Modifies Associations between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Disease Severity in Parallel Dutch and Singapore Coronary Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Gijsberts, Crystel M.; Seneviratna, Aruni; de Carvalho, Leonardo P.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Vidanapthirana, Puwalani; Sorokin, Vitaly; Stella, Pieter; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Richards, A. Mark; Low, Adrian F.; Lee, Chi-Hang; Tan, Huay Cheem; Hoefer, Imo E.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique P. V.; Chan, Mark Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2020 the largest number of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) will be found in Asia. Published epidemiological and clinical reports are overwhelmingly derived from western (White) cohorts and data from Asia are scant. We compared CAD severity and all-cause mortality among 4 of the world’s most populous ethnicities: Whites, Chinese, Indians and Malays. Methods The UNIted CORoNary cohort (UNICORN) simultaneously enrolled parallel populations of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography or intervention for suspected CAD in the Netherlands and Singapore. Using multivariable ordinal regression, we investigated the independent association of ethnicity with CAD severity and interactions between risk factors and ethnicity on CAD severity. Also, we compared all-cause mortality among the ethnic groups using multivariable Cox regression analysis. Results We included 1,759 White, 685 Chinese, 201 Indian and 224 Malay patients undergoing coronary angiography. We found distinct inter-ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, the associations of gender and diabetes with severity of CAD were significantly stronger in Chinese than Whites. Chinese (OR 1.3 [1.1–1.7], p = 0.008) and Malay (OR 1.9 [1.4–2.6], p<0.001) ethnicity were independently associated with more severe CAD as compared to White ethnicity. Strikingly, when stratified for diabetes status, we found a significant association of all three Asian ethnic groups as compared to White ethnicity with more severe CAD among diabetics, but not in non-diabetics. Crude all-cause mortality did not differ, but when adjusted for covariates mortality was higher in Malays than the other ethnic groups. Conclusion In this population of individuals undergoing coronary angiography, ethnicity is independently associated with the severity of CAD and modifies the strength of association between certain risk factors and CAD severity. Furthermore, mortality differs among ethnic groups

  5. Structure and evolution of ELMs in the edge and SOL of NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqueda, R. J.; Maingi, R.; Bush, C. E.; Tritz, K.; Ahn, J.-W.; Boedo, J. A.; Kubota, S.; Fredrickson, E.; Zweben, S. J.

    2007-11-01

    Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) are routinely seen during H-mode operation in NSTX. These ELMs have been characterized as large-sized Type I, medium-sized Type III, and small Type V ELMs. Recently, an experiment was dedicated to characterize the structure and evolution of these 3 ELM Types in NSTX utilizing multiple diagnostics. These diagnostics include: fast-framing digital cameras, soft X-ray arrays, edge probes (both tile-embedded and reciprocating), reflectometers and Mirnov arrays. In general, the ELM evolves from a perturbation of the edge topology that quickly develops (<30 μs) into strong filamentation that propagates both radially and poloidally/toroidally in the SOL. This ELM filamentation is then followed by an increased level of edge turbulence (and blobs) resembling, momentarily, that observed during L-mode phases. This later blob filamentation is clearly distinct from the initial ELM structures. The characteristics and differences observed in all 3 ELM Types will be presented.

  6. TRANSPORT OF ELM ENERGY AND PARTICLES INTO THE SOL AND DIVERTOR OF DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    LEONARD,AW; OSBORNE,TH; FENSTERMACHER,ME; GROEBNER,RJ; GROTH,M; LASNIER,CJ; MAHDAVI,MA; PETRIE,TW; SNYDER,PB; WATKINS,JG; ZENG,L

    2002-11-01

    A271 TRANSPORT OF ELM ENERGY AND PARTICLES INTO THE SOL AND DIVERTOR OF DIII-D. The reduction in size of Type I edge localized models (ELMs) with increasing density is explored in DIII-D for the purpose of studying the underlying transport of ELM energy. The separate convective and conductive transport of energy due to an ELM is determined by Thomson scattering measurements of electron density and temperature in the pedestal. The conductive transport from the pedestal during an ELM decreases with increasing density, while the convective transport remains nearly constant. The scaling of the ELM energy loss is compared with an edge stability model. The role of the divertor sheath in limiting energy loss from the pedestal during an ELM is explored. Evidence of outward radial transport to the midplane wall during an ELM is also presented.

  7. Investigation of dynamics of ELM crashes and their mitigation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Pankin, Alexei Y.

    2015-08-14

    The accurate prediction of H-mode pedestal dynamics is critical for planning experiments in existing tokamaks and in the design of future tokamaks such as ITER and DEMO. The main objective of the proposed research is to advance the understanding of the physics of H-mode pedestal. Through advances in coupled kinetic-MHD simulations, a new model for H-mode pedestal and ELM crashes as well as an improved model for the bootstrap current will be developed. ELMmitigation techniques will also be investigated. The proposed research will help design efficient confinement scenarios and reduce transient heat loads on the divertor and plasma facing components. During the last two years, the principal investigator (PI) of this proposal actively participated in physics studies related to the DOE Joint Research Targets. These studies include the modeling of divertor heat load in the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and NSTX tokamaks in 2010, and the modeling of H-mode pedestal structure in the DIII-D tokamak in 2011. It is proposed that this close collaboration with experimentalists from major US tokamaks continue during the next funding period. Verification and validation will be a strong component of the proposed research. During the course of the project, advances will be made in the following areas; Dynamics of the H-mode pedestal buildup and recovery after ELM crashes – The effects of neutral fueling, particle and thermal pinches will be explored; Dynamics of ELM crashes in realistic tokamak geometries – Heat loads associated with ELM crashes will be validated against experimental measurements. An improved model for ELM crashes will be developed; ELM mitigation – The effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on ELMs stability and their evolution will be investigated; Development of a new bootstrap current model – A reduced model for will be developed through careful verification of existing models for bootstrap current against first-principle kinetic neoclassical simulations

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The ELM survey. VI. 11 new ELM WD binaries (Gianninas+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianninas, A.; Kilic, M.; Brown, W. R.; Canton, P.; Kenyon, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    We used the 6.5m MMT telescope equipped with the Blue Channel spectrograph, the 200 inch Hale telescope equipped with the Double spectrograph, the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4m telescope equipped with the R-C spectrograph, and more recently with Kitt Peak Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS), to obtain spectroscopy of our 11 targets in several observing runs. We have also been obtaining radial-velocity measurements for candidates from other sources including the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Spectroscopy Telescope (LAMOST). Those 11 new Extremely low-mass white dwarf (ELM WD) binaries bring the total of ELM WDs identified by the ELM Survey up to 73. (4 data files).

  9. ELM: an Algorithm to Estimate the Alpha Abundance from Low-resolution Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Yude; Zhao, Gang; Pan, Jingchang; Bharat Kumar, Yerra

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated a novel methodology using the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm to determine the α abundance of stars. Applying two methods based on the ELM algorithm—ELM+spectra and ELM+Lick indices—to the stellar spectra from the ELODIE database, we measured the α abundance with a precision better than 0.065 dex. By applying these two methods to the spectra with different signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) and different resolutions, we found that ELM+spectra is more robust against degraded resolution and ELM+Lick indices is more robust against variation in S/N. To further validate the performance of ELM, we applied ELM+spectra and ELM+Lick indices to SDSS spectra and estimated α abundances with a precision around 0.10 dex, which is comparable to the results given by the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. We further applied ELM to the spectra of stars in Galactic globular clusters (M15, M13, M71) and open clusters (NGC 2420, M67, NGC 6791), and results show good agreement with previous studies (within 1σ). A comparison of the ELM with other widely used methods including support vector machine, Gaussian process regression, artificial neural networks, and linear least-squares regression shows that ELM is efficient with computational resources and more accurate than other methods.

  10. Impact and Implementation Analyses of the ELM Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian; Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Clarke, Ben; Cary, Mari Strand; Chard, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this 4-year efficacy trial, funded by IES under the Mathematics and Science Education topic, is to study the efficacy of a (Tier 1) core kindergarten math curriculum, "Early Learning in Mathematics" (ELM), when implemented under rigorous experimental conditions. In the first year of this study (2008-09), kindergarten classrooms…

  11. 65. VIEW OF THE OLMSTED ELM, SOUTH LAWN, AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. VIEW OF THE OLMSTED ELM, SOUTH LAWN, AND WEST SLOPE. SHOWN IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND ARE THE RESTORED LAWN EDGE AND THE HISTORIC ENGLISH YEW. (DUPLICATE OF HABS No. MA-1168-31) - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  12. VIEW FROM CENTER OF ELM AVENUE, LOOKING WEST INTO SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM CENTER OF ELM AVENUE, LOOKING WEST INTO SECTION L. AT LEFT STANDS THE PONDEROUS MCDANIEL MAUSOLEUM, WHICH SHOWS THE INFLUENCE OF FRANK FURNESS ON H. Q. FRENCH’S 1887 DESIGN - Woodlands Cemetery, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. THE ELM SURVEY. IV. 24 WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Heinke, Craig O.; Agueeros, M. A.; Kleinman, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    We present new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low mass (ELM, {approx}0.2 M{sub Sun }) white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 area. We identify seven new binary systems with 1-18 hr orbital periods. Five of the systems will merge due to gravitational wave radiation within 10 Gyr, bringing the total number of merger systems found in the ELM Survey to 24. The ELM Survey has now quintupled the known merger WD population. It has also discovered the eight shortest period detached binary WD systems currently known. We discuss the characteristics of the merger and non-merger systems observed in the ELM Survey, including their future evolution. About half of the systems have extreme mass ratios. These are the progenitors of the AM Canum Venaticorum systems and Type Ia supernovae. The remaining targets will lead to the formation of extreme helium stars, subdwarfs, or massive WDs. We identify three targets that are excellent gravitational wave sources. These should be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna like missions within the first year of operation. The remaining targets are important indicators of what the Galactic foreground may look like for gravitational wave observatories.

  14. VIEW OF PLAYGROUND #4 NEAR ELM CIRCLE, SHOWING PICNIC TABLE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PLAYGROUND #4 NEAR ELM CIRCLE, SHOWING PICNIC TABLE. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. VIEW OF ELM CIRCLE, FROM BETWEEN FACILITIES 750 AND 750. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ELM CIRCLE, FROM BETWEEN FACILITIES 750 AND 750. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 75. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM THE OLMSTED ELM IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM THE OLMSTED ELM IN THE SOUTH LAWN TO THE ROCK GARDEN. VIEW INCLUDES HISTORIC ENGLISH YEW ON RIGHT, CRAB APPLE IN CENTER. (DUPLICATE OF HABS No. MA-1168-46) - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  17. Characteristics of pre-ELM structures during ELM control experiment on JET with n  =  2 magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Rack, M.; Liang, Y.; Sieglin, B.; Denner, P.; Contributors, JET

    2016-09-01

    Radially propagating pre-ELM (edge localized mode) structures in the heat flux profile on the outer divertor have been observed both with and without magnetic perturbations on Joint European Torus. Recently pre-ELM structures over 80% of the ELM cycle are observed. The effects of n  =  2 fields on pre-ELM structures are presented and analysed in detail. Redistribution of the inter-ELM heat load with the appearances of pre-ELM structures suggest that a wider energy wetted area could be achieved by the application of n  =  2 fields. The influences of q 95 and gas puffing position on the change of pre-ELM structures are studied. Pre-ELM structures are normally long lived (several milliseconds) and appear consecutively with n  =  2 fields, but do not necessarily lead to an ELM crash. The experimental observations suggest that the changed magnetic topology might be a possible explanation for the propagating structures.

  18. On Equivalence of FIS and ELM for Interpretable Rule-Based Knowledge Representation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shen Yuong; Yap, Keem Siah; Yap, Hwa Jen; Tan, Shing Chiang; Chang, Siow Wee

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy extreme learning machine (F-ELM) that embeds fuzzy membership functions and rules into the hidden layer of extreme learning machine (ELM). Similar to the concept of ELM that employed the random initialization technique, three parameters of F-ELM are randomly assigned. They are the standard deviation of the membership functions, matrix-C (rule-combination matrix), and matrix-D [don't care (DC) matrix]. Fuzzy if-then rules are formulated by the rule-combination Matrix of F-ELM, and a DC approach is adopted to minimize the number of input attributes in the rules. Furthermore, F-ELM utilizes the output weights of the ELM to form the target class and confidence factor for each of the rules. This is to indicate that the corresponding consequent parameters are determined analytically. The operations of F-ELM are equivalent to a fuzzy inference system. Several benchmark data sets and a real world fault detection and diagnosis problem have been used to empirically evaluate the efficacy of the proposed F-ELM in handling pattern classification tasks. The results show that the accuracy rates of F-ELM are comparable (if not superior) to ELM with distinctive ability of providing explicit knowledge in the form of interpretable rule base. PMID:25134093

  19. ELM PARTICLE AND ENERGY TRANSPORT IN THE SOL AND DIVERTOR OF DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    FENSTERMACHER,ME; LEONARD,AW; SNYDER,PB; BOEDO,JA; COLCHIN,RJ; GROEBNER,RJ; GRAY,DS; GROTH,M; HOLLMANN,E; LASNIER,CJ; OSBORNE,TH; PETRIE,TW; RUDAKOV,DL; TAKAHASHI,H; WATKINS,JG; ZENG,L

    2003-04-01

    A271 ELM PARTICLE AND ENERGY TRANSPORT IN THE SOL AND DIVERTOR OF DIII-D. Results from a series of dedicated experiments measuring the effect of particle and energy pulses from Type-I Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in the DIII-D scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor are compared with a simple model of ELM propagation in the boundary plasma. The simple model asserts that the propagation of ELM particle and energy perturbations is dominated by ion parallel convection along SOL fields lines and the recovery from the ELM perturbation is determined by recycling physics. Time scales associated with the initial changes of boundary plasma parameters are expected to be on the order of the ion transit time from the outer midplane, where the ELM instability is initiated, to the divertor targets. To test the model, the ion convection velocity is changed in the experiment by varying the plasma density. At moderate to high density, n{sub e}/n{sub Gr} = 0.5-0.8, the delays in the response of the boundary plasma to the midplane ELM pulses, the density dependence of those delays and other observations are consistent with the model. However, at the lowest densities, n{sub e}/n{sub Gr} {approx} 0.35, small delays between the response sin the two divertors, and changes in the response of the pedestal thermal energy to ELM events, indicate that additional factors including electron conduction in the SOL, the pre-ELM condition of the divertor plasma, and the ratio of ELM instability duration to SOL transit time, may be playing a role. The results show that understanding the response of the SOL and divertor plasmas to ELMs, for various pre-ELM conditions, is just as important to predicting the effect of ELM pulses on the target surfaces of future devices as is predicting the characteristics of the ELM perturbation of the core plasma.

  20. Extensive statistical analysis of ELMs on JET with a carbon wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, A.; Pisano, F.; Vega, J.; Cannas, B.; Fanni, A.; Gonzalez, S.; Gelfusa, M.; Grosso, M.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are bursts of instabilities which deteriorate the confinement of H mode plasmas and can cause damage to the divertor of next generation of devices. On JET individual discharges can exhibit hundreds of ELMs but typically in the literature, mainly due to the lack of automatic analysis tools, single papers investigate only the behaviour of tens of individual ELMs. In this paper, an original tool, the universal event locator (UMEL), is applied to the problem of automatically identifying the time location of ELMs. With this approach, databases of hundreds of thousands of ELMs can be built with reasonable effort. The analysis has then been focused on the investigation of the statistical distribution of the inter-ELM intervals at steady state for type I ELMs. Numerous probability distributions have been tested to perform the data analysis and different distributions provide a best fit for sets of data from different experiments. This result constitutes robust experimental confirmation that type I ELMs are not all necessarily the same type of instability. Moreover, the most likely distributions are not memoryless, meaning that the waiting time, from a particular instant until the next ELM, does depend on the time elapsed from the previous event. These properties, confirmed by this investigation on JET, pose important constraints on the models aimed at describing the ELM dynamics. This work also demonstrates the widespread applicability of the UMEL tool.

  1. Progress in the Peeling-Ballooning Model of ELMs: Numerical Studies of 3D Nonlinear ELM Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, P B; Wilson, H R; Xu, X Q

    2004-12-13

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the non-linear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outer wall. Similarities to non-linear linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.

  2. PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 3D NONLINEAR ELM DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    SNYDER,P.B; WILSON,H.R; XU,X.Q

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the nonlinear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outboard wall. Similarities to non-linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.

  3. QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALOONING MODES

    SciTech Connect

    LAO,LL; SNYDER,PB; LEONARD,AW; OIKAWA,T; OSBORNE,TH; PETRIE,TW; FERRON,JR; GROEBNER,RJ; HORTON,LD; KAMADA,Y; MURAKAMI,M; SAARELMA,S; STJOHN,HE; TURNBULL,AD; WILSON,HR

    2003-03-01

    A271 QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALOONING MODES. Several testable features of the working model of edge localized modes (ELMs) as intermediate toroidal mode number peeling-ballooning modes are evaluated quantitatively using DIII-D and JT-60U experimental data and the ELITE MHD stability code. These include the hypothesis that ELM sizes are related to the radial widths of the unstable MHD modes, the unstable modes have a strong ballooning character localized in the outboard bad curvature region, and ELM size generally becomes smaller at high edge collisionality. ELMs are triggered when the growth rates of the unstable MHD modes become significantly large. These testable features are consistent with many ELM observations in DIII-D and JT-60U discharges.

  4. ELM mitigation by means of supersonic molecular beam and pellet injection on the EAST superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Li, C. Z.; Zhen, X. W.; Li, J. G.; Guo, H. Y.; Li, J. H.; Wang, L.; Gan, K. F.; Chen, Y.; Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Yao, X. J.; Hu, L. Q.; Gong, X. Z.; Wan, B. N.; Zou, X. L.; Mansfield, D. K.; Liang, Y. F.; Vinyar, I.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we will present experimental results from EAST on the mitigation of edge localized modes (ELMs) using recently developed deuterium/lithium pellet injections as well as supersonic molecular beam injections (SMBI). Using a Laval nozzle, ELM mitigation with SMBI has been demonstrated in EAST in quasi-steady state. Using a D2 pellet injector, a giant ELM appears followed by a burst of high frequency ELMs at ∼300 Hz with duration of a few tens of milliseconds. Furthermore, for the first time, a novel technology using a simple rotating impeller to inject sub-millimeter size lithium (Li) granules at speeds of a few tens of meters per second was successfully used to pace ELMs. These experiments indicate that, on EAST, several technologies can contribute to the database supporting ELMs control in future fusion devices, such as ITER.

  5. Dutch euthanasia revisited.

    PubMed

    Fenigsen, R

    1997-01-01

    The results of a follow-up study of euthanasia by the Dutch government, five years after the first study, were published on November 26, 1996. This article provides a detailed review of the two reports comparing and contrasting the statistics cited therein. The author notes that the "rules of careful conduct" proposed by the courts and by the Royal Dutch Society of Medicine were frequently disregarded. Special topics included for the first time in the second study were the notification and non-prosecution procedure, euthanasia of newborns and infants, and assisted suicide in psychiatric practice. The authors of the follow-up report state that it would be desirable to reduce the number of "terminations of life without patients' request," but this must be the common responsibility of the doctor and the patient. They suggest that the person who does not wish to have his life terminated should declare this clearly, in advance, verbally and in writing, preferably in the form of a living will. Involuntary euthanasia was rampant in 1990 and equally rampant in 1995. The author concludes that Dutch doctors who practice euthanasia are not on the slippery slope. From the very beginning, they have been at the bottom. PMID:9479883

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The ELM survey. VII. 15 new ELM white dwarf cand. (Brown+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. R.; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, M.; Kenyon, S. J.; Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present observations of 15 new extremely low-mass white dwarf (ELM WD) candidates. Ten objects are selected by color for our targeted spectroscopic ELM Survey program as described in Brown et al. (2012ApJ...744..142B). Five objects come from follow-up spectroscopy of the completed Hypervelocity Star survey. We acquire spectra for the 15 ELM WD candidates using the Blue Channel spectrograph on the 6.5m MMT telescope. We configured the Blue Channel spectrograph to obtain 3650-4500Å spectral coverage with 1.0Å spectral resolution. We acquire additional spectra for 5 objects using the KOSMOS spectrograph on the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4m Mayall telescope on program numbers 2014B-0119 and 2015A-0082. We configured the KOSMOS spectrograph to obtain 3500-6200Å spectral coverage with 2.0Å spectral resolution. We also acquire spectra for objects with g<17mag using the FAST spectrograph on the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5m Tillinghast telescope. We configured the FAST spectrograph to obtain 3500-5500Å spectral coverage with 1.7Å spectral resolution. (3 data files).

  7. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  8. Observations of the effect of lower hybrid waves on ELM behaviour in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Xu, G. S.; Liang, Y.; Wang, H. Q.; Zhou, C.; Liu, A. D.; Wang, L.; Qian, J. P.; Gan, K. F.; Yang, J. H.; Duan, Y. M.; Li, Y. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Wu, X. Q.; Yan, N.; Chen, L.; Shao, L. M.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Zhao, N.; Liu, S. C.; Kong, D. F.; Gong, X. Z.

    2015-03-01

    Dedicated experiments focusing on the influence of lower hybrid waves (LHWs) on edge-localized modes (ELMs) were first performed during the 2012 experimental campaign of EAST, via modulating the input power of LHWs in the high-confinement-mode (H-mode) plasma mainly sustained by ion cyclotron resonant heating. Natural ELMs are effectively mitigated (ELM frequency increases, while its intensity decreases dramatically) as the LHW is applied, observed over a fairly wide range of plasma current or edge safety factor. By scanning the modulation frequency (fm) of LHW injected power in a target plasma dominated by the so-called small ELMs, we conclude that large ELMs with markedly larger amplitudes and lower frequencies are reproduced at low modulation frequencies (fm < 100 Hz). Analysis of the evolution of edge extreme ultraviolet radiation signals further indicates that plasma fluctuations at the pedestal region indistinctively respond to rapid modulation (fm ⩾ 100 Hz) of LHW injected power. This is proposed as the mechanism responsible for the observed fm dependence of the mitigation effect induced by LHWs on large ELMs. In addition, a critical threshold of LHW input power PLHW is estimated as PLHWthr≃800 kW , beyond which the impact of applied LHWs on ELM behaviours can be achieved. Finally, Langmuir probe measurements suggest that, rather than the concentration of free energy into a narrowband quasi-coherent precursor commonly observed growing until the ELM crash, the continuous development of broadband turbulence during the ELM-absent phase with the application of LHWs might contribute to the avoidance of ELM crashes. These results present new insights into existing experiments, and also provide some foundations and references for the next-step research about exploring in more depth and improving this new attractive method to effectively control the ELM-induced very large transient heat and particle flux.

  9. Pennsylvania Dutch Crafts and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Many people hold two common misconceptions about the Pennsylvania Dutch: first, that these people live exclusively in the state of Pennsylvania; second, that their ancestors came from Holland. However, neither assumption is correct. One can find large Pennsylvania Dutch communities in Mary land, West Virginia, Virginia, the Carolinas, Ohio,…

  10. Impurity radiation and the theory of ELMs in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, D.K.; Roitman, A.V.

    1994-11-01

    A modification of the theory proposed by Kukharkin, Osipenko, and Pogutse is presented. An account of impurity radiation allows the authors to explain the absence of ELMs in the VH-mode of operation, and their arising during the transition to the ordinary H-mode. It is demonstrated that the radiation, whose intensity and temperature dependence are functions of the base gas neutral atom concentration, plays an essential destabilizing role. In the VH-mode, when the neutral atom concentration is low, the flute mechanism of the instability is suppressed, the radiation does not play a substantial role, and the mode is stable. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Co-occurence of Two Invasive Species: The Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was first detected a century ago and now occurs in most of the continental United States. The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was discovered in the United States in 2003 and is now...

  12. ELM--Eye Light Monitor: Assessment in a World of Hybrid Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaniv, Hanan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an instrumental case study of an alternative assessment method, using a tool called ELM (Eye Light Monitor). ELM proposes a way to keep a finger on the pulse of every child, being attentive to emerging transitions in various parameters of his/her well-being that might affect his/her classroom behaviour and work, and might assist in…

  13. ELM-ART--An Interactive and Intelligent Web-Based Electronic Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Gerhard; Brusilovsky, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper present provides a broader view on ELM-ART, one of the first Web-based Intelligent Educational systems that offered a creative combination of two different paradigms--Intelligent Tutoring and Adaptive Hypermedia technologies. The unique dual nature of ELM-ART contributed to its long life and research impact and was a result of…

  14. Structure, Stability and ELM Dynamics of the H-Mode Pedestal in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermacher, M E; Leonard, A W; Osborne, T H; Snyder, P B; Thomas, D M; Boedo, J A; Casper, T A; Colchin, R J; Groebner, R J; Groth, M; Kempenaars, M H; Loarte, A; Saibene, G; VanZeeland, M A; Zeng, L; Xu, X Q

    2004-10-13

    Experiments are described that have increased understanding of the transport and stability physics that set the H-mode edge pedestal width and height, determine the onset of Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs), and produce the nonlinear dynamics of the ELM perturbation in the pedestal and scrape-off layer (SOL). Predictive models now exist for the n{sub e} pedestal profile and the p{sub e} height at the onset of Type-I ELMs, and progress has been made toward predictive models of the T{sub e} pedestal width and nonlinear ELM evolution. Similarity experiments between DIII-D and JET suggested that neutral penetration physics dominates in the relationship between the width and height of the n{sub e} pedestal while plasma physics dominates in setting the T{sub e} pedestal width. Measured pedestal conditions including edge current at ELM onset agree with intermediate-n peeling-ballooning (P-B) stability predictions. Midplane ELM dynamics data show the predicted (P-B) structure at ELM onset, large rapid variations of the SOL parameters, and fast radial propagation in later phases, similar to features in nonlinear ELM simulations.

  15. THE ELM SURVEY. III. A SUCCESSFUL TARGETED SURVEY FOR EXTREMELY LOW MASS WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Allende Prieto, Carlos E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: callende@iac.es

    2012-01-10

    Extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs) with masses < 0.25 M{sub Sun} are rare objects that result from compact binary evolution. Here, we present a targeted spectroscopic survey of ELM WD candidates selected by color. The survey is 71% complete and has uncovered 18 new ELM WDs. Of the seven ELM WDs with follow-up observations, six are short-period binaries and four have merger times less than 5 Gyr. The most intriguing object, J1741+6526, likely has either a pulsar companion or a massive WD companion making the system a possible supernova Type Ia or an Ia progenitor. The overall ELM survey has now identified 19 double degenerate binaries with <10 Gyr merger times. The significant absence of short orbital period ELM WDs at cool temperatures suggests that common envelope evolution creates ELM WDs directly in short period systems. At least one-third of the merging systems are halo objects, thus ELM WD binaries continue to form and merge in both the disk and the halo.

  16. The Relationships Between ELM Suppression, Pedestal Profiles, and Lithium Wall Coatings in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Boyle, R. Maingi, P.B. Snyder, J. Manickam, T.H. Osborne, R.E. Bell, B.P. LeBlanc, and the NSTX Team

    2012-08-17

    Recently in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), increasing lithium wall coatings suppressed edge localized modes (ELMs), gradually but not quite monotonically. This work details profile and stability analysis as ELMs disappeared throughout the lithium scan. While the quantity of lithium deposited between discharges did not uniquely determine the presence of ELMs, profile analysis demonstrated that lithium was correlated to wider density and pressure pedestals with peak gradients farther from the separatrix. Moreover, the ELMy and ELM-free discharges were cleanly separated by their density and pedestal widths and peak gradient locations. Ultimately, ELMs were only suppressed when lithium caused the density pedestal to widen and shift inward. These changes in the density gradient were directly reflected in the pressure gradient and calculated bootstrap current. This supports the theory that ELMs in NSTX are caused by peeling and/or ballooning modes, as kink/peeling modes are stabilized when the edge current and pressure gradient shift away from the separatrix. Edge stability analysis using ELITE corroborated this picture, as reconstructed equilibria from ELM-free discharges were generally farther from their kink/peeling stability boundaries than ELMy discharges. We conclude that density profile control provided by lithium is the key first step to ELM suppression in NSTX

  17. Can the Non-linear Ballooning Model describe ELMs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, S. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Wilson, H. R.

    2015-11-01

    The explosive, filamentary plasma eruptions described by the non-linear ideal MHD ballooning model is tested quantitatively against experimental observations of ELMs in MAST. The equations describing this model were derived by Wilson and Cowley for tokamak-like geometry which includes two differential equations: the linear ballooning equation which describes the spatial distribution along the field lines and the non-linear ballooning mode envelope equation, which is a two-dimensional, non-linear differential equation which can involve fractional temporal-derivatives, but is often second-order in time and space. To employ the second differential equation for a specific geometry one has to evaluate the coefficients of the equation which is non-trivial as it involves field line averaging of slowly converging functions. We have solved this system for MAST, superimposing the solutions of both differential equations and mapping them onto a MAST plasma. Comparisons with the evolution of ELM filaments in MAST will be reported in order to test the model. The support of the EPSRC for the FCDT (Grant EP/K504178/1), of Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 (No 633053) and of the RCUK Energy Programme [grant number EP/I501045] is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-20

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, {approx}0.2 M{sub sun}) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  19. Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus americana L.).

    PubMed

    Uchendu, Esther E; Shukla, Mukund R; Reed, Barbara M; Saxena, Praveen K

    2013-11-01

    Climate change and global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are exposed to multiple stresses during the cryopreservation process. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential of melatonin to improve survival through the process of cryopreservation. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets and dormant winter buds of American elm were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196°C under controlled environmental conditions following melatonin treatment and cold acclimation with either vitrification or encapsulation–vitrification protocols. Explants had optimal regrowth following cryopreservation when treated with the plant vitrification solution#2 (PVS2) for 10 min. Supplementation of both preculture and regrowth media with melatonin significantly enhanced regrowth of frozen shoots compared with the untreated control (P < 0.05). Approximately 80–100% of shoot explants grew under optimized conditions using melatonin-enriched media. Shoot tips of dormant winter buds consistently produced nearly 100% regrowth with both techniques. The main steps of the optimized protocol are14-day cold-acclimated cultures exposed to preculture medium with 0.1–0.5 lM melatonin for 24 hr, application of PVS2 for 10 min, rapid cooling in LN, rapid rewarming, removal of cryoprotectants, and recovery on a medium supplemented with 0.1–0.5 lM melatonin. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the antioxidant melatonin for long-term storage of naturally resistant elm germplasm. PMID:24117864

  20. Modelling ELM heat flux deposition on the ITER main chamber wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kočan, M.; Pitts, R. A.; Lisgo, S. W.; Loarte, A.; Gunn, J. P.; Fuchs, V.

    2015-08-01

    The interaction of ELM filaments with the ITER beryllium first wall panels (FWPs) is studied using a simple ad-hoc fluid model of the filament parallel transport, taking into account the full, three-dimensional structure of the FWPs, including magnetic shadowing effects. The calculated ELM surface heat loads are used as input to the RACLETTE heat transfer code to estimate the FWP surface temperature rise. The results indicate that controlled ELMs in ITER during burning plasma operation (ΔWELM ≈ 0.6 M J) will not lead to melting or significant evaporation of the beryllium surfaces, even in the case of high ELM broadening and the minimum allowable distance between the primary and secondary separatrices. The ELM-averaged steady-state heat load also stays below the maximum power handling capability of the FWPs.

  1. Biology of the invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was detected in the United States in 2003 and is now known to occur in 28 states and four Canadian Provinces. S. schevyrewi infests the same elm hosts as the long-established invasive, and smaller European elm bark be...

  2. The Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Hendin, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Euthanasia has been legally sanctioned in the Netherlands by a series of court decisions going back to the 1970s. The author discusses the cultural and historical factors that may have contributed to this development. In the past decade, studies sanctioned by the Dutch government reveal that guidelines established for the regulation of euthanasia--a voluntary, well-considered, persistent request, intolerable suffering that cannot be relieved, consultation with a colleague, and reporting of cases--are consistently violated. Of greatest concern is the number of patients who are put to death without their consent--there are more involuntary than voluntary cases. Euthanasia intended originally for the exceptional case has become an accepted way of dealing with the physical and mental distress of serious or terminal illness. In the process palliative care has become one of the casualties while hospice care lags behind that of other countries. Case examples are given. PMID:11925835

  3. Demonstration of ELM pacing by Pellet Injection on DIII-D and Extrapolation to ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, Larry R; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Jernigan, Thomas C; Parks, P. B.; Evans, T.E.; Osborne, T. H.; Strait, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R.A.; Yu, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Demonstration of ELM pacing by pellet injection on DIII-D and extrapolation to ITER<#_ftn1>* L.R. Baylor1, N. Commaux1, T.C. Jernigan1, P.B. Parks2, T.E. Evans2, T.H. Osborne2, E.J. Strait2, M.E. Fenstermacher3, C.J. Lasnier3, R.A. Moyer4, J.H. Yu4 1Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA 2General Atomics, San Diego, CA, USA 3 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA 4University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Deuterium pellet injection has been used in experiments on the DIII-D tokamak to investigate the possibility of triggering small rapid edge localized modes (ELMs) in reactor relevant plasma regimes. ELMs have been observed to be triggered from small 1.8 mm pellets injected from all available locations and under all H-mode operating scenarios in DIII-D. Experimental details have shown that the ELMs are triggered before the pellets reach the top of the H-mode pedestal, implying that very small shallow penetrating pellets are sufficient to trigger ELMs. Fast camera images of the pellet entering the plasma from the low field side show a single plasma filament becoming visible near the pellet cloud and striking the outer vessel wall within 200 ms. Additional ejected filaments are then observed to subsequently reach the wall. The plasma stored energy loss from the pellet triggered ELMs is a function of the elapsed time after a previous ELM. Pellet ELM pacing has been proposed as a method to prevent large ELMs that can damage the ITER plasma facing components [1]. A demonstration of pacing of ELMs on DIII-D was made by injecting slow 14 Hz pellets on the low field side in an ITER shape plasma with low natural ELM frequency and a normalized b of 1.8. The non-pellet discharge natural ELM frequency was ~5 Hz with ELM energy losses up to 85 kJ (>10% of total stored energy) while the case with pellets was able to demonstrate >20 Hz ELMs with an average ELM energy loss less than 22 kJ (<3% of the total). The resulting ELM frequency

  4. Transition to ELM-free improved H-mode by lithium deposition on NSTX graphite divertor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, D K; Kugel, H W; Maingi, R; Bell, M G; Bell, R; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Kaye, S; LeBlanc, B; Mueller, D; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V A; Timberlake, J; Wilgen, J; Zakharov, L

    2009-02-17

    Lithium evaporated onto plasma facing components in the NSTX lower divertor has made dramatic improvements in discharge performance. As lithium accumulated, plasmas previously exhibiting robust Type 1 ELMs gradually transformed into discharges with intermittent ELMs and finally into continuously evolving ELM-free discharges. During this sequence, other discharge parameters changed in a complicated manner. As the ELMs disappeared, energy confinement improved and remarkable changes in edge and scrape-off layer plasma properties were observed. These results demonstrate that active modification of plasma surface interactions can preempt large ELMs.

  5. Langmuir-magnetic probe measurements of ELMs and dithering cycles in the EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, N.; Naulin, V.; Xu, G. S.; Rasmussen, J. J.; Wang, H. Q.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, L.; Liang, Y.; Nielsen, A. H.; Madsen, J.; Guo, H. Y.; Wan, B. N.

    2014-09-01

    Measurements of the dynamical behavior associated with edge localized modes (ELMs) have been carried out in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) by direct probing near the separatrix and far scrape-off layer (SOL) using electrostatic as well as magnetic probes. Type-III ELMs and dithering cycles have been investigated near the threshold power for the transition from the low confinement mode (L-mode) to the high confinement mode (H-mode). A precursor is observed prior to type-III ELM events with chirping frequency (130-70 kHz). It is located inside the separatrix and does not lead to considerable particle transport into the SOL. Distinct from type-III ELMs, no precursor modes precede the dithering cycles. It is evident from our measurements that the absence of precursor activity is a good indicator to distinguish the dithering cycles from type-III ELMs. A number of distinct current filaments are identified slightly inside the separatrix, both during type-III ELM events and dithering cycles. The characteristic current topology in these filaments is still ambiguous in our investigations. Furthermore, small ELMs are observed in type-I ELMy-like H-mode discharge regimes on EAST, in which solitary monopolar current filaments are observed to propagate in the SOL.

  6. THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Allende Prieto, Carlos E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu

    2013-05-20

    We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P {<=} 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g {approx_equal} 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times <10 Gyr. Four have {approx}>0.9 M{sub Sun} companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.

  7. ELM-resolved divertor erosion in the JET ITER-Like Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Harder, N.; Brezinsek, S.; Pütterich, T.; Fedorczak, N.; Matthews, G. F.; Meigs, A.; Stamp, M. F.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Van Rooij, G. J.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Tungsten erosion in H-mode plasmas is quantified in the outer divertor of the JET ITER-Like Wall environment with optical emission spectroscopy on the 400.9 nm atomic neutral tungsten line. A novel cross-calibration procedure is developed to link slow, high spectral resolution spectroscopy and fast photomultiplier tube measurements in order to obtain ELM-resolved photon fluxes. Inter-ELM W erosion is exclusively impurity sputtering by beryllium because of the high sputter threshold for deuterons. Low beryllium concentrations resulted in low inter-ELM sputter yields of around 10-4 with respect to the total flux. Intra-ELM W sources, which dominate the total W tungsten source, vary independently from the inter-ELM source. The amount of W erosion could only be partly explained by beryllium sputtering, indicating that during ELMs sputtering by fuel species is important. The total W outer divertor source is found to linearly increase with the power crossing the separatrix, whilst excessive divertor fueling can break this trend. The influence of the W source rate on the tungsten content of the core plasma is investigated using soft x-ray emission to determine the tungsten content. At low source rates the content is determined by the source, but at higher source rates, other phenomena determine the total tungsten content. Indications of impurity flushing by ELMs is seen at ELM frequencies above approximately 40 Hz. The inner/outer divertor asymmetry of the W source during ELMs is investigated, and the outer divertor W source is larger by a factor of 1.8+/- 0.7 .

  8. Real-time control of ELM and sawtooth frequencies: similarities and differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennholm, M.; Frigione, D.; Graves, J. P.; Beaumont, P. S.; Blackman, T.; Carvalho, I. S.; Chapman, I.; Dumont, R.; Felton, R.; Garzotti, L.; Goniche, M.; Goodyear, A.; Grist, D.; Jachmich, S.; Johnson, T.; Lang, P.; Lerche, E.; de la Luna, E.; Monakhov, I.; Mooney, R.; Morris, J.; Nave, M. F. F.; Reich, M.; Rimini, F.; Sips, G.; Sheikh, H.; Sozzi, C.; Tsalas, M.; Contributors, JET

    2016-01-01

    ELMs and Sawteeth, located in different parts of the plasma, are similar from a control engineering point of view. Both manifest themselves through quiescent periods interrupted by periodic collapses. For both, large collapses, following long quiescent periods, have detrimental effects while short periods are associated with decreased confinement. Following the installation of the all metal ‘ITER like wall’ on JET, sawteeth and ELMs also play an important role by expelling tungsten from the core and edge of the plasma respectively. Control of tungsten has therefore been added to divertor heat load reduction, NTM avoidance and helium ash removal as reasons for requiring ELM and sawtooth control. It is therefore of interest to implement control systems to maintain the sawtooth and ELM frequencies in the desired ranges. On JET, ELM frequency control uses radial field ‘kicks’ and pellet and gas injection as actuators, while sawtooth control uses ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). JET experiments have, for the first time, established feedback control of the ELM frequency, via real time variation of the injected gas flow [1]. Using this controller in conjunction with pellet injection allows the ELM frequency to be kept as required despite variations in pellet ELM triggering efficiency. JET Sawtooth control experiments have, for the first time, demonstrated that low field side ICRH, as foreseen for ITER, can shorten sawteeth lengthened by central fast ions [2]. The development of ELM and sawtooth control could be key to achieve stable high performance JET discharges with minimal tungsten content. Integrating such schemes into an overall control strategy will be required in future tokamaks and gaining experience on current tokamaks is essential.

  9. Hydrologic data for Little Elm Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M., Jr.; Hays, T.H.; Schoultz, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and storage data collected during the 1976 water year for a 75.5 sq mi area above the stream-gaging station Little Elm Creek near Aubrey, Texas. Floodflows from 35.7 sq mi of the area are regulated by 16 floodwater-retarding structures constructed by the Soil Conservation Service. During the 1976 water year, five storm periods were selected for detailed computations and analyses. Beginning with the 1975 water year, water-quality data is given for Little Elm Creek. Investigations in the Little Elm Creek watershed were terminated on September 30, 1976. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. ELM 2016—data update and new functionality of the eukaryotic linear motif resource

    PubMed Central

    Dinkel, Holger; Van Roey, Kim; Michael, Sushama; Kumar, Manjeet; Uyar, Bora; Altenberg, Brigitte; Milchevskaya, Vladislava; Schneider, Melanie; Kühn, Helen; Behrendt, Annika; Dahl, Sophie Luise; Damerell, Victoria; Diebel, Sandra; Kalman, Sara; Klein, Steffen; Knudsen, Arne C.; Mäder, Christina; Merrill, Sabina; Staudt, Angelina; Thiel, Vera; Welti, Lukas; Davey, Norman E.; Diella, Francesca; Gibson, Toby J.

    2016-01-01

    The Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) resource (http://elm.eu.org) is a manually curated database of short linear motifs (SLiMs). In this update, we present the latest additions to this resource, along with more improvements to the web interface. ELM 2016 contains more than 240 different motif classes with over 2700 experimentally validated instances, manually curated from more than 2400 scientific publications. In addition, more data have been made available as individually searchable pages and are downloadable in various formats. PMID:26615199

  11. ELM behaviour and linear MHD stability of edge ECRH heated ASDEX Upgrade plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckhart, A.; Dunne, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Fischer, R.; McDermott, R.; Viezzer, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-05-01

    In order to test the peeling–ballooning ELM model, ECRH heating was applied to the edge of ASDEX Upgrade type-I ELMy H-mode plasmas to alter the pedestal pressure and current density profiles. The discharges were analysed with respect to ideal MHD stability. While the ELM frequency increased and the pedestal gradients relaxed with edge ECRH, the MHD stability boundary did not change. The results indicate that the peeling–ballooning model is insufficient to fully explain the triggering of ELM instabilities in the presence of edge ECRH heating.

  12. ELM 2016--data update and new functionality of the eukaryotic linear motif resource.

    PubMed

    Dinkel, Holger; Van Roey, Kim; Michael, Sushama; Kumar, Manjeet; Uyar, Bora; Altenberg, Brigitte; Milchevskaya, Vladislava; Schneider, Melanie; Kühn, Helen; Behrendt, Annika; Dahl, Sophie Luise; Damerell, Victoria; Diebel, Sandra; Kalman, Sara; Klein, Steffen; Knudsen, Arne C; Mäder, Christina; Merrill, Sabina; Staudt, Angelina; Thiel, Vera; Welti, Lukas; Davey, Norman E; Diella, Francesca; Gibson, Toby J

    2016-01-01

    The Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) resource (http://elm.eu.org) is a manually curated database of short linear motifs (SLiMs). In this update, we present the latest additions to this resource, along with more improvements to the web interface. ELM 2016 contains more than 240 different motif classes with over 2700 experimentally validated instances, manually curated from more than 2400 scientific publications. In addition, more data have been made available as individually searchable pages and are downloadable in various formats. PMID:26615199

  13. ELM Suppression in Low Edge Collisionality H-Mode Discharges Using n=3 Magnetic Perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, K H; Evans, T E; Doyle, E J; Fenstermacher, M E; Groebner, R J; Leonard, A W; Moyer, R A; Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; Snyder, P B; Thomas, P R; West, W P; Boedo, J A; Garofalo, A M; Gohil, P; Jackson, G L; La Haye, R J; Lasnier, C J; Reimerdes, H; Rhodes, T L; Scoville, J T; Solomon, W M; Thomas, D M; Wang, G; Watkins, J G; Zeng, L

    2005-07-11

    Using resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n = 3, we have produced H-mode discharges without edge localized modes (ELMs) which run with constant density and radiated power for periods up to about 2550 ms (17 energy confinement times). These ELM suppression results are achieved at pedestal collisionalities close to those desired for next step burning plasma experiments such as ITER and provide a means of eliminating the rapid erosion of divertor components in such machines which could be caused by giant ELMs. The ELM suppression is due to an enhancement in the edge particle transport which reduces the edge pressure gradient and pedestal current density below the threshold for peeling-ballooning modes. These n = 3 magnetic perturbations provide a means of active control of edge plasma transport.

  14. The spindle position checkpoint is coordinated by the Elm1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey K.; Chudalayandi, Prakash; Heil-Chapdelaine, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    How dividing cells monitor the effective transmission of genomes during mitosis is poorly understood. Budding yeast use a signaling pathway known as the spindle position checkpoint (SPC) to ensure the arrival of one end of the mitotic spindle in the nascent daughter cell. An important question is how SPC activity is coordinated with mother–daughter polarity. We sought to identify factors at the bud neck, the junction between mother and bud, which contribute to checkpoint signaling. In this paper, we show that the protein kinase Elm1 is an obligate regulator of the SPC, and this function requires localization of Elm1 to the bud neck. Furthermore, we show that Elm1 promotes the activity of the checkpoint kinase Kin4. These findings reveal a novel function for Elm1 in the SPC and suggest how checkpoint activity may be linked to cellular organization. PMID:21041444

  15. Hydrologic data for Little Elm Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M.; Taylor, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and storage data collected during the 1975 water year for a 75.5 sq mi area above the stream-gaging station Little Elm Creek near Aubrey, Texas. Floodflows from 35.7 sq mi of the area are regulated by 16 floodwater-retarding structures constructed by the Soil Conservation Service. Six storm periods were selected for detailed computations and analyses. Water-quality data is given for Little Elm Creek. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. ELM-related fluctuations in PBX-M H-modes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Hahm, T.S.; Sesnic, S.; Tang, W.; Roney, P.; Davis, W.; Dunlap, J.L.; Harris, J.H.

    1994-04-01

    Edge Localized Modes, or ELMs, are at the same time both disadvantageous and advantageous features of H-modes. ELMs can cause energy and particle losses from the plasma, with instantaneous energy losses reaching 40% of the total stored energy in the case of large-amplitude ELMs. The energy loss from these ELMs, or closely spaced smaller ELMs, may result in what is known as a beta-collapse, an event in which energy is lost over a substantial duration of the discharge. On the other hand, if controlled, the ELM related energy and, especially, impurity losses can lead to near steady-state discharge conditions with relatively low radiative power losses. The importance of ELMs in the development of the H-phase has led to numerous studies which attempt to uncover their nature. The purpose of the present work is to present additional observations of, most notably, high frequency magnetic fluctuations associated with ELMS. There are some observations here that are consistent with previously reported ones, namely the appearance of high frequency ({ge}250 kHz) activity prior to the D{sub {alpha}} increase, suggesting again that the rise in D{sub {alpha}} is some delayed response to an instability occurring farther inside the plasma edge. While this high frequency activity is global, with high coherence for all coil pairs both on the inside and outside midplane, there is no identifiable mode structure. Reported here for the first time are observations of a very intense outward ballooning feature that appears simultaneously with the D{sub {alpha}} increase and lasts for about 5 msec. The toroidal mode structure of this feature is clearly identifiable, consisting of a series of toroidal harmonics from n=3 to 8, at frequencies given by f{sub n}=f{sub 0}+n{Delta}f, with f{sub 0}=30 to 50 kHz and A{Delta}=20 to 30 kHz.

  17. Effect of Island Overlap on ELM Suppression by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermacher, M E; Evans, T E; Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; Aldan, M P; deGrassie, J S; Gohil, P; Joseph, I; Moyer, R A; Snyder, P B; Groebner, R J; Jakubowski, M; Leonard, A W; Schmitz, O

    2007-11-08

    Recent DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1813 (2003)] experiments show a correlation between the extent of overlap of magnetic islands induced in the edge plasma by perturbation coils and complete suppression of Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) in plasmas with ITER-like electron pedestal collisionality {nu}*{sub e} {approx} 0.1, flux surface shape and low edge safety factor (q{sub 95} {approx} 3.6). With fixed n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) strength, ELM suppression is obtained only in a finite window in the edge safety factor (q{sub 95}) consistent with maximizing the resonant component of the applied helical field. ELM suppression is obtained over an increasing range of q{sub 95} by either increasing the n = 3 RMP strength, or by adding n = 1 perturbations to 'fill in' gaps between islands across the edge plasma. The suppression of Type-I ELMs correlates with a minimum width of the edge region having magnetic islands with Chirikov parameter >1.0, based on vacuum calculations of RMP mode components excluding the plasma response or rotational shielding. The fraction of vacuum magnetic field lines that are lost from the plasma, with connection length to the divertor targets comparable to an electron-ion collisional mean free path, increases throughout the island overlap region in the ELM suppressed case compared with the ELMing case.

  18. Suppression of type-I ELMs with reduced RMP coil set on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, D. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Evans, T. E.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Ferraro, N. M.; Nazikian, R.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B. A.; Eldon, D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; King, J. D.; Logan, N. C.; Lanctot, M. J.; Maingi, R.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Wingen, A.

    2016-03-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated that having a toroidally-monochromatic spectral content of edge-resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is not a necessary condition for suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs). Robust ELM suppression has been reproducibly obtained on DIII-D during experiments in which various non-axisymmetric coil loops were turned off pseudo-randomly producing a variety of n=1 , n= 2 , and n= 3 spectral contributions. It was shown that RMP ELM suppression could be achieved with as few as 5 out of 12 internal coil loops (I-coils) on DIII-D at similar coil currents and with good plasma confinement. Linear MHD plasma response (m3dc1, ipec, mars) and vacuum (surfmn, trip3d) modelling have been performed in order to understand the effects of the perturbation spectrum on the plasma response and ELM suppression. The results suggest that reduction of the dominant n= 3 perturbation field is compensated by increased n= 2 field in the plasma that may lead to RMP ELM suppression at lower levels of n= 3 perturbative magnetic flux from the I-coils. These results provide additional confidence that ITER may be capable of RMP ELM suppression in the event of multiple internal coil failures.

  19. Identification and control of nonlinear system based on Laguerre-ELM Wiener model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yinggan; Han, Zhenzhen; Liu, Fucai; Guan, Xinping

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a new Wiener model is presented for identification and control of single-input single-output (SISO) nonlinear systems. The proposed Wiener model consists of a linear Laguerre filter in cascaded with an extreme learning machine (ELM) neural network (called Laguerre-ELM Wiener model). Laguerre filter can approximate a stable linear system to any degree of accuracy with a small number of Laguerre filters, which provides a parsimony structure and high level accuracy simultaneously. To determine the appropriated number of Laguerre filters in Laguerre-ELM Wiener model, Lipschitz quotient criterion is adapted to determine the order of linear part. A generalized ELM algorithm is proposed to estimate the parameters of Laguerre-ELM Wiener model. Once the unknown nonlinear system is identified using Laguerre-ELM Wiener model, a generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm is designed for control of nonlinear system. The advantage of the proposed control method is that it transfers a nonlinear control problem to a linear one by inserting the inverse of static nonlinear section. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed identification and control algorithms.

  20. Utilizing solid impurity granules for ELM pacing in NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunsford, Robert; Roquemore, L.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Maingi, R.; NSTX-U Team

    2015-11-01

    Periodic edge localized modes (ELMs) rapidly transport stored energy from the edge plasma to the divertor. These events result in abrupt heating of the plasma facing components (PFCs) which reduces their effective lifetime as well as generating a strong impurity influx. If the frequency of these ELMs can be increased through controlled triggering, also known as pacing, then the inverse relationship between the peak heat flux and the frequency of the ELMs can be utilized to prevent material damage that could result from otherwise unmitigated ELMs. At NSTX, the ability of small (300 - 1000 micron) impurity granules to trigger and pace these ELMs is being explored. In these experiments, ELMs are triggered by seeding a density perturbation within the edge-pedestal region through low speed injection and ablation of impurity granules, thus generating a localized instability. Granules are dropped from a reservoir and transit a vertical flight tube at which point a rotating impeller imparts horizontal momentum into the falling granules. This drives them into the edge of the discharge at speeds ranging from 50-150 m/s and average injection frequencies of up to 200 Hz depending upon the settings of the injector. Results from the initial laboratory injection tests of lithium, boron carbide (B4C) and vitreous carbon granules and their subsequent implementation in NSTX-U experiments will be discussed. Work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  1. The Effect of ELMs on HHFW Heating of NBI Generated H-modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosea, J. C.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; Jaeger, E. F.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    ELMs reduce the stored energy achieved with HHFW heating compared with the ELM free case as also occurs for NBI heating alone. This reduction can be attributed both to direct ELM ejection of stored energy and to an increase in edge density with ELMs that exceeds the onset density for perpendicular wave propagation near the antenna [1,2], and leads to significantly more edge RF power deposition. This latter effect causes a more intense RF "hot" zone in the lower divertor scrape off region due to an increase in edge RF power propagating to the divertor from the antenna region along the magnetic field lines. Fast IR measurements of the direct ELM heat deposition at the lower divertor shows it to be peaked in the vicinity of the outer strike radius and to fall off strongly as the "hot" zone is approached, indicating little direct ELM effect on the "hot" zone heating. Physics studies of the "hot" zone have begun with sweeping the RF "hot" zone spiral over Rogowski instrumented divertor region tiles to show that the tile currents track the location of the zone. The relation of the results here to the AORSA RF code simulations including the SOL region is pointed out.

  2. Divertor heat loads in RMP ELM controlled H-mode plasmas on DIII-D*

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, M; Lasnier, C; Schmitz, O; Evans, T; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Watkins, J; Eich, T; Moyer, R; Wolf, R; Baylor, L; Boedo, J; Burrell, K; Frerichs, H; deGrassie, J; Gohil, P; Joseph, I; Lehnen, M; Leonard, A; Petty, C; Pinsker, R; Reiter, D; Rhodes, T; Samm, U; Snyder, P; Stoschus, H; Osborne, T; Unterberg, B; West, W

    2008-10-13

    In this paper the manipulation of power deposition on divertor targets at DIII-D by application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is analyzed. It has been found that heat transport shows a different reaction to the applied RMP depending on the plasma pedestal collisionality. At pedestal electron collisionality above 0.5 the heat flux during the ELM suppressed phase is of the same order as the inter-ELM in the non-RMP phase. Below this collisionality value we observe a slight increase of the total power flux to the divertor. This can be caused by much more negative potential at the divertor surface due to hot electrons reaching the divertor surface from the pedestal area and/or so called pump out effect. In the second part we discuss modification of ELM behavior due to the RMP. It is shown, that the width of the deposition pattern in ELMy H-mode depends linearly on the ELM deposited energy, whereas in the RMP phase of the discharge those patterns seem to be controlled by the externally induced magnetic perturbation. D{sub 2} pellets injected into the plasma bulk during ELM-free RMP H-mode lead in some cases to a short term small transients, which have very similar properties to ELMs in the initial RMP-on phase.

  3. RMP ELM Suppression in DIII-D Plasmas with ITER Similar Shapes and Collisionalities

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, T.E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Moyer, R.A.; Osborne, T. H.; Watkins, J. G.; Gohil, P.; Joseph, I.; Schaffer, M. J.; Baylor, Larry R; Becoulet, M.; Boedo, J.A.; Burrell, K. H.; DeGrassie, J. S.; Finken, K. H.; Jernigan, Thomas C; Jakubowski, M. W.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lehnen, M.; Leonard, A. W.; Lonnroth, J.; Nardon, E.; Parail, V.; Unterberg, B.; West, W.P.

    2008-01-01

    Large Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) are completely eliminated with small n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) in low average triangularity, = 0.26, plasmas and in ITER similar shaped (ISS) plasmas, = 0.53, with ITER relevant collisionalities ve 0.2. Significant differences in the RMP requirements and in the properties of the ELM suppressed plasmas are found when comparing the two triangularities. In ISS plasmas, the current required to suppress ELMs is approximately 25% higher than in low average triangularity plasmas. It is also found that the width of the resonant q95 window required for ELM suppression is smaller in ISS plasmas than in low average triangularity plasmas. An analysis of the positions and widths of resonant magnetic islands across the pedestal region, in the absence of resonant field screening or a self-consistent plasma response, indicates that differences in the shape of the q profile may explain the need for higher RMP coil currents during ELM suppression in ISS plasmas. Changes in the pedestal profiles are compared for each plasma shape as well as with changes in the injected neutral beam power and the RMP amplitude. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of requirements for optimal ELM control coil designs and for establishing the physics basis needed in order to scale this approach to future burning plasma devices such as ITER.

  4. RMP ELM suppression in DIII-D plasmas with ITER similar shapes and collisionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Moyer, R. A.; Osborne, T. H.; Watkins, J. G.; Gohil, P.; Joseph, I.; Schaffer, M. J.; Baylor, L. R.; Bécoulet, M.; Boedo, J. A.; Burrell, K. H.; de Grassie, J. S.; Finken, K. H.; Jernigan, T.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lehnen, M.; Leonard, A. W.; Lonnroth, J.; Nardon, E.; Parail, V.; Schmitz, O.; Unterberg, B.; West, W. P.

    2008-02-01

    Large Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) are completely eliminated with small n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) in low average triangularity, \\bar {\\delta }=0.26 , plasmas and in ITER similar shaped (ISS) plasmas, \\bar {\\delta }=0.53 , with ITER relevant collisionalities v_e^\\ast \\le 0.2 . Significant differences in the RMP requirements and in the properties of the ELM suppressed plasmas are found when comparing the two triangularities. In ISS plasmas, the current required to suppress ELMs is approximately 25% higher than in low average triangularity plasmas. It is also found that the width of the resonant q95 window required for ELM suppression is smaller in ISS plasmas than in low average triangularity plasmas. An analysis of the positions and widths of resonant magnetic islands across the pedestal region, in the absence of resonant field screening or a self-consistent plasma response, indicates that differences in the shape of the q profile may explain the need for higher RMP coil currents during ELM suppression in ISS plasmas. Changes in the pedestal profiles are compared for each plasma shape as well as with changes in the injected neutral beam power and the RMP amplitude. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of requirements for optimal ELM control coil designs and for establishing the physics basis needed in order to scale this approach to future burning plasma devices such as ITER.

  5. Suppression of type-I ELMs with reduced RMP coil set on DIII-D

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Orlov, D. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Evans, T. E.; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Ferraro, N. M.; Nazikian, R.; deGrassie, John S.; Grierson, Brian A.; Eldon, D.; Fenstermacher, Max E.; et al

    2016-02-19

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated that having a toroidally-monochromatic spectral content of edge-resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is not a necessary condition for suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs). Robust ELM suppression has been reproducibly obtained on DIII-D during experiments in which various non-axisymmetric coil loops were turned off pseudo-randomly producing a variety of n=1 , n=2, and n=3 spectral contributions. It was demonstrated that RMP ELM suppression could be achieved with as few as 5 out of 12 internal coil loops (I-coils) on DIII-D at similar coil currents and with good plasma confinement. Linear MHD plasma response (M3DC1, IPEC,more » MARS) and vacuum (SURFMN, TRIP3D) modelling have been performed in order to understand the effects of the perturbation spectrum on the plasma response and ELM suppression. The results suggest that reduction of the dominant n=3 perturbation field is compensated by increased n=2 field in the plasma that may lead to RMP ELM suppression at lower levels of n=3 perturbative magnetic flux from the I-coils. In conclusion, these results provide additional confidence that ITER may be capable of RMP ELM suppression in the event of multiple internal coil failures.« less

  6. Diffusion-trapping modelling of hydrogen recycling in tungsten under ELM-like heat loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, K.

    2016-02-01

    The recycling of D ions impinging onto a W divertor surface is a key input parameter into the power and momentum balance at the target boundary during SOL modeling. It is described by the ratio R of the flux of recombining D2 molecules to the non-reflected incident ion flux. In steady-state plasmas where the surface is in equilibrium with the incident flux, R equals one due to particle conservation. However, during transient events such as edge localized modes (ELMs) the evolution of R with time is not straightforward to predict. Therefore, detailed diffusion-trapping calculations were performed taking into account the variations in power influx and particle energy during an ELM. They showed that in contrast to the naive expectation, that the ELM would deplete the surface and subsequently lead to ‘pumping’ (R \\ll 1) of the incident flux by the empty surface, R ≈ 1 or even R \\gt 1 occurs. This paper will first describe how the ELM was approximated in the 1D diffusion-trapping code and then discuss the evolution of R during an ELM and in the inter ELM phase. Also, an analytical picture of R will be developed which allows qualitatively understanding the evolution of R as calculated by the diffusion-trapping code.

  7. Impact of the Pedestal Plasma Density on ELM Dynamics and Energy Loss Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.; Ma, J. F.; Li, G. Q.; BOUT++ Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    The latest BOUT + + studies show an emerging understanding of ELM dynamics and the consistent collisionality scaling of ELM energy losses with ITPA multi-tokamak database. A series of BOUT + + simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the ELM energy losses vs collisionality via a density scan, while keeping the plasma cross-sectional shape, total stored energy, total plasma current, pressure profiles fixed. The neoclassical collisionality at peak gradient position increases by a factor of 3262 from 0.0019 to 6.197. The critical trend of linear simulations emerges as a transition from ballooning-dominated states at high collisionality to peeling-dominated states at low collsionality with decreasing density. Nonlinear BOUT + + simulations show a two-stage process of ELM crash evolution of (i) initial bursts of pressure blob and void creation and (ii) inward turbulence spreading as void propagation. The inward void propagation stirs the top of pedestal plasma and yields an increasing ELM size with decreasing collisionality after a series of micro-bursts. The pedestal plasma density plays a major role in determining the ELM energy loss through its effect on the edge bootstrap current and ion diamagnetic stabilization. This work was performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL LDRD project 12-ERD-022 and the China Natural Science Foundation under Contract No. 10721505. LLNL-ABS-656793.

  8. ELM triggering by energetic particle driven mode in wall-stabilized high-β plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, G.; Aiba, N.; Shinohara, K.; Asakura, N.; Isayama, A.; Oyama, N.; the JT-60 Team

    2013-07-01

    In the JT-60U high-β plasmas above the no-wall β limit, a triggering of an edge localized mode (ELM) by an energetic particle (EP)-driven mode has been observed. This EP-driven mode is thought to be driven by trapped EPs and it has been named EP-driven wall mode (EWM) on JT-60U (Matsunaga et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 045001). When the EWM appears in an ELMy H-mode phase, ELM crashes are reproducibly synchronized with the EWM bursts. The EWM-triggered ELM has a higher repetition frequency and less energy loss than those of the natural ELM. In order to trigger an ELM by the EP-driven mode, some conditions are thought to be needed, thus an EWM with large amplitude and growth rate, and marginal edge stability. In the scrape-off layer region, several measurements indicate an ion loss induced by the EWM. The ion transport is considered as the EP transport through the edge region. From these observations, the EP contributions to edge stability are discussed as one of the ELM triggering mechanisms.

  9. Challenges to prevention in Dutch general practice.

    PubMed

    Drenthen, T

    1997-06-01

    In the Netherlands the general practitioner (GP) plays an important role in prevention. Every Dutch citizen has to be registered with one GP and GPs know their patients well. Face-to-face contact is a relatively effective means of influencing behavior; if preventive advice is related to a patient's state of health, compliance may be stimulated. However, Dutch GPs have shown reluctance toward preventive work. Curing rather than preventing disease is emphasized in medical school. Many GPs doubt that they are entitled to interfere with a patients' lifestyle unless asked. Some GPs are aware of their limited knowledge of nutrition. Preventive work requires some reorganization of medical practice and can lead to an increased workload, without financial compensation. Then there is the "prevention paradox": preventive actions that have a demonstrable effect on the whole population bring only small benefits for individuals. Since 1989 the Dutch College of General Practitioners has published 60 standards for general practice. Several of these include advice on lifestyle and diet, eg, for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, peptic ulcer, and heart failure. Prevention work in general practice must use only interventions proved to be effective and they must be feasible in the context of general practice. A trial collaboration of 118 GPs and 5 public health authorities between 1988 and 1990 for screening and lifestyle management of hypertension was a limited success. It brought to light the practical problems of this type of work in general practice. Present government priorities for GP-public health collaboration are influenza vaccination and cervical screening. PMID:9174499

  10. Experimental Demonstration of High Frequency ELM Pacing by Pellet Injection on DIII-D and Extrapolation to ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, Larry R; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Jernigan, Thomas C; Meitner, Steven J; Brooks, N. H.; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Evans, T.E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R.A.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Loarte, A.

    2012-01-01

    . The injection of high repetition rate deuterium pellets is shown to trigger high-frequency edge localized modes (ELMs) in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak. The resulting triggered ELMs have significantly lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized operation with input power just above the H-mode power threshold. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  11. Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Matijn

    2016-01-01

    A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.

  12. The Extent of Hybridization and Its Impact on the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of an Invasive Tree, Ulmus Pumila (Ulmaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), native to East Asia, was introduced in the U.S. in the 1900’s because of its high tolerance to Dutch elm disease (DED). Siberian elm has spread following its introduction and has now become one of the most invasive woody species in the U.S., alongside Russian olive a...

  13. Ulmus americana is a polyploid complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elms (the genus Ulmus) are one of the most important tree crops for the $4.7-billion per year nursery industry. The commercial importance of the genus centers on the American elm, Ulmus americana. Once decimated by Dutch Elm Disease, the recent introduction of cultivars resistant to the diseas...

  14. Broadening of divertor heat flux profile with increasing number of ELM filaments in NSTX

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ahn, J. -W.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; Gan, K. F.; Gray, T. K.; McLean, A. G.

    2014-11-13

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) represent a challenge to future fusion devices, owing to cyclical high peak heat fluxes on divertor plasma facing surfaces. One ameliorating factor has been that the heat flux characteristic profile width has been observed to broaden with the size of the ELM, as compared with the inter-ELM heat flux profile. In contrast, the heat flux profile has been observed to narrow during ELMs under certain conditions in NSTX. Here we show that the ELM heat flux profile width increases with the number of filamentary striations observed, i.e., profile narrowing is observed with zero or very fewmore » striations. Because NSTX often lies on the long wavelength current-driven mode side of ideal MHD instabilities, few filamentary structures can be expected under many conditions. Lastly, ITER is also projected to lie on the current driven low-n stability boundary, and therefore detailed projections of the unstable modes expected in ITER and the heat flux driven in ensuing filamentary structures is needed.« less

  15. Testing RMP ELM suppression models in low torque ITER Baseline Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, R. A.; Ferraro, N. M.; Groebner, R. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Luce, T. C.; Osborne, T. H.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Grierson, B. A.; Nazikian, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Rhodes, T. L.; Zeng, L.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Hanson, J. M.; Turco, F.; Mordijck, S.; Fenstermacher, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    RMP ELM suppression experiments in low torque (Tinj) ITER Baseline Scenario provide an excellent test of our emerging model of ELM suppression when the edge plasma bifurcates to tearing response. In 2-fluid theory, this bifurcation occurs where the electron perpendicular rotation Ω⊥e ~ 0 , where Ω⊥e is the sum of the E × B and electron diamagnetic rotation ΩDe frequencies. To extend RMP ELM suppression to Tinj ~ 1 Nm, we reduced Tinj from 5 to 3.5 Nm, which produced lower core radial electric field and loss of ELM suppression as the Ω⊥e ~ 0 point moved deeper into the core. We also varied ΩDe at high Tinj by reducing the edge electron density, which led to ELM suppression. These results will be compared with expectations from 2-fluid theory. Supported in part by the US DOE under DE-FG02-07ER54917, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-08ER54984, DE-FG02-04ER54761, DE-FG02-89ER53296, DE-SC0007880, DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. ELM Suppression in DIII-D ITER-like Plasmas Using n = 2 Magnetic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazikian, R.; Grierson, B. A.; Okabayashi, M.; Tobias, B. J.; Eldon, D.; Evans, T. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Strait, E. J.; Haskey, S. R.; King, J. D.; McKee, G. R.; Moyer, R. A.; Orlov, D. M.; Shafer, M. W.

    2014-10-01

    A robust window of edge localized mode (ELM) suppression was observed at elevated magnetic safety factor (q95 ~ 4.1) in ITER-like plasmas with even parity n = 2 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) using the internal I-coils. Variation of the upper and lower I-coil phasing was used to explore the importance of pitch alignment vs kink alignment for ELM suppression. Both the pedestal density and ELM suppression were strongly dependent on I-coil phasing and a large variation in the plasma response amplitude was measured on multiple diagnostics. Surprisingly, toroidal rotation of the even parity n = 2 RMP led to the loss of ELM suppression, indicating that components of the residual error field orthogonal to the kink mode may be important near the threshold for ELM suppression. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, DE-FG02-89ER53296, DE-FG02-08ER54999, DE-FG02-07ER54917, and DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  17. Comparison of Plasma Parameters Between QH and ELMing Phases of the Same Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; West, W; Burrell, K; deGrassie, J; Doyle, E; Osborne, T

    2004-05-24

    H-mode confinement is observed for many energy confinement times without edge localized modes (ELMs) in QH (quiescent high-confinement)-mode discharges in DIII-D. To find critical differences between ELMing and QH modes we compared electron temperature (T{sub e}), density (n{sub e}), and ion temperature (T{sub i}), in the pedestal and scrape-off layer (SOL) for a group of discharges. We also compared the electron pressures P{sub ped}, and maximum pressure gradients P{sub e,ped,max grad} because of their importance in confinement and stability. Experimental results show that the core line averaged density, median T{sub e} (pedestal), SOL T{sub e}, and T{sub e} pedestal width, and SOL T{sub i} are nearly the same in QH mode as that during ELMs. The n{sub e} (average pedestal), n{sub e} pedestal width, P{sub ped}, and P{sub e,ped,max grad} are similar to corresponding values in QH mode and at various times between ELMs. However, the pedestal T{sub i} is 1.6 times higher in QH mode than during ELMing.

  18. TRANSPORT OF ELM ENERGY AND PARTICLES INTO THE SOL AND DIVERTOR OF DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    LEONARD, A.W.; BOEDO, J.A.; FENSTERMACHER, M.E.; GROEBNER, R.J.; GROTH, M.; LASNIER, C.J.; MAHDAVI, M.A.; OSBORNE, T.H.; RUDAKOV, D.L.; PETRIE, T.W.; WATKINS, J.G.

    2002-06-01

    We report on DIII-D data that reveal the underlying processes responsible for transport of energy and particles from the edge pedestal to the divertor target during edge-localized modes (ELMs). The separate convective and conductive transport of energy due to an ELM is determined by Thomson scattering measurements of electron density and temperature in the pedestal. Conductive transport is measured as a drop in pedestal temperature and decreases with increasing density. The convective transport of energy, measured as a loss of density from the pedestal, however, remains constant as a function of density. From the SOL ELM energy is quickly carried to the divertor target. An expected sheath limit to the ELM heat flux set by the slower arrival of pedestal ions is overcome by additional ionization of neutrals generated from the divertor target as evidenced by a fast, {approx}100 {micro}s, rise in divertor density. A large in/out asymmetry of the divertor ELM heat flux is observed at high density, but becomes nearly symmetric at low density.

  19. SOLPS5 simulations of Type I ELMing H-mode at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulejová, B.; Pitts, R. A.; Coster, D.; Bonnin, X.; Beurskens, M.; Jachmich, S.; Kallenbach, A.; contributors to the EFDA-JET workprogramme

    2009-06-01

    This paper aims to contribute both to the ongoing process of scrape-off layer code-experiment and code-code benchmarking. Results are presented from SOLPS5 simulations of two high power JET H-modes with similar magnetic configuration, concentrating in the first case on the ELM-free phase of high Ip, ˜8 MJ stored energy plasmas with ELMs approaching 1 MJ, modeled for the first time with this code package. A second pulse, with lower stored energy and smaller ELMs, originally considered in detail by Kallenbach with the EDGE2D-NIMBUS code package [Kallenbach et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fus. 46 (2004) 431], has been modeled as a benchmarking exercise featuring a high level of complexity including carbon impurities and the full ELM cycle. Good agreement is found between the code results. The SOLPS5 results are used to analyse the energy balance during the ELM cycle. In both H-mode discharges, a strong inward particle pinch in the pedestal region is found to be necessary to match measured upstream profiles.

  20. ELM Behavior in High- βp EAST-Demonstration Plasmas on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. Q.; Gong, X. Z.; Garofalo, A. M.; Lao, L. L.; Meneghini, O.; Snyder, P. B.; Ren, Q. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Guo, W. F.; Qian, J. P.; Wan, B. N.; Xu, G. S.; Holcomb, C. T.; Solomon, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    In the DIII-D high- βp EAST-demonstration experiment, for several similar discharges when the experimental parameters such as the toroidal magnetic field or ECH power are varied slightly, the changes in ELM frequency response are observed to be much larger. Kinetic EFIT equilibrium reconstructions for these discharges have been performed, which suggest that the ELM frequency changes are likely due to the variations of pedestal width, height, and edge current density. Kinetic profile analyses further indicate that the strong ITB that are located at large minor radii (rho=0.6 ~0.7) in these discharges are affecting the pedestal structure. The ITB could broaden the pedestal width and decrease the pedestal height, thus changing the ELM frequency and size. With the GATO and ELITE MHD codes, the linear growth rates and mode structures of these ELMs are analyzed. The impact of ITB on the ELMs behavior will be discussed. Work supported by China MOST under 2014GB106001 and 2015GB102001 and US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG03-95ER54309.

  1. Radial Particle Flux in the SOL of DIII-D During ELMing H-Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, A W; Boedo, J A; Groth, M; Lipschultz, B L; Porter, G D; Rudakov, D L; Whyte, D G

    2006-06-01

    The radial particle flux in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) during ELMing H-mode is examined in DIII-D as a function of density. The global radial particle flux in the outboard far SOL is determined by a window frame technique. Between ELMs the outboard far SOL particle flux increases strongly with density but remains similar to the particle flux across the separatrix as estimated by the pedestal density and temperature gradients. At low density the steep density gradient of the pedestal extends up to 2 cm outside the separatrix. At high density the density gradient flattens just outside the separatrix making this region critical for assessment of the far SOL particle flux. During ELMs the far SOL particle flux becomes localized to the outboard midplane and the assumptions for the window frame analysis break down. Implications for scaling of main chamber wall particle flux and pedestal fueling are explored.

  2. Pellet Fueling, ELM pacing, and Disruption Mitigation Technology Development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, Larry R; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Foust, Charles R; Jernigan, Thomas C; Meitner, S. J.; Parks, P. B.; Caughman, John B; Maruyama, S.; Qualls, A L; Rasmussen, David A; ThomasJr., C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma fueling with pellet injection, pacing of edge localized modes (ELMs) by small frequent pellets, and disruption mitigation with gas jets or injected pellets are some of the most important technological capabilities needed for successful operation of ITER. Tools are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that can be employed on ITER to provide the necessary core pellet fueling and the mitigation of ELMs and disruptions. Here we present progress on the development of the technology to provide reliable high throughput inner wall pellet fueling, pellet ELM pacing with high frequency small pellets, and disruption mitigation with gas jets and pellets. Examples of how these tools can be employed on ITER are discussed.

  3. Design of Tokamak ELM Coil Support in High Nuclear Heat Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanwen; Song, Yuntao; Wang, Zhongwei; Ji, Xiang; Daly, E.; Kalish, M.; Lu, Su; Du, Shuangsong; Liu, Xufeng; Feng, Changle; Yang, Hong; Wang, Songke

    2014-03-01

    In Tokomak, the support of the ELM coil, which is close to the plasma and subject to high radiation level, high temperature and high magnetic field, is used to transport and bear the thermal load due to thermal expansion and the alternating electromagnetic force generated by high magnetic field and AC current in the coil. According to the feature of ITER ELM coil, the mechanical performance of rigid and flexible supports under different high nuclear heat levels is studied. Results show that flexible supports have more excellent performance in high nuclear heat condition than rigid supports. Concerning thermal and electromagnetic (EM) loads, optimized results further prove that flexible supports have better mechanical performance than rigid ones. Through these studies, reasonable support design can be provided for the ELM coils or similar coils in Tokamak based on the nuclear heat level.

  4. Enhancement of ELM by Clustering Discrimination Manifold Regularization and Multiobjective FOA for Semisupervised Classification

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qing; Pan, Hao; Liu, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    A novel semisupervised extreme learning machine (ELM) with clustering discrimination manifold regularization (CDMR) framework named CDMR-ELM is proposed for semisupervised classification. By using unsupervised fuzzy clustering method, CDMR framework integrates clustering discrimination of both labeled and unlabeled data with twinning constraints regularization. Aiming at further improving the classification accuracy and efficiency, a new multiobjective fruit fly optimization algorithm (MOFOA) is developed to optimize crucial parameters of CDME-ELM. The proposed MOFOA is implemented with two objectives: simultaneously minimizing the number of hidden nodes and mean square error (MSE). The results of experiments on actual datasets show that the proposed semisupervised classifier can obtain better accuracy and efficiency with relatively few hidden nodes compared with other state-of-the-art classifiers. PMID:26180525

  5. Sleep apnoea episodes recognition by a committee of ELM classifiers from ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Nadi; de Chazal, Philip; van Schaik, Andre; Breen, Paul

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a system for the recognition of sleep apnoea episodes from ECG signals using a committee of extreme learning machine (ELM) classifiers. RR-interval parameters (heart rate variability) have been used as the identifying features as they are directly affected by sleep apnoea. The MIT PhysioNet Apnea-ECG database was used. A committee of five ELM classifiers has been employed to classify one-minute epochs of ECG into normal or apnoeic epochs. Our results show that the classification performance from the committee of networks was superior to the results of a single ELM classifier for fan-outs from 1 to 100. Classification performance reached a plateau at a fan-out of 10. The maximum accuracy was 82.5% with a sensitivity of 81.9% and a specificity of 82.8%. The results were comparable to other published research with the same input data. PMID:26738070

  6. A novel classification method based on ICA and ELM: a case study in lie detection.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yijun; Luo, Yu; Huang, Wentao; Zhang, Wenjia; Yang, Yong; Gao, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    The classification of EEG tasks has drawn much attention in recent years. In this paper, a novel classification model based on independent component analysis (ICA) and Extreme learning machine (ELM) is proposed to detect lying. Firstly, ICA and its topography information were used to automatically identify the P300 ICs. Then, time and frequency-domain features were extracted from the reconstructed P3 waveforms. Finally, two classes of feature samples were used to train ELM, Back-propagation network (BPNN) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers for comparison. The optimal number of P3 ICs and the values of classifier parameter were optimized by the cross-validation procedures. Experimental results show that the presented method (ICA_ELM) achieves the highest training accuracy of 95.40% with extremely less training and testing time on detecting P3 components for the guilty and the innocent subjects. The results indicate that the proposed method can be applied in lie detection. PMID:24211917

  7. EXB-Drift, Current, and Kinetic Effects on Divertor Plasma Profiles During ELMs

    SciTech Connect

    Rognlien, T.D.; Shimada, M.

    2002-05-23

    The transient heat load on divertor surfaces from Edge-Localized Modes (ELMs) in tokamaks can be very large and thus of concern for a large device such as ITER. Models for kinetic modifications to fluid models are discussed that should allow them to reasonably describe the long mean-free path regime encountered owing to the high electron and ion temperatures in the SOL during large ELMs. A set of two-dimensional (2D) simulations of the dynamic response of the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma to an ELM is presented. The role of plasma currents and E x B motion is emphasized, which cause large changes in the response compared to models neglecting them.

  8. QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALLOONING MODES

    SciTech Connect

    LAO, LL; SNYDER, PB; LEONARD, AW; OSBORNE, TH; PETRIE, TW; FERRON, JR; GROEBNER, RJ; HORTON, LD; KAMADA, Y; MURAKAMI, M; OIKAWA, T; PEARLSTEIN, LD; SAARELMA, S; STJOHN, HE; THOMAS, DM; TURNBULL, AD; WILSON, HR

    2002-07-01

    OAK A271 QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALLOONING MODES. Two of the major issues crucial for the design of the next generation tokamak burning plasma devices are the predictability of the edge pedestal height and control of the divertor heat load in H-mode configurations. Both of these are strongly impacted by edge localized modes (ELMs) and their size. A working model for ELMs is that they are intermediate toroidal mode number, n {approx} 5-30, peeling-ballooning modes driven by the large edge pedestal pressure gradient P{prime} and the associated large edge bootstrap current density J{sub BS}. the interplay between P{prime} and J{sub BS} as a discharge evolves can excite peeling-ballooning modes over a wide spectrum of n. The pedestal current density plays a dual role by stabilizing the high n ballooning modes via opening access to second stability but providing free energy to drive the intermediate n peeling modes. This makes a systematic evaluation of this model particularly challenging. This paper describes recent quantitative tests of this model using experimental data from the DIII-D and the JT-60U tokamaks. These tests are made possible by recent improvements to the ELITE MHD stability code, which allow an efficient evaluation of the unstable peeling-ballooning modes, as well as by improvements to other diagnostic and analysis techniques. Some of the key testable features of this model are: (1) ELMs are triggered when the growth rates of intermediate n MHD modes become significantly large; (2) ELM sizes are related to the radial widths of the unstable modes; (3) the unstable modes have a strong ballooning character localized in the outboard bad curvature region; (4) at high collisionality, ELM size generally becomes smaller because J{sub BS} is reduced.

  9. Pedestal Characterization and Stability of Small-ELM Regimes in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Sontag, Aaron C; Canik, John; Maingi, Rajesh; Manickam, J.; Snyder, P.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Kubota, S.; LaBlanc, B. P.; Mueller, D.; Osborne, T.; Tritz, K.

    2010-01-01

    An instability near the plasma edge known as the edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) is thought to enable access to the ELM-free quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) in tokamaks, which is a highly desirable operational regime for ITER because of the avoidance of periodic ELM heat loads. The EHO has been hypothesized to be a saturated kink driven unstable by toroidal rotational shear that provides sufficient transport near the plasma edge to keep the edge plasma below the peeling-ballooning stability limit. NSTX has observed unstable modes with similar characteristics to the EHO coincident with transition to a small-ELM regime (called Type-V). These small ELMs do not have a measurable effect on the plasma stored energy (< 1%). Transition to this regime is associated with a downward biased plasma as evidenced by drsep < -5 mm. Soft x-ray emission indicates that these modes are localized just inside the pedestal and are correlated with increased density fluctuations in the pedestal as measured by microwave reflectometry. The lowest order mode rotates at the plasma rotation frequency, indicating n=1, and harmonics up to n=6 have been observed simultaneously with the n=1, as determined by the rotation frequency of the higher harmonics. Increased edge collisionality is required to access Type-V ELMs. Stability analysis during the observed modes indicates instability to n=1-3 with n=3 having the highest growth rate and unstable mode eigenfunctions peaked near the plasma edge. Discharges with Type-V and Type-I ELMs are both calculated to be on the peeling unstable side of the peeling ballooning stability curve, with the Type-V case at higher normalized pressure gradient.

  10. Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Normalized Plasma Pressure on RMP ELM Suppression in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, D. M.; Moyer, R.A.; Evans, T. E.; Mordijck, S.; Osborne, T. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Snyder, P. B.; Unterberg, Ezekial A

    2010-01-01

    The effect of normalized plasma pressure as characterized by normalized pressure parameter (beta(N)) on the suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is studied in low-collisionality (nu* <= 0.2) H-mode plasmas with low-triangularity ( = 0.25) and ITER similar shapes ( = 0.51). Experimental results have suggested that ELM suppression by RMPs requires a minimum threshold in plasma pressure as characterized by beta(N). The variations in the vacuum field topology with beta(N) due to safety factor profile and island overlap changes caused by variation of the Shafranov shift and pedestal bootstrap current are examined numerically with the field line integration code TRIP3D. The results show very small differences in the vacuum field structure in terms of the Chirikov (magnetic island overlap) parameter, Poincare sections and field line loss fractions. These differences do not appear to explain the observed threshold in beta(N) for ELM suppression. Linear peeling-ballooning stability analysis with the ELITE code suggests that the ELMs which persist during the RMPs when beta(N) is below the observed threshold are not type I ELMs, because the pedestal conditions are deep within the stable regime for peeling-ballooning modes. These ELMs have similarities to type III ELMs or low density ELMs.

  11. Semiochemical-MediatedFlight Strategies of Two Invasive Elm Bark Beetles: A Potential Factor in Competitive Displacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent seven-state survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus was not as abundant. Behavioral trials were conducted by hanging sm...

  12. Preliminary investigations of equilibrium reconstruction quality during ELMy and ELM-free phases on JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Orsitto, F. P.; Gerasimov, S.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-08-01

    On JET, the magnetic topology is normally derived from the code EFIT, which solves the Grad-Shafranov equation with constraints imposed by the available measurements, typically the pick-up coils. Both the code and the measurements are expected to perform worse during ELMs. To assess this hypothesis, various statistical indicators, based on the values of the residuals and their probability distribution, have been calculated. They all show that the quality of EFIT reconstructions is clearly better in absence of ELMs. How the responsibility, for the lower quality of the reconstructions, is shared between the measurements and EFIT is a subject under investigation. 2001 Elsevier Science.

  13. Advances in the Understanding of ELM Suppression by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) in DIII-D and Implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nazikian, R.

    2014-09-01

    Experiments on DIII-D have expanding the operating window for RMP ELM suppression to higher q95 with dominant electron heating and fully non-inductive current drive relevant to advanced modes of ITER operation. Robust ELM suppression has also been obtained with a reduced coil set, mitigating the risk of coil failure in maintaining ELM suppression in ITER. These results significantly expand the operating space and reduce risk for obtaining RMP ELM suppression in ITER. Efforts have also been made to search for 3D cause of ELM suppression. No internal non-axisymmetric structure is detected at the top of the pedestal, indicating that the dominant effect of the RMP is to produce an n=0 transport modification of the profiles. Linear two fluid MHD simulations using M3D-C1 indicate resonant field penetration and significant magnetic stochasticity at the top of the pedestal, consistent with the absence of detectable 3D structure in that region. A profile database was developed to compare the scaling of the pedestal and global confinement with the applied 3D field strength in ELM suppressed and ELM mitigated plasmas. The EPED pedestal model accurately predicts the measured pedestal pressure at the threshold of ELM suppression, increasing confidence in theoretical projections to ITER pedestal conditions. Both the H-factor (H(sub)98y2) and thermal energy confinement time do not degrade substantially with applied RMP fields near the threshold of ELM suppression, enhancing confidence in the compatibility of ITER high performance operation with RMP ELM suppression.

  14. Hybrid Couplers On The JET ICRF System: Commissioning And First Results on ELMs

    SciTech Connect

    Mayoral, M.-L.; Monakhov, I.; Walden, T.; Blackman, T.; Graham, M.; Mailloux, J.; Nigthingale, M.; Ongena, J.

    2007-09-28

    During the 2004-2005 shutdown, hybrid 3 dB couplers were installed between the A2 ICRF antennas A and B. The goal was to free one of the generators to power the new ITER-like ICRF antenna, but also to use the coupler properties to increase the ICRF power on ELMs. Furthermore, the fast data acquisition system was upgraded in order to monitor the forward and reflected voltage amplitudes with a time resolution up to 4 {mu}s. As expected, the first tests showed that the reflected powers during ELMs was successfully directed to the coupler dummy load instead of the generators and that a clear improvement in the averaged coupled power in the presence of the ELMs could be obtained. However, the existing levels of the VSWR protection against arcs appeared not satisfactory for ELM-tolerant operation and had to be re-assessed. Moreover, evidence of parasitic low-VSWR activity in the vacuum transmission lines was found, emphasizing the importance of developing VSWR independent arc detection systems.

  15. Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

  16. H-mode Characteristics and ELM Dynamics at Near-Unity Aspect Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. E.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2014-10-01

    Ohmic H-mode is achieved at near-unity aspect ratio in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment through the use of high-field-side fueling in both limited and diverted geometries. This regime is characterized by: increased edge rotation shear; increased central heating; and measured energy confinement consistent with the ITER98pb(y,2) scaling. In limited plasmas the power threshold is ~ 10 × higher than predicted by the high- A empirical tokamak scaling for nG = 0 . 1- 0 . 6 . No significant reduction in the power threshold has been observed in favorable ∇B SN plasma when compared to limited plasmas. Two classes of ELMs have been identified to date by their proximity to the power threshold and measured n spectra. Small, Type III-like ELMs are present at input power POH ~Pth and have n <= 4 . At POH >>Pth , they transition to large, Type-I-like ELMs with intermediate 5 < n < 15. These general mode numbers are opposite those seen at large A and reflect the increased peeling drive present at low A . The unique operating characteristics available at A ~ 1 in Pegasus allow long-sought measurements of the time evolution of the Jedge (R) pedestal collapse during an ELM event. They show a complex, multimodal pedestal collapse and the subsequent ejection of a current-carrying filament. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  17. Investigation of ELM [edge localized mode] Dynamics with the Resonant Magnetic Perturbation Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pankin, Alexei Y.; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2011-07-19

    Topics covered are: anomalous transport and E x B flow shear effects in the H-mode pedestal; RMP (resonant magnetic perturbation) effects in NSTX discharges; development of a scaling of H-mode pedestal in tokamak plasmas with type I ELMs (edge localized modes); and divertor heat load studies.

  18. High Frequency ELM Pacing by Lithium Pellet Injection on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Nagy, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Lunsford, R.; Jackson, G. L.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.

    2015-11-01

    Full-shot, high-frequency pacing of edge localized modes (ELM) by lithium pellet injection has been demonstrated in DIII-D. A Lithium Granule Injector (LGI), recently installed on DIII-D to study pacing efficiency dependence on granule size and velocity, was tested in different ELMy scenarios (βN = 1.2-2.0) injecting granules of nominal diameter 0.3-0.9 mm, with injection speed 50-120 m/s and injection rates up to 500 Hz. Robust ELM pacing was documented on time windows up to 3.5 s, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9 mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes and weakly dependent on granule velocity. Paced ELM frequencies up to 100 Hz were achieved, with a 2-5 fold increase over the natural ELM frequency and a consequent reduction of divertor peak heat flux. Overall, LGI high frequency pacing appeared to be compatible with high plasma performance, in terms of global confinement and pedestal characteristics. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  19. ELM suppression in high-purity DIII-D helium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. E.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R. J.; Osborne, T. H.; Loarte, A.; Unterberg, E.; Grierson, B.; Fenstermacher, M.

    2015-11-01

    ELM suppression in He plasmas with D core concentrations of less than 20 % have been obtained in ECR heated, ITER Similar Shaped plasmas with low pedestal toroidal rotation (vϕ < 10 km/s). Here, n=3 RMP fields are used to suppress large type-I ELMs at power levels marginally above the PL-H threshold (PECRH=2.9 MW). ELM suppression in He plasmas has also been obtained using balanced co- and counter-Ip injected D neutral beams, with PNBI=1.7 MW which is near the PL-H threshold, resulting in vϕ ~ 0. The electron perpendicular rotation frequency during ELM suppression does not cross zero, assuming no uncertainty in the measurement, but remains slightly negative, with an average frequency of -5 krad/s, between 0.80 and 0.94 in normalized poloidal flux. This suggests that magnetic island screening is weak or nonexistent from the top of the H-mode pedestal inward to surfaces relatively deep in the core plasma. Work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. The Desire for Structure: A Deconstructive Analysis of "Desire under the Elms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joel K.; Bowman, Michael S.

    A brief reading of "Desire under the Elms" by Eugene O'Neill illustrates how a conventional Oedipal reading of the playscript opens up spaces within the text for deconstructive free-play. In this case, a tension is identified and foregrounded between this conventional application of the Oedipal complex and Freud's interpretation of the Oedipal…

  1. Pedestal density fluctuation dynamics during the inter-ELM cycle in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; Groebner, R. J.; Snyder, P. B.; Osborne, T. H.; Burrell, K. H.; Beurskens, M. N.

    2011-05-15

    Detailed 2D measurements of long-wavelength density fluctuations in the pedestal region with beam emission spectroscopy during the period between edge localized modes (ELMs) indicate two distinct bands of fluctuations propagating in opposite poloidal directions in the plasma frame: one lower frequency band (50-150 kHz) advects in the ion-diamagnetic drift direction (ion mode) and a higher frequency band (200-400 kHz) advects in the electron diamagnetic drift direction (electron mode). The ion mode amplitude is modulated with the ELM cycle: it increases rapidly after an ELM and then saturates, similar to the evolution of the pedestal electron pressure and density gradients. The electron mode, in contrast, has no significant time evolution between ELMs. The decorrelation time of the ion mode is <5 {mu}s[{tau}{sub c}(c{sub s}/c{sub s}aa){<=}1], the radial correlation length is of order 10 {rho}{sub i} and has poloidal wave-number k{sub {theta}{rho}i{approx}}0.1, and the mode advects at near the ion diamagnetic velocity in the plasma frame. These spatiotemporal dynamics are qualitatively similar to features predicted for kinetic ballooning modes.

  2. Electron temperature fluctuations changes associated with ELM suppression by RMP in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, C.; Wang, G.; Rhodes, T.; Peebles, W.

    2015-11-01

    New results in this presentation show an increase in broadband electron temperature fluctuations (T~e) during ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP). This measurement is obtained via correlation ECE (CECE) near the top of the pedestal (ρ ~ 0.9 - 0.96). This T~e increase is significant, (>40%), and occurs after the ELM suppression but not between ELMS. This may imply an increase in thermal transport facilitated by the increased T~e levels. Considering that the changes in gradient scale length during ELMs with RMP are complicated, it is possible that the mechanism responsible for changing T~e is different compared to previously observed changes in ñe [G. R. McKee et al NF 2013]. This possibility, and the nature of the T~e , will be studied through profile analysis and linear gyrokinetic analysis using TGLF [J. E. Kinsey et al PoP 2008]. In addition, the relation between the T~e and an observed low frequency coherent mode will be investigated. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-08ER54984 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  3. VIEW FROM EAST SIDE OF ELM DRIVE/BIRCH CIRCLE BLOCK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM EAST SIDE OF ELM DRIVE/BIRCH CIRCLE BLOCK, SHOWING SLOPING TOPOGRAPHY. VIEW FACING WEST. - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor), egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola) activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i) untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii) egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii) feeding, (iv) artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v) methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans) and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant) database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction, transport and

  5. [Dutch parliament legitimizes harmful quackery].

    PubMed

    van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist. PMID:20298623

  6. Tree and stand transpiration in a Midwestern bur oak savanna after elm encroachment and restoration thinning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asbjornsen, H.; Tomer, M.D.; Gomez-Cardenas, M.; Brudvig, L.A.; Greenan, C.M.; Schilling, K.

    2007-01-01

    Oak savannas, once common in the Midwest, are now isolated remnants within agricultural landscapes. Savanna remnants are frequently encroached by invasive trees to become woodlands. Thinning and prescribed burning can restore savanna structure, but the ecohydrological effects of managing these remnants are poorly understood. In this study, we measured sap flow (Js) to quantify transpiration in an Iowa bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savanna woodland encroached by elms (Ulmus americana), and in an adjacent restored savanna after thinning to remove elms, during summer 2004. Savanna oaks had greater mean daily Js (35.9 L dm-2 day-1) than woodland oaks (20.7 L dm-2 day-1) and elms (12.4 L dm-2 day-1). The response of Js to vapor pressure deficit (D) was unexpectedly weak, although oaks in both stands showed negative correlation between daily Js and D for D > 0.4 kPa. An earlier daily peak in Js in the elm trees showed a possible advantage for water uptake. As anticipated, the woodland's stand transpiration was greater (1.23 mm day-1) than the savanna's (0.35 mm day-1), yet the savanna achieved 30% of the woodland's transpiration with only 11% of its sapwood area. The difference in transpiration influenced water table depths, which were 2 m in the savanna and 6.5 m in the woodland. Regionally, row-crop agriculture has increased groundwater recharge and raised water tables, providing surplus water that perhaps facilitated elm encroachment. This has implications for restoration of savanna remnants. If achieving a savanna ecohydrology is an aim of restoration, then restoration strategies may require buffers, or targeting of large or hydrologically isolated remnants. ?? 2007.

  7. Impurity Particle Transport in High Confinement Regimes Without ELMs on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grierson, B. A.

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D using trace levels of fluorine gas injection have shown that high confinement regimes without ELMs can achieve rapid transport of impurity ions. Much attention has recently been given to regimes with H-mode energy confinement without edge-localized modes (ELMs), accessed either through Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) or MHD such as edge harmonic oscillations or quasi-coherent edge oscillations. Experiments on DIII-D have used gas puffing of trace levels of fluorine to introduce this fully-stripped, non-intrinsic and non-recycling impurity that can be easily measured with charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Trace fluorine is used because the time-history of the fluorine density profile permits direct extraction of the confinement time, particle diffusivity and convective velocity without relying on atomic modeling or assumptions about the source recycling. Results indicate impurity accumulation is more pronounced in RMP ELM suppressed plasmas with a pure n = 3 spectrum compared with mixed n = 1 and n = 3 RMP fields with reduced number of control coils. In cases where strong central carbon impurity accumulation occurs, trace fluorine analysis reveals a strong inward impurity pinch. Conversely, in plasmas with weak central carbon accumulation, the fluorine pinch is significantly lower. These measurements of impurity influx are consistent with TGLF modeling of the ELM-suppressed phase of the discharge revealing that strong impurity influx occurs when the ratio V/D is between -1 to -3. In this work, the dependencies of impurity transport on local driving gradients will be presented, and the means of increasing the impurity diffusion to recover high purity plasmas will be discussed providing a basis for achieving low-dilution, stationary ELM-free operation in ITER and future devices. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC0-09CH11466 and DE-FC02-05ER54698.

  8. Effect of Aspect Ratio on H-mode and ELM Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. E.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Kriete, D. M.

    2015-11-01

    The H-mode confinement regime is achieved at near-unity aspect ratio (A < 1 . 2) in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment via high-field-side fueling and low edge recycling. Ohmic H-mode is attained in both limited and diverted magnetic topologies. This regime is characterized by: reduced Dα emissions; increased core rotation; increased central heating; formation of edge current and pressure pedestals; and measured energy confinement consistent with the ITER98pb(y,2) scaling. The H-mode power threshold, PLH , behaves quite differently at low- A when compared with high- A operations. PLH /PLH_ITPA 08 increases sharply as A is lowered and no difference in PLH for limited and diverted plasmas is observed at A ~ 1 . 2 . No minimum in PLH with density is observed. Some of these results are consistent with the FM3 model for the L-H transition. Two classes of ELMs have been observed. Small, Type III-like ELMs are present at low input power and have n <= 4 . At POH >>PLH , they transition to large, Type-I-like ELMs with intermediate 5 < n < 15 . The Type III ELM magnetic structures behave opposite that of high- A plasmas, with n much higher, presumably due to the naturally higher J / B peeling mode drive at low- A . Long-sought measurements of the Jedge (R , t) pedestal collapse during an ELM event show a complex, multimodal pedestal collapse and the subsequent ejection of a current-carrying filament. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  9. Hybrid H-mode scenario with nitrogen seeding and type III ELMs in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corre, Y.; Joffrin, E.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Andrew, Y.; Arnoux, G.; Beurskens, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Brix, M.; Buttery, R.; Coffey, I.; Crombe, K.; de La Luna, E.; Felton, R.; Giroud, C.; Hacquin, S.; Hobirk, J.; Huber, A.; Imbeaux, F.; Jachmich, S.; Kempenaars, M.; Litaudon, X.; Leggate, H.; Loarer, T.; Maddison, G.; Rachlew, E.; Rapp, J.; Sauter, O.; Savchkov, A.; Telesca, G.; Widdowson, A.; Zastrow, K. D.; Zimmermann, O.; collaborators, JET-EFDA

    2008-11-01

    The performance of the 'hybrid' H-mode regime (long pulse operation with high neutron fluency) has been extensively investigated in JET during the 2005-2007 experimental campaign up to normalized pressure βN = 3, toroidal magnetic field Bt = 1.7 T, with type I ELMs plasma edge conditions. The optimized external current drive sources, self-generated non-inductive bootstrap current and plasma core stability properties provide a good prospect of achieving a high fusion gain at reduced plasma current for long durations in ITER. One of the remaining issues is the erosion of the divertor target plates associated with the type I ELM regime. A possible solution could be to operate with a plasma edge in the type III ELM regime (reduced transient and stationary heat loads) obtained with impurity seeding. An integrated hybrid type III ELM regime with a normalized pressure βN = 2.6 (PNBI ~ 20-22 MW) and a thermal confinement factor of H_{98}^\\ast (y,2)\\sim 0.83 has been recently successfully developed on JET with nitrogen seeding. This scenario shows good plasma edge condition (compatible with the future ITER-like wall on JET) and moderate MHD activity. In this paper, we report on the experimental development of the scenario (with plasma current Ip = 1.7 MA and magnetic field Bt = 1.7 T) and the trade-off between heat load reduction at the target plates and global confinement due to nitrogen seeding and type III ELM working conditions.

  10. An Efficient Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation-Based Extreme Learning Machine (ELOO-ELM) With Minimal User Intervention.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhifei; Er, Meng Joo; Wang, Ning

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the architecture of the extreme learning machine (ELM) significantly affects its performance and how to determine a suitable set of hidden neurons is recognized as a key issue to some extent. The leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) is usually used to select a model with good generalization performance among potential candidates. The primary reason for using the LOO-CV is that it is unbiased and reliable as long as similar distribution exists in the training and testing data. However, the LOO-CV has rarely been implemented in practice because of its notorious slow execution speed. In this paper, an efficient LOO-CV formula and an efficient LOO-CV-based ELM (ELOO-ELM) algorithm are proposed. The proposed ELOO-ELM algorithm can achieve fast learning speed similar to the original ELM without compromising the reliability feature of the LOO-CV. Furthermore, minimal user intervention is required for the ELOO-ELM, thus it can be easily adopted by nonexperts and implemented in automation processes. Experimentation studies on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed ELOO-ELM algorithm can achieve good generalization with limited user intervention while retaining the efficiency feature. PMID:26259254

  11. Dutch translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the PROMIS® physical function item bank and cognitive pre-test in Dutch arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Patient-reported physical function is an established outcome domain in clinical studies in rheumatology. To overcome the limitations of the current generation of questionnaires, the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) project in the USA has developed calibrated item banks for measuring several domains of health status in people with a wide range of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PROMIS physical function item bank to the Dutch language and to pretest it in a sample of patients with arthritis. Methods The items of the PROMIS physical function item bank were translated using rigorous forward-backward protocols and the translated version was subsequently cognitively pretested in a sample of Dutch patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results Few issues were encountered in the forward-backward translation. Only 5 of the 124 items to be translated had to be rewritten because of culturally inappropriate content. Subsequent pretesting showed that overall, questions of the Dutch version were understood as they were intended, while only one item required rewriting. Conclusions Results suggest that the translated version of the PROMIS physical function item bank is semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original. Future work will be directed at creating a Dutch-Flemish final version of the item bank to be used in research with Dutch speaking populations. PMID:22390734

  12. Rational pharmacotherapy in The Netherlands: formulary management in Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fijn, R; de Jong-van den Berg, L T; Brouwers, J R

    1999-04-01

    A survey regarding the management of rational pharmacotherapy was conducted among all Dutch general hospitals in 1998. The response was 99% (n = 120). The presence of a drugs and therapeutics committee and antibiotic policies in Dutch general hospitals appears independent of hospital characteristics. However, formulary agreements and treatment guidelines are less likely to be present in hospitals that employ only 1 pharmacist or those served by community pharmacies. More than half of the hospitals claim to have restrictive formulary agreements. Large hospitals, hospitals in the eastern and southern provinces and those served by hospital pharmacies more often tend to have restrictive agreements compared to small hospitals, hospitals in the northern, central, and western provinces, and those served by community pharmacies. Various methods to impose restriction and ensure formulary compliance are mentioned. It must be noted that hospitals tend to operate rather solely regarding the large number of different formularies. Surprisingly just a small majority of pharmacists evaluates formulary agreements positively as a management tool. Many drawbacks appear to be present. The results of this survey indicate that in the future Dutch hospitals will favour disease management (treatment guidelines) over drug management (formulary agreements) in the management of rational pharmacotherapy and that information technology will be used to influence clinicians' prescribing behaviour. PMID:10380234

  13. Characterization of ELMs and Their Effects on NSTX Using Multi-color Ultrasoft X-ray Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finikenthal, M.; Maingi, R.

    2004-11-01

    A variety of ELM phenomena is observed in NSTX, ranging from large "Type I" to less perturbative "Type III" and the recently identified "Type V". The effects these ELMs have on the plasma temperature and density profiles are assessed using multiple ultrasoft X-ray (USXR) arrays operated in a multi-color' (multi-energy) configuration. 1-D flux surface inversion is used to obtain the local emissivity, which is then modeled using perturbed Te, and density profiles. Fitting the multi-color' USXR data enables separately constraining the Te and ne x nZ perturbation and for instance propagating' the equilibrium Thompson temperature and density profiles over an ELM event. Additionally, 2-D tomographic inversion is used to assess poloidal asymmetries in the perturbations. Large Type I ELMs typically result in a crash in the SXR emission throughout the bulk plasma on a few ms timescale, which contrasts with the faster, edge-localized nature of the Type V perturbation.

  14. Recent progress in understanding the processes underlying the triggering of and energy loss associated with type I ELMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, A.; Dunai, D.; Dunne, M.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Becoulet, M.; Harrison, J. R.; Hillesheim, J.; Roach, C.; Saarelma, S.

    2014-11-01

    The type I ELMy H-mode is the baseline operating scenario for ITER. While it is known that the type I edge-localized mode (ELM) ultimately results from the peeling-ballooning instability, there is growing experimental evidence that a mode grows up before the ELM crash that may modify the edge plasma, which then leads to the ELM event due to the peeling-ballooning mode. The triggered mode results in the release of a large number of particles and energy from the core plasma but the precise mechanism by which these losses occur is still not fully understood and hence makes predictions for future devices uncertain. Recent progress in understanding the processes that trigger type I ELMs and the size of the resultant energy loss are reviewed and compared to experimental data and ideas for further development are discussed.

  15. Observation of Abrupt- and Fast-rising SOL Current during Trigger Phase of ELMs in DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    H. Takahashi; E.D. Fredrickson; M.J. Schaffer; M.E. Austin; N.H. Brooks; T.E. Evans; G.L. Jackson; L.L. Lao; J.G. Watkins

    2005-06-27

    Extensive studies to date of edge localized modes (ELMs) have sought their origin inside the separatrix, i.e., MHD instability from steep gradients in the plasma edge, and examined their consequences outside the separatrix, i.e., transport of heat and particles in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertors. Recent measurement by a high-speed scrape-off-layer current (SOLC) diagnostic may indicate that the ELM trigger process lies, in part, in the SOL. Thermoelectrically driven SOLC precedes, or co-evolves with, other parameters of the ELM process, and thus can potentially play a causal role: error field generated by non-axisymmetric SOLC, flowing in the immediate vicinity (approximately 1 cm) of the plasma edge, may contribute toward destabilizing MHD modes. The SOLC, observed concurrently with MHD activity, including ELMs, has been reported elsewhere.

  16. COMPARISON OF ELM PULSE PROPAGATION IN THE DIII-D SOL AND DIVERTORS WITH AN ION CONVECTION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    FENSTERMACHER,ME; PORTER,GD; LEONARD,AW; BROOKS,NH; BOEDO,JA; COLCHIN,RJ; GRAY,DS; GROEBNER,RJ; GROTH,M; HOGAN,JT; HOLLMANN,EM; LASNIER,CJ; OSBORNE,TH; PETRIE,TW; RUDAKOV,DL; SNYDER,PB; TAKAHASHI,H; WATKINS,JG; ZENG,L; DIII-D TEAM

    2003-08-01

    OAK-B135 Results from dedicated ELM experiments, performed in DIII-D with fast diagnostics to measure the evolution of Type-I ELM effects in the SOL and divertor, are compared with a simple ion convection model and with initial time-dependent UEDGE simulations. Delays between ELM effects observed in the inner versus the outer divertor regions in the experiments scale, as a function of density, with the difference in ion convection time along field lines from the outer midplane to the divertor targets. The ELM perturbation was modeled as an instantaneous radially uniform increase of diffusion coefficients from the top of the pedestal to the outer SOL. The perturbation was confined to a low field side poloidal zone {+-} 40{sup o} from the outer midplane. The delays in the simulations are similar to those observed in the experiments.

  17. [Teledermatology within Dutch nursing homes].

    PubMed

    Lubeek, Satish F K; Mommers, Roland J M; van der Geer, Eric R; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne Rianne P

    2016-06-01

    Skin problems are common within the nursing home population and could have a significant impact on quality of life. As a form of long-distance consultation teledermatology offers several potential benefits within this frail population. In this review we discuss several aspects of teledermatology, especially in relation to the nursing home population. Several studies demonstrated that teledermatology is a cost-effective and easy-to-use consultation method, which could significantly reduce the amount of hospital visits. However, teledermatology is only used in a limited number of Dutch nursing homes in daily practice due to several factors. For the optimal implementation of teledermatological consultation there are some important logistical, legal and financial framework conditions. In conclusion, teledermatology has a lot to offer within the nursing home population and therefore teledermatology will hopefully be increasingly used in daily practice within the near future. PMID:27098424

  18. A case against Dutch euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Fenigsen, Richard

    1989-01-01

    The growing acceptance of voluntary active euthanasia by the Dutch is examined in relation to the plastic cards requesting active euthanasia carried by many people in The Netherlands, public opinion polls, and support by leading medical figures of the movement to legalize euthanasia. The author draws upon his experience as a hospital doctor to condemn the practice of active euthanasia, arguing that its voluntariness is often counterfeit and always questionable, that it is inseparable from overtly involuntary forms of euthanasia, and that its promise of sparing the sick person agony is false. "Voluntary" euthanasia also brings an ominous change in society because of the message it sends to the elderly and sick, the weak and the dependent; because the fallibility of medical judgments are inconsistent with the irreversibility of the act; and because the fallacious reasoning of the philosophy threatens to cause irreparable damage to the medical profession. PMID:11650123

  19. A review of a new Dutch guideline for management of recurrent varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Lawson, James A; Toonder, Irwin M

    2016-03-01

    In 2013, the new Dutch guideline for "Venous Pathology" was published. The guideline was a revision and update from the guideline "Diagnostics and Treatment of Varicose Veins" from 2009 and the guideline "Venous Ulcer" from 2005. A guideline for "Deep Venous Pathology" and one for "Compression Therapy" was added to the overall guideline "Venous Pathology." The chapter about treatment of recurrent varicose veins after initial intervention was recently updated in 2015 and is reviewed here. The Dutch term "recidief varices" or the French "récidive de varices" should be used analogous to the English term "recurrent varicose veins." The DCOP Guideline Development Group Neovarices concluded that "recidief" in Dutch actually suggests recurrence after apparent successful treatment and ignores the natural progression of venous disease in its own right. So the group opted to use the term "neovarices." In the Dutch guideline, neovarices is meant to be an all embracing term for recurrent varicose veins caused by technical or tactical failure, evolvement from residual refluxing veins or natural progression of varicose vein disease at different locations of the treated leg after intervention. This report reviews the most important issues in the treatment of varicose vein recurrence, and discusses conclusions and recommendations of the Dutch Neovarices Guideline Committee. PMID:26916778

  20. ELM - A SIMPLE TOOL FOR THERMAL-HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF SOLID-CORE NUCLEAR ROCKET FUEL ELEMENTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    ELM is a simple computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in nuclear thermal rockets. Written for the nuclear propulsion project of the Space Exploration Initiative, ELM evaluates the various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations available for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition. In the past, these correlations were found in different reactor analysis codes, but now comparisons are possible within one program. The logic of ELM is based on the one-dimensional conservation of energy in combination with Newton's Law of Cooling to determine the bulk flow temperature and the wall temperature across a control volume. Since the control volume is an incremental length of tube, the corresponding pressure drop is determined by application of the Law of Conservation of Momentum. The size, speed, and accuracy of ELM make it a simple tool for use in fuel element parametric studies. ELM is a machine independent program written in FORTRAN 77. It has been successfully compiled on an IBM PC compatible running MS-DOS using Lahey FORTRAN 77, a DEC VAX series computer running VMS, and a Sun4 series computer running SunOS UNIX. ELM requires 565K of RAM under SunOS 4.1, 360K of RAM under VMS 5.4, and 406K of RAM under MS-DOS. Because this program is machine independent, no executable is provided on the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for ELM is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. ELM was developed in 1991. DEC, VAX, and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Sun4 and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  1. Scrape-off layer ion temperature measurements at the divertor target during type III and type I ELMs in MAST measured by RFEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, S.; Allan, S. Y.; Fishpool, G.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A. J.; Walkden, N. R.; Harrison, J. R.; the MAST Team

    2016-06-01

    In future nuclear fusion reactors high heat load events, such as edge-localised modes (ELMs), can potentially damage divertor materials and release impurities into the main plasma, limiting plasma performance. The most difficult to handle are type I ELMs since they carry the largest fraction of energy from the plasma and therefore deposit the largest heat flux at the target and on first wall materials. Knowing the temperature of the ions released from ELM events is important since it determines the potential sputtering they would cause from plasma facing materials. To make measurements of T i by retarding field energy analyser (RFEA) during type I ELMs a new operational technique has been used to allow faster measurements to be made; this is called the fast swept technique (FST). The FST method allows measurements to be made within the time of the ELM event which has previously not been possible with T i measurements. This new technique has been validated by comparing it with a slower average measurement previously used to make ion temperature measurements of ELMs. Presented here are the first T i measurements during Type I ELMs made at a tokamak divertor. Temperatures as high as 20 eV are measured more than 15 cm from the peak heat flux of an ELM, in a region where no inter-ELM current is measured by the RFEA; showing that ELM events cause hot ions to reach the divertor target far into the scrape off layer. Fast camera imaging has been used to investigate the type of ELM filaments that have been measured by the divertor RFEA. It is postulated that most of the ion temperatures measured in type I ELMs are from secondary ELM filaments which have not been previously identified in MAST plasmas.

  2. The latest results from ELM-simulation experiments in plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garkusha, I. E.; Arkhipov, N. I.; Klimov, N. S.; Makhlaj, V. A.; Safronov, V. M.; Landman, I.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2009-12-01

    Recent results of ELM-simulation experiments with quasi-stationary plasma accelerators (QSPAs) Kh-50 (Kharkov, Ukraine) and QSPA-T (Troitsk, Russia) as well as experiments in the pulsed plasma gun MK-200UG (Troitsk, Russia) are discussed. Primary attention in Troitsk experiments has been focused on investigating the carbon-fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten erosion mechanisms, their onset conditions and the contribution of various erosion mechanisms (including droplet splashing) to the resultant surface damage at varying plasma heat flux. The obtained results are used for validating the numerical codes PEGASUS and MEMOS developed in FZK. Crack patterns and residual stresses in tungsten targets under repetitive edge localized mode (ELM)-like plasma pulses are studied in simulation experiments with QSPA Kh-50. Statistical processing of the experimental results on crack patterns after different numbers of QSPA Kh-50 exposures as well as those on the dependence of cracking on the heat load and surface temperature is performed.

  3. Target Plate Profiles During ELM Suppression Experiments on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J. G.; Evans, T. E.; Murphy, C. J.; Martin, M. J.; Nelson, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Joseph, I.; Moyer, R. A.; Lasnier, C. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.

    2007-11-01

    Radial profiles of target plate plasma conditions during ELM suppressed conditions have been measured with the new DIII-D lower divertor Langmuir probe array. ELM suppression was accomplished using n=3 resonant magnetic perturbations [1]. Evidence of the n=3 mode structure of the perturbation can be seen most clearly in the Vf profile on the target plate. The spacing of the multiple peaks in the Vf profile is similar to predictions of the TRIP3D field line integration code. Te values >100 eV and Vf values down to --150 V were measured. We observe resonant behavior of the target plate parameters near the q95 value for maximum magnetic perturbation. Heat flux from the Langmuir probe measurements will be compared with infrared cameras and thermocouples. The resulting sheath power transmission factor profile will be shown. [1] T.E. Evans, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 235003 (2004).

  4. Mariannaea samuelsii Isolated from a Bark Beetle-Infested Elm Tree in Korea.

    PubMed

    Tang, Longqing; Hyun, Min Woo; Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2012-06-01

    During an investigation of fungi from an elm tree infested with bark beetles in Korea, one isolate, DUCC401, was isolated from elm wood. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and 28S rDNA (large subunit) sequences, the isolate, DUCC401, was identified as Mariannaea samuelsii. Mycelia of the fungus grew faster on malt extract agar than on potato dextrose agar and oatmeal agar media. Temperature and pH for optimal growth of fungal mycelia were 25℃ and pH 7.0, respectively. The fungus demonstrated the capacity to degrade cellobiose, starch, and xylan. This is the first report on isolation of Mariannaea samuelsii in Korea. PMID:22870050

  5. Evolution of Edge Pedestal Current in Type-1 ELM and ITER Baseline Scenario Discharges on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Osborne, T. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Stoschus, H.; Chen, X.; Kaplan, K. E.

    2013-10-01

    Based on recent improvements to the DIII-D LIBEAM diagnostic, we have measured the evolution of the edge plasma current density, j, in the pedestal region during the Type 1 ELM cycle, as well as during variations in pedestal pressure in ITER baseline scenario as the inter-ELM temperature and density evolve separately. Conditional averaging of our signals along with other diagnostics over multiple Type 1 ELMs improves the sensitivity and time resolution of this technique. New methods of accounting for varying background light during the pedestal rise help to reduce the systematic error in the measurement. Initial analysis shows that the current peak can relax by about a factor of two within a few ms after an ELM, consistent with resistive decay times in the edge. Changes in the current amplitude for high frequency ELM conditions are consistent with damping of the neoclassical current at the higher collisionality typically associated with higher edge densities and lowered edge temperatures. These results are in accord with our emerging picture of ELM physics and pedestal formation. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, SC-G903402, & a National Undergraduate Fellowship in Fusion Science & Engineering.

  6. External kink modes as a model for MHD activity associated with ELMs

    SciTech Connect

    Manickam, J.

    1992-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas in the high confinement mode of operation are known to exhibit edge localized activity referred to as ELMs. A model is proposed for the underlying cause in terms of the external kink mode. The build up of the current density near the plasma edge is shown to decrease the shear in the safety-factor, q, profile and lead to destabilization of the kink mode. The role of the plasma geometry and equilibrium profiles is discussed.

  7. Dutch research reforms cause a stir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Martijn

    2015-02-01

    All 69 winners of the Spinoza prize - the highest award in Dutch science - have signed a petition against proposed reforms to the country's leading funding agency, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  8. Elm Creek: NSP establishes new 345 kV substation in Twin Cities area

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, B.; Spaulding, P.; Olson, D.

    1996-11-01

    Northern States Power Company (NSP) has proposed to expand the existing Elm Creek substation located in the City of Maple Grove for 345 kV development. The planned expansion will not require acquisition of any new 345 kV transmission line right-of-way. The northwestern metropolitan area of Twin Cities (Minneapolis/St. Paul) has been experiencing significant growth in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. This necessitates substantial transmission and distribution system improvements in the near future involving millions of dollars of capital investment, to ensure adequate load serving capability and maintain the desired reliability. Relaxing thermal transmission limitations in this area will be achieved by strategic establishment of a new 345 kV source at the existing Elm Creek site in year 2000. The central location of the station in relation to the area experiencing rapid load development makes it an excellent choice for the desired 345 kV source establishment. One 115 kV circuit from Elm Creek to Champlin substation is being constructed in 1997 which will act as an additional transmission outlet from the 345 kV source. Recently completed Long-Range Geographic Planning Study results strongly reinforce the need for such prudent improvements.

  9. The Rock Elm meteorite impact structure, Wisconsin: Geology and shock-metamorphic effects in quartz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, B.M.; Cordua, W.S.; Plescia, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The Rock Elm structure in southwest Wisconsin is an anomalous circular area of highly deformed rocks, ???6.5 km in diameter, located in a region of virtually horizontal undeformed sedimentary rocks. Shock-produced planar microstructures (PMs) have been identified in quartz grains in several lithologies associated with the structure: sandstones, quartzite pebbles, and breccia. Two distinct types of PMs are present: P1 features, which appear identical to planar fractures (PFs or cleavage), and P2 features, which are interpreted as possible incipient planar deformation features (PDFs). The latter are uniquely produced by the shock waves associated with meteorite impact events. Both types of PMs are oriented parallel to specific crystallographic planes in the quartz, most commonly to c(0001), ??112??2, and r/z101??1. The association of unusual, structurally deformed strata with distinct shock-produced microdeformation features in their quartz-bearing rocks establishes Rock Elm as a meteorite impact structure and supports the view that the presence of multiple parallel cleavages in quartz may be used independently as a criterion for meteorite impact. Preliminary paleontological studies indicate a minimum age of Middle Ordovician for the Rock Elm structure. A similar age estimate (450-400 Ma) is obtained independently by combining the results of studies of the general morphology of complex impact structures with estimated rates of sedimentation for the region. Such methods may be applicable to dating other old and deeply eroded impact structures formed in sedimentary target rocks.

  10. Lithium granule ablation and penetration during ELM pacing experiments at DIII-D

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lunsford, R.; Bortolon, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Mansfield, D. K.; Nagy, A.; Maingi, R.; Parks, P. B.; Jackson, G.; Gilson, E.; Chrobak, C. P.

    2016-05-25

    At DIII-D, lithium granules were radially injected into the plasma at the outer midplane to trigger and pace edge localized modes (ELMs). Granules ranging in size from 300 to 1000 microns were horizontally launched into H-mode discharges with velocities near 100 m/s, and granule to granule injection frequencies less than 500 Hz. While the smaller granules were only successful in triggering ELMs approximately 20% of the time, the larger granules regularly demonstrated ELM triggering efficiencies of greater than 80%. A fast visible camera looking along the axis of injection observed the ablation of the lithium granules. We used the durationmore » of ablation as a benchmark for a neutral gas shielding calculation, and approximated the ablation rate and mass deposition location for the various size granules, using measured edge plasma profiles as inputs. In conclusion, this calculation suggests that the low triggering efficiency of the smaller granules is due to the inability of these granules to traverse the steep edge pressure gradient region and reach the top of the pedestal prior to full ablation.« less

  11. Sensing a bud in the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint: a role for Elm1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hui; Tsygankov, Denis; Lew, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Bud formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae must be coordinated with the nuclear cycle to enable successful proliferation. Many environmental stresses temporarily disrupt bud formation, and in such circumstances, the morphogenesis checkpoint halts nuclear division until bud formation can resume. Bud emergence is essential for degradation of the mitotic inhibitor, Swe1. Swe1 is localized to the septin cytoskeleton at the bud neck by the Swe1-binding protein Hsl7. Neck localization of Swe1 is required for Swe1 degradation. Although septins form a ring at the presumptive bud site before bud emergence, Hsl7 is not recruited to the septins until after bud emergence, suggesting that septins and/or Hsl7 respond to a "bud sensor." Here we show that recruitment of Hsl7 to the septin ring depends on a combination of two septin-binding kinases: Hsl1 and Elm1. We elucidate which domains of these kinases are needed and show that artificial targeting of those domains suffices to recruit Hsl7 to septin rings even in unbudded cells. Moreover, recruitment of Elm1 is responsive to bud emergence. Our findings suggest that Elm1 plays a key role in sensing bud emergence. PMID:27053666

  12. Sensing a bud in the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint: a role for Elm1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hui; Tsygankov, Denis; Lew, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Bud formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae must be coordinated with the nuclear cycle to enable successful proliferation. Many environmental stresses temporarily disrupt bud formation, and in such circumstances, the morphogenesis checkpoint halts nuclear division until bud formation can resume. Bud emergence is essential for degradation of the mitotic inhibitor, Swe1. Swe1 is localized to the septin cytoskeleton at the bud neck by the Swe1-binding protein Hsl7. Neck localization of Swe1 is required for Swe1 degradation. Although septins form a ring at the presumptive bud site before bud emergence, Hsl7 is not recruited to the septins until after bud emergence, suggesting that septins and/or Hsl7 respond to a “bud sensor.” Here we show that recruitment of Hsl7 to the septin ring depends on a combination of two septin-binding kinases: Hsl1 and Elm1. We elucidate which domains of these kinases are needed and show that artificial targeting of those domains suffices to recruit Hsl7 to septin rings even in unbudded cells. Moreover, recruitment of Elm1 is responsive to bud emergence. Our findings suggest that Elm1 plays a key role in sensing bud emergence. PMID:27053666

  13. Gyrokinetic study of ASDEX Upgrade inter-ELM pedestal profile evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, D. R.; Told, D.; Jenko, F.; Doerk, H.; Dunne, M. G.; Wolfrum, E.; Viezzer, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; Pueschel, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    The gyrokinetic GENE code is used to study the inter-ELM H-mode pedestal profile evolution for an ASDEX Upgrade discharge. Density gradient driven trapped electron modes are the dominant pedestal instability during the early density-buildup phase. Nonlinear simulations produce particle transport levels consistent with experimental expectations. Later inter-ELM phases appear to be simultaneously constrained by electron temperature gradient (ETG) and kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) turbulence. The electron temperature gradient achieves a critical value early in the ELM cycle, concurrent with the appearance of both microtearing modes and ETG modes. Nonlinear ETG simulations demonstrate that the profiles lie at a nonlinear critical gradient. The nominal profiles are stable to KBM, but moderate increases in β are sufficient to surpass the KBM threshold. Certain aspects of the dynamics support the premise of KBM-constrained pedestal evolution; the density and temperature profiles separately undergo large changes, but in a manner that keeps the pressure profile constant and near the KBM limit.

  14. Power Law Regression Analysis of Heat Flux Width in Type I ELMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, C. D.; Makowski, M. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.

    2014-10-01

    In this project, a database of Type I ELM characteristics has been assembled and will be used to investigate possible dependencies of the heat flux width on physics and engineering parameters. At the edge near the divertor, high impulsive heat loads are imparted onto the surface. The impact of these ELMs can cause a reduction in divertor lifetime if the heat flux is great enough due to material erosion. A program will be used to analyze data, extract relevant, measurable quantities, and record the quantities in the table. Care is taken to accurately capture the complex space/time structure of the ELM. Then correlations between discharge and equilibrium parameters will be investigated. Power law regression analysis will be used to help determine the dependence of the heat flux width on these various measurable quantities and parameters. This will enable us to better understand the physics of heat flux at the edge. Work supported in part by the National Undergraduate Fellowship Program in Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Sciences and the US DOE under DE-FG02-04ER54761, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  15. An Expert Diagnosis System for Parkinson Disease Based on Genetic Algorithm-Wavelet Kernel-Extreme Learning Machine.

    PubMed

    Avci, Derya; Dogantekin, Akif

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease is a major public health problem all around the world. This paper proposes an expert disease diagnosis system for Parkinson disease based on genetic algorithm- (GA-) wavelet kernel- (WK-) Extreme Learning Machines (ELM). The classifier used in this paper is single layer neural network (SLNN) and it is trained by the ELM learning method. The Parkinson disease datasets are obtained from the UCI machine learning database. In wavelet kernel-Extreme Learning Machine (WK-ELM) structure, there are three adjustable parameters of wavelet kernel. These parameters and the numbers of hidden neurons play a major role in the performance of ELM. In this study, the optimum values of these parameters and the numbers of hidden neurons of ELM were obtained by using a genetic algorithm (GA). The performance of the proposed GA-WK-ELM method is evaluated using statical methods such as classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity analysis, and ROC curves. The calculated highest classification accuracy of the proposed GA-WK-ELM method is found as 96.81%. PMID:27274882

  16. An Expert Diagnosis System for Parkinson Disease Based on Genetic Algorithm-Wavelet Kernel-Extreme Learning Machine

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Derya; Dogantekin, Akif

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease is a major public health problem all around the world. This paper proposes an expert disease diagnosis system for Parkinson disease based on genetic algorithm- (GA-) wavelet kernel- (WK-) Extreme Learning Machines (ELM). The classifier used in this paper is single layer neural network (SLNN) and it is trained by the ELM learning method. The Parkinson disease datasets are obtained from the UCI machine learning database. In wavelet kernel-Extreme Learning Machine (WK-ELM) structure, there are three adjustable parameters of wavelet kernel. These parameters and the numbers of hidden neurons play a major role in the performance of ELM. In this study, the optimum values of these parameters and the numbers of hidden neurons of ELM were obtained by using a genetic algorithm (GA). The performance of the proposed GA-WK-ELM method is evaluated using statical methods such as classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity analysis, and ROC curves. The calculated highest classification accuracy of the proposed GA-WK-ELM method is found as 96.81%. PMID:27274882

  17. Study: Longer-Term Antibiotics Won't Ease 'Chronic Lyme Disease'

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158042.html Study: Longer-Term Antibiotics Won't Ease 'Chronic Lyme Disease' Dutch trial ... are unlikely to find relief from longer-term antibiotic therapy, according to a new Dutch study. Although ...

  18. Intermediate-k density and magnetic field fluctuations during inter-ELM pedestal evolution in MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Dickinson, D.; Roach, C. M.; Saarelma, S.; Scannell, R.; Kirk, A.; Crocker, N. A.; Peebles, W. A.; Meyer, H.; the MAST Team

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of local density and magnetic field fluctuations near the pedestal top, conditionally averaged over the edge localized mode (ELM) cycle, have been made in Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). A Doppler backscattering (DBS) system installed at MAST was used to measure intermediate-k ≤ft({{k}\\bot}{ρi}≈ 3~\\text{to}~4\\right) density fluctuations at the top of the pedestal. A novel diagnostic technique combining DBS with cross-polarization scattering (CP-DBS) enabled magnetic field fluctuations to also be locally measured at similar wave numbers. Polarization isolation and other effects for CP-DBS are discussed. Both measurements were used in a series of high-β ≤ft({βn}≈ 4.0\\right. –4.5) MAST plasmas with large type-I ELMs with an ∼ 8~\\text{to}~9~\\text{ms} period where microtearing modes (MTMs) had been predicted to be unstable in similar conditions (Dickinson 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 135002). The measured density fluctuation level increased by a factor of about 4 between 2 and 4 ms after the ELM, which was correlated with the recovery of the density profile while the temperature pedestal height continued to increase slowly. Magnetic field fluctuations showed different temporal behaviors, slowly increasing throughout the ELM cycle as the local β increased. Linear GS2 calculations show both MTM and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes unstable at similar wave numbers as the measurements (although with more overlap between ETG wave numbers and diagnostic spectral resolution) at the top of the pedestal, along with kinetic ballooning modes are unstable lower in the pedestal (at larger wavelengths). The inferred ratio of fluctuation levels from experiment was ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 1/20 . The comparable ratios from GS2 were ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 0.4 for the MTM and ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 0.02 for the ETG. Both the experimental wave number range and the fluctuation

  19. HIGH TIME-RESOLVED, 2-D IMAGING OF TYPE-1 ELMs IN DIII-D USING A IMAGE-INTENSIFIED CID CAMERA

    SciTech Connect

    GROTH, M.; FENSTERMACHER, M.E.; BOEDO, J.A.; BROOKS,N.H.; GRAY, D.S.; LASNIER, C.J.; LEONARD, A.W.; PORTER, G.D.; WATKINS, J.G.

    2002-06-01

    The evolution of 2-D emission profiles of D{sub {alpha}} and C III during type-I ELMs has been investigated in DIII-D using a tangentially viewing gated, intensified charge-injected device (CID) camera. The measured CIII emission profiles indicate transient inner leg attachment with the arrival of the ELM heat pulse. The measured D{sub {alpha}} emission profiles during an ELM cycle show enhanced deuterium recycling during the deposition of the ELM particle pulse at the target, which suggests the detachment of the divertor plasma from the target plates. Measurements taken in ELMy H-mode discharges at densities of 50% and 90% of the Greenwald density limit are compared utilizing the CID camera system and a comprehensive set of other divertor diagnostics. An ELM model based on fluid and PIC simulations is used to discuss the observation on the response of the divertor plasma to the ELM heat and particle pulse.

  20. Ethnic Identity, Externalizing Problem Behaviour and the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem among Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Yagmur, Sengul; Stams, Geert Jan; de Haan, Mariette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between two aspects of ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment-affirmation) and externalizing problem behaviour in Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents living in the Netherlands. A total number of 345 adolescents (115…

  1. [Mental illness in the former Dutch Indies--four psychiatric syndromes: amok, latah, koro and neurasthenia].

    PubMed

    Bartelsman, M; Eckhardt, P P

    2007-12-22

    --At the beginning of the 20th century Dutch psychiatrists in the former Dutch Indies encountered exotic psychiatric syndromes and variant expressions of psychopathological diseases that were also prevalent in Europe. --The amok and latah syndromes were reported relatively frequently and were considered typical endemic psychopathologies. Amok is an acute condition of insanity in which the affected individual, a man, attempts to kill others. Latah is a shock-like condition in which the affected individual, a woman, mimics the movements and sounds of those nearby against her will. --The koro syndrome is considered a typical but rare psychosis seen primarily among the Chinese population of the former Dutch Indies. Patients have a recurring fear of the penis retracting into the body. --A diagnosis of 'tropical neurasthenia' was frequently made in Europeans for what today would be referred to as dysthymic disorder or minor depressive disorder. PMID:18237055

  2. Suppression of Type-I ELMs with a Reduced I-coil Set in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, D. M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent experiments in DIII-D have demonstrated that Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in a tokamak can be controlled with a reduced number of magnetic perturbation coils, demonstrating an important role of spectral sidebands, and showing promise of the technique for future fusion devices, where ELMs risk potentially damaging heat loads. The ELMs can be controlled with external magnetic perturbation used to regulate pressure gradients and maintain stability. The new results show that the coil currents required for ELM suppression with the reduced coil sets are comparable to what is typically required for the full set. This counterintuitive result provides an important validation of recent modeling of the physical mechanisms involved. This modeling shows that the spectral sidebands introduced by deactivating individual coils can often increase the magnetic stochasticity within the plasma, thereby increasing transport and facilitating ELM suppression. Deactivating individual coils results not only in the reduction of the dominant n = 3 component of the perturbation field, but also in a significant increase in the amplitudes of n = 1 and n = 2 sidebands. These sidebands may also be amplified by the plasma response. Application to ITER finds that the ITER ELM coils may be able to tolerate a loss of up to five of its 27 coils, while leaving a sufficient margin of current in the remaining coils to still meet the DIII-D ELM suppression criterion. Further, the new experiments show that the presence of the spectral sidebands does not adversely affect the plasma rotation or confinement. Both vacuum and two-fluid modeling are used to interpret and understand these results. Supported by US DOE under DE-FG02-05ER54809 & DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  3. Connection between plasma response and resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) edge localized mode (ELM) suppression in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingen, A.; Ferraro, N. M.; Shafer, M. W.; Unterberg, E. A.; Canik, J. M.; Evans, T. E.; Hillis, D. L.; Hirshman, S. P.; Seal, S. K.; Snyder, P. B.; Sontag, A. C.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the plasma response to applied non-axisymmetric fields in several DIII-D discharges show that predicted displacements depend strongly on the edge current density. This result is found using both a linear two-fluid-MHD model (M3D-C1) and a nonlinear ideal-MHD model (VMEC). Furthermore, it is observed that the probability of a discharge being edge localized mode (ELM)-suppressed is most closely related to the edge current density, as opposed to the pressure gradient. It is found that discharges with a stronger kink response are closer to the peeling-ballooning stability limit in ELITE simulations and eventually cross into the unstable region, causing ELMs to reappear. Thus for effective ELM suppression, the RMP has to prevent the plasma from generating a large kink response, associated with ELM instability. Experimental observations are in agreement with the finding; discharges which have a strong kink response in the MHD simulations show ELMs or ELM mitigation during the RMP phase of the experiment, while discharges with a small kink response in the MHD simulations are fully ELM suppressed in the experiment by the applied resonant magnetic perturbation. The results are cross-checked against modeled 3D ideal MHD equilibria using the VMEC code. The procedure of constructing optimal 3D equilibria for diverted H-mode discharges using VMEC is presented. Kink displacements in VMEC are found to scale with the edge current density, similar to M3D-C1, but the displacements are smaller. A direct correlation in the flux surface displacements to the bootstrap current is shown.

  4. Experimental estimation of tungsten impurity sputtering due to Type I ELMs in JET-ITER-like wall using pedestal electron cyclotron emission and target Langmuir probe measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemaut, C.; Jardin, A.; Horacek, J.; Borodkina, I.; Autricque, A.; Arnoux, G.; Boom, J.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; De La Luna, E.; Devaux, S.; Eich, T.; Harting, D.; Kirschner, A.; Lipschultz, B.; Matthews, G. F.; Meigs, A.; Moulton, D.; O'Mullane, M.; Stamp, M.; contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    The ITER baseline scenario, with 500 MW of DT fusion power and Q = 10, will rely on a Type I ELMy H-mode and will be achieved with a tungsten (W) divertor. W atoms sputtered from divertor targets during mitigated ELMs are expected to be the dominant source in ITER. W impurity concentration in the plasma core can dramatically degrade its performance and lead to potentially damaging disruptions. Understanding the physics of the target W source due to sputtering during ELMs and inter-ELMs is important and can be helped by experimental measurements with improved precision. It has been established that the ELMy target ion impact energy has a simple linear dependence with the pedestal electron temperature measured by Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE). It has also been shown that Langmuir Probes (LP) ion flux measurements are reliable during ELMs due to the surprisingly low electron temperature. Therefore, in this paper, LP and ECE measurements in JET-ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) unseeded Type I ELMy H-mode experiments have been used to estimate the W sputtering flux from divertor targets in ELM and inter-ELM conditions. Comparison with similar estimates using W I spectroscopy measurements shows a reasonable agreement for the ELM and inter-ELM W source. The main advantage of the method involving LP measurements is the very high time resolution of the diagnostic (˜10 μs) allowing very precise description of the W sputtering source during ELMs.

  5. Findings of pre-ELM structures through the observation of divertor heat load patterns at JET with applied n = 2 perturbation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, M.; Sieglin, B.; Eich, T.; Pearson, J.; Liang, Y.; Balboa, I.; Jachmich, S.; Wingen, A.; Pamela, S. J. P.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-07-01

    Resonant magnetic perturbation experiments at JET with the ITER-like wall have shown the formation of radially propagating pre-ELM structures in the heat flux profile on the outer divertor. These appear a few milliseconds before the major divertor heat load, caused by type-I edge-localized modes (ELMs). The formation of the pre-ELM structures is accompanied by an increase in the Dα emission. For some pronounced examples, the propagation appears to end at the positions where an increased heat load is seen during the ELM crash a few milliseconds later. These observations are presented and discussed along with a comparison of a thermoelectric edge currents model.

  6. Observation of edge turbulence spread by ECEI on the ELM-crash-suppressed plasmas in the KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Choi, Minjun; Yun, Gunsu; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyeon K.; Luhmann, Neville C., Jr.

    2015-11-01

    The structure and dynamics of the ELM and edge turbulence modified by n = 1 RMP have been studied during the ELM-crash-suppression phase by applying correlation analysis techniques on the measured ECEI signals. The ECEI shows that filamentary modes remained at theedge with frequent bursts during ELM-crash-suppression phase. The filamentary mode fluctuates in the range of 20 kHz and the dynamics of the mode seems to be violent and complex compared to the ELMing H-mode phase. Correlation analysis shows corresponding fluctuations have long poloidal wavelength (or small poloidal wavenumber kθ < 1 cm-1) with smaller size compared to the filamentary mode, and average group velocity of ~ 3 km/s along the electron diamagnetic direction, parallel wavelengths in the range of 2 <λ| | < 8 m. The characteristic size in the order of kθρs ~ 0 . 1 and velocimetry analysis suggest the resistive ballooning mode is a strong candidate for edge fluctuation in the ELM-crash-suppression phase. This work is supported by the NRF of Korea under Contract No. NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029881 and NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029865 and U.S. DoE grant No. DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  7. DNA barcoding of Dutch birds

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadian, Mansour; Beentjes, Kevin K.; Roselaar, C.S. (Kees); van Brandwijk, Hans; Nijman, Vincent; Vonk, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and has been applied in a number of studies on birds. We here sequenced the COI gene for 387 individuals of 147 species of birds from the Netherlands, with 83 species being represented by > 2 sequences. The Netherlands occupies a small geographic area and 95% of all samples were collected within a 50 km radius from one another. The intraspecific divergences averaged 0.29% among this assemblage, but most values were lower; the interspecific divergences averaged 9.54%. In all, 95% of species were represented by a unique barcode, with 6 species of gulls and skua (Larus and Stercorarius) having at least one shared barcode. This is best explained by these species representing recent radiations with ongoing hybridization. In contrast, one species, the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca showed deep divergences, averaging 5.76% and up to 8.68% between individuals. These possibly represent two distinct taxa, S. curruca and S. blythi, both clearly separated in a haplotype network analysis. Our study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for birds, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables to identify known Dutch bird species with a very high resolution. In addition some species were flagged up for further detailed taxonomic investigation, illustrating that even in ornithologically well-known areas such as the Netherlands, more is to be learned about the birds that are present. PMID:24453549

  8. Health-related quality of life in epidermolysis bullosa: Validation of the Dutch QOLEB questionnaire and assessment in the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Wing Yan; Frew, John W; Veerman, Kelly; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Murrell, Dedee F; Jonkman, Marcel F

    2014-07-01

    Defining the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients suffering from the heritable blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is important in assessing the efficacy of new treatments. The quality of life in EB questionnaire (QOLEB) is an English 17-item EB-specific HRQoL measurement tool. The aim of this study was to develop a validated and reliable QOLEB in Dutch and assess the HRQoL in Dutch EB patients. The QOLEB was translated to Dutch according to protocol. Fifty-five adult patients across 4 EB subtypes participated. The QOLEB had excellant correlation with the Skindex-29 (ρs = 0.86), good correlation with the SF-36 physical score (ρs = -0.75), and moderate correlation with the SF-36 mental score (ρs = -0.43). The discriminative validity between the 4 different EB subtypes was significant (p = 0.002). The internal consistency was excellent (α = 0.905), and the test-retest reliability strong (ρs = 0.88). In conclusion, the Dutch QOLEB is a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of the HRQoL in adult EB patients. PMID:24337132

  9. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples.

    PubMed

    Celenk, Ozgur; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The Netherlands), and 17 Dutch (mainstream couples living in The Netherlands) married dyads (total of 98 individuals) were independently interviewed about positive and negative characteristics of marriages, determinants of general marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction, spousal communication, marital conflict, and marital roles. Multivariate tests revealed ethnic group differences on all marriage-related domains except the conflict resolution strategies. However, univariate analyses showed differences in few themes within domains; main differences were assessed between the Turkish/Turkish-Dutch (who put more emphasis on children and economical aspects) and Dutch couples (who put more emphasis on behavior, and personality of the spouse, reciprocity, emotional sharing, and psychological roles). Turkish-Dutch couples were more similar to Turkish than to Dutch couples. Results were discussed in light of the socioeconomic development and cultural value theories, which are believed to provide a useful framework for understanding the role of culture in marital satisfaction. PMID:23126343

  10. THE ELM SURVEY. I. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF EXTREMELY LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende E-mail: mkilic@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: callende@iac.e

    2010-11-10

    We analyze radial velocity observations of the 12 extremely low-mass (ELM), with {<=}0.25 M{sub sun}, white dwarfs (WDs) in the MMT Hypervelocity Star Survey. Eleven of the twelve WDs are binaries with orbital periods shorter than 14 hr; the one non-variable WD is possibly a pole-on system among our non-kinematically selected targets. Our sample is unique: it is complete in a well-defined range of apparent magnitude and color. The orbital mass functions imply that the unseen companions are most likely other WDs, although neutron star companions cannot be excluded. Six of the eleven systems with orbital solutions will merge within a Hubble time due to the loss of angular momentum through gravitational wave radiation. The quickest merger is J0923+3028, a g = 15.7 ELM WD binary with a 1.08 hr orbital period and a {<=}130 Myr merger time. The chance of a supernova Ia event among our ELM WDs is only 1%-7%, however. Three binary systems (J0755+4906, J1233+1602, and J2119-0018) have extreme mass ratios and will most likely form stable mass-transfer AM CVn systems. Two of these objects, SDSS J1233+1602 and J2119-0018, are the lowest surface gravity WDs ever found; both show Ca II absorption likely from accretion of circumbinary material. We predict that at least one of our WDs is an eclipsing detached double WD system, important for constraining helium core WD models.

  11. Joule heating of the ITER TF cold structure: Effects of vertical control coil currents and ELMS

    SciTech Connect

    Radovinsky, A.; Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1993-11-09

    The toroidal field coil and support structures for ITER are maintained at cryogenic temperatures. The time-varying currents in the poloidal field coil system will induce eddy currents in these structures. The associated Joule dissipation will cause local heating and require heat removal which will show up as a load on the cryogenic system. Studies of Joule heating of the ITER TF cold structure (TFCS) due to the currents in the poloidal field coil system are presented. The two regimes considered in this study are the plasma vertical stability control and the Edge Loss Mode (ELM) events. The 3-D, thin-shell, eddy current program, EDDYCUFF was used to analyze the eddy currents and Joule losses in the cold structure. The current versus time scenarios were defined. Four control coil options were studied. All schemes use coils external to the TF cold structure. Analyses of power depositions during the plasma vertical stability control were performed for each of the four options. For each of these options three different recovery times were assumed. The times were 3, 1, and 1/3 seconds. Sets of four sequential ELMs, as well as isolated ELMs have been studied for various sets of active PF coils. The results showed that the lowest average power dissipation in the TF cold structure occurs when a subset of PF2 and PF7 are active, and all the other PF coils are passive. The general conclusion is that to minimize power dissipation in the TF cold structure it is preferable that only coils PF2 and PF7 are active. The other coils (PF3-PF6) should be passive and driven by a condition of constant flux. It is recommended in particular, that coils PF3 and PF5 be allowed to change currents to conserve flux, since they provide the maximum shielding of the TFCS from the fields caused by the active coils.

  12. EFQM approach and the Dutch Quality Award.

    PubMed

    Nabitz, U W; Klazinga, N S

    1999-01-01

    Different approaches to improve quality are used in organizations delivering health care. Donabedian introduced structure, process and outcome, from which other approaches like self-assessment, accreditation, visitation, International Standards Organisation (ISO) and European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) can be aligned. The EFQM model is one such approach that has been adopted and adapted by the Dutch Institute for Quality Management. This article describes the background and progress relating to the use of the EFQM business excellence model within Dutch health care organizations. In addition the process for applying for the European Quality Award and the Dutch Quality Award are described in detail. Finally, the reader is enlightened regarding the work of the European ExPeRT research group who are promoting the use of quality models within health care. PMID:10537859

  13. Woodland Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents tips on nature observation during a woodland hike in the Adirondacks. Discusses engraver beetles and Dutch elm disease, birds' nests, hornets' nests, caterpillar webs, deer and bear signs, woodpecker holes, red squirrels, porcupine and beaver signs, and galls. (SV)

  14. Effect of plasma response on the fast ion losses due to ELM control coils in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varje, Jari; Asunta, Otto; Cavinato, Mario; Gagliardi, Mario; Hirvijoki, Eero; Koskela, Tuomas; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Liu, Yueqiang; Parail, Vassili; Saibene, Gabriella; Sipilä, Seppo; Snicker, Antti; Särkimäki, Konsta; Äkäslompolo, Simppa

    2016-04-01

    Mitigating edge localized modes (ELMs) with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can increase energetic particle losses and resulting wall loads, which have previously been studied in the vacuum approximation. This paper presents recent results of fusion alpha and NBI ion losses in the ITER baseline scenario modelled with the Monte Carlo orbit following code ASCOT in a realistic magnetic field including the effect of the plasma response. The response was found to reduce alpha particle losses but increase NBI losses, with up to 4.2% of the injected power being lost. Additionally, some of the load in the divertor was found to be shifted away from the target plates toward the divertor dome.

  15. Simulation of tungsten plasma transport along magnetic field under ELM-like heat loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestchanyi, S.; Arkhipov, N.; Landman, I.; Poznyak, I.; Safronov, V.; Toporkov, D.

    2013-07-01

    Tungsten plasma transport along the magnetic field calculated with the TOKES code has been validated using dedicated experiment in a plasma gun under the ELM-like conditions. The plasma velocity is in a good agreement with the measured one. The ion composition of the simulated tungsten plasma is in a qualitative agreement with the one reconstructed from the measured spectrum of the tungsten plasma, probably because of rather incomplete database for tungsten ions radiation. Nevertheless, it has been identified the radiation from cold and hot tungsten plasma regions with ion composition maxima at W7+-W8+ and W13+-W16+ correspondingly.

  16. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  17. An Intermediate-Advanced Level Dutch Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This refresher course in Dutch consists of eight volumes (Books I-IV, each in two parts). Book I, which begins on the intermediate level, presents the sound system of Dutch with accompanying drills. These provide practice in sound-to-spelling correspondence, and contrastive English-Dutch phonology. Books II and III are comprised of six units of…

  18. The Dutch Euthanasia Act: recent legal developments.

    PubMed

    Legemaate, Johan; Bolt, Ineke

    2013-12-01

    The Dutch Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act [Wet toetsing levensbeëindiging op verzoek en hulp bij zelfdoding (Wtl)] came into force in 2002. Its aim is to increase the degree of due care exercised by physicians when terminating a patient's life and to provide a legal framework within which physicians account for their actions in such cases. On the basis of the second evaluation of the Act, published in December 2012, this article provides an overview of the most recent legal developments regarding the Dutch Euthanasia Act. Special attention is given to patients with dementia, psychiatric patients and patient who are "weary of life". PMID:24437331

  19. Program ELM: A tool for rapid thermal-hydraulic analysis of solid-core nuclear rocket fuel elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the state of the art of thermal-hydraulic analysis codes and presents a new code, Program ELM, for analysis of fuel elements. ELM is a concise computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in a nuclear thermal rocket reactor with axial coolant passages. The program was developed as a tool to swiftly evaluate various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations generated for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition which have been used in previous programs. Thus, a consistent comparison of these correlations was performed, as well as a comparison with data from the NRX reactor experiments from the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) project. This report describes the ELM Program algorithm, input/output, and validation efforts and provides a listing of the code.

  20. A computer aided diagnosis system for thyroid disease using extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Na; Ouyang, Ji-Hong; Chen, Hui-Ling; Liu, Da-You

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and efficient computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on principle component analysis (PCA) and extreme learning machine (ELM) to assist the task of thyroid disease diagnosis. The CAD system is comprised of three stages. Focusing on dimension reduction, the first stage applies PCA to construct the most discriminative new feature set. After then, the system switches to the second stage whose target is model construction. ELM classifier is explored to train an optimal predictive model whose parameters are optimized. As we known, the number of hidden neurons has an important role in the performance of ELM, so we propose an experimental method to hunt for the optimal value. Finally, the obtained optimal ELM model proceeds to perform the thyroid disease diagnosis tasks using the most discriminative new feature set and the optimal parameters. The effectiveness of the resultant CAD system (PCA-ELM) has been rigorously estimated on a thyroid disease dataset which is taken from UCI machine learning repository. We compare it with other related methods in terms of their classification accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that PCA-ELM outperforms other ones reported so far by 10-fold cross-validation method, with the mean accuracy of 97.73% and with the maximum accuracy of 98.1%. Besides, PCA-ELM performs much faster than support vector machines (SVM) based CAD system. Consequently, the proposed method PCA-ELM can be considered as a new powerful tools for diagnosing thyroid disease with excellent performance and less time. PMID:22327384

  1. Comparison of ELM, GANN, WNN and empirical models for estimating reference evapotranspiration in humid region of Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Cui, Ningbo; Zhao, Lu; Hu, Xiaotao; Gong, Daozhi

    2016-05-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is an essential component in hydrological ecological processes and agricultural water management. Accurate estimation of ET0 is of importance in improving irrigation efficiency, water reuse and irrigation scheduling. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (P-M) model is recommended as the standard model to estimate ET0. Nevertheless, its application is limited due to the lack of required meteorological data. In this study, trained extreme learning machine (ELM), backpropagation neural networks optimized by genetic algorithm (GANN) and wavelet neural networks (WNN) models were developed to estimate ET0, and the performances of ELM, GANN, WNN, two temperature-based (Hargreaves and modified Hargreaves) and three radiation-based (Makkink, Priestley-Taylor and Ritchie) ET0 models in estimating ET0 were evaluated in a humid area of Southwest China. Results indicated that among the new proposed models, ELM and GANN models were much better than WNN model, and the temperature-based ELM and GANN models had better performance than Hargreaves and modified Hargreaves models, radiation-based ELM and GANN models had higher precision than Makkink, Priestley-Taylor and Ritchie models. Both of radiation-based ELM (RMSE ranging 0.312-0.332 mm d-1, Ens ranging 0.918-0.931, MAE ranging 0.260-0.300 mm d-1) and GANN models (RMSE ranging 0.300-0.333 mm d-1, Ens ranging 0.916-0.941, MAE ranging 0.2580-0.303 mm d-1) could estimate ET0 at an acceptable accuracy level, and are highly recommended for estimating ET0 without adequate meteorological data.

  2. Effects of plasma configuration, ELM and gas puffing on LHW coupling during H-mode in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, E. H.; Ding, B. J.; Zhang, L.; Liu, L.; Qin, C. M.; Gong, X. Z.; Xu, G. S.; Li, M. H.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wu, Z. G.; Gao, W.; Shan, J. F.; Liu, F. K.; Xu, L.; Zhao, Y. P.; Zhao, L. M.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. D.; Feng, J. Q.; Yang, Y.; Jia, H.; Hu, H. C.; Wang, X. J.; Wu, D. J.; Wu, J. H.; the EAST Team

    2013-06-01

    Couplings of lower hybrid wave (LHW) with different divertor configurations are studied in EAST. With an anti-clockwise toroidal magnetic field and similar plasma parameters, experimental results show that the best coupling occurs in the lower single null (LSN) configuration, whereas the worst occurs in the double-null plasma. Furthermore, for the case of clockwise toroidal magnetic field, the coupling of LHW becomes better in the upper single null configuration and worse in the LSN plasma. Such phenomena show that the LHW coupling with different divertor configurations is possibly related to the flux induced by Er × Bt and edge recycling intensity represented by Da, where Er is the radial electric field in the scrape-off layer. In addition, various edge-localized modes (ELMs), including its intensity and frequency, have impacts on LHW coupling. With increasing ELM frequency in low edge recycling, the intensity of Da would decrease and the associated coupling of LHW should deteriorate. For the case of comparable edge density, the coupling of LHW is almost not influenced by the ELM crash. Results indicate that the changes among Da intensity, ELM frequency and the reflection coefficients of LHW power are self-consistent. Studies show that by gas puffing the nearby LH grill can improve the coupling of LHW during H-mode in EAST. Meanwhile, it is observed that the frequency of ELM should decrease and the plasma confinement should be improved with proper gas puffing, whereas excessive gas puffing should increase the frequency of ELM during H-mode in the case of good LHW coupling. Results also indicate a degradation in confinement performance at increasing puffing rate.

  3. Learning Styles of Chinese and Dutch Students Compared within the Context of Dutch Higher Education in Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemans, Harm; Van Mil, Marc

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the learning styles of Chinese students differ from those of Dutch students. The study was conducted within the context of English language Bachelor of Science programmes that Wageningen University offers together with China Agricultural University to Dutch and Chinese students. Sixteen Dutch students…

  4. 78 FR 21345 - In the Matter of: Liem Duc Huynh, a/k/a Duc Huynh, 2905 South Elm, Broken Arrow, OK 74012; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Liem Duc Huynh, a/k/a Duc Huynh, 2905 South Elm, Broken... last known address at: 2905 South Elm, Broken Arrow, OK 74012, and when acting for or on behalf...

  5. Host Acceptance and Larval Competition between the Invasive Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Potential Mechanisms for Competitive Displacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was much more abundant than the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus, in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. This study sought to determine whether competitive displacement of S. mul...

  6. Pellet refuelling of particle loss due to ELM mitigation with RMPs in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak at low collisionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valovič, M.; Lang, P. T.; Kirk, A.; Suttrop, W.; Cavedon, M.; Cseh, G.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, L. R.; Garzotti, L.; Guimarais, L.; Kocsis, G.; Mlynek, A.; Plőckl, B.; Scannell, R.; Szepesi, T.; Tardini, G.; Thornton, A.; Viezzer, E.; Wolfrum, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-06-01

    The complete refuelling of the plasma density loss (pump-out) caused by mitigation of edge localised modes (ELMs) is demonstrated on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The plasma is refuelled by injection of frozen deuterium pellets and ELMs are mitigated by external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In this experiment relevant dimensionless parameters, such as relative pellet size, relative RMP amplitude and pedestal collisionality are kept at the ITER like values. Refuelling of density pump out of the size of Δ n/n∼ 30% requires a factor of two increase of nominal fuelling rate. Energy confinement and pedestal temperatures are not restored to pre-RMP values by pellet refuelling.

  7. ELM phenomenon as an interaction between bootstrap-current driven peeling modes and pressure-driven ballooning modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarelma, S.; Günter, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.

    2000-05-01

    An ELMy ASDEX Upgrade plasma equilibrium is reconstructed taking into account the bootstrap current. The peeling mode stability of the equilibrium is numerically analysed using the GATO [1] code, and it is found that the bootstrap current can drive the plasma peeling mode unstable. A high-n ballooning mode stability analysis of the equilibria revealed that, while destabilizing the peeling modes, the bootstrap current has a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A combination of these two instabilities is a possible explanation for the type I ELM phenomenon. A triangularity scan showed that increasing triangularity stabilizes the peeling modes and can produce ELM-free periods observed in the experiments.

  8. METHANE PENTRATION IN DIII-D ELMing H-MODE PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    W.P. WEST; C.J. LASNIER; D.G. WHYTE; R.C. ISLER; T.E. EVANS; G.L. JACKSON; D.L. RUDAKOV; M.R. WADE; J. STRACHAN

    2002-06-01

    Carbon penetration into the core plasma during midplane and divertor methane puffing has been measured for DIII-D ELMing H-mode plasmas. The methane puffs are adjusted to a measurable signal, but global plasma parameters are only weakly affected (line average density, increases by < 10%, energy confinement time, {tau}{sub E} drops by < 10%). The total carbon content is derived from C{sup +6} density profiles in the core measured as a function of time using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The methane penetration factor is defined as the difference in the core content with the puff on and puff off, divided by the carbon confinement time and the methane puffing rate. In ELMing H-mode discharges with ion {del}B drift direction into the X-point, increasing the line averaged density from 5 to 8 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} dropped the penetration factor from 6.6% to 4.6% for main chamber puffing. The penetration factor for divertor puffing was below the detection limit (<1%). Changing the ion {del}B drift direction to away from the X-point decreased the penetration factor by more than a factor of five for main chamber puffing.

  9. Recrystallization and grain growth induced by ELMs-like transient heat loads in deformed tungsten samples.

    PubMed

    Suslova, A; El-Atwani, O; Sagapuram, D; Harilal, S S; Hassanein, A

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten has been chosen as the main candidate for plasma facing components (PFCs) due to its superior properties under extreme operating conditions in future nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER. One of the serious issues for PFCs is the high heat load during transient events such as ELMs and disruption in the reactor. Recrystallization and grain size growth in PFC materials caused by transients are undesirable changes in the material, since the isotropic microstructure developed after recrystallization exhibits a higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperature which increases with the grain size, a lower thermal shock fatigue resistance, a lower mechanical strength, and an increased surface roughening. The current work was focused on careful determination of the threshold parameters for surface recrystallization, grain growth rate, and thermal shock fatigue resistance under ELM-like transient heat events. Transient heat loads were simulated using long pulse laser beams for two different grades of ultrafine-grained tungsten. It was observed that cold rolled tungsten demonstrated better power handling capabilities and higher thermal stress fatigue resistance compared to severely deformed tungsten. Higher recrystallization threshold, slower grain growth, and lower degree of surface roughening were observed in the cold rolled tungsten. PMID:25366885

  10. High frequency magnetic fluctuations correlated with the inter-ELM pedestal evolution in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laggner, F. M.; Wolfrum, E.; Cavedon, M.; Mink, F.; Viezzer, E.; Dunne, M. G.; Manz, P.; Doerk, H.; Birkenmeier, G.; Fischer, R.; Fietz, S.; Maraschek, M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Aumayr, F.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms that determine the structure of the high confinement mode (H-mode) pedestal, the evolution of the plasma edge electron density and temperature profiles between edge localised modes (ELMs) is investigated. The onset of radial magnetic fluctuations with frequencies above 200 kHz is found to correlate with the stagnation of the electron temperature pedestal gradient. During the presence of these magnetic fluctuations the gradients of the edge electron density and temperature are clamped and stable against the ELM onset. The detected magnetic fluctuation frequency is analysed for a variety of plasma discharges with different electron pressure pedestals. It is shown that the magnetic fluctuation frequency scales with the neoclassically estimated \\text{E} × \\text{B} velocity at the plasma edge. This points to a location of the underlying instability in the gradient region. Furthermore, the magnetic signature of these fluctuations indicates a global mode structure with toroidal mode numbers of approximately 10. The fluctuations are also observed on the high field side with significant amplitude, indicating a mode structure that is symmetric on the low field side and high field side. The associated fluctuations in the current on the high field side might be attributed to either a strong peeling part or the presence of non-adiabatic electron response.

  11. Steady-state ELM-suppressed H-modes from KSTAR to ITER and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in, Yongkyoon; Kwak, J. G.; KSTAR Team

    2014-10-01

    Long-pulse, steady-state high-performance plasma is not only an important mission in KSTAR, but also directly relevant to ITER. While demonstrating the pulse-length of more than 20 sec H-mode flat-top in 2013, KSTAR has been exploring various means to achieve and sustain steady-state, ELM-suppressed/mitigated H-modes using versatile in-vessel control coils (IVCC), ECCD/ECH, and/or SMBI. In particular, taking advantage of the versatile 3-rows of IVCC, KSTAR accomplished both n = 1 and n = 2 RMP-driven, ELM-suppressed regimes that lasted up to 4 sec so far (limited by the discharge pulse length, not by any physics constraints, and will be extended up to 10 sec in 2014.) We also found the use of n = 2 RMP has prevented a locked-mode from being disruptive (at least within the RMP phase). To cope with run-away electrons and/or off-normal events, a soft landing algorithm has been developed and confirmed capable of ramping down the plasma current safely. The enhanced understanding and demonstration of steady-state, high-performance plasmas in KSTAR will elevate the level of confidence about the success of ITER and beyond. Supported by Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning in Korea.

  12. Recrystallization and grain growth induced by ELMs-like transient heat loads in deformed tungsten samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslova, A.; El-Atwani, O.; Sagapuram, D.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-11-01

    Tungsten has been chosen as the main candidate for plasma facing components (PFCs) due to its superior properties under extreme operating conditions in future nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER. One of the serious issues for PFCs is the high heat load during transient events such as ELMs and disruption in the reactor. Recrystallization and grain size growth in PFC materials caused by transients are undesirable changes in the material, since the isotropic microstructure developed after recrystallization exhibits a higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperature which increases with the grain size, a lower thermal shock fatigue resistance, a lower mechanical strength, and an increased surface roughening. The current work was focused on careful determination of the threshold parameters for surface recrystallization, grain growth rate, and thermal shock fatigue resistance under ELM-like transient heat events. Transient heat loads were simulated using long pulse laser beams for two different grades of ultrafine-grained tungsten. It was observed that cold rolled tungsten demonstrated better power handling capabilities and higher thermal stress fatigue resistance compared to severely deformed tungsten. Higher recrystallization threshold, slower grain growth, and lower degree of surface roughening were observed in the cold rolled tungsten.

  13. Design Of JET ELM Control Coils For Operation At 350 C

    SciTech Connect

    Zatz, I J; Brooks, A; Cole, M; Neilson, G H; Lowry, C; Mardenfeld, M; Omran, H; Thompson, V; Todd, T

    2010-09-20

    A study has confirmed the feasibility of designing, fabricating and installing resonant magnetic field perturbation (RMP) coils in JET1 with the objective of controlling edge localized modes (ELM). A system of two rows of in-vessel coils, above the machine midplane, has been chosen as it not only can investigate the physics of and achieve the empirical criteria for ELM suppression, but also permits variation of the spectra allowing for comparison with other experiments. These coils present several engineering challenges. Conditions in JET necessitate the installation of these coils via remote handling, which will impose weight, dimensional and logistical limitations. And while the encased coils are designed to be conventionally wound and bonded, they will not have the usual benefit of active cooling. Accordingly, coil temperatures are expected to reach 350 C during bakeout as well as during plasma operations. These elevated temperatures are beyond the safe operating limits of conventional OFHC copper and the epoxies that bond and insulate the turns of typical coils. This has necessitated the use of an alternative copper alloy conductor C18150 (CuCrZr). More importantly, an alternative to epoxy had to be found. An R&D program was initiated to find the best available insulating and bonding material. The search included polyimides and ceramic polymers. The scope and status of this R&D program, as well as the critical engineering issues encountered to date are reviewed and discussed.

  14. Recrystallization and grain growth induced by ELMs-like transient heat loads in deformed tungsten samples

    PubMed Central

    Suslova, A.; El-Atwani, O.; Sagapuram, D.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten has been chosen as the main candidate for plasma facing components (PFCs) due to its superior properties under extreme operating conditions in future nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER. One of the serious issues for PFCs is the high heat load during transient events such as ELMs and disruption in the reactor. Recrystallization and grain size growth in PFC materials caused by transients are undesirable changes in the material, since the isotropic microstructure developed after recrystallization exhibits a higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperature which increases with the grain size, a lower thermal shock fatigue resistance, a lower mechanical strength, and an increased surface roughening. The current work was focused on careful determination of the threshold parameters for surface recrystallization, grain growth rate, and thermal shock fatigue resistance under ELM-like transient heat events. Transient heat loads were simulated using long pulse laser beams for two different grades of ultrafine-grained tungsten. It was observed that cold rolled tungsten demonstrated better power handling capabilities and higher thermal stress fatigue resistance compared to severely deformed tungsten. Higher recrystallization threshold, slower grain growth, and lower degree of surface roughening were observed in the cold rolled tungsten. PMID:25366885

  15. Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2000-01-01

    The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of Hydro

  16. ELM server: a new resource for investigating short functional sites in modular eukaryotic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Puntervoll, Pål; Linding, Rune; Gemünd, Christine; Chabanis-Davidson, Sophie; Mattingsdal, Morten; Cameron, Scott; Martin, David M. A.; Ausiello, Gabriele; Brannetti, Barbara; Costantini, Anna; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Maselli, Vincenza; Via, Allegra; Cesareni, Gianni; Diella, Francesca; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Wyrwicz, Lucjan; Ramu, Chenna; McGuigan, Caroline; Gudavalli, Rambabu; Letunic, Ivica; Bork, Peer; Rychlewski, Leszek; Küster, Bernhard; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Hunter, William N.; Aasland, Rein; Gibson, Toby J.

    2003-01-01

    Multidomain proteins predominate in eukaryotic proteomes. Individual functions assigned to different sequence segments combine to create a complex function for the whole protein. While on-line resources are available for revealing globular domains in sequences, there has hitherto been no comprehensive collection of small functional sites/motifs comparable to the globular domain resources, yet these are as important for the function of multidomain proteins. Short linear peptide motifs are used for cell compartment targeting, protein–protein interaction, regulation by phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation and a host of other post-translational modifications. ELM, the Eukaryotic Linear Motif server at http://elm.eu.org/, is a new bioinformatics resource for investigating candidate short non-globular functional motifs in eukaryotic proteins, aiming to fill the void in bioinformatics tools. Sequence comparisons with short motifs are difficult to evaluate because the usual significance assessments are inappropriate. Therefore the server is implemented with several logical filters to eliminate false positives. Current filters are for cell compartment, globular domain clash and taxonomic range. In favourable cases, the filters can reduce the number of retained matches by an order of magnitude or more. PMID:12824381

  17. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  18. Dutch Universities' Joint Aid to Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education and Research in the Netherlands, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of the joint aid in the reconstruction of North and South Vietnam provided by Dutch universities. The hospital project, solid matter physics project, micro-electronics project, agricultural project and dentistry project are defined. (Author/PG)

  19. Government as Electronic Publishers? The Dutch Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwman, Harry; Nouwens, John

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the accessibility of government information focuses on how the Dutch government has tried to improve accessibility in six particular cases of electronic publishing. Topics include public-private partnerships, technological barriers of accessibility, outsourcing, and decentralization. (Author/LRW)

  20. Dutch national rainfallradar project: a unique corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuurmans, Hanneke; Maarten Verbree, Jan; Leijnse, Hidde; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Bierkens, Mark; van de Giesen, Nick; Gooijer, Jan; van den Houten, Gert

    2013-04-01

    Since January 2013 Dutch watermanagers have access to innovative high-quality rainfall data. This product is innovative because of the following reasons. (i) The product is developed in a 'golden triangle' construction - corporation between government, business and research institutes. (ii) Second the rainfall products are developed according to the open-source GPL license. The initiative comes from a group of water boards in the Netherlands that joined their forces to fund the development of a new rainfall product. Not only data from Dutch radar stations (as is currently done by the Dutch meteorological organization KNMI) is used but also data from radars in Germany and Belgium. After a radarcomposite is made, it is adjusted according to data from raingauges (ground truth). This results in 9 different rainfall products that give for each moment the best rainfall data. This data will be used, depending on the end-user for several applications: (i) forecasts: input for flood early warning systems, (ii) water system analysis: hydrological model input, (iii) optimization: real time control and (iv) investigation of incidents: in case of flooding, who's responsible. The latter is mainly insight in the return period of heavy rainfall events. More info (in Dutch): www.nationaleregenradar.nl

  1. Management Development from a Dutch Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paauwe, Jaap, Ed.; Williams, Roger, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Includes "Seven Key Issues for Management Development" (Paauwe, Williams); "Typology of Management Development" (Jansen, van der Velde, Mul); "Management Development at Royal Dutch/Shell" (Mahieu); "Management Development in Unilever" (Reitsma); "International Co-ordination and Management Development" (Hoeksema, de Jong); "Breaking in of New…

  2. National identification of Dutch youth: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2011-06-01

    246 Dutch participants aged 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years were presented with the Strength of Identification Scale (SoIS; Barrett, 2007) and the National Identity scale based on Cultural and Historical achievements (NICH; derived from the NATID, Keillor & Hult, 1999). The study aimed to examine the extent and nature of Dutch children and adolescents' identification with The Netherlands and to explore whether changes in aspects of national identification are evident across age. Already at age 8 years children identify themselves with the Dutch nation and with increasing age national identification becomes primarily determined by the extent that participants consider themselves to be Dutch and show positive affect towards the Dutch nation. Identification on the basis of cultural and historical achievements of the Dutch people became less evident following the age of 10 years although Dutch historical and cultural achievements contributed significantly to the extent of national identification. PMID:20673993

  3. [Coping with leprosy in the Dutch West Indies in the 19th century; opposing but meaningful views from Suriname].

    PubMed

    Menke, Henk; Snelders, Stephen; Pieters, Toine

    2009-01-01

    Leprosy was highly prevalent among African slaves in the Dutch West Indian colony of Suriname. Largely based on observations in Suriname, Dutch physicians described the aetiology of leprosy in terms of'a substrate' to which all sorts of mixtures of infection, heredity and hygiene contributed ('seed and soil'). This explanatory model with multiple options for prevention and treatment left room for different developmental trajectories to control the spread of the disease in the various tropical colonies of the Dutch empire. In Suriname there was a growing worry in the 19th century regarding the spread of leprosy, threatening the health of slaves, settlers and colonial administrators. And this could be harmful to an already weakening plantation economy. This concern prompted the local administration to develop a rigorous policy of strict isolation of leprosy sufferers. This, in turn, intersected with a changing insight in Europe - including the Netherlands - that leprosy was non-contagious. However,'in splendid isolation' in the economically and politically marginal colony Suriname, Dutch physicians like Charles Landre and his son, Charles Louis Drognat Landré, could afford to ignore the European non-contagious approach and continue to support the strict isolation policies. Moreover, they developed a dissident radical explanation of leprosy as a disease caused only by contagion. In the absence of a receptive Dutch audience Drognat Landré published his contagion theory in French and so succeeded in inspiring the Norwegian Hansen, who subsequently discovered the culpable micro-organism. At the same time colonial administrators and physicians in the economically and politically important Dutch colonies in the East Indies adhered to the prevailing European concept and changed policies: the system of isolation was abolished. Given the rather different trajectories of leprosy health policies in the Dutch East and West Indies we point out the importance of a comparative

  4. Effect of n = 3 perturbation field amplitudes below the ELM triggering threshold on edge and SOL transport in NSTX

    DOE PAGESBeta

    J. M. Canik; Lore, J. D.; Ahn, J. -W.; Bortolon, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Scotti, F.; et al

    2013-01-12

    Here, the pulsed application of n = 3 magnetic perturbation fields with amplitudes below that which triggers ELMs results in distinct, transient responses observable on several edge and divertor diagnostics in NSTX. We refer to these responses as Sub-Threshold Edge Perturbations (STEPs). An analysis of edge measurements suggests that STEPs result in increased transport in the plasma edge and scrape-off layer, which leads to augmentation of the intrinsic strike point splitting due to error fields, i.e., an intensification of the helical divertor footprint flux pattern. These effects are much smaller in magnitude than those of triggered ELMs, and are observedmore » for the duration of the field perturbation measured internal to the vacuum vessel. In addition, STEPs are correlated with changes to the MHD activity, along with transient reductions in the neutron production rate. Ideally the STEPs could be used to provide density control and prevent impurity accumulation, in the same manner that on-demand ELM triggering is used on NSTX, without the impulsive divertor fluxes and potential for damage to plasma facing components associated with ELMs.« less

  5. H-mode pedestal characteristics, ELMs, and energy confinement in ITER shape discharges on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, T.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leonard, A.W.; Miller, R.L.; Thomas, D.M.; Waltz, R.E.; Maingi, R.; Porter, G.D.

    1997-12-01

    The H-mode confinement enhancement factor, H, is found to be strongly correlated with the height of the edge pressure pedestal in ITER shape discharges. In discharges with Type I ELMs the pedestal pressure is set by the maximum pressure gradient before the ELM and the width of the H-mode transport barrier. The pressure gradient before Type I ELMs is found to scale as would be expected for a stability limit set by ideal ballooning modes, but with values significantly in excess of that predicted by stability code calculations. The width of the H-mode transport barrier is found to scale equally well with pedestal P(POL)(2/3) or B(POL)(1/2). The improved H value in high B(POL) discharges may be due to a larger edge pressure gradient and wider H-mode transport barrier consistent with their higher edge ballooning mode limit. Deuterium puffing is found to reduce H consistent with the smaller pedestal pressure which results from the reduced barrier width and critical pressure gradient. Type I ELM energy loss is found to be proportional to the change in the pedestal energy.

  6. Effect of collisional temperature isotropisation on ELM parallel transport in a tokamak scrape-off layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulette, David; Hirstoaga, Sever A.; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    We develop a hybrid model to describe the parallel transport in a tokamak scrape-off layer following an edge-localized mode (ELM) event. The parallel dynamics is treated with a kinetic Vlasov–Poisson model, while the evolution of the perpendicular temperature {{T}\\bot} is governed by a fluid equation. The coupling is ensured by isotropising collisions. The model generalises an earlier approach where {{T}\\bot} was constant in space and time (Manfredi et al 2011 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 53 015012). Numerical results show that the main effect comes from electron–electron collisions, which limit the decrease of the parallel electron temperature and increase the potential drop in the Debye sheath in front of the surface. Ion–ion collisions have an almost negligible impact. The net effect is an increased peak power load on the target plates.

  7. Damage to preheated tungsten targets after multiple plasma impacts simulating ITER ELMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garkusha, I. E.; Bandura, A. N.; Byrka, O. V.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Landman, I.; Makhlaj, V. A.; Pestchanyi, S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2009-04-01

    The behavior of a preheated at 650 °C tungsten targets under repetitive ELM-like plasma pulses is studied in simulation experiments with the quasi-stationary plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The targets have been exposed up to 350 pulses of the duration 0.25 ms and the surface heat loads either 0.45 MJ/m 2 or 0.75 MJ/m 2, which is below and above the melting threshold, respectively. The development of surface morphology of the exposed targets as well as cracking and swelling at the surface is discussed. First comparisons of obtained experimental results with corresponding numerical simulations of the code PEGASUS-3D are presented.

  8. Effect of ELMs on deuterium-loaded-tungsten plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umstadter, K. R.; Rudakov, D. L.; Wampler, W.; Watkins, J. G.; Wong, C. P. C.

    2011-08-01

    Prior heat pulse testing of plasma facing components (PFCs) has been completed in vacuum environments without the presence of background plasma. Edge localized modes (ELMs) will not be this kind of isolated event and one should know the effect of a plasma background during these transients. Heat-pulse experiments have been conducted in the PISCES-A device utilizing laser heating in a divertor-like plasma background. Initial results indicate that the erosion of PFCs is enhanced as compared to heat pulse or plasma only tests. To determine if the enhanced erosion effect is a phenomena only witnessed in the laboratory PISCES device, tungsten and graphite samples were exposed to plasmas in the lower divertor of the DIII-D tokamak using the Divertor Material Evaluation System (DiMES). Mass loss analysis indicates that materials that contain significant deuterium prior to experiencing a transient heating event will erode faster than those that have no or little retained deuterium.

  9. Microsatellite markers for the critically endangered elm species Ulmus gaussenii (Ulmaceae).

    PubMed

    Geng, Qi-Fang; Yang, Jie; He, Jia; Wang, Dan-Bi; Shi, En; Xu, Wei-Xiang; Jeelani, Nasreen; Wang, Zhong-Sheng; Liu, Hong

    2016-07-20

    The Anhui elm Ulmus gaussenii is listed as a critically endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and is endemic to China, where its only population is restricted to Langya Mountain in Chuzhou, Anhui Province. To better understand the population genetics of U. gaussenii, we developed 12 microsatellite markers using an improved technique. The 12 markers were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from two to nine. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.021 to 0.750 and 0.225 to 0.744, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient ranged from -0.157 to 0.960. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected for two pairs of loci, and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found in nine loci. These microsatellite markers will contribute to the studies of population genetics in U. gaussenii, which in turn will contribute to species conservation and protection. PMID:27040146

  10. Surface damage characteristics of CFC and tungsten with repetitive ELM-like pulsed plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Nishijima, D.; Nakatsuka, M.; Ando, K.; Higashi, T.; Ueno, Y.; Ishihara, M.; Shoda, K.; Nagata, M.; Kawai, T.; Ueda, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Doerner, R. P.

    2011-08-01

    Surface damage of carbon fiber composite (CFC) and tungsten (W) due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed plasma irradiation has been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. CX2002U CFC and stress-relieved W samples were exposed to repetitive pulsed deuterium plasmas with duration of ˜0.5 ms, incident ion energy of ˜30 eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ˜0.3-0.7 MJ/m2. Bright spots on a CFC surface during pulsed plasma exposures were clearly observed with a high-speed camera, indicating a local surface heating. No melting of a W surface was observed under a single plasma pulse exposure at energy density of ˜0.7 MJ/m2, although cracks were formed. Cracking of the W surface grew with repetitive pulsed plasma exposures. Subsequently, the surface melted due to localized heat absorption.

  11. Nonlinear ELM simulations based on a nonideal peeling–ballooning model using the BOUT++ code

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, X. Q.; Dudson, B. D.; Snyder, P. B.; Umansky, M. V.; Wilson, H. R.; Casper, T.

    2011-09-23

    A minimum set of equations based on the peeling–ballooning (P–B) model with nonideal physics effects (diamagnetic drift, E × B drift, resistivity and anomalous electron viscosity) is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the BOUT++ simulation code, developed in part from the original fluid edge code BOUT. Linear simulations of P–B modes find good agreement in growth rate and mode structure with ELITE calculations. The influence of the E × B drift, diamagnetic drift, resistivity, anomalous electron viscosity, ion viscosity and parallel thermal diffusivity on P–B modes is being studied; we find that (1) the diamagnetic drift and Emore » × B drift stabilize the P–B mode in a manner consistent with theoretical expectations; (2) resistivity destabilizes the P–B mode, leading to resistive P–B mode; (3) anomalous electron and parallel ion viscosities destabilize the P–B mode, leading to a viscous P–B mode; (4) perpendicular ion viscosity and parallel thermal diffusivity stabilize the P–B mode. With addition of the anomalous electron viscosity under the assumption that the anomalous kinematic electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron perpendicular thermal diffusivity, or the Prandtl number is close to unity, it is found from nonlinear simulations using a realistic high Lundquist number that the pedestal collapse is limited to the edge region and the ELM size is about 5–10% of the pedestal stored energy. Furthermore, this is consistent with many observations of large ELMs. The estimated island size is consistent with the size of fast pedestal pressure collapse. In the stable α-zones of ideal P–B modes, nonlinear simulations of viscous ballooning modes or current-diffusive ballooning mode (CDBM) for ITER H-mode scenarios are presented.« less

  12. Influence of plasma pedestal profiles on access to ELM-free regimes in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, S. Yu.; Ivanov, A. A.; Martynov, A. A.; Poshekhonov, Yu. Yu.; Konovalov, S. V.; Polevoi, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of current density and pressure gradient profiles in the pedestal on the access to the regimes free from edge localized modes (ELMs) like quiescent H-mode in ITER is investigated. Using the simulator of MHD modes localized near plasma boundary based on the KINX code, calculations of the ELM stability were performed for the ITER plasma in scenarios 2 and 4 under variations of density and temperature profiles with the self-consistent bootstrap current in the pedestal. Low pressure gradient values at the separatrix, the same position of the density and temperature pedestals and high poloidal beta values facilitate reaching high current density in the pedestal and a potential transition into the regime with saturated large scale kink modes. New version of the localized MHD mode simulator allows one to compute the growth rates of ideal peeling-ballooning modes with different toroidal mode numbers and to determine the stability region taking into account diamagnetic stabilization. The edge stability diagrams computations and sensitivity studies of the stability limits to the value of diamagnetic frequency show that diamagnetic stabilization of the modes with high toroidal mode numbers can help to access the quiescent H-mode even with high plasma density but only with low pressure gradient values at the separatrix. The limiting pressure at the top of the pedestal increases for higher plasma density. With flat density profile the access to the quiescent H-mode is closed even with diamagnetic stabilization taken into account, while toroidal mode numbers of the most unstable peeling-ballooning mode decrease from n = 10-40 to n = 3-20.

  13. ELM simulation experiments using transient heat and particle load produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoda, K.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2011-10-01

    It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. It is predicted that the heat load onto the PFCs during type I ELMs in ITER is 0.2-2MJ/m2 with pulse length of ~0.1-1ms. We have investigated interaction between transient heat and particle load and the PFCs by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) at University of Hyogo. In the experiment, a pulsed plasma with duration of ~0.5ms, incident ion energy of ~30eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ~0.3-0.7MJ/m2 was produced by the MCPG. However, no melting occurred on a tungsten surface exposed to a single plasma pulse of ~0.7MJ/m2, while cracks clearly appeared at the edge part of the W surface. Thus, we have recently started to improve the performance of the MCPG in order to investigate melt layer dynamics of a tungsten surface such as vapor cloud formation. In the modified MCPG, the capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is increased from 24.5 kJ to 144 kJ. In the preliminary experiments, the plasmoid with duration of ~0.6 ms, incident ion energy of ~ 40 eV, and the surface absorbed energy density of ~2 MJ/m2 was successfully produced at the gun voltage of 6 kV.

  14. Investment and regulation: the Dutch experience

    SciTech Connect

    Haffner, Robert; Helmer, Dorine; van Til, Harry

    2010-06-15

    Theoretical studies on the relationship between incentive regulation and investment in network industries generally point out that incentive regulation has a negative impact on investment. However, empirical evidence in this area is scarce. An analysis suggests that in the Dutch electricity and gas networks since 2001, incentive regulation has ensured a more rational and professional approach towards investments, with investment levels coming down somewhat at the start of the regulation but picking up later on. (author)

  15. Scrape-off Layer Current Model for Filament Structure Observed during Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hironori; Fredrickson, E. D.; Schaffer, M. J.

    2008-04-15

    The plasma in tokamaks often exhibits a relaxation oscillation called the edge localized mode (ELM), which is generally attributed to MHD instability driven by strong gradients at the plasma boundary. It is shown here that field-aligned currents flowing just outside the boundary may also play a role in the ELM process. The poloidal perturbation magnetic field during ELMs in the DIII–D tokamak calculated from measured currents can reproduce prominent observed features, including a narrow magnetic structure at the outboard midplane similar to filaments observed earlier in DIII–D and NSTX.

  16. Dutch chemical producers pledge emissions cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.; Schoenmakers, J.

    1993-02-24

    Dutch chemical producers have negotiated a long-term agreement with government ministries to reduce emissions of a wide range of chemicals. Industry association Vereniging van de Nederlandse Chemische Industrie (VNCI; Leidschendam) says implementing the commitment will cost companies Dfl 10 billion ($5.4 billion) between 1993 and 2000. VNCI technical director Wim Quik welcomes the accord, which he describes as a management contract, saying, Rather than have legislation, there is a certain adjustment available. Peter Santen, managing director of midsized chemicals player Cindu Chemicals (Uithoorn, the Netherlands) voices some concern about the details of the accord, but adds, we are flexible in trying to agree with the contents of the covenant [it] is better than having new rules from law. The Dutch government, traditionally eager for consensus, has struck a number of such deals with Dutch industries - including packaging, metal, and tire - to reduce emissions and set up environmental management programs. The effort is based on the government's National Environmental Policy Plans - NMP and NMP Plus. Targets for emissions reduction by the chemical industry were provided by a government-funded environmental research institute.

  17. Inflammatory responses to infection: the Dutch contribution.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Martijn A; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2014-12-01

    At any given moment, our body is under attack by a large variety of pathogens, which aim to enter and use our body to propagate and disseminate. The extensive cellular and molecular complexity of our immune system enables us to efficiently eliminate invading pathogens or at least develop a condition in which propagation of the microorganism is reduced to a minimum. Yet, the evolutionary pressure on pathogens to circumvent our immune defense mechanisms is immense, which continuously leads to the development of novel pathogenic strains that challenge the health of mankind. Understanding this battle between pathogen and the immune system has been a fruitful area of immunological research over the last century and will continue to do so for many years. In this review, which has been written on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Dutch Society for Immunology, we provide an overview of the major contributions that Dutch immunologists and infection biologists have made in the last decades on the inflammatory response to viral, bacterial, fungal or parasitic infections. We focus on those studies that have addressed both the host and the pathogen, as these are most interesting from an immunological point of view. Although it is not possible to completely cover this comprehensive research field, this review does provide an interesting overview of Dutch research on inflammatory responses to infection. PMID:25455597

  18. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation. PMID:2086632

  19. Performance of Dutch Children on the Bayley III: A Comparison Study of US and Dutch Norms

    PubMed Central

    Steenis, Leonie J. P.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hessen, Dave J.; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-third edition (Bayley-III) are frequently used to assess early child development worldwide. However, the original standardization only included US children, and it is still unclear whether or not these norms are adequate for use in other populations. Recently, norms for the Dutch version of the Bayley-III (The Bayley-III-NL) were made. Scores based on Dutch and US norms were compared to study the need for population-specific norms. Methods Scaled scores based on Dutch and US norms were compared for 1912 children between 14 days and 42 months 14 days. Next, the proportions of children scoring < 1-SD and < -2 SD based on the two norms were compared, to identify over- or under-referral for developmental delay resulting from non-population-based norms. Results Scaled scores based on Dutch norms fluctuated around values based on US norms on all subtests. The extent of the deviations differed across ages and subtests. Differences in means were significant across all five subtests (p < .01) with small to large effect sizes (ηp2) ranging from .03 to .26). Using the US instead of Dutch norms resulted in over-referral regarding gross motor skills, and under-referral regarding cognitive, receptive communication, expressive communication, and fine motor skills. Conclusions The Dutch norms differ from the US norms for all subtests and these differences are clinically relevant. Population specific norms are needed to identify children with low scores for referral and intervention, and to facilitate international comparisons of population data. PMID:26267907

  20. Dutch Venous Ulcer guideline update.

    PubMed

    Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; de Roos, Kees-Peter

    2014-05-19

    The revised guideline of 2013 is an update of the 2005 guideline "venous leg ulcer". In this special project four separate guidelines (venous leg ulcer, varicose veins, compression therapy and deep venous disorders) were revised and developed simultaneously. A meeting was held including representatives of any organisation involved in venous disease management including patient organizations and health insurance companies. Eighteen clinical questions where defined, and a new strategy was used to accelerate the process. This resulted in two new and two revised guidelines within one year. The guideline committee advises use of the C of the CEAP classification as well as the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and a Quality of life (QoL) score in the assessment of clinical signs. These can provide insight into the burden of disease and the effects of treatment as experienced by the patient. A duplex ultrasound should be performed in every patient to establish the underlying aetiology and to evaluate the need for treatment (which is discussed in a separate guideline). The use of the TIME model for describing venous ulcers is recommended. There is no evidence for antiseptic or antibiotic wound care products except for a Cochrane review in which some evidence is presented for cadexomer iodine. Signs of infection are the main reason for the use of oral antibiotics. When the ulcer fails to heal the use of oral aspirin and pentoxifylline can be considered as an adjunct. For the individual patient, the following aspects should be considered: the appearance of the ulcer (amount of exudate) according to the TIME model, the influence of wound care products on moisturising the wound, frequency of changing compression bandages, pain and allergies. The cost of the dressings should also be considered. Education and training of patients t improves compliance with compression therapy but does not influence wound healing rates. PMID:24843102

  1. Fast-ion losses induced by ELMs and externally applied magnetic perturbations in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Äkäslompolo, S.; de Marne, P.; Dunne, M. G.; Dux, R.; Evans, T. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Fietz, S.; Fuchs, C.; Geiger, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hoelzl, M.; Kurzan, B.; Lazanyi, N.; McDermott, R. M.; Nocente, M.; Pace, D. C.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Shinohara, K.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Viezzer, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.

    2013-12-01

    Phase-space time-resolved measurements of fast-ion losses induced by edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM mitigation coils have been obtained in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak by means of multiple fast-ion loss detectors (FILDs). Filament-like bursts of fast-ion losses are measured during ELMs by several FILDs at different toroidal and poloidal positions. Externally applied magnetic perturbations (MPs) have little effect on plasma profiles, including fast-ions, in high collisionality plasmas with mitigated ELMs. A strong impact on plasma density, rotation and fast-ions is observed, however, in low density/collisionality and q95 plasmas with externally applied MPs. During the mitigation/suppression of type-I ELMs by externally applied MPs, the large fast-ion bursts observed during ELMs are replaced by a steady loss of fast-ions with a broad-band frequency and an amplitude of up to an order of magnitude higher than the neutral beam injection (NBI) prompt loss signal without MPs. Multiple FILD measurements at different positions, indicate that the fast-ion losses due to static 3D fields are localized on certain parts of the first wall rather than being toroidally/poloidally homogeneously distributed. Measured fast-ion losses show a broad energy and pitch-angle range and are typically on banana orbits that explore the entire pedestal/scrape-off-layer (SOL). Infra-red measurements are used to estimate the heat load associated with the MP-induced fast-ion losses. The heat load on the FILD detector head and surrounding wall can be up to six times higher with MPs than without 3D fields. When 3D fields are applied and density pump-out is observed, an enhancement of the fast-ion content in the plasma is typically measured by fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy. The lower density during the MP phase also leads to a deeper beam deposition with an inward radial displacement of ≈2 cm in the maximum of the beam emission. Orbit simulations are used to test different models for 3D

  2. The Physiologic Responses of Dutch Belted Rabbits Infected with Inhalational Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, William S; Hardcastle, Jason M; Brining, Douglas L; Weaver, Lori E; Ponce, Cindy; Whorton, Elbert B; Peterson, Johnny W

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a category A priority pathogen that causes extensive damage in humans. For this reason, B. anthracis has been the focus of numerous studies using various animal models. In this study, we explored physiologic parameters in Dutch belted rabbits with inhalation anthrax to characterize the disease progression in this model. To this end, we infected Dutch belted rabbits with 100 LD50 B. anthracis Ames spores by nasal instillation and continuously recorded various physiologic parameters by using telemetry. In addition, samples were collected at selected times for serum chemistry, hematology, and blood gas analysis. The animals exhibited hemodynamic and respiratory changes that coincided with those reported in human cases of inhalational anthrax infection, including hypotension, altered heart rate, and respiratory distress. Likewise, hematology, serum chemistry, and blood gas analysis revealed trends comparable to human anthrax-related pathophysiology. The Dutch belted rabbit model of inhalational anthrax exhibited most of the physiologic, hematologic, and biochemical sequelae noted in human cases. Therefore, this rabbit model fulfills several of the criteria of a useful animal model for studying disease pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics during inhalational anthrax. PMID:19619416

  3. Verb inflection in Monolingual Dutch and Sequential Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; De Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study…

  4. Expression of the Elm1 Gene, a Novel Gene of the CCN (Connective Tissue Growth Factor, Cyr61/Cef10, and Neuroblastoma Overexpressed Gene) Family, Suppresses In Vivo Tumor Growth and Metastasis of K-1735 Murine Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Shindo-Okada, Nobuko; Tani, Masachika; Nagamachi, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Kaori; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Toma, Hiroshi; Yokota, Jun

    1998-01-01

    We previously isolated a partial cDNA fragment of a novel gene, Elm1 (expressed in low-metastatic cells), that is expressed in low-metastatic but not in high-metastatic K-1735 mouse melanoma cells. Here we determined the full-length cDNA structure of Elm1 and investigated the effect of Elm1 expression on growth and metastatic potential of K-1735 cells. The Elm1 gene encodes a predicted protein of 367 amino acids showing ∼40% amino acid identity with the CCN (connective tissue growth factor [CTGF], Cyr61/Cef10, neuroblastoma overexpressed gene [Nov]) family proteins, which consist of secreted cysteine-rich proteins with growth regulatory functions. Elm1 is also a cysteine-rich protein and contains a signal peptide and four domains conserved in the CCN family proteins. Elm1 was highly conserved, expressed ubiquitously in diverse organs, and mapped to mouse chromosome 15. High-metastatic K-1735 M-2 cells, which did not express Elm1, were transfected with an Elm1 expression vector, and several stable clones with Elm1 expression were established. The in vivo growth rates of cells expressing a high level of Elm1 were remarkably slower than those of cells expressing a low level of Elm1. Metastatic potential of transfectants was reduced in proportion to the level of Elm1 expression. Thus, Elm1 is a novel gene of CCN family that can suppress the in vivo growth and metastatic potential of K-1735 mouse melanoma cells. PMID:9449709

  5. Operating Characteristics in DIII-D ELM-Suppressed RMP H-modes with ITER Similar Shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, T E; Fenstermacher, M E; Jakubowski, M; Moyer, R A; Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; Schmitz, O; Watkins, J G; Zeng, L; Baylor, L R; Boedo, J A; Burrell, K H; deGrassie, J S; Gohil, P; Joseph, I; Lasnier, C J; Leonard, A W; Mordijck, S; Petty, C C; Pinsker, R I; Rhodes, T L; Rost, J C; Snyder, P B; Unterberg, E; West, W P

    2008-10-13

    Fast energy transients, incident on the DIII-D divertors due to Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs), are eliminated using small dc currents in a simple set of non-axisymmetric coils that produce edge resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP). In ITER similar shaped (ISS) plasmas, with electron pedestal collisionalities matched to those expected in ITER a sharp resonant window in the safety factor at the 95 percent normalized poloidal flux surface is observed for ELM suppression at q{sub 95}=3.57 with a minimum width {delta}q{sub 95} of {+-}0.05. The size of this resonant window has been increased by a factor of 4 in ISS plasmas by increasing the magnitude of the current in an n=3 coil set along with the current in a separate n=1 coil set. The resonant ELM-suppression window is highly reproducible for a given plasma shape, coil configuration and coil current but can vary with other operating conditions such as {beta}{sub N}. Isolated resonant windows have also been found at other q95 values when using different RMP coil configurations. For example, when the I-coil is operated in an n=3 up-down asymmetric configuration rather than an up-down symmetric configuration a resonant window is found near q{sub 95}=7.4. A Fourier analysis of the applied vacuum magnetic field demonstrates a statistical correlation between the Chirikov island overlap parameter and ELM suppression. These results have been used as a guide for RMP coil design studies in various ITER operating scenarios.

  6. Cardiovascular Health and Related Health Care Use of Moluccan-Dutch Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies regularly show a higher incidence, prevalence and mortality of cardiovascular disease among immigrant groups from low-income countries. Despite residing in the Netherlands for over 60 years, the Moluccan-Dutch cardiovascular disease profile and health care use are still unknown. We aimed to compare (a) the clinical prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and (b) the use of health care services by cardiovascular disease patients of 5,532 Moluccan-Dutch to an age-sex matched control group of 55,320 native Dutch. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data of the Achmea health insurance company for the period of 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2010. We collected information on health care use, including diagnostic information. Linear and logistic regression models were used for comparison. Results Moluccans had a higher clinical prevalence of ischemic heart diseases (odds ratio 1.26; 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.56), but tended to have a lower prevalence of cerebrovascular accidents (0.79; 0.56–1.11) and cardiac failure (0.67; 0.44–1.03). The clinical prevalence of cardiovascular diseases together tended to be lower among Moluccans (0.90; 0.80–1.00). Consultation of medical specialists did not differ. Angiotensin II inhibitors (1.42; 1.09–1.84), antiplatelet agents (1.27; 1.01–1.59) and statins (1.27; 1.00–1.60) were prescribed more frequently to Moluccans, as were cardiovascular agents in general (1.27; 0.94–1.71). Conclusion The experience of Moluccans in the Netherlands suggests that, in the long run, cardiovascular risk and related health care use of ethnic minority groups may converge towards that of the majority population. PMID:26393795

  7. Dutch Elementary School Children's Attribution of Meaning to Written Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellings, Agnes; Bouts, Lex

    2011-01-01

    Grade two through six elementary school Dutch children were asked to perform a lexical decision task including 90 pseudowords constructed by changing one or two letters in a Dutch word. Subsequently, the children were asked about the meaning of pseudowords they had not crossed out and that they, apparently, had considered to be words. Multiple…

  8. Neural Correlates of Dutch Verb Second in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Hoogduin, Hans; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2008-01-01

    Dutch speakers with agrammatic Broca's aphasia are known to have problems with the production of finite verbs in main clauses. This performance pattern has been accounted for in terms of the specific syntactic complexity of the Dutch main clause structure, which requires an extra syntactic operation (Verb Second), relative to the basic…

  9. The Dutch Are Missing in the American Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claunch, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch are missing in any U.S. history textbook, in the content standards, and in the nationally endorsed curriculum. Outside of New York State history classes, there is almost no mention of the Dutch influence in early 17th-century America. Fleeting references to the Netherlands as a staging area for the Pilgrims' famous "Mayflower" voyage or…

  10. Units of Analysis in Reading Dutch Bisyllabic Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert; Baayen, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to explore the units of analysis used by children to read Dutch bisyllabic pseudowords. Although Dutch orthography is highly regular, several deviations from a one-to-one correspondence occur. In polysyllabic words, the grapheme e may represent three different vowels: /e/, /e/, or [/schwa/]. In Experiment 1, Grade…

  11. Prefix Identification in the Reading of Dutch Bisyllabic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert; Haarman, Vera

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to explore the role of prefix identification in the reading of Dutch bisyllabic words. Although Dutch orthography is highly regular, several deviations from a one-to-one correspondence exist. A case in point is the grapheme E which can represent the vowels epsilon, e and oe in polysyllabic words. In…

  12. The Electrophysiological Manifestation of Dutch Verb Second Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the processing of violations of the verb position in Dutch, in a group of healthy subjects, by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) through electroencephalography (EEG). In Dutch, the base position of the verb is clause final, but in matrix clauses, the finite verb is in second position, a construction known as "Verb Second".…

  13. Agrammatic Sentence Production: Is Verb Second Impaired in Dutch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Peter; Kolk, Herman; Haverkort, Marco

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates effects of verb movement in nine Dutch-speaking agrammatic aphasics. According to linguistic theory, in verb second languages such as Dutch and German, the verb remains in its clause-final base position in embedded clauses, whereas it moves to second position in main clauses. In recent linguistic accounts of agrammatic…

  14. Driving toroidally asymmetric current through the tokamak scrape-off layer, Part I: Potential for ELM suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, I; Cohen, R H; Ryutov, D D

    2009-03-31

    A potential technique for suppressing edge localized magnetohydrodynamic instabilities (ELMs) is theoretically analyzed. Recent experiments have shown that externally generated resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can stabilize ELMs by modifying the density profile [T. E. Evans, et al., Nature Phys. 2, 419 (2006); Y. Liang, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265004 (2007)]. Driving toroidally asymmetric current internally, through the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma itself, can also generate RMPs that are close to the required threshold for ELM control. The limiting ion saturation current densities can be achieved by producing potential differences on the order of the electron temperature. Although the threshold is uncertain in future devices, if driven coherently though the SOL, the upper limit for the resulting field would exceed the present experimental threshold. This analysis provides the tools required for estimating the magnitude of the coherent SOL current and RMP generated via toroidally asymmetric biasing of the target. Flux expansion increases the RMP near the X-point, while phase interference due to the shearing of field lines near the X-point reduces the amplitude of the effective SOL perturbation and makes the result sensitive to both toroidal mode number n and the radial coherence width of the biasing region. If the limiting current density decays rapidly enough radially, both the width and the amplitude of the current density drawn from the target will be reduced. The RMP can still exceed the present threshold at low n if the radial location and width of the biasing region are optimally chosen.

  15. Spatial decoupling of the n = 1 plasma response during n = 2 RMP ELM suppression on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. D.; Strait, E. J.; Buttery, R. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Nazikian, R.

    2015-11-01

    Experiments in the DIII-D tokamak show a strong n = 1 mode appears when edge localized modes (ELM) are suppressed via an applied n = 2 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). The poloidal structure of this n = 1 mode, as it unlocks from the vacuum vessel wall, is discussed. An n = 2 mode is found to be entrained by the rotating RMP and an estimate of the modes m is presented. Previous work suggests these n = 1, 2 modes are magnetic island structures located at the top of the H-mode pedestal. The width of these islands is estimated to be 2 ~ 3 cm and the calculated confinement degradation due to their presence is 8 ~ 12%, which is close to the 13 ~ 14% measured between the ELMing and RMP suppressed states. This suggests island energy transport may be sufficient to explain the change in peeling-ballooning stability during RMP induced ELM suppression. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  16. 3D ELM fluctuation measurements with the new dual array ECE-Imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Classen, Ivo; Vanovac, Branka; Domier, Calvin; Luhmann, Neville; Bogomolov, Anton; Suttrop, Wolfgang; Tobias, Benjamin; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-11-01

    In a major upgrade, the (2D) electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic (ECE-Imaging) at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) has been equipped with a second detector array, and has been successfully commissioned. The two detector arrays observe the plasma through the same vacuum window, both under a slight toroidal angle, to enable quasi-3D measurements of the electron temperature. The system measures a total of 288 channels, in two toroidally separated 2D arrays of approximately 50 cm vertically by 10 cm radially. The toroidal separation between the two poloidal observation planes is about 40 cm, such that the majority of the field lines is observed by both arrays simultaneously, thereby enabling a direct measurement of the 3D properties of plasma instabilities like ELM filaments. The toroidal separation of 40 cm is sufficient for the accurate measurement of both phase differences and transit times of (rotating) plasma structures, enabling a distinction between time varying 2D structures and true 3D structures (not possible with 2D diagnostics). The research will mainly focus on the investigation of the 3D structure of the temperature fluctuations related to edge localized modes (ELMs), in particular precursors and filaments. The first results on ELMs will be reported.

  17. Experimental and numerical simulations of ELM-like transient damage behaviors to different grade tungsten and tungsten alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Lian, Youyun; Chen, Lei; Chen, Zhenkui; Chen, Jiming; Duan, Xuru; Fan, Jinlian; Song, Jiupeng

    2015-08-01

    Transient heat loads, such as plasma disruptions and ELMs, could induce plastic deformations, cracking, melting, even fatigue cracks and creep of tungsten (W) surface. A high purity W, CVD-W coating, TiC dispersion strengthened and K doped tungsten alloys were tested in a 60 kW electron-beam facility by simulating the transient load events under different base temperatures. It was found that CVD-W, W-TiC and W-K alloys have higher crack thresholds than high purity W, meanwhile CVD-W is more sensitive to the crack disappearing at elevated base temperatures. On the other hand, repetitive pulse loading like ELMs can induce serious network cracks even the power density was quite lower than the crack threshold determined by a single shot. The ABAQUS code was used to simulate the crack behaviors of ITER grade pure W by a single shot and a FE-SAFE code was adopted to estimate the fatigue life under ELMs-like loads. A good agreement with experiment results was found.

  18. Chlorophyll Catabolites in Fall Leaves of the Wych Elm Tree Present a Novel Glycosylation Motif.

    PubMed

    Scherl, Mathias; Müller, Thomas; Kreutz, Christoph R; Huber, Roland G; Zass, Engelbert; Liedl, Klaus R; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    Fall leaves of the common wych elm tree (Ulmus glabra) were studied with respect to chlorophyll catabolites. Over a dozen colorless, non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) and several yellow chlorophyll catabolites (YCCs) were identified tentatively. Three NCC fractions were isolated and their structures were characterized by spectroscopic means. Two of these, Ug-NCC-27 and Ug-NCC-43, carried a glucopyranosyl appendage. Ug-NCC-53, the least polar of these NCCs, was identified as the formal product of an intramolecular esterification of the propionate and primary glucopyranosyl hydroxyl groups of Ug-NCC-43. Thus, the glucopyranose moiety and three of the pyrrole units of Ug-NCC-53 span a 20-membered ring, installing a bicyclo[17.3.1]glycoside moiety. This structural motif is unprecedented in heterocyclic natural products, according to a thorough literature search. The remarkable, three-dimensional bicyclo[17.3.1]glycoside architecture reduces the flexibility of the linear tetrapyrrole. This feature of Ug-NCC-53 is intriguing, considering the diverse biological effects of known bicyclo[n.3.1]glycosidic natural products. PMID:27128523

  19. High risk of tick bites in Dutch gardens.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Sara; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bron, Wichertje A; Gassner, Fedor; Takken, Willem

    2013-12-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Because the disease has large socioeconomic consequences, there is an urgent need to further educate the public to stimulate preventive behavior. Unfortunately, risk factors for tick bites are poorly known. In this study, we determined the habitats and activities at risk for tick bites for people of different age categories using reports of Dutch citizens. Most people, 43%, were bitten in the forest, and an unexpected large number of people reported tick bites from their gardens (31%). Hiking, hobby gardening, and playing were the most-mentioned activities during which tick bites were received; people aged from 50 to 69 and children below 10 were bitten most. Different age categories were bitten in different habitats and during different activities. People aged from 0 to 60 reported most tick bites related to visiting a forest and hiking, whereas people older than 60 were mainly bitten in gardens. The percentage of garden and hobby gardening tick bites increased with age, but was also high for children less than 10 years of age. We suggest that these findings should be taken into account for the development of prevention strategies aiming to decrease the number of Lyme borreliosis cases. PMID:24107214

  20. Ecological compensation in Dutch highway planning.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, R; Bakermans, M M; De Haes, H A; Canters, K J

    2001-01-01

    The ecological compensation principle was introduced by the Dutch government in 1993. This principle is designed to enhance the input of nature conservation interests in decision-making on large-scale development projects and to counterbalance the ecological impacts of such developments when implemented. This article evaluates the application of the Dutch compensation principle in highway planning. Six current highway projects reveal consistent implementation of this principle, although provincial policies on compensation and a national method for identifying compensation measures are still under development. As the planning process has not yet been completed for all the projects, no general conclusions can be drawn on the impact of the compensation principle on highway decision-making. Nevertheless, several examples show that the principle stimulates project initiators to develop alternative routes or route sections in order to avoid or reduce ecological impacts and the need for coherent compensation measures. If the compensation principle is to be properly implemented in the context of highway planning, particular attention should be paid to the following aspects: (1) sequential assessment of overall project legitimacy and the necessity of intersecting protected areas and compensation measures. (2) the initiator's attempts to avoid and mitigate ecological impacts in developing alternative routes prior to compensation for impacts, and (3) the role of uncertain ecological impacts in identifying compensation measures, especially those concerning habitat isolation. PMID:11083910

  1. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  2. Implementing prospective budgeting for Dutch sickness funds.

    PubMed

    Okma, K G; Poelert, J D

    2001-06-01

    Most if not all social policies entail redistribution of scarce public resources from central government to regional and local authorities, to individual citizens or non-government agencies. Governments use a wide variety of instruments to allocate public funds, including direct state provision of subsidies and goods and services, setting budgets at different levels, and regulation of social insurance schemes. Most industrialised countries have developed budget models based on implicit or explicit allocation criteria. Governments usually start by determining global budgets for an entire category of public spending and then specifying the amounts allocated for categories of spending, and next, the budgets for individual agencies. Within such a 'cascading' model, the lower level budgets may be more controversial than the global budgets, as they directly affect the amounts available to individual actors in the system, e.g. hospitals or health insurance agencies. Setting budgets not only shifts decision-making authority but also financial risks from the central government to decentralised actors. The introduction of the prospective budgeting model for the Dutch sickness funds illustrates why determining budgets is not merely a matter of choosing objective allocation criteria, but also, of interaction between state and stakeholders. In the typical Dutch neocorporatist policy arena, where organised interests share responsibilities with government for the shaping and implementation of social policies, the health insurance agencies actively participated in the development of the budget model. PMID:11420806

  3. The 2015 Dutch food-based dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kromhout, D; Spaaij, C J K; de Goede, J; Weggemans, R M

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to derive food-based dietary guidelines for the Dutch population. The dietary guidelines are based on 29 systematic reviews of English language meta-analyses in PubMed summarizing randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on nutrients, foods and food patterns and the risk of 10 major chronic diseases: coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, diabetes, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia and depression. The committee also selected three causal risk factors for cardiovascular diseases or diabetes: systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and body weight. Findings were categorized as strong or weak evidence, inconsistent effects, too little evidence or effect unlikely for experimental and observational data separately. Next, the committee selected only findings with a strong level of evidence for deriving the guidelines. Convincing evidence was based on strong evidence from the experimental data either or not in combination with strong evidence from prospective cohort studies. Plausible evidence was based on strong evidence from prospective cohort studies only. A general guideline to eat a more plant food-based dietary pattern and limit consumption of animal-based food and 15 specific guidelines have been formulated. There are 10 new guidelines on legumes, nuts, meat, dairy produce, cereal products, fats and oils, tea, coffee and sugar-containing beverages. Three guidelines on vegetables, fruits, fish and alcoholic beverages have been sharpened, and the 2006 guideline on salt stayed the same. A separate guideline has been formulated on nutrient supplements. Completely food-based dietary guidelines can be derived in a systematic and transparent way. PMID:27049034

  4. Dutch Cycling: Quantifying the Health and Related Economic Benefits.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Elliot; Schepers, Paul; Kamphuis, Carlijn Barbara Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Netherlands is well known for their high bicycle use. We used the Health Economic Assessment Tool and life table calculations to quantify the population-level health benefits from Dutch cycling levels. Cycling prevents about 6500 deaths each year, and Dutch people have half-a-year-longer life expectancy because of cycling. These health benefits correspond to more than 3% of the Dutch gross domestic product. Our study confirmed that investments in bicycle-promoting policies (e.g., improved bicycle infrastructure and facilities) will likely yield a high cost-benefit ratio in the long term. PMID:26066942

  5. Material Surface Damage under High Pulse Loads Typical for ELM Bursts and Disruptions in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landman, I. S.; Pestchanyi, S. E.; Safronov, V. M.; Bazylev, B. N.; Garkusha, I. E.

    The divertor armour material for the tokamak ITER will probably be carbon manufactured as fibre composites (CFC) and tungsten as either brush-like structures or thin plates. Disruptive pulse loads where the heat deposition Q may reach 102 MJ/m 2 on a time scale Ïä of 3 ms, or operation in the ELMy H-mode at repetitive loads with Q âe 1/4 3 MJ/m2 and Ïä âe 1/4 0.3 ms, deteriorate armour performance. This work surveys recent numerical and experimental investigations of erosion mechanisms at these off-normal regimes carried out at FZK, TRINITI, and IPP-Kharkov. The modelling uses the anisotropic thermomechanics code PEGASUS-3D for the simulation of CFC brittle destruction, the surface melt motion code MEMOS-1.5D for tungsten targets, and the radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code FOREV-2D for calculating the plasma impact and simulating the heat loads for the ITER regime. Experiments aimed at validating these codes are being carried out at the plasma gun facilities MK-200UG, QSPA-T, and QSPA-Kh50 which produce powerful streams of hydrogen plasma with Q = 10–30 MJ/m2 and Ïä = 0.03–0.5 ms. Essential results are, for CFC targets, the experiments at high heat loads and the development of a local overheating model incorporated in PEGASUS-3D, and for the tungsten targets the analysis of evaporation- and melt motion erosion on the base of MEMOS-1.5D calculations for repetitive ELMs.

  6. Compilation of hydrologic data, Little Elm Creek, Trinity River Basin, Texas, 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1972-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Conservation Service is actively engaged in the installation of flood and soil erosion reducing measures in Texas under the authority of "The Flood Control Act ot 1936 and 1944" and ''Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act" (Public Law 566), as amended. In June 1968, the Soil Conservation Service estimated approximately 3,500 structures to be physically and economically feasible for installation in Texas. As of September 30, 1968, 1,271 of these structures had been built. This watershed-development program will have varying but important effects on the surface- and ground-water resources of river basins, especially where a large number of the floodwater-retarding structures are built. Basic hydrologic data are needed to appraise the effects of the structures on water yield and the mode of occurrence of runoff. Hydrologic investigations of these small watersheds were begun by the Geological Survey in 1951 and are now being made in 11 areas (fig. 1). These studies are being made in cooperation with t he Texas Water Development Board, the Soil Conservation Service, the San Antonio River Authority, the city of Dallas, and the Tarrant County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The 11 study areas were choson to sample watersheds having different rainfall, topography, geology, and soils. In four of the study areas (Mukewater, North, Little Elm, and Pin Oak Creeks), streamflow and rainfall records were collected prior to construction of the floodwater-retarding structures, thus affording the opportunity for analyses to the conditions before and after" development. Structures have now been built in three of these study areas. A summary of the development of the floodwater-retarding structures on each study area as of September 30, 1968, is shown in table 1.

  7. Development of a Dutch Drainpipe exposure scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiktak, Aaldrik; Boesten, Jos; van der Linden, Ton

    2010-05-01

    In the new Dutch pesticide authorisation procedure, the leaching of pesticides to surface waters will be evaluated. The 90th percentile of the peak concentrations in all Dutch ditches will be used for the exposure assessment of aquatic organisms The peak concentration in surface waters is primarily affected by fast transfer routes (amongst others by macropores). For this reason, we developed a macropore version of the pesticide leaching model PEARL. The macropore version of PEARL describes transport of pesticides through the soil matrix and through two preferential flow domains, i.e. a bypass domain and an internal catchment domain. The drainpipe exposure assessment will be done for a single field site. We selected the Andelst field experiment (Scorza Júnior et al., 2004) for this purpose, because at this site sufficient data is available to parameterise and test the model. To assess the effect of weather variability on drainpipe concentration, the model is run for a 20-years period. Hydrological boundary conditions for the 20-years period were taken from nearby weather stations and ground water observation wells. Application of PEARL to this field site showed that the model adequately describes the peak concentration and the later decline of the concentration for two different pesticides. The exposure assessment at the Andelst field site results in 20 annual peak concentrations, that need to be compared with the 90th percentile of the peak concentration in all Dutch ditches, so we performed simulations with a spatially-distributed version of PEARL. This assessment resulted in 20 times n concentrations, with n the number of locations. A contour diagram was used to assess which weather year corresponds with the 90th percentile of all 20 times n peak concentrations. The X-coordinate in the contour diagram corresponds with the percentile of the cumulative distribution of the predicted concentrations due to spatial variability that is obtained for a median weather

  8. Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

    2013-03-13

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency. PMID:23359741

  9. Dutch refinery nears completion of major renovation

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1997-03-17

    Shell Nederland Raffinaderij B.V. has completed construction of a major upgrade at its refinery in Pernis, The Netherlands. The project, called PER+, centers around the addition of Shell Gasification Hydrogen Process (SGHP) and hydrocracking units. The expansion will increase the complexity of Shell`s Dutch refinery and enable it to convert low-value streams to useful products such as cleaner-burning transportation fuels, hydrogen, and electricity. PER+ is a prime example of the kind of innovative planning necessary for European refineries to stay competitive in a tough market. The project reached mechanical completion early this year, and is scheduled to start up in May. The paper describes the refinery, project objectives, process options, the SGHP process, soot ash removal, syngas treatment, power and hydrogen production, environmental issues, and construction.

  10. Inertial properties of Dutch Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Buchner, H H; Savelberg, H H; Schamhardt, H C; Barneveld, A

    1997-06-01

    The complete set of three-dimensional inertial properties (mass, density, centre of mass, inertial tensor) was determined in 26 segments of six Dutch Warmblood horses. The measurements were performed with frozen segments similar to the procedure described by Lephart (1984, J. Biomechanics 17, 537-543). Based on these data linear regression models were developed for the estimation of inertial properties in living horses. The reproducibility of the dissection procedure was found to range between 2 and 9%. Both mean values and regression models are presented for all parameters. The mean standard error of estimation was 8% for the segment mass, 3% of the segment reference length for the position of the centre of mass, and 17% for the moments of inertia. PMID:9165402

  11. The art of governance of Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hoek, H

    1999-01-01

    Hospitals in The Netherlands are governed by two boards: The Board of Directors, the legal representative of the hospital, responsible for strategic and operational business activities; and the Supervisory Board, made up of co-opted volunteers and responsible for checking and approving of the major decisions of the Board of Directors. The question which arises is whether the system of governance is able to function appropriately and guarantee enough concern about general health problems, moral and ethical questions and the interest of the patients. This paper investigate the successes and shortfalls of such a system of governance in Dutch hospitals. The results and conclusions determine that although copied from the corporate governance model, it does not function well in an environment where the influence of patients and the inhabitants of the region are of great importance and shareholders do not exist. PMID:10977190

  12. The Dutch school of malaria research.

    PubMed

    Verhave, J P

    1987-01-01

    An epidemic of tertian malaria in some coastal areas of The Netherlands resulted in the setting up of official measures in 1920. A scientific and a propaganda commission were charged with control. Efforts were made to reduce mosquito populations by adult and larval spraying. After the discovery that infected mosquitoes were to be found only inside houses, control operations were focussed against adult mosquitoes. Some later discoveries resulted in a more effective control. a) Spraying ditches with Paris green did not prevent adult mosquitoes from entering the control area. b) Anopheles maculipennis turned out to be a complex of species, with A. atroparvus as the vector. The latter preferred brackish water and did not go into full hibernation. The closing of the Zuyder Sea and the expected desalinization gave hope for less suitable conditions for the vector. c) Plasmodium vivax normally had an incubation period of 8 months. d) Pyrethrum was an effective but short-lasting insecticide. e) Healthy parasite carriers could infect mosquitoes. This knowledge was applied through an extensive system of investigation, including spleen examination of schoolchildren. Suspected houses were sprayed bimonthly from August to November, during which period infected mosquitoes were likely to be present. This system worked extremely well, and during the next epidemic from 1943 to 1947 the thus treated towns remained virtually free of malaria! DDT became available and was either sprayed in suspected houses as before, or through wide-spread coverage of all houses. The epidemic subsided whatever method employed and not only due to the use of DDT. The number of cases even went down to the point of no return and the last case of Dutch malaria was recorded in 1959. The wealth of experience on house-spray control, parasite and mosquito biology and experimental malaria of the Dutch malariologists has had its impact on the international bodies engaged in the battle against malaria. PMID:3334084

  13. Rapidly deteriorating course in Dutch hereditary spastic paraplegia type 11 patients

    PubMed Central

    de Bot, Susanne T; Burggraaff, Rogier C; Herkert, Johanna C; Schelhaas, Helenius J; Post, Bart; Diekstra, Adinda; van Vliet, Reinout O; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Scheffer, Hans; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien C; Kremer, Hubertus PH

    2013-01-01

    Although SPG11 is the most common complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia, our knowledge of the long-term prognosis and life expectancy is limited. We therefore studied the disease course of all patients with a proven SPG11 mutation as tested in our laboratory, the single Dutch laboratory providing SPG11 mutation analysis, between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2011. We identified nine different SPG11 mutations, four of which are novel, in nine index patients. Eighteen SPG11 patients from these nine families were studied by means of a retrospective chart analysis and additional interview/examination. Ages at onset were between 4 months and 14 years; 39% started with learning difficulties rather than gait impairment. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a thin corpus callosum and typical periventricular white matter changes in the frontal horn region (known as the ‘ears-of the lynx'-sign) in all. Most patients became wheelchair bound after a disease duration of 1 to 2 decades. End-stage disease consisted of loss of spontaneous speech, severe dysphagia, spastic tetraplegia with peripheral nerve involvement and contractures. Several patients died of complications between ages 30 and 48 years, 3–4 decades after onset of gait impairment. Other relevant features during the disease were urinary and fecal incontinence, obesity and psychosis. Our study of 18 Dutch SPG11-patients shows the potential serious long-term consequences of SPG11 including a possibly restricted life span. PMID:23443022

  14. Nonlinear fluid simulation of particle and heat fluxes during burst of ELMs on DIII-D with BOUT++ code [Fluid Simulation of Particle and Heat Fluxes during Burst of ELMs on DIID with BOUT++ code

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xia, T. Y.; Xu, X. Q.

    2015-09-01

    In order to study the distribution and evolution of the transient particle and heat fluxes during edge-localized mode (ELM) bursts, a BOUT++ six-field two-fluid model based on the Braginskii equations with non-ideal physics effects is used to simulate pedestal collapse in divertor geometry. We used the profiles from the DIII-D H-mode discharge #144382 with fast target heat flux measurements as the initial conditions for the simulations. Moreover, a flux-limited parallel thermal conduction is used with three values of the flux-limiting coefficientmore » $${{\\alpha}_{j}}$$ , free streaming model with $${{\\alpha}_{j}}=1$$ , sheath-limit with $${{\\alpha}_{j}}=0.05$$ , and one value in between. The studies show that a 20 times increase in $${{\\alpha}_{j}}$$ leads to ~6 times increase in the heat flux amplitude to both the inner and outer targets, and the widths of the fluxes are also expanded. The sheath-limit model of flux-limiting coefficient is found to be the most appropriate one, which shows ELM sizes close to the measurements. The evolution of the density profile during the burst of ELMs of DIII-D discharge #144382 is simulated, and the collapse in width and depth of $${{n}_{\\text{e}}}$$ are reproduced at different time steps. The growing process of the profiles for the heat flux at divertor targets during the burst of ELMs measured by IRTV (infrared television) is also reproduced by this model. The widths of heat fluxes towards targets are a little narrower, and the peak amplitudes are twice the measurements possibly due to the lack of a model of divertor radiation which can effectively reduce the heat fluxes. The magnetic flutter combined with parallel thermal conduction is found to be able to increase the total heat loss by around 33% since the magnetic flutter terms provide the additional conductive heat transport in the radial direction. Finally, the heat flux profile at both the inner and outer targets is obviously broadened by magnetic flutter. The

  15. Nonlinear fluid simulation of particle and heat fluxes during burst of ELMs on DIII-D with BOUT++ code [Fluid Simulation of Particle and Heat Fluxes during Burst of ELMs on DIID with BOUT++ code

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, T. Y.; Xu, X. Q.

    2015-09-01

    In order to study the distribution and evolution of the transient particle and heat fluxes during edge-localized mode (ELM) bursts, a BOUT++ six-field two-fluid model based on the Braginskii equations with non-ideal physics effects is used to simulate pedestal collapse in divertor geometry. We used the profiles from the DIII-D H-mode discharge #144382 with fast target heat flux measurements as the initial conditions for the simulations. Moreover, a flux-limited parallel thermal conduction is used with three values of the flux-limiting coefficient ${{\\alpha}_{j}}$ , free streaming model with ${{\\alpha}_{j}}=1$ , sheath-limit with ${{\\alpha}_{j}}=0.05$ , and one value in between. The studies show that a 20 times increase in ${{\\alpha}_{j}}$ leads to ~6 times increase in the heat flux amplitude to both the inner and outer targets, and the widths of the fluxes are also expanded. The sheath-limit model of flux-limiting coefficient is found to be the most appropriate one, which shows ELM sizes close to the measurements. The evolution of the density profile during the burst of ELMs of DIII-D discharge #144382 is simulated, and the collapse in width and depth of ${{n}_{\\text{e}}}$ are reproduced at different time steps. The growing process of the profiles for the heat flux at divertor targets during the burst of ELMs measured by IRTV (infrared television) is also reproduced by this model. The widths of heat fluxes towards targets are a little narrower, and the peak amplitudes are twice the measurements possibly due to the lack of a model of divertor radiation which can effectively reduce the heat fluxes. The magnetic flutter combined with parallel thermal conduction is found to be able to increase the total heat loss by around 33% since the magnetic flutter terms provide the additional conductive heat transport in the radial direction. Finally, the heat flux profile at both the inner and outer targets is obviously broadened by magnetic flutter. The lobe structures

  16. Edge Stability and Performance of the ELM-Free Quiescent H-Mode and the Quiescent Double Barrier Mode on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    West, W P; Burrell, K H; Casper, T A; . Doyle, E J; Snyder, P B; Gohil, P; Lao, L L; Lasnier, C J; Leonard, A W; Nave, M F; Osborne, T H; Thomas, D M; Wang, G; Zeng, L

    2004-12-03

    The quiescent H (QH) mode, an edge localized mode (ELM)-free, high-confinement mode, combines well with an internal transport barrier to form quiescent double barrier (QDB) stationary state, high performance plasmas. The QH-mode edge pedestal pressure is similar to that seen in ELMing phases of the same discharge, with similar global energy confinement. The pedestal density in early ELMing phases of strongly pumped counter injection discharges drops and a transition to QH-mode occurs, leading to lower calculated edge bootstrap current. Plasmas current ramp experiment and ELITE code modeling of edge stability suggest that QH-modes lie near an edge current stability boundary. At high triangularity, QH-mode discharges operate at higher pedestal density and pressure, and have achieved ITER level values of {beta}{sub PED} and {nu}*. The QDB achieves performance of {alpha}{sub N}H{sub 89} {approx} 7 in quasi-stationary conditions for a duration of 10 tE, limited by hardware. Recently we demonstrated stationary state QDB discharges with little change in kinetic and q profiles (q{sub 0} > 1) for 2 s, comparable to ELMing ''hybrid scenarios'', yet without the debilitating effects of ELMs. Plasma profile control tools, including electron cyclotron heating and current drive and neutral beam heating, have been demonstrated to control simultaneously the q profile development, the density peaking, impurity accumulation and plasma beta.

  17. Extensive Genetic Diversity within the Dutch Clinical Cryptococcus neoformans Population

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Ferry; Illnait-Zaragozí, María-Teresa; Meis, Jacques F.; Chew, William H. M.; Curfs-Breuker, Ilse; Mouton, Johan W.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Verweij, Paul E.; Kampinga, Greetje A.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Klaassen, Corné H. W.

    2012-01-01

    A set of 300 Dutch Cryptococcus neoformans isolates, obtained from 237 patients during 1977 to 2007, was investigated by determining the mating type, serotype, and AFLP and microsatellite genotype and susceptibility to seven antifungal compounds. Almost half of the studied cases were from HIV-infected patients, followed by a patient group of individuals with other underlying diseases and immunocompetent individuals. The majority of the isolates were mating type α and serotype A, followed by αD isolates and other minor categories. The most frequently observed genotype was AFLP1, distantly followed by AFLP2 and AFLP3. Microsatellite typing revealed a high genetic diversity among serotype A isolates but a lower diversity within the serotype D set of isolates. One patient was infected by multiple AFLP genotypes. Fluconazole and flucytosine had the highest geometric mean MICs of 2.9 and 3.5 μg/ml, respectively, while amphotericin B (0.24 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.08 μg/ml), voriconazole (0.07 μg/ml), posaconazole (0.06 μg/ml), and isavuconazole (0.03 μg/ml) had much lower geometric mean MICs. One isolate had a high flucytosine MIC (>64 μg/ml), while decreased susceptibility (≥16 μg/ml) for flucytosine and fluconazole was found in 9 and 10 C. neoformans isolates, respectively. PMID:22442325

  18. Daily hassles reported by Dutch multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    van der Hiele, Karin; Spliethoff-Kamminga, Noëlle G; Ruimschotel, Rob P; Middelkoop, Huub A; Visser, Leo H

    2012-09-15

    There is growing evidence for the association between stress and relapse risk in multiple sclerosis (MS). The current study focuses on daily hassles, which by their chronic and accumulating nature can cause considerable psychosocial stress. The main aim was to investigate the frequency, associated distress and type of daily hassles encountered by Dutch MS patients from a large community-based sample. We further examined factors associated with high levels of psychosocial stress. Questionnaires concerning demographics, disease characteristics, physical functioning, daily hassles, fatigue, depression and anxiety were completed by 718 MS patients. Three patients younger than 18 were excluded, resulting in 715 patients. Compared with published norm data, more than 50% of the participants reported a high number of daily hassles (57.5%) and high levels of associated distress (55.7%). Frequently mentioned daily hassles concern personal functioning and social developments. A logistic regression model revealed that being female, being younger, having a higher educational level, using benzodiazepines, exhibiting more symptoms of anxiety, and a higher physical impact of fatigue were all independently associated with high levels of psychosocial stress. Our findings may alert clinicians of the high prevalence and impact of daily hassles in MS and underline the need to incorporate stress and anxiety management strategies in (psycho)therapeutic interventions. PMID:22795386

  19. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding. PMID:23771428

  20. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE KITCHEN. SHOWING THE DUTCH DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE KITCHEN. SHOWING THE DUTCH DOOR TO THE SERVICE PORCH. PANTRY AND DOOR TO THE DINING ROOM ARE TO THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type K, 304 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Interior view of dutch door, double doorway with operable transom, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of dutch door, double doorway with operable transom, and typical single doorway with transom, facing south. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Varying the Pre-discharge Lithium Wall Coatings to Alter the Characteristics of the ELM-free H-mode Pedestal in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Boyle, J.M. Canik, R. Maing, P.B. Snyder, T.H. Osborne, and the NSTX Team

    2012-06-28

    A previous experiment in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) showed pre-discharge lithium deposition gradually suppresed edge-localized modes (ELMs) and had nearly continuous relationships with reduced recycling and transport. In this paper, additional data filled gaps in the earlier experiment, and demonstrates that recycling, confinement, and pedestal structure continued to improve with additional lithium, even after ELMs were completely suppressed. New analysis shows that toroidal rotation and ion temperature also increased continuously with additional lithium. Besides its evolution with additional lithium, we also characterize the time evolution of the ELM-free H-mode pedestal as average density rose and impurities accumulated. We find that the pedestal structure, divertor heat flux and Dalpha profiles, and inferred recycling coefficient did not change significantly, at least until radiative losses become dominant. This suggests that the low-recycling properties of lithium were not significantly degraded over the duration of the discharge.

  4. Cardiovascular mortality in Dutch men during 1996 European football championship: longitudinal population study

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Daniel R; Bots, Michiel L; Hoes, Arno W; Grobbee, Diederick E

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an important football match increases stress to such an extent that it triggers acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Design Longitudinal study of mortality around 22 June 1996 (the day the Dutch football team was eliminated from the European football championship). Mortality on 22 June was compared with the five days before and after the match and in the same period in 1995 and 1997. Setting Netherlands. Subjects Dutch population aged 45 years or over in June 1996. Main outcome measures All cause mortality and mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke. Results Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke was increased in men on the day of the match (relative risk 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 2.09). No clear rise in mortality was observed for women (1.11, 0.80 to 1.56). Among men, about 14 excess cardiovascular deaths occurred on the day of the match. Conclusion Important sporting events may provoke a sufficient level of stress to trigger symptomatic cardiovascular disease. The difference between men and women requires further investigation. PMID:11124170

  5. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  6. [Dutch computer domestication, 1975-1990].

    PubMed

    Veraart, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A computer seems an indispensable tool among twenty-first century households. Computers however, did not come as manna from heaven. The domestication and appropriation of computers in Dutch households was a result of activities by various intermediary actors. Computers became household commodities only gradually. Technophile computer hobbyists imported the first computers into the Netherlands from the USA, and started small businesses from 1975 onwards. They developed a social network in which computer technology was made available for use by individuals. This network extended itself via shops, clubs, magazines, and other means of acquiring and exchanging computer hard- and software. Hobbyist culture established the software-copying habits of private computer users as well as their ambivalence to commercial software. They also made the computer into a game machine. Under the impulse of a national policy that aimed at transforming society into an 'Information Society', clubs and other actors extended their activities and tailored them to this new agenda. Hobby clubs presented themselves as consumer organizations and transformed into intermediary actors that filled the gap between suppliers and a growing group of users. They worked hard to give meaning to (proper) use of computers. A second impulse to the increasing use of computers in the household came from so-called 'private-PC' projects in the late 1980s. In these projects employers financially aided employees in purchasing their own private PCs'. The initially important intermediary actors such as hobby clubs lost control and the agenda for personal computers was shifted to interoperability with office equipment. IBM compatible PC's flooded the households. In the household the new equipment blended with the established uses, such as gaming. The copying habits together with the PC standard created a risky combination in which computer viruses could spread easily. New roles arose for intermediary actors in guiding

  7. Validity and Reliability of the Dutch Adaptation of the Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Stephen P.; Houtman, Pieternella M.; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Spoorenberg, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL) questionnaire is a disease- specific instrument developed to measure quality of life (QoL) in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The aim of this study was to translate the measure into Dutch and to determine its psychometric properties. Method Translation of the original English PsAQoL into Dutch was performed by bilingual and lay panel. Ten field-test interviews with PsA patients were performed to assess face and content validity. In total, 211 PsA patients were included in a test-retest postal survey to investigate the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch adaptation of the PsAQoL. The PsAQoL, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Skindex-17 were administered on two different occasions approximately two weeks apart. Results The Dutch version of the PsAQoL was found to be relevant, understandable and easy to complete in only a few minutes. It correlated as expected with the HAQ (Spearman’s ρ = 0.72) and the 2 subscales of the Skindex-17 (ρ = 0.40 for the psychosocial and ρ = 0.46 for the symptom scale). Furthermore, the measure had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.92) and test-retest reliability (ρ = 0.89). The PsAQoL was able to define groups of patients based on self-reported general health status, self-reported severity of PsA and flare of arthritis. Duration of PsA did not influence PsAQoL scores. Conclusions The Dutch version of the PsAQoL is a valid and reliable questionnaire suitable for use in clinical or research settings to asses PsA-specific QoL. PMID:23418474

  8. THE ROLE OF MAGNETIC BALANCE ON THE POLOIDAL DISTRIBUTION OF ELM-INDUCED PEAK PARTICLE FLUX AT THE DIVERTOR TARGETS IN DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    T.W. PETRIE; J.G. WATKINS; L.L. LAO; P.B. SNYDER

    2002-06-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are commonly observed in high energy confinement, tokamak plasmas and are thought to be caused by magnetohydrodynamic instabilities driven by the steep pressure gradient and the current in the plasma edge region. Our data show that the divertor magnetic balance, i.e., the degree to which the plasma topology resembles a single-null (SN) or a double-null (DN), strongly determines where particle pulses driven by ballooning instabilities at the plasma edge are distributed to surrounding vacuum vessel surfaces. These data also support the conclusions drawn from the stability analysis that ELMs are generated almost entirely on the outboard side of the main plasma.

  9. [Measurement of Nitrogen Content in Lettuce Canopy Using Spectroscopy Combined with BiPLS-GA-SPA and ELM].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-yan; Mao, Han-ping; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer is necessary to improve yield and quality of lettuce. Spectroscopy is one of the most effective techniques used to detect crop nitrogen content. In this study, canopy reflectance spectra were acquired under five levels of nitrogen, and then were Savitzky-Golay smoothed, the first-order derivative spectra were calculated from the smoothed spectra to eliminate noise effects. Backward interval partial least squares (BiPLS), genetic algorithm (GA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were combined to select the efficient wavelengths. The number of variables was decreased from 2,151 to 8. The optimal intervals or variables were used to build multivariable linear regression (MLR) model, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) models and extreme learning machine (ELM) models. This work proved that the results of BiPLS-GA-SPA-ELM model was superior to others with RMSEC was 0.241 6%, Rc was 0.934 6, RMSEP was 0.284 2% and Rp was 0.921 8. Our research results may provide a foundation for nutrition regulation and developing instrument. PMID:27209756

  10. The response of toroidal drift modes to profile evolution: a model for small-ELMs in tokamak plasmas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokshi, A.; Dickinson, D.; Roach, C. M.; Wilson, H. R.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a time-dependent linear global electrostatic toroidal fluid ion-temperature gradient (ITG) model to study the evolution of toroidal drift modes in tokamak plasmas as the equilibrium flow-shear varies with time. While we consider the ITG mode as a specific example, the results are expected to be valid for most other toroidal microinstabilities. A key result is that when there is a position in the plasma with a maximum in the instability drive (e.g. ITG), there is a transient burst of stronger growth as the flow-shear evolves through a critical value. This transient burst is expected to drive a filamentary plasma eruption, reminiscent of small-ELMs. The amplitude of the dominant linear mode is initially peaked above or below the outboard midplane, and rotates through it poloidally as the flow-shear passes through the critical value. This theoretical prediction could provide an experimental test of whether this mechanism underlies some classes of small-ELMs.

  11. Comparison of ELM-Filament Mitigation Between Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection and Pellet Injection on HL-2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Lin; Cheng, Jun; Xu, Hongbing; Huang, Yuan; Yan, Longwen; Ding, Xuantong; Xu, Min; Xu, Yuhong; Yao, Lianghua; Feng, Beibin; Zhu, Genliang; Liu, Wandong; Dong, Jiaqi; Yu, Deliang; Zhong, Wulv; Gao, Jinming; Chen, Chengyuan; Yang, Qingwei; Duan, Xuru

    2016-02-01

    On HL-2A, two different injections (supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and pellet injection (PI)) are used to mitigate edge localized mode (ELM)-filament convective transport. The changes of their characteristics are studied in this paper. A high spatiotemporal resolution probe shows there are many similar phenomena, and the filament density amplitude and radial velocity are both suppressed. Our statistical results indicate that: the velocity suppression comes from the decrease of filament density and temperature; the transient particle and heat fluxes drop strongly; and long-range correlation along a magnetic flux surface also decreases, when the electron-ion collisionality increases significantly, which may have a role on the filament parallel current during ELM mitigation. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11075046, 10975049, 11375054, 11275060), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB112008, 2013GB107000, 2013GB104002, 2014GB107000, 2014GB108000), and the China-Korean Joint Research Program (No. 2012DFG02230)

  12. Changing Faces in Virology: The Dutch Shift from Oncogenic to Oncolytic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Belcaid, Zineb; Lamfers, Martine L.M.; van Beusechem, Victor W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Viruses have two opposing faces. On the one hand, they can cause harm and disease. A virus may manifest directly as a contagious disease with a clinical pathology of varying significance. A viral infection can also have delayed consequences, and in rare cases may cause cellular transformation and cancer. On the other hand, viruses may provide hope: hope for an efficacious treatment of serious disease. Examples of the latter are the use of viruses as a vaccine, as transfer vector for therapeutic genes in a gene therapy setting, or, more directly, as therapeutic anticancer agent in an oncolytic-virus therapy setting. Already there is evidence for antitumor activity of oncolytic viruses. The antitumor efficacy seems linked to their capacity to induce a tumor-directed immune response. Here, we will provide an overview on the development of oncolytic viruses and their clinical evaluation from the Dutch perspective. PMID:25141764

  13. Characterisation of the deuterium recycling at the W divertor target plates in JET during steady-state plasma conditions and ELMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezinsek, S.; Wiesen, S.; Harting, D.; Guillemaut, C.; Webster, A. J.; Heinola, K.; Meigs, A. G.; Rack, M.; Gao, Y.; Sergienko, G.; Philipps, V.; Stamp, M. F.; Jachmich, S.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Experiments in the JET tokamak equipped with the ITER-like wall (ILW) revealed that the inner and outer target plate at the location of the strike points represent after one year of operation intact tungsten (W) surfaces without any beryllium (Be) surface coverage. The dynamics of near-surface retention, implantation, desorption and recycling of deuterium (D) in the divertor of plasma discharges are determined by W target plates. As the W plasma-facing components (PFCs) are not actively cooled, the surface temperature (T surface) is increasing with plasma exposure, varying the balance between these processes in addition to the impinging deuteron fluxes and energies. The dynamic behaviour on a slow time scale of seconds was quantified in a series of identical L-mode discharges (JET Pulse Number (JPN) \\# 81938-73) by intra-shot gas analysis providing the reduction of deuterium retention in W PFCs by 1/3 at a base temperature (T base) range at the outer target plate between 65 °C and 150 °C equivalent to a T surface span of 150 °C and 420 °C. The associated recycling and molecular D desorption during the discharge varies only at lowest temperatures moderately, whereas desorption between discharges rises significantly with increasing T base. The retention measurements represent the sum of inner and outer divertor interaction at comparable T surface. The dynamic behaviour on a fast time scale of ms was studied in a series of identical H-mode discharges (JPN \\#83623-83974) and coherent edge-localized mode (ELM) averaging. High energetic ELMs of about 3 keV are impacting on the W PFCs with fluxes of 3× {10}23 {{{D}}}+ {{{s}}}-1{{{m}}}-2 which is about four times higher than inter-ELM ion fluxes with an impact energy of about E im = 200 eV. This intra-ELM ion flux is associated with a high heat flux of about 60 MW m-2 to the outer target plate which causes T surface rise by Δ T = 100 K per ELM covering finally the range between 160 °C and 1400 °C during the flat

  14. Media Literacy and Attitude Change: Assessing the Effectiveness of Media Literacy Training on Children's Responses to Persuasive Messages within the ELM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bradford L.

    This study adds to the small but growing body of literature that examines the effectiveness of media literacy training on children's responses to persuasive messages. Within the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion, this research investigates whether media literacy training is a moderating variable in the persuasion…

  15. Effect of n = 3 perturbation field amplitudes below the ELM triggering threshold on edge and SOL transport in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Canik; Lore, J. D.; Ahn, J. -W.; Bortolon, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Tritz, K.

    2013-01-12

    Here, the pulsed application of n = 3 magnetic perturbation fields with amplitudes below that which triggers ELMs results in distinct, transient responses observable on several edge and divertor diagnostics in NSTX. We refer to these responses as Sub-Threshold Edge Perturbations (STEPs). An analysis of edge measurements suggests that STEPs result in increased transport in the plasma edge and scrape-off layer, which leads to augmentation of the intrinsic strike point splitting due to error fields, i.e., an intensification of the helical divertor footprint flux pattern. These effects are much smaller in magnitude than those of triggered ELMs, and are observed for the duration of the field perturbation measured internal to the vacuum vessel. In addition, STEPs are correlated with changes to the MHD activity, along with transient reductions in the neutron production rate. Ideally the STEPs could be used to provide density control and prevent impurity accumulation, in the same manner that on-demand ELM triggering is used on NSTX, without the impulsive divertor fluxes and potential for damage to plasma facing components associated with ELMs.

  16. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Wu, J.; Tang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter at breast height (DBH) classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land of northeastern China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and clustered patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ≤ DBH ≤ 15 cm) and class 2 (15 cm < DBH ≤ 20 cm) were 2.27 and 2.37 m, respectively. Meanwhile, in the fenced plot, the distances between random and aggregated patterns that occurred in classes 1, 2 and 3 (DBH > 20 cm) were 3.13, 3.13 and 7.85 m, respectively. In the fenced plot, at distances larger than 67.72 m there was a negative association between classes 1 and 2, which was also the case between classes 2 and 3 and between classes 1 and 3 for distances greater than 104.09 and 128.54 m, respectively. Meanwhile, negative associations occurred only at distances larger than 29.38 m in the grazed plot. These findings suggest that grazing reduced the competition intensity between elm trees; and therefore, grazing management could be an effective strategy used to regulate the elm population in the degraded sandy land of northern China.

  17. Extending glacial refugia for a European tree: genetic markers show that Iberian populations of white elm are native relicts and not introductions

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Venturas, M; Hollingsworth, P M; Squirrell, J; Collada, C; Stone, G N; Gil, L

    2014-01-01

    Conservation policies usually focus on in situ protection of native populations, a priority that requires accurate assessment of population status. Distinction between native and introduced status can be particularly difficult (and at the same time, is most important) for species whose natural habitat has become both rare and highly fragmented. Here, we address the status of the white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas), a European riparian tree species whose populations have been fragmented by human activity and is protected wherever it is considered native. Small populations of this species are located in Iberia, where they are unprotected because they are considered introductions due to their rarity. However, Iberia and neighbouring regions in southwestern France have been shown to support discrete glacial refuge populations of many European trees, and the possibility remains that Iberian white elms are native relicts. We used chloroplast RFLPs and nuclear microsatellites to establish the relationship between populations in Iberia and the Central European core distribution. Bayesian approaches revealed significant spatial structure across populations. Those in Iberia and southwestern France shared alleles absent from Central Europe, and showed spatial population structure within Iberia common in recognized native taxa. Iberian populations show a demographic signature of ancient population bottlenecks, while those in Central European show a signature of recent population bottlenecks. These patterns are not consistent with historical introduction of white elm to Iberia, and instead strongly support native status, arguing for immediate implementation of conservation measures for white elm populations in Spain and contiguous areas of southern France. PMID:24022495

  18. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Wu, J.; Tang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land, northeastern, China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and aggregated patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ≤ DBH ≤ 15 cm) and class 2 (15 cm ≤ DBH ≤ 20 cm) were 2.27 and 2.37 m, respectively. Meanwhile, in the fenced plot, the distances between random and aggregated patterns that occurred in class 1, class 2 and class 3 (DBH > 20 cm) were 3.13, 3.13 and 7.85 m, respectively. In the fenced plot, in distances larger than 67.72 m there were a negative association between class 1 and class 2, which was also the case between class 2 and class 3 and between class 1 and class 3 for distances greater than 104.09 and 128.54 m, respectively. Meanwhile, negative associations occurred only with distances larger than 29.38 m in the grazed plot. These findings suggest that grazing reduced the competition intensity between elm trees; and therefore, grazing management could be an effective strategy used to regulate the elm population in the degraded sandy land of Northern China.

  19. [The first Dutch debate on anaesthesia in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Bijker, Liselotte E

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the Dutch medical guideline on pharmacological analgesia during childbirth in 2008, the question of whether pharmacological pain relief should be permissible during labour was hotly debated. This discussion has been going on since the second half of the 19th century when the introduction of ether and chloroform was extensively studied and described in Great Britain. This article looks back on the same debate in the Netherlands when inhalational anaesthetics were introduced into obstetrics. Study of historical journals and textbooks, originating in the Netherlands and elsewhere, and of historical medical literature on anaesthesia and obstetrics shows that the Dutch protagonists adopted more nuanced ideas on this issue than many of their foreign colleagues. This description of the first Dutch debate on anaesthesia in obstetrics shows that in fact the issues and arguments are timeless. PMID:25827148

  20. [Smoking behavior of Dutch family physicians in 1983-1988].

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, H; van Reek, J; Rabier, J R

    1990-08-01

    General practitioners' smoking behaviour in The Netherlands is described on the basis of survey data collected in the period 1983-1988. Until 1983 a large majority of the Dutch family physicians were smokers (1957: 82%, 1983: 56%). The smoking prevalence then was higher among physicians than among the male population. After 1983 a new development set in. Three inquiries showed that among Dutch physicians the smoking prevalence in 1988 was lower than that among the male general population (29 versus 37%). Dutch family physicians have stopped smoking to a larger extent than the physicians in any other EC-country (43% ex-smokers). Young entry-level doctors more and more tend to be never-smokers. PMID:2392168

  1. Nicolaes Tulp and the golden age of the Dutch Republic.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Donald

    2007-12-01

    In the seventeenth century, Holland and the allied provinces of the northern Netherlands won final independence from their Spanish overlords and formed a worldwide economic empire. Dutch ships dominated the seas from the Caribbean to Japan and reconnoitred the coasts of Australia and New Zealand. Dutch society was cosmopolitan and supported great painters, philosophers and scientists. In these astonishing years, the physician Nicolaes Tulp [1593-1674] practised medicine in Amsterdam and, in 1641, published a book of his medical observations. This book ran into many editions; the Cowlishaw collection contains one of the last, dated 1716. Tulp is best known as the chief figure in a famous painting by Rembrandt, but his book has been studied by medical historians as a source of early descriptions of cranial surgery, spina bifida, vesical calculi, beriberi and many other conditions. The book is also a mirror of Dutch society in a great period in European history. PMID:17973670

  2. Cultural Perspectives on Peer Conflicts in Multicultural Dutch Child Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourou, Amina; Singer, Elly; Bekkema, Nienke; De Haan, Dorian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a study of cultural perspectives on peer conflicts in multicultural child care centres. On the level of child behaviour we did not find differences between native Dutch. Moroccan-Dutch and Antillean-Dutch children with regard to occurrence, duration and actions to solve peer conflicts. On the level of mother' opinions…

  3. Word Order and Finiteness in Dutch and English Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Edwards, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of two linguistic factors in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia was examined using Dutch and English subjects. Three tasks were used to test (1) the comprehension and (2) the construction of sentences, where verbs (in Dutch) and verb arguments (in Dutch and English) are in canonical versus non-canonical position; (3) the production of…

  4. Challenging Dutch Holocaust Education: Towards a Curriculum Based on Moral Choices and Empathetic Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersema, Jacob R.; Schimmel, Noam

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the way in which the Holocaust is taught in The Netherlands, with an emphasis on critically examining the content of secondary school textbooks used to teach Dutch students about the history of the Holocaust. We also interview Dutch educators, government officials and academics about the state of Dutch Holocaust education. Our findings…

  5. Productivity and quality of Dutch hospitals during system reform.

    PubMed

    van Ineveld, Martin; van Oostrum, Jeroen; Vermeulen, Rob; Steenhoek, Adri; van de Klundert, Joris

    2016-09-01

    This study addresses the productivity of Dutch hospitals since the start of the health systems reform in 2005. We consider DEA based measures, which include efficiency and quality for the complete set of Dutch hospitals and present cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. In particular, we consider how hospital efficiency has developed. As the reform created an environment of regulated competition, we pay special attention to relative efficiency. Our results suggest that the differences in efficiency among hospitals have become larger. In the years 2009-2010, the number of hospitals identified as (close to) efficient by DEA analysis decreased. PMID:25774011

  6. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, I.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  7. Long-lived impurity-ion snakes in the EAST ELM-free H-mode Sawtoothing plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianpeng; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun

    2015-06-01

    Two types of long-lived impurity-ion snakes (LLSs) including the ideal-like kink mode which damps before the large sawtooth crash, termed sawtooth-free LLSs (SF-LLSs) and complex LLSs (C-LLSs), which coexist with compound sawtooth and final damping after sawtooth crash were observed in EAST ELM-free H-mode sawtoothing plasma. These LLSs have an m = 1 structure, accompanied by several harmonic modes (m = 2, m = 3...). There is a slight frequency-chirping behavior of the LLS. Similar with the typical sawtooth crash phase, a large crescent-shaped helical island-like structure in the core region of the C-LLSs was visible after the major crash of the coexisting compound sawtooth. The strong coupling of the C-LLSs and the 2/1 tearing mode (TM) can trigger a neo-classical tearing mode (NTM) due to a forced magnetic reconnection.

  8. Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.

    2009-11-01

    Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.

  9. Historical Notes on the Dutch and American-Dutch "schools" in Astronomy and Their Relations with Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, Ed

    2006-04-01

    Dutch astronomy and physics experienced two "golden ages". The firstone covered the 17th century, culminating with Christiaan Huygens,inventor of the pendulum clock and the wave theory of light, anddiscoverer of Saturn's rings and largest satellite Titan. The secondone, which lasts till the present, started around 1880 withphysicists Lorentz, van der Waals, Zeeman and Kamerlingh Onnes andastronomer Kapteijn and his pupils De Sitter, van Rhijn, Oort andSchilt. Kapteijn, through his friendship with George Ellery Hale,initiated the strong connection between American and Dutch astronomy,which led to the rise of many Dutch-born astronomers to prominentpositions in the US, from Luyten, Bok, Brouwer, Schilt and Kuiperto Woltjer, Gehrels, and Beckers. The rise of the second "goldenage" appears to be closely related to drastic reforms in the Dutchhigh school and university systems in the last decades of the 19thcentury.

  10. Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    -related information for the Dutch population. One in 4 persons wants to communicate with their physician via social media channels and it is expected that this number will further increase. Health care providers should explore new ways of communicating online and should facilitate ways for patients to connect with them. Future research should aim at comparing different patient groups and diseases, describing best practices, and determining cost-effectiveness. PMID:24088272

  11. Genome-wide linkage analysis in a Dutch multigenerational family with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vegt, Rinus; Bertoli-Avella, Aida M; Tulen, Joke H M; de Graaf, Bianca; Verkerk, Annemieke J M H; Vervoort, Jeroen; Twigt, Carla M; Maat-Kievit, Anneke; van Tuijl, Ruud; van der Lijn, Marieke; Hengeveld, Michiel W; Oostra, Ben A

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Genetics has an important role in the aetiology of this disease. In this study, we describe the clinical findings in a Dutch family with eight patients suffering from ADHD, in whom five had at least one other psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide (parametric and nonparametric) affected-only linkage analysis. Two genomic regions on chromosomes 7 and 14 showed an excess of allele sharing among the definitely affected members of the family with suggestive LOD scores (2.1 and 2.08). Nonparametric linkage analyses (NPL) yielded a maxNPL of 2.92 (P=0.001) for marker D7S502 and a maxNPL score of 2.56 (P=0.003) for marker D14S275. We confirmed that all patients share the same haplotype in each region of 7p15.1–q31.33 and 14q11.2–q22.3. Interestingly, both loci have been reported before in Dutch (affected sib pairs) and German (extended families) ADHD linkage studies. Hopefully, the genome-wide association studies in ADHD will help to highlight specific polymorphisms and genes within the broad areas detected by our, as well as other, linkage studies. PMID:19707245

  12. The Role of Dutch Government in Curriculum Design and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Jenniskens, Ineke

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of Dutch higher education looks at whether a 1985 proposal for fundamental changes in the relationship between government and higher education institutions has been implemented with regard to curriculum design. It is concluded that, despite policy intentions for increased institutional autonomy, the government retains relatively tight…

  13. Acquisition of Publications from Asiatic Countries: Dutch Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiltman, Maria J.

    This presentation of the Dutch experience with the international exchange of publications focuses on the acquisition of publications from China and Indonesia to illustrate problems of availability. Lack of depository systems, restrictive export policies, inadequate national bibliographies, exorbitant commercial prices, and time consuming delivery…

  14. Smoking among Dutch Elementary Schoolchildren: Gender-Specific Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausems, M.; Mesters, I.; van Breukelen, G.; De Vries, H.

    2009-01-01

    Higher rates of smoking initiation and continuation by female compared with male adolescents, as found in many developed countries, may call for gender-specific prevention programs. Risk factors of smoking initiation and continuation were examined prospectively (1997-2002) among 3205 Dutch elementary schoolchildren (mean age 11.64) in an…

  15. The Speed of Obsolescence: Evidence from the Dutch Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loo, Jasper B.

    2007-01-01

    HRD is extensively concerned with human capital investment, but only focuses on how skills and knowledge become obsolete to a limited extent. In this paper we look at the speed of obsolescence. Using data from a survey among Dutch public sector employees, we find that the yearly rate of skills obsolescence is 2.6%. Subsequent analyses show that…

  16. Developments and Issues in Dutch Adult Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Barry

    The three areas of educational activity recognized by the Dutch have developed historically into distinct and separate institutionalized sectors for educational provision for adults. These areas are knowledge-based, skill-based, and value-based. Each is the responsibility of a different governmental department and cabinet minister. Educational…

  17. "Modern" Governance and Codes of Conduct in Dutch Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Harry; Goedegebuure, Leo

    2007-01-01

    As one of the first countries in Europe to do so, The Netherlands moved towards a new relationship between the state and the higher education institutions in the mid-1980s. Autonomy, quality and accountability were key considerations in this move. In 2006 the Dutch government proposed another radical innovation in its approach to higher education…

  18. Contact Hours in Dutch and Vietnamese Higher Education: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quyen, Do Thi Ngoc

    2009-01-01

    The number of contact hours, one of the important institutional context factors, was examined and compared between Dutch and Vietnamese higher education at institute and student levels in Psychology and Business and/or Economics specializations. The quantity of contact hours per credit point given by institutions was investigated in a number of…

  19. Gender Representation and Participation in Dutch Human Geography Departments. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970s the under-representation of women in geography has been questioned in several publications. Most articles refer to the situation in English-speaking countries. This paper examines the vertical and horizontal gender segregation in human geography departments in Dutch universities. In spite of several policy measures…

  20. Towards an "Americanization" of Dutch Drug Policy? [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ineke Haen; And Others

    Historically, the Netherlands liberal approach to the problems related to drug use has been based on tolerance and a pragmatic concern for "harm reduction." Since the early 1980s, however, a shift has taken place in the direction of a tougher policy. This document describes: (1) the main features of the Dutch approach to the control of…

  1. Rhythm versus Analogy: Prosodic Form Variation in Dutch Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neijt, Anneke; Schreuder, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Creating compound nouns is the most productive process of Dutch morphology, with an interesting pattern of form variation. For instance, "staat" "nation" simply combines with "kunde" "art" ("staatkunde" "political science, statesmanship"), but needs a linking element "s" or "en" to form staatsschuld "national debt" and "statenbond"…

  2. Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gays among American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; Horn, Stacey S.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the U.S. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context-dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056

  3. From Curacao: Papiamentu at Home, Dutch in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances Faircloth

    1997-01-01

    Three major issues shape delivery of education in the Caribbean island of Curacao: the Dutch and Papiamentu languages of instruction, the two governmental layers, and scarcity of resources. Despite funding limitations, education is changing. The five-year general secondary education model and the six-year college preparatory program are being…

  4. Career Guidance and Student Success in Dutch Higher Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Wierik, Mark L. J.; Beishuizen, Jos; van Os, Willem

    2015-01-01

    To enhance student success, a growing number of vocational education and training institutions in the Netherlands are nowadays implementing new career guidance practices in their competence-based approaches to learning. Based on individual-level data of undergraduate first-year full-time students from a Dutch university of applied sciences, this…

  5. Mentoring in Dutch Vocational Education: An Unfulfilled Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijers, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2002 an estimated 250 mentoring programmes were started in Dutch secondary vocational education in order to decrease motivational problems and drop-out rates, especially among youngsters from ethnic minorities. Currently there are only two schools in secondary vocational education that include mentoring as part and parcel of their…

  6. The Dutch-Belgian beamline at the ESRF.

    PubMed

    Borsboom, M; Bras, W; Cerjak, I; Detollenaere, D; Glastra Van Loon, D; Goedtkindt, P; Konijnenburg, M; Lassing, P; Levine, Y K; Munneke, B; Oversluizen, M; Van Tol, R; Vlieg, E

    1998-05-01

    A brief description is given of the design principles and layout of the Dutch-Belgian beamline at the ESRF. This beamline optimizes the use of the available bending-magnet radiation fan by splitting the beam into two branches, each accommodating two experimental techniques. PMID:15263564

  7. Measurement of Tear Production in English Angora and Dutch Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Rafiee, Siamak Mashhady; Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Masouleh, Mohammad N; Jamshidian, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for tear production tests in different breeds of domestic rabbits. Healthy adult rabbits (n = 60; 120 eyes) of 2 different breeds (English angora and Dutch; n = 15 of each sex and breed) were used in this study. Tear production was measured by using the 1-min Schirmer tear test (STT), phenol red thread test (PRTT), and endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT). In addition, horizontal palpebral fissure length was evaluated as a measure of ocular adnexal dimensions. Tear production (mean ± 1 SD) in English angora rabbits was 5.4 ± 1.6 mm/min according to the STT, 25.0 ± 2.7 mm in 15 s for the PRTT, and 18.8 ± 2.1 mm/min by the EAPTT; in Dutch rabbits, these values were 4.6 ± 1.2 mm/min, 23.6 ± 2.3 mm in 15 s, and 16.9 ± 1.7 mm/min, respectively. Only the EAPTT revealed a significant difference in tear production between English Angora and Dutch rabbits. These results provide reference values for tear production in English Angora and Dutch rabbits according to 3 different quantitative tear film assessment methods. PMID:27025815

  8. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  9. Dutch Treat for U.S. Database Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumans, Jak

    1984-01-01

    Reports on investments in the United States (including database activities) by four Dutch publishing companies--Elsevier-NDU, VNU, Kluwer, Wolters Samsom Group. An analysis of the reasons behind these investments, the solidness of the companies, the approach to the U.S. information market, and the knowledge transfer to Europe are highlighted. (EJS)

  10. Citizenship Education and the Dutch National Identity Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of dramatic demographic changes during the last half century as well as a series of recent events surrounding prominent personas, the Dutch have been engaged in an intense debate about their national identity and how citizenship education can contribute to the integration of Muslim immigrants in particular. This article analyses the…

  11. Exploring EFL Literature Approaches in Dutch Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloemert, Jasmijn; Jansen, Ellen; van de Grift, Wim

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the inclusion of literature in foreign language (FL) curricula can be beneficial to language learners. Especially, the move towards integrated language and literature curricula is gaining ground. In this study we investigated the way English as a foreign language (EFL) is approached in Dutch secondary…

  12. Collaboration on ICT in Dutch Higher Education: The SURF Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boezerooy, Petra; Cordewener, Bas; Liebrand, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In "Thinking Ahead: A Vision of the Role of ICT in Education and Research in the Future, 2007-2010," the higher education institutions in the Netherlands agreed on future strategy. Under the direction of SURF, the Dutch national organization, a collaborative strategy for the application of information and communications technology (ICT) was…

  13. Alliances in the Dutch BeweegKuur Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Hartog, Franciska; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; van Dijk, Marieke; Koelen, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: BeweegKuur (Exercise Therapy) is a Dutch lifestyle programme in which participants are referred by a general practitioner (GP) to a lifestyle advisor. To support participants, regional and local alliances are established. The present study explored the successes and challenges associated with collaboration processes in local BeweegKuur…

  14. Two Profiles of the Dutch High Performing Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Waal, A. A.; Oudshoorn, Michella

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the profile of an ideal employee, to be more precise the behavioral characteristics of the Dutch high-performing employee (HPE). Organizational performance depends for a large part on the commitment of employees. Employees provide their knowledge, skills, experiences and creativity to the…

  15. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  16. Cognitive and Linguistic Constraints on Phoneme Isolation in Dutch Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Saskia; Hasselman, Fred; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether task instructions affect sound-isolation performance. The effects of phoneme class and phoneme position were also assessed. Two hundred Dutch kindergartners were presented with a free-sound-isolation task and its constrained counterparts: an initial-, a middle-, and a final-sound-isolation task. All tasks contained…

  17. How Dutch employees experience freedom of learning for work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-12-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Lifelong Learning (LLL) Research Hub. The comparative study focused on employees' quest for "freedom of learning for work". This paper reports on the Dutch part of the research, the quantitative results of which seem to indicate that the freedom of learning for work is not as important to Dutch employees as might be expected. In a second phase, to investigate employees' experiences of work-related learning in more depth, the Dutch researchers added a follow-up qualitative study, involving one-on-one interviews. In order to triangulate the results of the quantitative and qualitative research phases, the authors then added a mixed-methods sequential explanatory analysis. They assessed the quality of the collected data in both distinct phases by identifying converging results, which are useful for refining our understanding of learning for work. The paper draws both on rich insights into workplace learning based on this research as well as on theoretical literature which refers to concepts like motivation, subjectivity, work identity and agency in connection with the quest for freedom of learning.

  18. Tensions in water management: Dutch tradition and European policy.

    PubMed

    Ravesteijn, W; Kroesen, O

    2007-01-01

    Present-day worldwide water problems require new management tools and sustainable system innovations. At Delft University of Technology research is being carried out into water resources and management development aimed at forming such tools and innovations, focused on Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). One of the case-studies deals with Dutch water management and technology in the context of European IRBM in the form of the 2000 Water Frame Directive. The Netherlands experience many water problems and European IRBM could bring help by offering a framework for both international cooperation and technological innovations. To work as an adequate management tool European IRBM should be tailored to the Dutch water tradition, which recently culminated in Integrated Water Management. Both approaches are in some respects contradicting. Europe pursues, for example, centralized control; while the Dutch have their strongly water boards based decentralized administration. The tensions between both approaches require mutual adaptation, for which the concept of subsidiarity might offer points of departure. This paper describes the first results of the case-research into Dutch water management and technology in the context of Europe as well as the backgrounds and the set-up of the research as a whole. PMID:17851211

  19. A Collaborative Dialogue--Research in Dutch Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Ven, Piet-Hein

    2007-01-01

    In order to address a perceived gap between academic knowledge and education, The Dutch National Advisory Board on Education has suggested that there is a need for more communication between research and practice. For me the gap is more than simply a matter of lack of communication, than a result of the model of Research, Development and Diffusion…

  20. Phonotactics and Morphophonology in Early Child Language: Evidence from Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Fikkert, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates children's knowledge of how surface pronunciations of lexical items vary according to their phonological and morphological context. Dutch-learning children aged 2.5 and 3.5 years were tested on voicing neutralization and morphophonological alternations. For instance, voicing does not alternate between the pair…

  1. SEAFOOD PROCESSING PERMITTING, ALASKA - UNALASKA BAY - DUTCH HARBOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unalaska Bay - Dutch Harbor was digitized from NOAA Marine Charts #16528, #16529, and #16530. Map details include water depth and land. This map was created for EPA Region 10 Water Division to evaluate NPDES permit sites and environmental quality. Visual illustration facilitates ...

  2. Sex Differences on the Dutch WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Posthuma, Danielle; Dolan, Conor V.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Colom, Roberto; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2006-01-01

    Using multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA), this study investigated whether sex differences were present on the Dutch WAIS-III, and if so, whether these sex differences were attributable to differences in general intelligence ("g"). The sample consisted of 294 females and 228 males between 18 and 46 years old. Both first…

  3. Development of a Test of Spoken Dutch for Prospective Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, John H. A. L.; Lennig, Matthew; Kerkhoff, Anne; Poelmans, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Based on a parliamentary vote with broad support, the Ministry of Justice of the Netherlands in December 2003 commissioned the development of an examination system to test the Dutch oral language skills of foreigners who want to immigrate permanently to the Netherlands for economic or family reasons. This assessment would take place in the country…

  4. Organisational Factors and Teachers' Professional Development in Dutch Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arnoud T.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Kreijns, Karel; Gerrichhauzen, John T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study that investigates the relationship between organisational factors, Teachers' Professional Development (TPD) and occupational expertise. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was administered among 152 Dutch teachers in secondary education. Findings: Analysis of the data revealed that of…

  5. How Dutch Employees Experience Freedom of Learning for Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe…

  6. Social Role Participation Questionnaire for patients with ankylosing spondylitis: translation into Dutch, reliability and construct validity

    PubMed Central

    van Genderen, Simon; Plasqui, Guy; Lacaille, Diane; Arends, Suzanne; van Gaalen, Floris; van der Heijde, Désirée; Heuft, Liesbeth; Keszei, András; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Landewé, Robert; Gignac, Monique; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) assesses the influence of health on participation in 11 specific and one general participation role across 4 participation dimensions: ‘importance’, ‘satisfaction with time’, ‘satisfaction with performance’ and ‘physical difficulty’. This study aimed to translate the SRPQ into Dutch, and assess the clinimetric properties and aspects of its validity among patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Translation was performed using the dual panel approach. For each participation dimension, internal consistency, test-retest reliability (n=31), and construct validity were assessed in 246 patients with AS. Results The translation required only minor adaptations. Cronbach αs were α≥0.7. A strong correlation was present between satisfaction with ‘time’ and ‘performance’(r=0.85). Test-retest reliability was satisfactory (κ=0.79–0.95). Correlations with participation domains of the Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), the WHO Disease Assessment Score II, and generic as well as disease-specific health outcomes (Physical and Mental component scale of the SF-36, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functioning Index (BASFI)) were at least moderate (r=−0.41 to 0.75) for all dimensions except for ‘role importance’ where correlations were weak (r≤40). Discriminative ability across 5 self-reported health states was good for all dimensions (p<0.01). The ‘general participation’ role showed similar reliability and validity for each dimension, as the average of the all 11 roles. Conclusions The Dutch version of the SRPQ is available to help understand social role participation of patients with AS. The dimension ‘role importance’ measures a distinct aspect of participation. The general participation item was a good global measure of participation. PMID:26870393

  7. Applying Dutch and US Versions of the BSID-II in Dutch Children Born Preterm Leads to Different Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, J. J.; Houtzager, B. A.; Overdiek, B.; van Wassenaer, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the application of Dutch versus US test procedures and norms of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd edition (BSID-II) leads to different developmental outcomes. The BSID-II was administered to 376 preterm infants (191 males, 185 females; mean gestational age 30wks [SD 2.7], mean…

  8. Cardiac Diseases in People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Akker, M.; Maaskant, M. A.; van der Meijden, R. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In people with ID there is more morbidity than in the general population, including cardiac diseases. Dutch figures on this subject are scarce. Methods: Descriptive study of the prevalence of cardiac diseases in 436 residential clients in Echt, the Netherlands, and comparisons between men and women, age groups, and level and aetiology…

  9. Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus Americana L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change and the global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are e...

  10. QUIESCENT H-MODE, AN ELM-FREE HIGH-CONFINEMENT MODE ON DIII-D WITH POTENTIAL FOR STATIONARY STATE OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    WEST,WP; BURRELL,KH; deGRASSIE,JS; DOYLE,EJ; GREENFIELD,CM; LASNIER,CJ; SNYDER,PB; ZENG,L

    2003-08-01

    OAK-B135 The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) is an ELM-free and stationary state mode of operation discovered on DIII-D. This mode achieves H-mode levels of confinement and pedestal pressure while maintaining constant density and radiated power. The elimination of edge localized modes (ELMs) and their large divertor loads while maintaining good confinement and good density control is of interest to next generation tokamaks. This paper reports on the correlations found between selected parameters in a QH-mode database developed from several hundred DIII-D counter injected discharges. Time traces of key plasma parameters from a QH-mode discharge are shown. On DIII-D the negative going plasma current (a) indicates that the beam injection direction is counter to the plasma current direction, a common feature of all QH-modes. The D{sub {alpha}} time behavior (c) shows that soon after high powered beam heating (b) is applied, the discharge makes a transition to ELMing H-mode, then the ELMs disappear, indicating the start of the QH period that lasts for the remainder of the high power beam heating (3.5 s). Previously published work showing density and temperature profiles indicates that long-pulse, high-triangularity QH discharges develop an internal transport barrier in combination with the QH edge barrier. These discharges are known as quiescent, double-barrier discharges (QDB). The H-factor (d) and stored energy (c) rise then saturate at a constant level and the measured axial and minimum safety factors remain above 1.0 for the entire QH duration. During QDB operation the performance of the plasma can be very good, with {beta}{sub N}*H{sub 89L} product reaching 7 for > 10 energy confinement times. These discharges show promise that a stationary state can be achieved.

  11. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified 17 helminth species from 136 foxes by mucosal scraping, centrifugal sedimentation/flotation and the washing and sieving technique. We applied rarefaction analysis to our samples and compared the resulting curve to the helminth community reported in literature 35 years ago. Results Fox helminth species significantly increased in number in the last 35 years (p-value <0.025). Toxascaris leonina, Mesocestoides litteratus, Trichuris vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are four new veterinary-relevant species. The zoonotic fox tapeworm (E. multilocularis) was found outside the previously described endemic regions in the Netherlands. Conclusions Helminth fauna in Dutch red foxes increased in biodiversity over the last three decades. PMID:24708710

  12. M3D-C1 simulations of plasma response in ELM-mitigated ASDEX Upgrade and DIII-D discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, B. C.; Ferraro, N. M.; Haskey, S. R.; Logan, N. C.

    2015-11-01

    The extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code M3D-C1 is used to study the time-independent, linear response of tokamak equilibria to applied, 3D magnetic perturbations. In doing so, we seek to develop a more complete understanding of what MHD phenomena are responsible for the mitigation and suppression of edge-localized modes (ELMs) and to explain why the success of ELM suppression experiments differs both within a single tokamak and across different tokamaks. We consider such experiments on ASDEX Upgrade and DIII-D. We examine how resonant and non-resonant plasma responses are affected by varying the relative magnitude and phase of sets of magnetic coils. The importance of two-fluid effects, rotation profiles, plasma β, collisionality, bootstrap current profiles, and various numerical parameters are explored. The results are verified against other MHD codes (e.g., IPEC, MARS), correlated to observations of ELM mitigation or suppression, and validated against observed magnetic responses. Work supported in part by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466, and the FES Postdoctoral Research Program.

  13. Hybrid-Like Discharges With 2/1 Flux-Pumping Due to ELM-NTM Coupling in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. D.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Makowski, M. A.; Holcomb, C. T.; Allen, S. L.; Meyer, W. H.; La Haye, R. J.; Petty, C. C.; Osborne, T. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Luce, T. C.; Volpe, F.; Austin, M. E.; Morse, E. C.

    2011-10-01

    Edge localized mode (ELM)-neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) coupling pumps poloidal flux from the core to the edge in hybrid discharges, contributing to flattening of the safety factor profile and avoidance of sawteeth. Direct motional Stark effect diagnostic analysis of internal magnetic field pitch angles show 2/1 NTMs exhibit stronger magnetic flux-pumping than typical hybrids, albeit at lower beta. This 2/1 flux-pumping is present during partial electron cyclotron current drive NTM suppression. This finding may lead to an alternative discharge with normalized fusion performance exceeding that required for Qfus = 10 operation in ITER. The strength of flux-pumping increases with beta and proximity of the NTM to the ELMing pedestal. Individual ELM-NTM coupling events are successfully modeled using the modified Rutherford equation (MRE). Work supported by US DOE under DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG03-97ER54415, and DE-FG03-89ER51116.

  14. Preventing ventriculostomy-related infections with antibiotic-impregnated drains in hospitals: a two-centre Dutch study.

    PubMed

    Verberk, J D M; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, J W; Arts, M P; Dennesen, P J W; Bonten, M J M; van Mourik, M S M

    2016-04-01

    This observational cohort study assessed the effect of the introduction of antibiotic-impregnated external ventricular drains (AI-EVDs), as opposed to plain silicone EVDs, on the occurrence of ventriculostomy-related infections (VRIs) in two Dutch hospitals, with no other changes to their clinical practice. VRI was defined using the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and with a culture-based definition. A propensity-score-adjusted competing risks survival analysis showed that introduction of AI-EVDs did not significantly decrease the risk of VRIs in routine care, nor affect the bacterial aetiology, even after adjustment for confounding and competing events. PMID:26895616

  15. Combatting Electoral Traces: The Dutch Tempest Discussion and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Wolter

    In the Dutch e-voting debate, the crucial issue leading to the abandonment of all electronic voting machines was compromising radiation, or tempest: it would be possible to eavesdrop on the choice of the voter by capturing the radiation from the machine. Other countries, however, do not seem to be bothered by this risk. In this paper, we use actor-network theory to analyse the socio-technical origins of the Dutch tempest issue in e-voting, and we introduce concepts for discussing its implications for e-voting beyond the Netherlands. We introduce the term electoral traces to denote any physical, digital or social evidence of a voter’s choices in an election. From this perspective, we provide a framework for risk classification as well as an overview of countermeasures against such traces.

  16. Modelling of ELM-averaged power exhaust on JET using the EDGE2D code with variable transport coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirnev, G.; Fundamenski, W.; Corrigan, G.

    2007-06-01

    The scrape-off layer (SOL) of the JET tokamak has been modelled using a two-dimensional plasma/neutral code, EDGE2D/NIMBUS, with variable transport coefficients, chosen according to nine candidate theories for radial heat transport in the SOL. Comparison of the radial power width on the outer divertor plates, λq, predicted by modelling and measured experimentally in L-mode and ELM-averaged H-mode at JET is presented. Transport coefficients based on classical and neo-classical ion conduction are found to offer the best agreement with experimentally measured λq magnitude and scaling with target power, upstream density and toroidal field. These results reinforce the findings of an earlier study, based on a simplified model of the SOL (Chankin 1997 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39 1059), and support the earlier estimate of the power width at the entrance of the outer divertor volume in ITER, λq ap 4 mm mapped to the outer mid-plane (Fundamenski et al 2004 Nucl. Fusion 44 20).

  17. Modeling of divertor particle and heat loads during application of resonant magnetic perturbation fields for ELM control in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, O.; Becoulet, M.; Cahyna, P.; Evans, T. E.; Feng, Y.; Frerichs, H.; Kirschner, A.; Kukushkin, A.; Laengner, R.; Lunt, T.; Loarte, A.; Pitts, R.; Reiser, D.; Reiter, D.; Saibene, G.; Samm, U.

    2013-07-01

    First results from three-dimensional modeling of the divertor heat and particle flux pattern during application of resonant magnetic perturbation fields as ELM control scheme in ITER with the EMC3-Eirene fluid plasma and kinetic neutral transport code are discussed. The formation of a helical magnetic footprint breaks the toroidal symmetry of the heat and particle fluxes. Expansion of the flux pattern as far as 60 cm away from the unperturbed strike line is seen with vacuum RMP fields, resulting in a preferable heat flux spreading. Inclusion of plasma response reduces the radial extension of the heat and particle fluxes and results in a heat flux peaking closer to the unperturbed level. A strong reduction of the particle confinement is found. 3D flow channels are identified as a consistent reason due to direct parallel outflow from inside of the separatrix. Their radial inward expansion and hence the level of particle pump out is shown to be dependent on the perturbation level.

  18. Organic Compounds in Elm Fork Trinity River Water Used for Public Supply near Carrollton, Texas, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ging, Patricia B.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2009-01-01

    Organic compounds studied in this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment generally are man-made, including pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, refrigerants, and propellants. A total of 103 of 277 compounds were detected at least once among the 30 samples of source water for a community water system on the Elm Fork Trinity River near Carrollton, Texas, collected approximately monthly during 2002-05. The diversity of compounds detected indicates a variety of different sources and uses (including wastewater discharge, industrial, agricultural, domestic, and others) and different pathways (including overland runoff and groundwater discharge) to drinking-water supplies. Nine compounds were detected year-round in source-water samples, including chloroform, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and selected herbicide compounds commonly used in the Trinity River Basin and in other urban areas across the United States. About 90 percent of the 42 compounds detected most frequently in source water (in at least 20 percent of the samples) also were detected most frequently in finished water (after treatment but before distribution). Concentrations for all detected compounds in source and finished water generally were less than 0.1 microgram per liter and always less than human-health benchmarks, which are available for about one-half of the detected compounds.

  19. Microbiology of wetwood: importance of pectin degradation and Clostridium species in living trees. [Eastern Cottonwood; Block Poplar; American Elm

    SciTech Connect

    Schink, B.; Ward, J.C.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1981-09-01

    Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (10 to the power of 4 to 10 to the power of 6 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (is less than or equal to 0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these wetwoods was identified as Clostridium butyricum. Pectin decomposition by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 was associated with an inducible polygalacturonate lyase and pectin methylesterase, the same types of pectinolytic activity expressed in the wetwood of these trees. The pH optimum of the extracellular polygalacturonate lyase was alkaline (near pH 8.5). In vitro tests with sapwood samples from a conifer (Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii) showed that tori in membranes of bordered pits are degraded by pure cultures of strain 4P1, polygalacturonate lyase enzyme preparations of strain 4P1, and mixed methanogenic cultures from the tree samples of wetwood. These results provide evidence that pectin in xylem tissue is actively degraded by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 via polygalacturonate lyase activity. The importance of pectin degradation by bacteria, including Clostridium species, appears paramount in the formation and maintenance of the wetwood syndrome in certain living trees. (Refs. 38).

  20. Vapor shielding effects on energy transfer from plasma-gun generated ELM-like transient loads to material surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Isono, W.; Nakazono, T.; Nakane, M.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy transfer processes from ELM-like pulsed helium (He) plasmas with a pulse duration of ˜0.1 ms to aluminum (Al) and tungsten (W) surfaces were experimentally investigated by the use of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device. The surface absorbed energy density of the He pulsed plasma on the W surface measured with a calorimeter was ˜0.44 MJ m-2, whereas it was ˜0.15 MJ m-2 on the Al surface. A vapor layer in front of the Al surface exposed to the He pulsed plasma was clearly identified by Al neutral emission line (Al i) measured with a high time resolution spectrometer, and fast imaging with a high-speed visible camera filtered around the Al i emission line. On the other hand, no clear evaporation in front of the W surface exposed to the He pulsed plasma was observed in the present condition. Discussions on the reduction in the surface absorbed energy density on the Al surface are provided by considering the latent heat of vaporization and radiation cooling due to the Al vapor cloud.

  1. Surface modifications on toughened, fine-grained, recrystallized tungsten with repetitive ELM-like pulsed plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Ueda, Y.; Kurishita, H.

    2015-08-01

    Surface modifications of toughened, fine-grained, recrystallized tungsten (TFGR W) materials with 1.1 wt.% TiC and 3.3 wt.% TaC dispersoids due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed (∼0.15 ms) helium plasma irradiation have been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. No surface cracking at the center part of the TFGR W samples exposed to 20 plasma pulses of ∼0.3 MJ m-2 was observed. The suppression of surface crack formation due to the increase of the grain boundary strength by addition of TiC and TaC dispersoids was confirmed in comparison with a pure W material. On the other hand, surface cracks and small pits appeared at the edge part of the TFGR W sample after the pulsed plasma irradiation. Erosion of the TiC and TaC dispersoids due to the pulsed plasma irradiation could cause the small pits on the surface, resulting in the surface crack formation.

  2. Comparing vegetation indices for remote chlorophyll measurement of white poplar and Chinese elm leaves with different adaxial and abaxial surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shan; Lu, Xingtong; Zhao, Wenli; Liu, Yu; Wang, Zheyi; Omasa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Quick non-destructive assessment of leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) is important for studying phenotypes related to plant growth and stress resistance. This study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative relationship between LCC and different vegetation indices (VIs) on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of white poplar (Populus alba), which has dense tubular hairs on its abaxial surface, and Chinese elm (Ulmus pumila var. pendula), which does not show obvious superficial differences except for lighter colour on the abaxial surface. Some published and newly developed VIs were tested to relate them to LCC. The results showed that most of the published VIs had strong relationships with LCC on the one-surface dataset, but did not show a clear relationship with LCC when both adaxial and abaxial surface reflectance data were included. Among the reflectance indices tested, the modified Datt index, (R 719−R 726)/(R 719−R 743), performed best and is proposed as a new index for remote estimation of chlorophyll content in plants with varying leaf surface structures. It explained 92% of LCC variation in this research, and the root mean square error of the LCC prediction was 5.23 μg/cm2. This new index is insensitive to the effects of adaxial and abaxial leaf surface structures and is strongly related to the variation in reflectance caused by chlorophyll content. PMID:26034132

  3. Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Stiegert, Julia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that the significant predictors of photo-naming latencies were name agreement, word frequency, imageability, and image agreement. The naming latencies, norms, and stimuli are provided as supplemental materials. PMID:26122979

  4. [The Dutch emigration pattern around 1840 in the European perspective].

    PubMed

    Stokvis Prd

    1980-01-01

    "In 1850 and 1860 the Netherlands ranked eighth among twelve North-Western European nations that contributed to the transatlantic migration. The Dutch emigration pattern reflecting the agrarian crisis of the 1840's resembled the one of Hanover and Westphalia, be it that like in Scandinavia the ecclesiastical situation played a more important part. Besides the motivating forces, conditions such as information, organization, public and official reactions, and transportation are reviewed." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12311282

  5. Preliminary assessment of potential well yields and the potential for artificial recharge of the Elm and Middle James aquifers in the Aberdeen area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A complex hydrologic system exists in the glacial drift overlying the bedrock in the Aberdeen, South Dakota, area. The hydrologic system has been subdivided into three aquifers: the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James. These sand-and-gravel outwash aquifers generally are separated from each other by till or other fine-grained sediments. The Elm aquifer is the uppermost and largest of the aquifers and underlies about 204 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Elm aquifer is 1,400 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1,225 ft. The Middle James aquifer underlies about 172 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Middle James aquifer is 1,250 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1 ,150 ft. The lower-most Deep James aquifer was not evaluated. The quality of the water from the Elm and Middle James aquifer varies considerably throughout the study area. The predominant chemical constituents in the water from the aquifers are sodium and sulfate ions; however, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, or chloride may dominate locally. The calculated theoretical total well yield from the Elm and Middle James aquifers ranges from a minimum of 64 cu ft/sec, which may be conservative, to a maximum of 640 cu ft/sec. Based on available data, yields of 100 to 150 cu ft/sec probably can be obtained from properly sited and constructed wells. The feasibility of artificially recharging an aquifer, using the technique of water spreading, depends on the geologic and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and of the sediments overlying the aquifer through which the recharge water must percolate. The sites suitable for artificial recharge in the study area were defined as those areas where the average aquifer thickness was > 20 ft and the average thickness of the fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer was < 10 ft. Using these criteria, about 14 sq mi of the study area are suitable for artificial recharge. Infiltration rates in

  6. Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP): ultra-fast kernel ELM-based classification with non-iterative closed-form weight calculation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Manuel; Cernadas, Eva; Barro, Senén; Ribeiro, Jorge; Neves, José

    2014-02-01

    The Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP) (Fernández-Delgado et al., 2010) is a very simple and fast kernel-based classifier, related to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and to the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) (Huang, Wang, & Lan, 2011), whose α-coefficients are calculated directly, without any iterative training, using an analytical closed-form expression which involves only the training patterns. The DKP, which is inspired by the Direct Parallel Perceptron, (Auer et al., 2008), uses a Gaussian kernel and a linear classifier (perceptron). The weight vector of this classifier in the feature space minimizes an error measure which combines the training error and the hyperplane margin, without any tunable regularization parameter. This weight vector can be translated, using a variable change, to the α-coefficients, and both are determined without iterative calculations. We calculate solutions using several error functions, achieving the best trade-off between accuracy and efficiency with the linear function. These solutions for the α coefficients can be considered alternatives to the ELM with a new physical meaning in terms of error and margin: in fact, the linear and quadratic DKP are special cases of the two-class ELM when the regularization parameter C takes the values C=0 and C=∞. The linear DKP is extremely efficient and much faster (over a vast collection of 42 benchmark and real-life data sets) than 12 very popular and accurate classifiers including SVM, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Adaboost, Random Forest and Bagging of RPART decision trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis, K-Nearest Neighbors, ELM, Probabilistic Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function neural networks and Generalized ART. Besides, despite its simplicity and extreme efficiency, DKP achieves higher accuracies than 7 out of 12 classifiers, exhibiting small differences with respect to the best ones (SVM, ELM, Adaboost and Random Forest), which are much slower. Thus, the DKP provides an easy and fast way

  7. High fatigue scores among older Dutch nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Vera; Hoekman, Jaap; van Zundert, André

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, hospital care production pressure recently increased substantially, while the number of nurse anesthetists available did not match this rise. The longtime existing norm of no night shifts for nurses beyond the age of 55 years was increased to age 57 to meet the demand for more nurse anesthetists. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine the level of fatigue and its correlation with demographic items among this category of employees. A validated questionnaire was distributed to all Dutch nurse anesthetists above 50 years of age working in Dutch hospitals, which asked for their level of fatigue. The Checklist Individual Strength Questionnaire was used to measure fatigue. Overall, 105 of 115 potential participants completed the questionnaire (response rate, 91%). The mean scores (+/- standard deviation) were as follows: total fatigue, 81.3 +/- 8.3; subjective fatigue, 31.4 +/- 3.2; physical activity, 13.1 +/- 2.2; motivation, 16.8 +/- 2.6; and concentration, 20.0 +/- 3.8. No correlation could be demonstrated between demographic characteristics and fatigue. Dutch nurse anesthetists above the age of 50 years show a high fatigue score and therefore need special attention to prevent them from harmful physical and psychological effects and to sustain maximal patient safety. PMID:25109162

  8. When Correction Turns Positive: Processing Corrective Prosody in Dutch

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Diana V.; Stowe, Laurie A.; Hoeks, John C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research on spoken language does not provide a consistent picture as to whether prosody, the melody and rhythm of speech, conveys a specific meaning. Perception studies show that English listeners assign meaning to prosodic patterns, and, for instance, associate some accents with contrast, whereas Dutch listeners behave more controversially. In two ERP studies we tested how Dutch listeners process words carrying two types of accents, which either provided new information (new information accents) or corrected information (corrective accents), both in single sentences (experiment 1) and after corrective and new information questions (experiment 2). In both experiments corrective accents elicited a sustained positivity as compared to new information accents, which started earlier in context than in single sentences. The positivity was not modulated by the nature of the preceding question, suggesting that the underlying neural mechanism likely reflects the construction of an interpretation to the accented word, either by identifying an alternative in context or by inferring it when no context is present. Our experimental results provide strong evidence for inferential processes related to prosodic contours in Dutch. PMID:25973607

  9. Sexual orientation of parents and Dutch family law.

    PubMed

    van Nijnatten, C H

    1995-01-01

    A few years ago, the Dutch government asked for advice about the legal consequences of various living arrangements. One of the main issues concerned the legal consequences thereof for children. In a letter to parliament, the Dutch cabinet confirmed that couples of the same sex would be excluded from being awarded children for adoption. Legal and psychological reasons play an important role in the reasoning of the Dutch government. The harmonious development of children is supposed to be at risk when the child is reared by two adults of the same sex. This article sets out psychological theories and the results of recent research which contradict the argumentation presented in a number of recent reports published by the government. The outcome of most research is that gay and lesbian parents 'perform' as well as heterosexual parents. Excluding lesbian and gay parents from taking responsibility for children seems to be a poor policy which does not take into account the social capacities of the population. PMID:8868496

  10. [Dutch-Romanian cooperation in the area of family practice].

    PubMed

    van Es, J C

    2001-10-27

    During the years 1992-2000, there was a cooperative programme between the Romanian general practitioners' association (Societatea Nationala de Medicina Generala) in Romania and the Dutch Foundation for the Advancement of Quality in Healthcare in Romania. A succession of programmes were developed and carried out, which were financed by the Dutch government. The purpose of the cooperative programme was to support the development of Romanian general practice in terms of quality and structure. In the first programme, financed by the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, about 200 Romanian general practitioners received continuing education. This was followed by a social transformation programme (MATRA) that had two parts: (a) the general practitioners association was supported and advised with respect to improving its organisational efficiency and (b) about 50 carefully selected Romanian general practitioners were trained, in post-academic research, management or teaching. The Romanian authorities accredited these trainees as teachers. The co-operation is being continued in 2001 with the setting up of a sentinel station programme in which 100 Romanian general practitioners collect relevant, representative data on health, illness and practice. PMID:11715598

  11. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384

  12. Summary of the Dutch S3-guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis 2011. Dutch Society of Dermatology and Venereology.

    PubMed

    Zweegers, J; de Jong, E M G J; Nijsten, T E C; de Bes, J; te Booij, M; Borgonjen, R J; van Cranenburgh, O D; van Deutekom, H; van Everdingen, J J E; de Groot, M; Van Hees, C L M; Hulshuizen, H; Koek, M B G; de Korte, W J A; de Korte, J; Lecluse, L L A; Pasch, M C; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P A; Prens, E P; Seyger, M M B; Thio, H B; Torcque, L A; de Vries, A C Q; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Spuls, Ph I

    2014-03-01

    This document provides a summary of the Dutch S3-guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis. These guidelines were finalized in December 2011 and contain unique chapters on the treatment of psoriasis of the face and flexures, childhood psoriasis as well as the patient's perspective on treatment. They also cover the topical treatment of psoriasis, photo(chemo)therapy, conventional systemic therapy and biological therapy. PMID:24656281

  13. Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B.; Hoek, Gerard; Beelen, Rob; de Hoogh, Kees; Breugelmans, Oscar; Kruize, Hanneke; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Houthuijs, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with mortality in urban cohort studies. Few studies have investigated this association in large-scale population registries, including non-urban populations. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Netherlands based on existing national databases. Methods We used existing Dutch national databases on mortality, individual characteristics, residence history, neighborhood characteristics, and national air pollution maps based on land use regression (LUR) techniques for particulates with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Using these databases, we established a cohort of 7.1 million individuals ≥ 30 years of age. We followed the cohort for 7 years (2004–2011). We applied Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential individual and area-specific confounders. Results After adjustment for individual and area-specific confounders, for each 10-μg/m3 increase, PM10 and NO2 were associated with nonaccidental mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.09 and HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03, respectively], respiratory mortality (HR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17 and HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03, respectively), and lung cancer mortality (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.30 and HR = 1.10 95% CI: 1.09, 1.11, respectively). Furthermore, PM10 was associated with circulatory disease mortality (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.08), but NO2 was not (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.01). PM10 associations were robust to adjustment for NO2; NO2 associations remained for nonaccidental mortality and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for PM10. Conclusions Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 was associated with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Dutch population of ≥ 30 years of age. Citation Fischer PH, Marra M, Ameling CB, Hoek G, Beelen R, de

  14. [Coeliac disease and dentistry].

    PubMed

    van Gils, T; de Boer, N K H; Bouma, G

    2015-09-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic autoimmune enteropathy, which is caused by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically pre-disposed individuals. -Approximately 0.5-1% of the Dutch population has coeliac disease, diag-nosed at both younger and older age. Treatment consists of a strict gluten-free diet. Symptoms can be diverse, including dental and oral manifestations. These dental and oral manifestations are often seen in patients with coeliac disease, although most of them are nonspecific. This is not the case for the symmetric enamel defects described by Aine and colleagues, which are very specific for coeliac disease. Early diagnosing of coeliac disease is important to prevent complications by (vitamin) deficiencies or rare (pre) malignant forms of coeliac disease. There seems to be a role for dentists in early diagnosing of coeliac disease. PMID:26397103

  15. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Bart, Aldert; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands. Methodology Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC), having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March through September 2013, risk factor questions were asked to all donors who volunteered to donate blood or blood components. Serum samples were collected from donors reporting one or more risk factors, and screened for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi by EIA. Results Risk factors for T. cruzi infection were reported by 1,426 of 227,278 donors (0.6%). Testing 1,333 at-risk donors, none (0.0%; 95%, CI 0.0–0.4%) was seroreactive for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. A total of 472 donors were born in a CEC; 553 donors reported their mother being born in a CEC; and 1,121 donors reported a long-term stay in a CEC. The vast majority of reported risk factors were related to Suriname and Brazil. Overall, the participants resided for 7,694 years in CECs, which equals 2.8 million overnight stays. Of those, 1.9 million nights were spent in Suriname. Conclusions/Significance Asymptomatic T. cruzi infection appears to be extremely rare among Dutch blood donors. Blood safety interventions to mitigate the risk of T. cruzi transmission by transfusion would be highly cost-ineffective in the Netherlands, and are thus not required. PMID:26950434

  16. Requests for euthanasia in general practice before and after implementation of the Dutch Euthanasia Act

    PubMed Central

    van Alphen, Jojanneke E; Donker, Gé A; Marquet, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Background The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in 2002. It is unknown whether legalising euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. Aim To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasia in Dutch general practice after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Design of study Retrospective dynamic cohort study comparing 5 years before (1998–2002) and 5 years after (2003–2007) implementation of the Act. Method Standardised registration forms were used to collect data on requests for euthanasia via the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. This network of 45 general practices is nationally representative by age, sex, geographic distribution, and population density. Results The mean annual incidence of requests before implementation amounted to 3.1/10 000 and thereafter to 2.8/10 000 patients. However, trends differed by sex. The number of requests by males decreased significantly from 3.7/10 000 to 2.6/10 000 (P = 0.008); the requests by females increased non-significantly from 2.6/10 000 to 3.1/10 000. Before and after implementation, cancer remained the major underlying disease for requesting euthanasia: 82% versus 77% for men; 73% versus 75% for females. Pain was a major reason for a request, increasing in the period before implementation (mean 27%), but declining in the period thereafter (mean 22%). Loss of dignity became a less important reason after implementation (from 18% to 10%, P = 0.04), predominantly due to a marked decrease in the number of females citing it as a reason (from 17% to 6%, P = 0.02). Conclusion There was no increase in demand for euthanasia after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Pain as a reason for requesting euthanasia showed an increasing trend before implementation, but declined thereafter. Loss of dignity as a reason declined, especially in females. PMID:20353671

  17. Retinal Microvasculature Is Associated With Long-Term Survival in the General Adult Dutch Population.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Unal; Ikram, M Kamran; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Klaver, Caroline C W; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-02-01

    Retinal vascular diameters are associated with (sub)clinical cardiovascular disease and short-term cardiovascular mortality, but their association with long-term mortality is uncertain. We studied the association of retinal vascular diameters with cause-specific mortality in the general adult Dutch population during 25 years of follow-up. From 1990 to 1993, arteriolar and venular diameters were measured semiautomatically on digitized images in 5674 persons (mean age 68.0 years, 59% women) from the population-based Rotterdam study. Follow-up for mortality was complete till March 2015. Associations between vascular diameters and mortality were examined using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and the fellow vessel diameter. During 85 770 person-years (mean±SD: 15.1±6.67), 3794 (66.8%) persons died, of whom 1034 due to cardiovascular causes. We found that narrower arterioles and wider venules were associated with higher risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD decrease 1.04 [1.00-1.08] and increase 1.07 [1.03-1.12], respectively). For arterioles, these associations were strongest for cardiovascular mortality, whereas venules showed consistent associations for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. Importantly, these associations remained unchanged after excluding the first 10 years of follow-up as immortal person-time. We found evidence for effect modification with stronger associations in persons <70 years (venules only) and smokers (P value for interaction<0.01). We replicated our findings in another independent cohort from the Rotterdam Study of 3106 persons with 19 880 person-years of follow-up and 144 deaths (hazard ratio for venules 1.22 [1.00-1.49]). Markers of retinal microvasculature are associated with long-term mortality in the general adult Dutch population. PMID:26628677

  18. Dutch general practitioners' referral of children to specialists: a comparison between 1987 and 2001

    PubMed Central

    Otters, Hanneke; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Schellevis, François G; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although children are frequently referred to specialists, detailed information on referral patterns of them is scarce. Even less information is available on how referral patterns evolve over time. Aims: To examine current referral patterns for children aged 0–17 years and compare these with referral patterns reported for 1987. Design of study: Data were analysed from two national cross-sectional surveys, performed in 2001 (91 general practices) and in 1987 (103 general practices). Setting: Dutch general practice. Method: All new referrals to specialists were assessed by age, sex, International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) category, specialty referred to, and specific episodes of disease. Referral measures were quantified as new referrals per 1000 person–years and per 100 new episodes, a measure of likelihood of a young person with a specific diagnosis to be referred. Rates in 2001 were compared with those from 1987. Results: Referral rates decreased from 138 per 1000 person–years in 1987, to 84 per 1000 person–years in 2001. Age differences in referral rates were similar in both surveys. Compared with 1987, more boys than girls were referred to specialists. The overall likelihood of a condition being referred decreased from 8.0 per 100 episodes in 1987 to 6.5 per 100 episodes in 2001. Reasons for referral had also changed by 2001, particularly for the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist and ophthalmologist. Moreover, referral rates for acute otitis media, refractive disorders, and vision problems decreased two- to fourfold in 2001. Conclusion: Presently, Dutch general practitioners tend to manage more health problems themselves and refer less young people to specialists. PMID:15527611

  19. Risk factors related to Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huifang; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; Luttikholt, Saskia; Maas, Miriam; Nielen, Mirjam; Swart, Arno; Vellema, Piet; van der Giessen, Joke; Opsteegh, Marieke

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can cause disease in goats, but also has impact on human health through food-borne transmission. Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats and to identify the risk factors related to T. gondii seroprevalence. Fifty-two out of ninety approached farmers with indoor-kept goats (58%) participated by answering a standardized questionnaire and contributing 32 goat blood samples each. Serum samples were tested for T. gondii SAG1 antibodies by ELISA and results showed that the frequency distribution of the log10-transformed OD-values fitted well with a binary mixture of a shifted gamma and a shifted reflected gamma distribution. The overall animal seroprevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 11.7–14.9%), and at least one seropositive animal was found on 61.5% (95% CI: 48.3–74.7%) of the farms. To evaluate potential risk factors on herd level, three modeling strategies (Poisson, negative binomial and zero-inflated) were compared. The negative binomial model fitted the data best with the number of cats (1–4 cats: IR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.5; > = 5 cats:IR: 14.2, 95% CI: 3.9–51.1) and mean animal age (IR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1) related to herd positivity. In conclusion, the ELISA test was 100% sensitive and specific based on binary mixture analysis. T. gondii infection is prevalent in indoor housed Dutch dairy goats but at a lower overall animal level seroprevalence than outdoor farmed goats in other European countries, and cat exposure is an important risk factor. PMID:26791753

  20. The debate about acclimatization in the Dutch East Indies (1840-1860).

    PubMed

    de Knecht-van Eekelen, A

    2000-01-01

    Around the middle of the nineteenth century, conflicting views were put forward on the influence of climate on health and disease in the Dutch East Indies. In this part of the world, old Hippocratic ideas influenced views on the cause of disease much longer than in the Netherlands. Moreover, Brunonian theories--which had been discarded in the Netherlands--fitted the discussion about the effect of temperature on the body. Additionally, scientific medicine was introduced. Scientific methods, such as the collection of meteorological and statistical data, were promoted by a small group of military health officers. However, the use of scientific data did not guarantee a clear-cut opinion on the causes of disease. Numbers proved as disputable as other, less objective, medical observations. Mortality statistics and numbers of patients especially were used as arguments in various discussions. The example of Bosch, who changed his views on the dangers of tropical climate, demonstrates that statistics could be used for different purposes. At first, in his position as General Inspector, he used them as an argument to provide better care for the military personnel; later, when retired and a civilian, he used them as justification for colonization in relation to an intended improvement of the living conditions of the natives. The dangers of tropical climate for the health of Europeans were played down as soon as other--primarily economic--motives for living in the tropics became strong enough. PMID:11769938

  1. Science in the service of colonial agro-industrialism: the case of cinchona cultivation in the Dutch and British East Indies, 1852-1900.

    PubMed

    Roersch van der Hoogte, Arjo; Pieters, Toine

    2014-09-01

    The isolation of quinine from cinchona bark in 1820 opened new possibilities for the mass-production and consumption of a popular medicine that was suitable for the treatment of intermittent (malarial) fevers and other diseases. As the 19th century European empires expanded in Africa and Asia, control of tropical diseases such as malaria was seen as crucial. Consequently, quinine and cinchona became a pivotal tool of British, French, German and Dutch empire-builders. This comparative study shows how the interplay between science, industry and government resulted in different historical trajectories for cinchona and quinine in the Dutch and British Empires during the second half of the 19th century. We argue that in the Dutch case the vectors of assemblage that provided the institutional and physical framework for communication, exchange and control represent an early example of commodification of colonial science. Furthermore, both historical trajectories show how the employment of the laboratory as a new device materialised within the colonial context of agricultural and industrial production of raw materials (cinchona bark), semi-finished product (quinine sulphate) and plant-based medicines like quinine. Hence, illustrating the 19th century transition from 'colonial botany' and 'green imperialism' to what we conceptualise as 'colonial agro-industrialism'. PMID:24981994

  2. [The Health Council of the Netherlands' advice on Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Verbon, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    There are many misconceptions about Lyme disease. At the initiative of the Dutch Association for Lyme Patients, the Lower House of the Dutch Parliament requested a report on Lyme disease. The Health Council of the Netherlands advised standardization of Lyme serology in all Dutch laboratories as soon as possible. Standardization of diagnostic serological tests was strongly recommended. Studies into new tests which discriminate between active disease and past infection were recommended. Patients with Lyme disease were divided in those with Lyme specific and non-specific symptoms and duration of symptoms. Treatment advice was given for each of these 6 patient categories with a prominent role for the decision of the attending physician. Additionally it was advised to set up specialized treatment centers with a multidisciplinary approach. The report clearly shows the problems in care for Lyme patients from the perspective of both patients and physicians, but is cautious in the solutions offered. PMID:23859114

  3. Choices in Dutch health care: mixing strategies and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    van der Grinten, T E; Kasdorp, J P

    1999-12-01

    In the light of experience that choices in health care appear to be not so much hindered by a lack of insight into how choices should be made in theory, as uncertainty as to how choices could be made in practice, this paper sets out to deepen our insight into the dynamics of health care policy making within the concrete socio-economic and political context. The paper examines how Dutch policy-makers have dealt with the priority issue in health care over the past 10 years by means of a gradual incremental approach. In this approach, use is made of a mix of strategies and shared responsibilities, with an important role for the actors at the meso and the micro levels; while at the same time, the government has not abandoned the tried and trusted policy of national rationing (i.e. keeping the production capacity limited and setting a ceiling on production in order to resist the pressure on the public system of Dutch health care). Looking at the declining percentage of Gross National Product assigned to health care annually, the broad accessibility and the good overall quality of Dutch health care, it may be concluded that the issue of choice has not come off badly under this mixed approach. The degree to which the system can respond adequately to likely developments, such as a recession, worsening waiting lists, further liberalisation (i.e. the application of market forces in health care) and, by way of extension, the ongoing integration of 'Europe' is questioned. PMID:10827303

  4. Prevalence of intramammary infection in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, Otlis; Barkema, Herman W; Berends, Inge; Sol, Jan; Lam, Theo

    2009-05-01

    A survey was carried out in 2003 in 49 dairy herds to determine the overall and pathogen-specific prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in Dutch dairy herds, and to compare the distribution with four studies performed from 1973 to 1985 in The Netherlands. Herds were randomly selected stratified over the 12 Dutch provinces, had at least 40 lactating cows and participated in the Dutch milk recording system. Quarter milk samples were collected from all 408 cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >or=250,000 cells/ml and 145 heifers with SCC >or=150,000 cells/ml at the last milk test before the farm visit. Additionally, samples were collected from 519 (approximately 25%) of the remaining low-SCC cows and heifers with a SCC at the last milk test before the farm visit of <250 000 and <150 000 cells/ml, respectively. Bacterial growth occurred in 37.3% of milk samples of high-SCC cows and in 21.1% of low-SCC cows. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated group of bacteria (10.8% of quarters) and were found in all herds. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus IMI was lower in 2003 than in 1973, respectively 1.8% and 6.2% of quarters. Prevalence of Streptococcus uberis and Str. dysgalactiae IMI was almost the same in the five samplings during the 30-year period, at 1.1-1.7 and 0.9-1.5%, respectively. Str. agalactiae was not found in this study. Prevalence of CNS IMI was higher in lactating heifers, while prevalence of Str. uberis, Str. dysgalactiae and penicillin-resistant Staph. aureus IMI was higher in older cows. Because distribution of pathogens changes over time, herd-level samples for bacteriological culturing must be taken regularly to monitor udder health. Additionally, national mastitis prevalence studies give important information through monitoring the national udder health status. PMID:19121233

  5. Secular trend of dental development in Dutch children.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Strahinja; de Vries, Esther; Eilers, Paul H C; Willemsen, Sten P; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Prahl-Andersen, Birte; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Wolvius, Eppo B; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have established dental age standards for different populations; however, very few studies have investigated whether dental development is stable over time on a population level. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze changes in dental maturity in Dutch children born between 1961 and 2004. We used 2,655 dental panoramic radiographs of 2- to 16-year-old Dutch children from studies performed in three major cities in the Netherlands. Based on a trend in children born between 1961 and 1994, we predicted that a child of a certain age and gender born in 1963 achieved the same dental maturity on average, 1.5 years later than a child of the same age born 40 years later. After adjusting for the birth year of a child in the analysis, the regression coefficient of the city variable was reduced by 56.6% and it remained statistically significant. The observed trend from 1961 to 1994 was extrapolated to 9- to 10-year-old children born in 2002-2004, and validation with the other samples of children with the same characteristics showed that 95.9%-96.8% of the children had dental maturity within the 95% of the predicted range. Dental maturity score was significantly and positively associated with the year of birth, gender, and age in Dutch children, indicating a trend in earlier dental development during the observation period, 1961-2004. These findings highlight the necessity of taking the year of birth into account when assessing dental development within a population with a wider time span. PMID:24912457

  6. Implicit Motivational Processes Underlying Smoking in American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Helle; Kong, Grace; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Boendermaker, Wouter; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Wiers, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the US and the Netherlands. Within the group of smokers, we examined the relative predictive value of the cognitive biases and impulsivity related constructs (including inhibition skills, working memory, and risk taking) on daily smoking and nicotine dependence. Method: A total of 125 American and Dutch adolescent smokers (n = 67) and non-smokers (n = 58) between 13 and 18 years old participated. Participants completed the smoking approach–avoidance task, the classical and emotional Stroop task, brief implicit associations task, balloon analog risk task, the self-ordering pointing task, and a questionnaire assessing level of nicotine dependence and smoking behavior. Results: The analytical sample consisted of 56 Dutch adolescents (27 smokers and 29 non-smokers) and 37 American adolescents (19 smokers and 18 non-smokers). No differences in cognitive biases between smokers and non-smokers were found. Generally, Dutch adolescents demonstrated an avoidance bias toward both smoking and neutral stimuli whereas the American adolescents did not demonstrate a bias. Within the group of smokers, regression analyses showed that stronger attentional bias and weaker inhibition skills predicted greater nicotine dependence while weak working memory predicted more daily cigarette use. Conclusion: Attentional bias, inhibition skills, and working memory might be important factors explaining smoking in adolescence. Cultural differences in approach–avoidance bias should be considered in future research. PMID:24904435

  7. Eliminating Social Inequality by Reinforcing Standard Language Ideology? Language Policy for Dutch in Flemish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delarue, Steven; De Caluwe, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Flanders, the northern, Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, is experiencing growing intra- and interlingual diversity. On the intralingual level, Tussentaal ("in-between-language") has emerged as a cluster of intermediate varieties between the Flemish dialects and Standard Dutch, gradually becoming "the" colloquial language. At the…

  8. Articles, Adjectives and Age of Onset: The Acquisition of Dutch Grammatical Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Polisenska, Daniela; Weerman, Fred

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of the error profiles of monolingual (child L1) learners of Dutch, Moroccan children (child L2) and Moroccan adults (adult L2) learning Dutch as their L2 shows that participants in all groups massively overgeneralize [-neuter] articles to [+neuter] contexts. In all groups, the reverse gender mistake infrequently occurs. Gender…

  9. In the Shadow of Tolerance: The Discursive Context of Dutch-Born Muslim Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaal, Mayida

    2014-01-01

    Despite a public discourse on tolerance, anxiety about immigrants, Islam and the preservation of Dutch values has amplified fear of Muslim youth in the Netherlands. In this context, Dutch-born Muslim youth endure social and systemic discrimination that affects all aspects of their futures, including available educational opportunities and…

  10. Parent Involvement as Professionalization: Professionals' Struggle for Power in Dutch Urban Deprived Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Marguerite; van Reekum, Rogier

    2011-01-01

    Parent involvement policies have been central in the Dutch push towards educational governance. How the implementation of these policies plays out on the ground is context-dependent. The ethnic and class cleavages impacting the Dutch educational system should be taken into account. On the basis of 50 in-depth interviews with teachers, social…

  11. Observations of the 1761 and 1769 transits of Venus from Batavia (Dutch East Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gent, Robert H.

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the observations of the 1761 and 1769 transits of Venus by the Dutch-German clergyman Johan Maurits Mohr (1716-1775) from Batavia (Dutch East Indies). We will investigate how Mohr became interested in observing this phenomenon and how he made the necessary preparations. Finally, the fate of his observatory and his instruments will be discussed.

  12. Eight Years of Specialist Training of Dutch Intellectual Disability Physicians: Results of Scientific Research Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2009-01-01

    Training in scientific research methods and skills is a vital part of Dutch specialist training in intellectual disability medicine. The authors evaluated results of such training at one Dutch university medical facility that had an obligatory research program involving projects conducted by the physicians-in-training (topics, teamwork, acquired…

  13. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  14. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  15. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  16. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  17. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  18. Modeling the Developmental Patterning of Finiteness Marking in English, Dutch, German, and Spanish Using MOSAIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenthal, Daniel; Pine, Julian M.; Aguado-Orea, Javier; Gobet, Fernand

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we apply MOSAIC (model of syntax acquisition in children) to the simulation of the developmental patterning of children's optional infinitive (OI) errors in 4 languages: English, Dutch, German, and Spanish. MOSAIC, which has already simulated this phenomenon in Dutch and English, now implements a learning mechanism that better…

  19. Modeling the Development of Children's Use of Optional Infinitives in Dutch and English Using MOSAIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenthal, Daniel; Pine, Julian M.; Gobet, Fernand

    2006-01-01

    In this study we use a computational model of language learning called model of syntax acquisition in children (MOSAIC) to investigate the extent to which the optional infinitive (OI) phenomenon in Dutch and English can be explained in terms of a resource-limited distributional analysis of Dutch and English child-directed speech. The results show…

  20. Modality, Infinitives, and Finite Bare Verbs in Dutch and English Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the meaning of nonfinite clauses ("root infinitives") in Dutch and English child language. I present experimental and naturalistic data confirming the claim that Dutch root infinitives are more often modal than English root infinitives. This cross-linguistic difference is significantly smaller than previously assumed,…

  1. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  2. Zertifikat Niederlaendisch: Examen en getuigschrift Nederlands als vreemde taal (Certificate in Dutch)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beersmans, Frans; Sudhoelter, Juergen

    1976-01-01

    An interim report on preparations for designing an examination in Dutch. The "unit-credit system" proposed by the Council of Europe is being used. The Dutch certificate will be comparable to the certificates given by the British Council and by the People's Universities. Sample portions are given. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  3. From Noun to Intensifier: Massa and Massa's in Flemish Varieties of Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Clerck, Bernard; Colleman, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a case of synchronic layering is examined in which Dutch "massa" ("mass") and plural "massa's" ("masses") are attested with lexical uses as a collective noun, quantifying uses ("a large quantity of") and intensifying uses ("very")--with plural "massa's" only--in some Flemish varieties of Dutch. Against the background of…

  4. Influence of Linguistic Environment on Children's Language Development: Flemish versus Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiefferink, C. H.; Spaai, G. W. G.; Uilenburg, N.; Vermeij, B. A. M.; De Raeve, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, language development of Dutch children with a cochlear implant (CI) in a bilingual educational setting and Flemish children with a CI in a dominantly monolingual educational setting is compared. In addition, we compared the development of spoken language with the development of sign language in Dutch children. Eighteen…

  5. Phoneme Awareness, Vocabulary and Word Decoding in Monolingual and Bilingual Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Marije; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47 immigrant first-grade children with various…

  6. Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in Dutch: Evidence from Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje; Blom, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Across languages, children do not comprehend 3SG/3PL subject-verb agreement before age five, despite early mastery in spontaneous speech. This study investigates subject-verb agreement in a language hitherto not studied in this respect, namely Dutch. The authors examine if (1) Dutch two- and three-year-olds comprehend subject-verb agreement and…

  7. Changing Places: A Cross-Language Perspective on Frequency and Family Size in Dutch and Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram; Schreuder, Robert; De Jong, Nivja H.; Baayen, R. Harald

    2005-01-01

    This study uses the morphological family size effect as a tool for exploring the degree of isomorphism in the networks of morphologically related words in the Hebrew and Dutch mental lexicon. Hebrew and Dutch are genetically unrelated, and they structure their morphologically complex words in very different ways. Two visual lexical decision…

  8. A Comparison of Dutch and US Teachers' Perceptions of the Incidence and Management of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havey, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Dutch and US teachers were questioned about their perceptions of the incidence and causes of ADHD, as well as their views of appropriate treatments. Dutch teachers were more likely than US teachers to think the etiology of the disorder lay in biochemistry, while US teachers were more likely to believe in a combination of environmental and…

  9. Speech Rate in a Pluricentric Language: A Comparison between Dutch in Belgium and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Jo; De Pauw, Guy; Kloots, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates speech rate in two standard national varieties of Dutch on the basis of 160 15 mins conversations with native speakers who belong to four different regions in the Netherlands and four in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium (Flanders). Speech rate was quantified as articulation rate and speaking rate, both expressed as the…

  10. Patient safety in Dutch primary care: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insight into the frequency and seriousness of potentially unsafe situations may be the first step towards improving patient safety. Most patient safety attention has been paid to patient safety in hospitals. However, in many countries, patients receive most of their healthcare in primary care settings. There is little concrete information about patient safety in primary care in the Netherlands. The overall aim of this study was to provide insight into the current patient safety issues in Dutch general practices, out-of-hours primary care centres, general dental practices, midwifery practices, and allied healthcare practices. The objectives of this study are: to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients; to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals; and to provide insight into patient safety management in primary care practices. Design and methods The study consists of three parts: a retrospective patient record study of 1,000 records per practice type was conducted to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients (objective one); a prospective component concerns an incident-reporting study in each of the participating practices, during two successive weeks, to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals (objective two); to provide insight into patient safety management in Dutch primary care practices (objective three), we surveyed organizational and cultural items relating to patient safety. We analysed the incidents found in the retrospective patient record study and the prospective incident-reporting study by type of incident, causes (Eindhoven Classification Model), actual harm (severity-of-outcome domain of the International Taxonomy of Medical Errors in Primary Care), and probability of severe harm or death. Discussion

  11. Victimization and Suicidality Among Dutch Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Henny M. W.; van Lisdonk, Jantine; Keuzenkamp, Saskia; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2013-01-01

    We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also associated with actual suicide attempts. Suicidality in this population could be reduced by supporting coping strategies of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths who are confronted with stigmatization by peers and parents, and by schools actively promoting acceptance of same-sex sexuality. PMID:23153134

  12. Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe

    2001-01-01

    Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education. We provide information on the nature of flame retardants in general and the mechanisms of flame retardation. In addition, we offer a complete pedagogical presentation of the topic, including the use of video and some simple laboratory experiments, that was developed and successfully implemented in both countries.

    Featured on the Cover

  13. Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved

  14. An ELM-resilient rf arc detection system for DIII-D based on electromagnetic and sound emissions from the arc

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Two detection methods based solely on sound and electromagnetic emissions form the arc are presented. Detection of arc induced sound signals 40 to 50 dB above background noise are observed. Detection of arc induced low radio frequency (HF) electromagnetic noise levels 20 to 60 dB above background are observed. The arc noise is randomly strongest on side A and/or B of the DIII-D rf system. The sum of these sensors correlates with tripping due to an increase in the rf reflection coefficient. The sensors are resilient to ELMs and other plasma noise.

  15. Nonlinear fluid simulation of particle and heat fluxes during burst of ELMs on DIII-D with BOUT++  code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, T. Y.; Xu, X. Q.

    2015-09-01

    In order to study the distribution and evolution of the transient particle and heat fluxes during edge-localized mode (ELM) bursts, a BOUT++  six-field two-fluid model based on the Braginskii equations with non-ideal physics effects is used to simulate pedestal collapse in divertor geometry. The profiles from the DIII-D H-mode discharge #144382 with fast target heat flux measurements are used as the initial conditions for the simulations. A flux-limited parallel thermal conduction is used with three values of the flux-limiting coefficient {αj} , free streaming model with {αj}=1 , sheath-limit with {αj}=0.05 , and one value in between. The studies show that a 20 times increase in {αj} leads to  ∼6 times increase in the heat flux amplitude to both the inner and outer targets, and the widths of the fluxes are also expanded. The sheath-limit model of flux-limiting coefficient is found to be the most appropriate one, which shows ELM sizes close to the measurements. The evolution of the density profile during the burst of ELMs of DIII-D discharge #144382 is simulated, and the collapse in width and depth of {{n}\\text{e}} are reproduced at different time steps. The growing process of the profiles for the heat flux at divertor targets during the burst of ELMs measured by IRTV (infrared television) is also reproduced by this model. The widths of heat fluxes towards targets are a little narrower, and the peak amplitudes are twice the measurements possibly due to the lack of a model of divertor radiation which can effectively reduce the heat fluxes. The magnetic flutter combined with parallel thermal conduction is found to be able to increase the total heat loss by around 33% since the magnetic flutter terms provide the additional conductive heat transport in the radial direction. The heat flux profile at both the inner and outer targets is obviously broadened by magnetic flutter. The lobe structures near the X-point at LFS are both broadened and elongated due

  16. Do Mothers Have the Right to Bring up Their Own Children? How Facts Do Not Determine (Dutch) Government Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allewijn, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch government has a double moral message for Dutch parents. On the one hand, they expect mothers to work more hours outside the home; on the other hand, they expect parents to perform better in their parental tasks. New research shows again that in spite of all stimulation measures, Dutch women with children prefer their part-time jobs, and…

  17. Social Integration and Religious Identity Expression among Dutch Muslims: The Role of Minority and Majority Group Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliepaard, Mieke; Phalet, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of contrasting religious versus secular norms in immigrant communities and in Dutch society, this study examines how religious identity expression is related to the social integration of Dutch Muslims within (a) Turkish or Moroccan minority groups and (b) Dutch majority groups. Using nationally representative survey data (N…

  18. Phonological and morphological consistency in the acquisition of vowel duration spelling in Dutch and German.

    PubMed

    Landerl, Karin; Reitsma, Pieter

    2005-12-01

    In Dutch, vowel duration spelling is phonologically consistent but morphologically inconsistent (e.g., paar-paren). In German, it is phonologically inconsistent but morphologically consistent (e.g., Paar-Paare). Contrasting the two orthographies allowed us to examine the role of phonological and morphological consistency in the acquisition of the same orthographic feature. Dutch and German children in Grades 2 to 4 spelled singular and plural word forms and in a second task identified the correct spelling of singular and plural forms of the same nonword. Dutch children were better in word spelling, but German children outperformed the Dutch children in nonword selection. Also, whereas German children performed on a similar level for singular and plural items, Dutch children showed a large discrepancy. The results indicate that children use phonological and morphological rules from an early age but that the developmental balance between the two sources of information is constrained by the specific orthography. PMID:15975590

  19. Natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis and prognostic value of cholangiography in a Dutch population

    PubMed Central

    Ponsioen, C Y; Vrouenraets, S M E; Prawirodirdjo, W; Rajaram, R; Rauws, E A J; Mulder, C J J; Reitsma, J B; Heisterkamp, S H; Tytgat, G N J

    2002-01-01

    Background: Median survival of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has been estimated to be 12 years. Cholangiography is the gold standard for diagnosis but is rarely used in estimating prognosis. Aims: To assess the natural history of Dutch PSC patients and to evaluate the prognostic value of a cholangiographic classification system. Patients: A total of 174 patients with established PSC attending a university hospital and three teaching hospitals from 1970 to 1999. Methods: Charts were reviewed for validity and time of diagnosis, concurrent inflammatory bowel disease, interventions, liver transplantation, occurrence of cholangiocarcinoma, and death. Follow up data were obtained from the charts and from the attending clinician or family physician. Median follow up was 76 months (range 1–300). The earliest available cholangiography was scored using a radiological classification system for the severity of sclerosis, developed in our institution. Survival curves were computed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cholangiographic staging was used to construct a prognostic model, applying Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: The estimated median survival from time of diagnosis to death from liver disease or liver transplantation was 18 years. Cholangiocarcinoma was found in 18 (10%) patients. Fourteen patients (8%) underwent liver transplantation. Cholangiographic scoring was inversely correlated with survival. A combination of intrahepatic and extrahepatic scoring, together with age at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, proved strongly predictive of survival. Conclusions: The observed survival was considerably better than reported in earlier series from Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Classification and staging of cholangiographic abnormalities has prognostic value. PMID:12235081

  20. How to target uncertainty in Dutch invasive cardiovascular care

    PubMed Central

    Jessurun, G.A.J.; Peels, J.O.J.; Zijlstra, F.

    2004-01-01

    Current meetings of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Working Group on Intervention Cardiology have shown that new strategic developments in the Dutch healthcare system have created much turbulence and uncertainty amongst members of the organisations. Both on-site and off-site new cardiac centres with and without surgical backup, respectively, are arising or being planned throughout the Netherlands. These strategic adaptations are related to service delivery failure, despite appropriate quality measures. To understand the reasoning behind this uncertainty and how to deal with it, we need to explore its origin and thinking. Its rationale is based on the assumption that each organisation relies on its ability to survive through innovation and transformation. Cardiologists and cardiac surgeons are key players in a large group of stakeholders participating in the chain of cardiovascular care. In addition, the Dutch healthcare system is deeply embedded in a historical sociopolitical environment. This may explain why ongoing uncertainty may beget more uncertainty. What are the consequences for the content of the route forward? PMID:25696266

  1. Control of VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat production.

    PubMed

    Reinders, R D; Weber, M F; Lipman, L J; Verhoeff, J; Bijker, P G

    2001-05-21

    The Dutch government and the meat industry, recognising VTEC as having important public health, meat quality and economic implications, have taken a number of initiatives within the last 5 years to control VTEC in livestock and meat. These initiatives, brought together last year in a 'Masterplan VTEC', include short-, middle- and long-term priorities. Short-term priorities include advice on interventions in the cases of an outbreak of VTEC associated with a cattle herd, the implementation of handbooks for Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in slaughterhouses and deboning plants, and the execution of an action programme on zero-tolerance to faecal contamination of carcasses. Mid-term activities include surveillance of the occurrence of VTEC and other enteropathogens in livestock and meat, and the investigations of VTEC population dynamics in dairy farms, transportation and farm hygiene. In the longer term, this programme aims to produce a system of Integrated Quality Assurance, consolidating effective measures to control VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat, and integrating emerging means for control and prevention. PMID:11407551

  2. Public cancer information by GPs: evaluation of a Dutch campaign.

    PubMed

    Visser, A; Alkema, I; van Koppen, K

    1994-10-01

    A postal survey among Dutch general practitioners (N = 259) investigated to what extent GPs acted as intermediaries in the provision of information about cancer, in order to encourage patients to consult their general practitioners with questions about cancer. The GPs received a box with three types of folders and a poster free of charge. Only few GPs showed resistance to the unsolicited reception of information material. They were positive towards the Dutch Cancer Society and considered it part of their task to provide patients with information about cancer. Nearly all GPs placed the box with folders in their waiting rooms, while 43% put up the poster. The leaflet and the poster entitled 'Don't walk around with questions' were negatively assessed by around half of the GPs due to the generalized information about cancer, which they felt might arouse fear. The GPs tended to make use of the information material if they had a positive opinion of it, ascribed themselves a role in providing information about cancer, and had positive expectations of the campaign. Biographical factors and characteristics of the GPs practice had hardly any influence on the use of the information material. The practical implication and research method used are discussed. Additional study among patients is stressed. PMID:7746761

  3. A change of direction in the Dutch health care system?

    PubMed

    Lapré, R M

    1988-08-01

    The Dutch health care system seems to be undergoing a clear change of direction. The publication of the Report of the Committee of the Structure and Financing of the Health Care System is a prominent document which marks the emergence of a new trend. After an analysis of the characteristics of the Dutch health care system in the periods 1960-1975 and 1975-1985, an account is given of the most important proposals of the committee. The proposals clearly alter the trend towards more governmental involvement. They envisage a more market-oriented approach and freedom of operation while at the same time paying attention to aspects such as solidarity and social justice. The Committee's suggestions include the introduction of a basic insurance scheme for every citizen with a coverage determined by law, and in addition a voluntary supplementary insurance scheme in which the insured can decide what coverage he requires and that the insurer is obliged to accept him. The fact that there is a certain amount of agreement, at least over the direction that the strategy for change should take, justifies the expectation that many of the committee's proposals will be implemented. PMID:10288395

  4. Rationing and competition in the Dutch health-care system.

    PubMed

    Schut, Frederik T; Van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we examine the goals and effects of health-care policy in the Netherlands over the period 1980--2000. During this period Dutch health-care policy is marked by a peculiar combination of increasingly stringent cost-containment policies alongside a persistent pursuit of market-oriented reforms. The main goal of cost containment was to keep labour costs down under the restriction of universal equal access to health care. Supply and price control policies were quite successful in achieving cost containment, but in due course prolonged quantity rationing began to jeopardise universal physical access to health services. The main goal of market-oriented health-care reforms is to increase the system's efficiency and its responsiveness to patient's needs, while maintaining equal access. The feasibility of the reforms crucially hinges on the realisation of adequate methods of risk adjustment, product classification and quality measurement, an appropriate consumer information system and an effective competition policy. Realising these preconditions requires a lengthy and cautious implementation process. Although considerable progress has been made in setting the appropriate stage for regulated competition in Dutch health care, the role of the market is still limited. PMID:16161190

  5. Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Wanli

    The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir

  6. Notes from Batavia, the Europeans' graveyard: the nineteenth-century debate on acclimatization in the Dutch East Indies.

    PubMed

    Pols, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of European colonial expansion, medical theories of acclimatization have been inextricably related to convictions about the possibility and desirability of white settlement in the colonies, and political ideas of colonial governance. Before 1800, acclimatization theories emphasized the inherent flexibility of the human constitution and its ability to adapt to new environments. During the first half of the nineteenth century, European theorists came to highlight the vulnerability of white Europeans in the tropics to disease, degeneration, and death instead. They consequently argued that white settlement in the tropics was impossible and inadvisable. European physicians in the British and French colonies presented similar views. By contrast, their colleagues in the Dutch East Indies remained optimistic. They associated themselves with the colonial European settler community and shared their grievances against autocratic colonial rule. They presented medical theories which related acclimatization to prudent behavior, morality, and proper management of the environment, thereby downplaying the significance of climate and high temperatures. During the following decades, their views on acclimatization were transferred to the Netherlands, where they were deployed as an argument against the cultivation system, the then-current approach of colonial governance, which emphasized the trade of cash crops grown by the indigenous population, severely limited European settlement, and curtailed the rights of Europeans living in the Indies. Throughout the nineteenth century, the influence of climate and the possibility of acclimatization became recurring themes in debates about colonial governance in both the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands. PMID:21317422

  7. [Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. I. Effectiveness and acceptance of the Dutch National Vaccination Programme].

    PubMed

    Rümke, H C; Visser, H K

    2004-02-21

    Vaccinations are the most effective measures in public health. In the Netherlands after the second world war the morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases were a great problem. Nowadays these diseases are gone or reduced at a minimal level and for the greater part under control. The Dutch National Vaccination Programme aims at 10 infectious diseases. In the Netherlands there has always been a relatively small group of religious people who live together and reject vaccinations. Since the start of the vaccination programme in this group several small epidemics of poliomyelitis and measles have been observed. The other dispersed living non-vaccinated people are protected by herd-immunity, as long as the vaccination coverage is above 90%. During recent years an increasing number of people have doubts over the use and safety of vaccinations. There is a worldwide anti-vaccination movement, in the Netherlands represented by the 'Nederlandse Vereniging Kritisch Prikken'. The finding that there is now a greater spread of areas with a low or insufficient vaccination coverage, is cause for concern because experiences in several countries have shown that infectious diseases with all complications will recur when the vaccination percentage decreases. There is no scientific support for the hypothesis that vaccinations overwhelm or weaken the immune system of infants and there is no objection to start with vaccination at the age of two months. Anthroposofic and homeopathic arguments are neither scientifically, nor practically supported. Good promotion and education about the vaccination programme is of great importance and can be improved. Parents should make decisions based on good, objective information. Possible risks and side effects of vaccination should not be concealed. PMID:15032088

  8. Prevalence and treatment of personality disorders in Dutch forensic mental health services.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Corine; Trestman, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    Offenders with serious personality disorders challenge forensic systems throughout the world. In this article, the authors describe the legal system that shapes the forensic treatment of personality-disordered offenders in the Dutch psychiatric and correctional systems. The evolution of laws and regulations are addressed, as is the bifurcation of treatment between forensic hospitals and correctional settings. Prevalence data of personality disorders in the Dutch systems are presented, and comparisons between the Dutch and American systems are delineated. Current treatment modalities are described. Research initiatives and future directions for the system are presented. PMID:17389350

  9. Semi-automatic coding with ICPC: the Thesaurus, the algorithm and the Dutch subtitles.

    PubMed

    Gebel, R S

    1997-01-01

    In the ICPC Thesaurus Project, which ran from 1990 to 1992, the Dutch translation of the English version of the ICPC-components 1 and 7 was made available for automated coding by structuring and improving the thesaurus and by developing an algorithm for selecting possible ICPC-codes from a set of medical terms given as input to the program. The thesaurus and algorithm are available to the developers of GP information systems and are at present incorporated in all Dutch GP-systems. This paper brings you up to date with the semi-automatic coding system and the so called Dutch subtitles, an extension to the ICPC. PMID:10179584

  10. Native dialect influences second-language vowel perception: Peruvian versus Iberian Spanish learners of Dutch.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Peruvian Spanish (PS) and Iberian Spanish (IS) learners were tested on their ability to categorically discriminate and identify Dutch vowels. It was predicted that the acoustic differences between the vowel productions of the two dialects, which compare differently to Dutch vowels, would manifest in differential L2 perception for listeners of these two dialects. The results show that although PS learners had higher general L2 proficiency, IS learners were more accurate at discriminating all five contrasts and at identifying six of the L2 Dutch vowels. These findings confirm that acoustic differences in native vowel production lead to differential L2 vowel perception. PMID:22559460

  11. Detection of early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves using hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; Shao, Yongni; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using hyperspectral imaging for detecting different diseases on tomato leaves. One hundred and twenty healthy, one hundred and twenty early blight and seventy late blight diseased leaves were selected to obtain hyperspectral images covering spectral wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. An extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier model was established based on full wavelengths. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to identify the most important wavelengths. Based on the five selected wavelengths (442, 508, 573, 696 and 715 nm), an ELM model was re-established. Then, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) at the five effective wavelengths were extracted to establish detection models. Among the models which were established based on spectral information, all performed excellently with the overall classification accuracy ranging from 97.1% to 100% in testing sets. Among the eight texture features, dissimilarity, second moment and entropy carried most of the effective information with the classification accuracy of 71.8%, 70.9% and 69.9% in the ELM models. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging has the potential as a non-invasive method to identify early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves. PMID:26572857

  12. Detection of early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuanqi; Shao, Yongni; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using hyperspectral imaging for detecting different diseases on tomato leaves. One hundred and twenty healthy, one hundred and twenty early blight and seventy late blight diseased leaves were selected to obtain hyperspectral images covering spectral wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. An extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier model was established based on full wavelengths. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to identify the most important wavelengths. Based on the five selected wavelengths (442, 508, 573, 696 and 715 nm), an ELM model was re-established. Then, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) at the five effective wavelengths were extracted to establish detection models. Among the models which were established based on spectral information, all performed excellently with the overall classification accuracy ranging from 97.1% to 100% in testing sets. Among the eight texture features, dissimilarity, second moment and entropy carried most of the effective information with the classification accuracy of 71.8%, 70.9% and 69.9% in the ELM models. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging has the potential as a non-invasive method to identify early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves. PMID:26572857

  13. Sex differences in risk taking behavior among Dutch cyclists.

    PubMed

    Cobey, Kelly D; Stulp, Gert; Laan, Freek; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research examining sex differences in risk-taking behavior focuses on overt physical risk measures in which failed risk attempts may result in serious injury or death. The present research describes sex differences in patterns of risk taking in day-to-day behavior among Dutch cyclists. Through three observational studies we test sex differences in risk taking in situations of financial risk (fines for failing to use bike lights, Study 1), theft risk (bike locking behavior, Study 2) as well as physical risk (risky maneuvers, Study 3). Results corroborate previous findings by showing that across these domains men are more inclined to take risks than women. We discuss how these findings might be used in an applied context. PMID:23674522

  14. Secondary traumatization in Dutch couples of World War II survivors.

    PubMed

    Bramsen, Inge; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Twisk, Jos W R

    2002-02-01

    This study examined whether signs of secondary traumatic stress were present in a community sample of couples who experienced World War II. The authors hypothesized that symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in either spouse may be predicted not only by his or her own war experiences but also by the war experiences and posttraumatic symptoms of the partner. Approximately 50 years after the end of World War II, 444 couples from a community sample of elderly Dutch citizens answered a questionnaire. A multilevel regression analysis was performed with symptoms of PTSD as the dependent variable. The most important predictors of PTSD symptoms were the number of war events reported by the participant and the current level of PTSD symptoms of his or her spouse. The results lend empirical support to the notion that posttraumatic stress reactions of both members of a couple are not independent from each other. Several explanations of the findings are discussed. PMID:11862996

  15. Intoxication and criminal responsibility in Dutch criminal Law.

    PubMed

    van Kalmthout, A

    1998-09-01

    This article deals with the question in how far an offence committed in the Netherlands under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be imputed to the offender. Unlike many other countries the Dutch Penal Code does not contain specific provisions with respect to the criminal liability of addicted or intoxicated offenders. In principle, they are held responsible for their offences, even when the dolus or culpa is absent at the moment they commit their offence. Doctrine and jurisprudence found this liability on the principle of 'culpa/dolus in causa', by accepting an anterior dolus or culpa, which is situated at the moment the offender takes alcohol or other drugs. As is shown in this article, the - nondogmatic - interpretation of this culpa in causa doctrine leaves hardly any space for a claim to impunity. PMID:9742271

  16. Secondary traumatization in partners and parents of Dutch peacekeeping soldiers.

    PubMed

    Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Bramsen, Inge; Adèr, Herman; van der Ploeg, Henk M

    2005-06-01

    This study examines secondary traumatization among 708 partners and 332 parents of Dutch peacekeepers (i.e., personnel who participated in military actions implemented by international organizations such as the United Nations). Partners or parents of peacekeepers with 4 levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms were compared on posttraumatic stress, health problems, the quality of the marital relationship, and social support. In comparison with partners of peacekeepers without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, partners of peacekeepers with PTSD symptoms reported more sleeping and somatic problems, reported more negative social support, and judged the marital relationship as less favorable. No significant differences were found for parents. Thus, peacekeepers' stress reactions were related to various problems of their partners. A systemic approach to the treatment of persons with PTSD appears appropriate. PMID:15982097

  17. Consumer choice in Dutch health insurance after reform.

    PubMed

    Maarse, Hans; Meulen, Ruud Ter

    2006-03-01

    This article investigates the scope and effects of enhanced consumer choice in health insurance that is presented as a cornerstone of the new health insurance legislation in the Netherlands that will come into effect in 2006. The choice for choice marks the current libertarian trend in Dutch health care policymaking. One of our conclusions is that the scope of enhanced choice should not be overstated due to many legal and non-legal restrictions to it. The consumer choice advocates have great expectations of the impact of enhanced choice. A critical analysis of its impact demonstrates that these expectations may not become true and that enhanced consumer choice should not be perceived as the 'magic bullet' for many problems in health care. PMID:17137018

  18. The Time Course of Verb Processing in Dutch Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lewis P.; Wester, Femke; Swinney, David A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    The verb has traditionally been characterized as the central element in a sentence. Nevertheless, the exact role of the verb during the actual ongoing comprehension of a sentence as it unfolds in time remains largely unknown. This paper reports the results of two Cross-Modal Lexical Priming (CMLP) experiments detailing the pattern of verb priming during on-line processing of Dutch sentences. Results are contrasted with data from a third CMLP experiment on priming of nouns in similar sentences. It is demonstrated that the meaning of a matrix verb remains active throughout the entire matrix clause, while this is not the case for the meaning of a subject head noun. Activation of the meaning of the verb only dissipates upon encountering a clear signal as to the start of a new clause. PMID:19452278

  19. Autologous and allogeneic serum eye drops. The Dutch perspective.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Korte, Dirk

    2015-08-01

    If regular artificial tears are ineffective for treatment of ocular surface disorders (including extreme dry eye syndrome), serum eye drops (SEDs) may provide a way to relieve the symptoms. However, not all patients are eligible to donate blood to produce autologous SEDs. Therefore, the use of allogeneic SEDs (obtained from voluntary blood donors) should be explored as an alternative for autologous SEDs. The Dutch blood bank organization is currently looking into the possibilities to provide allogeneic SEDs, as (GMP) regulations become stricter, making it for hospitals more difficult to provide autologous SEDs. To demonstrate effectiveness of both autologous and allogeneic SEDs, a clinical trial is planned. The current status of SEDs in The Netherlands is described. This paper is based on summary of the presentation given at the DGTI meeting in Dresden. PMID:26138910

  20. Black Pete through the Eyes of Dutch Children

    PubMed Central

    Mesman, Judi; Janssen, Sofie; van Rosmalen, Lenny

    2016-01-01

    The traditional figure of Black Pete seen during the December festivities around Sinterklaas (the Dutch Santa Claus) in the Netherlands has sparked fierce debates about his racial stereotypical characteristics and his potentially negative effects on children’s opinions about black people. The Black Pete phenomenon has even been discussed by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, resulting in a report urging the Netherlands to eliminate this form of racial stereotyping. The adult debate about Black Pete is clearly important, but Sinterklaas is essentially a children’s holiday. Surprisingly, there have never been any systematic studies to examine children’s views on Black Pete. The current study is the first to do so. In a sample of 201 children aged 5–7 years, we collected free descriptions of Black Pete, asked children to group him in relation to other figures, and to assign characteristics to him and comparison figures. The results showed that (1) Children are clearly aware of Black Pete’s skin color and subordinate status; (2) Children associate Black Pete more with clowns than with black people; (3) Children evaluate Black Pete very positively, but the positive characteristics do not generalize to their evaluation of black people. The findings illustrate the deep-rooted childhood origins of many Dutch people’s affection for Black Pete and their lack of awareness of his relation to racial stereotypes. This explains the resistance to changing the Black Pete figure and the slowness of the change process on this front. PMID:27322583