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Sample records for dutch technique split

  1. The Split-Stem Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Roy A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a procedure useful for investigating the effects of substances on plant growth and development. A bean seedling's stem is partially split, and each half is placed in a different nutrient solution. Suggestions for the instructional use of the technique are made. (AL)

  2. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong

    2015-08-15

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  3. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong

    2015-08-01

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  4. Split spectrum technique as a preprocessor for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpur, Prasanna

    Split-spectrum preprocessing (SSP) is shown in light of the present results to process A-scans in a way that allows its incorporation into artificial neural networks and other AI methods, as well as into feature-analysis techniques. SSP is consistently nonlinear in A-scan processing. Attention is given to the results obtained from the use of the magnitude spectra of the SSP-processed A-scans as inputs to a back-propagation artificial neural network.

  5. Application of split window technique to TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Rokugawa, Shuichi; Ishii, Yoshinori

    1992-01-01

    Absorptions by the atmosphere in thermal infrared region are mainly due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone. As the content of water vapor in the atmosphere greatly changes according to weather conditions, it is important to know its amount between the sensor and the ground for atmospheric corrections of thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data (i.e. radiosonde). On the other hand, various atmospheric correction techniques were already developed for sea surface temperature estimations from satellites. Among such techniques, Split Window technique, now widely used for AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), uses no radiosonde or any kind of supplementary data but a difference between observed brightness temperatures in two channels for estimating atmospheric effects. Applications of Split Window technique to TIMS data are discussed because availability of atmospheric profile data is not clear when ASTER operates. After these theoretical discussions, the technique is experimentally applied to TIMS data at three ground targets and results are compared with atmospherically corrected data using LOWTRAN 7 with radiosonde data.

  6. New experimental techniques with the split Hopkinson pressure bar

    SciTech Connect

    Frantz, C.E.; Follansbee, P.S.; Wright, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The split Hopkinson pressure bar or Kolsky bar has provided for many years a technique for performing compression tests at strain rates approaching 10/sup 4/ s/sup -1/. At these strain rates, the small dimensions possible in a compression test specimen give an advantage over a dynamic tensile test by allowing the stress within the specimen to equilibrate within the shortest possible time. The maximum strain rates possible with this technique are limited by stress wave propagation in the elastic pressure bars as well as in the deforming specimen. This subject is reviewed in this paper, and it is emphasized that a slowly rising excitation is preferred to one that rises steeply. Experimental techniques for pulse shaping and a numerical procedure for correcting the raw data for wave dispersion in the pressure bars are presented. For tests at elevated temperature a bar mover apparatus has been developed which effectively brings the cold pressure bars into contact with the specimen, which is heated with a specially designed furnace, shortly before the pressure wave arrives. This procedure has been used successfully in tests at temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C.

  7. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  8. Investigation of Convection and Pressure Treatment with Splitting Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakur, Siddharth; Shyy, Wei; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of convective and pressure fluxes in the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations using splitting formulas for convective velocity and pressure is investigated. Two schemes - controlled variation scheme (CVS) and advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) - are explored for their accuracy in resolving sharp gradients in flows involving moving or reflecting shock waves as well as a one-dimensional combusting flow with a strong heat release source term. For two-dimensional compressible flow computations, these two schemes are implemented in one of the pressure-based algorithms, whose very basis is the separate treatment of convective and pressure fluxes. For the convective fluxes in the momentum equations as well as the estimation of mass fluxes in the pressure correction equation (which is derived from the momentum and continuity equations) of the present algorithm, both first- and second-order (with minmod limiter) flux estimations are employed. Some issues resulting from the conventional use in pressure-based methods of a staggered grid, for the location of velocity components and pressure, are also addressed. Using the second-order fluxes, both CVS and AUSM type schemes exhibit sharp resolution. Overall, the combination of upwinding and splitting for the convective and pressure fluxes separately exhibits robust performance for a variety of flows and is particularly amenable for adoption in pressure-based methods.

  9. The Dutch-Belgian beamline at the ESRF.

    PubMed

    Borsboom, M; Bras, W; Cerjak, I; Detollenaere, D; Glastra Van Loon, D; Goedtkindt, P; Konijnenburg, M; Lassing, P; Levine, Y K; Munneke, B; Oversluizen, M; Van Tol, R; Vlieg, E

    1998-05-01

    A brief description is given of the design principles and layout of the Dutch-Belgian beamline at the ESRF. This beamline optimizes the use of the available bending-magnet radiation fan by splitting the beam into two branches, each accommodating two experimental techniques. PMID:15263564

  10. Geometrical splitting technique to improve the computational efficiency in Monte Carlo calculations for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Mendez, J. A.; Perl, J.; Faddegon, B.; Paganetti, H.

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the well accepted particle splitting technique has been adapted to proton therapy and implemented in a new Monte Carlo simulation tool (TOPAS) for modeling the gantry mounted treatment nozzles at the Northeast Proton Therapy Center (NPTC) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Gains up to a factor of 14.5 in computational efficiency were reached with respect to a reference simulation in the generation of the phase space data in the cylindrically symmetric region of the nozzle. Comparisons between dose profiles in a water tank for several configurations show agreement between the simulations done with and without particle splitting within the statistical precision.

  11. Geometrical splitting technique to improve the computational efficiency in Monte Carlo calculations for proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Mendez, Jose; Perl, Joseph; Faddegon, Bruce; Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To present the implementation and validation of a geometrical based variance reduction technique for the calculation of phase space data for proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: The treatment heads at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center were modeled with a new Monte Carlo tool (TOPAS based on Geant4). For variance reduction purposes, two particle-splitting planes were implemented. First, the particles were split upstream of the second scatterer or at the second ionization chamber. Then, particles reaching another plane immediately upstream of the field specific aperture were split again. In each case, particles were split by a factor of 8. At the second ionization chamber and at the latter plane, the cylindrical symmetry of the proton beam was exploited to position the split particles at randomly spaced locations rotated around the beam axis. Phase space data in IAEA format were recorded at the treatment head exit and the computational efficiency was calculated. Depth-dose curves and beam profiles were analyzed. Dose distributions were compared for a voxelized water phantom for different treatment fields for both the reference and optimized simulations. In addition, dose in two patients was simulated with and without particle splitting to compare the efficiency and accuracy of the technique. Results: A normalized computational efficiency gain of a factor of 10-20.3 was reached for phase space calculations for the different treatment head options simulated. Depth-dose curves and beam profiles were in reasonable agreement with the simulation done without splitting: within 1% for depth-dose with an average difference of (0.2 {+-} 0.4)%, 1 standard deviation, and a 0.3% statistical uncertainty of the simulations in the high dose region; 1.6% for planar fluence with an average difference of (0.4 {+-} 0.5)% and a statistical uncertainty of 0.3% in the high fluence region. The percentage differences between dose distributions in water for simulations

  12. Geometrical splitting technique to improve the computational efficiency in Monte Carlo calculations for proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Méndez, José; Perl, Joseph; Faddegon, Bruce; Schümann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present the implementation and validation of a geometrical based variance reduction technique for the calculation of phase space data for proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: The treatment heads at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center were modeled with a new Monte Carlo tool (TOPAS based on Geant4). For variance reduction purposes, two particle-splitting planes were implemented. First, the particles were split upstream of the second scatterer or at the second ionization chamber. Then, particles reaching another plane immediately upstream of the field specific aperture were split again. In each case, particles were split by a factor of 8. At the second ionization chamber and at the latter plane, the cylindrical symmetry of the proton beam was exploited to position the split particles at randomly spaced locations rotated around the beam axis. Phase space data in IAEA format were recorded at the treatment head exit and the computational efficiency was calculated. Depth–dose curves and beam profiles were analyzed. Dose distributions were compared for a voxelized water phantom for different treatment fields for both the reference and optimized simulations. In addition, dose in two patients was simulated with and without particle splitting to compare the efficiency and accuracy of the technique. Results: A normalized computational efficiency gain of a factor of 10–20.3 was reached for phase space calculations for the different treatment head options simulated. Depth–dose curves and beam profiles were in reasonable agreement with the simulation done without splitting: within 1% for depth–dose with an average difference of (0.2 ± 0.4)%, 1 standard deviation, and a 0.3% statistical uncertainty of the simulations in the high dose region; 1.6% for planar fluence with an average difference of (0.4 ± 0.5)% and a statistical uncertainty of 0.3% in the high fluence region. The percentage differences between dose distributions in water for

  13. An explicit algorithm for a fluid approach to nonlinear optics propagation using splitting and rezoning techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattar, F. P.; Teichmann, J.; Bissonnette, L. R.; Maccormack, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a three-dimensional analysis of the nonlinear light matter interaction in a hydrodynamic context. It is reported that the resulting equations are a generalization of the Navier-Stokes equations subjected to an internal potential which depends solely upon the fluid density. In addition, three numerical approaches are presented to solve the governing equations using an extension of McCormack predict-corrector scheme. These are a uniform grid, a dynamic rezoned grid, and a splitting technique. It is concluded that the use of adaptive mapping and splitting techniques with McCormack two-level predictor-corrector scheme results in an efficient and reliable code whose storage requirements are modest compared with other second order methods of equal accuracy.

  14. An easy and noninvasive technique for harvesting split thickness skin grafts in rats.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Burak; Sahin Ersoy, Gulcin

    2016-06-01

    Skin graft studies in rats constitute a valuable adjunct to scientific human experimentations, however the harvesting of split thickness skin graft poses a challenge to the researcher due to the presence of panniculus carnosus tissue in rat skin. This striated muscle tissue renders significant laxity and mobility to the skin layer, greatly interfering with the process of skin graft harvest. In order to fixate the rat skin and limit its flexibility various techniques and modifications have been described, which mostly rely on the use of subdermal implanted templates. These methods are therefore time consuming, with an additional exposure to surgical stress and wounds. A new and simple technique is presented which offers a rapid and reliable alternative to the existing methods of split thickness skin graft harvesting without any additional invasive procedure or extra instruments other than the researchers hands and a dermatome. PMID:26899599

  15. Split-tip scanning capacitance microscopy (SSCM): Special techniques in surface characterization and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Beverly Andrew, III

    Hallen). This work invents and develops a new technique for electrical, electro-optical, and topographical characterization at the nanoscale. Split-tip scanning capacitance microscopy (SSCM) offers advantages over other scanning probe methods. The dependence of the measurements on sample characteristics is reduced, and analysis is simplified by having both electrodes secured to the probe. This feature allows non-conducting, as well as conducting surfaces to be imaged without loss of optical or capacitance resolution. SSCM allows surface measurements without destroying the sample of interest and does not require special surface preparation. To develop this new technique, the project focused on the following: (1) shear-force feedback as an accurate tip-sample distance controller; (2) imaging techniques for irregular sample surfaces; (3) development of computational model for simulating split-tip measurements; (4) split-tip integration into a conventional near-field scanning optical microscope; (5) contrast modeling for surface structures; (6) tip-sample approach capacitance measurements as a stringent test of SSCM. We show that a non-linear tip sample interaction dominates the shear force feedback signal evidenced by a change in the resonance frequency as the tip approaches the sample. Shear force feedback relies on a decrease in the signal amplitude at the operating frequency. We present data and a numerical model describing the time response and how this nonlinear interaction can be used to speed up the response. We demonstrate the imaging of irregular surfaces such as paint samples and show the distribution of pigment quantified by the peak in the histogram of optical signal versus separation at the nano- to micron scale illuminates the length-scale of failure in paint samples. We compare a high quality paint sample with one that fails a standard quality control test based upon visual inspection. Features such as pigment clumping and pigment density fluctuations

  16. Black and Azov Sea circulation numerical modelling on the basis of splitting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. V.; Zalesny, V. B.; Diansky, N. A.; Gusev, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of the Black and Azov Sea dynamics numerical modeling is considered. The INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) is used. The INMOM is based on the multicomponent splitting technique and has a flexible modular structure. The splitting into physical processes and spatial coordinates is used. The entire system is split into a number of energetically balanced modules. Each of them can be split into modules with a simpler structure. A numerical experiment consists in simulating the Black and Azov sea hydrothermodynamics with a spatial resolution 4 km and 40 σ-levels non-uniformly distributed over the depth. The atmospheric forcing is defined using the Era-Interim datasets with a spatial resolution 1.5°x1.5° . The integration period was 2006 - 2007. The results of numerical experiments are in good agreement with observational data and with the results of the model developed in Marine Hydrophysical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The presented model is planned to use in further development of monitoring and real-time forecasting systems.

  17. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed. All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment. Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  18. Cranioplasty Using a Modified Split Calvarial Graft Technique in Cleidocranial Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Taek; Cho, Jae Ik; Lee, Sang Pyung

    2015-07-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia is a well-documented rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by hypoplastic/aplastic clavicles, brachycephalic skull, patent sutures and fontanelles, midface hypoplasia, and abnormalities of dentition. Patients with cleidocranial dysplasia often complain about undesirable esthetic appearance of their forehead and skull. Notwithstanding many studies of molecular, genetics and skeletal abnormalities of this congenial disorder, there have been very few written reports of cranioplasty involving cleidocranial dysplasia. Thus, we report a rare case of successful cranioplasty using a modified split calvarial graft technique in patient with cleidocranial dysplasia. PMID:26279819

  19. Cranioplasty Using a Modified Split Calvarial Graft Technique in Cleidocranial Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young Taek; Cho, Jae Ik

    2015-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia is a well-documented rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by hypoplastic/aplastic clavicles, brachycephalic skull, patent sutures and fontanelles, midface hypoplasia, and abnormalities of dentition. Patients with cleidocranial dysplasia often complain about undesirable esthetic appearance of their forehead and skull. Notwithstanding many studies of molecular, genetics and skeletal abnormalities of this congenial disorder, there have been very few written reports of cranioplasty involving cleidocranial dysplasia. Thus, we report a rare case of successful cranioplasty using a modified split calvarial graft technique in patient with cleidocranial dysplasia. PMID:26279819

  20. Comparison of spread spectrum and pulse signal excitation for split spectrum techniques composite imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilainis, L.; Kitov, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Vergara, L.; Dumbrava, V.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasonic imaging of composites was investigated. Glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastic produced by resin transfer molding and prepreg forming were analyzed. In some of the samples air bubbles were trapped during RTM (resin transfer molding) process and interlayer gaps were present in prepreg technology samples. One of the most expected techniques to apply in such case is the Split Spectrum processing. On the other hand such signals require specific processing to reliably reconstruct the temporal position of the defect reflection. Correlation processing can be used for signal compression or Wiener filtering can be applied for spectral content equalisation. Pulse signals are simple to generate, but lack the possibility to alter the signal's spectrum shape. Spread spectrum signals offer a powerful tool for signal energy over frequency band increase and resolution enhancement. CW (continuous wave) burst has high energy but lacks the bandwidth needed for SSP (spread spectrum processing). The aim of the investigation was to compare the performance of the above signals in case of composite imaging, when various Split Spectrum Processing techniques are used with preceding Wiener processing for spectral content compensation. Resulting composite signals and images obtained are presented. Structural noise removal performance was evaluated as Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC).

  1. Assessment of sagittal split ramus osteotomy rigid internal fixation techniques using a finite element method.

    PubMed

    Albougha, S; Darwich, K; Darwich, M A; Albogha, M H

    2015-07-01

    In this study, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to evaluate nine rigid internal fixation techniques for sagittal split ramus osteotomy. To achieve this, a computed tomography (CT) scan of a healthy patient was obtained and used to generate the geometry of a half-mandible. The geometries of bicortical screws, miniplates, and monocortical screws were designed and combined with the mandible in nine models simulating various techniques. Four models used bicortical screws in various arrangements and four used miniplates of various designs. One model represented a hybrid technique. A load of 500 N was applied to the posterior teeth and FEA was applied. The most stable techniques were the hybrid technique and a single straight miniplate, presenting the least displacement among all models. Bicortical screws, while presenting reasonable stability, showed high strain areas near the anterior ramus ridge, superoposterior to the screws, implying a risk of bone fracture in this area. On the other hand, the T-shaped and double Y-shaped miniplates were associated with high von Mises stresses that would impair their rigidity, especially where angles appeared in their designs. We recommend the use of a single straight miniplate because it provides sufficient stable fixation with minimal risks or disadvantages. PMID:25766461

  2. Split pedicle roll envelope technique around implants and pontics: a prospective case series study.

    PubMed

    Man, Y; Wu, Q; Wang, T; Gong, P; Gong, T; Qu, Y

    2015-10-01

    Recreating a harmonious gingival contour for contiguous missing teeth in the anterior maxilla is challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate a split pedicle roll envelope technique designed for pontics. Twelve patients presented a labial flat or concave profile at the implant and pontic sites before second-stage surgery. The contour deficiency was compensated with a palatal split pedicle flap with the implant part rolled into the labial envelope and the pontic part covering the denuded ridge. Interim restorations were screwed in to guide tissue remodelling. The labial convex profile (CPF) and facial mucosal level (FML) at the implant and pontic sites, the Jemt papilla index (PIS) in the different restorative environments, and peri-implant bone levels were recorded at baseline and at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months postoperative. Results showed that the CPF had increased by 1.4mm at the implant site and 1.5mm at the pontic site at 6 months after surgery. PIS had increased by 2 at the implant-tooth/pontic-tooth sites and by 2.6 at the implant-pontic site. FML was coordinated with that of the contralateral teeth. All indices were favourable at 3 months and then remained stable. Within the limitations identified, this combined therapy can be considered as an alternative to achieve aesthetic success when contiguous maxillary anterior teeth are missing. PMID:26058360

  3. An iterative implicit DDADI algorithm for solving the Navier-Stokes equation. [upwind split flux technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S. C.; Liu, N. S.; Kim, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm utilizing a first order upwind split flux technique and the diagonally dominant treatment is proposed to be the temporal operator for solving the Navier-Stokes equations. Given the limit of a five point stencil, the right hand side flux derivatives are formulated by several commonly used central and upwind schemes. Their performances are studied through a test case of free vortex convection in a uniform stream. From these results, a superior treatment for evaluating the flux term is proposed and compared with the rest. The application of the proposed algorithm to the full Navier-Stokes equations is demonstrated through a calculation of flow over a backward facing step. Results are compared against the calculation done by using the fourth order central differencing scheme with artificial damping.

  4. A Mur Type Analytical Absorbing Boundary Condition for Multidimensional Wave Analysis with the Directional Splitting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukihisa

    A Mur type analytical absorbing boundary condition (A-ABC), which is based on the one-dimensional one-way wave equation, is proposed for multidimensional wave analysis by introducing the directional splitting technique. This new absorbing boundary condition is expansion of the first-order Mur. The absorbing ability, required memory, and calculation speed of the Mur type A-ABC are evaluated by comparison with those of conventional ABCs. The result indicated that absorbing ability of the proposed ABC is higher than the first-order Mur and lower than the second-order Mur at large incident angle. While, our proposed ABC has advantage in both required memory and calculation speed by comparison with the second-order Mur. Thus, effectivity of the proposed Mur type A-ABC is shown.

  5. Our technique of midsagittal splitting laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy and its short-term results

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Singh, Sunita; Chauhan, Shishu Pal Singh; Gopal, Nitya Nand

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to discuss the technique of midsagittal splitting laminoplasty and to compare its short-term follow-up results with laminectomy in cases of compressive cervical spinal cord myelopathy. Materials and Methods: Exclusion criteria were as follows: Intramedullary compressive lesions, kyphotic cervical spine, previous spinal surgeries, and defective anterior vertebral column. Twenty patients (10 each of laminoplasty and laminectomy groups) were prospectively studied from 2005 to 2008. After clinico-radiological assessment, laminoplasty or laminectomy was performed in patients aged <50 years and >50 years, respectively. The laminoplasty was performed by splitting the excised lamina in midline up to the tip of spinous process. Follow-up was done by neurosurgical cervical spine scoring, Nurick's grading, and the final outcome was determined by Odom's criteria. Results: The mean operative time and blood loss in laminoplasty and laminectomy was 100 ± 0.87 (range 90-140 min), 80 ± 0.67 (range 75-100 min) P = 0.04; and 65 ± 0.07 (range 60-90 ml) and 68 ± 0.61 (range 65-80 ml) P = 0.09, respectively. There were no intraoperative accidents, and no postoperative neurological deterioration/recurrence of symptoms. One patient who underwent laminectomy alone developed progressive kyphosis of the spine, whereas one having rheumatoid arthritis and long symptom duration didn’t improve. 85% (17/20 patients) had sustained excellent to fair outcome (improvement by at least one Nurick's grade). Conclusions: The technique used by us was simple, effective, and inexpensive. There was no minimal postoperative morbidity, although long-term results are awaited. PMID:27366246

  6. Classroom Modified Split-Root Technique and Its Application in a Plant Habitat Selection Experiment at the College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Shannon S.; Winter, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The split-root technique produces a plant with two equal root masses. Traditionally, the two root masses of the single plant are cultivated in adjacent pots with or without roots from competitors for the purpose of elucidating habitat preferences. We have tailored this technology for the classroom, adjusting protocols to match resources and time…

  7. An experimental technique of split Hopkinson pressure bar using fiber micro-displacement interferometer system for any reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H.; Tang, X. R.; Li, J. L.; Tan, D. W.

    2014-04-01

    A novel non-contact measurement technique had been developed for the mechanical properties of materials in Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB). Instead of the traditional strain gages mounted on the surfaces of bars, two shutters were mounted on the end of bars to directly measure interfacial velocity using Fiber Micro-Displacement Interferometer System for Any Reflector. Using the new technique, the integrated stress-strain responses could be determined. The experimental technique was validated by SHPB test simulation. The technique had been used to investigate the dynamic response of a brittle explosive material. The results showed that the new experimental technique could be applied to the dynamic behavior in SHPB test.

  8. Improved ITOS attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1971-01-01

    The ITOS with an improved attitude control system is described. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor will replace the brush dc torque motor on ITOS-I and ITOS-A (NOAA-1). The four attitude horizon sensors will be replaced with two CO2 sensors for better horizon definition. An earth horizon splitting technique will be used to keep the earth facing side of the satellite toward earth even if the desired circular orbit is not achieved. The external appearance of the pitch control subsystem differs from TIROS-M (ITOS-1) and ITOS-A (NOAA-1) in that two instead of one pitch control electronics (PCE) boxes are used. Two instead of four horizon sensors will be used and one instead of two mirrors will be used for sensor scanning. The brushless motor will eliminate the requirement for brushes, strain gages and the telemetry for the brush wear. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing provides the gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminates the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  9. A New Non-linear Technique for Measurement of Splitting Functions of Normal Modes of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachhai, S.; Masters, G.; Tkalcic, H.

    2014-12-01

    Normal modes are the vibrating patterns of the Earth in response to the large earthquakes. Normal mode spectra are split due to Earth's rotation, ellipticity, and heterogeneity. The normal mode splitting is visualized through splitting functions, which represent the local radial average of Earth's structure seen by a mode of vibration. The analysis of the splitting of normal modes can provide unique information about the lateral variation of the Earth's elastic properties that cannot be directly imaged in body wave tomographic images. The non-linear iterative spectral fitting of the observed complex spectra and autoregressive linear inversion have been widely utilized to compute the Earth's 3-D structure. However, the non-linear inversion requires a model of the earthquake source and the retrieved 3-D structure is sensitive to the initial constraints. In contrast, the autoregressive linear inversion does not require the source model. However, this method requires many events to achieve full convergence. In addition, significant disagreement exists between different studies because of the non-uniqueness of the problem and limitations of different methods. We thus apply the neighbourhood algorithm (NA) to measure splitting functions. The NA is an efficient model space search technique and works in two steps: In the first step, the algorithm finds all the models compatible with given data while the posterior probability density of the model parameters are obtained in the second step. The NA can address the problem of non-uniqueness by taking advantage of random sampling of the full model space. The parameter trade-offs are conveniently visualized using joint marginal distributions. In addition, structure coefficients uncertainties can be extracted from the posterior probability distribution. After demonstrating the feasibility of NA with synthetic examples, we compute the splitting functions for the mode 13S2 (sensitive to the inner core) from several large

  10. An interdisciplinary management of severely resorbed maxillary anterior ridge complicated by traumatic bite using a ridge splitting technique

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Narender Dev; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Chaudhari, Prabhat Kumar; Rathi, Shraddha

    2015-01-01

    Injury to the teeth and alveolar ridge of the maxillary anterior region due to trauma can cause severe alveolar ridge deficiency. Ridge augmentation is a valuable periodontal plastic surgical method for the correction of ridge defects for esthetic purpose. Although ridge augmentation can help to restore the ridge volume, the grafting procedures can significantly increase the patient morbidity, treatment time, and the cost. Among the ridge augmentation techniques, the ridge split procedure demonstrates many benefits such as no need for donor site, the rare risk of damage to underlying anatomical structures, less pain, and swelling. This case report presents a vertical split technique for increasing the bone volume. There was a remarkable healing and significant increase in bone volume. We have followed the case for 6 months. PMID:25810602

  11. An experimental technique of split Hopkinson pressure bar using fiber micro-displacement interferometer system for any reflector.

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Tang, X R; Li, J L; Tan, D W

    2014-04-01

    A novel non-contact measurement technique had been developed for the mechanical properties of materials in Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB). Instead of the traditional strain gages mounted on the surfaces of bars, two shutters were mounted on the end of bars to directly measure interfacial velocity using Fiber Micro-Displacement Interferometer System for Any Reflector. Using the new technique, the integrated stress-strain responses could be determined. The experimental technique was validated by SHPB test simulation. The technique had been used to investigate the dynamic response of a brittle explosive material. The results showed that the new experimental technique could be applied to the dynamic behavior in SHPB test. PMID:24784672

  12. Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2011-04-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within {+-}1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 {+-} 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 {+-} 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  13. Algebraic processing technique for extracting frequency-dependent shear-wave splitting parameters in an anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai-Feng; Zeng, Xin-Wu

    2011-06-01

    Based on the dual source cumulative rotation technique in the time-domain proposed by Zeng and MacBeth (1993), a new algebraic processing technique for extracting shear-wave splitting parameters from multi-component VSP data in frequency-dependent medium has been developed. By using this dual source cumulative rotation technique in the frequency-domain (DCTF), anisotropic parameters, including polarization direction of the shear-waves and timedelay between the fast and slow shear-waves, can be estimated for each frequency component in the frequency domain. It avoids the possible error which comes from using a narrow-band filter in the current commonly used method. By using synthetic seismograms, the feasibility and validity of the technique was tested and a comparison with the currently used method was also given. The results demonstrate that the shear-wave splitting parameters frequency dependence can be extracted directly from four-component seismic data using the DCTF. In the presence of larger scale fractures, substantial frequency dependence would be found in the seismic frequency range, which implies that dispersion would occur at seismic frequencies. Our study shows that shear-wave anisotropy decreases as frequency increases.

  14. Mobile terminal equipment design utilising split-loop phase-lock techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenington, P. B.; Mcgeehan, J. P.; Edwards, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The design and resultant performance of the terminal equipment in a mobile satellite system is vitally important in respect to the overall cost/performance compromise of the whole system. Improvements in system performance which also result in a reduction of the equipment cost are rare. However, this paper details a significant advance in terminal design, utilizing a novel form of 'split-loop' phase locked receiver/downconverter system to enable an accurate, stable and wide coverage terminal to be realized at a reduced cost. The system has the capability of automatically locking onto any carrier within a complete transponder, and can cope with severe amplitude modulation and fading effects.

  15. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  16. A physical split window technique for the retrieval of precipitable water from satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary L.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1992-01-01

    The split-window precipitable water algorithm developed by Jedlovec (1987) is described, and its advantages are examined. In particular, it is noted that the algorithm can be applied to multispectral imaging data, available half-hourly from VAS; it uses only limited spatial averaging and can be applied to instruments that lack sounding channels. Here, previous work is reviewed, and the procedure is extended to the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and GOES-NEXT using simulated data. Root mean square errors for the simulated and actual retrievals are below +/- 5.8 mm. Of the instruments examined, AVHRR appears to have the greatest potential, with the rms errors below +/- 2.3 mm.

  17. Spoken Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in spoken Dutch is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. The book is divided into five major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening comprehension, and (4)…

  18. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M.; Monty, Chelsea N.

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms. PMID:26824529

  19. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M; Monty, Chelsea N

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms. PMID:26824529

  20. Modified lingual split technique for extraction of impacted mandibular third molars.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J E

    1980-08-01

    Critical evaluation of existing chisel and bur techniques for removal of impacted mandibular third molars reveals a high incidence of complications. Both approaches require creation of a buccal defect immediately distal to the second molar for the insertion of an elevator, which may cause pocketing to occur postoperatively. The method described here minimizes periosteal reflection, almost completely avoids loss of bone, and effectively reduces the use of rotary instrumentation. The planning of the soft tissue flaps and bony cuts assists in primary wound closure, obliteration of dead space, and reduction of postoperative morbidity. PMID:6930459

  1. Comparative evaluation of depigmentation techniques in split-mouth design with electrocautery and laser

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Thangavelu, Arthiie; Alex, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Excessive gingival pigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Melanin pigmentation is known to be caused by melanin granules within the gingival epithelium. Smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. It is not a medical problem, but it feels unesthetic for the patient and particularly in patients having a very high lip/smile line. Depigmentation is not a clinical indication but a treatment of choice where esthetics is a concern and is desired by the patient. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. The present case series describes two simple and effective surgical depigmentation techniques treated with diode laser and electrosurgery. PMID:26538970

  2. Built-up terrain wave propagation by Fourier split-step parabolic wave equation-ray optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibert, Thomas F.

    2003-04-01

    Fourier split-step (FSS) solutions of the parabolic wave equation (PWE) represent wave fields in terms of plane wave decompositions. However, those field solutions are usually only valid in the air space above built-up terrain, whereas field predictions for modern wireless systems often require knowledge of the fields on a street level. Since FSS PWE solutions with large step sizes are not applicable for field computations between irregular scattering obstacles such as buildings, this problem is overcome by a two-step approach combining the FSS solution of the PWE with ray optical techniques to compute the fields at ground level in wooded and urbanized areas. To account for the great variety of propagation effects in a statistical sense, direct rays, reflected rays, diffracted rays and attenuated rays at typical receiver locations are included into the considerations. Comparisons to a wide variety of measured data show that this two-step approach produces better results than state of the art semiempirical field prediction techniques.

  3. Fan-out routing and optical splitting techniques for compact optical interconnects using single-mode polymer waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Kevin L.; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer waveguide (WG) S-bends are necessary for fan-out routing techniques and optical splitting in high-density optical interconnects. Designing and manufacturing of optimal S-bends are critical for minimizing optical link loss while maintaining overall size and layout constraints. Complete structural loss analysis is demonstrated theoretically and shown experimentally utilizing both radial and transitional loss in single-mode (SM) polymer WG radial arc, cosine, and raised-sine S-bend profiles. SM polymer WG straights were first fabricated to measure standard propagation loss. SM WG S-bends were fabricated incorporating straight lead-in and lead-out sections to incorporate transitional loss present in workable designs. S-bend designs were measured at different dimensions and matched to theoretical losses. Compact cosine and radial arc S-bends exhibited the lowest structure loss for low and high NA WGs, respectively. High-speed performance of SM WG straights and S-bends was measured at 10 Gbit/s demonstrating low error rate. Optical splitters designed with S-bends and tapers were also evaluated and fabricated. Trade-off between optimal loss and minimal device size is discussed. PMID:25892851

  4. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality

  5. Dutch surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    van Gulik, Thomas M; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of Nagasaki, called Decima. Western culture and science reached the Japanese exclusively through the Dutch on Decima. Health care on Decima was provided by Dutch barber-surgeons, who introduced Western surgical practice in Japan. Official interpreters were the only Japanese allowed on Decima. It was from among these interpreters that the first Japanese surgeons arose who, having mastered the Dutch language, translated several Dutch anatomic and surgical texts. Genpaku Sugita translated a Dutch anatomy textbook into Japanese, which was completed in 1774. This book, entitled Kaitai Shinsho [New Book on Anatomy], was the first Western scientific monograph to be translated entirely into Japanese. Several Dutch surgical schools were founded through which Dutch surgery, known in Japan as "surgery of the red-haired" was propagated. According to the custom of the surgical guilds in Holland, certificates were granted to Japanese apprentices who had completed their training in Dutch surgery. About 60 Dutch surgeons had served on Decima up to 1850, providing the basis for surgery to develop in Japan. Among them, Philipp Franz von Siebold was an exceptional scholar who also had a great impact in making Japanese culture known to the Western world. PMID:15599736

  6. Time exponential splitting technique for the Klein-Gordon equation with Hagstrom-Warburton high-order absorbing boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Mallo, I.; Portillo, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    Klein-Gordon equations on an unbounded domain are considered in one dimensional and two dimensional cases. Numerical computation is reduced to a finite domain by using the Hagstrom-Warburton (H-W) high-order absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs). Time integration is made by means of exponential splitting schemes that are efficient and easy to implement. In this way, it is possible to achieve a negligible error due to the time integration and to study the behavior of the absorption error. Numerical experiments displaying the accuracy of the numerical solution for the two dimensional case are provided. The influence of the dispersion coefficient on the error is also studied.

  7. What's Missing in Dutch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weverink, Meike

    An often-noted contrast between child and adult language is that young children produce sentences both with and without lexical subjects even if subjects are obligatory in the adult system. However, in Dutch, there is no such structural difference between the earliest stages of Dutch child grammar and the adult stage where subjects are concerned.…

  8. Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Wennerberg, Ann; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. Materials and methods A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1–7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8–11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. Results There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS® (1,806±165 N) and e.max® ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM® 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. Conclusion The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass–ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use

  9. Mechanical evaluation of six techniques for stable fixation of the sagittal split osteotomy after counterclockwise mandibular advancement.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Leandro Benetti; Reis, Jose Mauricio Nunes; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Gabrielli, Marisa Aparecida Cabrini; Oguz, Yener; Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio

    2016-06-01

    We have evaluated the resistance to displacement of six stable methods of fixation of a sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) in the mandibular advancement with counterclockwise rotation. We tested 60 synthetic hemimandibles in six groups of 10 each: Group I - fixation with a straight four-hole 2.0mm miniplate; Group II - a straight six-hole 2.0mm miniplate; Group III - two straight 2.0mm four-hole miniplates; Group IV - an eight-hole 2.0mm (grid plate); Group V - a 2.0mm four-hole straight miniplate and 2.0×12mm bicortical screw; and Group VI - a straight four-hole 2.0mm locking miniplate. We applied a linear force in the region between the canine and the first premolar using a universal testing machine (EMIC- DL2000) with a loading cell of 10 KN. The loads at 1, 3, and 5mm displacement were recorded (N) and the data transmitted from the load cell to a computer. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p<0.001) and the Tukey post-test for comparison of the significance of the differences between the groups. For the three degrees of displacement, fixation with two straight 2.0mm plates and with the grid plate gave higher load values. PMID:27068853

  10. Investigation of the influence of mallet and chisel techniques on the lingual fracture line and comparison with the use of splitter and separators during sagittal split osteotomy in cadaveric pig mandibles.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Jop P; Mensink, Gertjan; Houppermans, Pascal N W J; Frank, Michael D; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

    2015-04-01

    In bilateral sagittal split osteotomy the proximal and distal segments of the mandible are traditionally separated using chisels. Modern modifications include prying and spreading the segments with splitters. This study investigates the lingual fracture patterns and status of the nerve after sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) using the traditional chisel technique and compares these results with earlier studies using the splitter technique. Lingual fractures after SSO in cadaveric pig mandibles were analysed using a lingual split scale and split scoring system. Iatrogenic damage to the inferior alveolar nerve was assessed. Fractures started through the caudal cortex more frequently in the chisel group. This group showed more posterior lingual fractures, although this difference was not statistically significant. Nerve damage was present in three cases in the chisel group, but was not observed in the splitter group. A trend was apparent, that SSO using the chisel technique instead of the splitter technique resulted in more posterior lingual fracture lines, although this difference was not statistically significant. Both techniques resulted in reliable lingual fracture patterns. Splitting without chisels could prevent nerve damage, therefore we propose a spreading and prying technique with splitter and separators. However, caution should be exercised when extrapolating these results to the clinic. PMID:25697050

  11. Crack initiation at high loading rates applying the four-point bending split Hopkinson pressure bar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschel, Sebastian; Krüger, Lutz

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic crack initiation with crack-tip loading rates of K˙ ≈ 2.106MPa√ms-1 in a high strength G42CrMoS4 steel was investigated. To this end, a previously developed split Hopkinson pressure bar with four-point bending was utilised. V-notched and pre-cracked Charpy specimens were tested. The detection of dynamic crack initiation was performed by analysing the dynamic force equilibrium between the incident and the transmission bar. Additionally, the signal of a near-field strain gauge and high-speed photography were used to determine the instant of crack initiation. To account for vibrations of the sample, a dynamic analysis of the stress intensity factor was performed. The dynamic and static analyses of the tests produced nearly the same results when a force equilibrium was achieved. Fracture-surface analysis revealed that elongated MnS inclusions strongly affected both the dynamic crack initiation and growth. Blunting of the precrack did not take place when a group of MnS inclusions was located directly at the precrack tip. Due to the direction of the elongated MnS inclusions perpendicular to the direction of crack growth, the crack could be deflected. The comparison with a 42CrMo4 steel without elongated MnS inclusions revealed the detrimental effect in terms of resistance to crack initiation. Taking the loading-rate dependency into consideration, it was shown that there was no pronounced embrittlement due to the high loading rates.

  12. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  13. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  14. Syntactic Persistence in Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Kolk, Herman H. J.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that showed effects of "structure priming," the tendency to repeat syntactic structure across successive sentences. These effects were demonstrated in Dutch, a previously untested language. All experiments studied spoken sentence production. (Author/JL)

  15. Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is an indispensable tool in the correction of dentofacial abnormalities. The technique has been in practice since the late 1800s, but did not reach widespread acceptance and use until several modifications were described in the 1960s and 1970s. Those modifications came from a desire to make the procedure safer, more reliable, and more predictable with less relapse. Those goals continue to stimulate innovation in the field today and have helped the procedure evolve to be a very dependable, consistent method of correction of many types of malocclusion. The operative surgeon should be well versed in the history, anatomy, technical aspects, and complications of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy to fully understand the procedure and to counsel the patient. PMID:24872760

  16. Pain related to robotic cholecystectomy with lower abdominal ports: effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique of rectus sheath block in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Choi, Jong Bum; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Wook Hwan; Baek, Nam Hyun; Kim, Jayoun; Park, Chu Kyung; Lee, Yeon Ju; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) using port sites in the lower abdominal area (T12-L1) rather than the upper abdomen has recently been introduced as an alternative procedure for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore, we investigated the time course of different components of pain and the analgesic effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique for rectus sheath block (sRSB) after RC in female patients. Methods: We randomly assigned 40 patients to undergo ultrasound-guided sRSB (RSB group, n = 20) or to not undergo any block (control group, n = 20). Pain was subdivided into 3 components: superficial wound pain, deep abdominal pain, and referred shoulder pain, which were evaluated with a numeric rating scale (from 0 to 10) at baseline (time of awakening) and at 1, 6, 9, and 24 hours postoperatively. Consumption of fentanyl and general satisfaction were also evaluated 1 hour (before discharge from the postanesthesia care unit) and 24 hours postoperatively (end of study). Results: Superficial wound pain was predominant only at awakening, and after postoperative 1 hour in the control group. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB significantly decreased superficial pain after RC (P < 0.01) and resulted in a better satisfaction score (P < 0.05) 1 hour after RC in the RSB group compared with the control group. The cumulative postoperative consumption of fentanyl at 6, 9, and 24 hours was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions: After RC with lower abdominal ports, superficial wound pain predominates over deep intra-abdominal pain and shoulder pain only at the time of awakening. Afterwards, superficial and deep pain decreased to insignificant levels in 6 hours. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB was effective only during the first hour. This limited benefit should be balanced against the time and risks entailed in performing RSB. PMID:27495072

  17. Dutch euthanasia revisited.

    PubMed

    Fenigsen, R

    1997-01-01

    The results of a follow-up study of euthanasia by the Dutch government, five years after the first study, were published on November 26, 1996. This article provides a detailed review of the two reports comparing and contrasting the statistics cited therein. The author notes that the "rules of careful conduct" proposed by the courts and by the Royal Dutch Society of Medicine were frequently disregarded. Special topics included for the first time in the second study were the notification and non-prosecution procedure, euthanasia of newborns and infants, and assisted suicide in psychiatric practice. The authors of the follow-up report state that it would be desirable to reduce the number of "terminations of life without patients' request," but this must be the common responsibility of the doctor and the patient. They suggest that the person who does not wish to have his life terminated should declare this clearly, in advance, verbally and in writing, preferably in the form of a living will. Involuntary euthanasia was rampant in 1990 and equally rampant in 1995. The author concludes that Dutch doctors who practice euthanasia are not on the slippery slope. From the very beginning, they have been at the bottom. PMID:9479883

  18. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  19. Pennsylvania Dutch Crafts and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Many people hold two common misconceptions about the Pennsylvania Dutch: first, that these people live exclusively in the state of Pennsylvania; second, that their ancestors came from Holland. However, neither assumption is correct. One can find large Pennsylvania Dutch communities in Mary land, West Virginia, Virginia, the Carolinas, Ohio,…

  20. In-orbit performance of the ITOS improved attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), launched ITOS-D with an improved attitude control system. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor replaced the brush dc torque motor on Tiros-M and ITOS-A. Two CO2 attitude horizon sensors and one mirror replaced the four wideband horizon sensors and two mirrors on ITOS-1 and NOAA-1. Redundant pitch-control electronic boxes containing additional electronic circuitry for earth-splitting and brushless motor electronics were used. A method of generating a spacecraft earth-facing side reference for comparison to the time occurrence of the earth-splitting pulse was used to automatically correct pitch-attitude error. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing, provided gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminated the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  1. Thermocouple split follower

    DOEpatents

    Howell, deceased, Louis J.

    1980-01-01

    Thermoelectric generator assembly accommodating differential thermal expansion between thermoelectric elements by means of a cylindrical split follower forming a slot and having internal spring loaded wedges that permit the split follower to open and close across the slot.

  2. The Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Hendin, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Euthanasia has been legally sanctioned in the Netherlands by a series of court decisions going back to the 1970s. The author discusses the cultural and historical factors that may have contributed to this development. In the past decade, studies sanctioned by the Dutch government reveal that guidelines established for the regulation of euthanasia--a voluntary, well-considered, persistent request, intolerable suffering that cannot be relieved, consultation with a colleague, and reporting of cases--are consistently violated. Of greatest concern is the number of patients who are put to death without their consent--there are more involuntary than voluntary cases. Euthanasia intended originally for the exceptional case has become an accepted way of dealing with the physical and mental distress of serious or terminal illness. In the process palliative care has become one of the casualties while hospice care lags behind that of other countries. Case examples are given. PMID:11925835

  3. Prone split-leg position to manage encrusted ureteral stents in a single-stage procedure in women: Step-by-step surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Torricelli, Fábio César Miranda; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Srougi, Miguel; Monga, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The management of encrusted ureteral stents is costly, time consuming and may be risky for the patient and challenging for the urologist. Treatment modalities for encrusted stents include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, cystolithopaxy, rigid or flexible ureteroscopy with intracorporeal lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, open surgery, and a combination of those methods. In this study we describe the management of severe forgotten encrusted ureteral stents in 3 female patients using a prone split-leg position. This position allows us to effectively treat any site and degree of stent encrustation in a single-session approach with the patient in the same position during the whole procedure. All patients were rendered stent and stone free. No complications occurred. PMID:26279723

  4. Prone split-leg position to manage encrusted ureteral stents in a single-stage procedure in women: Step-by-step surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Torricelli, Fábio César Miranda; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Srougi, Miguel; Monga, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The management of encrusted ureteral stents is costly, time consuming and may be risky for the patient and challenging for the urologist. Treatment modalities for encrusted stents include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, cystolithopaxy, rigid or flexible ureteroscopy with intracorporeal lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, open surgery, and a combination of those methods. In this study we describe the management of severe forgotten encrusted ureteral stents in 3 female patients using a prone split-leg position. This position allows us to effectively treat any site and degree of stent encrustation in a single-session approach with the patient in the same position during the whole procedure. All patients were rendered stent and stone free. No complications occurred. PMID:26279723

  5. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    SciTech Connect

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Buljan, Marina

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  6. Accuracy of tablet splitting.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant. PMID:9469693

  7. Unequal-Split Strip-Line Power Divider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Simple technique for designing strip-line or microstrip power dividers can be used for unequal, but inphase power split. Technique allows power splits ranging from equal to as large as required, with advantage of using same line impedances and line spacings for all splits. Output power ratio is determined by selecting location of input port in manner analogous to tap point for electric-power transformer.

  8. Splitting a default theory

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents mathematical results that can sometimes be used to simplify the task of reasoning about a default theory, by {open_quotes}splitting it into parts.{close_quotes} These so-called Splitting Theorems for default logic are related in spirit to {open_quotes}partial evaluation{close_quotes} in logic programming, in which results obtained from one part of a program are used to simplify the remainder of the program. In this paper we focus primarily on the statement and proof of the Splitting Theorems for default logic. We illustrate the usefulness of the results by applying them to an example default theory for commonsense reasoning about action.

  9. Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice

    MedlinePlus

    ... and splitting tablets in an effort to save money. Regarding the practice of splitting tablets, the Food ... tablet. So a patient may try to save money by buying the 30 mg tablets and splitting ...

  10. Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Matijn

    2016-01-01

    A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.

  11. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  12. Polarized Antenna Splitting Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2009-10-17

    We consider parton showers based on radiation from QCD dipoles or 'antennae'. These showers are built from 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting processes. The question then arises of what functions replace the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions in this approach. We give a detailed answer to this question, applicable to antenna showers in which partons carry definite helicity, and to both initial- and final-state emissions.

  13. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cancers of the head and neck: Comparison of split-field and whole-field techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaja, Bouthaina; Salehpour, Mohammad R.; Rosen, Isaac; Tung, Sam; Morrison, William H.; Ang, K. Kian; Garden, Adam S. . E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org

    2005-11-15

    Background: Oropharynx cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT) are often treated with a monoisocentric or half-beam technique (HB). IMRT is delivered to the primary tumor and upper neck alone, while the lower neck is treated with a matching anterior beam. Because IMRT can treat the entire volume or whole field (WF), the primary aim of the study was to test the ability to plan cases using WF-IMRT while obtaining an optimal plan and acceptable dose distribution and also respecting normal critical structures. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage oropharynx cancers had treatment plans created with HB-IMRT and WF-IMRT techniques. Plans were deemed acceptable if they met the planning guidelines (as defined or with minor violations) of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol H0022. Comparisons included coverage to the planning target volume (PTV) of the primary (PTV66) and subclinical disease (PTV54). We also compared the ability of both techniques to respect the tolerance of critical structures. Results: The volume of PTV66 treated to >110% was less in 9 of the 13 patients in the WF-IMRT plan as compared to the HB-IMRT plan. The calculated mean volume receiving >110% for all patients planned with WF-IMRT was 9.3% (0.8%-25%) compared to 13.7% (2.7%-23.7%) with HB-IMRT (p = 0.09). The PTV54 volume receiving >110% of dose was less in 10 of the 13 patients planned with WF-IMRT compared to HB-IMRT. The mean doses to all critical structures except the larynx were comparable with each plan. The mean dose to the larynx was significantly less (p = 0.001), 18.7 Gy, with HB-IMRT compared to 47 Gy with WF-IMRT. Conclusions: Regarding target volumes, acceptable plans can be generated with either WF-IMRT or HB-IMRT. WF-IMRT has an advantage if uncertainty at the match line is a concern, whereas HB-IMRT, particularly in cases not involving the base of tongue, can achieve much lower doses to the larynx.

  14. Technique for measuring the Cooper-pair velocity, density, and mass using Doppler splitting of the plasmon resonance in low-dimensional superconductor microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mishonov, T.M. )

    1994-08-01

    The creation of a Cooper-pair mass spectroscopy is suggested. The plasmons in low-dimensional superconductor structures (layers or wires in the dielectric background) are theoretically considered for this purpose. The Cooper-pair mass [ital m][sup *] (the parameter [ital m][sup *] in London electrodynamics) can be determined by measurements of the Doppler shift of the plasmon frequency when a direct current is applied through the superconductor. The plasmons with frequency [omega] lower than the superconducting gap 2[Delta] can be detected by the same far-infrared absorption technique and grating coupling used previously for investigation of two-dimensional plasmons in semiconductor microstructures and polaritons in condensed-matter physics.

  15. Precision of a splitting device for water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, Paul D.; Nacionales, Fernando C.; Larson, Steven J.

    1995-01-01

    Two identical cone splitters, devices designed to split water and its suspended solids into equal aliquots for semi-volatile organic chemical and trace element analyses, were evaluated for their precision. The water-splitting evaluations consisted of experiments to test the effect of water volume, the effect of combining outlet ports, and the effect of different techniques of water introduction. The solids-splitting evaluations consisted of experi- ments to test the effect of particle size (nine different particle diameters ranging from very coarse sand to clay) and suspended-solids concentration. In general, water was equally split with a precision of less than 5 percent relative standard deviation. The accuracy of splitting the solids was a function of particle size. Clay, silt, and fine and medium sand were split with a precision relative standard deviation of less than 7 percent, and coarse sand was split with a relative standard deviation between 12 and 45 percent.

  16. [Sanatoria in Split].

    PubMed

    Kraljević, L; Tomaseo, I

    1990-01-01

    In 1904, the first private surgical sanatorium in the Slavic South was founded in Split by Jaksa Racić, M.D., surgeon, urologist and radiologist. He was conferred degree in Insbruck "sub auspiciis imperatoris" in 1900. The sanatorium had 14 beds, operating theaters for aseptic and septic surgeries, the most modern devices, instruments, roentgenograph and electric light (17 years before Split was supplied with electricity). Doctor Jaksa Racić contributed a lot to the development of Marjan as city-park. All those achievements of Dr. Jaksa Racić were often reported in the Yugoslav and foreign newspapers. Doctor Vladimir Roić opened his own private surgical sanatorium in Split in 1929. His sanatorium had 20 beds, operating theater, delivery room and roentgenograph. In 1933 Dr. Jakov Milicić opened gynecological and obstetric sanatorium in Split. His sanatorium had 15 beds, operating theater, delivery room and roentgenograph. Those three sanatoriums, founded at the beginning of this century, with the first surgical sanatorium of Dr. Jaksa Racić, in 1904, have been of great importance for the development of health services in Split, in general. PMID:2204775

  17. Split spline screw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A split spline screw type payload fastener assembly, including three identical male and female type split spline sections, is discussed. The male spline sections are formed on the head of a male type spline driver. Each of the split male type spline sections has an outwardly projecting load baring segment including a convex upper surface which is adapted to engage a complementary concave surface of a female spline receptor in the form of a hollow bolt head. Additionally, the male spline section also includes a horizontal spline releasing segment and a spline tightening segment below each load bearing segment. The spline tightening segment consists of a vertical web of constant thickness. The web has at least one flat vertical wall surface which is designed to contact a generally flat vertically extending wall surface tab of the bolt head. Mutual interlocking and unlocking of the male and female splines results upon clockwise and counter clockwise turning of the driver element.

  18. Stabilized Zeeman split laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a stablized Zeeman split laser for use in a polarization profilometer is discussed. A Hewlett-Packard laser was modified to stabilize the Zeeman split beat frequency thereby increasing the phase measurement accuracy from the Hewlett-Packard 3 degrees to an accuracy of .01 degrees. The addition of a two layered inductive winding converts the laser to a current controlled oscillator whose frequency is linearly related to coil current. This linear relationship between coil current and laser frequency permits phase locking the laser frequency to a stable crystal controlled reference frequency. The stability of the system is examined and the equipment operation procedures are outlined.

  19. Split liver transplantation: What’s unique?

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-01-01

    The intraoperative management of split liver transplantation (SLT) has some unique features as compared to routine whole liver transplantations. Only the liver has this special ability to regenerate that confers benefits in survival and quality of life for two instead of one by splitting livers. Primary graft dysfunction may result from small for size syndrome. Graft weight to recipient body weight ratio is significant for both trisegmental and hemiliver grafts. Intraoperative surgical techniques aim to reduce portal hyperperfusion and decrease venous portal pressure. Ischemic preconditioning can be instituted to protect against ischemic reperfusion injury which impacts graft regeneration. Advancement of the technique of SLT is essential as use of split cadaveric grafts expands the donor pool and potentially has an excellent future. PMID:26421261

  20. Flux-vector splitting for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleer, Bram

    1991-01-01

    The development of flux-vector splitting through the 1970s and 1980s is reviewed. Attention is given to the diffusive nature of flux-vector splitting, which makes it an undesirable technique for approximating the inviscid fluxes in a Navier-Stokes solver. Several proposed improvements, including a brand new one, are discussed and illustrated by a simple, yet revealing, numerical test case. Finally, an outlook for flux-vector splitting in the 1990s is presented.

  1. The Splitting Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Piagetian theory describes mathematical development as the construction and organization of mental operations within psychological structures. Research on student learning has identified the vital roles of two particular operations--splitting and units coordination--play in students' development of advanced fractions knowledge. Whereas Steffe and…

  2. Splitting of asphaltene species

    SciTech Connect

    Galimov, R.A.; Yusupova, T.N.; Abushaeva, V.V.

    1994-05-10

    The extent of splitting of asphaltene species under the action of solvents correlates with their nature, and primarily with their electron- and proton-donor properties. According to the data of thermal analysis asphaltene species being retained after the action of solvents differ in the weight ratio of peripheral substituents to condensed part and in the fraction of labile bonds. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  4. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  5. The Splitting Loope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

  6. (O)Mega split

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benakli, Karim; Darmé, Luc; Goodsell, Mark D.

    2015-11-01

    We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale M S , as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on M S , which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses above M S barely constrains the model — in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry — and hence we can have a "Mega Split" spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, Fake Split Extended Supersymmetry, which enjoys similar properties.

  7. Small split Stirling coolers for I.R. detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, A. K.

    A Dutch company has developed a family of small refrigerators for cooling the sensors of infrared detection systems. These refrigerators operate in the temperature range from 60 to 80 K. The cooling capacities are in the range from 0.1 to 2.0 watts, depending on the number of detectors cooled and on the thermal efficiency of the detector/refrigerator interface. In order to attain a high efficiency with a mean-time between failures in excess of 2500 hours and minimum temperature degradation, refrigerator operation is based on the Stirling thermodynamic cycle, with a linear resonant electric motor and a free displacer. The principles of operation utilized by the free-piston free-displacer cooling engine with a linear drive system are discussed, taking into account the compressor unit, the split tube, the displacer in the cold finger, aspects of piston motion and displacer motion, split conditions, the reliability test, and the current family of coolers.

  8. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  9. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    PubMed

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches. PMID:26936377

  10. [Dutch parliament legitimizes harmful quackery].

    PubMed

    van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist. PMID:20298623

  11. Fee splitting in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Levin, Alex V; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed

    2011-02-01

    Fee splitting and co-management are common practices in ophthalmology. These arrangements may conflict with the ethical principles governing the doctor-patient relationship, may constitute professional misconduct, and at times, may be illegal. Implications and perceptions of these practices may vary between different cultures. Full disclosure to the patient may minimize the adverse effects of conflicts of interest that arise from these practices, and may thereby allow these practices to be deemed acceptable by some cultural morays, professional guidelines, or by law. Disclosure does not necessarily relieve the physician from a potential ethical compromise. This review examines the practice of fee splitting in ophthalmology, its legal implications, the policies or guidelines governing such arrangements, and the possible ethical ramifications. A comparative view between 3 countries, Canada, the United States, and Oman, was conducted; illustrating that even in disparate cultures, there may be some universality to the application of ethical principles. PMID:21283153

  12. Splitting water with cobalt.

    PubMed

    Artero, Vincent; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Fontecave, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The future of energy supply depends on innovative breakthroughs regarding the design of cheap, sustainable, and efficient systems for the conversion and storage of renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. The production of hydrogen, a fuel with remarkable properties, through sunlight-driven water splitting appears to be a promising and appealing solution. While the active sites of enzymes involved in the overall water-splitting process in natural systems, namely hydrogenases and photosystem II, use iron, nickel, and manganese ions, cobalt has emerged in the past five years as the most versatile non-noble metal for the development of synthetic H(2)- and O(2)-evolving catalysts. Such catalysts can be further coupled with photosensitizers to generate photocatalytic systems for light-induced hydrogen evolution from water. PMID:21748828

  13. TUBE SPLITTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.

    1961-05-01

    A tool is described for cutting a coolant tube adapted to contain fuel elements to enable the tube to be removed from a graphite moderator mass. The tool splits the tube longitudinally into halves and curls the longitudinal edges of the halves inwardly so that they occupy less space and can be moved radially inwardly away from the walls of the hole in the graphite for easy removal from the graphite.

  14. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review and meta-analysis of reported risk factors.

    PubMed

    Steenen, S A; van Wijk, A J; Becking, A G

    2016-08-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Patient factors predictive of a bad split reported in the literature are controversial. Suggested risk factors are reviewed in this article. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 30 studies published between 1971 and 2015 reporting the incidence of bad split and patient age, and/or surgical technique employed, and/or the presence of third molars. These included 22 retrospective cohort studies, six prospective cohort studies, one matched-pair analysis, and one case series. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant but weak correlation between increasing average age and increasing occurrence of bad splits in 18 studies (ρ=0.229; P<0.01). No comparative studies were found that assessed the incidence of bad split among the different splitting techniques. A meta-analysis pooling the effect sizes of seven cohort studies showed no significant difference in the incidence of bad split between cohorts of patients with third molars present and concomitantly removed during surgery, and patients in whom third molars were removed at least 6 months preoperatively (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.85, Z=0.64, P=0.52). In summary, there is no robust evidence to date to show that any risk factor influences the incidence of bad split. PMID:26980136

  15. ROTATIONAL SPLITTING OF PULSATION MODES

    SciTech Connect

    Deupree, Robert G.; Beslin, Wilfried

    2010-10-01

    Mode splittings produced by uniform rotation and a particular form of differential rotation are computed for two-dimensional rotating 10 M{sub sun} zero-age main sequence stellar models. The change in the character of the mode splitting is traced as a function of uniform rotation rate, and it is found that only relatively slow rotation rates are required before the mode splitting becomes asymmetric about the azimuthally symmetric (m = 0) mode. Increased rotation produces a progressively altered pattern of the individual modes with respect to each other. Large mode splittings begin to overlap with the mode splittings produced by different radial and latitudinal modes at relatively low rotation rates. The mode-splitting pattern for the differentially rotating stars we model is different than that for uniformly rotating stars, making the mode splitting a possible discriminant of the internal angular momentum distribution if one assumes that the formidable challenge of mode identification can be overcome.

  16. [Teledermatology within Dutch nursing homes].

    PubMed

    Lubeek, Satish F K; Mommers, Roland J M; van der Geer, Eric R; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne Rianne P

    2016-06-01

    Skin problems are common within the nursing home population and could have a significant impact on quality of life. As a form of long-distance consultation teledermatology offers several potential benefits within this frail population. In this review we discuss several aspects of teledermatology, especially in relation to the nursing home population. Several studies demonstrated that teledermatology is a cost-effective and easy-to-use consultation method, which could significantly reduce the amount of hospital visits. However, teledermatology is only used in a limited number of Dutch nursing homes in daily practice due to several factors. For the optimal implementation of teledermatological consultation there are some important logistical, legal and financial framework conditions. In conclusion, teledermatology has a lot to offer within the nursing home population and therefore teledermatology will hopefully be increasingly used in daily practice within the near future. PMID:27098424

  17. A case against Dutch euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Fenigsen, Richard

    1989-01-01

    The growing acceptance of voluntary active euthanasia by the Dutch is examined in relation to the plastic cards requesting active euthanasia carried by many people in The Netherlands, public opinion polls, and support by leading medical figures of the movement to legalize euthanasia. The author draws upon his experience as a hospital doctor to condemn the practice of active euthanasia, arguing that its voluntariness is often counterfeit and always questionable, that it is inseparable from overtly involuntary forms of euthanasia, and that its promise of sparing the sick person agony is false. "Voluntary" euthanasia also brings an ominous change in society because of the message it sends to the elderly and sick, the weak and the dependent; because the fallibility of medical judgments are inconsistent with the irreversibility of the act; and because the fallacious reasoning of the philosophy threatens to cause irreparable damage to the medical profession. PMID:11650123

  18. Splitting the Cartesian point

    SciTech Connect

    Blodwell, J.F.

    1987-10-01

    It is argued that the point structure of space and time must be constructed from the primitive extensional character of space and time. A procedure for doing this is laid down and applied to one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems of abstract extensions. Topological and metrical properties of the constructed point systems, which differ nontrivially from the usual R and R/sup 2/ models, are examined. Briefly, constructed points are associated with directions and the Cartesian point is split. In one-dimension each point splits into a point pair compatible with the linear ordering. An application to one-dimensional particle motion is given, with the result that natural topological assumptions force the number of left point, right point transitions to remain locally finite in a continuous motion. In general, Cartesian points are seen to correspond to certain filters on a suitable Boolean algebra. Constructed points correspond to ultrafilters. Thus, point construction gives a natural refinement of the Cartesian systems.

  19. Leaf trait dissimilarities between Dutch elm hybrids with a contrasting tolerance to Dutch elm disease

    PubMed Central

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Čaňová, Ingrid; Lagaňa, Rastislav; Kučerová, Veronika; Moravčík, Michal; Priwitzer, Tibor; Urban, Josef; Dvořák, Miloň; Krajňáková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies have shown that Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causative agent of Dutch elm disease (DED), is able to colonize remote areas in infected plants of Ulmus such as the leaf midrib and secondary veins. The objective of this study was to compare the performances in leaf traits between two Dutch elm hybrids ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ which possess a contrasting tolerance to DED. Trait linkages were also tested with leaf mass per area (LMA) and with the reduced Young's modulus of elasticity (MOE) as a result of structural, developmental or functional linkages. Methods Measurements and comparisons were made of leaf growth traits, primary xylem density components, gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields between mature plants of ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ grown under field conditions. A recently developed atomic force microscopy technique, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping, was used to reveal nanomechanical properties of the cell walls of tracheary elements such as MOE, adhesion and dissipation. Key Results ‘Dodoens’ had significantly higher values for LMA, leaf tissue thickness variables, tracheary element lumen area (A), relative hydraulic conductivity (RC), gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields. ‘Groeneveld’ had stiffer cell walls of tracheary elements, and higher values for water-use efficiency and leaf water potential. Leaves with a large carbon and nutrient investment in LMA tended to have a greater leaf thickness and a higher net photosynthetic rate, but LMA was independent of RC. Significant linkages were also found between the MOE and some vascular traits such as RC, A and the number of tracheary elements per unit area. Conclusions Strong dissimilarities in leaf trait performances were observed between the examined Dutch elm hybrids. Both hybrids were clearly separated from each other in the multivariate leaf trait space. Leaf growth, vascular and gas

  20. Dutch research reforms cause a stir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Martijn

    2015-02-01

    All 69 winners of the Spinoza prize - the highest award in Dutch science - have signed a petition against proposed reforms to the country's leading funding agency, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  1. [Dutch government invests in existing biobanks].

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Margreet; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Wijmenga, Cisca; Kiemeney, Lambertus A

    2010-01-01

    Modern research, aimed at discovering factors that influence health and disease, requires large collections of data and samples. Collaboration between biobanks is therefore essential. The Dutch hub in the network of biobanks, the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-NL), is one of the major Dutch biobanking initiatives. It is sponsored by the Dutch government through the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). BBMRI-NL sets up collaboration between approximately 150 existing clinical and population biobanks in the Netherlands, and forms the link with the European BBMRI initiative. BBMRI-NL aims at enrichment and harmonization of existing Dutch biobanks, at data management and analysis, and at laying the legal, social and ethical foundations, in order to improve access and inter-operability, and to render the information and organization up to date. Other major Dutch initiatives are String of Pearls and LifeLines. Together these will create the conditions needed for Dutch researchers to further develop their strong position in the international biobanking field. PMID:21029488

  2. Development of new flux splitting schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, MENG-S.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Maximizing both accuracy and efficiency has been the primary objective in designing a numerical algorithm for CFD. This is especially important for solution of complex three-dimensional systems of Navier-Stokes equations which often include turbulence modeling and chemistry effects. Recently, upwind schemes have been well received for both their capability of resolving discontinuities and their sound theoretical basis in characteristic theory for hyperbolic systems. With this in mind, two new flux splitting techniques are presented for upwind differencing.

  3. Twisted Split Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Yuval; Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, MatthewD.; Surujon, Ze'ev

    2004-07-30

    The observed flavor structure of the standard model arises naturally in ''split fermion'' models which localize fermions at different places in an extra dimension. It has, until now, been assumed that the bulk masses for such fermions can be chosen to be flavor diagonal simultaneously at every point in the extra dimension, with all the flavor violation coming from the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs. We consider the more natural possibility in which the bulk masses cannot be simultaneously diagonalized, that is, that they are twisted in flavor space. We show that, in general, this does not disturb the natural generation of hierarchies in the flavor parameters. Moreover, it is conceivable that all the flavor mixing and CP-violation in the standard model may come only from twisting, with the five-dimensional Yukawa couplings taken to be universal.

  4. Twisted Split Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Y

    2004-07-24

    The observed flavor structure of the standard model arises naturally in ''split fermion'' models which localize fermions at different places in an extra dimension. It has, until now, been assumed that the bulk masses for such fermions can be chosen to be flavor diagonal simultaneously at every point in the extra dimension, with all the flavor violation coming from the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs. We consider the more natural possibility in which the bulk masses cannot be simultaneously diagonalized, that is, that they are twisted in flavor space. We show that, in general, this does not disturb the natural generation of hierarchies in the flavor parameters. Moreover, it is conceivable that all the flavor mixing and CP-violation in the standard model may come only from twisting, with the five-dimensional Yukawa couplings taken to be universal.

  5. Ethnic Identity, Externalizing Problem Behaviour and the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem among Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Yagmur, Sengul; Stams, Geert Jan; de Haan, Mariette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between two aspects of ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment-affirmation) and externalizing problem behaviour in Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents living in the Netherlands. A total number of 345 adolescents (115…

  6. Blueberry Fruit Development and Splitting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A problem facing blueberry growers in the southeastern United States is rain-related fruit splitting. Splitting refers to a break in the skin and/or pulp of the berry, prevalent in some cultivars, that occurs after a period of drought followed by intense rain. We hypothesize that blueberry cultiv...

  7. Longitudinal fibre splitting in muscular dystrophy: a serial cinematographic study

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Edward R.; Bradley, Walter G.; Henderson, Gerald

    1973-01-01

    A technique of block surface-staining and serial cinematography was modified to review serial sections of normal and dystrophic muscle from the Bar Harbor 129 Re strain of mice as a preliminary study of fibre splitting in dystrophic muscle. Using this technique, muscle fibres were reconstructed for up to 1·5 mm of their length without difficulty. Split fibres were identified only when the actual separation of fibres was observed. Splitting was seen to be a significant cause of the variations in fibre diameter and was at times responsible for the formation of groups of small atrophic fibres which resembled those seen in denervation atrophy. Complex multiple splitting and recombination of daughter and parent fibres was also observed and reconstructed to scale. These results may have considerable significance for the interpretation of physiological data on both human and murine dystrophic muscle. Images PMID:4753877

  8. Planar microfluidic drop splitting and merging.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Sean; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2015-04-21

    Open droplet microfluidic platforms offer attractive alternatives to closed microchannel devices, including lower fabrication cost and complexity, significantly smaller sample and reagent volumes, reduced surface contact and adsorption, as well as drop scalability, reconfigurability, and individual addressability. For these platforms to be effective, however, they require efficient schemes for planar drop transport and manipulation. While there are many methods that have been reported for drop transport, it is far more difficult to carry out other drop operations such as dispensing, merging and splitting. In this work, we introduce a novel alternative to merge and, more crucially, split drops using laterally-offset modulated surface acoustic waves (SAWs). The energy delivery into the drop is divided into two components: a small modulation amplitude excitation to initiate weak rotational flow within the drop followed by a short burst in energy to induce it to stretch. Upon removal of the SAW energy, capillary forces at the center of the elongated drop cause the liquid in this capillary bridge region to drain towards both ends of the drop, resulting in its collapse and therefore the splitting of the drop. This however occurs only below a critical Ohnesorge number, which is a balance between the viscous forces that retard the drainage and the sufficiently large capillary forces that cause the liquid bridge to pinch. We show the possibility of reliably splitting drops into two equal sized droplets with an average deviation in their volumes of only around 4% and no greater than 10%, which is comparable to the 7% and below splitting deviation obtained with electrowetting drop splitting techniques. In addition, we also show that it is possible to split the drop asymmetrically to controllably and reliably produce droplets of different volumes. Such potential as well as the flexibility in tuning the device to operate on drops of different sizes without requiring electrode

  9. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  10. Recoil splitting of x-ray-induced optical fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, S.; Aagren, H.; Gel'mukhanov, F.; Sun, Y.-P.; Levin, S.

    2010-03-15

    We show that the anisotropy of the recoil velocity distribution of x-ray-ionized atoms or molecules leads to observable splittings in subsequent optical fluorescence or absorption when the polarization vector of the x rays is parallel to the momentum of the fluorescent photons. The order of the magnitude of the recoil-induced splitting is about 10 {mu}eV, which can be observed using Fourier or laser-absorption spectroscopic techniques.

  11. DNA barcoding of Dutch birds

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadian, Mansour; Beentjes, Kevin K.; Roselaar, C.S. (Kees); van Brandwijk, Hans; Nijman, Vincent; Vonk, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and has been applied in a number of studies on birds. We here sequenced the COI gene for 387 individuals of 147 species of birds from the Netherlands, with 83 species being represented by > 2 sequences. The Netherlands occupies a small geographic area and 95% of all samples were collected within a 50 km radius from one another. The intraspecific divergences averaged 0.29% among this assemblage, but most values were lower; the interspecific divergences averaged 9.54%. In all, 95% of species were represented by a unique barcode, with 6 species of gulls and skua (Larus and Stercorarius) having at least one shared barcode. This is best explained by these species representing recent radiations with ongoing hybridization. In contrast, one species, the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca showed deep divergences, averaging 5.76% and up to 8.68% between individuals. These possibly represent two distinct taxa, S. curruca and S. blythi, both clearly separated in a haplotype network analysis. Our study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for birds, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables to identify known Dutch bird species with a very high resolution. In addition some species were flagged up for further detailed taxonomic investigation, illustrating that even in ornithologically well-known areas such as the Netherlands, more is to be learned about the birds that are present. PMID:24453549

  12. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples.

    PubMed

    Celenk, Ozgur; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The Netherlands), and 17 Dutch (mainstream couples living in The Netherlands) married dyads (total of 98 individuals) were independently interviewed about positive and negative characteristics of marriages, determinants of general marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction, spousal communication, marital conflict, and marital roles. Multivariate tests revealed ethnic group differences on all marriage-related domains except the conflict resolution strategies. However, univariate analyses showed differences in few themes within domains; main differences were assessed between the Turkish/Turkish-Dutch (who put more emphasis on children and economical aspects) and Dutch couples (who put more emphasis on behavior, and personality of the spouse, reciprocity, emotional sharing, and psychological roles). Turkish-Dutch couples were more similar to Turkish than to Dutch couples. Results were discussed in light of the socioeconomic development and cultural value theories, which are believed to provide a useful framework for understanding the role of culture in marital satisfaction. PMID:23126343

  13. EFQM approach and the Dutch Quality Award.

    PubMed

    Nabitz, U W; Klazinga, N S

    1999-01-01

    Different approaches to improve quality are used in organizations delivering health care. Donabedian introduced structure, process and outcome, from which other approaches like self-assessment, accreditation, visitation, International Standards Organisation (ISO) and European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) can be aligned. The EFQM model is one such approach that has been adopted and adapted by the Dutch Institute for Quality Management. This article describes the background and progress relating to the use of the EFQM business excellence model within Dutch health care organizations. In addition the process for applying for the European Quality Award and the Dutch Quality Award are described in detail. Finally, the reader is enlightened regarding the work of the European ExPeRT research group who are promoting the use of quality models within health care. PMID:10537859

  14. Split-illumination electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-07-23

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  15. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  16. An Intermediate-Advanced Level Dutch Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This refresher course in Dutch consists of eight volumes (Books I-IV, each in two parts). Book I, which begins on the intermediate level, presents the sound system of Dutch with accompanying drills. These provide practice in sound-to-spelling correspondence, and contrastive English-Dutch phonology. Books II and III are comprised of six units of…

  17. The Dutch Euthanasia Act: recent legal developments.

    PubMed

    Legemaate, Johan; Bolt, Ineke

    2013-12-01

    The Dutch Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act [Wet toetsing levensbeëindiging op verzoek en hulp bij zelfdoding (Wtl)] came into force in 2002. Its aim is to increase the degree of due care exercised by physicians when terminating a patient's life and to provide a legal framework within which physicians account for their actions in such cases. On the basis of the second evaluation of the Act, published in December 2012, this article provides an overview of the most recent legal developments regarding the Dutch Euthanasia Act. Special attention is given to patients with dementia, psychiatric patients and patient who are "weary of life". PMID:24437331

  18. Learning Styles of Chinese and Dutch Students Compared within the Context of Dutch Higher Education in Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemans, Harm; Van Mil, Marc

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the learning styles of Chinese students differ from those of Dutch students. The study was conducted within the context of English language Bachelor of Science programmes that Wageningen University offers together with China Agricultural University to Dutch and Chinese students. Sixteen Dutch students…

  19. Photocatalytic water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yenting

    New photocatalystic materials Ti-In oxy(nitride) and nanosized Ru-loaded strontium titanate doped with Rh (Ru/SrTiO3:Rh) have been synthesized. The textural and surface characteristic properties were studied by nitrogen BET analysis, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and powder XRD. The photocatalytic properties were enhanced by the binary metal oxides of titanium dioxide and indium oxide. The XRD patterns confirmed the oxygen exchange between two metal oxides during the synthesis. Moreover, the presence of titanium dioxide can help the stabilization of InN during hot NH3(g) treatment. On the other hand, the particle sizes of aerogel prepared Ru/SrTiO3:Rh varied from 12 to 25 nm depended on different Rh doping. A mixture of ethanol and toluene was found to be the best binary solvent for supercritical drying, which yielded a SrTiO3 sample with a surface area of 130 m2/g and an average crystallite size of 6 nm. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production under UV-vis light irradiation was achieved by ammonolysis of intimately mixed titanium dioxide and indium oxide at high temperatures. Gas chromatography monitored steadily the formation of hydrogen when sacrificial (methanol or ethanol) were present. XRD patterns confirmed that the photocatalysts maintain crystalline integrity before and after water splitting experiments. Moreover, the presence of InN may be crucial for the increase of hydrogen production activities. These Ru/SrTiO3:Rh photocatalysts have been studied for photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light. The band gap of the bulk SrTiO 3 (3.2 eV) does not allow response to visible light. However, after doping with rhodium and loaded with ruthenium, the modified strontium titanates can utilize light above 400 nm due to the formation of valence band or electron donor levels inside of the band gap. Moreover, the surface areas of these

  20. Sanitary locking lip split well seal

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, T.H.; Hunley, E.C. Jr.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a well seal for cooperating with a casing of a wall. It comprises a first split plate; a second split plate having a size and shape to allow insertion within the well casing; a split packer, which is provided with at least one tapered through hole, positioned between first split plate, and second split plate, the split packer having a size and shape approximately the same as an inner dimension of the well casing to allow insertion therein, split packer having at least two sections with interlocking lips to provide an effective sanitary seal by providing a leakproof labyrinth path to avoid a straight-through leak path; and clamp means for compressing split packer between first split plate and second split plates to expand the split packer into sealing engagement with an inner wall of the well casing.

  1. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  2. Dutch Universities' Joint Aid to Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education and Research in the Netherlands, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of the joint aid in the reconstruction of North and South Vietnam provided by Dutch universities. The hospital project, solid matter physics project, micro-electronics project, agricultural project and dentistry project are defined. (Author/PG)

  3. Government as Electronic Publishers? The Dutch Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwman, Harry; Nouwens, John

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the accessibility of government information focuses on how the Dutch government has tried to improve accessibility in six particular cases of electronic publishing. Topics include public-private partnerships, technological barriers of accessibility, outsourcing, and decentralization. (Author/LRW)

  4. Dutch national rainfallradar project: a unique corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuurmans, Hanneke; Maarten Verbree, Jan; Leijnse, Hidde; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Bierkens, Mark; van de Giesen, Nick; Gooijer, Jan; van den Houten, Gert

    2013-04-01

    Since January 2013 Dutch watermanagers have access to innovative high-quality rainfall data. This product is innovative because of the following reasons. (i) The product is developed in a 'golden triangle' construction - corporation between government, business and research institutes. (ii) Second the rainfall products are developed according to the open-source GPL license. The initiative comes from a group of water boards in the Netherlands that joined their forces to fund the development of a new rainfall product. Not only data from Dutch radar stations (as is currently done by the Dutch meteorological organization KNMI) is used but also data from radars in Germany and Belgium. After a radarcomposite is made, it is adjusted according to data from raingauges (ground truth). This results in 9 different rainfall products that give for each moment the best rainfall data. This data will be used, depending on the end-user for several applications: (i) forecasts: input for flood early warning systems, (ii) water system analysis: hydrological model input, (iii) optimization: real time control and (iv) investigation of incidents: in case of flooding, who's responsible. The latter is mainly insight in the return period of heavy rainfall events. More info (in Dutch): www.nationaleregenradar.nl

  5. Management Development from a Dutch Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paauwe, Jaap, Ed.; Williams, Roger, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Includes "Seven Key Issues for Management Development" (Paauwe, Williams); "Typology of Management Development" (Jansen, van der Velde, Mul); "Management Development at Royal Dutch/Shell" (Mahieu); "Management Development in Unilever" (Reitsma); "International Co-ordination and Management Development" (Hoeksema, de Jong); "Breaking in of New…

  6. Entropy Splitting and Numerical Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.; Djomehri, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    A rigorous stability estimate for arbitrary order of accuracy of spatial central difference schemes for initial-boundary value problems of nonlinear symmetrizable systems of hyperbolic conservation laws was established recently by Olsson and Oliger (1994) and Olsson (1995) and was applied to the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) and Gerritsen (1996). The basic building block in developing the stability estimate is a generalized energy approach based on a special splitting of the flux derivative via a convex entropy function and certain homogeneous properties. Due to some of the unique properties of the compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas, the splitting resulted in the sum of a conservative portion and a non-conservative portion of the flux derivative. hereafter referred to as the "Entropy Splitting." There are several potential desirable attributes and side benefits of the entropy splitting for the compressible Euler equations that were not fully explored in Gerritsen and Olsson. The paper has several objectives. The first is to investigate the choice of the arbitrary parameter that determines the amount of splitting and its dependence on the type of physics of current interest to computational fluid dynamics. The second is to investigate in what manner the splitting affects the nonlinear stability of the central schemes for long time integrations of unsteady flows such as in nonlinear aeroacoustics and turbulence dynamics. If numerical dissipation indeed is needed to stabilize the central scheme, can the splitting help minimize the numerical dissipation compared to its un-split cousin? Extensive numerical study on the vortex preservation capability of the splitting in conjunction with central schemes for long time integrations will be presented. The third is to study the effect of the non-conservative proportion of splitting in obtaining the correct shock location for high speed complex shock

  7. National identification of Dutch youth: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2011-06-01

    246 Dutch participants aged 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years were presented with the Strength of Identification Scale (SoIS; Barrett, 2007) and the National Identity scale based on Cultural and Historical achievements (NICH; derived from the NATID, Keillor & Hult, 1999). The study aimed to examine the extent and nature of Dutch children and adolescents' identification with The Netherlands and to explore whether changes in aspects of national identification are evident across age. Already at age 8 years children identify themselves with the Dutch nation and with increasing age national identification becomes primarily determined by the extent that participants consider themselves to be Dutch and show positive affect towards the Dutch nation. Identification on the basis of cultural and historical achievements of the Dutch people became less evident following the age of 10 years although Dutch historical and cultural achievements contributed significantly to the extent of national identification. PMID:20673993

  8. Respiratory-aspirated 35-mm hairpin successfully retrieved with a Teflon® snare system under fluoroscopic guidance via a split endotracheal tube: a useful technique in cases of failed extraction by bronchoscopy and avoiding the need for a thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Gill, S S; Pease, R A; Ashwin, C J; Gill, S S; Tait, N P

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common global health problem requiring prompt recognition and early treatment to prevent potentially fatal complications. The majority of FBAs are due to organic objects and treatment is usually via either endoscopic or surgical extraction. FBA of a straight hairpin has been described as a unique entity in the literature, occurring most commonly in females, particularly during adolescence. In the process of inserting hairpins, the pins will typically be between the teeth with the head tilted backwards, while tying their hair with both hands. This position increases the risk of aspiration, particularly if there is any sudden coughing or laughing. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a 35-mm straight metallic hairpin foreign body that has been successfully retrieved by a radiological snare system under fluoroscopic guidance. This was achieved with the use of a split endotracheal tube, and therefore avoided the need for a thoracotomy in an adolescent female patient. PMID:22919019

  9. Injuries caused by firewood splitting machines.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, P H

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the types of injury caused by firewood splitting machines and also to elucidate the accident mechanism. The study is based on 15 cases. The machine has a rotating spiral cone, and usually the victims' gloved fingertips were caught by the point of the cone. This led to either amputations, usually of radial fingers and/or penetrating wounds through the middle of the hand. In most cases the accidents could not be blamed on bad working techniques. The study of the mechanisms of injury points to insufficient protective devices in a machine construction which has a potentially dangerous working principle. PMID:2740847

  10. Lattice splitting under intermittent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schläpfer, Markus; Trantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    We study the splitting of regular square lattices subject to stochastic intermittent flows. Various flow patterns are produced by different groupings of the nodes, based on their random alternation between two possible states. The resulting flows on the lattices decrease with the number of groups according to a power law. By Monte Carlo simulations we reveal how the time span until the occurrence of a splitting depends on the flow patterns. Increasing the flow fluctuation frequency shortens this time span, which reaches a minimum before rising again due to inertia effects incorporated in the model. The size of the largest connected component after the splitting is rather independent of the flow fluctuation frequency but slightly decreases with the link capacities. Our findings carry important implications for real-world networks, such as electric power grids with a large share of renewable intermittent energy sources.

  11. Lattice splitting under intermittent flows.

    PubMed

    Schläpfer, Markus; Trantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    We study the splitting of regular square lattices subject to stochastic intermittent flows. Various flow patterns are produced by different groupings of the nodes, based on their random alternation between two possible states. The resulting flows on the lattices decrease with the number of groups according to a power law. By Monte Carlo simulations we reveal how the time span until the occurrence of a splitting depends on the flow patterns. Increasing the flow fluctuation frequency shortens this time span, which reaches a minimum before rising again due to inertia effects incorporated in the model. The size of the largest connected component after the splitting is rather independent of the flow fluctuation frequency but slightly decreases with the link capacities. Our findings carry important implications for real-world networks, such as electric power grids with a large share of renewable intermittent energy sources. PMID:20866296

  12. Split ring containment attachment device

    DOEpatents

    Sammel, Alfred G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device 10 for operatively connecting a glovebag 200 to plastic sheeting 100 covering hazardous material. The device 10 includes an inner split ring member 20 connected on one end 22 to a middle ring member 30 wherein the free end 21 of the split ring member 20 is inserted through a slit 101 in the plastic sheeting 100 to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting 100. A collar potion 41 having an outer ring portion 42 is provided with fastening means 51 for securing the device 10 together wherein the glovebag 200 is operatively connected to the collar portion 41.

  13. Baryon asymmetry and split SUSY

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, Shinta

    2005-12-02

    It is one of the greatest mysteries that the baryon asymmetry in our universe is so small. It is argued that it may originate from some profound physics beyond the standard model. We investigate the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis in split supersymmetry, and find that the smallness of the baryon asymmetry is directly related to the hierarchy between the supersymmetry breaking squark/slepton masses and the weak scale. Put simply, the baryon asymmetry is small because of the split mass spectrum. LHC may prove or falsify our scenario.

  14. A histological study of non-ceramic hydroxyapatite as a bone graft substitute material in the vertical bone augmentation of the posterior mandible using an interpositional inlay technique: A split mouth evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Karen; Dottore, Alexandre M; Kawakami, Paulo Y; Gehrke, Sergio A; Coelho, Paulo G; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the influence of graft material (non-ceramic hydroxyapatite versus autologous bone) on bone behaviour and perform a resonance frequency analysis of implants placed in augmented sites to evaluate stability. For this study, 11 patients with bilateral edentulous areas in the mandibular posterior region were selected. Alveolar augmentation osteotomies were bilaterally (split mouth design) performed. In one hemiarch, the space generated by the osteotomy was grafted with an interpositional intra-oral autologous bone graft (control group). In the other hemiarch, the space generated by the osteotomy was grafted with an interpositional non-ceramic hydroxyapatite (ncHA) (test group). The groups were randomized. After 6 months of healing, a bone sample was retrieved from each side for histological evaluation using a trephine drill that was 2-mm in internal diameter. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) was measured by the resonance frequency immediately following implant placement at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. Good incorporation of the graft was observed in both groups; however, in the test group, a residual-grafted material was observed. Bone density and marrow spaces were similar between groups. Correlations between the ISQ values and the histometric variables were not observed (p>0.05). The results of this trial suggest that both intra-oral autologous bone and ncHA may be elected as interpositional grafting materials to vertically augment posterior atrophic mandibles. PMID:26325427

  15. Investment and regulation: the Dutch experience

    SciTech Connect

    Haffner, Robert; Helmer, Dorine; van Til, Harry

    2010-06-15

    Theoretical studies on the relationship between incentive regulation and investment in network industries generally point out that incentive regulation has a negative impact on investment. However, empirical evidence in this area is scarce. An analysis suggests that in the Dutch electricity and gas networks since 2001, incentive regulation has ensured a more rational and professional approach towards investments, with investment levels coming down somewhat at the start of the regulation but picking up later on. (author)

  16. Large efficiency improvements in BEAMnrc using directional bremsstrahlung splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Kawrakow, I.; Rogers, D.W.O.; Walters, B.R.B.

    2004-10-01

    The introduction into the BEAMnrc code of a new variance reduction technique, called directional bremsstrahlung splitting (DBS), is described. DBS uses a combination of interaction splitting for bremsstrahlung, annihilation, Compton scattering, pair production and photoabsorption, and Russian Roulette to achieve a much better efficiency of photon beam treatment head simulations compared to the splitting techniques already available in BEAMnrc (selective bremsstrahlung splitting, SBS, and uniform bremsstrahlung splitting, UBS). In a simulated 6 MV photon beam (10x10 cm{sup 2} field) photon fluence efficiency in the beam using DBS is over 8 times higher than with optimized SBS and over 20 times higher than with UBS, with a similar improvement in electron fluence efficiency in the beam. Total dose efficiency in a central-axis depth-dose curve improves by a factor of 6.4 over SBS at all depths in the phantom. The performance of DBS depends on the details of the accelerator being simulated. At higher energies, the relative improvement in efficiency due to DBS decreases somewhat, but is still a factor of 3.5 improvement over SBS for total dose efficiency using DBS in a simulated 18 MV photon beam. Increasing the field size of the simulated 6 MV beam to 40x40 cm{sup 2} (broad beam) causes the relative efficiency improvement of DBS to decrease by a factor of {approx_equal}1.7 but is still up to 7 times more efficient than with SBS.

  17. Dutch chemical producers pledge emissions cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.; Schoenmakers, J.

    1993-02-24

    Dutch chemical producers have negotiated a long-term agreement with government ministries to reduce emissions of a wide range of chemicals. Industry association Vereniging van de Nederlandse Chemische Industrie (VNCI; Leidschendam) says implementing the commitment will cost companies Dfl 10 billion ($5.4 billion) between 1993 and 2000. VNCI technical director Wim Quik welcomes the accord, which he describes as a management contract, saying, Rather than have legislation, there is a certain adjustment available. Peter Santen, managing director of midsized chemicals player Cindu Chemicals (Uithoorn, the Netherlands) voices some concern about the details of the accord, but adds, we are flexible in trying to agree with the contents of the covenant [it] is better than having new rules from law. The Dutch government, traditionally eager for consensus, has struck a number of such deals with Dutch industries - including packaging, metal, and tire - to reduce emissions and set up environmental management programs. The effort is based on the government's National Environmental Policy Plans - NMP and NMP Plus. Targets for emissions reduction by the chemical industry were provided by a government-funded environmental research institute.

  18. Inflammatory responses to infection: the Dutch contribution.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Martijn A; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2014-12-01

    At any given moment, our body is under attack by a large variety of pathogens, which aim to enter and use our body to propagate and disseminate. The extensive cellular and molecular complexity of our immune system enables us to efficiently eliminate invading pathogens or at least develop a condition in which propagation of the microorganism is reduced to a minimum. Yet, the evolutionary pressure on pathogens to circumvent our immune defense mechanisms is immense, which continuously leads to the development of novel pathogenic strains that challenge the health of mankind. Understanding this battle between pathogen and the immune system has been a fruitful area of immunological research over the last century and will continue to do so for many years. In this review, which has been written on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Dutch Society for Immunology, we provide an overview of the major contributions that Dutch immunologists and infection biologists have made in the last decades on the inflammatory response to viral, bacterial, fungal or parasitic infections. We focus on those studies that have addressed both the host and the pathogen, as these are most interesting from an immunological point of view. Although it is not possible to completely cover this comprehensive research field, this review does provide an interesting overview of Dutch research on inflammatory responses to infection. PMID:25455597

  19. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation. PMID:2086632

  20. Split-resonator integrated-post MEMS gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A split-resonator integrated-post vibratory microgyroscope may be fabricated using micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques. The microgyroscope may include two gyroscope sections bonded together, each gyroscope section including resonator petals, electrodes, and an integrated half post. The half posts are aligned and bonded to act as a single post.

  1. Performance of Dutch Children on the Bayley III: A Comparison Study of US and Dutch Norms

    PubMed Central

    Steenis, Leonie J. P.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hessen, Dave J.; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-third edition (Bayley-III) are frequently used to assess early child development worldwide. However, the original standardization only included US children, and it is still unclear whether or not these norms are adequate for use in other populations. Recently, norms for the Dutch version of the Bayley-III (The Bayley-III-NL) were made. Scores based on Dutch and US norms were compared to study the need for population-specific norms. Methods Scaled scores based on Dutch and US norms were compared for 1912 children between 14 days and 42 months 14 days. Next, the proportions of children scoring < 1-SD and < -2 SD based on the two norms were compared, to identify over- or under-referral for developmental delay resulting from non-population-based norms. Results Scaled scores based on Dutch norms fluctuated around values based on US norms on all subtests. The extent of the deviations differed across ages and subtests. Differences in means were significant across all five subtests (p < .01) with small to large effect sizes (ηp2) ranging from .03 to .26). Using the US instead of Dutch norms resulted in over-referral regarding gross motor skills, and under-referral regarding cognitive, receptive communication, expressive communication, and fine motor skills. Conclusions The Dutch norms differ from the US norms for all subtests and these differences are clinically relevant. Population specific norms are needed to identify children with low scores for referral and intervention, and to facilitate international comparisons of population data. PMID:26267907

  2. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter A.

    1988-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described, which uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  3. Minimizing the cost of splitting in Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Juzaitis, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    A deterministic analysis of the computational cost associated with geometric splitting/Russian roulette in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations is presented. Appropriate integro-differential equations are developed for the first and second moments of the Monte Carlo tally as well as time per particle history, given that splitting with Russian roulette takes place at one (or several) internal surfaces of the geometry. The equations are solved using a standard S/sub n/ (discrete ordinates) solution technique, allowing for the prediction of computer cost (formulated as the product of sample variance and time per particle history, sigma/sup 2//sub s/tau p) associated with a given set of splitting parameters. Optimum splitting surface locations and splitting ratios are determined. Benefits of such an analysis are particularly noteworthy for transport problems in which splitting is apt to be extensively employed (e.g., deep penetration calculations).

  4. A bootstrap evaluation of the effect of data splitting on financial time series.

    PubMed

    LeBaron, B; Weigend, A S

    1998-01-01

    Exposes problems of the commonly used technique of splitting the available data into training, validation, and test sets that are held fixed, warns about drawing too strong conclusions from such static splits, and shows potential pitfalls of ignoring variability across splits. Using a bootstrap or resampling method, we compare the uncertainty in the solution stemming from the data splitting with neural-network specific uncertainties (parameter initialization, choice of number of hidden units, etc.). We present two results on data from the New York Stock Exchange. First, the variation due to different resamplings is significantly larger than the variation due to different network conditions. This result implies that it is important to not over-interpret a model (or an ensemble of models) estimated on one specific split of the data. Second, on each split, the neural-network solution with early stopping is very close to a linear model; no significant nonlinearities are extracted. PMID:18252443

  5. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a distance of more than one-fourth the circumference of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack....

  6. A simple stripline design for uneven power split

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for the design of stripline or microstrip power dividers for unequal, but in-phase, power split is described. The output power ratio is determined by selecting the location of the input port in a manner analogous to the tap point for an electric power transformer. The technique yields a usable bandwidth of 7 to 8 percent and is attractive for tapered amplitude distribution networks for narrow band phased arrays.

  7. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waele, A. T. A. M.; Liang, W.

    2009-02-01

    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the cold finger are connected by a flexible tube. The displacer in the cold head is suspended by a spring. Its motion is pneumatically driven by the pressure oscillations generated by the compressor. In this paper we give the basic dynamic equations of split Stirling refrigerators and investigate the possibility of spontaneous mechanical oscillations if a large temperature gradient develops in the cold finger, e.g. during or after cool down. These oscillations would be superimposed on the pressure oscillations of the compressor and could ruin the cooler performance.

  8. High efficiency beam splitting for H/sup -/ accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H/sup -/ accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H/sup -/ beam to H/sup 0/ which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ splitting of a 50 MeV H/sup -/ beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction.

  9. Testing split supersymmetry with inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Green, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Split supersymmetry (SUSY) — in which SUSY is relevant to our universe but largely inaccessible at current accelerators — has become increasingly plausible given the absence of new physics at the LHC, the success of gauge coupling unification, and the observed Higgs mass. Indirect probes of split SUSY such as electric dipole moments (EDMs) and flavor violation offer hope for further evidence but are ultimately limited in their reach. Inflation offers an alternate window into SUSY through the direct production of superpartners during inflation. These particles are capable of leaving imprints in future cosmological probes of primordial non-gaussianity. Given the recent observations of BICEP2, the scale of inflation is likely high enough to probe the full range of split SUSY scenarios and therefore offers a unique advantage over low energy probes. The key observable for future experiments is equilateral non-gaussianity, which will be probed by both cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure (LSS) surveys. In the event of a detection, we forecast our ability to find evidence for superpartners through the scaling behavior in the squeezed limit of the bispectrum.

  10. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  11. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  12. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  13. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  14. Verb inflection in Monolingual Dutch and Sequential Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; De Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study…

  15. Challenges to prevention in Dutch general practice.

    PubMed

    Drenthen, T

    1997-06-01

    In the Netherlands the general practitioner (GP) plays an important role in prevention. Every Dutch citizen has to be registered with one GP and GPs know their patients well. Face-to-face contact is a relatively effective means of influencing behavior; if preventive advice is related to a patient's state of health, compliance may be stimulated. However, Dutch GPs have shown reluctance toward preventive work. Curing rather than preventing disease is emphasized in medical school. Many GPs doubt that they are entitled to interfere with a patients' lifestyle unless asked. Some GPs are aware of their limited knowledge of nutrition. Preventive work requires some reorganization of medical practice and can lead to an increased workload, without financial compensation. Then there is the "prevention paradox": preventive actions that have a demonstrable effect on the whole population bring only small benefits for individuals. Since 1989 the Dutch College of General Practitioners has published 60 standards for general practice. Several of these include advice on lifestyle and diet, eg, for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, peptic ulcer, and heart failure. Prevention work in general practice must use only interventions proved to be effective and they must be feasible in the context of general practice. A trial collaboration of 118 GPs and 5 public health authorities between 1988 and 1990 for screening and lifestyle management of hypertension was a limited success. It brought to light the practical problems of this type of work in general practice. Present government priorities for GP-public health collaboration are influenza vaccination and cervical screening. PMID:9174499

  16. Dutch Elementary School Children's Attribution of Meaning to Written Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellings, Agnes; Bouts, Lex

    2011-01-01

    Grade two through six elementary school Dutch children were asked to perform a lexical decision task including 90 pseudowords constructed by changing one or two letters in a Dutch word. Subsequently, the children were asked about the meaning of pseudowords they had not crossed out and that they, apparently, had considered to be words. Multiple…

  17. Neural Correlates of Dutch Verb Second in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Hoogduin, Hans; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2008-01-01

    Dutch speakers with agrammatic Broca's aphasia are known to have problems with the production of finite verbs in main clauses. This performance pattern has been accounted for in terms of the specific syntactic complexity of the Dutch main clause structure, which requires an extra syntactic operation (Verb Second), relative to the basic…

  18. The Dutch Are Missing in the American Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claunch, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch are missing in any U.S. history textbook, in the content standards, and in the nationally endorsed curriculum. Outside of New York State history classes, there is almost no mention of the Dutch influence in early 17th-century America. Fleeting references to the Netherlands as a staging area for the Pilgrims' famous "Mayflower" voyage or…

  19. Units of Analysis in Reading Dutch Bisyllabic Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert; Baayen, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to explore the units of analysis used by children to read Dutch bisyllabic pseudowords. Although Dutch orthography is highly regular, several deviations from a one-to-one correspondence occur. In polysyllabic words, the grapheme e may represent three different vowels: /e/, /e/, or [/schwa/]. In Experiment 1, Grade…

  20. Prefix Identification in the Reading of Dutch Bisyllabic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert; Haarman, Vera

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to explore the role of prefix identification in the reading of Dutch bisyllabic words. Although Dutch orthography is highly regular, several deviations from a one-to-one correspondence exist. A case in point is the grapheme E which can represent the vowels epsilon, e and oe in polysyllabic words. In…

  1. The Electrophysiological Manifestation of Dutch Verb Second Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the processing of violations of the verb position in Dutch, in a group of healthy subjects, by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) through electroencephalography (EEG). In Dutch, the base position of the verb is clause final, but in matrix clauses, the finite verb is in second position, a construction known as "Verb Second".…

  2. Agrammatic Sentence Production: Is Verb Second Impaired in Dutch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Peter; Kolk, Herman; Haverkort, Marco

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates effects of verb movement in nine Dutch-speaking agrammatic aphasics. According to linguistic theory, in verb second languages such as Dutch and German, the verb remains in its clause-final base position in embedded clauses, whereas it moves to second position in main clauses. In recent linguistic accounts of agrammatic…

  3. EQUAL OPTICAL PATH BEAM SPLITTERS BY USE OF AMPLITUDE-SPLITTING AND WAVEFRONT-SPLITTING METHODS FOR PENCIL BEAM INTERFEROMETER.

    SciTech Connect

    QIAN,S.TAKACS,P.

    2003-08-03

    A beam splitter to create two separated parallel beams is a critical unit of a pencil beam interferometer, for example the long trace profiler (LTP). The operating principle of the beam splitter can be based upon either amplitude-splitting (AS) or wavefront-splitting (WS). For precision measurements with the LTP, an equal optical path system with two parallel beams is desired. Frequency drift of the light source in a non-equal optical path system will cause the interference fringes to drift. An equal optical path prism beam splitter with an amplitude-splitting (AS-EBS) beam splitter and a phase shift beam splitter with a wavefront-splitting (WS-PSBS) are introduced. These beam splitters are well suited to the stability requirement for a pencil beam interferometer due to the characteristics of monolithic structure and equal optical path. Several techniques to produce WS-PSBS by hand are presented. In addition, the WS-PSBS using double thin plates, made from microscope cover plates, has great advantages of economy, convenience, availability and ease of adjustment over other beam splitting methods. Comparison of stability measurements made with the AS-EBS, WS-PSBS, and other beam splitters is presented.

  4. Split-inteins and their bioapplications.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifeng

    2015-11-01

    Split-inteins are a subset of inteins that are expressed in two separate halves and catalyze splicing in trans upon association of the two domains. They occur naturally and have also been artificially generated by splitting of contiguous ones. With their unique properties, split-inteins offer improved controllability, flexibility and capability to existing tools based on contiguous inteins. In addition, split-inteins have proven useful in several new applications. This review gives a general introduction to split-inteins with a focus on their role in expanding the applications of intein-based technologies. PMID:26153348

  5. Comparison of dust related respiratory effects in Dutch and Canadian grain handling industries: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Peelen, S J; Heederik, D; Dimich-Ward, H D; Chan-Yeung, M; Kennedy, S M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Four previously conducted epidemiological studies in more than 1200 grain workers were used to compare exposure-response relations between exposure to grain dust and respiratory health. METHODS: The studies included Dutch workers from an animal feed mill and a transfer grain elevator and Canadian workers from a terminal grain elevator and the docks. Relations between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and exposure were analysed with multiple regression analysis corrected for smoking, age, and height. Exposure variables examined included cumulative and current dust exposure and the numbers of years a subject was employed in the industry. Sampling efficiencies of the Dutch and Canadian measurement techniques were compared in a pilot study. Results of this study were used to correct slopes of exposure-response relations for differences in dust fractions sampled by Dutch and Canadian personal dust samplers. RESULTS: Negative exposure-response relations were shown for regressions of FEV1 on cumulative and current exposure and years employed. Slopes of the exposure-response relations differed by a factor of three to five between industries, apart from results for cumulative exposure. Here the variation in slopes differed by a factor of 100, from -1 to -0.009 ml/mg.y/m3. The variation in slopes between industries reduced to between twofold to fivefold when the Dutch transfer elevator workers were not considered. There was evidence that the small exposure-response slope found for this group is caused by misclassification of exposure and a strong healthy worker effect. Alternative, but less likely explanations for the variation in slopes were differences in exposure concentrations, composition of grain dust, exposure characteristics, and measurement techniques. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study showed moderately similar negative exposure-response relations for four different populations from different countries, despite differences in methods of

  6. Ecological compensation in Dutch highway planning.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, R; Bakermans, M M; De Haes, H A; Canters, K J

    2001-01-01

    The ecological compensation principle was introduced by the Dutch government in 1993. This principle is designed to enhance the input of nature conservation interests in decision-making on large-scale development projects and to counterbalance the ecological impacts of such developments when implemented. This article evaluates the application of the Dutch compensation principle in highway planning. Six current highway projects reveal consistent implementation of this principle, although provincial policies on compensation and a national method for identifying compensation measures are still under development. As the planning process has not yet been completed for all the projects, no general conclusions can be drawn on the impact of the compensation principle on highway decision-making. Nevertheless, several examples show that the principle stimulates project initiators to develop alternative routes or route sections in order to avoid or reduce ecological impacts and the need for coherent compensation measures. If the compensation principle is to be properly implemented in the context of highway planning, particular attention should be paid to the following aspects: (1) sequential assessment of overall project legitimacy and the necessity of intersecting protected areas and compensation measures. (2) the initiator's attempts to avoid and mitigate ecological impacts in developing alternative routes prior to compensation for impacts, and (3) the role of uncertain ecological impacts in identifying compensation measures, especially those concerning habitat isolation. PMID:11083910

  7. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  8. Implementing prospective budgeting for Dutch sickness funds.

    PubMed

    Okma, K G; Poelert, J D

    2001-06-01

    Most if not all social policies entail redistribution of scarce public resources from central government to regional and local authorities, to individual citizens or non-government agencies. Governments use a wide variety of instruments to allocate public funds, including direct state provision of subsidies and goods and services, setting budgets at different levels, and regulation of social insurance schemes. Most industrialised countries have developed budget models based on implicit or explicit allocation criteria. Governments usually start by determining global budgets for an entire category of public spending and then specifying the amounts allocated for categories of spending, and next, the budgets for individual agencies. Within such a 'cascading' model, the lower level budgets may be more controversial than the global budgets, as they directly affect the amounts available to individual actors in the system, e.g. hospitals or health insurance agencies. Setting budgets not only shifts decision-making authority but also financial risks from the central government to decentralised actors. The introduction of the prospective budgeting model for the Dutch sickness funds illustrates why determining budgets is not merely a matter of choosing objective allocation criteria, but also, of interaction between state and stakeholders. In the typical Dutch neocorporatist policy arena, where organised interests share responsibilities with government for the shaping and implementation of social policies, the health insurance agencies actively participated in the development of the budget model. PMID:11420806

  9. [Reconstruction of defects of the anterior wall of the frontal sinus using autologous bone transplantation obtained by calvarian split graft].

    PubMed

    Fürst, G; Maurer, J; Mann, W

    1992-03-01

    We present the technique to gain free calvarian split bone grafts for reconstruction of the anterior wall of the frontal sinus. The indication for surgery, the surgical technique and the results in 12 patients are discussed. PMID:1596313

  10. Rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits under different excitations at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahertar, S.; Yalcinkaya, A. D.; Torun, H.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, transmission characteristics of rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits are analyzed at microwave frequencies. The resonators are coupled with monopole antennas for excitation. The scattering parameters of the devices are investigated under different polarizations of E and H fields. The magnetic resonances induced by E and H fields are identified and the differences in the behavior of the resonators due to orientations of the fields are explained based on simulation and experimental results. The addition of the second split of the device is investigated considering different configurations of the excitation vectors. It is demonstrated that the single-split and the two-splits resonators exhibit identical transmission characteristics for a certain excitation configuration as verified with simulations and experiments. The presented resonators can effectively function as frequency selective media for varying excitation conditions.

  11. Split-mode ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskii, Igor; Cremaldi, Lucien

    2013-08-01

    A split-mode ultrasonic transducer is investigated in both theory and experiment. This transducer is a two-dimensional structure of periodically poled domains in a ferroelectric wafer with free surfaces. The acoustic vibrations are excited by a radio frequency electric current applied along the length of the wafer, which allows the basal-plane surfaces to be free of metal coatings and thus ready for further biomedical applications. A specific physical property of this transducer consists of the multiple acousto-electric resonances, which occur due to an acoustic mode split when the acoustic half-wavelength is equal to the domain length. Possible applications include ultrasonic generation and detection at the micro-scale, intravascular sonification and visualization, ultrasound therapy of localized small areas such as the eye, biomedical applications for cell cultures, and traditional nondestructive testing including bones and tissues. A potential use of a non-metallized wafer is a therapeutic application with double action that is both ultrasound itself and an electric field over the wafer. The experimental measurements and theoretical calculations are in good agreement. PMID:23927212

  12. Flux vector splitting and approximate Newton methods. [for solution of steady Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, D. C.; Pulliam, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    In the present investigation, the basic approach is employed to view an iterative scheme as Newton's method or as a modified Newton's method. Attention is given to various modified Newton methods which can arise from differencing schemes for the Euler equations. Flux vector splitting is considered as the basic spatial differencing technique. This technique is based on the partition of a flux vector into groups which have certain properties. The Euler equations fluxes can be split into two groups, the first group having a flux Jacobian with all positive eigenvalues, and the second group having a flux Jacobian with all negative eigenvalues. Flux vector splitting based on a velocity-sound speed split is considered along with the use of numerical techniques to analyze nonlinear systems, and the steady Euler equations for quasi-one-dimensional flow in a nozzle. Results are given for steady flows with shocks.

  13. Dutch Cycling: Quantifying the Health and Related Economic Benefits.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Elliot; Schepers, Paul; Kamphuis, Carlijn Barbara Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Netherlands is well known for their high bicycle use. We used the Health Economic Assessment Tool and life table calculations to quantify the population-level health benefits from Dutch cycling levels. Cycling prevents about 6500 deaths each year, and Dutch people have half-a-year-longer life expectancy because of cycling. These health benefits correspond to more than 3% of the Dutch gross domestic product. Our study confirmed that investments in bicycle-promoting policies (e.g., improved bicycle infrastructure and facilities) will likely yield a high cost-benefit ratio in the long term. PMID:26066942

  14. The Modifications of the Sagittal Ramus Split Osteotomy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Meyns, Joeri; Dik, Eric; Kessler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 1953, the sagittal ramus split osteotomy was introduced by Obwegeser. For many years, and in some countries still, this technique has defined the term oral and maxillofacial surgery. Methods: The basic design of the sagittal ramus split surgical procedure evolved very quickly. The original operation technique by Obwegeser was shortly after improved by Dal Pont’s modification. The second major improvement of the basic technique was added by Hunsuck in 1967. Since then, the technical and biological procedure has been well defined. Resolution of the problems many surgeons encountered has, however, taken longer. Some of these problems, such as the unfavorable split or the damage of the inferior alveolar nerve, have not been satisfactorily resolved. Results: Further modifications, with or without the application of new instruments, have been introduced by Epker and Wolford, whose modification was recently elaborated by Böckmann. The addition of a fourth osteotomy at the inferior mandibular border in an in vitro experiment led to a significant reduction of the torque forces required for the mandibular split. Conclusions: The literature was reviewed, and the last modifications of the successful traditional splitting procedure are presented narrowly. It indicates the better the split is preformatted by osteotomies, the less torque force is needed while splitting, giving more controle, a better predictability of the lingual fracture and maybe less neurosensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. PMID:25587505

  15. Development of a Dutch Drainpipe exposure scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiktak, Aaldrik; Boesten, Jos; van der Linden, Ton

    2010-05-01

    In the new Dutch pesticide authorisation procedure, the leaching of pesticides to surface waters will be evaluated. The 90th percentile of the peak concentrations in all Dutch ditches will be used for the exposure assessment of aquatic organisms The peak concentration in surface waters is primarily affected by fast transfer routes (amongst others by macropores). For this reason, we developed a macropore version of the pesticide leaching model PEARL. The macropore version of PEARL describes transport of pesticides through the soil matrix and through two preferential flow domains, i.e. a bypass domain and an internal catchment domain. The drainpipe exposure assessment will be done for a single field site. We selected the Andelst field experiment (Scorza Júnior et al., 2004) for this purpose, because at this site sufficient data is available to parameterise and test the model. To assess the effect of weather variability on drainpipe concentration, the model is run for a 20-years period. Hydrological boundary conditions for the 20-years period were taken from nearby weather stations and ground water observation wells. Application of PEARL to this field site showed that the model adequately describes the peak concentration and the later decline of the concentration for two different pesticides. The exposure assessment at the Andelst field site results in 20 annual peak concentrations, that need to be compared with the 90th percentile of the peak concentration in all Dutch ditches, so we performed simulations with a spatially-distributed version of PEARL. This assessment resulted in 20 times n concentrations, with n the number of locations. A contour diagram was used to assess which weather year corresponds with the 90th percentile of all 20 times n peak concentrations. The X-coordinate in the contour diagram corresponds with the percentile of the cumulative distribution of the predicted concentrations due to spatial variability that is obtained for a median weather

  16. Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

    2013-03-13

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency. PMID:23359741

  17. Dutch refinery nears completion of major renovation

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1997-03-17

    Shell Nederland Raffinaderij B.V. has completed construction of a major upgrade at its refinery in Pernis, The Netherlands. The project, called PER+, centers around the addition of Shell Gasification Hydrogen Process (SGHP) and hydrocracking units. The expansion will increase the complexity of Shell`s Dutch refinery and enable it to convert low-value streams to useful products such as cleaner-burning transportation fuels, hydrogen, and electricity. PER+ is a prime example of the kind of innovative planning necessary for European refineries to stay competitive in a tough market. The project reached mechanical completion early this year, and is scheduled to start up in May. The paper describes the refinery, project objectives, process options, the SGHP process, soot ash removal, syngas treatment, power and hydrogen production, environmental issues, and construction.

  18. Inertial properties of Dutch Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Buchner, H H; Savelberg, H H; Schamhardt, H C; Barneveld, A

    1997-06-01

    The complete set of three-dimensional inertial properties (mass, density, centre of mass, inertial tensor) was determined in 26 segments of six Dutch Warmblood horses. The measurements were performed with frozen segments similar to the procedure described by Lephart (1984, J. Biomechanics 17, 537-543). Based on these data linear regression models were developed for the estimation of inertial properties in living horses. The reproducibility of the dissection procedure was found to range between 2 and 9%. Both mean values and regression models are presented for all parameters. The mean standard error of estimation was 8% for the segment mass, 3% of the segment reference length for the position of the centre of mass, and 17% for the moments of inertia. PMID:9165402

  19. The art of governance of Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hoek, H

    1999-01-01

    Hospitals in The Netherlands are governed by two boards: The Board of Directors, the legal representative of the hospital, responsible for strategic and operational business activities; and the Supervisory Board, made up of co-opted volunteers and responsible for checking and approving of the major decisions of the Board of Directors. The question which arises is whether the system of governance is able to function appropriately and guarantee enough concern about general health problems, moral and ethical questions and the interest of the patients. This paper investigate the successes and shortfalls of such a system of governance in Dutch hospitals. The results and conclusions determine that although copied from the corporate governance model, it does not function well in an environment where the influence of patients and the inhabitants of the region are of great importance and shareholders do not exist. PMID:10977190

  20. Naturally Split Inteins Assemble through a “Capture and Collapse” Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Split inteins are a class of naturally occurring proteins that carry out protein splicing in trans. The chemical mechanism of protein trans-splicing is well-understood and has been exploited to develop several powerful protein engineering technologies. Split intein chemistry is preceded by efficient molecular recognition between two protomers that become intertwined in their bound state. It is currently unclear how this unique topology is achieved upon fragment association. Using biophysical techniques in conjunction with protein engineering methods, including segmental isotopic labeling, we show that one split intein fragment is partly folded, while the other is completely disordered. These polypeptides capture each other through their disordered regions and form an ordered intermediate with native-like structure at their interface. This intermediate then collapses into the canonical intein fold. This mechanism provides insight into the evolutionary constraints on split intein assembly and should enhance the development of split intein-based technologies. PMID:24236406

  1. Guided wave simulation in plates using split-domain FEM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. R. Sandeep; K, Sri Harsha Reddy; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; N, Ganesan

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the quantitative comparison of A-scans obtained from the simulations of fundamental guided wave modes in a plate by split-domain Finite Element Modeling approach with the more conventional single domain FEM method. Split Approach is the computationally efficient technique that has been developed for simulating long-range guided wave propagation in complex structures with limited computation resources. This Split Approach method involves sub-domain FE modeling which involves the splitting the larger FE model into smaller sub-domain models, solving them individually and finally transferring the wave from one sub-domain to the next sub-domain. In this paper, simulations of guided wave propagation were carried out in a plate using ABAQUS® Explicit FE package. The results thus obtained by split approach were compared with conventional full model approach.

  2. The Dutch school of malaria research.

    PubMed

    Verhave, J P

    1987-01-01

    An epidemic of tertian malaria in some coastal areas of The Netherlands resulted in the setting up of official measures in 1920. A scientific and a propaganda commission were charged with control. Efforts were made to reduce mosquito populations by adult and larval spraying. After the discovery that infected mosquitoes were to be found only inside houses, control operations were focussed against adult mosquitoes. Some later discoveries resulted in a more effective control. a) Spraying ditches with Paris green did not prevent adult mosquitoes from entering the control area. b) Anopheles maculipennis turned out to be a complex of species, with A. atroparvus as the vector. The latter preferred brackish water and did not go into full hibernation. The closing of the Zuyder Sea and the expected desalinization gave hope for less suitable conditions for the vector. c) Plasmodium vivax normally had an incubation period of 8 months. d) Pyrethrum was an effective but short-lasting insecticide. e) Healthy parasite carriers could infect mosquitoes. This knowledge was applied through an extensive system of investigation, including spleen examination of schoolchildren. Suspected houses were sprayed bimonthly from August to November, during which period infected mosquitoes were likely to be present. This system worked extremely well, and during the next epidemic from 1943 to 1947 the thus treated towns remained virtually free of malaria! DDT became available and was either sprayed in suspected houses as before, or through wide-spread coverage of all houses. The epidemic subsided whatever method employed and not only due to the use of DDT. The number of cases even went down to the point of no return and the last case of Dutch malaria was recorded in 1959. The wealth of experience on house-spray control, parasite and mosquito biology and experimental malaria of the Dutch malariologists has had its impact on the international bodies engaged in the battle against malaria. PMID:3334084

  3. Arthroscopic Anatomic Glenoid Reconstruction Without Subscapularis Split

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ivan H.; Urquhart, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The role of bone loss from the anterior glenoid in recurrent shoulder instability has been well established. We present a completely arthroscopic technique for reconstructing the anterior glenoid with distal tibial allograft and without a subscapularis split. We perform the arthroscopy in the lateral position. We measure and size an allograft distal tibial graft and place it arthroscopically. We use an inside-out medial portal to introduce the graft into the shoulder, passing it through the rotator interval and above the subscapularis. A double-cannula system is used to pass the graft, which is temporarily fixed with K-wires and held in place with cannulated screws. We then perform a Bankart-like repair of the soft tissues to balance the shoulder and augment our repair. Our technique is not only anatomic in the re-creation of the glenoid surface but also anatomic in the preservation of the coracoid and subscapularis tendon and repair of the capsulolabral complex. PMID:26697303

  4. Dephasing in coherently split quasicondensates

    SciTech Connect

    Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.

    2011-02-15

    We numerically model the evolution of a pair of coherently split quasicondensates. A truly one-dimensional case is assumed, so that the loss of the (initially high) coherence between the two quasicondensates is due to dephasing only, but not due to the violation of integrability and subsequent thermalization (which are excluded from the present model). We confirm the subexponential time evolution of the coherence between two quasicondensates {proportional_to}exp[-(t/t{sub 0}){sup 2/3}], experimentally observed by Hofferberth et al. [Nature 449, 324 (2007)]. The characteristic time t{sub 0} is found to scale as the square of the ratio of the linear density of a quasicondensate to its temperature, and we analyze the full distribution function of the interference contrast and the decay of the phase correlation.

  5. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  6. Dark matter from split seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2010-09-01

    The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.

  7. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  8. Gauge mediated mini-split

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ- b μ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 105 to 108 GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  9. Development of new flux splitting schemes. [computational fluid dynamics algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Maximizing both accuracy and efficiency has been the primary objective in designing a numerical algorithm for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is especially important for solutions of complex three dimensional systems of Navier-Stokes equations which often include turbulence modeling and chemistry effects. Recently, upwind schemes have been well received for their capability in resolving discontinuities. With this in mind, presented are two new flux splitting techniques for upwind differencing. The first method is based on High-Order Polynomial Expansions (HOPE) of the mass flux vector. The second new flux splitting is based on the Advection Upwind Splitting Method (AUSM). The calculation of the hypersonic conical flow demonstrates the accuracy of the splitting in resolving the flow in the presence of strong gradients. A second series of tests involving the two dimensional inviscid flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil demonstrates the ability of the AUSM to resolve the shock discontinuity at transonic speed. A third case calculates a series of supersonic flows over a circular cylinder. Finally, the fourth case deals with tests of a two dimensional shock wave/boundary layer interaction.

  10. Influence of birefringence splitting on ultrafast polarization oscillations in VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Spin-VCSELs offer numerous advantages over conventional lasers like reduced threshold, spin amplification and ultrafast polarization dynamics. The latter have the potential to generate polarization modulation frequencies far above the conventional intensity relaxation oscillation frequency of one and the same device and thus can be an interesting basis for ultrafast optical data transmission. We have shown that fast polarization oscillations can be generated by pulsed spin injection. Furthermore the oscillation frequency can be tuned via modification of the VCSEL's cavity strain. Using this technique, oscillation frequencies with a tuning range from nearly zero up to 40 GHz can be demonstrated. In the device under study, this is more than six times the intensity relaxation oscillation frequency, which is nearly independent of the strain. Now we demonstrate the influence of the strain-induced birefringence splitting on the oscillation frequency. We find that the polarization oscillation frequency is directly corresponding to the birefringence splitting. The reason is that the polarization oscillates according to the beating frequency of the two orthogonal linearly polarized cavity modes in the VCSEL. In the case of spin-pumping, those two modes form the circular polarization output of the laser by superposition. Their frequencies are shifted by birefringence manipulation and form the basis of birefringence splitting. The measurement results are compared with simulations employing the spin-flip model. Our results show that high-frequency polarization oscillations can not only be generated with the help of external strain but with high birefringence splitting in general.

  11. Split Immunological Tolerance to Trophoblast

    PubMed Central

    de Mestre, Amanda; Noronha, Leela; Wagner, Bettina; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Split immunological tolerance refers to states in which an individual is capable of mounting certain types of immune responses to a particular antigenic challenge, but is tolerant of the same antigen in other compartments of the immune system. This concept is applicable to the immunological relationship between mother and fetus, and particularly relevant in equine pregnancy. In pregnant mares, antibody responses to paternal foreign Major Histocompatibility Complex class I antigens are robust, while anti-paternal cytotoxic T cell responses are diminished compared to those mounted by non-pregnant mares. Here we compared the distribution of the major lymphocyte subsets, the percentage of lymphocytes expressing Interferon Gamma (IFNG) and Interleukin 4 (IL4) and the level of expression of the immunoregulatory transcription factor FOXP3 between pregnant and non-pregnant mares, and between peripheral blood and the endometrium during pregnancy. In a cohort of mares in which peripheral blood lymphocytes were tested during early pregnancy and in the non-pregnant state, there were only slight changes observed during pregnancy. In contrast, comparison of peripheral blood lymphocytes with lymphocytes isolated from the endometrial cups of pregnant mares revealed striking differences in lymphocyte sub-populations. The endometrial cups contained higher numbers of IFNG+ lymphocytes, and lower numbers of lymphocytes expressing IL4. The endometrial cup lymphocytes also had higher numbers of FOXP3+ cells compared to peripheral blood lymphocytes. Taken together, these results strengthen the evidence for a state of split tolerance to trophoblast, and furthermore define sharp differences in immune reactivity during equine pregnancy between peripheral blood lymphocytes and lymphocytes at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:19876828

  12. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  13. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding. PMID:23771428

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE KITCHEN. SHOWING THE DUTCH DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE KITCHEN. SHOWING THE DUTCH DOOR TO THE SERVICE PORCH. PANTRY AND DOOR TO THE DINING ROOM ARE TO THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type K, 304 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Interior view of dutch door, double doorway with operable transom, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of dutch door, double doorway with operable transom, and typical single doorway with transom, facing south. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Double trouble: subsidence and CO2 respiration due to 1,000 years of Dutch coastal peatlands cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; van der Meulen, Michiel J.; Middelkoop, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Coastal plains are amongst the most densely populated areas in the world. Many coastal peatlands are drained to create arable land. This is not without consequences; physical compaction of peat and its degradation by oxidation lead to subsidence, and oxidation also leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study complements existing studies by quantifying total land subsidence and associated CO2 respiration over the past millennium in the Dutch coastal peatlands, to gain insight into the consequences of cultivating coastal peatlands over longer timescales. Results show that the peat volume loss was 19.8 km3, which lowered the Dutch coastal plain by 1.9 m on average, bringing most of it below sea level. At least 66 % of the volume reduction is the result of drainage, and 34 % was caused by the excavation and subsequent combustion of peat. The associated CO2 respiration is equivalent to a global atmospheric CO2 concentration increase of ~0.39 ppmv. Cultivation of coastal peatlands can turn a carbon sink into a carbon source. If the path taken by the Dutch would be followed worldwide, there will be double trouble: globally significant carbon emissions and increased flood risk in a globally important human habitat. The effects would be larger than the historic ones because most of the cumulative Dutch subsidence and peat loss was accomplished with much less efficient techniques than those available now.

  18. Double trouble: subsidence and CO2 respiration due to 1,000 years of Dutch coastal peatlands cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; van der Meulen, Michiel J.; Middelkoop, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Coastal plains are amongst the most densely populated areas in the world. Many coastal peatlands are drained to create arable land. This is not without consequences; physical compaction of peat and its degradation by oxidation lead to subsidence, and oxidation also leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study complements existing studies by quantifying total land subsidence and associated CO2 respiration over the past millennium in the Dutch coastal peatlands, to gain insight into the consequences of cultivating coastal peatlands over longer timescales. Results show that the peat volume loss was 19.8 km3, which lowered the Dutch coastal plain by 1.9 m on average, bringing most of it below sea level. At least 66 % of the volume reduction is the result of drainage, and 34 % was caused by the excavation and subsequent combustion of peat. The associated CO2 respiration is equivalent to a global atmospheric CO2 concentration increase of ~0.39 ppmv. Cultivation of coastal peatlands can turn a carbon sink into a carbon source. If the path taken by the Dutch would be followed worldwide, there will be double trouble: globally significant carbon emissions and increased flood risk in a globally important human habitat. The effects would be larger than the historic ones because most of the cumulative Dutch subsidence and peat loss was accomplished with much less efficient techniques than those available now.

  19. Implementation of a barotropic-baroclinic time splitting for isopynic coordinate ocean modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Higdon, R.L.

    1999-01-20

    The motions seen in numerical models of ocean circulation typically include rapidly moving external gravity waves, which are essentially two-dimensional, and a variety of other motions which are much slower and generally three-dimensional. In a number of ocean models, the computational problems resulting from the multiple time scales are addressed by splitting the fast and slow dynamics into separate subproblems that are solved by different techniques. The present paper addresses the practical implementation of such a splitting for the case of isopynic ocean modeling, in which the vertical coordinate is density or some other related quantity. During the implementation of such a splitting for the case of isopynic ocean modeling, in which the vertical coordinate is density or some other related quantity. During the implementation, a major task is to develop formulas suitable for usage with rapidly varying bottom topography. Compared to an earlier splitting, the present splitting has improved stability properties when analyzed in a simple linearized setting. When tested in the same model for which the earlier splitting was developed, the revised splitting substantially reduces a numerically induced sloshing pattern that is seen in the model. This phenomenon appears to be related to a residual term that appears in the momentum equations. In some examples, the residual is one to two orders of magnitude smaller in the case of the revised splitting.

  20. Dutch survey of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; van der Werf, T.

    2006-01-01

    Aims This Dutch survey focused on the clinical presentation, noninvasive and invasive diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities of adult patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas (CAFs). Methods Between 1996 and 2003, the initiative was taken to start a registry on congenital CAFs in adults. In total 71 patients from a diagnostic coronary angiographic population of 30,829 at 28 hospitals were collected from previously developed case report forms. Patient demographic data, clinical presentation, noninvasive and invasive techniques and treatment options were retrospectively collected and analysed. Results Out of 71 patients with angiographically proven CAFs, 51 (72%) had 63 congenital solitary fistulas and 20 (28%) had 31 congenital coronary-ventricular multiple microfistulas. Patients with pseudofistulas were excluded from the registry. Coronary angiograms were independently re-analysed for morphology and specific fistula details. The majority (72%) of the fistulas were unilateral, 24% were bilateral and only 4% were multilateral. The morphological characteristics of these 94 fistulas were as follows: the origin was multiple in 47% and single in 53%; the termination was multiple in 52% and single in 48%; and the pathway of the fistulous vessels was tortuous/multiple in 66%, tortuous/single in 28%, straight/multiple in 3% and straight/single in 3%. Percutaneous transluminal embolisation (PTE) was performed in two (3%) patients; surgical ligation was undertaken in 13 (18%) patients. The overwhelming majority of the patients (56; 79%) were treated with conservative medical management. The total mortality was 6% (4/71) at a mean follow-up period of approximately five years. Cardiac mortality accounted for 4% (3/71); in all three patients, death could possibly be attributed to the presence of the fistula. Conclusion Registry of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults in the Netherlands is feasible. In spite of restrictions imposed by the Dutch Privacy

  1. A Split-Root Technique for Measuring Root Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Kingsley B.; Rawlins, Stephen L.

    1981-01-01

    Water encounters various resistances in moving along a path of decreasing potential energy from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere. The reported relative magnitudes of these pathway resistances vary widely and often these results are conflicting. One reason for such inconsistency is the difficulty in measuring the potential drop across various segments of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The measurement of water potentials at the soil-root interface and in the root xylem of a transpiring plant remains a challenging problem. In the divided root experiment reported here, the measured water potential of an enclosed, nonabsorbing branch of the root system of young corn (Bonanza) plants to infer the water potential of the remaining roots growing in soil was used. The selected root branch of the seedling was grown in a specially constructed Teflon test tube into which a screen-enclosed thermocouple psychrometer was inserted and sealed to monitor the root's water potential. The root and its surrounding atmosphere were assumed to be in vapor equilibrium. Images PMID:16661886

  2. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  3. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  4. Splitting and Projection at Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Gerald; James, Chris; Jones, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report research into the social defence of splitting and projection in schools. In splitting and projection, organisational members separate their unbearable feelings from the more acceptable ones and project them, typically towards other individuals and groups. Design/methodology/approach: The research was…

  5. Tracking Water Absorption in Split Susceptible Blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rain related fruit splitting in blueberries has been a problem for commercial blueberry growers in the Southeastern US. The presence of split berries can cause an entire batch of berries to be rejected. Rejection of batches can be devastating to the growers and their income. Previous studies ha...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2...

  7. SMART: unique splitting-while-merging framework for gene clustering.

    PubMed

    Fa, Rui; Roberts, David J; Nandi, Asoke K

    2014-01-01

    Successful clustering algorithms are highly dependent on parameter settings. The clustering performance degrades significantly unless parameters are properly set, and yet, it is difficult to set these parameters a priori. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a unique splitting-while-merging clustering framework, named "splitting merging awareness tactics" (SMART), which does not require any a priori knowledge of either the number of clusters or even the possible range of this number. Unlike existing self-splitting algorithms, which over-cluster the dataset to a large number of clusters and then merge some similar clusters, our framework has the ability to split and merge clusters automatically during the process and produces the the most reliable clustering results, by intrinsically integrating many clustering techniques and tasks. The SMART framework is implemented with two distinct clustering paradigms in two algorithms: competitive learning and finite mixture model. Nevertheless, within the proposed SMART framework, many other algorithms can be derived for different clustering paradigms. The minimum message length algorithm is integrated into the framework as the clustering selection criterion. The usefulness of the SMART framework and its algorithms is tested in demonstration datasets and simulated gene expression datasets. Moreover, two real microarray gene expression datasets are studied using this approach. Based on the performance of many metrics, all numerical results show that SMART is superior to compared existing self-splitting algorithms and traditional algorithms. Three main properties of the proposed SMART framework are summarized as: (1) needing no parameters dependent on the respective dataset or a priori knowledge about the datasets, (2) extendible to many different applications, (3) offering superior performance compared with counterpart algorithms. PMID:24714159

  8. Splitting parameter yield (SPY): A program for semiautomatic analysis of shear-wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccarelli, Lucia; Bianco, Francesca; Zaccarelli, Riccardo

    2012-03-01

    SPY is a Matlab algorithm that analyzes seismic waveforms in a semiautomatic way, providing estimates of the two observables of the anisotropy: the shear-wave splitting parameters. We chose to exploit those computational processes that require less intervention by the user, gaining objectivity and reliability as a result. The algorithm joins the covariance matrix and the cross-correlation techniques, and all the computation steps are interspersed by several automatic checks intended to verify the reliability of the yields. The resulting semiautomation generates two new advantages in the field of anisotropy studies: handling a huge amount of data at the same time, and comparing different yields. From this perspective, SPY has been developed in the Matlab environment, which is widespread, versatile, and user-friendly. Our intention is to provide the scientific community with a new monitoring tool for tracking the temporal variations of the crustal stress field.

  9. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  10. Governance and performance: the performance of Dutch hospitals explained by governance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; van Hulst, Bart Laurents

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of Dutch hospitals using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with bootstrapping. In particular, the analysis focuses on accounting for cost inefficiency measures on the part of hospital corporate governance. We use bootstrap techniques, as introduced by Simar and Wilson (J. Econom. 136(1):31-64, 2007), in order to obtain more efficient estimates of the effects of governance on the efficiency. The results show that part of the cost efficiency can be explained with governance. In particular we find that a higher remuneration of the board as well as a higher remuneration of the supervisory board does not implicate better performance. PMID:20703757

  11. [Dutch computer domestication, 1975-1990].

    PubMed

    Veraart, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A computer seems an indispensable tool among twenty-first century households. Computers however, did not come as manna from heaven. The domestication and appropriation of computers in Dutch households was a result of activities by various intermediary actors. Computers became household commodities only gradually. Technophile computer hobbyists imported the first computers into the Netherlands from the USA, and started small businesses from 1975 onwards. They developed a social network in which computer technology was made available for use by individuals. This network extended itself via shops, clubs, magazines, and other means of acquiring and exchanging computer hard- and software. Hobbyist culture established the software-copying habits of private computer users as well as their ambivalence to commercial software. They also made the computer into a game machine. Under the impulse of a national policy that aimed at transforming society into an 'Information Society', clubs and other actors extended their activities and tailored them to this new agenda. Hobby clubs presented themselves as consumer organizations and transformed into intermediary actors that filled the gap between suppliers and a growing group of users. They worked hard to give meaning to (proper) use of computers. A second impulse to the increasing use of computers in the household came from so-called 'private-PC' projects in the late 1980s. In these projects employers financially aided employees in purchasing their own private PCs'. The initially important intermediary actors such as hobby clubs lost control and the agenda for personal computers was shifted to interoperability with office equipment. IBM compatible PC's flooded the households. In the household the new equipment blended with the established uses, such as gaming. The copying habits together with the PC standard created a risky combination in which computer viruses could spread easily. New roles arose for intermediary actors in guiding

  12. Spinous Process-Splitting Hemilaminoplasty for Intradural and Extradural Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Seok; Park, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe a novel spinous process-splitting hemilaminoplasty technique for the surgical treatment of intradural and posterior epidural lesions that promotes physiological restoration. Methods The spinous process was split, the area of the facet lamina junction was drilled, and en bloc hemilaminectomy was then performed. After removing intradural and posterior epidural lesions, we fitted the previously en bloc-removed bone to the pre-surgery same shape, and held it in place with non-absorbable sutures. Surgery was performed on 16 laminas from a total of nine patients between 2011 and 2014. Bony union of the reconstructed lamina was assessed using computed tomography (CT) at 6 months after surgery. Results Spinous process-slitting hemilaminoplasty was performed for intradural extramedullary tumors in eight patients and for ossification of the ligament flavum in one patient. Because we were able to visualize the margin of the ipsilateral and contralateral dura, we were able to secure space for removal of the lesion and closure of the dura. None of the cases showed spinal deformity or other complications. Bone fusion and maintenance of the spinal canal were found to be perfect on CT scans. Conclusion The spinous process-splitting hemilaminoplasty technique presented here was successful in creating sufficient space to remove intradural and posterior epidural lesions and to close the dura. Furthermore, we were able to maintain the physiological barrier and integrity after surgery because the posterior musculature and bone structures were restored. PMID:26713155

  13. Process for photosynthetically splitting water

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-01-28

    In one form of the invention, hydrogen is produced by providing a reactor containing a body of water. The water contains photolytic material, i.e., photoactive material containing a hydrogen-catalyst. The interior of the reactor is isolated from atmosphere and includes a volume for receiving gases evolved from the body of water. The photolytic material is exposed to light to effect photosynthetic splitting of the water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. The gas-receiving volume is continuously evacuated by pumping to promote evolution of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen into that volume and to withdraw them therefrom. In another form of the invention, separation of the hydrogen and oxygen is effected by selectively diffusing the hydrogen through a heated semipermeable membrane in a separation zone while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient biasing the oxygen away from the membrane. In a third form of the invention, the withdrawn gas is contacted with a membrane blocking flow of water vapor to the region for effecting recovery of the hydrogen. In a fourth embodiment, the invention comprises a process for selectively recovering hydrogen from a gas mixture comprising hydrogen and oxygen. The process is conducted in a separation zone and comprises contacting the mixture with a semipermeable membrane effecting selective diffusion of hydrogen while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient effecting movement of oxygen in a direction away from the membrane.

  14. Lightweight electrical connector split backshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Elliot (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electrical connector split backshell is provided, comprising two substantially identical backshell halves. Each half includes a first side and a cam projecting therefrom along an axis perpendicular thereto, the cam having an alignment tooth with a constant radius and an engagement section with a radius that increases with angular distance from the alignment tooth. Each half further includes a second side parallel to the first side and a circular sector opening disposed in the second side, the circular sector opening including an inner surface configured as a ramp with a constant radius, the ramp being configured to engage with an engagement section of a cam of the other half, the circular sector opening further including a relieved pocket configured to receive an alignment tooth of the cam of the other half. Each half further includes a back side perpendicular to the first and second sides and a wire bundle notch disposed in the back side, the wire bundle notch configured to align with a wire bundle notch of the other half to form a wire bundle opening. The two substantially identical halves are rotatably coupled by engaging the engagement section of each half to the ramp of the other half.

  15. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; James, Darryl L.

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  16. Ash Split Cath in geriatric dialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Conz, P A; Catalano, C; Rizzioli, E; Normanno, M; Fabbian, F; Preciso, G

    2001-09-01

    Vascular access is the essential step in performing hemodialysis in uremic patients. In the absence of a permanent and utilizable native arterio-venous fistula, the use of a tunnelled catheter makes dialysis therapy possible. The Ash Split Cath, a recently introduced chronic hemodialysis catheter, was inserted in five patients (7.1% of our prevalent dialysis population) because of repeated venous thrombosis in three patients and a poor venous tree in two. The mean age of patients was 78 years +/- 7. The average blood flow rate was 250+/-50 ml/minute and the mean venous pressure 140mm Hg +/- 35. Recirculation determined by low flux technique was less than 2%. KT/V calculated 3 months after the catheter placement was 1.2+/-0.02. During the follow-up we did not document any infection of the exit site or related to the catheter. This device is simple to place, gives adequate dialysis treatment and is useful in geriatric dialyzed patients in whom the arterio-venous fistula can no longer be used. PMID:11693424

  17. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2009-09-08

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  18. Current status and perspectives in split liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lauterio, Andrea; Di Sandro, Stefano; Concone, Giacomo; De Carlis, Riccardo; Giacomoni, Alessandro; De Carlis, Luciano

    2015-10-21

    Growing experience with the liver splitting technique and favorable results equivalent to those of whole liver transplant have led to wider application of split liver transplantation (SLT) for adult and pediatric recipients in the last decade. Conversely, SLT for two adult recipients remains a challenging surgical procedure and outcomes have yet to improve. Differences in organ shortages together with religious and ethical issues related to cadaveric organ donation have had an impact on the worldwide distribution of SLT. Despite technical refinements and a better understanding of the complex liver anatomy, SLT remains a technically and logistically demanding surgical procedure. This article reviews the surgical and clinical advances in this field of liver transplantation focusing on the role of SLT and the issues that may lead a further expansion of this complex surgical procedure. PMID:26494957

  19. Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Jia, Yali; Pechauer, Alex D.; Chandwani, Rahul; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    A phase gradient angiography (PGA) method is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This method allows the use of phase information to map the microvasculature in tissue without the correction of bulk motion and laser trigger jitter induced phase artifacts. PGA can also be combined with the amplitude/intensity to improve the performance. Split-spectrum technique can further increase the signal to noise ratio by more than two times. In-vivo imaging of human retinal circulation is shown with a 70 kHz, 840 nm spectral domain OCT system and a 200 kHz, 1050 nm swept source OCT system. Four different OCT angiography methods are compared. The best performance was achieved with split-spectrum amplitude and phase-gradient angiography. PMID:27570689

  20. Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing and splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    1989-01-01

    The spatially constrained clustering (SCC) iterative parallel region-growing technique is applied to image analysis. The SCC algorithm is implemented on the massively parallel processor at NASA Goddard. Most previous region-growing approaches have the drawback that the segmentation produced depends on the order in which portions of the image are processed. The ideal solution to this problem (merging only the single most similar pair of spatially adjacent regions in the image in each iteration) becomes impractical except for very small images, even on a massively parallel computer. The SCC algorithm overcomes these problems by performing, in parallel, the best merge within each of a set of local, possibly overlapping, subimages. A region-splitting stage is also incorporated into the algorithm, but experiments show that region splitting generally does not improve segmentation results. The SCC algorithm has been tested on various imagery data, and test results for a Landsat TM image are summarized.

  1. Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gangjun; Jia, Yali; Pechauer, Alex D; Chandwani, Rahul; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    A phase gradient angiography (PGA) method is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This method allows the use of phase information to map the microvasculature in tissue without the correction of bulk motion and laser trigger jitter induced phase artifacts. PGA can also be combined with the amplitude/intensity to improve the performance. Split-spectrum technique can further increase the signal to noise ratio by more than two times. In-vivo imaging of human retinal circulation is shown with a 70 kHz, 840 nm spectral domain OCT system and a 200 kHz, 1050 nm swept source OCT system. Four different OCT angiography methods are compared. The best performance was achieved with split-spectrum amplitude and phase-gradient angiography. PMID:27570689

  2. Deceased Donor Split Liver Transplantation In Adult Recipients: Is The Learning Curve Over?

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Ryan P.; Vakili, Khashayar; Fullington, Nora; Potanos, Kristina; Graham, Dionne A.; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.; Kim, Heung Bae

    2016-01-01

    Background Infants have the highest waitlist mortality of all liver transplant candidates. Deceased-donor split liver transplantation, a technique that provides both an adult and pediatric graft, may be the best way to decrease this disproportionate mortality. Yet concern for an increased risk to adult split recipients has discouraged its widespread adoption. We aimed to determine the current risk of graft failure in adult recipients following split liver transplantation. Study Design United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data from 62,190 first-time adult recipients of deceased-donor liver transplants (1995–2010) were analyzed (889 split grafts). Bivariate risk factors (p<0.2) were included in cox proportional hazards models of the effect of transplant type on graft failure. Results Split liver recipients had an over-all hazard-ratio (HR) of graft failure of 1.26 (p<.001) compared to whole liver recipients. The split liver HR was 1.45 (p<.001) in the pre-MELD era (1995–2002), and 1.10 (p=.28) in the MELD era (2002–2010). Interaction analyses suggested an increased risk of split graft failure in Status 1 recipients and those given an exception for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Excluding higher-risk recipients, split and whole grafts had similar outcomes (HR .94, p=.59). Conclusions The risk of graft failure is now similar between split and whole liver recipients in the vast majority of cases – demonstrating that the expansion of split liver allocation may be possible without increasing the overall risk of long-term graft failure in adult recipients. Further prospective analysis should examine if selection bias may account for the possible increase in risk for recipients with HCC or designated Status 1. PMID:23978530

  3. A Crater Split In Two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 23 September 2003

    A 22 km-diameter crater has been sliced by the tectonic forces that produced the rift known as Sirenum Fossae. The orientation of this rift is roughly radial to the great Tharsis volcano Arsia Mons, probably indicating a link between the formation of the rift and the volcano. Note how the rift cuts through a jumble of mounds on the floor of the crater. This indicates a sequence of events beginning with the formation of the crater followed by an infilling of material that was then eroded into the mounds and ultimately split open by the shifting martian crust.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -29.7, Longitude 211.7 East (148.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N

    2016-09-01

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν2 bending mode starting with 4ν2. PMID:27608982

  5. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces. PMID:27625978

  6. Supramolecular Control over Split-Luciferase Complementation.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Ralph P G; Briels, Jeroen M; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; de Greef, Tom F A; Merkx, Maarten; Brunsveld, Luc

    2016-07-25

    Supramolecular split-enzyme complementation restores enzymatic activity and allows for on-off switching. Split-luciferase fragment pairs were provided with an N-terminal FGG sequence and screened for complementation through host-guest binding to cucurbit[8]uril (Q8). Split-luciferase heterocomplex formation was induced in a Q8 concentration dependent manner, resulting in a 20-fold upregulation of luciferase activity. Supramolecular split-luciferase complementation was fully reversible, as revealed by using two types of Q8 inhibitors. Competition studies with the weak-binding FGG peptide revealed a 300-fold enhanced stability for the formation of the ternary heterocomplex compared to binding of two of the same fragments to Q8. Stochiometric binding by the potent inhibitor memantine could be used for repeated cycling of luciferase activation and deactivation in conjunction with Q8, providing a versatile module for in vitro supramolecular signaling networks. PMID:27356091

  7. Small-molecule-dependent split aptamer ligation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashwani K; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2011-08-17

    Here we describe the first use of small-molecule binding to direct a chemical reaction between two nucleic acid strands. The reported reaction is a ligation between two fragments of a DNA split aptamer using strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Utilizing the split aptamer for cocaine, we demonstrate small-molecule-dependent ligation that is dose-dependent over a wide range of cocaine concentrations and is compatible with complex biological fluids such as human blood serum. Moreover, studies of split aptamer ligation at varying salt concentrations and using structurally similar analogues of cocaine have revealed new insight into the assembly and small-molecule binding properties of the cocaine split aptamer. The ability to translate the presence of a small-molecule target into the output of DNA ligation is anticipated to enable the development of new, broadly applicable small-molecule detection assays. PMID:21761903

  8. Divided Opinions on the Split Fovea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Brysbaert, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We explain once again the distinction between the "split fovea theory" and the "bilateral projection theory", and consider the implications of the two theories for understanding the processing of centrally fixated words and faces.

  9. Solar activity and oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Solar p-mode frequency splittings, parameterized by the coefficients through order N = 12 of a Legendre polynomial expansion of the mode frequencies as a function of m/L, were obtained from an analysis of helioseismology data taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the 4 years 1986 and 1988-1990 (approximately solar minimum to maximum). Inversion of the even-index splitting coefficients confirms that there is a significant contribution to the frequency splittings originating near the solar poles. The strength of the polar contribution is anti correlated with the overall level or solar activity in the active latitudes, suggesting a relation to polar faculae. From an analysis of the odd-index splitting coefficients we infer an uppor limit to changes in the solar equatorial near-surface rotatinal velocity of less than 1.9 m/s (3 sigma limit) between solar minimum and maximum.

  10. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Jian-Ren; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kamiya, Nobuo

    2013-12-10

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5}-cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed.

  11. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  12. Spin-dependent antenna splitting functions

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.

    2010-03-01

    We consider parton showers based on radiation from QCD dipoles or 'antennas'. These showers are built from 2{yields}3 parton splitting processes. The question then arises of what functions replace the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions in this approach. We give a detailed answer to this question, applicable to antenna showers in which partons carry definite helicity, and to both initial- and final-state emissions.

  13. Spontaneous splitting of a quadruply charged vortex.

    PubMed

    Isoshima, T; Okano, M; Yasuda, H; Kasa, K; Huhtamäki, J A M; Kumakura, M; Takahashi, Y

    2007-11-16

    We studied the splitting instability of a quadruply charged vortex both experimentally and theoretically. The density defect, which is a signature of the vortex core, is experimentally observed to deform into a linear shape. The deformed defect is theoretically confirmed to be an array of four linearly aligned singly charged vortices. The array of vortices rotates and precesses simultaneously with different angular velocities. The initial state of the system is not rotationally symmetric, which enables spontaneous splitting without external perturbations. PMID:18233124

  14. Spontaneous Splitting of a Quadruply Charged Vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Isoshima, T.; Okano, M.; Yasuda, H.; Kasa, K.; Huhtamaeki, J. A. M.; Kumakura, M.; Takahashi, Y.

    2007-11-16

    We studied the splitting instability of a quadruply charged vortex both experimentally and theoretically. The density defect, which is a signature of the vortex core, is experimentally observed to deform into a linear shape. The deformed defect is theoretically confirmed to be an array of four linearly aligned singly charged vortices. The array of vortices rotates and precesses simultaneously with different angular velocities. The initial state of the system is not rotationally symmetric, which enables spontaneous splitting without external perturbations.

  15. Smallness of baryon asymmetry from split supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, Shinta; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2005-06-15

    The smallness of the baryon asymmetry in our universe is one of the greatest mysteries and may originate from some profound physics beyond the standard model. We investigate the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis in split supersymmetry, and find that the smallness of the baryon asymmetry is directly related to the hierarchy between the supersymmetry breaking squark/slepton masses and the weak scale. Put simply, the baryon asymmetry is small because of the split mass spectrum.

  16. Laser beam splitting by polarization encoding.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chenhao

    2015-03-20

    A scheme is proposed to design a polarization grating that splits an incident linearly polarized beam to an array of linearly polarized beams of identical intensity distribution and various azimuth angles of linear polarization. The grating is equivalent to a wave plate with space-variant azimuth angle and space-variant phase retardation. The linear polarization states of all split beams make the grating suitable for coherent beam combining architectures based on Dammann gratings. PMID:25968540

  17. Design of a Split Intein with Exceptional Protein Splicing Activity.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Adam J; Brown, Zachary Z; Shah, Neel H; Sekar, Giridhar; Cowburn, David; Muir, Tom W

    2016-02-24

    Protein trans-splicing (PTS) by split inteins has found widespread use in chemical biology and biotechnology. Herein, we describe the use of a consensus design approach to engineer a split intein with enhanced stability and activity that make it more robust than any known PTS system. Using batch mutagenesis, we first conduct a detailed analysis of the difference in splicing rates between the Npu (fast) and Ssp (slow) split inteins of the DnaE family and find that most impactful residues lie on the second shell of the protein, directly adjacent to the active site. These residues are then used to generate an alignment of 73 naturally occurring DnaE inteins that are predicted to be fast. The consensus sequence from this alignment (Cfa) demonstrates both rapid protein splicing and unprecedented thermal and chaotropic stability. Moreover, when fused to various proteins including antibody heavy chains, the N-terminal fragment of Cfa exhibits increased expression levels relative to other N-intein fusions. The durability and efficiency of Cfa should improve current intein based technologies and may provide a platform for the development of new protein chemistry techniques. PMID:26854538

  18. Split Bregman's optimization method for image construction in compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, D.; Foo, S.; Meyer-Bäse, A.

    2014-05-01

    The theory of compressive sampling (CS) was reintroduced by Candes, Romberg and Tao, and D. Donoho in 2006. Using a priori knowledge that a signal is sparse, it has been mathematically proven that CS can defY Nyquist sampling theorem. Theoretically, reconstruction of a CS image relies on the minimization and optimization techniques to solve this complex almost NP-complete problem. There are many paths to consider when compressing and reconstructing an image but these methods have remained untested and unclear on natural images, such as underwater sonar images. The goal of this research is to perfectly reconstruct the original sonar image from a sparse signal while maintaining pertinent information, such as mine-like object, in Side-scan sonar (SSS) images. Goldstein and Osher have shown how to use an iterative method to reconstruct the original image through a method called Split Bregman's iteration. This method "decouples" the energies using portions of the energy from both the !1 and !2 norm. Once the energies are split, Bregman iteration is used to solve the unconstrained optimization problem by recursively solving the problems simultaneously. The faster these two steps or energies can be solved then the faster the overall method becomes. While the majority of CS research is still focused on the medical field, this paper will demonstrate the effectiveness of the Split Bregman's methods on sonar images.

  19. Noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Sustainable hydrogen production is an essential prerequisite of a future hydrogen economy. Water electrolysis driven by renewable resource-derived electricity and direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting are promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production. All these techniques require, among many things, highly active noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts to make the water splitting process more energy-efficient and economical. In this review, we highlight the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We review several important kinds of heterogeneous non-precious metal electrocatalysts, including metal sulfides, metal selenides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal phosphides, and heteroatom-doped nanocarbons. In the discussion, emphasis is given to the synthetic methods of these HER electrocatalysts, the strategies of performance improvement, and the structure/composition-catalytic activity relationship. We also summarize some important examples showing that non-Pt HER electrocatalysts could serve as efficient cocatalysts for promoting direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion in both photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting systems, when combined with suitable semiconductor photocatalysts. PMID:25886650

  20. [The first Dutch debate on anaesthesia in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Bijker, Liselotte E

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the Dutch medical guideline on pharmacological analgesia during childbirth in 2008, the question of whether pharmacological pain relief should be permissible during labour was hotly debated. This discussion has been going on since the second half of the 19th century when the introduction of ether and chloroform was extensively studied and described in Great Britain. This article looks back on the same debate in the Netherlands when inhalational anaesthetics were introduced into obstetrics. Study of historical journals and textbooks, originating in the Netherlands and elsewhere, and of historical medical literature on anaesthesia and obstetrics shows that the Dutch protagonists adopted more nuanced ideas on this issue than many of their foreign colleagues. This description of the first Dutch debate on anaesthesia in obstetrics shows that in fact the issues and arguments are timeless. PMID:25827148

  1. [Smoking behavior of Dutch family physicians in 1983-1988].

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, H; van Reek, J; Rabier, J R

    1990-08-01

    General practitioners' smoking behaviour in The Netherlands is described on the basis of survey data collected in the period 1983-1988. Until 1983 a large majority of the Dutch family physicians were smokers (1957: 82%, 1983: 56%). The smoking prevalence then was higher among physicians than among the male population. After 1983 a new development set in. Three inquiries showed that among Dutch physicians the smoking prevalence in 1988 was lower than that among the male general population (29 versus 37%). Dutch family physicians have stopped smoking to a larger extent than the physicians in any other EC-country (43% ex-smokers). Young entry-level doctors more and more tend to be never-smokers. PMID:2392168

  2. Nicolaes Tulp and the golden age of the Dutch Republic.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Donald

    2007-12-01

    In the seventeenth century, Holland and the allied provinces of the northern Netherlands won final independence from their Spanish overlords and formed a worldwide economic empire. Dutch ships dominated the seas from the Caribbean to Japan and reconnoitred the coasts of Australia and New Zealand. Dutch society was cosmopolitan and supported great painters, philosophers and scientists. In these astonishing years, the physician Nicolaes Tulp [1593-1674] practised medicine in Amsterdam and, in 1641, published a book of his medical observations. This book ran into many editions; the Cowlishaw collection contains one of the last, dated 1716. Tulp is best known as the chief figure in a famous painting by Rembrandt, but his book has been studied by medical historians as a source of early descriptions of cranial surgery, spina bifida, vesical calculi, beriberi and many other conditions. The book is also a mirror of Dutch society in a great period in European history. PMID:17973670

  3. Replacement of split-pin assemblies in nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, J.D.; Green, R.A.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a pin-insertion/torque tool for the replacement of old split-pin assemblies. Each of the new split-pin assemblies including a new split-pin having times and a new nut for securing the new split pin in the guide tube, a new nut being inserted in the guide tube in position to receive a split pin. The the pin-insertion/torque tool including a blade means for engaging a new split pin with the blade with the tines of the new split pins straddling the blade, means, connected to the blade, for advancing the split-pin into the guide tube into threading engagement with the new nut positioned to receive a new split pin and means, to be connected to the nut for securing the new nut onto the new split pin while the split pin is engaged by the blade.

  4. Implant-Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Bilateral Agenesis of Maxillary Lateral Incisors with a Mini Split Crest

    PubMed Central

    Figliuzzi, M. M.; Giudice, A.; Pileggi, S.; Pacifico, D.; Marrelli, M.; Tatullo, M.; Fortunato, L.

    2016-01-01

    The reported clinical case describes the surgical procedure of ridge augmentation by using a “split crest” technique with a partial thickness flap and a subsequent implant-prosthetic rehabilitation aimed at treating a bilateral agenesis of the upper lateral incisors. In such cases with vestibule-palatal and mesial-distal scarce bone thicknesses associated with the need of a proper functional and aesthetic rehabilitation, the split crest technique is particularly suitable. In the case we reported, because of the poor bone thicknesses, we performed a minimally invasive split crest which allowed a correct insertion of the fixtures. This technique allowed us to achieve an optimal functional and aesthetic rehabilitation; moreover, we obtained a good emergency profile, ensuring the vitality of the close teeth and ensuring a good primary stability and the following osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:27190658

  5. Quintessence and phantom emerging from the split-complex field and the split-quaternion field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changjun; Chen, Xuelei; Shen, You-Gen

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the mathematic theory of split-complex numbers (or hyperbolic numbers, also perplex numbers) and the split-quaternion numbers (or coquaternion numbers), we define the notion of split-complex scalar field and the split-quaternion scalar field. Then we explore the cosmic evolution of these scalar fields in the background of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe. We find that both the quintessence field and the phantom field could naturally emerge in these scalar fields. Introducing the metric of field space, these theories fall into a subclass of the multi-field theories which have been extensively studied in inflationary cosmology.

  6. Cultural Perspectives on Peer Conflicts in Multicultural Dutch Child Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourou, Amina; Singer, Elly; Bekkema, Nienke; De Haan, Dorian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a study of cultural perspectives on peer conflicts in multicultural child care centres. On the level of child behaviour we did not find differences between native Dutch. Moroccan-Dutch and Antillean-Dutch children with regard to occurrence, duration and actions to solve peer conflicts. On the level of mother' opinions…

  7. Word Order and Finiteness in Dutch and English Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Edwards, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of two linguistic factors in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia was examined using Dutch and English subjects. Three tasks were used to test (1) the comprehension and (2) the construction of sentences, where verbs (in Dutch) and verb arguments (in Dutch and English) are in canonical versus non-canonical position; (3) the production of…

  8. Challenging Dutch Holocaust Education: Towards a Curriculum Based on Moral Choices and Empathetic Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersema, Jacob R.; Schimmel, Noam

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the way in which the Holocaust is taught in The Netherlands, with an emphasis on critically examining the content of secondary school textbooks used to teach Dutch students about the history of the Holocaust. We also interview Dutch educators, government officials and academics about the state of Dutch Holocaust education. Our findings…

  9. Productivity and quality of Dutch hospitals during system reform.

    PubMed

    van Ineveld, Martin; van Oostrum, Jeroen; Vermeulen, Rob; Steenhoek, Adri; van de Klundert, Joris

    2016-09-01

    This study addresses the productivity of Dutch hospitals since the start of the health systems reform in 2005. We consider DEA based measures, which include efficiency and quality for the complete set of Dutch hospitals and present cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. In particular, we consider how hospital efficiency has developed. As the reform created an environment of regulated competition, we pay special attention to relative efficiency. Our results suggest that the differences in efficiency among hospitals have become larger. In the years 2009-2010, the number of hospitals identified as (close to) efficient by DEA analysis decreased. PMID:25774011

  10. Mechanical contact by constraints and split-based preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitry Karpeyev; Derek Gaston; Jason Hales; Steven Novascone

    2014-03-01

    An accurate implementation of glued mechanical contact was developed in MOOSE based on its Constraint system. This approach results in a superior convergence of elastic structure problems, in particular in BISON. Adaptation of this technique to frictionless and frictional contact models is under way. Additionally, the improved convergence of elastic problems results from the application of the split-based preconditioners to constraint-based systems. This yields a substantial increase in the robustness of elastic solvers when the number of nodes in contact is increased and/or the mesh is refined.

  11. Historical Notes on the Dutch and American-Dutch "schools" in Astronomy and Their Relations with Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, Ed

    2006-04-01

    Dutch astronomy and physics experienced two "golden ages". The firstone covered the 17th century, culminating with Christiaan Huygens,inventor of the pendulum clock and the wave theory of light, anddiscoverer of Saturn's rings and largest satellite Titan. The secondone, which lasts till the present, started around 1880 withphysicists Lorentz, van der Waals, Zeeman and Kamerlingh Onnes andastronomer Kapteijn and his pupils De Sitter, van Rhijn, Oort andSchilt. Kapteijn, through his friendship with George Ellery Hale,initiated the strong connection between American and Dutch astronomy,which led to the rise of many Dutch-born astronomers to prominentpositions in the US, from Luyten, Bok, Brouwer, Schilt and Kuiperto Woltjer, Gehrels, and Beckers. The rise of the second "goldenage" appears to be closely related to drastic reforms in the Dutchhigh school and university systems in the last decades of the 19thcentury.

  12. Approximate Splitting for Ensembles of Trees using Histograms

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Cantu-Paz, E; Littau, D

    2001-09-28

    Recent work in classification indicates that significant improvements in accuracy can be obtained by growing an ensemble of classifiers and having them vote for the most popular class. Implicit in many of these techniques is the concept of randomization that generates different classifiers. In this paper, they focus on ensembles of decision trees that are created using a randomized procedure based on histograms. Techniques, such as histograms, that discretize continuous variables, have long been used in classification to convert the data into a form suitable for processing and to reduce the compute time. The approach combines the ideas behind discretization through histograms and randomization in ensembles to create decision trees by randomly selecting a split point in an interval around the best bin boundary in the histogram. The experimental results with public domain data show that ensembles generated using this approach are competitive in accuracy and superior in computational cost to other ensembles techniques such as boosting and bagging.

  13. Modified ridge splitting and bone expansion osteotomy for placement of dental implant in esthetic zone

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Mayur S.; Khairnar, Darshana; Bakshi, Kedar

    2014-01-01

    Ridge splitting with bone expansion is a technique of manipulation of bone to form receptor site for implant without removing any bone from the implant site. Maxillary bone has inherent quality of flexibility which can bemolded to desire location by using series of instrument namely chisels and osteotome. This further improves quality of bone all around implant, at the crest and apex both. This article describes a report of a clinical case with management of bucco-palatal ridge defect with modified ridge splitting and expansion osteotomy technique using chisel and osteotomes in an esthetic zone. PMID:24808709

  14. Modified ridge splitting and bone expansion osteotomy for placement of dental implant in esthetic zone.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Mayur S; Khairnar, Darshana; Bakshi, Kedar

    2014-01-01

    Ridge splitting with bone expansion is a technique of manipulation of bone to form receptor site for implant without removing any bone from the implant site. Maxillary bone has inherent quality of flexibility which can bemolded to desire location by using series of instrument namely chisels and osteotome. This further improves quality of bone all around implant, at the crest and apex both. This article describes a report of a clinical case with management of bucco-palatal ridge defect with modified ridge splitting and expansion osteotomy technique using chisel and osteotomes in an esthetic zone. PMID:24808709

  15. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  16. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Do, Dat T.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Lai, Chih Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed. PMID:26596907

  17. Conditions for a split diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzberg, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    An unusual phenomenon has been observed in a methane jet diffusion flame subjected to axial acoustic forcing. At specific excitation frequencies and amplitudes, the driven flame splits into a central jet and one or two side jets. The splitting is accompanied by a partial detachment of the flame from the nozzle exit, a shortening of the flame by a factor of 2, and a change from the common yellow color of soot radiation to a clear blue flame. Such a phenomenon may be useful for the control of soot production or product species. The splitting is intermittent in time, bifurcating between the split flame and an ordinary single jet diffusion flame. The experiment consists of an unconfined axisymmetric methane jet formed by a short length of 0.4 cm diameter pipe. The pipe is connected to a large plenum surrounding a bass reflex loudspeaker enclosure that provides the excitation. Conditions producing split and bifurcated flames are presented. The drive frequencies required to cause bifurcation correspond to the first two peaks in the system`s frequency response curve. Bifurcating behavior was observed at a wide range of flow rates, ranging from very small flames of Reynolds number 240 up to turbulent lift-off, at Re = 1,000, based on the inner pipe diameter. It was not sensitive to nozzle length, but the details of the nozzle tip, such as orifice or pipe geometry, can affect the frequency range.

  18. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Dat T.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Lai, Chih Wei

    2015-11-01

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed.

  19. The Role of Dutch Government in Curriculum Design and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Jenniskens, Ineke

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of Dutch higher education looks at whether a 1985 proposal for fundamental changes in the relationship between government and higher education institutions has been implemented with regard to curriculum design. It is concluded that, despite policy intentions for increased institutional autonomy, the government retains relatively tight…

  20. Acquisition of Publications from Asiatic Countries: Dutch Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiltman, Maria J.

    This presentation of the Dutch experience with the international exchange of publications focuses on the acquisition of publications from China and Indonesia to illustrate problems of availability. Lack of depository systems, restrictive export policies, inadequate national bibliographies, exorbitant commercial prices, and time consuming delivery…

  1. Smoking among Dutch Elementary Schoolchildren: Gender-Specific Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausems, M.; Mesters, I.; van Breukelen, G.; De Vries, H.

    2009-01-01

    Higher rates of smoking initiation and continuation by female compared with male adolescents, as found in many developed countries, may call for gender-specific prevention programs. Risk factors of smoking initiation and continuation were examined prospectively (1997-2002) among 3205 Dutch elementary schoolchildren (mean age 11.64) in an…

  2. The Speed of Obsolescence: Evidence from the Dutch Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loo, Jasper B.

    2007-01-01

    HRD is extensively concerned with human capital investment, but only focuses on how skills and knowledge become obsolete to a limited extent. In this paper we look at the speed of obsolescence. Using data from a survey among Dutch public sector employees, we find that the yearly rate of skills obsolescence is 2.6%. Subsequent analyses show that…

  3. Developments and Issues in Dutch Adult Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Barry

    The three areas of educational activity recognized by the Dutch have developed historically into distinct and separate institutionalized sectors for educational provision for adults. These areas are knowledge-based, skill-based, and value-based. Each is the responsibility of a different governmental department and cabinet minister. Educational…

  4. "Modern" Governance and Codes of Conduct in Dutch Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Harry; Goedegebuure, Leo

    2007-01-01

    As one of the first countries in Europe to do so, The Netherlands moved towards a new relationship between the state and the higher education institutions in the mid-1980s. Autonomy, quality and accountability were key considerations in this move. In 2006 the Dutch government proposed another radical innovation in its approach to higher education…

  5. Contact Hours in Dutch and Vietnamese Higher Education: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quyen, Do Thi Ngoc

    2009-01-01

    The number of contact hours, one of the important institutional context factors, was examined and compared between Dutch and Vietnamese higher education at institute and student levels in Psychology and Business and/or Economics specializations. The quantity of contact hours per credit point given by institutions was investigated in a number of…

  6. Gender Representation and Participation in Dutch Human Geography Departments. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970s the under-representation of women in geography has been questioned in several publications. Most articles refer to the situation in English-speaking countries. This paper examines the vertical and horizontal gender segregation in human geography departments in Dutch universities. In spite of several policy measures…

  7. Towards an "Americanization" of Dutch Drug Policy? [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ineke Haen; And Others

    Historically, the Netherlands liberal approach to the problems related to drug use has been based on tolerance and a pragmatic concern for "harm reduction." Since the early 1980s, however, a shift has taken place in the direction of a tougher policy. This document describes: (1) the main features of the Dutch approach to the control of…

  8. Rhythm versus Analogy: Prosodic Form Variation in Dutch Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neijt, Anneke; Schreuder, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Creating compound nouns is the most productive process of Dutch morphology, with an interesting pattern of form variation. For instance, "staat" "nation" simply combines with "kunde" "art" ("staatkunde" "political science, statesmanship"), but needs a linking element "s" or "en" to form staatsschuld "national debt" and "statenbond"…

  9. Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gays among American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; Horn, Stacey S.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the U.S. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context-dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056

  10. From Curacao: Papiamentu at Home, Dutch in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances Faircloth

    1997-01-01

    Three major issues shape delivery of education in the Caribbean island of Curacao: the Dutch and Papiamentu languages of instruction, the two governmental layers, and scarcity of resources. Despite funding limitations, education is changing. The five-year general secondary education model and the six-year college preparatory program are being…

  11. Career Guidance and Student Success in Dutch Higher Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Wierik, Mark L. J.; Beishuizen, Jos; van Os, Willem

    2015-01-01

    To enhance student success, a growing number of vocational education and training institutions in the Netherlands are nowadays implementing new career guidance practices in their competence-based approaches to learning. Based on individual-level data of undergraduate first-year full-time students from a Dutch university of applied sciences, this…

  12. Mentoring in Dutch Vocational Education: An Unfulfilled Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijers, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2002 an estimated 250 mentoring programmes were started in Dutch secondary vocational education in order to decrease motivational problems and drop-out rates, especially among youngsters from ethnic minorities. Currently there are only two schools in secondary vocational education that include mentoring as part and parcel of their…

  13. Measurement of Tear Production in English Angora and Dutch Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Rafiee, Siamak Mashhady; Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Masouleh, Mohammad N; Jamshidian, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for tear production tests in different breeds of domestic rabbits. Healthy adult rabbits (n = 60; 120 eyes) of 2 different breeds (English angora and Dutch; n = 15 of each sex and breed) were used in this study. Tear production was measured by using the 1-min Schirmer tear test (STT), phenol red thread test (PRTT), and endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT). In addition, horizontal palpebral fissure length was evaluated as a measure of ocular adnexal dimensions. Tear production (mean ± 1 SD) in English angora rabbits was 5.4 ± 1.6 mm/min according to the STT, 25.0 ± 2.7 mm in 15 s for the PRTT, and 18.8 ± 2.1 mm/min by the EAPTT; in Dutch rabbits, these values were 4.6 ± 1.2 mm/min, 23.6 ± 2.3 mm in 15 s, and 16.9 ± 1.7 mm/min, respectively. Only the EAPTT revealed a significant difference in tear production between English Angora and Dutch rabbits. These results provide reference values for tear production in English Angora and Dutch rabbits according to 3 different quantitative tear film assessment methods. PMID:27025815

  14. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  15. Dutch Treat for U.S. Database Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumans, Jak

    1984-01-01

    Reports on investments in the United States (including database activities) by four Dutch publishing companies--Elsevier-NDU, VNU, Kluwer, Wolters Samsom Group. An analysis of the reasons behind these investments, the solidness of the companies, the approach to the U.S. information market, and the knowledge transfer to Europe are highlighted. (EJS)

  16. Citizenship Education and the Dutch National Identity Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of dramatic demographic changes during the last half century as well as a series of recent events surrounding prominent personas, the Dutch have been engaged in an intense debate about their national identity and how citizenship education can contribute to the integration of Muslim immigrants in particular. This article analyses the…

  17. Exploring EFL Literature Approaches in Dutch Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloemert, Jasmijn; Jansen, Ellen; van de Grift, Wim

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the inclusion of literature in foreign language (FL) curricula can be beneficial to language learners. Especially, the move towards integrated language and literature curricula is gaining ground. In this study we investigated the way English as a foreign language (EFL) is approached in Dutch secondary…

  18. Collaboration on ICT in Dutch Higher Education: The SURF Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boezerooy, Petra; Cordewener, Bas; Liebrand, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In "Thinking Ahead: A Vision of the Role of ICT in Education and Research in the Future, 2007-2010," the higher education institutions in the Netherlands agreed on future strategy. Under the direction of SURF, the Dutch national organization, a collaborative strategy for the application of information and communications technology (ICT) was…

  19. Alliances in the Dutch BeweegKuur Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Hartog, Franciska; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; van Dijk, Marieke; Koelen, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: BeweegKuur (Exercise Therapy) is a Dutch lifestyle programme in which participants are referred by a general practitioner (GP) to a lifestyle advisor. To support participants, regional and local alliances are established. The present study explored the successes and challenges associated with collaboration processes in local BeweegKuur…

  20. Two Profiles of the Dutch High Performing Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Waal, A. A.; Oudshoorn, Michella

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the profile of an ideal employee, to be more precise the behavioral characteristics of the Dutch high-performing employee (HPE). Organizational performance depends for a large part on the commitment of employees. Employees provide their knowledge, skills, experiences and creativity to the…

  1. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  2. Cognitive and Linguistic Constraints on Phoneme Isolation in Dutch Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Saskia; Hasselman, Fred; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether task instructions affect sound-isolation performance. The effects of phoneme class and phoneme position were also assessed. Two hundred Dutch kindergartners were presented with a free-sound-isolation task and its constrained counterparts: an initial-, a middle-, and a final-sound-isolation task. All tasks contained…

  3. How Dutch employees experience freedom of learning for work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-12-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Lifelong Learning (LLL) Research Hub. The comparative study focused on employees' quest for "freedom of learning for work". This paper reports on the Dutch part of the research, the quantitative results of which seem to indicate that the freedom of learning for work is not as important to Dutch employees as might be expected. In a second phase, to investigate employees' experiences of work-related learning in more depth, the Dutch researchers added a follow-up qualitative study, involving one-on-one interviews. In order to triangulate the results of the quantitative and qualitative research phases, the authors then added a mixed-methods sequential explanatory analysis. They assessed the quality of the collected data in both distinct phases by identifying converging results, which are useful for refining our understanding of learning for work. The paper draws both on rich insights into workplace learning based on this research as well as on theoretical literature which refers to concepts like motivation, subjectivity, work identity and agency in connection with the quest for freedom of learning.

  4. Tensions in water management: Dutch tradition and European policy.

    PubMed

    Ravesteijn, W; Kroesen, O

    2007-01-01

    Present-day worldwide water problems require new management tools and sustainable system innovations. At Delft University of Technology research is being carried out into water resources and management development aimed at forming such tools and innovations, focused on Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). One of the case-studies deals with Dutch water management and technology in the context of European IRBM in the form of the 2000 Water Frame Directive. The Netherlands experience many water problems and European IRBM could bring help by offering a framework for both international cooperation and technological innovations. To work as an adequate management tool European IRBM should be tailored to the Dutch water tradition, which recently culminated in Integrated Water Management. Both approaches are in some respects contradicting. Europe pursues, for example, centralized control; while the Dutch have their strongly water boards based decentralized administration. The tensions between both approaches require mutual adaptation, for which the concept of subsidiarity might offer points of departure. This paper describes the first results of the case-research into Dutch water management and technology in the context of Europe as well as the backgrounds and the set-up of the research as a whole. PMID:17851211

  5. A Collaborative Dialogue--Research in Dutch Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Ven, Piet-Hein

    2007-01-01

    In order to address a perceived gap between academic knowledge and education, The Dutch National Advisory Board on Education has suggested that there is a need for more communication between research and practice. For me the gap is more than simply a matter of lack of communication, than a result of the model of Research, Development and Diffusion…

  6. Phonotactics and Morphophonology in Early Child Language: Evidence from Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Fikkert, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates children's knowledge of how surface pronunciations of lexical items vary according to their phonological and morphological context. Dutch-learning children aged 2.5 and 3.5 years were tested on voicing neutralization and morphophonological alternations. For instance, voicing does not alternate between the pair…

  7. SEAFOOD PROCESSING PERMITTING, ALASKA - UNALASKA BAY - DUTCH HARBOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unalaska Bay - Dutch Harbor was digitized from NOAA Marine Charts #16528, #16529, and #16530. Map details include water depth and land. This map was created for EPA Region 10 Water Division to evaluate NPDES permit sites and environmental quality. Visual illustration facilitates ...

  8. Sex Differences on the Dutch WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Posthuma, Danielle; Dolan, Conor V.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Colom, Roberto; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2006-01-01

    Using multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA), this study investigated whether sex differences were present on the Dutch WAIS-III, and if so, whether these sex differences were attributable to differences in general intelligence ("g"). The sample consisted of 294 females and 228 males between 18 and 46 years old. Both first…

  9. Development of a Test of Spoken Dutch for Prospective Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, John H. A. L.; Lennig, Matthew; Kerkhoff, Anne; Poelmans, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Based on a parliamentary vote with broad support, the Ministry of Justice of the Netherlands in December 2003 commissioned the development of an examination system to test the Dutch oral language skills of foreigners who want to immigrate permanently to the Netherlands for economic or family reasons. This assessment would take place in the country…

  10. Organisational Factors and Teachers' Professional Development in Dutch Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arnoud T.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Kreijns, Karel; Gerrichhauzen, John T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study that investigates the relationship between organisational factors, Teachers' Professional Development (TPD) and occupational expertise. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was administered among 152 Dutch teachers in secondary education. Findings: Analysis of the data revealed that of…

  11. How Dutch Employees Experience Freedom of Learning for Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe…

  12. Ethical issues in split versus whole liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vulchev, Anntim; Roberts, John P; Stock, Peter G

    2004-11-01

    Technologic advances in split liver transplantation have resulted in an ethical dilemma. Although splitting a liver maximizes the number of patients receiving an organ transplant, it may increase the morbidity and mortality for the individual patient receiving the split liver. This essay explores the ethical issues involved in the allocation of split livers, and proposes general policy guidelines for the allocation of split versus whole liver transplants. PMID:15476469

  13. Multiple Spectral Splits of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Raffelt, Georg G.; Dighe, Amol; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2009-07-31

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f{sub n}u{sub e}(E) and f{sub n}u{sub e}(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f{sub n}u{sub e}=f{sub n}u{sub x}, f{sub n}u{sub e}=f{sub n}u{sub x} as well as E->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  14. A Split Sprint mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Kyle; Duffey, Jack; D'Annible, Dom; Holdridge, Jeff; Thompson, Walter; Armstrong, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Comprehensive infrastructure analysis is central to developing architectures necessary to support the Space Exploration Initiative. In the ``Split Sprint'' architecture, the cargo is split from the crew. An efficient low thrust ``slow boat'' is used for the cargo and a high thrust ``sprint'' vehicle is used for the crew. Infrastructure analysis is utilized in developing initial element designs to meet the transportation system requirements of the slit sprint architecture. Infrastructure analysis considers technology availability, launch vehicle volume and lift requirements, on orbit assembly, trajectory design and optimization, system reduncancy requirements and evolutionary capability. The resulting infrastructure includes propulsion system options for the crew and cargo space transfer vehicles. For the cargo, an SP-100 derived nuclear electric propulsion system was developed. For the crew, either a conventional cryogenic (LO2/LH2) propulsion system or nuclear thermal propulsion system is utilized. It is shown that the split sprint mission competes effectively with conventional approaches to the Mars mission.

  15. Resonance splitting in gyrotropic ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Jalas, Dirk; Petrov, Alexander; Krause, Michael; Hampe, Jan; Eich, Manfred

    2010-10-15

    We present the theoretical concept of an optical isolator based on resonance splitting in a silicon ring resonator covered with a magneto-optical polymer cladding. For this task, a perturbation method is derived for the modes in the cylindrical coordinate system. A polymer magneto-optical cladding causing a 0.01 amplitude of the off-diagonal element of the dielectric tensor is assumed. It is shown that the derived resonance splitting of the clockwise and counterclockwise modes increases for smaller ring radii. For the ring with a radius of approximately 1.5μm, a 29GHz splitting is demonstrated. An integrated optical isolator with a 10μm geometrical footprint is proposed based on a critically coupled ring resonator. PMID:20967092

  16. Do Hydrogen Bonds Influence Excitonic Splittings?

    PubMed

    Balmer, Franziska A; Ottiger, Philipp; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The excitonic splitting and vibronic quenching of the inversion-symmetric homodimers of benzonitrile, (BN)2, and meta-cyanophenol, (mCP)2, are investigated by two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. These systems have very different hydrogen bond strengths: the OH···N≡C bonds in (mCP)2 are ∼10 times stronger than the CH···N≡C hydrogen bonds in (BN)2. In (BN)2 the S0((1)Ag) → S1((1)Ag) transition is electric-dipole forbidden, while the S0((1)Ag) → S2((1)Bu) transition is allowed. The opposite holds for (mCP)2 due to the different transition dipole moment vector alignment. The S0 → S1S2 spectra of the dimers are compared and their excitonic splittings and vibronic quenchings are investigated by measuring the (13)C-substituted heterodimer isotopomers, for which the centrosymmetry is broken and both transitions are allowed. The excitonic splittings are determined as Δexc = 2.1 cm(-1) for (BN)2 and Δexc = 7.3 cm(-1) for (mCP)2. The latter exhibits a much stronger vibronic quenching, as the purely electronic splitting resulting from ab initio calculations is determined to be Δcalc = 179 cm-1, while in (BN)2 the calculated splitting is Δcalc = 10 cm(-1). The monomer site-shifts upon dimerization and comparing certain vibrations that deform the hydrogen bonds confirm that the OH···N≡C hydrogen bond is much stronger than the CH···N≡C bond. We show that the H-bonds have large effects on the spectral shifts, but little or no influence on the excitonic splitting. PMID:27131115

  17. Splitting strategy for simulating genetic regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    You, Xiong; Liu, Xueping; Musa, Ibrahim Hussein

    2014-01-01

    The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions. PMID:24624223

  18. Linear birefringence in split-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Srinivasan; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T

    2012-06-01

    We study polarization-dependent transmission of light through arrays of single-slit split-ring resonator (SSRR) based systems at normal incidence using finite integration time domain (FITD) and finite element methods (FEM). It is found that a conventional planar array of SSRRs acts as an effective optical wave plate at certain polarizations of incident light. The effect is attributed to the intrinsic linear birefringence of individual SSRRs. A comparison is made with other split-ring resonator-based systems exhibiting wave-plate-like properties due to inter-SSRR coupling. PMID:22660115

  19. Fermion localization on a split brane

    SciTech Connect

    Chumbes, A. E. R.; Vasquez, A. E. O.; Hott, M. B.

    2011-05-15

    In this work we analyze the localization of fermions on a brane embedded in five-dimensional, warped and nonwarped, space-time. In both cases we use the same nonlinear theoretical model with a nonpolynomial potential featuring a self-interacting scalar field whose minimum energy solution is a soliton (a kink) which can be continuously deformed into a two-kink. Thus a single brane splits into two branes. The behavior of spin 1/2 fermions wave functions on the split brane depends on the coupling of fermions to the scalar field and on the geometry of the space-time.

  20. Narrow ridge management with ridge splitting with piezotome for implant placement: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Deepak; Gupta, Alka Sanjay; Newaskar, Vilas; Gupta, Amit; Garg, Subhash; Jain, Deshraj

    2014-09-01

    Narrow dentoalveolar ridges remain a serious challenge for the successful placement of endosseous implants. Several techniques for this procedure may be considered, such as guided bone regeneration, bone block grafting, and ridge splitting for bone expansion. The ridge split procedure provides a quicker method wherein an atrophic ridge can be predictably expanded and grafted with bone allograft or allograft, eliminating the need for second surgical site. Traditionally, osseous surgery has been performed by either manual or motor-driven instruments. Piezosurgery is a relatively new technique for osteotomy and osteoplasty that utilizes ultrasonic vibration which allows clean cutting with precise incisions. This case series describes reports of 2 such cases in which narrow mandibular ridge splitting was carried by mean of piezotome with immediate placement of implants in the osteotomy site. Five months later, the implants were uncovered followed by impression and restored with impant- supported porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns. PMID:25183917

  1. Horizontal augmentation through the ridge-split procedure: a predictable surgical modality in implant reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tolstunov, Len; Hicke, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Among alveolar ridge augmentation techniques, the ridge-split procedure demonstrates many benefits, including no need for a second (donor) surgical site, rare risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, and less pain and swelling, and others. Lateral bone augmentation through the ridge-split works best in a localized lateral bony defect intended for 1 or 2 implants and where the ridge is vertically intact. In this article, the authors present a detailed description of the implant-driven technique of alveolar ridge-split procedure in small and large bone deficiencies, in maxilla and mandible, supplemented by multiple photographs. The authors emphasize the need for careful manipulation of the thin ridge based on knowledge of precise surgical principles and stress that a practitioner needs specialized training and experience to perform this type of alveolar bone augmentation. PMID:23402358

  2. Accuracy of tablet splitting: Comparison study between hand splitting and tablet cutter

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Walid A.; Alanizi, Abdulaziz S.; Abdelhamid, Magdi M.; Alanizi, Fars K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tablet splitting is often used in pharmacy practice to adjust the administered doses. It is also used as a method of reducing medication costs. Objective To investigate the accuracy of tablet splitting by comparing hand splitting vs. a tablet cutter for a low dose drug tablet. Methods Salbutamol tablets (4 mg) were chosen as low dose tablets. A randomly selected equal number of tablets were split by hand and a tablet cutter, and the remaining tablets were kept whole. Weight variation and drug content were analysed for salbutamol in 0.1 N HCl using a validated spectrophotometric method. The percentages by which each whole tablet’s or half-tablet’s drug content and weight difference from sample mean values were compared with USP specification ranges for drug content. The %RSD was also calculated in order to determine whether the drugs met USP specification for %RSD. The tablets and half tablets were scanned using electron microscopy to show any visual differences arising from splitting. Results 27.5% of samples differed from sample mean values by a percentage that fell outside of USP specification for weight, of which 15% from the tablet cutter and 25% from those split by hand fell outside the specifications. All whole tablets and half tablets met the USP specifications for drug content but the variation of content between the two halves reached 21.3% of total content in case of hand splitting, and 7.13% only for the tablet cutter. The %RSDs for drug content and weight met the USP specification for whole salbutamol tablets and the half tablets which were split by tablet cutter. The halves which were split by hand fell outside the specification for %RSD (drug content = 6.43%, weight = 8.33%). The differences were visually clear in the electron microscope scans. Conclusion Drug content variation in half-tablets appeared to be attributable to weight variation occurring during the splitting process. This could have serious clinical consequences for

  3. Applying Dutch and US Versions of the BSID-II in Dutch Children Born Preterm Leads to Different Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, J. J.; Houtzager, B. A.; Overdiek, B.; van Wassenaer, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the application of Dutch versus US test procedures and norms of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd edition (BSID-II) leads to different developmental outcomes. The BSID-II was administered to 376 preterm infants (191 males, 185 females; mean gestational age 30wks [SD 2.7], mean…

  4. Three-dimensional evaluation of lingual split line after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in asymmetric prognathism

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of lingual split line when performing a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) for asymmetric prognathism. This was accomplished with the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and three-dimensional (3D) software program. Materials and Methods The study group was comprised of 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with asymmetric prognathism, who underwent BSSO (80 splits; n=80) from January 2012 through June 2013. We observed the pattern of lingual split line using CBCT data and image analysis program. The deviated side was compared to the contralateral side in each patient. To analyze the contributing factors to the split pattern, we observed the position of the lateral cortical bone cut end and measured the thickness of the ramus that surrounds the mandibular lingula. Results The lingual split patterns were classified into. The true "Hunsuck" line was 60.00% (n=48), and the bad split was 7.50% (n=6). Ramal thickness surrounding the lingual was 5.55±1.07 mm (deviated) and 5.66±1.34 mm (contralateral) (P=0.409). The position of the lateral cortical bone cut end was classified into three types: A, lingual; B, inferior; C, buccal. Type A comprised 66.25% (n=53), Type B comprised 22.50% (n=18), and Type C comprised 11.25% (n=9). Conclusion In asymmetric prognathism patients, there were no differences in the ramal thickness between the deviated side and the contralateral side. Furthermore, no differences were found in the lingual split pattern. The lingual split pattern correlated with the position of the lateral cortical bone cut end. In addition, the 3D-CT reformation was a useful tool for evaluating the surgical results of BSSO of the mandible. PMID:24627837

  5. Laser Cleaning of Peristyle in Diocletian Palace in Split (HR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almesberger, D.; Rizzo, A.; Zanini, A.; Geometrante, R.

    Before starting the cleaning program of the peristyle of Diocletian Palace in Split, a series of tests have been performed on it. First of all, the state of conservation of columns and capitals has been assessed applying non-destructive techniques such as thermography, magnetoscopy and superficial ultrasonic tests. All the areas with black crusts, exfoliation and stone cracks have been determined. In this stage, parameters such as water absorption and colour have been estimated in order to compare them with those measured after the cleaning operation. Then, more than 3-month period of tests have been performed to set up all the parameters concerning the application of the laser cleaning techniques. In this chapter, the results of these preliminary investigations are presented.

  6. Split-Volume Treatment Planning of Multiple Consecutive Vertebral Body Metastases for Cyberknife Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun Chuang, Cynthia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula; Weinstein, Phil; Ma Lijun

    2008-10-01

    Cyberknife treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases is challenging due to large target volumes adjacent to critical normal tissues. A split-volume treatment planning technique was developed to improve the treatment plan quality of such lesions. Treatment plans were generated for 1 to 5 consecutive thoracic vertebral bodies (CVBM) prescribing a total dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of the entire vertebral body(ies). Treatment plans were generated considering both the de novo clinical scenario (no prior radiation), imposing a dose limit of 8 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord, and the retreatment scenario (prior radiation) with a dose limit of 3 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord. The split-volume planning technique was compared with the standard full-volume technique only for targets ranging from 2 to 5 CVBM in length. The primary endpoint was to obtain best PTV coverage by the 24 Gy prescription isodose line. A total of 18 treatment plans were generated (10 standard and 8 split-volume). PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line worsened consistently as the number of CVBM increased for both the de novo and retreatment scenario. Split-volume planning was achieved by introducing a 0.5-cm gap, splitting the standard full-volume PTV into 2 equal length PTVs. In every case, split-volume planning resulted in improved PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line ranging from 4% to 12% for the de novo scenario and, 8% to 17% for the retreatment scenario. We did not observe a significant trend for increased monitor units required, or higher doses to spinal cord or esophagus, with split-volume planning. Split-volume treatment planning significantly improves Cyberknife treatment plan quality for CVBM, as compared to the standard technique. This technique may be of particular importance in clinical situations where stringent spinal cord dose limits are required.

  7. Supporting Students' Constructions of the Splitting Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of particular instructional practices that support students' constructions of the partitive unit fraction scheme and measurement concepts for fractions. Another body of research has demonstrated the power of a particular mental operation--the splitting operation--in supporting students'…

  8. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  9. Controlled Splitting of an Atomic Wave Packet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Zhang, P.; Chapman, M. S.; You, L.

    2006-08-18

    We propose a simple scheme capable of adiabatically splitting an atomic wave packet using two independent translating traps. Implemented with optical dipole traps, our scheme allows a high degree of flexibility for atom interferometry arrangements and highlights its potential as an efficient and high fidelity atom optical beam splitter.

  10. Split Grade Classrooms; An Educational Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cheryl; McLellan, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Although the single-grade classroom has emerged as the most prevalent administrative arrangement, the existence of the split grade phenomenon continues to be a part of educational tradition in both rural and urban schools, predominantly at the elementary levels. Teachers are then forced to compromise curriculum to teach all levels simultaneously.…

  11. Mechanics analysis of molar tooth splitting.

    PubMed

    Barani, Amir; Chai, Herzl; Lawn, Brian R; Bush, Mark B

    2015-03-01

    A model for the splitting of teeth from wedge loading of molar cusps from a round indenting object is presented. The model is developed in two parts: first, a simple 2D fracture mechanics configuration with the wedged tooth simulated by a compact tension specimen; second, a full 3D numerical analysis using extended finite element modeling (XFEM) with an embedded crack. The result is an explicit equation for splitting load in terms of indenter radius and key tooth dimensions. Fracture experiments on extracted human molars loaded axially with metal spheres are used to quantify the splitting forces and thence to validate the model. The XFEM calculations enable the complex crack propagation, initially in the enamel coat and subsequently in the interior dentin, to be followed incrementally with increasing load. The fracture evolution is shown to be stable prior to failure, so that dentin toughness, not strength, is the controlling material parameter. Critical conditions under which tooth splitting in biological and dental settings are likely to be met, however rare, are considered. PMID:25584989

  12. A Comparison among Worker Types Using a Composites Approach and Median Splits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Wuensch, Karl L.; Brandon, Howard R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined Spence and Robbins' (1992) worker types in terms of correlates of workaholism (e.g., work-life imbalance, obsessive-compulsive behavior). A survey was administered to professionals, who were then classified into different worker types following the traditional median-split technique. The data were also analyzed with…

  13. Spin-orbit splitting in neutron drops

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Pandharipande, V.R.; Ravenhall, D.G.

    1995-08-01

    Hartree-Fock calculations of very neutron-rich nuclei are an essential source of input for calculations of the properties of neutron-star crusts. The Hartree-Fock calculations often use Skyrme models whose parameters are determined by fits to known (hence not neutron-rich) nuclei and extrapolations to the N >> Z case. The Vautherin and Brink (VB) prescription for the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit potential, V{sub so}, is usually used; this is based on the assumption that most of V{sub so} comes from a short-range L{center_dot}S nucleon-nucleon interaction. In 1993 we showed that more than half of the spin-orbit splitting in {sup 15}N comes from long-range three-nucleon potentials and correlations, which violate the VB assumption. To investigate the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit splitting, we made calculations of the type described in Sec. B.d for systems of 7 (p-wave splitting) and 19 (d-wave) neutrons. The neutrons were confined in external potentials that were adjusted to give physically reasonable densities. We find that the spin-orbit splitting of these drops is less than half the {sup 15}N value. These values can be used to determine an isospin dependence of V{sub so} that is very different from that of VB. Hartree-Fock calculations of known spin-orbit splittings in nuclei with N significantly different from Z are now being made with this new prescription.

  14. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified 17 helminth species from 136 foxes by mucosal scraping, centrifugal sedimentation/flotation and the washing and sieving technique. We applied rarefaction analysis to our samples and compared the resulting curve to the helminth community reported in literature 35 years ago. Results Fox helminth species significantly increased in number in the last 35 years (p-value <0.025). Toxascaris leonina, Mesocestoides litteratus, Trichuris vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are four new veterinary-relevant species. The zoonotic fox tapeworm (E. multilocularis) was found outside the previously described endemic regions in the Netherlands. Conclusions Helminth fauna in Dutch red foxes increased in biodiversity over the last three decades. PMID:24708710

  15. Split mandrel versus split sleeve coldworking: Dual methods for extending the fatigue life of metal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodman, Geoffrey A.; Creager, Matthew

    1994-09-01

    It is common practice to use split sleeve coldworking of fastener holes as a means of extending the fatigue life of metal structures. In search of lower manufacturing costs, the aerospace industry is examining the split mandrel (sleeveless) coldworking process as an alternative method of coldworking fastener holes in metal structures. The split mandrel process (SpM) significantly extends the fatigue life of metal structures through the introduction of a residual compressive stress in a manner that is very similar to the split sleeve system (SpSl). Since the split mandrel process is significantly less expensive than the split sleeve process and more adaptable to robotic automation, it will have a notable influence upon other new manufacture of metal structures which require coldworking a significant number of holes, provided the aerospace community recognizes that the resulting residual stress distributions and fatigue life improvement are the same for both processes. Considerable testing has validated the correctness of that conclusion. The findings presented in this paper represent the results of an extensive research and development program, comprising data collected from over 400 specimens fabricated from 2024-T3 and 7075-T651 aluminum alloys in varied configurations, which quantify the benefits (fatigue enhancement and cost savings) of automating a sleeveless coldworking system.

  16. Split mandrel versus split sleeve coldworking: Dual methods for extending the fatigue life of metal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodman, Geoffrey A.; Creager, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    It is common practice to use split sleeve coldworking of fastener holes as a means of extending the fatigue life of metal structures. In search of lower manufacturing costs, the aerospace industry is examining the split mandrel (sleeveless) coldworking process as an alternative method of coldworking fastener holes in metal structures. The split mandrel process (SpM) significantly extends the fatigue life of metal structures through the introduction of a residual compressive stress in a manner that is very similar to the split sleeve system (SpSl). Since the split mandrel process is significantly less expensive than the split sleeve process and more adaptable to robotic automation, it will have a notable influence upon other new manufacture of metal structures which require coldworking a significant number of holes, provided the aerospace community recognizes that the resulting residual stress distributions and fatigue life improvement are the same for both processes. Considerable testing has validated the correctness of that conclusion. The findings presented in this paper represent the results of an extensive research and development program, comprising data collected from over 400 specimens fabricated from 2024-T3 and 7075-T651 aluminum alloys in varied configurations, which quantify the benefits (fatigue enhancement and cost savings) of automating a sleeveless coldworking system.

  17. Combatting Electoral Traces: The Dutch Tempest Discussion and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Wolter

    In the Dutch e-voting debate, the crucial issue leading to the abandonment of all electronic voting machines was compromising radiation, or tempest: it would be possible to eavesdrop on the choice of the voter by capturing the radiation from the machine. Other countries, however, do not seem to be bothered by this risk. In this paper, we use actor-network theory to analyse the socio-technical origins of the Dutch tempest issue in e-voting, and we introduce concepts for discussing its implications for e-voting beyond the Netherlands. We introduce the term electoral traces to denote any physical, digital or social evidence of a voter’s choices in an election. From this perspective, we provide a framework for risk classification as well as an overview of countermeasures against such traces.

  18. Split latissimus dorsi muscle flap repair of acquired, nonmalignant, intrathoracic tracheoesophageal and bronchoesophageal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Hammoudeh, Ziyad S; Gursel, Eti; Baciewicz, Frank A

    2015-06-01

    The development of a fistula between the tracheobronchial tree and oesophagus due to nonmalignant causes is uncommon. Division of the fistula with muscle flap interposition eliminates contact between the tracheobronchial segment and the oesophagus, theoretically decreasing the chance of recurrence as well as providing a robust blood supply to aid in healing. The split latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a well-suited flap for such repairs because of the ability to simultaneously cover two separate apertures (tracheobronchial and oesophageal). The authors describe the split latissimus dorsi muscle flap with step-by-step technique for repair of intrathoracic aerodigestive fistulas. PMID:25697381

  19. Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Stiegert, Julia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that the significant predictors of photo-naming latencies were name agreement, word frequency, imageability, and image agreement. The naming latencies, norms, and stimuli are provided as supplemental materials. PMID:26122979

  20. [The Dutch emigration pattern around 1840 in the European perspective].

    PubMed

    Stokvis Prd

    1980-01-01

    "In 1850 and 1860 the Netherlands ranked eighth among twelve North-Western European nations that contributed to the transatlantic migration. The Dutch emigration pattern reflecting the agrarian crisis of the 1840's resembled the one of Hanover and Westphalia, be it that like in Scandinavia the ecclesiastical situation played a more important part. Besides the motivating forces, conditions such as information, organization, public and official reactions, and transportation are reviewed." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12311282

  1. Using the split Hopkinson pressure bar to validate material models

    PubMed Central

    Church, Philip; Cornish, Rory; Cullis, Ian; Gould, Peter; Lewtas, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives a discussion of the use of the split-Hopkinson bar with particular reference to the requirements of materials modelling at QinetiQ. This is to deploy validated material models for numerical simulations that are physically based and have as little characterization overhead as possible. In order to have confidence that the models have a wide range of applicability, this means, at most, characterizing the models at low rate and then validating them at high rate. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is ideal for this purpose. It is also a very useful tool for analysing material behaviour under non-shock wave loading. This means understanding the output of the test and developing techniques for reliable comparison of simulations with SHPB data. For materials other than metals comparison with an output stress v strain curve is not sufficient as the assumptions built into the classical analysis are generally violated. The method described in this paper compares the simulations with as much validation data as can be derived from deployed instrumentation including the raw strain gauge data on the input and output bars, which avoids any assumptions about stress equilibrium. One has to take into account Pochhammer–Chree oscillations and their effect on the specimen and recognize that this is itself also a valuable validation test of the material model. PMID:25071238

  2. A Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Splitting Information Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-kun; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jia-li; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantum information splitting and reconstruction, we present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, enabling two distrustful parties (Alice and Bob) to compare the equality of their information without revealing the information content. In this protocol, the information carriers are split into two wave packets by a beam splitter (BS), which is owned by a semi-honest third party Trent, and then they are sent to Alice and Bob, respectively. Alice and Bob encodes their secret information on the received wave packets. Only the superimposition of the two wave packets in Trent's site can reveal the compared result. Compared with the QPC protocols using entangled states, the information carriers used in our protocol is single-photon pulse, which reduces the difficulty of realization in practical. In addition, our protocol is feasible with the present techniques since only linear optical components, BS, single-photon detector, phase shifter (PS) and switcher (SWT) are required. The security of the protocol is ensured by principles on the phenomenon of quantum interference. And through the security analysis it shows that the protocol is secure and resists against the well-known attacks.

  3. Using the split Hopkinson pressure bar to validate material models.

    PubMed

    Church, Philip; Cornish, Rory; Cullis, Ian; Gould, Peter; Lewtas, Ian

    2014-08-28

    This paper gives a discussion of the use of the split-Hopkinson bar with particular reference to the requirements of materials modelling at QinetiQ. This is to deploy validated material models for numerical simulations that are physically based and have as little characterization overhead as possible. In order to have confidence that the models have a wide range of applicability, this means, at most, characterizing the models at low rate and then validating them at high rate. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is ideal for this purpose. It is also a very useful tool for analysing material behaviour under non-shock wave loading. This means understanding the output of the test and developing techniques for reliable comparison of simulations with SHPB data. For materials other than metals comparison with an output stress v strain curve is not sufficient as the assumptions built into the classical analysis are generally violated. The method described in this paper compares the simulations with as much validation data as can be derived from deployed instrumentation including the raw strain gauge data on the input and output bars, which avoids any assumptions about stress equilibrium. One has to take into account Pochhammer-Chree oscillations and their effect on the specimen and recognize that this is itself also a valuable validation test of the material model. PMID:25071238

  4. Comparative studies on different nanofiber photocatalysts for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Khan, Waseem S.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    Water splitting using photocatalyst has become a topic of recent investigation since it has the potential of producing hydrogen for clean energy from sunlight. An extensive number of solid photocatalysts have been studied for overall water splitting in recent years. In this study, two methods were employed to synthesize two different photocatalysts for water splitting. The first method describes the synthesis of nickel oxide-loaded strontium titanate (NiO-SrTiO3) particles on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers incorporated with graphene nanoplatelets for water splitting. The electrospun PAN fibers were first oxidized at 270°C for two hours and subsequently immersed in a solution containing ethanol, titanium (IV)-isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2]. This solution was then treated with NiO nanoparticles dispersed in toluene. The surface treated PAN fibers were annealed at 600°C in air for 1 hour to transform fibers into a crystalline form for improved photocatalyst performance. In the second method, coaxial electrospinning process was used to produce core/shell strontium titanate/nickel oxide (SrTiO3-NiO) nanofibers. In coaxial method, poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) was dissolved in deionized (DI) water, and then titanium (IV) isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2] were added into the solution to form the inner (core) layer. For outer (shell) solution, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) at a weight ratio of 10:90 and then nickel oxide was mixed with the solution. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry and static contact angle measurement techniques were employed to characterize the structural properties of photocatalysts produced by both methods and a comparison was made between the two photocatalysts. The morphology and diameter of the nanofibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structure and crystallinity of the calcined nanofibers were also observed

  5. High fatigue scores among older Dutch nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Vera; Hoekman, Jaap; van Zundert, André

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, hospital care production pressure recently increased substantially, while the number of nurse anesthetists available did not match this rise. The longtime existing norm of no night shifts for nurses beyond the age of 55 years was increased to age 57 to meet the demand for more nurse anesthetists. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine the level of fatigue and its correlation with demographic items among this category of employees. A validated questionnaire was distributed to all Dutch nurse anesthetists above 50 years of age working in Dutch hospitals, which asked for their level of fatigue. The Checklist Individual Strength Questionnaire was used to measure fatigue. Overall, 105 of 115 potential participants completed the questionnaire (response rate, 91%). The mean scores (+/- standard deviation) were as follows: total fatigue, 81.3 +/- 8.3; subjective fatigue, 31.4 +/- 3.2; physical activity, 13.1 +/- 2.2; motivation, 16.8 +/- 2.6; and concentration, 20.0 +/- 3.8. No correlation could be demonstrated between demographic characteristics and fatigue. Dutch nurse anesthetists above the age of 50 years show a high fatigue score and therefore need special attention to prevent them from harmful physical and psychological effects and to sustain maximal patient safety. PMID:25109162

  6. When Correction Turns Positive: Processing Corrective Prosody in Dutch

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Diana V.; Stowe, Laurie A.; Hoeks, John C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research on spoken language does not provide a consistent picture as to whether prosody, the melody and rhythm of speech, conveys a specific meaning. Perception studies show that English listeners assign meaning to prosodic patterns, and, for instance, associate some accents with contrast, whereas Dutch listeners behave more controversially. In two ERP studies we tested how Dutch listeners process words carrying two types of accents, which either provided new information (new information accents) or corrected information (corrective accents), both in single sentences (experiment 1) and after corrective and new information questions (experiment 2). In both experiments corrective accents elicited a sustained positivity as compared to new information accents, which started earlier in context than in single sentences. The positivity was not modulated by the nature of the preceding question, suggesting that the underlying neural mechanism likely reflects the construction of an interpretation to the accented word, either by identifying an alternative in context or by inferring it when no context is present. Our experimental results provide strong evidence for inferential processes related to prosodic contours in Dutch. PMID:25973607

  7. Rational pharmacotherapy in The Netherlands: formulary management in Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fijn, R; de Jong-van den Berg, L T; Brouwers, J R

    1999-04-01

    A survey regarding the management of rational pharmacotherapy was conducted among all Dutch general hospitals in 1998. The response was 99% (n = 120). The presence of a drugs and therapeutics committee and antibiotic policies in Dutch general hospitals appears independent of hospital characteristics. However, formulary agreements and treatment guidelines are less likely to be present in hospitals that employ only 1 pharmacist or those served by community pharmacies. More than half of the hospitals claim to have restrictive formulary agreements. Large hospitals, hospitals in the eastern and southern provinces and those served by hospital pharmacies more often tend to have restrictive agreements compared to small hospitals, hospitals in the northern, central, and western provinces, and those served by community pharmacies. Various methods to impose restriction and ensure formulary compliance are mentioned. It must be noted that hospitals tend to operate rather solely regarding the large number of different formularies. Surprisingly just a small majority of pharmacists evaluates formulary agreements positively as a management tool. Many drawbacks appear to be present. The results of this survey indicate that in the future Dutch hospitals will favour disease management (treatment guidelines) over drug management (formulary agreements) in the management of rational pharmacotherapy and that information technology will be used to influence clinicians' prescribing behaviour. PMID:10380234

  8. Sexual orientation of parents and Dutch family law.

    PubMed

    van Nijnatten, C H

    1995-01-01

    A few years ago, the Dutch government asked for advice about the legal consequences of various living arrangements. One of the main issues concerned the legal consequences thereof for children. In a letter to parliament, the Dutch cabinet confirmed that couples of the same sex would be excluded from being awarded children for adoption. Legal and psychological reasons play an important role in the reasoning of the Dutch government. The harmonious development of children is supposed to be at risk when the child is reared by two adults of the same sex. This article sets out psychological theories and the results of recent research which contradict the argumentation presented in a number of recent reports published by the government. The outcome of most research is that gay and lesbian parents 'perform' as well as heterosexual parents. Excluding lesbian and gay parents from taking responsibility for children seems to be a poor policy which does not take into account the social capacities of the population. PMID:8868496

  9. [Dutch-Romanian cooperation in the area of family practice].

    PubMed

    van Es, J C

    2001-10-27

    During the years 1992-2000, there was a cooperative programme between the Romanian general practitioners' association (Societatea Nationala de Medicina Generala) in Romania and the Dutch Foundation for the Advancement of Quality in Healthcare in Romania. A succession of programmes were developed and carried out, which were financed by the Dutch government. The purpose of the cooperative programme was to support the development of Romanian general practice in terms of quality and structure. In the first programme, financed by the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, about 200 Romanian general practitioners received continuing education. This was followed by a social transformation programme (MATRA) that had two parts: (a) the general practitioners association was supported and advised with respect to improving its organisational efficiency and (b) about 50 carefully selected Romanian general practitioners were trained, in post-academic research, management or teaching. The Romanian authorities accredited these trainees as teachers. The co-operation is being continued in 2001 with the setting up of a sentinel station programme in which 100 Romanian general practitioners collect relevant, representative data on health, illness and practice. PMID:11715598

  10. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384

  11. Spin polarization of the split Kondo state.

    PubMed

    von Bergmann, Kirsten; Ternes, Markus; Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2015-02-20

    Spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy is employed to quantitatively determine the spin polarization of the magnetic field-split Kondo state. Tunneling conductance spectra of a Kondo-screened magnetic atom are evaluated within a simple model taking into account inelastic tunneling due to spin excitations and two Kondo peaks positioned symmetrically around the Fermi energy. We fit the spin state of the Kondo-screened atom with a spin Hamiltonian independent of the Kondo effect and account for Zeeman splitting of the Kondo peak in the magnetic field. We find that the width and the height of the Kondo peaks scales with the Zeeman energy. Our observations are consistent with full spin polarization of the Kondo peaks, i.e., a majority spin peak below the Fermi energy and a minority spin peak above. PMID:25763966

  12. Evolution of Advection Upstream Splitting Method Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of advection upstream splitting method(AUSM) schemes. The main ingredients that have led to the development of modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been reviewed, thus the ideas behind AUSM. First and foremost is the concept of upwinding. Second, the use of Riemann problem in constructing the numerical flux in the finite-volume setting. Third, the necessity of including all physical processes, as characterised by the linear (convection) and nonlinear (acoustic) fields. Fourth, the realisation of separating the flux into convection and pressure fluxes. The rest of this review briefly outlines the technical evolution of AUSM and more details can be found in the cited references. Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics methods, hyperbolic systems, advection upstream splitting method, conservation laws, upwinding, CFD

  13. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders.

    PubMed

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H2 from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency. PMID:26134367

  14. Traceless protein splicing utilizing evolved split inteins

    PubMed Central

    Lockless, Steve W.; Muir, Tom W.

    2009-01-01

    Split inteins are parasitic genetic elements frequently found inserted into reading frames of essential proteins. Their association and excision restore host protein function through a protein self-splicing reaction. They have gained an increasingly important role in the chemical modification of proteins to create cyclical, segmentally labeled, and fluorescently tagged proteins. Ideally, inteins would seamlessly splice polypeptides together with no remnant sequences and at high efficiency. Here, we describe experiments that identify the branched intermediate, a transient step in the overall splicing reaction, as a key determinant of the splicing efficiency at different splice-site junctions. To alter intein specificity, we developed a cell-based selection scheme to evolve split inteins that splice with high efficiency at different splice junctions and at higher temperatures. Mutations within these evolved inteins occur at sites distant from the active site. We present a hypothesis that a network of conserved coevolving amino acids in inteins mediates these long-range effects. PMID:19541616

  15. Barotropic-baroclinic time splitting for ocean circulation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Higdon, R.L.; Szoeke, R.A. de

    1997-07-15

    This paper discusses the following topics on oceanic circulation modeling: time splitting in context of the nonlinear primitive equations; analysis of the stability of this splitting when applied to a linearized flow in two-layer fluid with one horizontal dimensions and a flat lower boundary; analysis of this splitting for horizontal dimensions in a rotating reference frame with constant coriolis parameters; and then numerical tests of the new splitting are discussed.

  16. The Structure and Function Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, James

    2005-04-28

    Barber's research aims to mimic one step in photosynthesis to produce hydrogen as a fuel. In photosynthesis, plants use sunlight to split water and combine its hydrogen with carbon dioxide to form organic matter and oxygen. Barber and colleagues from Imperial College used a technique called x-ray crystallography to illuminate the mechanism that underpins the photosynthetic water-splitting reaction. By analyzing these findings, the researchers believe it may be possible to learn how to recreate the process on an industrial scale, allowing hydrogen to be manufactured as a fuel. 'Hydrogen derived from the water-splitting in plants could be one of the most promising energy sources of the future,' Barber said. 'Unlike fossil fuels, it's highly efficient, low polluting and is mobile so it can be used for power generation in remote regions where it's difficult to access electricity.'

  17. Automated cloud screening of AVHRR imagery using split-and-merge clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaudet, Timothy C.; Simpson, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Previous methods to segment clouds from ocean in AVHRR imagery have shown varying degrees of success, with nighttime approaches being the most limited. An improved method of automatic image segmentation, the principal component transformation split-and-merge clustering (PCTSMC) algorithm, is presented and applied to cloud screening of both nighttime and daytime AVHRR data. The method combines spectral differencing, the principal component transformation, and split-and-merge clustering to sample objectively the natural classes in the data. This segmentation method is then augmented by supervised classification techniques to screen clouds from the imagery. Comparisons with other nighttime methods demonstrate its improved capability in this application. The sensitivity of the method to clustering parameters is presented; the results show that the method is insensitive to the split-and-merge thresholds.

  18. Carbon dioxide splitting in a dielectric barrier discharge plasma: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Robby; Somers, Wesley; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2015-02-01

    Plasma technology is gaining increasing interest for the splitting of CO2 into CO and O2 . We have performed experiments to study this process in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with a wide range of parameters. The frequency and dielectric material did not affect the CO2 conversion and energy efficiency, but the discharge gap can have a considerable effect. The specific energy input has the most important effect on the CO2 conversion and energy efficiency. We have also presented a plasma chemistry model for CO2 splitting, which shows reasonable agreement with the experimental conversion and energy efficiency. This model is used to elucidate the critical reactions that are mostly responsible for the CO2 conversion. Finally, we have compared our results with other CO2 splitting techniques and we identified the limitations as well as the benefits and future possibilities in terms of modifications of DBD plasmas for greenhouse gas conversion in general. PMID:25641832

  19. Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon.

    PubMed

    Drumm, Daniel W; Budi, Akin; Per, Manolo C; Russo, Salvy P; L Hollenberg, Lloyd C

    2013-01-01

    : The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated δ-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%. PMID:23445785

  20. Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated δ-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%. PMID:23445785

  1. Fisher information versus signal-to-noise ratio for a split detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, George C.; Munro, William J.

    2015-07-01

    We study the problem of estimating the magnitude of a Gaussian beam displacement using a two-pixel or "split" detector. We calculate the maximum likelihood estimator and compute its asymptotic mean-squared error via the Fisher information. Although the signal-to-noise ratio is known to be simply related to the Fisher information under idealized detection, we find the two measures of precision differ markedly for a split detector. We show that a greater signal-to-noise ratio "before" the detector leads to a greater information penalty, unless adaptive realignment is used. We find that with an initially balanced split detector, tuning the normalized difference in counts to 0.884753 ... gives the highest posterior Fisher information, which provides an improvement by at least a factor of about 2.5 over operating in the usual linear regime. We discuss the implications for weak-value amplification, a popular probabilistic signal amplification technique.

  2. Split Fracture: A Complication of Cerclage Wiring of Acute Patellar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Cho Yau; Lui, Tun Hing; Sit, Yan Kit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Iatrogenic patellar fracture is reported as a complication of patella procedures, such as medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction, reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee using bone-patellar tendon-bone technique, and resurfacing the patella in total knee arthroplasty. Case Presentation: A 65-year-old lady with right patella fracture was treated with open reduction and cerclage wiring. An iatrogenic split fracture was noted during tension of the cerclage wire and was successfully managed by screw fixation of the split fracture. Conclusions: Split fracture is a rare complication of circumferential cerclage wiring of patellar fracture. The surgeon should be aware of the contributing factors in order to avoid this complication. PMID:25593896

  3. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1994-02-25

    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state.

  4. Nanostructured hematite for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yichuan

    Solar water splitting is an environmentally friendly reaction of producing hydrogen gas. Since Honda and Fujishima first demonstrated solar water splitting in 1972 by using semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell, extensive efforts have been invested into improving the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency and lower the production cost of photoelectrochemical devices. In the last few years, hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanostructures have been extensively studied as photoanodes for PEC water splitting. Although nanostructured hematite can improve its photoelectrochemical water splitting performance to some extent, by increasing active sites for water oxidation and shortening photogenerated hole path length to semiconductor/electrolyte interface, the photoactivity of pristine hematite nanostructures is still limited by a number of factors, such as poor electrical conductivities and slow oxygen evolution reaction kinetics. Previous studies have shown that tin (Sn) as an n-type dopant can substantially enhance the photoactivity of hematite photoanodes by modifying their optical and electrical properties. In this thesis, I will first demonstrate an unintentional Sn-doping method via high temperature annealing of hematite nanowires grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate to enhance the donor density. In addition to introducing extrinsic dopants into semiconductors, the carrier densities of hematite can also be enhanced by creating intrinsic defects. Oxygen vacancies function as shallow donors for a number of hematite. In this regard, I have investigated the influence of oxygen content on thermal decomposition of FeOOH to induce oxygen vacancies in hematite. In the end, I have studied low temperature activation of hematite nanostructures.

  5. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Vanleer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1988-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations or auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  6. Photosynthetic water splitting for hydrogen fuel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, E.

    Three key advances in photosynthesis research are reported. A significant advance in microalgal water splitting has been made. In the linear, low-intensity region of the light saturation curves, equivalent solar conversion efficiencies of 10% have been measured. A technological advance in the ability to genetically screen individual algal colonies has been made. Successive subcultures of anaerobiosis-stressed Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibited enhanced capacity for photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen.

  7. A thermodynamically compatible splitting procedure in hyperelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favrie, N.; Gavrilyuk, S.; Ndanou, S.

    2014-08-01

    A material is hyperelastic if the stress tensor is obtained by variation of the stored energy function. The corresponding 3D mathematical model of hyperelasticity written in the Eulerian coordinates represents a system of 14 conservative partial differential equations submitted to stationary differential constraints. A classical approach for numerical solving of such a 3D system is a geometrical splitting: the 3D system is split into three 1D systems along each spatial direction and solved then by using a Godunov type scheme. Each 1D system has 7 independent eigenfields corresponding to contact discontinuity, longitudinal waves and shear waves. The construction of the corresponding Riemann solvers is not an easy task even in the case of isotropic solids. Indeed, for a given specific energy it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to check its rank-one convexity which is a necessary and sufficient condition for hyperbolicity of the governing equations. In this paper, we consider a particular case where the specific energy is a sum of two terms. The first term is the hydrodynamic energy depending only on the density and the entropy, and the second term is the shear energy which is unaffected by the volume change. In this case a very simple criterion of hyperbolicity can be formulated. We propose then a new splitting procedure which allows us to find a numerical solution of each 1D system by solving successively three 1D sub-systems. Each sub-system is hyperbolic, if the full system is hyperbolic. Moreover, each sub-system has only three waves instead of seven, and the velocities of these waves are given in explicit form. The last property allows us to construct reliable Riemann solvers. Numerical 1D tests confirm the advantage of the new approach. A multi-dimensional extension of the splitting procedure is also proposed.

  8. Ispra Mark-10 water splitting process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A thermochemical water splitting process, the Ispra Mark-10 chemical reaction cycle, was chosen for examining the possibility of using water to produce hydrogen on a large scale for fuel and major industrial chemical uses. The assumed energy source for the process is an HTGR (helium cooled). A process flow diagram, a material balance, and an energy balance were developed for the thermochemical reaction cycle. Principal reactions which constitute the cycle are included.

  9. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  10. Universal exchange-driven phonon splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deisenhofer, Joachim; Kant, Christian; Schmidt, Michael; Wang, Zhe; Mayr, Franz; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois

    2012-02-01

    We report on a linear dependence of the phonon splitting on the non-dominant exchange coupling Jnd in the antiferromagnetic monoxides MnO, Fe0.92O, CoO and NiO, and in the highly frustrated antiferromagnetic spinels CdCr2O4, MgCr2O4 and ZnCr2O4. For the monoxides our results directly confirm the theoretical prediction of a predominantly exchange induced splitting of the zone-centre optical phonon [1,2]. We find the linear relation δφ= βJndS^2 with slope β = 3.7. This relation also holds for a very different class of systems, namely the highly frustrated chromium spinels. Our finding suggests a universal dependence of the exchange-induced phonon splitting at the antiferromagnetic transition on the non-dominant exchange coupling [3].[4pt] [1] S. Massidda et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 430 (1999).[0pt] [2] W. Luo et al., Solid State Commun. 142, 504 (2007).[0pt] [3] Ch. Kant et al., arxiv:1109.4809.

  11. 16 CFR 802.10 - Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.10 Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations. (a) The acquisition of voting securities pursuant to a stock split...

  12. 26 CFR 1.482-6 - Profit split method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Profit split method. 1.482-6 Section 1.482-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.482-6 Profit split method. (a) In general. The profit split method evaluates whether the allocation of...

  13. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse...

  14. 16 CFR 802.10 - Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.10 Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations. (a) The acquisition of voting securities pursuant to a stock split or... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stock dividends and splits;...

  15. 26 CFR 1.482-6 - Profit split method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Profit split method. 1.482-6 Section 1.482-6...) INCOME TAXES Adjustments § 1.482-6 Profit split method. (a) In general. The profit split method evaluates... shared equally, or in any other arbitrary proportion. The specific method of allocation must...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.2125 Split or broken kernels. Split or broken kernels means seven-eighths or less of...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.2125 Split or broken kernels. Split or broken kernels means seven-eighths or less of...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2125 Split or broken kernels. Split or broken kernels means seven-eighths or less of complete whole kernels but which will...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2125 Split or broken kernels. Split or broken kernels means seven-eighths or less of complete whole kernels but which will...

  20. Summary of the Dutch S3-guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis 2011. Dutch Society of Dermatology and Venereology.

    PubMed

    Zweegers, J; de Jong, E M G J; Nijsten, T E C; de Bes, J; te Booij, M; Borgonjen, R J; van Cranenburgh, O D; van Deutekom, H; van Everdingen, J J E; de Groot, M; Van Hees, C L M; Hulshuizen, H; Koek, M B G; de Korte, W J A; de Korte, J; Lecluse, L L A; Pasch, M C; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P A; Prens, E P; Seyger, M M B; Thio, H B; Torcque, L A; de Vries, A C Q; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Spuls, Ph I

    2014-03-01

    This document provides a summary of the Dutch S3-guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis. These guidelines were finalized in December 2011 and contain unique chapters on the treatment of psoriasis of the face and flexures, childhood psoriasis as well as the patient's perspective on treatment. They also cover the topical treatment of psoriasis, photo(chemo)therapy, conventional systemic therapy and biological therapy. PMID:24656281

  1. The practice and clinical implications of tablet splitting in international health

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Ivo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Yeuichaixong, Sengchanh; Lee, Sue J; Newton, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tablet splitting is frequently performed to facilitate correct dosing, but the practice and implications in low-income settings have rarely been discussed. Methods We selected eight drugs, with narrow therapeutic indices or critical dosages, frequently divided in the Lao PDR (Laos). These were split, by common techniques used in Laos, by four nurses and four laypersons. The mean percentage deviation from the theoretical expected weight and weight loss of divided tablets/capsules were recorded. Results Five of eight study drugs failed, on splitting, to meet European Pharmacopoeia recommendations for tablet weight deviation from the expected weight of tablet/capsule halves with 10% deviating by more than 25%. There was a significant difference in splitting accuracy between nurses and laypersons (P = 0.027). Coated and unscored tablets were less accurately split than uncoated (P = 0.03 and 0.0019 for each half) and scored (0.0001 for both halves) tablets. Conclusion These findings have potential clinical implications on treatment outcome and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Investment by drug companies in a wider range of dosage units, particularly for narrow therapeutic index and critical dosage medicines, is strongly recommended. PMID:24702766

  2. Outcomes for split-thickness skin transplantation in high-risk patients using octenidine.

    PubMed

    Matiasek, J; Djedovic, G; Unger, L; Beck, H; Mattesich, M; Pierer, G; Koller, R; Rieger, U M

    2015-06-01

    Skin transplantation is a commonly used surgical technique; however, the complication rate, including postoperative infection and delayed wound healing due to inefficient perfusion, is significantly higher in patients suffering from comorbidities. Hence, a subsequent repeat procedure is often necessary. In this report, two case studies are presented in which an octenidine-based antiseptic is used with a tie-over dressing (TOD) instead of povidone iodine (PVP-iodine), following a split-thickness skin graft. The two patients selected were deemed to be at high risk of impaired wound healing due to comorbidities. The first patient, a confirmed smoker with diabetes, presented with a nodular melanoma that was resected and covered with a split-thickness skin graft. After 5 days of negative pressure wound therapy as a TOD, in combination with PVP-iodine, the graft became necrotic. A second split-thickness skin graft was performed and an antiseptic regimen with octenidine in combination with the same TOD resulted in a completely healed transplant. The second patient, also a confirmed smoker with diabetes and receiving oral corticosteroid treatment, was diagnosed with a skin necrosis on her leg. Following the split-thickness skin graft, octenidine and TOD were applied. The patient's skin graft completely healed without any adverse events. These two case studies indicate that the combination of octenidine and TOD following split-thickness skin transplantation is safe, well-tolerated and appears to have positive benefits in the reconstruction of defects in patients with impaired wound healing. PMID:26075514

  3. Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B.; Hoek, Gerard; Beelen, Rob; de Hoogh, Kees; Breugelmans, Oscar; Kruize, Hanneke; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Houthuijs, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with mortality in urban cohort studies. Few studies have investigated this association in large-scale population registries, including non-urban populations. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Netherlands based on existing national databases. Methods We used existing Dutch national databases on mortality, individual characteristics, residence history, neighborhood characteristics, and national air pollution maps based on land use regression (LUR) techniques for particulates with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Using these databases, we established a cohort of 7.1 million individuals ≥ 30 years of age. We followed the cohort for 7 years (2004–2011). We applied Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential individual and area-specific confounders. Results After adjustment for individual and area-specific confounders, for each 10-μg/m3 increase, PM10 and NO2 were associated with nonaccidental mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.09 and HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03, respectively], respiratory mortality (HR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17 and HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03, respectively), and lung cancer mortality (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.30 and HR = 1.10 95% CI: 1.09, 1.11, respectively). Furthermore, PM10 was associated with circulatory disease mortality (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.08), but NO2 was not (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.01). PM10 associations were robust to adjustment for NO2; NO2 associations remained for nonaccidental mortality and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for PM10. Conclusions Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 was associated with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Dutch population of ≥ 30 years of age. Citation Fischer PH, Marra M, Ameling CB, Hoek G, Beelen R, de

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Split Peroneal Tendon Lateral Ankle Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Bazán, D Issac; Evans, Andrew M; Agarwal, Monica R; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lateral ankle instability is a common condition. Split peroneal tendon lateral ankle stabilization, a modification of the Chrisman-Snook procedure, is biomechanically stable and often used for severe and/or recurrent chronic lateral ankle instability. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this technique. Specifically, the midterm recurrence of instability and postoperative complications, such as stiffness, neurologic pain, and wound healing complications, were evaluated. We evaluated 30 consecutive procedures with a minimal follow-up period of 1 year. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 13 (median 19, range 13 to 62) months. Five patients (17%) developed recurrent ankle instability, of whom 4 underwent revision surgery. One superficial infection and two wound disruptions developed. Two patients experienced stiffness and eight (27%) surgically induced neurologic complaints, such as sural neuritis. Finally, 2 patients developed complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:26364699

  5. Improved specimen recovery in tensile split Hopkinson bar

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, Matti; Hiermaier, Stefan; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved specimen recovery method for the tensile split Hopkinson bar (TSHB) technique. The method is based on the trapping of residual stress waves with the use of momentum trap bars. As is well known, successful momentum trapping in TSHB is highly sensitive to experimental uncertainties, especially on the incident bar side of the set-up. However, as is demonstrated in this paper, significant improvement in the reliability of specimen recovery is obtained by using two momentum trap bars in contact with the incident bar. This makes the trapping of the reflected wave insensitive to striker speed and removes the need for a precision set gap between the incident bar and the momentum trap. PMID:25071235

  6. Removal of Deeply Impacted Mandibular Molars by Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Isler, Sabri Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first and second molars do not share the same frequency of occurrence. In rare cases the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots pointing in opposite direction; these are called kissing molars. In some cases, a supernumerary fourth molar can be seen as unerupted and, in this case, such a supernumerary, deeply impacted fourth molar is seen neighboring kissing molars. The extraction of deeply impacted wisdom molars from the mandible may necessitate excessive bone removal and it causes complications such as damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic fractures of the mandible. This case report describes the use of the sagittal split osteotomy technique to avoid extensive bone removal and protect the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extruction of multiple impacted teeth. PMID:27429810

  7. Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Liu, Ai Qun; Zheludev, Nikolay I; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a number of interesting designs proposed and implemented to generate artificial magnetism at optical frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials, but owing to the planar configurations of typically fabricated metamolecules that make up the metamaterials, the magnetic response is mainly driven by the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. We recently fabricated vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs) which behave as magnetic metamolecules sensitive to both incident electric and magnetic fields with stronger induced magnetic dipole moment upon excitation in comparison to planar SRRs. The fabrication technique enabled us to study the plasmon coupling between VSRRs that stand up side by side where the coupling strength can be precisely controlled by varying the gap in between. The resulting wide tuning range of these resonance modes offers the possibility of developing frequency selective functional devices such as sensors and filters based on plasmon coupling with high sensitivity. PMID:26043931

  8. Improved specimen recovery in tensile split Hopkinson bar.

    PubMed

    Isakov, Matti; Hiermaier, Stefan; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    2014-08-28

    This paper presents an improved specimen recovery method for the tensile split Hopkinson bar (TSHB) technique. The method is based on the trapping of residual stress waves with the use of momentum trap bars. As is well known, successful momentum trapping in TSHB is highly sensitive to experimental uncertainties, especially on the incident bar side of the set-up. However, as is demonstrated in this paper, significant improvement in the reliability of specimen recovery is obtained by using two momentum trap bars in contact with the incident bar. This makes the trapping of the reflected wave insensitive to striker speed and removes the need for a precision set gap between the incident bar and the momentum trap. PMID:25071235

  9. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yun Jeong

    Photolysis of water with semiconductor materials has been investigated intensely as a clean and renewable energy resource by storing solar energy in chemical bonds such as hydrogen. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires can provide several advantages for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their high surface areas and excellent charge transport and collection efficiency. This dissertation discusses various nanowire photoelectrodes for single or dual semiconductor systems, and their linked PEC cells for self-driven water splitting. After an introduction of solar water splitting in the first chapter, the second chapter demonstrates water oxidative activities of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanowire arrays depending on their length and surface properties. The photocurrents with TiO2 nanowire arrays approach saturation due to their poor charge collection efficiency with longer nanowires despite increased photon absorption efficiency. Epitaxial grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiO2 nanowire increase the photocurrent density by 1.5 times due to improved charge collection efficiency especially in the short wavelength region. Chapter three compares the photocurrent density of the planar Si and Si nanowire arrays coated by anatase ALD TiO 2 thin film as a model system of a dual bandgap system. The electroless etched Si nanowire coated by ALD TiO2 (Si EENW/TiO2) shows 2.5 times higher photocurrent density due to lower reflectance and higher surface area. Also, this chapter illustrates that n-Si/n-TiO2 heterojunction is a promising structure for the photoanode application of a dual semiconductor system, since it can enhance the photocurrent density compared to p-Si/n-TiO 2 junction with the assistance of bend banding at the interface. Chapter four demonstrates the charge separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements show

  10. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  11. Self-induced spectral splits in supernova neutrino fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2007-10-15

    In the dense-neutrino region above the neutrino sphere of a supernova (r < or approx. 400 km), neutrino-neutrino refraction causes collective flavor transformations. They can lead to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} splits the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. Unless there is an ordinary MSW resonance in the dense-neutrino region, E{sub split} is determined by flavor-lepton number conservation alone. Spectral splits are created by an adiabatic transition between regions of large and small neutrino density. We solve the equations of motion in the adiabatic limit explicitly and provide analytic expressions for a generic example.

  12. Multiple beam splitting in elastic phononic crystal plates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Kim, Yoon Young

    2015-02-01

    This work presents an experimental evidence for triple beam splitting in an elastic plate with an embedded elastic phononic crystal (PC) prism and elaborates on its working mechanism. While there were reports on negative refraction and double beam splitting with PCs, no experimental evidence on the splitting of triple or more ultrasonic elastic beams through PCs has been shown yet. After the experimental results are presented in case of triple beam splitting, further analysis is carried out to explain how triple or more beams can be split depending on elastic PC prism angles. PMID:25454094

  13. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-02-01

    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  14. The Splitting Index: construction of a scale measuring the defense mechanism of splitting.

    PubMed

    Gould, J R; Prentice, N M; Ainslie, R C

    1996-04-01

    The Splitting Index (SI), a self-report scale based on the writings of Kernberg (e.g., 1976) on self and object representations and the defense mechanism of splitting, was constructed. After development over the course of 6 pilot studies, the SI was validated through 2 further studies. Factor analyses revealed a 24-item scale with three 8-item subscales, measuring the splitting of self, family, and others' images. The SI and its subscales were demonstrated to be internally consistent and stable over a 4-week period. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations with measures of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders, self-image stability, self-esteem, depression, and negative affectivity. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by near-zero correlations with two measures of cognitive complexity. Contrary to predictions, the SI was significantly correlated with the Dogmatism Scale (Rokeach, 1960), a third measure of cognitive complexity. Research and clinical applications of the SI are discussed. PMID:8869581

  15. Genome-wide Association Study of Exercise Behavior in Dutch and American Adults

    PubMed Central

    De Moor, Marleen HM; Liu, Yong-Jun; Boomsma, Dorret I; Li, Jian; Hamilton, James J; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Levy, Shawn; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Pei, Yu-Fang; Posthuma, Danielle; Recker, Robert R; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wang, Liang; Willemsen, Gonneke; Yan, Han; De Geus, Eco JC; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify genetic variants that are associated with adult leisure-time exercise behavior using genome-wide association in two independent samples. Methods Exercise behavior was measured in 1,772 unrelated Dutch and 978 unrelated American adults with detailed questions about type, frequency and duration of exercise. Individuals were classified into regular exercisers or non-exercisers using a threshold of 4 METhours (metabolic equivalents*hours per week). Regular exercisers were further divided into 5 categories of METhours, ranging from moderate (>=4 METhours) to highly vigorous (>=40 METhours) exercisers. Genome-wide association analyses with a total of 470,719 SNPs were conducted in both samples independently using regression-based techniques in SNPtest, including sex, age and BMI as covariates. Results SNPs located in SGIP1, DNASE2B, PRSS16, ERCC2 and PAPSS2 were associated with exercise participation (combined p-value between 0.0004 and 4.5*10-6 with the same direction of allelic effects in both samples). Associations of candidate genes based on existing literature were replicated for the LEPR gene in the American sample (rs12405556, p=0.0005) and for the CYP19A1 gene in the Dutch sample (rs2470158, 0.0098). Conclusion Two genes (SGIP1 and LEPR) are expressed in the hypothalamus and involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Their effects were independent of BMI, suggesting a direct role of hypothalamic factors in the drive to exercise. PMID:19727025

  16. Basic dynamics of split Stirling refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waele, A. T. A. M.; Liang, W.

    2008-09-01

    The basic features of the split Stirling refrigerator, driven by a linear compressor, are described. Friction of the compressor piston and of the regenerator, and the viscous losses due to the gas flow through the regenerator matrix are taken into account. The temperature at the cold end is an input parameter. The general equations are derived which are subsequently treated in the harmonic approximation. Examples are given of application of the relations for describing optimum-performance conditions as well as the interrelationship between cooler and heat-engine operation.

  17. Mechanically tolerant fluidic split ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Robiatun A.; Baum, Thomas; Nasabi, Mahyar; Sriram, Sharath; Rowe, Wayne S. T.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible resonators are crucial elements for non-planar, conformal and curved or movable surfaces in flexible high frequency electronic environments. Here, we demonstrate a stretchable, bendable, twistable and reversibly deformable split ring resonator (SRR) operating at ∼3 GHz. The mechanical and electrical performance of the SRR was achieved by encapsulating liquid metal (galinstan) in a microfluidic channel of highly elastic polydimethylsiloxane. Applying mechanical deformation (bending, stretching and twisting) to the SRR results in minimal deviation of the transmission response. This offers a stable and predictable response for flexible electronic applications where mechanical deformation or conformity is inherent.

  18. The second order pole over split quaternions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libine, Matvei

    2015-04-01

    This is an addition to a series of papers [1, 2, 3, 4], where we develop quaternionic analysis from the point of view of representation theory of the conformal Lie group and its Lie algebra. In this paper we develop split quaternionic analogues of certain results from [4]. Thus we introduce a space of functions Dh ⊕ Da with a natural action of the Lie algebra gl(2, HC) ≊ sl(4, C), decompose Dh ⊕ Da into irreducible components and find the gl(2, Hc)- equivariant projectors onto each of these irreducible components.

  19. Stimulated quasiparticles in spin-split superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, P.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.

    2016-01-01

    In superconductors spin split by an exchange field, thermal effects are coupled to spin transport. We show how an oscillating electromagnetic field in such systems creates spin imbalance, that can be detected with a spin-polarized probe. The sign and magnitude of the probe signal result from a competition between processes converting field-induced spin energy imbalance to spin imbalance, dominant at low frequencies, and microwave-driven pair breaking at high frequencies. In the presence of spin-flip scattering, we show that ac excitation also leads to multistabilities in the superconducting state.

  20. Coupling Between Split-Ring Resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Michael; Stannigel, Kai; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt

    2009-10-07

    Numerical methods have become invaluable tools for research in the field of photonics and plasmonics. The Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain (DGTD) method, complemented by numerous extensions, allows us to solve Maxwell's equations on unstructured grids while maintaining an efficient, explicit time-stepping scheme. In this contribution we employ our DGTD computer code to analyse dimers of split-ring resonators (SRRs), metallic nano-structures often used as building blocks for metamaterials. We find that electromagnetic coupling between two SRRs heavily influences the dimers' resonances. Results for two SRRs facing each other are presented and the influence of the particle spacing is investigated.

  1. Choices in Dutch health care: mixing strategies and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    van der Grinten, T E; Kasdorp, J P

    1999-12-01

    In the light of experience that choices in health care appear to be not so much hindered by a lack of insight into how choices should be made in theory, as uncertainty as to how choices could be made in practice, this paper sets out to deepen our insight into the dynamics of health care policy making within the concrete socio-economic and political context. The paper examines how Dutch policy-makers have dealt with the priority issue in health care over the past 10 years by means of a gradual incremental approach. In this approach, use is made of a mix of strategies and shared responsibilities, with an important role for the actors at the meso and the micro levels; while at the same time, the government has not abandoned the tried and trusted policy of national rationing (i.e. keeping the production capacity limited and setting a ceiling on production in order to resist the pressure on the public system of Dutch health care). Looking at the declining percentage of Gross National Product assigned to health care annually, the broad accessibility and the good overall quality of Dutch health care, it may be concluded that the issue of choice has not come off badly under this mixed approach. The degree to which the system can respond adequately to likely developments, such as a recession, worsening waiting lists, further liberalisation (i.e. the application of market forces in health care) and, by way of extension, the ongoing integration of 'Europe' is questioned. PMID:10827303

  2. Prevalence of intramammary infection in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, Otlis; Barkema, Herman W; Berends, Inge; Sol, Jan; Lam, Theo

    2009-05-01

    A survey was carried out in 2003 in 49 dairy herds to determine the overall and pathogen-specific prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in Dutch dairy herds, and to compare the distribution with four studies performed from 1973 to 1985 in The Netherlands. Herds were randomly selected stratified over the 12 Dutch provinces, had at least 40 lactating cows and participated in the Dutch milk recording system. Quarter milk samples were collected from all 408 cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >or=250,000 cells/ml and 145 heifers with SCC >or=150,000 cells/ml at the last milk test before the farm visit. Additionally, samples were collected from 519 (approximately 25%) of the remaining low-SCC cows and heifers with a SCC at the last milk test before the farm visit of <250 000 and <150 000 cells/ml, respectively. Bacterial growth occurred in 37.3% of milk samples of high-SCC cows and in 21.1% of low-SCC cows. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated group of bacteria (10.8% of quarters) and were found in all herds. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus IMI was lower in 2003 than in 1973, respectively 1.8% and 6.2% of quarters. Prevalence of Streptococcus uberis and Str. dysgalactiae IMI was almost the same in the five samplings during the 30-year period, at 1.1-1.7 and 0.9-1.5%, respectively. Str. agalactiae was not found in this study. Prevalence of CNS IMI was higher in lactating heifers, while prevalence of Str. uberis, Str. dysgalactiae and penicillin-resistant Staph. aureus IMI was higher in older cows. Because distribution of pathogens changes over time, herd-level samples for bacteriological culturing must be taken regularly to monitor udder health. Additionally, national mastitis prevalence studies give important information through monitoring the national udder health status. PMID:19121233

  3. Secular trend of dental development in Dutch children.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Strahinja; de Vries, Esther; Eilers, Paul H C; Willemsen, Sten P; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Prahl-Andersen, Birte; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Wolvius, Eppo B; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have established dental age standards for different populations; however, very few studies have investigated whether dental development is stable over time on a population level. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze changes in dental maturity in Dutch children born between 1961 and 2004. We used 2,655 dental panoramic radiographs of 2- to 16-year-old Dutch children from studies performed in three major cities in the Netherlands. Based on a trend in children born between 1961 and 1994, we predicted that a child of a certain age and gender born in 1963 achieved the same dental maturity on average, 1.5 years later than a child of the same age born 40 years later. After adjusting for the birth year of a child in the analysis, the regression coefficient of the city variable was reduced by 56.6% and it remained statistically significant. The observed trend from 1961 to 1994 was extrapolated to 9- to 10-year-old children born in 2002-2004, and validation with the other samples of children with the same characteristics showed that 95.9%-96.8% of the children had dental maturity within the 95% of the predicted range. Dental maturity score was significantly and positively associated with the year of birth, gender, and age in Dutch children, indicating a trend in earlier dental development during the observation period, 1961-2004. These findings highlight the necessity of taking the year of birth into account when assessing dental development within a population with a wider time span. PMID:24912457

  4. Implicit Motivational Processes Underlying Smoking in American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Helle; Kong, Grace; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Boendermaker, Wouter; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Wiers, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the US and the Netherlands. Within the group of smokers, we examined the relative predictive value of the cognitive biases and impulsivity related constructs (including inhibition skills, working memory, and risk taking) on daily smoking and nicotine dependence. Method: A total of 125 American and Dutch adolescent smokers (n = 67) and non-smokers (n = 58) between 13 and 18 years old participated. Participants completed the smoking approach–avoidance task, the classical and emotional Stroop task, brief implicit associations task, balloon analog risk task, the self-ordering pointing task, and a questionnaire assessing level of nicotine dependence and smoking behavior. Results: The analytical sample consisted of 56 Dutch adolescents (27 smokers and 29 non-smokers) and 37 American adolescents (19 smokers and 18 non-smokers). No differences in cognitive biases between smokers and non-smokers were found. Generally, Dutch adolescents demonstrated an avoidance bias toward both smoking and neutral stimuli whereas the American adolescents did not demonstrate a bias. Within the group of smokers, regression analyses showed that stronger attentional bias and weaker inhibition skills predicted greater nicotine dependence while weak working memory predicted more daily cigarette use. Conclusion: Attentional bias, inhibition skills, and working memory might be important factors explaining smoking in adolescence. Cultural differences in approach–avoidance bias should be considered in future research. PMID:24904435

  5. Eliminating Social Inequality by Reinforcing Standard Language Ideology? Language Policy for Dutch in Flemish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delarue, Steven; De Caluwe, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Flanders, the northern, Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, is experiencing growing intra- and interlingual diversity. On the intralingual level, Tussentaal ("in-between-language") has emerged as a cluster of intermediate varieties between the Flemish dialects and Standard Dutch, gradually becoming "the" colloquial language. At the…

  6. Articles, Adjectives and Age of Onset: The Acquisition of Dutch Grammatical Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Polisenska, Daniela; Weerman, Fred

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of the error profiles of monolingual (child L1) learners of Dutch, Moroccan children (child L2) and Moroccan adults (adult L2) learning Dutch as their L2 shows that participants in all groups massively overgeneralize [-neuter] articles to [+neuter] contexts. In all groups, the reverse gender mistake infrequently occurs. Gender…

  7. In the Shadow of Tolerance: The Discursive Context of Dutch-Born Muslim Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaal, Mayida

    2014-01-01

    Despite a public discourse on tolerance, anxiety about immigrants, Islam and the preservation of Dutch values has amplified fear of Muslim youth in the Netherlands. In this context, Dutch-born Muslim youth endure social and systemic discrimination that affects all aspects of their futures, including available educational opportunities and…

  8. Parent Involvement as Professionalization: Professionals' Struggle for Power in Dutch Urban Deprived Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Marguerite; van Reekum, Rogier

    2011-01-01

    Parent involvement policies have been central in the Dutch push towards educational governance. How the implementation of these policies plays out on the ground is context-dependent. The ethnic and class cleavages impacting the Dutch educational system should be taken into account. On the basis of 50 in-depth interviews with teachers, social…

  9. Observations of the 1761 and 1769 transits of Venus from Batavia (Dutch East Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gent, Robert H.

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the observations of the 1761 and 1769 transits of Venus by the Dutch-German clergyman Johan Maurits Mohr (1716-1775) from Batavia (Dutch East Indies). We will investigate how Mohr became interested in observing this phenomenon and how he made the necessary preparations. Finally, the fate of his observatory and his instruments will be discussed.

  10. Eight Years of Specialist Training of Dutch Intellectual Disability Physicians: Results of Scientific Research Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2009-01-01

    Training in scientific research methods and skills is a vital part of Dutch specialist training in intellectual disability medicine. The authors evaluated results of such training at one Dutch university medical facility that had an obligatory research program involving projects conducted by the physicians-in-training (topics, teamwork, acquired…

  11. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  12. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  13. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  14. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  15. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  16. Modeling the Developmental Patterning of Finiteness Marking in English, Dutch, German, and Spanish Using MOSAIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenthal, Daniel; Pine, Julian M.; Aguado-Orea, Javier; Gobet, Fernand

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we apply MOSAIC (model of syntax acquisition in children) to the simulation of the developmental patterning of children's optional infinitive (OI) errors in 4 languages: English, Dutch, German, and Spanish. MOSAIC, which has already simulated this phenomenon in Dutch and English, now implements a learning mechanism that better…

  17. Modeling the Development of Children's Use of Optional Infinitives in Dutch and English Using MOSAIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenthal, Daniel; Pine, Julian M.; Gobet, Fernand

    2006-01-01

    In this study we use a computational model of language learning called model of syntax acquisition in children (MOSAIC) to investigate the extent to which the optional infinitive (OI) phenomenon in Dutch and English can be explained in terms of a resource-limited distributional analysis of Dutch and English child-directed speech. The results show…

  18. Modality, Infinitives, and Finite Bare Verbs in Dutch and English Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the meaning of nonfinite clauses ("root infinitives") in Dutch and English child language. I present experimental and naturalistic data confirming the claim that Dutch root infinitives are more often modal than English root infinitives. This cross-linguistic difference is significantly smaller than previously assumed,…

  19. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  20. Zertifikat Niederlaendisch: Examen en getuigschrift Nederlands als vreemde taal (Certificate in Dutch)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beersmans, Frans; Sudhoelter, Juergen

    1976-01-01

    An interim report on preparations for designing an examination in Dutch. The "unit-credit system" proposed by the Council of Europe is being used. The Dutch certificate will be comparable to the certificates given by the British Council and by the People's Universities. Sample portions are given. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  1. From Noun to Intensifier: Massa and Massa's in Flemish Varieties of Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Clerck, Bernard; Colleman, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a case of synchronic layering is examined in which Dutch "massa" ("mass") and plural "massa's" ("masses") are attested with lexical uses as a collective noun, quantifying uses ("a large quantity of") and intensifying uses ("very")--with plural "massa's" only--in some Flemish varieties of Dutch. Against the background of…

  2. Influence of Linguistic Environment on Children's Language Development: Flemish versus Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiefferink, C. H.; Spaai, G. W. G.; Uilenburg, N.; Vermeij, B. A. M.; De Raeve, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, language development of Dutch children with a cochlear implant (CI) in a bilingual educational setting and Flemish children with a CI in a dominantly monolingual educational setting is compared. In addition, we compared the development of spoken language with the development of sign language in Dutch children. Eighteen…

  3. Phoneme Awareness, Vocabulary and Word Decoding in Monolingual and Bilingual Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Marije; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47 immigrant first-grade children with various…

  4. Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in Dutch: Evidence from Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje; Blom, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Across languages, children do not comprehend 3SG/3PL subject-verb agreement before age five, despite early mastery in spontaneous speech. This study investigates subject-verb agreement in a language hitherto not studied in this respect, namely Dutch. The authors examine if (1) Dutch two- and three-year-olds comprehend subject-verb agreement and…

  5. Changing Places: A Cross-Language Perspective on Frequency and Family Size in Dutch and Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram; Schreuder, Robert; De Jong, Nivja H.; Baayen, R. Harald

    2005-01-01

    This study uses the morphological family size effect as a tool for exploring the degree of isomorphism in the networks of morphologically related words in the Hebrew and Dutch mental lexicon. Hebrew and Dutch are genetically unrelated, and they structure their morphologically complex words in very different ways. Two visual lexical decision…

  6. A Comparison of Dutch and US Teachers' Perceptions of the Incidence and Management of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havey, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Dutch and US teachers were questioned about their perceptions of the incidence and causes of ADHD, as well as their views of appropriate treatments. Dutch teachers were more likely than US teachers to think the etiology of the disorder lay in biochemistry, while US teachers were more likely to believe in a combination of environmental and…

  7. Speech Rate in a Pluricentric Language: A Comparison between Dutch in Belgium and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Jo; De Pauw, Guy; Kloots, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates speech rate in two standard national varieties of Dutch on the basis of 160 15 mins conversations with native speakers who belong to four different regions in the Netherlands and four in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium (Flanders). Speech rate was quantified as articulation rate and speaking rate, both expressed as the…

  8. Patient safety in Dutch primary care: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insight into the frequency and seriousness of potentially unsafe situations may be the first step towards improving patient safety. Most patient safety attention has been paid to patient safety in hospitals. However, in many countries, patients receive most of their healthcare in primary care settings. There is little concrete information about patient safety in primary care in the Netherlands. The overall aim of this study was to provide insight into the current patient safety issues in Dutch general practices, out-of-hours primary care centres, general dental practices, midwifery practices, and allied healthcare practices. The objectives of this study are: to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients; to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals; and to provide insight into patient safety management in primary care practices. Design and methods The study consists of three parts: a retrospective patient record study of 1,000 records per practice type was conducted to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients (objective one); a prospective component concerns an incident-reporting study in each of the participating practices, during two successive weeks, to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals (objective two); to provide insight into patient safety management in Dutch primary care practices (objective three), we surveyed organizational and cultural items relating to patient safety. We analysed the incidents found in the retrospective patient record study and the prospective incident-reporting study by type of incident, causes (Eindhoven Classification Model), actual harm (severity-of-outcome domain of the International Taxonomy of Medical Errors in Primary Care), and probability of severe harm or death. Discussion

  9. Victimization and Suicidality Among Dutch Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Henny M. W.; van Lisdonk, Jantine; Keuzenkamp, Saskia; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2013-01-01

    We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also associated with actual suicide attempts. Suicidality in this population could be reduced by supporting coping strategies of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths who are confronted with stigmatization by peers and parents, and by schools actively promoting acceptance of same-sex sexuality. PMID:23153134

  10. Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe

    2001-01-01

    Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education. We provide information on the nature of flame retardants in general and the mechanisms of flame retardation. In addition, we offer a complete pedagogical presentation of the topic, including the use of video and some simple laboratory experiments, that was developed and successfully implemented in both countries.

    Featured on the Cover

  11. Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved

  12. Comparison between hair follicles and split-thickness skin grafts in cutaneous wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Ningwen; Qi, Fazhi

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical research studies have demonstrated that chronic cutaneous wounds can be treated with hair follicle grafts. However, the clinical outcomes of hair follicle grafting compared to split-thickness skin grafting have not been examined. This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with chronic wounds following hair follicle therapy and split-thickness skin graft therapy in a relatively large cohort of patients. Forty patients were enrolled in the study, a retrospective analysis of all patients underwent therapy with hair follicles (cohort A) and split-thickness skin grafts (cohort B) was performed. Safety, healing duration, skin quality (recipient site), scar formation (donor site) and overall postoperative outcome were analyzed. The wound sites were examined using photography at weeks 2, 8, and 12 after surgery. Five non-biased reviewers estimated the above-mentioned clinical outcomes using a five-point Likert scale. The ages and wound areas were similar between cohorts A (n=20) and B (n=20). Total wound closure was observed and adverse events were rare and controllable in both cohorts. The skin and scar quality were rated significantly higher in the hair follicle cohort than the split-thickness skin graft cohort (4.40 vs 3.45, P<0.05 and 4.65 vs 3.20, P<0.05; respectively). Hair follicle therapy resulted in a significantly higher overall score than split-thickness skin graft treatment (4.45 vs 3.40, P<0.05). This study demonstrated that hair follicles can achieve better skin/scar quality and overall clinical outcomes than split-thickness skin grafts. Hair follicles should be considered an effective surgical technique for the treatment of chronic cutaneous wounds. PMID:26629082

  13. Do Mothers Have the Right to Bring up Their Own Children? How Facts Do Not Determine (Dutch) Government Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allewijn, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch government has a double moral message for Dutch parents. On the one hand, they expect mothers to work more hours outside the home; on the other hand, they expect parents to perform better in their parental tasks. New research shows again that in spite of all stimulation measures, Dutch women with children prefer their part-time jobs, and…

  14. Social Integration and Religious Identity Expression among Dutch Muslims: The Role of Minority and Majority Group Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliepaard, Mieke; Phalet, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of contrasting religious versus secular norms in immigrant communities and in Dutch society, this study examines how religious identity expression is related to the social integration of Dutch Muslims within (a) Turkish or Moroccan minority groups and (b) Dutch majority groups. Using nationally representative survey data (N…

  15. Oseledets' splitting of standard-like maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, M.; Artuso, R.

    2015-02-01

    For the class of differentiable maps of the plane and, in particular, for standard-like maps (McMillan form), a simple relation is shown between the directions of the local invariant manifolds of a generic point and its contribution to the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) of the associated orbit. By computing also the point-wise curvature of the manifolds, we produce a comparative study between local Lyapunov exponent, manifold's curvature and splitting angle between stable/unstable manifolds. Interestingly, the analysis of the Chirikov-Taylor standard map suggests that the positive contributions to the FTLE average mostly come from points of the orbit where the structure of the manifolds is locally hyperbolic: where the manifolds are flat and transversal, the one-step exponent is predominantly positive and large; this behaviour is intended in a purely statistical sense, since it exhibits large deviations. Such phenomenon can be understood by analytic arguments which, as a by-product, also suggest an explicit way to point-wise approximate the splitting.

  16. Artificial photosynthesis: understanding water splitting in nature.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nicholas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    In the context of a global artificial photosynthesis (GAP) project, we review our current work on nature's water splitting catalyst. In a recent report (Cox et al. 2014 Science 345, 804-808 (doi:10.1126/science.1254910)), we showed that the catalyst-a Mn4O5Ca cofactor-converts into an 'activated' form immediately prior to the O-O bond formation step. This activated state, which represents an all Mn(IV) complex, is similar to the structure observed by X-ray crystallography but requires the coordination of an additional water molecule. Such a structure locates two oxygens, both derived from water, in close proximity, which probably come together to form the product O2 molecule. We speculate that formation of the activated catalyst state requires inherent structural flexibility. These features represent new design criteria for the development of biomimetic and bioinspired model systems for water splitting catalysts using first-row transition metals with the aim of delivering globally deployable artificial photosynthesis technologies. PMID:26052426

  17. Artificial photosynthesis: understanding water splitting in nature

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Nicholas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A.; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a global artificial photosynthesis (GAP) project, we review our current work on nature's water splitting catalyst. In a recent report (Cox et al. 2014 Science 345, 804–808 (doi:10.1126/science.1254910)), we showed that the catalyst—a Mn4O5Ca cofactor—converts into an ‘activated’ form immediately prior to the O–O bond formation step. This activated state, which represents an all MnIV complex, is similar to the structure observed by X-ray crystallography but requires the coordination of an additional water molecule. Such a structure locates two oxygens, both derived from water, in close proximity, which probably come together to form the product O2 molecule. We speculate that formation of the activated catalyst state requires inherent structural flexibility. These features represent new design criteria for the development of biomimetic and bioinspired model systems for water splitting catalysts using first-row transition metals with the aim of delivering globally deployable artificial photosynthesis technologies. PMID:26052426

  18. Mild-split SUSY with flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliaz, Latif; Giveon, Amit; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Tsuk, Eitan

    2013-10-01

    In the framework of a gauge mediated quiver-like model, the standard model flavor texture can be naturally generated. The model — like the MSSM — has furthermore a region in parameter space where the lightest Higgs mass is fed by heavy stop loops, which in turn sets the average squark mass scale near 10 - 20TeV. We perform a careful flavor analysis to check whether this type of mild-split SUSY passes all flavor constraints as easily as envisioned in the original type of split SUSY. Interestingly, it turns out to be on the border of several constraints, in particular, the branching ratio of μ → eγ and, if order one complex phases are assumed, also ɛ K , neutron and electron EDM. Furthermore, we consider unification as well as dark matter candidates, especially the gravitino. Finally, we provide a closed-form formula for the soft masses of matter in arbitrary representations of any of the gauge groups in a generic quiver-like model with a general messenger sector.

  19. Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOEpatents

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.

    2000-08-29

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane.

  20. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOEpatents

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.; LaBelle, James

    2000-02-22

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  1. Splitting of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, J.; Butler, P.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Krücken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2011-10-01

    In recent years investigations have been made to study the electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) systematically, mainly in semi-magic nuclei. For this purpose the well understood high resolution (γ,γ') photon scattering method is used. In complementary (α,α'γ) coincidence experiments at Eα = 136 MeV a similar γ-energy resolution and a high selectivity to E1 transitions can be obtained at the Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) at KVI, Groningen. In comparison to the (γ,γ') method a structural splitting of the PDR is observed in the N = 82 nuclei 138Ba and 140Ce and in the Z = 50 nucleus 124Sn. The low energy part is excited in (γ,γ') as well as in (α,α'γ) while the high energy part is observed in (γ,γ') only. The experimental results together with theoretical QPM and RQTBA calculations on 124Sn which are able to reproduce the splitting of the PDR qualitatively are presented. The low-lying group of Jπ = 1- states seem to represent the more isoscalar neutron-skin oscillation of the PDR while the energetically higher-lying states seemingly belong to the transitional region between the PDR and the isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR).

  2. Splitting of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Endres, J.; Zilges, A.; Butler, P.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Scheck, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Lagoyannis, A.; Kruecken, R.; Ring, P.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Sonnabend, K.; Popescu, L.; Savran, D.; Stoica, V. I.; Woertche, H. J.

    2011-10-28

    In recent years investigations have been made to study the electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) systematically, mainly in semi-magic nuclei. For this purpose the well understood high resolution ({gamma},{gamma}') photon scattering method is used. In complementary ({alpha},{alpha}'{gamma}) coincidence experiments at E{sub {alpha}} = 136 MeV a similar {gamma}-energy resolution and a high selectivity to E1 transitions can be obtained at the Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) at KVI, Groningen. In comparison to the ({gamma},{gamma}') method a structural splitting of the PDR is observed in the N = 82 nuclei {sup 138}Ba and {sup 140}Ce and in the Z = 50 nucleus {sup 124}Sn. The low energy part is excited in ({gamma},{gamma}') as well as in ({alpha},{alpha}'{gamma}) while the high energy part is observed in ({gamma},{gamma}') only. The experimental results together with theoretical QPM and RQTBA calculations on {sup 124}Sn which are able to reproduce the splitting of the PDR qualitatively are presented. The low-lying group of J{sup {pi}} = 1{sup -} states seem to represent the more isoscalar neutron-skin oscillation of the PDR while the energetically higher-lying states seemingly belong to the transitional region between the PDR and the isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR).

  3. Photosynthetic water splitting: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1988-01-01

    This document is an annual report of photosynthetic water splitting for the production of hydrogen and oxygen. Unicellular green algae are capable of evolving molecular hydrogen in the presence of carbon dioxide. Controlling factors that determine hydrogen evolution are either temperature or light intensity. Also, mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas are capable of evolving hydrogen in the presence of carbon dioxide. The significance of these discoveries is that the presence of carbon dioxide (or bicarbonate) is a key factor in determining the activity of the Photosystem II water splitting complex. Second, a new advance in oxygen sensor technology has been made that, for the first time, allows the absolute measurement of photosynthetically evolved oxygen from a single colony of microalgae growing on a solidified agar medium. The key aspect of this electrochemical sensor is the utilization of ultra-pure potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and a recognition of the role that electrolyte impurities play in contributing to base line noise. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Renewable hydrogen production by photosynthetic water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1998-06-01

    This mission-oriented research project is focused on the production of renewable hydrogen. The authors have demonstrated that certain unicellular green algae are capable of sustained simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen by light-activated photosynthetic water splitting. It is the goal of this project to develop a practical chemical engineering system for the development of an economic process that can be used to produce renewable hydrogen. There are several fundamental problems that need to be solved before the application of this scientific knowledge can be applied to the development a practical process: (I) maximizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into hydrogen energy, (2) development of oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase-containing mutants, and (3) development of bioreactors that can be used in a real-world chemical engineering process. The authors are addressing each of these problems here at ORNL and in collaboration with their research colleagues at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii. This year the authors have focused on item 1 above. In particular, they have focused on the question of how many light reactions are required to split water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen.

  5. Vibration Analysis of a Split Path Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Rashidi, Majid

    1995-01-01

    Split path gearboxes can be attractive alternatives to the common planetary designs for rotorcraft, but because they have seen little use, they are relatively high risk designs. To help reduce the risk of fielding a rotorcraft with a split path gearbox, the vibration and dynamic characteristics of such a gearbox were studied. A mathematical model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the natural frequencies and vibration energy of the gearbox. The first design variable, shaft angle, had little influence on the natural frequencies. The second variable, mesh phasing, had a strong effect on the levels of vibration energy, with phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg producing low vibration levels. The third design variable, the stiffness of the shafts connecting the spur gears to the helical pinions, strongly influenced the natural frequencies of some of the vibration modes, including two of the dominant modes. We found that, to achieve the lowest level of vibration energy, the natural frequencies of these two dominant modes should be less than those of the main excitation sources.

  6. Micro-Miniature Split Stirling Linear Crycooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Zehtzer, S.; Vilenchik, H.; Pundak, N.

    2010-04-01

    Novel tactics for rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance, force protection, perimeter security, navigation and targeting often involve the use of miniature infrared imagers, where the cooled imaging systems are known to be superior to their uncooled rivals in terms of working range, resolution and ability to distinguish/track fast moving objects in dynamic infrared scenes. The latest technological advances in industrial applications of high-temperature infrared detectors have spurred the development of linearly driven, long life, dynamically quiet and aurally undetectable micro-miniature split Stirling linear cryogenic coolers. Recent progress in designing highly efficient "moving magnet" resonant linear actuators and dedicated smart electronics have enabled further improvements to the cooler's size, weight, power consumption, cooldown time and ownership costs. The authors report on the development of a novel micro-miniature split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler, where, by means of increasing the driving frequency up to 90 Hz, it appeared possible to shorten the cold finger to 19 mm. The cooler was specifically designed to cool a new generation of 130 K infrared detectors for portable infrared imagers, where compactness, low steady-state power consumption, fast cool-down time, vibration export and aural stealth are of primary concern.

  7. Distributed transform coding via source-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2012-12-01

    Transform coding (TC) is one of the best known practical methods for quantizing high-dimensional vectors. In this article, a practical approach to distributed TC of jointly Gaussian vectors is presented. This approach, referred to as source-split distributed transform coding (SP-DTC), can be used to easily implement two terminal transform codes for any given rate-pair. The main idea is to apply source-splitting using orthogonal-transforms, so that only Wyner-Ziv (WZ) quantizers are required for compression of transform coefficients. This approach however requires optimizing the bit allocation among dependent sets of WZ quantizers. In order to solve this problem, a low-complexity tree-search algorithm based on analytical models for transform coefficient quantization is developed. A rate-distortion (RD) analysis of SP-DTCs for jointly Gaussian sources is presented, which indicates that these codes can significantly outperform the practical alternative of independent TC of each source, whenever there is a strong correlation between the sources. For practical implementation of SP-DTCs, the idea of using conditional entropy constrained (CEC) quantizers followed by Slepian-Wolf coding is explored. Experimental results obtained with SP-DTC designs based on both CEC scalar quantizers and CEC trellis-coded quantizers demonstrate that actual implementations of SP-DTCs can achieve RD performance close to the analytically predicted limits.

  8. Strong CP, Flavor, and Twisted Split Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2004-11-10

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class.

  9. Phonological and morphological consistency in the acquisition of vowel duration spelling in Dutch and German.

    PubMed

    Landerl, Karin; Reitsma, Pieter

    2005-12-01

    In Dutch, vowel duration spelling is phonologically consistent but morphologically inconsistent (e.g., paar-paren). In German, it is phonologically inconsistent but morphologically consistent (e.g., Paar-Paare). Contrasting the two orthographies allowed us to examine the role of phonological and morphological consistency in the acquisition of the same orthographic feature. Dutch and German children in Grades 2 to 4 spelled singular and plural word forms and in a second task identified the correct spelling of singular and plural forms of the same nonword. Dutch children were better in word spelling, but German children outperformed the Dutch children in nonword selection. Also, whereas German children performed on a similar level for singular and plural items, Dutch children showed a large discrepancy. The results indicate that children use phonological and morphological rules from an early age but that the developmental balance between the two sources of information is constrained by the specific orthography. PMID:15975590

  10. [Drug advertising as communication between the pharmaceutical industry and the physician: advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch medical journal, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 1900-1940].

    PubMed

    van der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the historical development of drug advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the leading Dutch medical journal from 1900 to 1940. The advertisements for hypnotics and sedatives, in The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch medical journal) reflected the changes in the vocabulary and image promoted by the pharmaceutical companies. In the first two decades, the advertisements were sober and to the point, and included the trademark, company name, molecular formula and therapeutic properties of the medication. The emphasis was on creating a scientific image of reliable symptom control for the therapeutic drug. In doing so, the ethical drug companies tried (successfully) to distinguish themselves from the producers of patent medicines. Once scientific credibility was established, the form and content of the advertisements changed significantly. In the late 1920s and 1930s drug companies embraced modern advertising techniques, developing a figurative language to address the changing beliefs and practices of Dutch physicians. Instead of promoting therapeutic drugs as safe and scientific, the emphasis was on their effectiveness in comparison to similar drugs. In the process, scientific information was reduced to an indispensable standardized minimum, whereby therapeutic drugs were advertised according to the latest pharmacological taxonomy rather than molecular formulas. The image-making of 'ethical marketing' began during the interwar years when marketers applied modern advertising techniques and infotainment strategies. The scanty black and white informational bulletins transitioned into colourful advertisements. The pharmaceutical companies employed the same medical language as used by physicians, so that one word or image in an advertisement would suffice for the physician to recognize a drug and its therapeutic properties. These developments show the changing relationship between the modern ethical pharmaceutical industry and Dutch

  11. How to target uncertainty in Dutch invasive cardiovascular care

    PubMed Central

    Jessurun, G.A.J.; Peels, J.O.J.; Zijlstra, F.

    2004-01-01

    Current meetings of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Working Group on Intervention Cardiology have shown that new strategic developments in the Dutch healthcare system have created much turbulence and uncertainty amongst members of the organisations. Both on-site and off-site new cardiac centres with and without surgical backup, respectively, are arising or being planned throughout the Netherlands. These strategic adaptations are related to service delivery failure, despite appropriate quality measures. To understand the reasoning behind this uncertainty and how to deal with it, we need to explore its origin and thinking. Its rationale is based on the assumption that each organisation relies on its ability to survive through innovation and transformation. Cardiologists and cardiac surgeons are key players in a large group of stakeholders participating in the chain of cardiovascular care. In addition, the Dutch healthcare system is deeply embedded in a historical sociopolitical environment. This may explain why ongoing uncertainty may beget more uncertainty. What are the consequences for the content of the route forward? PMID:25696266

  12. Control of VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat production.

    PubMed

    Reinders, R D; Weber, M F; Lipman, L J; Verhoeff, J; Bijker, P G

    2001-05-21

    The Dutch government and the meat industry, recognising VTEC as having important public health, meat quality and economic implications, have taken a number of initiatives within the last 5 years to control VTEC in livestock and meat. These initiatives, brought together last year in a 'Masterplan VTEC', include short-, middle- and long-term priorities. Short-term priorities include advice on interventions in the cases of an outbreak of VTEC associated with a cattle herd, the implementation of handbooks for Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in slaughterhouses and deboning plants, and the execution of an action programme on zero-tolerance to faecal contamination of carcasses. Mid-term activities include surveillance of the occurrence of VTEC and other enteropathogens in livestock and meat, and the investigations of VTEC population dynamics in dairy farms, transportation and farm hygiene. In the longer term, this programme aims to produce a system of Integrated Quality Assurance, consolidating effective measures to control VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat, and integrating emerging means for control and prevention. PMID:11407551

  13. Public cancer information by GPs: evaluation of a Dutch campaign.

    PubMed

    Visser, A; Alkema, I; van Koppen, K

    1994-10-01

    A postal survey among Dutch general practitioners (N = 259) investigated to what extent GPs acted as intermediaries in the provision of information about cancer, in order to encourage patients to consult their general practitioners with questions about cancer. The GPs received a box with three types of folders and a poster free of charge. Only few GPs showed resistance to the unsolicited reception of information material. They were positive towards the Dutch Cancer Society and considered it part of their task to provide patients with information about cancer. Nearly all GPs placed the box with folders in their waiting rooms, while 43% put up the poster. The leaflet and the poster entitled 'Don't walk around with questions' were negatively assessed by around half of the GPs due to the generalized information about cancer, which they felt might arouse fear. The GPs tended to make use of the information material if they had a positive opinion of it, ascribed themselves a role in providing information about cancer, and had positive expectations of the campaign. Biographical factors and characteristics of the GPs practice had hardly any influence on the use of the information material. The practical implication and research method used are discussed. Additional study among patients is stressed. PMID:7746761

  14. A change of direction in the Dutch health care system?

    PubMed

    Lapré, R M

    1988-08-01

    The Dutch health care system seems to be undergoing a clear change of direction. The publication of the Report of the Committee of the Structure and Financing of the Health Care System is a prominent document which marks the emergence of a new trend. After an analysis of the characteristics of the Dutch health care system in the periods 1960-1975 and 1975-1985, an account is given of the most important proposals of the committee. The proposals clearly alter the trend towards more governmental involvement. They envisage a more market-oriented approach and freedom of operation while at the same time paying attention to aspects such as solidarity and social justice. The Committee's suggestions include the introduction of a basic insurance scheme for every citizen with a coverage determined by law, and in addition a voluntary supplementary insurance scheme in which the insured can decide what coverage he requires and that the insurer is obliged to accept him. The fact that there is a certain amount of agreement, at least over the direction that the strategy for change should take, justifies the expectation that many of the committee's proposals will be implemented. PMID:10288395

  15. Rationing and competition in the Dutch health-care system.

    PubMed

    Schut, Frederik T; Van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we examine the goals and effects of health-care policy in the Netherlands over the period 1980--2000. During this period Dutch health-care policy is marked by a peculiar combination of increasingly stringent cost-containment policies alongside a persistent pursuit of market-oriented reforms. The main goal of cost containment was to keep labour costs down under the restriction of universal equal access to health care. Supply and price control policies were quite successful in achieving cost containment, but in due course prolonged quantity rationing began to jeopardise universal physical access to health services. The main goal of market-oriented health-care reforms is to increase the system's efficiency and its responsiveness to patient's needs, while maintaining equal access. The feasibility of the reforms crucially hinges on the realisation of adequate methods of risk adjustment, product classification and quality measurement, an appropriate consumer information system and an effective competition policy. Realising these preconditions requires a lengthy and cautious implementation process. Although considerable progress has been made in setting the appropriate stage for regulated competition in Dutch health care, the role of the market is still limited. PMID:16161190

  16. Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji

    2015-09-01

    We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime.

  17. Ultrasensitive detection of mode splitting in active optical microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lina; Oezdemir, Sahin Kaya; Zhu Jiangang; Yang Lan

    2010-11-15

    Scattering-induced mode splitting in active microcavities is demonstrated. Below the lasing threshold, quality factor enhancement by optical gain allows resolving, in the wavelength-scanning transmission spectrum, of resonance dips of the split modes which otherwise would not be detected in a passive resonator. In the lasing regime, mode splitting manifests itself as two lasing modes with extremely narrow linewidths. Mixing these lasing modes in a detector leads to a heterodyne beat signal whose frequency corresponds to the mode-splitting amount. Lasing regime not only allows ultra-high sensitivity for mode-splitting measurements but also provides an easily accessible scheme by eliminating the need for wavelength scanning around resonant modes. Mode splitting in active microcavities has an immediate impact in enhancing the sensitivity of subwavelength scatterer detection and in studying light-matter interactions in a strong-coupling regime.

  18. Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Joshua A. Holloway, Christopher L.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A.; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.

  19. Quantum tunneling splittings from path-integral molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mátyus, Edit; Wales, David J; Althorpe, Stuart C

    2016-03-21

    We illustrate how path-integral molecular dynamics can be used to calculate ground-state tunnelling splittings in molecules or clusters. The method obtains the splittings from ratios of density matrix elements between the degenerate wells connected by the tunnelling. We propose a simple thermodynamic integration scheme for evaluating these elements. Numerical tests on fully dimensional malonaldehyde yield tunnelling splittings in good overall agreement with the results of diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. PMID:27004863

  20. Correlations of splitting and phobic anxiety with dreaming.

    PubMed

    Kroth, J; Jensen, L; Haraldsson, M

    1997-08-01

    Dream characteristics of 28 women from a graduate counseling program were correlated with measures of phobic anxiety, splitting, and sleepiness. Significant correlations between splitting and recurrent nightmares (.68), agoraphobia and dreams about death (.44), and global phobia and recurrent nightmares (.56) were obtained. Results are discussed in terms of how phobic anxieties and splitting may relate to traumatic content and the dream process. PMID:9293596

  1. Flux-vector splitting and Runge-Kutta methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, E.; Vanleer, B.

    1984-01-01

    Runge-Kutta schemes have been used as a method of solving the Euler equations exterior to an airfoil. In the past this has been coupled with central differences and an artificial vesocity in space. In this study the Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme is coupled with an upwinded space approximation based on flux-vector splitting. Several acceleration techniques are also considered including a local time step, residual smoothing and multigrid.

  2. Halogenated benzene radical cations and ground state degeneracy splitting by asymmetric substitution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bondybey, V.E.; Vaughn, C.R.; Miller, T.A.; English, J.H.; Shiley, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption and laser induced fluorescence of several halogenated benzene radical cations were studied in solid Ne matrices. The spectra of 1,2,4-trifluorobenzene, l,3-dichloro-5-fluorobenzene, and l-chloro-3,5- difluorobenzene radical cations are observed and analyzed. Studies of fluorescence polarization and a photoselection technique were used to examine the splitting of the degeneracy of the benzene cation ground state by asymmetric subsitution. ?? 1981 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Inelastic neutron scattering investigation of crystal-field splittings in UBr 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murasik, A.; Furrer, A.

    1980-10-01

    An inelastic neutron scattering technique was used to measure the crystal-field splittings in UBr 3 at various temperatures and momentum transfers. In the interpretation of the observed energy spectra it turns out that the Russell-Saunders coupling scheme is a reasonable approximation. The crystal-field level scheme could be unambiguously assigned. The detailed nature of the crystal-field transition from the ground state to the first-excited state is not yet fully understood.

  4. Spin splitting in SiGe/Si heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestoklon, M. O.; Golub, L. E.; Ivchenko, E. L.

    2007-04-01

    Spin and valley-orbit splittings are calculated in symmetric SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum wells (QWs) by using the tight-binding approach. In accordance with the symmetry considerations an existence of spin splitting of electronic states in perfect QWs with an odd number of Si atomic planes is demonstrated. The spin splitting oscillates with QW width and these oscillations are related to the inter-valley reflection of an electron wave from the interfaces. It is shown that the splittings under study can efficiently be described by an extended envelope-function approach taking into account the spin- and valley-dependent interface mixing.

  5. Split driveshaft pump for hazardous fluids

    DOEpatents

    Evans, II, Thomas P.; Purohit, Jwalit J.; Fazio, John M.

    1995-01-01

    A pump having a split driveshaft for use in pumping hazardous fluids wherein only one driveshaft becomes contaminated by the fluid while the second remains isolated from the fluid. The pump has a first portion and a second portion. The first portion contains a pump motor, the first driveshaft, a support pedestal, and vapor barriers and seals. The second portion contains a second, self-lubricating driveshaft and an impeller. The first and second driveshafts are connected together by a releasable coupling. A shield and a slinger deployed below the coupling prevent fluid from the second portion from reaching the first portion. In operation, only the second assembly comes into contact with the fluid being pumped, so the risk of contamination of the first portion by the hazardous fluid is reduced. The first assembly can be removed for repairs or routine maintenance by decoupling the first and second driveshafts and disconnecting the motor from the casing.

  6. Splitting scheme for poroelasticity and thermoelasticity problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.; Vasil'eva, M. V.; Kolesov, A. E.

    2014-08-01

    Boundary value problems in thermoelasticity and poroelasticity (filtration consolidation) are solved numerically. The underlying system of equations consists of the Lamé stationary equations for displacements and nonstationary equations for temperature or pressure in the porous medium. The numerical algorithm is based on a finite-element approximation in space. Standard stability conditions are formulated for two-level schemes with weights. Such schemes are numerically implemented by solving a system of coupled equations for displacements and temperature (pressure). Splitting schemes with respect to physical processes are constructed, in which the transition to a new time level is associated with solving separate elliptic problems for the desired displacements and temperature (pressure). Unconditionally stable additive schemes are constructed by choosing a weight of a three-level scheme.

  7. Auditory pattern perception in 'split brain' patients.

    PubMed

    Musiek, F E; Pinheiro, M L; Wilson, D H

    1980-10-01

    Three "split brain" subjects with normal peripheral hearing were tested on identifying monaurally presented auditory intensity and frequency patterns. One subject was tested before commissurotomy, ten days later, and one year after surgery. Results indicated that sectioning the corpus callosum dramatically affects the ability to verbally report both intensity and frequency patterns. However, the ability of the subjects to correctly "hum" frequency patterns was not impaired. Thus, it appears for a correct verbal report of an auditory pattern, interhemispheric transfer of acoustic information is required, while "humming" the pattern does not. Further application of this finding implicates auditory pattern tasks as as a potentially valuable test for detecting problems of higher auditory processing, particularly those affecting interhemispheric interaction. PMID:7417089

  8. Studies of thermochemical water-splitting cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.; Foh, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    Higher temperatures and more isothermal heat profiles of solar heat sources are developed. The metal oxide metal sulfate class of cycles were suited for solar heat sources. Electrochemical oxidation of SO2 and thermochemical reactions are presented. Electrolytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide in dilute sulfuric acid solutions were appropriate for metal oxide metal sulfate cycles. The cell voltage at workable current densities required for the oxidation of SO2 was critical to the efficient operation of any metal oxide metal sulfate cycle. A sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolysis cell for the splitting of water via optimization of the anode reaction is discussed. Sulfuric acid concentrations of 30 to 35 weight percent are preferred. Platinized platinum or smooth platinum gave the best anode kinetics at a given potential of the five materials examined.

  9. Split-field pupil plane determination apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Joseph T.

    1996-01-01

    A split-field pupil plane determination apparatus (10) having a wedge assembly (16) with a first glass wedge (18) and a second glass wedge (20) positioned to divide a laser beam (12) into a first laser beam half (22) and a second laser beam half (24) which diverge away from the wedge assembly (16). A wire mask (26) is positioned immediately after the wedge assembly (16) in the path of the laser beam halves (22, 24) such that a shadow thereof is cast as a first shadow half (30) and a second shadow half (32) at the input to a relay telescope (14). The relay telescope (14) causes the laser beam halves (22, 24) to converge such that the first shadow half (30) of the wire mask (26) is aligned with the second shadow half (32) at any subsequent pupil plane (34).

  10. Splitting of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savran, D.; Endres, J.; Harakeh, M. N.; Pietralla, N.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; van den Berg, A. M.; Zilges, A.

    2011-09-01

    We report on experiments using the (α, α' γ) method to investigate the structure of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the nuclei 94Mo, 124Sn, 138Ba and 140Ce. The experiments were performed with the Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) at the KVI at an incident energy of Eα = 136 MeV. The method allows a clean separation of the PDR from other excitations in the same energy region by selecting the ground-state γ-decay channel. In addition, the high resolution of the γ-ray spectroscopy using high-purity Germanium detectors allows a state-to-state analysis even in the case of the rather high level density of the investigated nuclei. The comparison to (γ,γ') experiments on the same nuclei reveals a splitting of the PDR into two groups of states with different underlying structure.

  11. High performance Split-Stirling cooler program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeker, R. P.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the physical characteristics of the final design configuration of the 1 Watt Split-Stirling Cryogenic Cooler. Qualification testing included evaluation of the 1.0 Watt Cryogenic Cooler under the following conditions: Performance tests over the temperature range of -40 degrees C to +55 degrees C; High and Low Temperature Shock Tests; Mechanical Shock Tests; Sinsoidal Vibration; Self-Induced Vibration; Acoustical Testing; and 1000-Hour Mean Time Between Failure Life Tests. The cryogenic cooler design consists of a motor and compressor assembly, and a remote expander assembly, interconnected by a stainless steel capillary line. The system is nominally a 18.5 VDC, 60 Watt cooler and has a maximum weight of 4 pounds. This report summarizes the results of the performance, environmental and life qualification tests conducted under the contract and provides supporting data for each of the test categories.

  12. ADAPTIVE MULTILEVEL SPLITTING IN MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS*

    PubMed Central

    Aristoff, David; Lelièvre, Tony; Mayne, Christopher G.; Teo, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive Multilevel Splitting (AMS) is a replica-based rare event sampling method that has been used successfully in high-dimensional stochastic simulations to identify trajectories across a high potential barrier separating one metastable state from another, and to estimate the probability of observing such a trajectory. An attractive feature of AMS is that, in the limit of a large number of replicas, it remains valid regardless of the choice of reaction coordinate used to characterize the trajectories. Previous studies have shown AMS to be accurate in Monte Carlo simulations. In this study, we extend the application of AMS to molecular dynamics simulations and demonstrate its effectiveness using a simple test system. Our conclusion paves the way for useful applications, such as molecular dynamics calculations of the characteristic time of drug dissociation from a protein target. PMID:26005670

  13. Shear Wave Splitting Beneath the Galapagos Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, F. R.; Burkett, P. G.; Hooft, E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Silver, P. G.

    2004-12-01

    We report measurements of teleseismic shear wave splitting in the Galápagos Archipelago. The inferred lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy allow us to examine the dynamics of an evolving hotspot-ridge system. The data are from SKS and SKKS phases, as well as S waves from deep sources, recorded by a relatively dense network of 10 portable broadband seismometers deployed from 1999 to 2003 for the IGUANA (Imaging Galápagos Upwelling and Neotectonics of the Archipelago) experiment and from the GSN broadband station in Santa Cruz (PAYG). We find a delay time between fast and slow shear waves of 0.4 to 0.9 s and fast polarization directions of N85-90° E beneath five stations at the leading and southern edge of the archipelago. Despite clear seismic signals, we did not find any anisotropy at the six stations located in the interior of the archipelago. For those stations that show shear wave splitting, there is an increase in the delay time toward the expected location of the Galápagos hotspot at the western edge of the archipelago. With the exception of Española, fast polarization directions (N85-90° E) are close to the current direction of absolute plate motion of the overlying Nazca plate (N91° E). The lack of azimuthal anisotropy in the interior of the archipelago is interpreted as an absence of strongly oriented mantle fabric beneath these stations. The apparent isotropy in this dynamic region, where we expect considerable mantle strain, is surprising. It is not likely that the olivine a-axis is oriented vertically beneath the interior of the archipelago as the Galápagos plume is thought to lie at the western edge. It is also unlikely that there are two layers of perpendicularly-oriented anisotropy which are solely confined to the center of the archipelago. However, there appears to be some correlation between the region of apparent isotropy and a zone of anomalously low upper mantle velocities imaged beneath Santiago and Marchena from surface waves by

  14. Molecules to Materials for PEC Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, N. R.; Ruddy, D. A.; Lee, K.; Seabold, J. A.; Deutsch, T. G.; Dukovic, G.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in heterogeneous catalysis are driven by the formation of structure-property relationships at solid-liquid and solid-gaseous interfaces. The establishment of these relationships relies on cooperative research efforts on several fronts: prediction and analysis using high-level theoretical models, the development of new synthetic methods to prepare specific solid-state compositions and structures, new analytical methods to identify the active site and define interfacial properties, and mechanistic analysis of functioning catalysts. However, customized materials that allow for fine control of the interfacial properties at solid-liquid boundaries represent difficult synthetic targets. We have been investigating molecular synthons as precursors to advanced materials to address this challenge. In this presentation, we will discuss (1) the chemistry of molecular inorganic complexes, (2) their conversion to mixed-metal oxides, and (3) structure-property relationships of the resulting oxides relevant to PEC water splitting.

  15. Turn over split fascial flap - a refinement for resurfacing shin defect

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Visweswar; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Chaudhuri, Gaurab R; Barooah, Partha S; SK, Tripathi; Birendra, Rana; Bhattacharya, Siddhartha; Deka, Dhruva J

    2012-01-01

    Moderate size defects of the shin of tibia are frequently encountered following trauma and infection. They may be associated with or without a fracture. Such defects require resurfacing by a flap. Many different types of flaps have been described but most of them proved to be more bulky than desired. Although these procedures cover the defects successfully the results they produce are not aesthetically appropriate. The flap looks bulkier because the native subcutaneous tissue is thin over the shin and distal leg. Hence a search for a vascularized tissue of minimal bulk for suitable resurfacing was initiated. A turnover fascial flap fulfilled the requirement. Such a flap can be made thinner by splitting its distal part into two layers while maintaining a common vascular fascial pedicle with both the layers of the fascia. This allowed a larger surface area to be covered. Such refinement is based on the following parameters (a) fresh cadaveric dissection, (b) demonstration of live microcirculation individually in the superficial and deep layers of the deep fascia and (c) intraoperative flourescein study of the split fascial flap. The technique has been used in 5 cases over the upper and middle third of the shin of tibia. The split fascial flap was turned over and inset in the defect and covered with a split skin graft. The donor site was primarily closed. The functional and aesthetic results were highly satisfactory. The follow up of 18 months proved the durability and usefulness of the flap. PMID:23071906

  16. Split-Doa10: a naturally split polytopic eukaryotic membrane protein generated by fission of a nuclear gene.

    PubMed

    Stuerner, Elisabeth; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Hochstrasser, Mark; Kreft, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    Large polytopic membrane proteins often derive from duplication and fusion of genes for smaller proteins. The reverse process, splitting of a membrane protein by gene fission, is rare and has been studied mainly with artificially split proteins. Fragments of a split membrane protein may associate and reconstitute the function of the larger protein. Most examples of naturally split membrane proteins are from bacteria or eukaryotic organelles, and their exact history is usually poorly understood. Here, we describe a nuclear-encoded split membrane protein, split-Doa10, in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In most species, Doa10 is encoded as a single polypeptide with 12-16 transmembrane helices (TMs), but split-KlDoa10 is encoded as two fragments, with the split occurring between TM2 and TM3. The two fragments assemble into an active ubiquitin-protein ligase. The K. lactis DOA10 locus has two ORFs separated by a 508-bp intervening sequence (IVS). A promoter within the IVS drives expression of the C-terminal KlDoa10 fragment. At least four additional Kluyveromyces species contain an IVS in the DOA10 locus, in contrast to even closely related genera, allowing dating of the fission event to the base of the genus. The upstream Kluyveromyces Doa10 fragment with its N-terminal RING-CH and two TMs resembles many metazoan MARCH (Membrane-Associated RING-CH) and related viral RING-CH proteins, suggesting that gene splitting may have contributed to MARCH enzyme diversification. Split-Doa10 is the first unequivocal case of a split membrane protein where fission occurred in a nuclear-encoded gene. Such a split may allow divergent functions for the individual protein segments. PMID:23071509

  17. Shear Wave Splitting Inversion in a Complex Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Shear wave splitting (SWS) inversion presents a method whereby the upper crust can be interrogated for fracture density. It is caused when a shear wave traverses an area of anisotropy, splits in two, with each wave experiencing a different velocity resulting in an observable separation in arrival times. A SWS observation consists of the first arrival polarization direction and the time delay. Given the large amount of data common in SWS studies, manual inspection for polarization and time delay is considered prohibitively time intensive. All automated techniques used can produce high amounts of observations falsely interpreted as SWS. Thus introducing error into the interpretation. The technique often used for removing these false observations is to manually inspect all SWS observations defined as high quality by the automated routine, and remove false identifications. We investigate the nature of events falsely identified compared to those correctly identified. Once this identification is complete we conduct a inversion for crack density from SWS time delay. The current body of work on linear SWS inversion utilizes an equation that defines the time delay between arriving shear waves with respect to fracture density. This equation makes the assumption that no fluid flow occurs as a result of the passing shear wave, a situation called squirt flow. We show that the assumption is not applicable in all geological situations. When it is not true, its use in an inversion produces a result which is negatively affected by the assumptions. This is shown to be the case at the test case of 6894 SWS observations gathered in a small area at Puna geothermal field, Hawaii. To rectify this situation, a series of new time delay formulae, applicable to linear inversion, are derived from velocity equations presented in literature. The new formula use a 'fluid influence parameter' which indicates the degree to which squirt flow is influencing the SWS. It is found that accounting for

  18. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    New ESO Observations of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 A few months ago, Periodic Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 underwent a dramatic and completely unexpected, thousand-fold brightening. At that time, the cause for this interesting event was unknown. However, observations with the two largest ESO telescopes have now shown that the ``dirty snowball'' nucleus of this comet has recently split into at least four individual pieces [1]. There is little doubt that the outburst and the splitting event(s) are closely related and that the greatly increased dust and gas production is due to ``fresh'' material of the icy cometary nucleus becoming exposed to the surrounding space for the first time. A Comet with a Troubled History Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 was discovered on May 2, 1930, on a photographic plate obtained at the Hamburg Observatory (Germany) by two astronomers at this institution, Arnold Schwassmann and Arthur Arno Wachmann. The subsequent observations showed that the comet moved in an elliptical orbit with a revolution period of somewhat more than 5 years. Great efforts were expended to observe the comet during the next returns, but it was not recovered until nearly 50 years and eight revolutions later, when its faint image was found of a plate obtained in August 1979 with a telescope at the Perth Observatory in Western Australia. It was missed in 1984, but was sighted again in 1989 and most recently in 1994. Thus this comet has only been observed during four out of thirteen approaches since 1930. While this may be partly due to a less advantageous location in the sky at some returns, it is also a strong indication that the comet behaves unpredictably and must have a quite variable brightness. For the sake of convenience this comet is often referred to as ``SW-3'' by professional astronomers. Recent orbital calculations have shown that it was inserted into the present, short-period orbit by the strong gravitational pull of Jupiter during several, relatively close

  19. Prevalence and treatment of personality disorders in Dutch forensic mental health services.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Corine; Trestman, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    Offenders with serious personality disorders challenge forensic systems throughout the world. In this article, the authors describe the legal system that shapes the forensic treatment of personality-disordered offenders in the Dutch psychiatric and correctional systems. The evolution of laws and regulations are addressed, as is the bifurcation of treatment between forensic hospitals and correctional settings. Prevalence data of personality disorders in the Dutch systems are presented, and comparisons between the Dutch and American systems are delineated. Current treatment modalities are described. Research initiatives and future directions for the system are presented. PMID:17389350

  20. Semi-automatic coding with ICPC: the Thesaurus, the algorithm and the Dutch subtitles.

    PubMed

    Gebel, R S

    1997-01-01

    In the ICPC Thesaurus Project, which ran from 1990 to 1992, the Dutch translation of the English version of the ICPC-components 1 and 7 was made available for automated coding by structuring and improving the thesaurus and by developing an algorithm for selecting possible ICPC-codes from a set of medical terms given as input to the program. The thesaurus and algorithm are available to the developers of GP information systems and are at present incorporated in all Dutch GP-systems. This paper brings you up to date with the semi-automatic coding system and the so called Dutch subtitles, an extension to the ICPC. PMID:10179584

  1. Native dialect influences second-language vowel perception: Peruvian versus Iberian Spanish learners of Dutch.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Peruvian Spanish (PS) and Iberian Spanish (IS) learners were tested on their ability to categorically discriminate and identify Dutch vowels. It was predicted that the acoustic differences between the vowel productions of the two dialects, which compare differently to Dutch vowels, would manifest in differential L2 perception for listeners of these two dialects. The results show that although PS learners had higher general L2 proficiency, IS learners were more accurate at discriminating all five contrasts and at identifying six of the L2 Dutch vowels. These findings confirm that acoustic differences in native vowel production lead to differential L2 vowel perception. PMID:22559460

  2. Splitting of a turbulent puff in pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Masaki; Manneville, Paul; Duguet, Yohann; Kawahara, Genta

    2014-12-01

    The transition to turbulence of the flow in a pipe of constant radius is numerically studied over a range of Reynolds numbers where turbulence begins to expand by puff splitting. We first focus on the case \\operatorname{Re}=2300 where splitting occurs as discrete events. Around this value only long-lived pseudo-equilibrium puffs can be observed in practice, as typical splitting times become very long. When \\operatorname{Re} is further increased, the flow enters a more continuous puff splitting regime where turbulence spreads faster. Puff splitting presents itself as a two-step stochastic process. A splitting puff first emits a chaotic pseudopod made of azimuthally localized streaky structures at the downstream (leading) laminar-turbulent interface. This structure can later expand azimuthally as it detaches from the parent puff. Detachment results from a collapse of turbulence over the whole cross-section of the pipe. Once the process is achieved a new puff is born ahead. Large-deviation consequences of elementary stochastic processes at the scale of the streak are invoked to explain the statistical nature of splitting and the Poisson-like distributions of splitting times reported by Avila et al (2011 Science 333 192-6).

  3. Preliminary Studies on Rain-Related Splitting of Blueberry Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant problem facing blueberry growers in the southeastern United States is rain-related fruit splitting. The occurrence of fruit splitting is most prevalent after a period of drought followed by intense rain. A 2003 survey of blueberry growers from the Gulf South region showed that a prof...

  4. Technical Note: Watershed strategy for oceanic mesoscale eddy splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. Y.; Sun, L.

    2014-06-01

    To identify oceanic mononuclear mesoscale eddies, a threshold-free splitting method was developed based on the watershed. Because oceanic eddies are similar to plateaus and basins in the map of the sea level anomaly (SLA) data, the natural divisions of the basins are the watersheds between them. The splitting algorithm is based on identifying these watersheds by finding the path of steepest descent. Compared to previous splitting methods, the proposed splitting algorithm has some advantages. First, there are no artificial parameters. Second, the algorithm is robust; the splitting strategy is independent of the algorithm and procedure and automatically guarantees that the split mononuclear eddies are simply-connected pixel sets. Third, the new method is very fast, and the time complexity is O(N), where N is the number of multinuclear eddy pixels; each pixel is scanned only once for splitting, regardless of how many extremes there are. Fourth, the algorithm is independent of parameters; the strategy can potentially be applied to any possible physical parameters (e.g., SLA, geostrophic potential vorticity, Okubo-Weiss parameter, etc.). Besides, the present strategy can also be applied to automatic identification of troughs and ridges from weather charts. Because this general method can be applied to a variety of eddy parameter fields, we denoted it the Universal Splitting Technology for Circulations (USTC) method.

  5. Technical Note: Watershed strategy for oceanic mesoscale eddy splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. Y.; Sun, L.

    2015-03-01

    To identify oceanic mononuclear mesoscale eddies, a threshold-free splitting method was developed based on the watershed. Because oceanic eddies are similar to plateaus and basins in the map of the sea level anomaly (SLA) data, the natural divisions of the basins are the watersheds between them. The splitting algorithm is based on identifying these watersheds by finding the path of steepest descent. Compared to previous splitting methods, the proposed splitting algorithm has some advantages. First, there are no artificial parameters. Second, the algorithm is robust; the splitting strategy is independent of the algorithm and procedure and automatically guarantees that the split mononuclear eddies are simply connected pixel sets. Third, the new method is very fast, and the time complexity is O(N), where N is the number of multinuclear eddy pixels; each pixel is scanned only once for splitting, regardless of how many extremes there are. Fourth, the algorithm is independent of parameters; the strategy can potentially be applied to any possible physical parameters (e.g. SLA, geostrophic potential vorticity, Okubo-Weiss parameter). Besides, the present strategy can also be applied to automatic identification of troughs and ridges from weather charts. Because this general method can be applied to a variety of eddy parameter fields, we denoted it the Universal Splitting Technology for Circulations (USTC) method.

  6. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar...

  10. Regulation of bite force increase during splitting of food.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Krister G; Trulsson, Mats

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze how increases in the bite force, during the splitting of food morsels of different hardness, are modulated, and to evaluate the role of periodontal mechanoreceptors in this control. Fifteen subjects were instructed to hold and split food morsels of different hardness (peanuts and biscuits) between a pair of opposing central incisors before and during anesthesia of the teeth. The split occurred at an average bite force of 9 N for biscuits and at an average bite force of 18 N for peanuts. The duration of the split phase was longer, and the split force rate higher, for peanuts compared with biscuits. Furthermore, a steeper force trajectory was observed for the peanut. During anesthesia of the teeth, the duration of the split phase increased and the mean split force rate decreased for peanuts. Force trajectories for peanuts and biscuits were indistinguishable during anesthesia. The present results show that when higher bite forces are needed to split a morsel, both the duration and the rate of the bite force produced is increased. Furthermore, adaptation of the bite force rate to the hardness of the food is dependent on information from periodontal mechanoreceptors. PMID:20121934

  11. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Split-dollar loans. 1.7872-15 Section 1.7872-15 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-15 Split-dollar loans. (a) General...

  12. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Split-dollar loans. 1.7872-15 Section 1.7872-15 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-15 Split-dollar loans. (a) General...

  13. LOOKING SOUTHEAST UP STAIRS TO LANDING THAT SPLITS TO GO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING SOUTHEAST UP STAIRS TO LANDING THAT SPLITS TO GO DOWN TO MAIN ENTRY AND CONTINUES UP TO 2ND LANDING WHICH SPLITS TO GO TO LEFT AND RIGHT PARTS OF SECOND FLOOR - Fort Leavenworth, Building No. 436, 5 Riverside Avenue, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  14. Recent advances in semiconductors for photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Takashi; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-11-21

    Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting under irradiation by sunlight has received much attention for production of renewable hydrogen from water on a large scale. Many challenges still remain in improving energy conversion efficiency, such as utilizing longer-wavelength photons for hydrogen production, enhancing the reaction efficiency at any given wavelength, and increasing the lifetime of the semiconductor materials. This introductory review covers the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Controlling the semiconducting properties of photocatalysts and photoelectrode materials is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting, because they determine how much photoexcitation occurs in a semiconductor under solar illumination and how many photoexcited carriers reach the surface where water splitting takes place. Given a specific semiconductor material, surface modifications are important not only to activate the semiconductor for water splitting but also to facilitate charge separation and to upgrade the stability of the material under photoexcitation. In addition, reducing resistance loss and forming p-n junction have a significant impact on the efficiency of photoelectrochemical water splitting. Correct evaluation of the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting is becoming more important in enabling an accurate comparison of a number of studies based on different systems. In the latter part, recent advances in the water splitting reaction under visible light will be presented with a focus on non-oxide semiconductor materials to give an overview of the various problems and solutions. PMID:24413305

  15. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  16. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  17. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  18. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK49 Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal... elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2125 Split or broken... pass through a round opening 8/64 of an inch (3.2 mm) in diameter....

  20. Sex differences in risk taking behavior among Dutch cyclists.

    PubMed

    Cobey, Kelly D; Stulp, Gert; Laan, Freek; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research examining sex differences in risk-taking behavior focuses on overt physical risk measures in which failed risk attempts may result in serious injury or death. The present research describes sex differences in patterns of risk taking in day-to-day behavior among Dutch cyclists. Through three observational studies we test sex differences in risk taking in situations of financial risk (fines for failing to use bike lights, Study 1), theft risk (bike locking behavior, Study 2) as well as physical risk (risky maneuvers, Study 3). Results corroborate previous findings by showing that across these domains men are more inclined to take risks than women. We discuss how these findings might be used in an applied context. PMID:23674522

  1. Secondary traumatization in Dutch couples of World War II survivors.

    PubMed

    Bramsen, Inge; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Twisk, Jos W R

    2002-02-01

    This study examined whether signs of secondary traumatic stress were present in a community sample of couples who experienced World War II. The authors hypothesized that symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in either spouse may be predicted not only by his or her own war experiences but also by the war experiences and posttraumatic symptoms of the partner. Approximately 50 years after the end of World War II, 444 couples from a community sample of elderly Dutch citizens answered a questionnaire. A multilevel regression analysis was performed with symptoms of PTSD as the dependent variable. The most important predictors of PTSD symptoms were the number of war events reported by the participant and the current level of PTSD symptoms of his or her spouse. The results lend empirical support to the notion that posttraumatic stress reactions of both members of a couple are not independent from each other. Several explanations of the findings are discussed. PMID:11862996

  2. Intoxication and criminal responsibility in Dutch criminal Law.

    PubMed

    van Kalmthout, A

    1998-09-01

    This article deals with the question in how far an offence committed in the Netherlands under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be imputed to the offender. Unlike many other countries the Dutch Penal Code does not contain specific provisions with respect to the criminal liability of addicted or intoxicated offenders. In principle, they are held responsible for their offences, even when the dolus or culpa is absent at the moment they commit their offence. Doctrine and jurisprudence found this liability on the principle of 'culpa/dolus in causa', by accepting an anterior dolus or culpa, which is situated at the moment the offender takes alcohol or other drugs. As is shown in this article, the - nondogmatic - interpretation of this culpa in causa doctrine leaves hardly any space for a claim to impunity. PMID:9742271

  3. Secondary traumatization in partners and parents of Dutch peacekeeping soldiers.

    PubMed

    Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Bramsen, Inge; Adèr, Herman; van der Ploeg, Henk M

    2005-06-01

    This study examines secondary traumatization among 708 partners and 332 parents of Dutch peacekeepers (i.e., personnel who participated in military actions implemented by international organizations such as the United Nations). Partners or parents of peacekeepers with 4 levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms were compared on posttraumatic stress, health problems, the quality of the marital relationship, and social support. In comparison with partners of peacekeepers without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, partners of peacekeepers with PTSD symptoms reported more sleeping and somatic problems, reported more negative social support, and judged the marital relationship as less favorable. No significant differences were found for parents. Thus, peacekeepers' stress reactions were related to various problems of their partners. A systemic approach to the treatment of persons with PTSD appears appropriate. PMID:15982097

  4. Consumer choice in Dutch health insurance after reform.

    PubMed

    Maarse, Hans; Meulen, Ruud Ter

    2006-03-01

    This article investigates the scope and effects of enhanced consumer choice in health insurance that is presented as a cornerstone of the new health insurance legislation in the Netherlands that will come into effect in 2006. The choice for choice marks the current libertarian trend in Dutch health care policymaking. One of our conclusions is that the scope of enhanced choice should not be overstated due to many legal and non-legal restrictions to it. The consumer choice advocates have great expectations of the impact of enhanced choice. A critical analysis of its impact demonstrates that these expectations may not become true and that enhanced consumer choice should not be perceived as the 'magic bullet' for many problems in health care. PMID:17137018

  5. The Time Course of Verb Processing in Dutch Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lewis P.; Wester, Femke; Swinney, David A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    The verb has traditionally been characterized as the central element in a sentence. Nevertheless, the exact role of the verb during the actual ongoing comprehension of a sentence as it unfolds in time remains largely unknown. This paper reports the results of two Cross-Modal Lexical Priming (CMLP) experiments detailing the pattern of verb priming during on-line processing of Dutch sentences. Results are contrasted with data from a third CMLP experiment on priming of nouns in similar sentences. It is demonstrated that the meaning of a matrix verb remains active throughout the entire matrix clause, while this is not the case for the meaning of a subject head noun. Activation of the meaning of the verb only dissipates upon encountering a clear signal as to the start of a new clause. PMID:19452278

  6. Autologous and allogeneic serum eye drops. The Dutch perspective.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Korte, Dirk

    2015-08-01

    If regular artificial tears are ineffective for treatment of ocular surface disorders (including extreme dry eye syndrome), serum eye drops (SEDs) may provide a way to relieve the symptoms. However, not all patients are eligible to donate blood to produce autologous SEDs. Therefore, the use of allogeneic SEDs (obtained from voluntary blood donors) should be explored as an alternative for autologous SEDs. The Dutch blood bank organization is currently looking into the possibilities to provide allogeneic SEDs, as (GMP) regulations become stricter, making it for hospitals more difficult to provide autologous SEDs. To demonstrate effectiveness of both autologous and allogeneic SEDs, a clinical trial is planned. The current status of SEDs in The Netherlands is described. This paper is based on summary of the presentation given at the DGTI meeting in Dresden. PMID:26138910

  7. Medial transposition of split lateral rectus augmented with fixation sutures in cases of complete third nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rohit; Sharma, Medha; Singh, Digvijay; Dhiman, Rebika; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    Surgical management of complete third nerve paralysis is a challenge. While several techniques have been described over the years, they result in less than satisfactory outcomes with residual deviations in primary gaze or postoperative drifts. One of the described techniques for management of oculomotor palsy has been medial transposition of the lateral rectus muscle which provides a good surgical alternative but often can result in undercorrection. We describe a modification of the existing technique of medial transposition of the split lateral rectus by force augmentation through the use of equatorial fixation sutures resulting in an improved outcome in primary gaze alignment. The modified technique involves splitting of the lateral rectus into two halves followed by transposing the superior half from below the superior oblique and superior rectus and inferior half from below the inferior oblique and inferior rectus to attach them at the superior and inferior edge of the medial rectus insertion, respectively. This is followed by placing non-absorbable sutures to fix each split belly of the transposed muscles to the sclera at the equator adjacent to the medial rectus such that the split muscles lie nearly parallel to the medial rectus till the equator before reflecting away. These sutures augment the force of the transposed muscles by redirecting the force vectors in the direction of action of the medial rectus. Satisfactory postoperative primary gaze alignment was achieved in three cases of complete third nerve paralysis. PMID:26758537

  8. Black Pete through the Eyes of Dutch Children

    PubMed Central

    Mesman, Judi; Janssen, Sofie; van Rosmalen, Lenny

    2016-01-01

    The traditional figure of Black Pete seen during the December festivities around Sinterklaas (the Dutch Santa Claus) in the Netherlands has sparked fierce debates about his racial stereotypical characteristics and his potentially negative effects on children’s opinions about black people. The Black Pete phenomenon has even been discussed by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, resulting in a report urging the Netherlands to eliminate this form of racial stereotyping. The adult debate about Black Pete is clearly important, but Sinterklaas is essentially a children’s holiday. Surprisingly, there have never been any systematic studies to examine children’s views on Black Pete. The current study is the first to do so. In a sample of 201 children aged 5–7 years, we collected free descriptions of Black Pete, asked children to group him in relation to other figures, and to assign characteristics to him and comparison figures. The results showed that (1) Children are clearly aware of Black Pete’s skin color and subordinate status; (2) Children associate Black Pete more with clowns than with black people; (3) Children evaluate Black Pete very positively, but the positive characteristics do not generalize to their evaluation of black people. The findings illustrate the deep-rooted childhood origins of many Dutch people’s affection for Black Pete and their lack of awareness of his relation to racial stereotypes. This explains the resistance to changing the Black Pete figure and the slowness of the change process on this front. PMID:27322583

  9. [Twisting and turning; the development of the Dutch science shops].

    PubMed

    Lursen, M; Mulder, H; Lieshout, M

    2000-01-01

    The concept of science shops (Wetenschapswinkels) originates from the Netherlands. Science shops were based on the idea that universities had to play a more prominent role in the solution of social problems - an outcome of the discussion, initiated by students, on the democratisation of universities in the early 1970s. Starting as voluntary student organisations supported by individual staff members from the universities, they were devoted to give oppressed minority groups and the financially weak access to scientific research. Slowly, acknowledgement came. Science shops began to receive financial support from university boards. Support also came from the Dutch government. By now science shops have professionalized and most of them are well embedded in their universities. Many developments within society and the universities influenced the work and structure of the science shops. Positive developments were professionalization, growth, becoming embedded, and the introduction of new research themes. There were also negative developments, such as budget cuts and the fact that 'service to society' ceased to be a government objective for the universities. These led to recurring struggles for survival, which were not always won. Interest in the science shop concept has grown in other countries over the last years. In the 1980s, the system spread within Western Europe. Similar activities, based on the Dutch model, have started in North America and Eastern Europe in the 1990s. The activities on the international level led to an E.U. financial project to prepare an international network of science shops, which commenced in 1999. With information exchange and international cooperation as its major goals, the network will create new opportunties for the future. PMID:11640527

  10. Dutch translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the PROMIS® physical function item bank and cognitive pre-test in Dutch arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Patient-reported physical function is an established outcome domain in clinical studies in rheumatology. To overcome the limitations of the current generation of questionnaires, the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) project in the USA has developed calibrated item banks for measuring several domains of health status in people with a wide range of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PROMIS physical function item bank to the Dutch language and to pretest it in a sample of patients with arthritis. Methods The items of the PROMIS physical function item bank were translated using rigorous forward-backward protocols and the translated version was subsequently cognitively pretested in a sample of Dutch patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results Few issues were encountered in the forward-backward translation. Only 5 of the 124 items to be translated had to be rewritten because of culturally inappropriate content. Subsequent pretesting showed that overall, questions of the Dutch version were understood as they were intended, while only one item required rewriting. Conclusions Results suggest that the translated version of the PROMIS physical function item bank is semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original. Future work will be directed at creating a Dutch-Flemish final version of the item bank to be used in research with Dutch speaking populations. PMID:22390734

  11. Adiabaticity and spectral splits in collective neutrino transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2007-12-15

    Neutrinos streaming off a supernova core transform collectively by neutrino-neutrino interactions, leading to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} divides the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. We present a detailed description of the spectral-split phenomenon which is conceptually and quantitatively understood in an adiabatic treatment of neutrino-neutrino effects. Central to this theory is a self-consistency condition in the form of two sum rules (integrals over the neutrino spectra that must equal certain conserved quantities). We provide explicit analytic and numerical solutions for various neutrino spectra. We introduce the concept of the adiabatic reference frame and elaborate on the relative adiabatic evolution. Violating adiabaticity leads to the spectral split being 'washed out'. The sharpness of the split appears to be represented by a surprisingly universal function.

  12. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    PubMed

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. PMID:21627628

  13. Does Media Use Result in More Active Communicators? Differences Between Native Dutch and Turkish-Dutch Patients in Information-Seeking Behavior and Participation During Consultations With General Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Sanne; Van Weert, Julia C M; Kester, Jorrit A M; Smit, Edith G; Schouten, Barbara C

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates differences between native Dutch and Turkish-Dutch patients with respect to media usage before and patient participation during medical consultations with general practitioners. In addition, the authors assessed the relation between patient participation and communication outcomes. The patients were recruited in the waiting rooms of general practitioners, and 191 patients (117 native Dutch, 74 Turkish-Dutch) completed pre- and postconsultation questionnaires. Of this sample, 120 patients (62.8%; 82 native Dutch, 38 Turkish-Dutch) agreed to have their consultations recorded to measure patient participation. Compared with Turkish-Dutch patients of similar educational levels, results showed that native Dutch patients used different media to search for information, participated to a greater extent during their consultations and were more responsive to their general practitioner. With respect to the Turkish-Dutch patients, media usage was related to increased patient participation, which was correlated with having fewer unfulfilled information needs; however, these relations were not found in the native Dutch patient sample. In conclusion, interventions that enhance participation among ethnic minority patients will better fulfill informational needs when such interventions stimulate information-seeking behavior in that group before a medical consultation. PMID:26073918

  14. Detection of elliptical polarization and mode splitting in discrete Schumann resonance excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, D. D.

    1989-01-01

    Elliptical polarization and mode splitting have been detected in the magnetic component of discrete, well defined Schumann resonance excitations. These ELF excitations, which are large electromagnetic transients of approximately 1 s duration, are called Q-bursts and typically occur every few minutes. They are believed to be the signature of the impulsive excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity by ultra-large lightning currents. In this paper the magnetic polarization and spectral characteristics of four large Q-bursts are examined in detail using a new analysis technique. Two events display right-hand polarization and two display left-hand polarization. The theoretical polarization properties of the central and side multiplets of the Schumann resonances are used to define a local orthogonal coordinate system in the measurement frame in which these components may be separated. Maximum entropy spectrums computed separately for what are identified to be the central and side multiplets in this coordinate system show distinctly different eigenfrequencies for the lowest mode near 7.5 Hz. For the limited number of cases examined the magnitude of the line splitting detected using this technique is roughly 1.4-1.8 Hz, larger by nearly a factor of two than theoretical or observed values of the splitting previously reported. The frequencies of the side multiplets may lie either above or below the frequency of the central multiplet.

  15. A New Approach to Reduce Number of Split Fields in Large Field IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chen-Chiao; Wu, Andrew; Garg, Madhur; Mutyala, Subhakar; Kalnicki, Shalom; Sayed, Gary; Mah, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been applied for treatments of primary head with neck nodes, lung with supraclavicular nodes, and high-risk prostate cancer with pelvis wall nodes, all of which require large fields. However, the design of the Varian multileaf collimator requires fields >14 cm in width to be split into 2 or more carriage movements. With the split-field technique, both the number of monitor units (MUs) and total treatment time are significantly increased. Although many different approaches have been investigated to reduce the MU, including introducing new leaf segmentation algorithms, none have resulted in widespread success. In addition, for most clinics, writing such algorithms is not a feasible solution, particularly with commercial treatment planning systems. We introduce a new approach that can minimize the number of split fields and reduce the total MUs, thereby reducing treatment time. The technique is demonstrated on the Eclipse planning system V7.3, but could be generalized to any other system.

  16. Evaluation of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with and without midpalatal split.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, L F M; Pinzan-Vercelino, C R M; Gurgel, J A; Carvalho, P S P

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and the patients' subjective symptomatology between surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) with midpalatal split and SARME without midpalatal split. The sample consisted of 24 consecutive adult patients requiring treatment with SARME, who were divided into two groups. Group 1 patients (n=14) underwent SARME with midpalatal split, and group 2 patients (n=10) underwent SARME without midpalatal separation. The efficacy of the technique was assessed in relation to the presence of a diastema between the upper incisors and radiographic evidence of separation of the maxillary bones in the midpalatal suture. The patients' symptomatology was evaluated using pain scores. The results demonstrated a greater efficacy for group 1 (P=0.00). The discomfort of surgery assessed immediately postoperative and at 14 days postoperative was similar in the two groups. Both surgical techniques were tolerated by the patients; the midpalatal separation did not influence patient discomfort due to surgery. The two groups showed a statistically significant difference regarding discomfort during appliance activation and pain during the postoperative phase, with group 2 showing greater discomfort. PMID:27026057

  17. Magnetic Splitting of Molecular Lines in Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Frutiger, C.; Solanki, S. K.

    A study of molecular lines in sunspots is of particular interest because of their high temperature and pressure sensitivity. Many of them are also magnetically sensitive, but this was not yet widely investigated. With high-resolution, high signal-to-noise Fourier spectroscopy in four Stokes parameters now available, the use of molecular lines for studying the structure of sunspots brings real gains. One is the extension of spot models, including magnetic field, up to layers, where atomic lines suffer from NLTE effects but molecules can still be treated in the LTE approximation. Equally important is the fact that since molecular lines are extremely temperature sensitive they can be used to probe the thermal and magnetic structure of the coolest parts of sunspots. We present calculations of splitting and the Stokes parameters for a number of molecular lines in the visible and near-infrared regions. Our first selections are the green system of MgH A2Π-X2σ and the TiO triplet α, γ' and γ systems as the most studied band systems in the sunspot spectrum. The calculations involve different regimes of the molecular Zeeman effect, up to the complete Paschen-Back effect for individual lines. We look for molecular lines which can be used along with atomic lines to derive magnetic, thermal and dynamic properties of the umbra.

  18. Descent Assisted Split Habitat Lunar Lander Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Descent Assisted Split Habitat (DASH) lunar lander concept utilizes a disposable braking stage for descent and a minimally sized pressurized volume for crew transport to and from the lunar surface. The lander can also be configured to perform autonomous cargo missions. Although a braking-stage approach represents a significantly different operational concept compared with a traditional two-stage lander, the DASH lander offers many important benefits. These benefits include improved crew egress/ingress and large-cargo unloading; excellent surface visibility during landing; elimination of the need for deep-throttling descent engines; potentially reduced plume-surface interactions and lower vertical touchdown velocity; and reduced lander gross mass through efficient mass staging and volume segmentation. This paper documents the conceptual study on various aspects of the design, including development of sortie and outpost lander configurations and a mission concept of operations; the initial descent trajectory design; the initial spacecraft sizing estimates and subsystem design; and the identification of technology needs

  19. Open-split interface for mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Diehl, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An open-split interface includes a connector body having four leg members projecting therefrom within a single plane, the first and third legs being coaxial and the second and fourth legs being coaxial. A tubular aperture extends through the first and third legs and a second tubular aperture extends through the second and fourth legs, connecting at a juncture within the center of the connector body. A fifth leg projects from the connector body and has a third tubular aperture extending therethrough to the juncture of the first and second tubular apertures. A capillary column extends from a gas chromatograph into the third leg with its end adjacent the juncture. A flow restrictor tube extends from a mass spectrometer through the first tubular aperture in the first and third legs and into the capillary columnm end, so as to project beyond the end of the third leg within the capillary column. An annular gap between the tube and column allows excess effluent to pass to the juncture. A pair of short capillary columns extend from separate detectors into the second tubular aperture in the second and fourth legs, and are oriented with their ends spaced slightly from the first capillary column end. A sweep flow tube is mounted in the fifth leg so as to supply a helium sweep flow to the juncture.

  20. Solar photochemical and thermochemical splitting of water.

    PubMed

    Rao, C N R; Lingampalli, S R; Dey, Sunita; Roy, Anand

    2016-02-28

    Artificial photosynthesis to carry out both the oxidation and the reduction of water has emerged to be an exciting area of research. It has been possible to photochemically generate oxygen by using a scheme similar to the Z-scheme, by using suitable catalysts in place of water-oxidation catalyst in the Z-scheme in natural photosynthesis. The best oxidation catalysts are found to be Co and Mn oxides with the e(1) g configuration. The more important aspects investigated pertain to the visible-light-induced generation of hydrogen by using semiconductor heterostructures of the type ZnO/Pt/Cd1-xZnxS and dye-sensitized semiconductors. In the case of heterostructures, good yields of H2 have been obtained. Modifications of the heterostructures, wherein Pt is replaced by NiO, and the oxide is substituted with different anions are discussed. MoS2 and MoSe2 in the 1T form yield high quantities of H2 when sensitized by Eosin Y. Two-step thermochemical splitting of H2O using metal oxide redox pairs provides a strategy to produce H2 and CO. Performance of the Ln0.5A0.5MnO3 (Ln = rare earth ion, A = Ca, Sr) family of perovskites is found to be promising in this context. The best results to date are found with Y0.5Sr0.5MnO3. PMID:26755752