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Sample records for dy tb gd

  1. Complex magnetism of Ho-Dy-Y-Gd-Tb hexagonal high-entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lužnik, J.; Koželj, P.; Vrtnik, S.; Jelen, A.; Jagličić, Z.; Meden, A.; Feuerbacher, M.; Dolinšek, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth based equimolar Ho-Dy-Y-Gd-Tb hexagonal high-entropy alloy (HEA) is a prototype of an ideal HEA, stabilized by the entropy of mixing at any temperature with random mixing of elements on the hexagonal close-packed lattice. In order to determine intrinsic properties of an ideal HEA characterized by the enormous chemical (substitutional) disorder on a weakly distorted simple lattice, we have performed measurements of its magnetic and electrical response and the specific heat. The results show that the Ho-Dy-Y-Gd-Tb hexagonal HEA exhibits a rich and complex magnetic field-temperature (H ,T ) phase diagram, as a result of competition among the periodic potential arising from the electronic band structure that favors periodic magnetic ordering, the disorder-induced local random potential that favors spin glass-type spin freezing in random directions, the Zeeman interaction with the external field that favors spin alignment along the field direction, and the thermal agitation that opposes any spin ordering. Three characteristic temperature regions were identified in the (H ,T ) phase diagram between room temperature and 2 K. Within the upper temperature region I (roughly between 300 and 75 K), thermal fluctuations average out the effect of local random pinning potential and the spin system behaves as a pure system of compositionally averaged spins, undergoing a thermodynamic phase transition to a long-range ordered helical antiferromagnetic state at the Néel temperature TN=180 K that is a compositional average of the Néel temperatures of pure Tb, Dy, and Ho metals. Region II (between 75 and 20 K) is an intermediate region where the long-range periodic spin order "melts" and the random ordering of spins in the local random potential starts to prevail. Within the low-temperature region III (below 20 K), the spins gradually freeze in a spin glass configuration. The spin glass phase appears to be specific to the rare earths containing hexagonal HEAs, sharing properties of site-disordered spin glasses and geometrically frustrated (site-ordered) spin systems, as a consequence of strongly interacting large abundant spins of four magnitudes (those of Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho) on the hexagonal lattice, being weakly diluted by nonmagnetic yttrium atoms.

  2. Temperature dependent EUV spectra of Gd, Tb and Dy ions observed in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, C.; Koike, F.; Murakami, I.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.

    2015-07-01

    We have observed a number of different types of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from highly charged gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb) and dysprosium (Dy) ions in optically thin plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. Temporal changes in EUV spectra in the 6-9 nm region subsequent to the injections of solid pellets were measured by a grazing incidence spectrometer. The spectra rapidly change from discrete features into unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) following a drop in the electron temperature after the heating power is reduced. In particular, extremely narrowed UTA features, which comprise spectral lines of Ag-like, Pd-like and neighboring ion stages, are observed when the peak electron temperature is less than 0.45 keV due to the formation of hollow plasmas. Some discrete spectral lines of Cu-like and Ag-like ions have been identified in the high and low temperature plasmas, respectively, some of which are experimentally identified for the first time.

  3. VUV-UV luminescence of Ce3+, Tb3+, Eu3+, and Dy3+ doped GdOCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Pan, Yan; Chen, Hongmei; Tao, Ye

    2015-12-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic properties of GdOCl:Re3+ (Re3+ = Ce3+, Tb3+, Eu3+, and Dy3+) are investigated in detail for the first time. The host absorption band is determined to be around 179 nm, and the f-d transition bands as well as the charge transfer bands are assigned. Upon 179 nm excitation, Re3+ (Re3+ = Ce3+, Tb3+, Eu3+, Dy3+) ions shown their characteristic emissions. Energy transfers from Gd3+ to Re3+ ion were observed. A broad band ranging from 350 to 400 nm corresponding to the d-f transition of Ce3+ is observed. Eu3+ has typical red emission with the strongest peak at 620 nm; Tb3+ shows characteristic transition of 5D3,4 ? 7Fj, and its spin-forbidden and spin-allowed f-d transitions in VUV region are calculated with Dorenbos' equations, these calculated values agree well with the experimental results. Dy3+ presents yellow emission (4F9/2 ? 6H13/2) with the strongest peak at 573 nm.

  4. Study of electric quadrupole interactions at 111Cd on Zn sites in RZn (R = Ce, Gd, Tb, Dy) compounds using the PAC spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Santos, Brianna; Carbonari, Artur W.; Cabrera-Pasca, Gabriel A.; Costa, Messias S.; Saxena, Rajendra N.

    2013-05-01

    Nuclear quadrupole interactions at Zn sites in the intermetallic compounds RZn (R = Ce, Gd, Tb, Dy) have been investigated by perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using 111In(111Cd) as probe nuclei. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 10-295 K. These compounds exhibit CsCl type cubic structure and while CeZn shows antiferromagnetic behaviour, the compounds GdZn, TbZn, DyZn are ferromagnetic. The results show that the EFG in these compounds is sensitive to the distribution of rare-earth 4f-electron charges.

  5. Single Crystal Measurements of Anisotropy Constants of R2Fe14B (R=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirosawa, Satoshi; Matsuura, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Fujimura, Setsuo; Sagawa, Masato; Yamauchi, Hiroshi

    1985-10-01

    The first order anisotropy constants Ku1 of the recently found tetragonal rare earth-iron borides R2Fe14B (P42/mnm) have been measured for R=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho in a magnetic field up to 1600 kA/m from 4.2 K to about 600 K on single crystal samples.

  6. Pechini synthesis of lanthanide (Eu3+/Tb3+or Dy3+) ions activated BaGd2O4 nanostructured phosphors: an approach for tunable emissions.

    PubMed

    Seeta Rama Raju, G; Pavitra, E; Yu, Jae Su

    2014-09-14

    Trivalent lanthanide (Eu(3+), Tb(3+) and Dy(3+)) ions activated tunable color emitting BaGd2O4 (BG) phosphors were synthesized by a facile Pechini-type sol-gel process. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the orthorhombic phase after annealing at 1300 C for 5 h. Morphological studies were performed based on the analysis of transmission electron microscopy images, which showed needle type nanorods. The BG phosphor exhibited good photoluminescence (PL) properties in the respective regions when doped with Eu(3+), Tb(3+) and Dy(3+) ions. The Eu(3+) co-activated BG:Tb(3+) phosphor yielded tunable emissions including tri-band established white light emission based on the co-activator concentration and excitation wavelength. The energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) ions was controlled by selecting a suitable excitation wavelength and the decay measurements were carried out for analyzing the energy transfer efficiency. The cathodoluminescence properties of these phosphors were almost similar to PL properties when doped with individual Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Dy(3+) ions, but were different when co-doped with Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) or Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) ions. In the case of Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) doped samples, the energy transfer process occurred unlike the PL channel. The calculated Commission International de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of individual ion doped BG phosphors confirmed red, green, and white emissions and for co-doped samples they showed tunable emission. PMID:25052006

  7. Anomalous pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in Tb revealed by resistivity measurements to 141 GPa. Comparison with Gd and Dy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-05-26

    In previous studies the pressure dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature To of Dy was found to exhibit a sharp increase above its volume collapse pressure of 73 GPa, appearing to reach temperatures well above ambient at 157 GPa. In a search for a second such lanthanide, electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on neighboring Tb to 141 GPa over the temperature range 3.8 - 295 K. Below Tb’s volume collapse pressure of 53 GPa, the pressure dependence To(P) mirrors that of both Dy and Gd. However, at higher pressures To(P) for Tb becomes highly anomalous. This result, together withmore » the very strong suppression of superconductivity by dilute Tb ions in Y, suggests that extreme pressure transports Tb into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature.« less

  8. Anomalous pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in Tb revealed by resistivity measurements to 141 GPa. Comparison with Gd and Dy

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-05-26

    In previous studies the pressure dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature To of Dy was found to exhibit a sharp increase above its volume collapse pressure of 73 GPa, appearing to reach temperatures well above ambient at 157 GPa. In a search for a second such lanthanide, electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on neighboring Tb to 141 GPa over the temperature range 3.8 - 295 K. Below Tb’s volume collapse pressure of 53 GPa, the pressure dependence To(P) mirrors that of both Dy and Gd. However, at higher pressures To(P) for Tb becomes highly anomalous. This result, together with the very strong suppression of superconductivity by dilute Tb ions in Y, suggests that extreme pressure transports Tb into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature.

  9. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of Dy?Co?L??(bipy)? and Ln?Ni?L??(bipy)?, Ln = La, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho: slow magnetic relaxation in Dy?Co?L??(bipy)? and Dy?Ni?L??(bipy)?.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Hua; Li, Hui; Che, Yun-Xia; Zheng, Ji-Min; Vieru, Veacheslav; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J

    2014-09-15

    The 3,5-dichlorobenzoate anion, L(-), serves as a bridging ligand and 2,2'-bipyridine, bipy, as a terminal bidentate ligand to yield, through hydrothermal syntheses, the tetranuclear clusters Dy2Co2L10(bipy)2, 1, and Ln2Ni2L10(bipy)2, where Ln is the trivalent La, 2, Gd, 3, Tb, 4, Dy, 5, or Ho, 6, ion. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the six complexes are all isomorphous with the monoclinic P2?/c space group and with lattice parameters that decrease with the lanthanide contraction. The two cobalt(II) or nickel(II) and two Ln(III) cations are linked by the 10 L(-) anions to generate Dy2Co2 or Ln2Ni2 3d-4f cationic heteronuclear clusters with a slightly bent CoDyDyCo or NiLnLnNi arrangement. Direct current magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that the complexes are essentially paramagnetic, with room-temperature ?(M)T values close to the expected values for two cobalt(II) or nickel(II) and two Ln(III) cations. The temperature dependence of ?(M)T for 1 and 5 is well reproduced by ab initio calculations with the inclusion of weak magnetic exchange between the cobalt(II) or nickel(II) and a dysprosium(III) and between two dysprosium(III) ions. The calculated magnetic exchange parameters are J(Dy-Co) = 0.2 cm(-1) and J(Dy-Dy) = 0.02 cm(-1) for 1 and J(Dy-Ni) = -0.2 cm(-1) and J(Dy-Dy) = 0.03 cm(-1) for 5. Alternating current magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that 1 and 5 exhibit slow magnetic relaxation with effective energy barriers, Ueff, for the reversal of the magnetization for 1 of 82(2) cm(-1) in a 0 Oe dc bias field and 79.4(5) cm(-1) in a 1000 Oe dc bias field and, for 5, 73(1) cm(-1) in a 0 dc bias field; the calculated energies of 66.1(1) and 61.0(1) cm(-1) for the first excited spin-orbit state of dysprosium(III) in 1 and 5 agree rather well with these effective energy barriers. The entire Arrhenius plots of the logarithm of ?, the relaxation rate of the magnetization in 1 and 5, have been fit with contributions from quantum tunneling, direct Raman scattering, and Orbach thermal processes. The observation of a low-temperature magnetization reversal mechanism in 5 but not in 1 may be understood through the calculated exchange energy spectrum in their ground state. PMID:25170649

  10. Synthesis, characterisation and properties of rare earth oxyselenides A4O4Se3 (A = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Y).

    PubMed

    Tuxworth, Andrew J; Wang, Chun-Hai; Evans, John S O

    2015-02-21

    Rare earth oxyselenides A4O4Se3 (A = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Y) were synthesised using solid state reactions and three new structure types (β, γ, and δ) were observed. A4O4Se3 materials adopt either the α (A = Nd, Sm), β (A = Eu), γ (A = Gd, Tb) or δ (A = Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Y) structure depending on the rare earth radius. Each structure type contains alternating [A2O2](2+) and Se(2-)/Se2(2-) layers. Different ordered and disordered arrangements of Se(2-) and [Se-Se](2-) give the Se layer flexibility and lead to the four different structure types observed. The volume coefficients of expansion for A4O4Se3 ranged from +1.746(9) × 10(-5) to +2.237(3) × 10(-5) K(-1) from 12 to 300 K; no structural phase transitions were observed in this temperature range. Diffuse reflection spectra show A4O4Se3 are semiconductors with band gap Eg 1.02-1.46 eV. Gd4O4Se3, Dy4O4Se3, and Tb4O4Se3 samples show antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature, TN, of 7-9 K. DFT calculations confirm the two different valence states of Se(2-) and Se2(2-) in Eu4O4Se3. PMID:25581725

  11. High-pressure synthesis, electrical and magnetic properties of new filled skutterudites LnOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Y)

    SciTech Connect

    Kihou, K.; Shirotani, I.; Shimaya, Y.; Sekine, C.; Yagi, T

    2004-02-02

    New filled skutteudites LnOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} (Ln: Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Y) have been prepared at high temperatures and at high pressures. X-ray diffraction of these compounds is studied at room temperature. The relationship between lattice constants and atomic numbers of lanthanide (including Y) is obtained for LnOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} (Ln: lanthanide). Electrical and magnetic properties of the new filled skutterudites with heavier lanthanide have been investigated at low temperatures. EuOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} and GdOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} show ferromagnetic transitions at around 15 and 22 K, respectively. The valence states of both compounds are +2 for the Eu compound and +3 for the Gd compound. DyOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} does not show the magnetic transition down to 2 K. However, a small electrical anomaly is found at around 10 K. YOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} exhibits a superconducting transition at around 3 K. This compound is a new superconductor. Electrical and magnetic anomalies of new filled skutterudites with heavier lanthanide LnOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} (Ln: Eu, Gd, Dy and Y) are discussed. We have also found the electrical anomaly based on the magnetic transition at around 22 K for GdFe{sub 4}P{sub 12}.

  12. Highly uniform and monodisperse GdOF:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Tb, Tm, Dy, Ho, Sm) microspheres: hydrothermal synthesis and tunable-luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Kang, Xiaojiao; Geng, Dongling; Shang, Mengmeng; Wu, Yuan; Li, Xuejiao; Lian, Hongzhou; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun

    2013-10-21

    GdOF:Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu, Tb, Tm, Dy, Ho and Sm) microspheres (1.5 ?m) with high uniformity and monodispersity have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method followed by heat treatment (600 C). X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are used to characterize the resulting samples. A series of controlled experiments indicate that sodium citrate (Cit(3-)) as a shape modifier introduced into the reaction system plays a critical role in the shape evolution of the final products. Furthermore, the shape and size of the products can be further manipulated by adjusting the dosage of Cit(3-) and pH values in the initial solution. The possible formation mechanism for these microspheres has been presented. Under UV light and low-voltage electron beam excitation, GdOF:Ln(3+) microspheres show the characteristic f-f transitions of Ln(3+) (Eu, Tb/Ho, Tm, Dy and Sm) ions and give bright red, green, blue, yellow and yellowish-orange emission, respectively. In addition, multicolored luminescence containing white emission have been successfully confected for co-doped GdOF:Ln(3+) phosphors by changing the doped Ln(3+) ions and adjusting their doping concentrations due to the simultaneous luminescence of Ln(3+) in the GdOF host, making these materials have potential applications in field-emission display devices. PMID:23942823

  13. Crystal chemistry of the orthorhombic Ln2TiO5 compounds with Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb and Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughterson, Robert D.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Thorogood, Gordon J.; Zhang, Zhaoming; Gault, Baptiste; Cairney, Julie M.

    2015-07-01

    The crystal structures of seven samples of orthorhombic (Pnma) Ln2TiO5 compounds with Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb and Dy were refined by Rietveld analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (S-XRD) data. With increasing size of the lanthanide cation, the lattice parameters increase systematically: c by only ~1.5% whereas both a and b by ~6% from Dy2TiO5 to La2TiO5. The mean Ti-O bond length only increases by ~1% with increasing radius of the Ln cation from Gd to La, primarily due to expansion of the pair of Ti-O3 bonds to opposite corners of the Ti-O5 square based pyramid polyhedra. For Dy2TiO5 and Tb2TiO5, a significant variation in Ti-O1 and Ti-O4 bond lengths results in an increased deformation of the Ti-O5 base. The particular configuration consists of large rhombic shaped tunnels and smaller triangular tunnels along the b axis, which have implications for defect formation and migration caused by radiation damage or the ionic conductivity.

  14. Local magnetic moment formation at 119Sn Mssbauer impurity in RCo2 (R=Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er) Laves phase compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, A. L.; de Oliveira, N. A.; Troper, A.

    2008-04-01

    In this work, we theoretically study the local magnetic moment formation and the systematics of the magnetic hyperfine fields at a Msbauer Sn119 impurity diluted at the R site (R=Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er) of the cubic Laves phase intermetallic compounds RCo2. One considers that the magnetic hyperfine fields have two contributions, (i) the contribution from R ions, calculated via an extended Daniel-Friedel [J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 1601 (1963)] model, and (ii) the contribution from the induced magnetic moments arising from the Co neighboring sites. Our calculated self-consistent total magnetic hyperfine fields are in a good agreement with recent experimental data.

  15. Single crystal measurements of anisotropy constants of R2Fe14B (R = Y, Ce, Pr,Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirosawa, S.; Matsuura, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Fujimura, S.; Sagawa, M.

    1983-10-01

    The first-order anisotropy constant K(ul) of the recently found tetragonal rare earth iron borides R2Fe14B have been measured for R = Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho in a magnetic field up to 1600 kA/, from 4.2 K to about 600 K on single crystal samples. Nd2Fe14B was recently identified as the major hard magnetic phase in the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnetic materials. The temperature dependence of K(ul) is reported. A peculiar thermal variation of K(ul) is found for which two alternative explanations are suggested.

  16. Electronic structures of hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, Dy, and Ho) thin films: Optical spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Dong Geun; Seo, Sung Seok A.; Moon, Soon Jae; Lee, Daesu; Lee, Jung Hyuk; Lee, Ho Sik; Cho, Deok-Yong; Lee, Yun Sang; Murugavel, Pattukkannu; Yu, Jaejun; Noh, Tae W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the electronic structure of multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, Dy, and Ho) thin films using both optical spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. One of the difficulties in explaining the electronic structures of hexagonal RMnO3 is that they exist in nature with limited rare earth ions (i.e., R=Sc , Y, and Ho-Lu), so a systematic study in terms of the different R ions has been lacking. Recently, our group succeeded in fabricating hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, and Dy) using the epitaxial stabilization technique [Adv. Mater. (Weinheim Ger.) 18, 3125 (2006)]. Using artificially stabilized hexagonal RMnO3 , we extended the optical spectroscopic studies on the hexagonal multiferroic manganite system. We observed two optical transitions located near 1.7 and 2.3eV , in addition to the predominant absorption above 5eV . With the help of first-principles calculations, we attributed the low-lying optical absorption peaks to interband transitions from the oxygen states hybridized strongly with different Mn orbital symmetries to the Mn3d3z2-r2 state. As the ionic radius of the rare earth ion increased, we observed a systematic increase of the lowest peak position, which became more evident when compared with previously reported results. We explained this systematic change in terms of a flattening of the MnO5 triangular bipyramid.

  17. Thiacalix[4]arene-supported kite-like heterometallic tetranuclear Zn(II)Ln(III)3 (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) complexes.

    PubMed

    Su, Kongzhao; Jiang, Feilong; Qian, Jinjie; Wu, Mingyan; Xiong, Kecai; Gai, Yanli; Hong, Maochun

    2013-04-01

    Four kite-like tetranuclear Zn(II)Ln(III)3 (Ln= Gd 1, Tb 2, Dy 3, Ho 4) clusters supported by p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene (H4BTC4A) have been prepared under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the structures of these four complexes, each of them is capped by two tail-to-tail p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene molecules to form a bent sandwich-like unit. The photoluminescent analyses reveal that the H4BTC4A is an efficient sensitizer for Tb(3+) ions in 2. The magnetic properties of complexes 1-4 are also investigated, in which complex 3 exhibits slow magnetization relaxation typical for single molecule magnets. PMID:23485195

  18. Face-sharing heterotrinuclear M(II)-Ln(III)-M(II) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Zn; Ln = La, Gd, Tb, Dy) complexes: synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomoka; Costes, Jean-Pierre; Kishima, Yukana; Kojima, Masaaki; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Brfuel, Nicolas; Tuchagues, Jean-Pierre; Vendier, Laure; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2010-10-18

    Trinuclear linear 3d-4f-3d complexes (3d = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and 4f = La(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) were prepared by using a tripodal nonadentate Schiff base ligand, N,N',N''-tris(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzilidene)-2-(aminomethyl)-2-methyl-1,3-propanediamine. The structural determinations showed that in these complexes two distorted trigonal prismatic transition metal complexes of identical chirality are assembled through 4f cations. The Mn and Fe entities crystallize in the chiral space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) as pure enantiomers; the cobalt complexes exhibit a less straightforward behavior. All Mn, Fe, and Co complexes experience M(II)-Ln(III) ferromagnetic interactions. The Mn-Gd interaction is weak (0.08 cm(-1)) in comparison to the Fe-Gd (0.69 cm(-1)) and Co-Gd (0.52 cm(-1)) ones while the single ion zero field splitting (ZFS) term D is larger for the Fe complexes (5.7 cm(-1)) than for the cobalt ones. The cobalt complexes behave as single-molecules magnets (SMMs) with large magnetization hysteresis loops, as a consequence of the particularly slow magnetic relaxation characterizing these trinuclear molecules. Such large hysteresis loops, which are observed for the first time in Co-Ln complexes, confirm that quantum tunnelling of the magnetization does not operate in the Co-Gd-Co complex. PMID:20446714

  19. Synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of (Y,Gd)BO3 :RE (RE = Eu(3+) , Ce(3+) , Dy(3+) and Tb(3+) ) phosphors for blue chip and near-UV white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Rangari, V V; Singh, V; Dhoble, S J

    2016-03-01

    A series of Eu(3+) -, Ce(3+) -, Dy(3+) - and Tb(3+) -doped (Y,Gd)BO3 phosphors was synthesized by a solid-state diffusion method. X-Ray diffraction confirmed their hexagonal structure and the scanning electron microscopy results showed crystalline particles. The excitation spectra revealed that (Y,Gd)BO3 phosphors doped with Eu(3+) , Ce(3+) , Dy(3+) and Tb(3+) are effectively excited with near UV-light of 395 nm/blue light, 364, 351 and 314 nm, respectively. Photoluminescence spectra of Eu(3+) -, Ce(3+) - and Tb(3+) /Dy(3+) -doped phosphor showed intense emission of reddish orange, blue and white light, respectively. The phosphor Y0.60 Gd0.38 BO3 :Ce0.02 showed CIE 1931 color coordinates of (0.158, 0.031) and better color purity compared with commercially available blue BAM:Eu(2+) phosphor. The phosphor (Y,Gd)BO3 doped with Eu(3+) , Dy(3+) and Tb(3+) showed CIE 1931 color coordinates of (0.667, 0.332), (0.251, 0.299) and (0.333, 0.391) respectively. Significant photoluminescence characteristics of the prepared phosphors indicate that they might serve as potential candidates for blue chip and near-UV white light-emitting diode applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25991566

  20. Low-temperature behavior of thermopower in rare-earth iron borides R2Fe14B (R = Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, R. P.; Braga, M. E.; Amado, M. M.; Sousa, J. B.; Buschow, K. H. J.

    1994-11-01

    Recently it was shown that the electrical resistivity behaves anomalously both at low temperatures and near the Curie point in rare-earth iron borides due to the subtle interplay between 4f and 3d transition elements. Here a systematic experimental study on the behavior of the thermoelectric power (S) of R2Fe14B compounds with heavy (r = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) and light (Nd, Sm) rare-earth elements is presented. Data for La2Fe14B, in the temperature range 10 K less than T less than 350 K, is also included for comparison. The results are consistent with the spin-mixing model for electron scattering, with an intrinsic thermopower contribution related to Fe and a spin dependent impurity scattering term related to the rare-earth magnetic ions. From the interplay of both terms we can get maxima in S (for R = Td, Dy, Ho, Er samples) or minima (Gd, Nd, Sm) at low temperatures. The data indicates the ultimate dominance of impurity scattering at low temperatures, producing a linear variation in the magnetic thermopower (S). In La2Fe14B, only the intrinsic effect is observed, and S(T) does not follow a linear temperature dependence.

  1. Ion-irradiation resistance of the orthorhombic Ln2TiO5 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughterson, Robert D.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Ionescu, Mihail; Reyes, Massey de los; Gault, Baptiste; Whittle, Karl R.; Smith, Katherine L.; Cairney, Julie M.

    2015-12-01

    The response of Ln2TiO5 (where Ln is a lanthanide) compounds exposed to high-energy ions was used to test their suitability for nuclear-based applications, under two different but complementary conditions. Eight samples with nominal stoichiometry Ln2TiO5 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy), of orthorhombic (Pnma) structure were irradiated, at various temperatures, with 1MeV Kr2+ ions in-situ within a transmission electron microscope. In each case, the fluence was increased until a phase transition from crystalline to amorphous was observed, termed critical dose Dc. At certain elevated temperatures, the crystallinity was maintained irrespective of fluence. The critical temperature for maintaining crystallinity, Tc, varied non-uniformly across the series. The Tc was consistently high for La, Pr, Nd and Sm2TiO5 before sequential improvement from Eu to Dy2TiO5 with Tc's dropping from 974K to 712K. In addition, bulk Dy2TiO5 was irradiated with 12MeV Au+ ions at 300K, 723K and 823K and monitored via grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). At 300K, only amorphisation is observed, with no transition to other structures, whilst at higher temperatures, specimens retained their original structure. The improved radiation tolerance of compounds containing smaller lanthanides has previously been attributed to their ability to form radiation-induced phase transitions. No such transitions were observed here.

  2. New Materials Derived from Ybco: CrSr2RECu2O8 (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Ho, Er, Lu).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bustos, Roco; Aguirre, Myriam H; Alario-Franco, Miguel A

    2005-05-01

    Eleven new oxides, derived from yttrium barium copper oxide by replacing the square-planar copper [Cu-O4] of the basal plane of the triple perovskite-based structure with octahedral Cr(IV), have been prepared at high pressure and temperature. Their crystal structures have been determined, and their complex microstructure has been established by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The materials have a general formula of CrSr2RECu2O8 (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Ho, Er, and Lu); they are tetragonal, show the symmetry of space group P4/mmm, and do not appear to be superconducting. PMID:15847410

  3. Tunnel-diode Resonator Spectroscopy of Quantum Levels in Cr12 Ln 4 (Ln=Y,Eu,Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Yb) Magnetic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeninas, Steven; Luban, Marshall; Prozorov, Ruslan; Coniglio, William A.; Agosta, Charles C.; Engelhardt, Larry; Timco, Grigore A.; Winnpenny, Richard E. P.

    2011-03-01

    The differential magnetic susceptibility for a series of Cr 12 Ln 4 (Ln=Y,Eu,Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Yb) magnetic molecules was measured in static (up to 16 T) and pulsed (up to 45 T) magnetic fields using a rf tunnel-diode resonator (TDR). At low temperatures, the behavior of these finite spin systems is governed by discrete energy spectra of the individual molecules. In magnetic field, low-energy quantum levels Zeeman-split, crossing at field values where magnetization exhibits a step corresponding to switching between different spin states. In high fields, we detect multiple level crossings which allow for a detailed mapping of the energy diagram. We then perform quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) using a Heisenberg Hamiltonian with three adjustable exchange constants whose values are chosen so as to optimize agreement with the experimental energy spectrum. The variations in results for the studied molecules are correlated to the magnetic properties of the lanthanide ions.

  4. Temperature dependence of the local magnetic momment at a Cd impurity diluted in RZn (R = Gd, Tb and Dy) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, A. L.; Chaves, C. M.; de Oliveira, N. A.; Troper, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we calculate the local magnetic moment and the related magnetic hyperfine field on a non-magnetic s–p (Cd) impurity diluted in RZn (R = Gd, Tb, and Dy) compounds and their temperature dependence. Both quantities have contributions from the d and f electrons of the rare Earth and from the charge difference between Zn and the impurity ions. We further adopt a functional integral approach in the static approximation to describe the d–d Coulomb interaction arising from the 5d rare Earth ions. The temperatures range from 0 {{K}} up to the critical temperatures T C of the compounds. Our self-consistent results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  5. Production cross sections of elements near the N=126 shell in Ca48-induced reactions with Gd154,Tb159,Dy162, and Ho165 targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorov, D. A.; Werke, T. A.; Alfonso, M. C.; Bennett, M. E.; Folden, C. M.

    2014-08-01

    Excitation functions for shell-stabilized evaporation residues produced in Ca48-induced reactions with Gd154,Tb159,Dy162, and Ho165 targets have been measured in experiments performed at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. The examined energy range predominantly covers the 3n and 4n evaporation channels with higher cross sections measured for the 4n products. The ?4n are nearly invariant within experimental uncertainty in reactions with Tb159,Dy162, and Ho165 with the maxima at 12.6 1.9, 12.6 1.7, and 9.4 1.3 mb, respectively. For the reaction with Gd154, the maximum is slightly lower at 4.0 0.6 mb. A simple model to describe the measured production cross sections was employed. Capture was estimated by using the "diffused barrier formula" from the "fusion by diffusion" model proposed by ?wi?tecki et al. [Phys. Rev. C 71, 014602 (2005)]., 10.1103/PhysRevC.71.014602 The fusion probability was estimated by using a phenomenological expression presented by Siwek-Wilczy?ska et al. [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 17, 12 (2008)]., 10.1142/S0218301308009501 The survival probability was calculated according to the formula of Vandenbosch and Huizenga [Nuclear Fission (Academic, New York, 1973)], derived from transition-state theory. The best agreement is reached between calculation and experiment upon inclusion of collective effects in the calculation of the survival probability, shown previously to be important for production of weakly deformed nuclei. This, in turn, challenges the expectation that strong shell stabilization benefits the production cross section. The present data are compared with earlier studies on production of neutron-deficient nuclei in Ca-induced reactions with lanthanide targets.

  6. Synthesis, structure, and magnetism of a family of heterometallic {Cu2Ln7} and {Cu4Ln12} (Ln = Gd, Tb, and Dy) complexes: the Gd analogues exhibiting a large magnetocaloric effect.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Tomasi, Corrado; Evangelisti, Marco; Brechin, Euan K; Murray, Keith S

    2014-12-15

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of two heterometallic Cu(II)-Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Gd, Tb, and Dy) families, utilizing triethanolamine and carboxylate ligands, are reported. The first structural motif displays a nonanuclear {Cu(II)2Ln(III)7} metallic core, while the second reveals a hexadecanuclear {Cu(II)4Ln(III)12} core. The differing nuclearities of the two families stem from the choice of carboxylic acid used in the synthesis. Magnetic studies show that the most impressive features are displayed by the {Cu(II)2Gd(III)7} and {Cu(II)4Gd(III)12} complexes, which display a large magnetocaloric effect, with entropy changes -?Sm = 34.6 and 33.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 2.7 and 2.9 K, respectively, for a 9 T applied field change. It is also found that the {Cu(II)4Dy(III)12} complex displays single-molecule magnet behavior, with an anisotropy barrier to magnetization reversal of 10.1 K. PMID:25494949

  7. Pechini-type sol-gel synthesis and multicolor-tunable emission properties of GdY(MoO4)3:RE3+ (RE = Eu, Dy, Sm, Tb) phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongmei; Fan, Jian; Shang, Mengmeng; Li, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

    2016-01-01

    GdY(MoO4)3:RE3+ (RE = Eu, Dy, Sm, Tb) phosphor were synthesized via a Pechini-type sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra, and decay lifetimes etc were utilized to characterize the resulting samples. After annealed at 800 °C for 4 h in air, pure GdY(MoO4)3 phase can form. When the calcination temperature is further increased to 1100 °C, the crystallinity and luminescence intensity reach the best in our experiments. Under UV light and low-voltage electron beam excitation, the GdY(MoO4)3:Eu3+, GdY(MoO4)3:Dy3+, GdY(MoO4)3:Sm3+ and GdY(MoO4)3:Tb3+ phosphors exhibit the characteristic emission of Eu3+ (5D0-7F2, red), Dy3+ (4F9/2-6H13/2, yellow), Sm3+ (4G5/2-6H7/2, orange) and Tb3+ (5D4-7F5, green) with a high color purity, respectively. The Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-doping phosphors are capable of showing color-tunable emissions in the visible region under single-wavelength excitation. The luminescence mechanism and concentration quenching effect were discussed in detail.

  8. S-shaped decanuclear heterometallic [Ni8Ln2] complexes [Ln(III) = Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho]: theoretical modeling of the magnetic properties of the gadolinium analogue.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sakiat; Das, Sourav; Chakraborty, Amit; Lloret, Francesc; Cano, Joan; Pardo, Emilio; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-07-14

    The reaction of 8-quinolinol-2-carboaldoxime (LH2) with Ni(II) and Ln(III) salts afforded the heterometallic decanuclear compounds [Ni8Dy2(?3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)6](ClO4)216H2O (1), [Ni8Gd2(?3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)4(MeOH)2](NO3)212H2O (2), [Ni8Ho2(?3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)4(MeOH)2](ClO4)22MeOH12H2O (3) and [Ni8Tb2 (?3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(MeOH)4(OMe)2]2CH2Cl28H2O (4). While compounds 1-3 are dicationic, compound 4 is neutral. These compounds possess an S-shaped architecture and comprise a long chain of metal ions bound to each other. In all the complexes, the eight Ni(II) and two Ln(III) ions of the multimetallic ensemble are hold together by two ?3-OH, eight dianionic (L(2-)) and two monoanionic oxime ligands (LH(-)) whereas compound 4 has two ?3-OH, eight dianionic (L(2-)), two monoanionic oxime ligands (LH(-)) and two terminal methoxy (MeO(-)) ligands. The central portion of the S-shaped molecular wire is made up of an octanuclear Ni(II) ensemble which has at its two ends the Ln(III) caps. Magnetic studies on 1-4 reveal that the magnetic interactions between neighboring metal ions are negligible at room temperature. On the other hand, at lower temperatures in all the compounds anti-ferromagnetic interactions seem to be dominated. Analysis of the magnetic data for the Gd(III) derivative indicates Ni(II)-Ni(II) anti-ferromagnetic interactions and Gd(III)-Ni(II) ferromagnetic interactions at low temperatures. A theoretical density functional study on the magnetic behavior of the Gd(III) derivative suggests that while the weak ferromagnetic interaction between Gd(III) and Ni(II) is in line with the expectation of the magnetic interactions between orthogonal d and f orbitals, antiferromagnetic Ni(II)-Ni(II) interactions are related to the wide Ni-O-Ni angles (?102) and quasi-planar conformation of the Ni2O2 core. PMID:24876072

  9. Magnetic hyperfine field in antiferromagnetic RGa2 (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) studied by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy using 111Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Pereira, L. F. D.; Cavalcante, J. T.; Saitovitch, H.; Carbonari, A. W.; Saxena, R. N.; Forker, M.

    2013-05-01

    The magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions of the nuclear probe Cd111 in the hexagonal antiferromagnetic rare earth-gallium RGa2 (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) intermetallic compounds have been investigated by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy as a function of temperature. With the exception of R = Nd and Ho, the magnetic hyperfine field Bhf is roughly proportional to the spin projection (g - 1)J of the R constituent. However, in the group of the light rare earths, the variation of Bhf with (g - 1)J is much weaker than that for the heavy R constituents, in contrast to the trend reported for all rare earth intermetallics investigated up to now as well as to the trend of the magnetic ordering temperatures of RGa2. The orientation of the 4f spins relative to the c axis of RGa2 deduced from the angle between Bhf and the symmetry axis of the electric field gradient was found to be temperature independent and in agreement with the results of previous magnetization measurements. Except for SmGa2 where the hyperfine field shows an abrupt decrease near TN, the temperature dependence of Bhf(T) is consistent with second order phase transitions. The magnetic ordering temperatures deduced from Bhf(T) agree with magnetization and neutron diffraction results.

  10. Pentanuclear heterometallic {Ni2Ln3} (Ln = Gd, Dy, Tb, Ho) assemblies. Single-molecule magnet behavior and multistep relaxation in the dysprosium derivative.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Bag, Prasenjit; Kroener, Wolfgang; Gieb, Klaus; Müller, Paul

    2013-11-18

    The reaction between Ln(III) chloride and NiCl2·4H2O salts in presence of a multidentate sterically unencumbered ligand, (E)-2,2'-(2-hydroxy-3-((2-hydroxyphenylimino)methyl)-5-methylbenzylazanediyl)diethanol (LH4) leads to the synthesis of four isostructural pentanuclear hetereometallic complexes [Ni2Dy3(LH)4]Cl (1), [Ni2Gd3(LH)4]Cl (2), [Ni2Tb3(LH)3(LH2)]Cl2 (3), [Ni2 Ho3 (LH)3 (LH2)]Cl2 (4) with unprecedented topology. Here the two compounds 1 are 2 are monocationic and crystallize in chiral space group, P2(1)2(1)2(1) whereas compounds 3 and 4 are dicationic and crystallize in achiral space group P2(1)/n. The total metal framework, {Ni2Ln3} unit is held by four triply deprotonated ligands [LH](3-) in 1 and 2 whereas in case of 3 and 4 three triply deprotonated [LH](3-) and one doubly deprotonated [LH2](2-) ligands are involved. In these complexes both the lanthanide ions and the nickel(II) ions are doubly bridged and the bridging is composed of oxygen atoms derived from either phenolate or ethoxide groups. The analysis of SQUID measurements reveal a high magnetic ground state and a slow relaxation of the magnetization with two relaxation regimes for 1. For the thermally activated regime we found an effective energy barrier of U(eff) = 85 K. Micro Hall probe loop measurements directly proof the single-molecule magnet (SMM) nature of 1 with a blocking temperature of T(B) = 3 K and an open hysteresis for sweep rates faster than 50 mT/s. PMID:24236759

  11. A family of 3d-4f octa-nuclear [Mn(III)(4)Ln(III)(4)] wheels (Ln = Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Y): synthesis, structure, and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengyuan; Lan, Yanhua; Ako, Ayuk M; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Anson, Christopher E; Buth, Gernot; Powell, Annie K; Wang, Zheming; Gao, Song

    2010-12-20

    We present the syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetochemical characterizations for a family of isostructural [Mn(4)Ln(4)] compounds (Ln = Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Y). They were prepared from the reactions of formic acid, propionic acid, N-n-butyl-diethanolamine, manganese perchlorate, and lanthanide nitrates under the addition of triethylamine in MeOH. The compounds possess an intriguing hetero-octanuclear wheel structure with four Mn(III) and four Ln(III) ions alternatively arranged in a saddle-like ring, where formate ions act as key carboxylate bridges. In the lattice, the molecules stack into columns in a quasi-hexagonal arrangement. Direct current (dc) magnetic susceptibility measurements indicated the depopulation of the Stark components at low temperature and/or very weak antiferromagnetic interactions between magnetic centers. The zero-field alternating current (ac) susceptibility studies revealed that the compounds containing Sm, Tb, and Dy showed frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals, indicating they are single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Magnetization versus applied dc field sweeps on a single crystal of the Dy compound down to 40 mK exhibited hysteresis depending on temperatures and field sweeping rates, further confirming that the Dy compound is a SMM. The magnetization dynamics of the Sm and Y compounds investigated under dc fields revealed that the relaxation of the Sm compound is considered to be dominated by the two-phonon (Orbach) process while the Y compound displays a multiple relaxation process. PMID:21070004

  12. Cross sections of proton-induced reactions on 152Gd, 155Gd and 159Tb with emphasis on the production of selected Tb radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, G. F.; Vermeulen, C.; Szelecsnyi, F.; Kovcs, Z.; Hohn, A.; van der Meulen, N. P.; Schibli, R.; van der Walt, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    Cross sections are presented for various Dy, Tb and Gd radionuclides produced in the proton bombardment of 159Tb as well as for the reactions 152Gd(p,4n)149Tb and 155Gd(p,4n)152Tb up to 66 MeV. The experimental excitation functions are compared with theoretical predictions by means of the geometry-dependent hybrid (GDH) model as implemented in the code ALICE/ASH, as well as with values from the TENDL-2012 library and previous literature experimental data, where available. Physical yields have been derived for the production of some of the medically important radioterbiums, namely 149Tb (radionuclide therapy), 152Tb (PET) and 155Tb (SPECT). The indirect production of high-purity 155Tb via the decay of its precursor 155Dy is reported. The possibility of a large-scale production facility based on a commercial 70 MeV cyclotron is also discussed.

  13. Family of double-cubane Mn4Ln2 (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and Mn4Y2 complexes: a new Mn4Tb2 single-molecule magnet.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arpita; Thompson, Michael; Abboud, Khalil A; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Christou, George

    2011-10-17

    The synthesis and characterization of a family of Mn(2)(III)Mn(2)(II)Ln(III)(2) complexes (Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), and Ho (4)) of formula [Mn(4)Ln(2)O(2)(O(2)CBu(t))(6)(edteH(2))(2)(NO(3))(2)] are reported, where edteH(4) is N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine. The analogous Mn(4)Y(2) (5) complex has also been prepared. They were obtained from reaction of Ln(NO(3))(3) or Y(NO(3))(3) with Mn(O(2)CBu(t))(2), edteH(4), and NEt(3) in a 2:3:1:2 molar ratio. The crystal structures of representative 1 and 2 were obtained, and their core consists of a face-fused double-cubane [Mn(4)Ln(2)(?(4)-O(2-))(2)(?(3)-OR)(4)] unit. Such double-cubane units are extremely rare in 3d metal chemistry and unprecedented in 3d-4f chemistry. Variable-temperature, solid-state dc and ac magnetic susceptibility studies on 1-5 were carried out. Fitting of dc ?(M)T vs T data for 5 gave J(bb) (Mn(III)Mn(III)) = -32.6(9) cm(-1), J(wb) (Mn(II)Mn(III)) = +0.5(2) cm(-1), and g = 1.96(1), indicating a |n, 0, n> (n = 0-5) 6-fold-degenerate ground state. The data for 1 indicate an S = 12 ground state, confirmed by fitting of magnetization data, which gave S = 12, D = 0.00(1) cm(-1), and g = 1.93(1) (D is the axial zero-field splitting parameter). This ground state identifies the Mn(II)Gd(III) interactions to be ferromagnetic. The ac susceptibility data independently confirmed the conclusions about 1 and 5 and revealed that 2 displays slow relaxation of the magnetization vector for the Mn(4)Tb(2) analogue 2. The latter was confirmed as a single-molecule magnet by observation of hysteresis below 0.9 K in magnetization vs dc field scans on a single crystal of 2MeCN on a micro-SQUID apparatus. The hysteresis loops also displayed well-resolved quantum tunneling of magnetization steps, only the second 3d-4f SMM to do so. PMID:21939191

  14. Preparation and spectroscopic properties of rare-earth (RE) (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) phosphate in vacuum ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Xiao; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100039 ; Zhao, Jing-Tai; Zhang, Guo-Bin

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? We report the VUV spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. ? The O{sup 2?}-Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer bands at about 220 nm have been observed. ? The 4f5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+} have been observed. ? There is energy transfer between the host and rare-earth activators. -- Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) have been synthesized by solid-state reaction method, and their vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation luminescent characteristics have been investigated. The band in the wavelength range of 130157 nm and the other one range from 155 to 216 nm with the maximum at about 187 nm in the VUV excitation spectra of these compounds are attributed to the host lattice absorption and OZr charge transfer transition, respectively. The charge transfer bands (CTB) of O{sup 2?}-Sm{sup 3+}, O{sup 2?}-Dy{sup 3+} and O{sup 2?}-Tm{sup 3+}, in Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}-activated samples, have not been obviously observed probably because the 2p electrons of oxygen are tightly bound to the zirconium ion in the host lattice. For Eu{sup 3+}-activated samples, the relatively weak O{sup 2?}-Eu{sup 3+} CTB at about 220 nm is observed. And for Tb{sup 3+}-activated samples, the bands at 223 and 258 nm are related to the 4f-5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, respectively. It is observed that there is energy transfer between the host lattice and the luminescent activators (e.g. Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}). From the standpoint of luminescent efficiency, color purity and chemical stability, K{sub 2}GdZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} are attractive candidates for novel yellow, red, green-emitting PDP phosphors.

  15. Magnetomechanical damping in cryogenic TbDy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, J.; Good, N.; White, C.; Leland, S.; Fultz, B.

    2002-01-01

    Vibration damping in polycrystalline TbDy alloys was studied at cryogenic temperatures. The material was prepared by cold-rolling to induce crystallographic texture, and was then heat-treated to relieve internal stress. Mechanical hysteretic losses were measured at various strains, frequencies, and loading configurations at 77 K. Some textured TbDy materials demonstrated 22.6% energy dissipation in mechanical measurements at low frequency (0.01 Hz) and a mean logarithmic decrement of 0.23 at a higher frequency (25 kHz). Ultrasonic velocities of longitudinal and shear elastic waves were measured on single and polycrystalline TbDy; little variation in ultrasonic velocities was found evenfor samples with large variation in crystallographic texture and magnetomechanical properties.

  16. Amending the anisotropy barrier and luminescence behavior of heterometallic trinuclear linear [M(II) -Ln(III) -M(II) ] (Ln(III) =Gd, Tb, Dy; M(II) =Mg/Zn) complexes by change from divalent paramagnetic to diamagnetic metal ions.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourav; Bejoymohandas, K S; Dey, Atanu; Biswas, Sourav; Reddy, M L P; Morales, Roser; Ruiz, Eliseo; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Colacio, Enrique; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2015-04-20

    The sequential reaction of a multisite coordinating compartmental ligand [2-(2-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-methylbenzylideneamino)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol] (LH4 ) with appropriate lanthanide salts followed by the addition of [Mg(NO3 )2 ]?6?H2 O or [Zn(NO3 )2 ]?6?H2 O in a 4:1:2 stoichiometric ratio in the presence of triethylamine affords a series of isostructural heterometallic trinuclear complexes containing [Mg2 Ln](3+) (Ln=Dy, Gd, and Tb) and [Zn2 Ln](3+) (Ln=Dy, Gd, and Tb) cores. The formation of these complexes is demonstrated by X-ray crystallography as well as ESI-MS spectra. All complexes are isostructural possessing a linear trimetallic core with a central lanthanide ion. The comprehensive studies discussed involve the synthesis, structure, magnetism, and photophysical properties on this family of trinuclear [Mg2 Ln](3+) and [Zn2 Ln](3+) heterometallic complexes. [Mg2 Dy](3+) and [Zn2 Dy](3+) show slow relaxation of the magnetization below 12 K under zero applied direct current (dc) field, but without reaching a neat maximum, which is due to the overlapping with a faster quantum tunneling relaxation mediated through dipole-dipole and hyperfine interactions. Under a small applied dc field of 1000 Oe, the quantum tunneling is almost suppressed and temperature and frequency dependent peaks are observed, thus confirming the single-molecule magnet behavior of complexes [Mg2 Dy](3+) and [Zn2 Dy](3+) . PMID:25772122

  17. Mo2NiB2-type {Gd, Tb, Dy)2Ni2.35Si0.65 and La2Ni3-type {Dy, Ho}2Ni2.5Si0.5 compounds: Crystal structure and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Isnard, O.; Nirmala, R.; Malik, S. K.

    2015-05-01

    The crystal structure of new Mo2NiB2-type {Gd, Tb, Dy}2Ni2.35Si0.65 (Immm, No. 71, oI10) and La2Ni3-type {Dy, Ho}2Ni2.5Si0.5 (Cmce No. 64, oC20) compounds has been established using powder X-ray diffraction studies. Magnetization measurements show that the Mo2NiB2-type Gd2Ni2.35Si0.65 undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at 66 K, whereas isostructural Tb2Ni2.35Si0.65 shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 52 K and a field-induced metamagnetic transition at low temperatures. Neutron diffraction study shows that, in zero applied field, Tb2Ni2.35Si0.65 exhibits c-axis antiferromagnetic order with propagation vector K=[1/2, 0, 1/2] below its magnetic ordering temperature and Tb magnetic moment reaches a value of 8.32(5) ?B at 2 K. The La2Ni3-type Dy2Ni2.5Si0.5 exhibits ferromagnetic like transition at 42 K with coexisting antiferromagnetic interactions and field induced metamagnetic transition below 17 K. The magnetocaloric effect of Gd2Ni2.35Si0.65, Tb2Ni2.35Si0.65 and Dy2Ni2.5Si0.5 is calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches a maximum value of -14.3 J/kg K, -5.3 J/kg K and -10.3 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near 66 K, 52 K and 42 K, respectively. Low temperature magnetic ordering with enhanced anisotropic effects in Tb2Ni2.35Si0.65 and Dy2Ni2.35Si0.65 is accompanied by a positive magnetocaloric effect with isothermal magnetic entropy changes of +12.8 J/kg K and +9.9 J/kg K, respectively at 7 K for a field change of 50 kOe. The variation of alloy's composition by 3 at% i.e. from Dy2Ni2.35Si0.65 to Dy2Ni2.5Si0.5 leads to significant transformation of crystal structure of compound with different variant of distortion of Po-type rare earth sublattice, as in Gd-Co-Ga and Er-Ni-In systems: the Mo2NiB2-type Gd2Co2Ga and La2Ni3-type Gd2Co2.9Ga0.1, and Mo2FeB2-type Er2Ni1.78In and Mn2AlB2-type Er2Ni2In. Magnetization measurements indicate collinear ferromagnetic ordering of Mo2NiB2-type Gd2Ni2.35Si0.65 and a complex antiferromagnetic ordering with low-temperature metamagnetic nature for Mo2NiB2-type Tb2Ni2.35Si0.65 compounds. However, neutron diffraction study in zero applied field of Tb2Ni2.35Si0.65 reveals c-axis pure antiferromagnetic ordering of terbium sublattice with K=[1/2, 0, 1/2] propagation vector. Magnetization measurements indicate ferromagnetic order with coexisting antiferromagnetic interactions and low-temperature metamagnetic state for La2Ni3-type Dy2Ni2.5Si0.5. We suggest possible polymorphism in other Mo2FeB2-type, Mo2NiB2-type, La2Ni3-type and Mn2AlB2-type rare earth compounds with corresponding change in their magnetic properties.

  18. Tetranuclear hetero-metal [Co(II)2Ln(III)2] (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, La) complexes involving carboxylato bridges in a rare ?4-?(2):?(2) mode: synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Abtab, Sk Md Towsif; Majee, Mithun Chandra; Maity, Manoranjan; Titi, Jn; Bo?a, Roman; Chaudhury, Muktimoy

    2014-02-01

    A new family of 3d-4f heterometal 2 2 complexes [Co(II)2(L)2(PhCOO)2Ln(III)2(hfac)4] (1-5) (Ln = Gd (compound 1), Tb (compound 2), Dy (compound 3), Ho (compound 4), and La (compound 5)) have been synthesized in moderate yields (48-63%) following a single-pot protocol using stoichiometric amounts (1:1 mol ratio) of [Co(II)(H2L)(PhCOO)2] (H2L = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl)ethylenediamine) as a metalloligand and [Ln(III)(hfac)3(H2O)2] (Hhfac = hexafluoroacetylacetone) as a lanthanide precursor compound. Also reported with this series is the Zn-Dy analog [Zn(II)2(L)2(PhCOO)2Dy(III)2(hfac)4] 6 to help us in understanding the magnetic properties of these compounds. The compounds 1-6 are isostructural. Both hexafluoroacetylacetonate and benzoate play crucial roles in these structures as coligands in generating a tetranuclear core of high thermodynamic stability through a self-assembly process. The metal centers are arranged alternately at the four corners of this rhombic core, and the carboxylato oxygen atoms of each benzoate moiety bind all of the four metal centers of this core in a rare ?4-?(2):?(2) bridging mode as confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization data confirm a paramagnetic behavior, and no remnant magnetization exists in any of these compounds at vanishing magnetic field. The metal centers are coupled in an antiferromagnetic manner in these compounds. The [Co(II)2Dy(III)2] compound exhibits a slow magnetic relaxation below 6 K, as proven by the AC susceptibility measurements; the activation energy reads U/kB = 8.8 K (?0 = 2.0 10(-7) s) at BDC = 0, and U/kB = 7.8 K (?0 = 3.9 10(-7) s) at BDC = 0.1 T. The [Zn(II)2Dy(III)2] compound also behaves as a single-molecule magnet with U/kB = 47.9 K and ?0 = 2.75 10(-7) s. PMID:24437653

  19. Low-temperature superstructures of a series of Cd6M (M = Ca, Y, Sr, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) crystalline approximants.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Kazue; Sato, Takeru; Tamura, Ryuji

    2013-06-12

    The low-temperature (LT) superstructure and the phase transition temperature have been investigated for a series of Cd6M crystalline approximants by transmission electron microscopy as well as electrical resistivity measurements. Except for M = Lu, Cd6M is found to undergo a phase transition to a monoclinic phase at a low temperature and the transition temperature (Tc) scales well with the size of the M atom. For M = Ca, Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm the LT superstructure is explained by a ?2a a ?2a lattice with the space group C2/c, and for M = Sr and Yb a ?2a 2a ?2a monoclinic lattice with P2/m. On the other hand, no phase transition is observed for M = Lu, indicating that a Cd4 tetrahedron at the cluster center remains disordered down to the lowest temperature, i.e. 16 K. It is shown that the volume inside the Cd20 dodecahedron plays a crucial role in the occurrence of the phase transition, and long-term aging in particular promotes the phase transition for late rare-earth elements such as Ho, Er and Tm, suggesting that the transition is sensitive to and is even hindered by disorder such as atomic vacancies. The absence of the transition for M = Lu is attributed to the highest activation energy for the transition due to the smallest volume inside the Cd20 dodecahedron. PMID:23685563

  20. Syntheses, structure and rare earth metal photoluminescence of new and known isostructural A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mohitkar, Shrikant A.; Kalpana, G.; Vidyasagar, K.

    2011-04-15

    Nine new A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds have been synthesized by solid-state reactions. They are isostructural with six reported analogues of yttrium and other lanthanides and the monoclinic unit cell parameters of all fifteen of them vary linearly with the size of A{sup 3+} ion. Single crystal X-ray structures of eight A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds have been determined. Neat A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds exhibit characteristic rare earth metal photoluminescence. -- Graphical abstract: Among the fifteen isostructural A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=rare earth metal) molybdoantimonites, eight (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds exhibit neat characteristic lanthanide photoluminescence in the 200-800 nm range at room temperature. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Syntheses of nine new A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds. {yields} X-ray structures of eight A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds. {yields} Photoluminescence of neat A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds.

  1. Assembly of heterobimetallic Ni(II)-Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), Ho(III), Er(III), Y(III)) complexes using a ferrocene ligand: slow relaxation of the magnetization in Dy(III), Tb(III) and Ho(III) analogues.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Amit; Bag, Prasenjit; Rivire, Eric; Mallah, Talal; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-06-21

    A family of dinuclear 3d-4f heterobimetallic complexes [LNi(H2O)(?-OAc)Ln(NO3)2]CH3CN; {Ln = Dy(III) (1), Tb(III) (2), Ho(III) (3), Gd(III) (4), Er(III) (5), Y(III) (6)} have been synthesized by utilizing a ferrocene-based, dual compartmental ligand H2L. 1-6 are isostructural and crystallize in the triclinic (P1) space group. In these complexes Ni(II) is present in the inner coordination sphere of the dianionic [L](2-) ligand; Ln(III) is encapsulated in the outer coordination pocket. Ni(II) shows a 2N, 4O coordination environment in a distorted octahedral geometry, while the Ln(III) ion possesses a 9O coordination environment in a distorted tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry. ESI-MS studies suggest that the structural integrity of 1-6 is retained in solution. Electrochemical studies reveal that these complexes show a reversible one-electron response typical of the ferrocene motif along with an irreversible one-electron oxidation involving the Ni(II)/Ni(III) couple. Magnetic studies revealed the presence of ferromagnetic exchange coupling between Ni(II) and Ln(III) centers as shown by the increase of ?MT value upon cooling below 50 K for compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5. Further, dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements (1-3) confirm the absence of an out-of-phase (?'') signal at zero dc fields. However, when these measurements were carried out at 1000 Oe dc field the ?'' signal was observed, although maxima could not be detected up to 2 K. PMID:24802265

  2. Magnetic properties of the charge density wave compounds RTe3, R=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er & Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, N.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2009-12-14

    The antiferromagnetic transition is investigated in the rare-earth (R) tritelluride RTe{sub 3} family of charge density wave (CDW) compounds via specific heat, magnetization and resistivity measurements. Observation of the opening of a superzone gap in the resistivity of DyTe{sub 3} indicates that additional nesting of the reconstructed Fermi surface in the CDW state plays an important role in determining the magnetic structure.

  3. Low-temperature superstructures of a series of Cd6M (M = Ca, Y, Sr, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) crystalline approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Kazue; Sato, Takeru; Tamura, Ryuji

    2013-06-01

    The low-temperature (LT) superstructure and the phase transition temperature have been investigated for a series of Cd6M crystalline approximants by transmission electron microscopy as well as electrical resistivity measurements. Except for M = Lu, Cd6M is found to undergo a phase transition to a monoclinic phase at a low temperature and the transition temperature (Tc) scales well with the size of the M atom. For M = Ca, Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm the LT superstructure is explained by a \\sqrt{2}a\\times a\\times \\sqrt{2}a lattice with the space group C2/c, and for M = Sr and Yb a \\sqrt{2}a\\times 2 a\\times \\sqrt{2}a monoclinic lattice with P2/m. On the other hand, no phase transition is observed for M = Lu, indicating that a Cd4 tetrahedron at the cluster center remains disordered down to the lowest temperature, i.e. 16 K. It is shown that the volume inside the Cd20 dodecahedron plays a crucial role in the occurrence of the phase transition, and long-term aging in particular promotes the phase transition for late rare-earth elements such as Ho, Er and Tm, suggesting that the transition is sensitive to and is even hindered by disorder such as atomic vacancies. The absence of the transition for M = Lu is attributed to the highest activation energy for the transition due to the smallest volume inside the Cd20 dodecahedron.

  4. Systematic Study of a Family of Butterfly-Like {M2Ln2} Molecular Magnets (M = Mg(II), Mn(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II); Ln = Y(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), and Er(III)).

    PubMed

    Moreno Pineda, Eufemio; Chilton, Nicholas F; Tuna, Floriana; Winpenny, Richard E P; McInnes, Eric J L

    2015-06-15

    A family of 3d-4f [M(II)2Ln(III)2(?3-OH)2(O2C(t)Bu)10](2-) "butterflies" (where M(II) = Mg, Co, Ni, and Cu; Ln(III) = Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) and [Mn(III)2Ln(III)2(?3-O)2(O2C(t)Bu)10](2-) molecules (where Ln(III) = Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) has been synthesized and characterized through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, and ab initio calculations. All dysprosium- and some erbium-containing tetramers showed frequency-dependent maxima in the out-of-phase component of the susceptibility associated with slow relaxation of magnetization, and hence, they are single-molecule magnets (SMMs). AC susceptibility measurements have shown that the SMM behavior is entirely intrinsic to the Dy and Er sites and the magnitude of the energy barrier is influenced by the interactions between the 4f and the 3d metal. A trend is observed between the strength of the 3d-4f exchange interaction between and the maximum observed in the ??M(T). PMID:26016421

  5. ARPES study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 ( R=Y , La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zahid; Brouet, Veronique; Yang, Wanli; Zhou, Xingjiang; Hussain, Zahid; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D. H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; Ru, N.; Fisher, R.

    2008-01-16

    We present a detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of the RTe3 family, which sets this system as an ideal"textbook" example for the formation of a nesting driven charge density wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDWinstabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi surface (up to 0.4 eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k space. An additional advantage of RTe3 is that theband structure can be very accurately described by a simple two dimensional tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure by comparing our ARPES measurements with the linear muffin-tinorbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R, and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDWinteraction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n (EF), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  6. Angle-resolved photoemission study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 (R= Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb and Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Brouet, V.; Yang, W.L.; Zhou, X.J.; Hussain, Z.; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D.H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.

    2010-02-15

    We present a detailed ARPES investigation of the RTe{sub 3} family, which sets this system as an ideal 'textbook' example for the formation of a nesting driven Charge Density Wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDW instabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi Surface (FS) (up to 0.4eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k-space. An additional advantage of RTe{sub 3} is that the band structure can be very accurately described by a simple 2D tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure, by comparing our ARPES measurements with Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and, for the first time, of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k-space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDW interaction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n(Ef), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse spherical SiO{sub 2}-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} (RE=rare earth elements) and SiO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Tb, Dy, Sm, Er, Ho) particles with core-shell structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Yang, J.; Zhang, C.M.; Lin, J.

    2009-10-15

    Spherical SiO{sub 2} particles have been coated with rare earth oxide layers by a Pechini sol-gel process, leading to the formation of core-shell structured SiO{sub 2}-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} (RE=rare earth elements) and SiO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Tb, Dy, Sm, Er, Ho) particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence spectra as well as lifetimes were used to characterize the resulting SiO{sub 2}-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} (RE=rare earth elements) and SiO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}) samples. The obtained core-shell phosphors have perfect spherical shape with narrow size distribution (average size ca. 380 nm), smooth surface and non-agglomeration. The thickness of shells could be easily controlled by changing the number of deposition cycles (40 nm for two deposition cycles). Under the excitation of ultraviolet, the Ln{sup 3+} ion mainly shows its characteristic emissions in the core-shell particles from Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}) shells. - Graphical abstract: The advantages of core-shell phosphors are the easy availability of homogeneous spherical morphology in different size, and its corresponding luminescence color can change from red, yellow to green.

  8. Synthesis, structure, luminescent, and magnetic properties of carbonato-bridged Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes [(μ4-CO3)2{Zn(II)L(n)Ln(III)(NO3)}2] (Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III); L(1) = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato, L(2) = N,N'-bis(3-ethoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato).

    PubMed

    Ehama, Kiyomi; Ohmichi, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Naohide; Mochida, Naotaka; Ishida, Takayuki; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Tsuchimoto, Masanobu; Re, Nazzareno

    2013-11-01

    Carbonato-bridged Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes [(μ4-CO3)2{Zn(II)L(n)Ln(III)(NO3)}2]·solvent were synthesized through atmospheric CO2 fixation reaction of [Zn(II)L(n)(H2O)2]·xH2O, Ln(III)(NO3)3·6H2O, and triethylamine, where Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III); L(1) = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato, L(2) = N,N'-bis(3-ethoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato. Each Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 structure possessing an inversion center can be described as two di-μ-phenoxo-bridged {Zn(II)L(n)Ln(III)(NO3)} binuclear units bridged by two carbonato CO3(2-) ions. The Zn(II) ion has square pyramidal coordination geometry with N2O2 donor atoms of L(n) and one oxygen atom of a bridging carbonato ion at the axial site. Ln(III) ion is coordinated by nine oxygen atoms consisting of four from the deprotonated Schiff-base L(n), two from a chelating nitrate, and three from two carbonate groups. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities in the range 1.9-300 K, field-dependent magnetization from 0 to 5 T at 1.9 K, and alternating current magnetic susceptibilities under the direct current bias fields of 0 and 1000 Oe were measured. The magnetic properties of the Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes are analyzed on the basis of the dicarbonato-bridged binuclear Ln(III)-Ln(III) structure, as the Zn(II) ion with d(10) electronic configuration is diamagnetic. ZnGd1 (L(1)) and ZnGd2 (L(2)) show a ferromagnetic Gd(III)-Gd(III) interaction with J(Gd-Gd) = +0.042 and +0.028 cm(-1), respectively, on the basis of the Hamiltonian H = -2J(Gd-Gd)ŜGd1·ŜGd2. The magnetic data of the Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes (Ln(III) = Tb(III), Dy(III)) were analyzed by a spin Hamiltonian including the crystal field effect on the Ln(III) ions and the Ln(III)-Ln(III) magnetic interaction. The Stark splitting of the ground state was so evaluated, and the energy pattern indicates a strong easy axis (Ising type) anisotropy. Luminescence spectra of Zn(II)2Tb(III)2 complexes were observed, while those of Zn(II)2Dy(III)2 were not detected. The fine structure assignable to the (5)D4 → (7)F6 transition of ZnTb1 and ZnTb2 is in good accord with the energy pattern from the magnetic analysis. The Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes (Ln(III) = Tb(III), Dy(III)) showed an out-of-phase signal with frequency-dependence in alternating current susceptibility, indicative of single molecule magnet. Under a dc bias field of 1000 Oe, the signals become significantly more intense and the energy barrier, Δ/kB, for the magnetic relaxation was estimated from the Arrhenius plot to be 39(1) and 42(8) K for ZnTb1 and ZnTb2, and 52(2) and 67(2) K for ZnDy1 and ZnDy2, respectively. PMID:24151881

  9. Syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of a family of tetranuclear hydroxido-bridged Ni(II)2Ln(III)2 (Ln = La, Gd, Tb, and Dy) complexes: display of slow magnetic relaxation by the zinc(II)-dysprosium(III) analogue.

    PubMed

    Abtab, Sk Md Towsif; Maity, Manoranjan; Bhattacharya, Kisholoy; Saudo, E Carolina; Chaudhury, Muktimoy

    2012-10-01

    A new family of [2 2] tetranuclear 3d-4f heterometallic complexes have been synthesized. These are [Zn(2)Dy(2)L(2)(?(3)-OH)(2)(?(4)-OH)(dbm)(2)(MeOH)(2)](NO(3))2H(2)OMeOH (3), [Ni(2)Dy(2)L(2)(?(3)-OH)(2)(?(4)-OH)(dbm)(2)(MeOH)(2)](NO(3))MeOH (4), [Ni(2)La(2)L(2)(?(3)-OH)(2)(?(4)-OH)(dbm)(2)(MeOH)(2)](ClO(4))H(2)O2MeOH (5), [Ni(2)Tb(2)L(2)(?(3)-OH)(2)(?(4)-OH)(dbm)(2) (MeOH)(2)](NO(3))MeOH (6), and [Ni(2)Gd(2)L(2)(?(3)-OH)(2)(?(4)-OH)(dbm)(2)(MeOH)(2)](NO(3))MeOH (7), [H(2)L = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl)ethylenediamine and Hdbm = dibenzoylmethane] obtained through a single-pot synthesis using [Zn(HL)(dbm)] (for 3)/[Ni(HL)(dbm)]2CH(3)OH (for 4, 5, 6, and 7) as 3d-metal ion precursors. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectroscopy have been used to establish their identities. Compounds are isostructural, in which the metal ions are all connected together by a bridging hydroxido ligand in a rare ?(4)-mode. In complexes 3-7, the metal ions are antiferromagnetically coupled. Taking a cue from the results of 3 and 5, precise estimations have been made for the antiferromagnetic NiNi (J(Ni) = -50 cm(-1)), NiGd (J(NiGd) = -4.65 cm(-1)), and GdGd (J(Gd) = -0.02 cm(-1)) exchange interactions in 7, involving the gadolinium(III) ions. The Zn(II)(2)Dy(III)(2) compound 3 has shown the tail of an out-of-phase signal in alternating current (AC) susceptibility measurement, indicative of slow relaxation of magnetization. Interestingly, the Ni(II)(2)Dy(III)(2) compound 4 in which both the participating metal ions possess large single ion anisotropy, has failed to show up any slow magnetic relaxation. PMID:22994160

  10. Luminescence and magnetic properties of novel nanoparticle-sheathed 3D Micro-Architectures of Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ (R = Gd3+, La3+), (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy) for bifunctional application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Rajagopalan; Thirumalai, Jagannathan; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we report the successful synthesis of novel nanoparticle-sheathed bipyramid-like and almond-like Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ (R = Gd3+, La3+), (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy) 3D hierarchical microstructures through a simple disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na2EDTA) facilitated hydrothermal method. Interestingly, time-dependent experiments confirm that the assembly-disassembly process is responsible for the formation of self-aggregated 3D architectures via Ostwald ripening phenomena. The resultant products are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), and magnetic measurements. The growth and formation mechanisms of the self-assembled 3D micro structures are discussed in detail. To confirm the presence of all the elements in the microstructure, the energy loss induced by the K, L shell electron ionization is observed in order to map the Fe, Gd, Mo, O, and Eu components. The photo luminescence properties of Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5 doped with Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+ are investigated. The room temperature and low temperature magnetic properties suggest that the interaction between the local-fields introduced by the magnetic Fe3+ ions and the R3+ (La, Gd) ions in the dodecahedral sites determine the magnetism in Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Eu3+. This work provides a new approach to synthesizing the novel Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ for bi-functional magnetic and luminescence applications.

  11. Large refrigerant capacity of RGa (R = Tb and Dy) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. Q.; Chen, J.; Shen, J.; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Z. Y.; Gao, W. W.; Wu, J. F.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

    2012-04-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects (MCEs) of RGa (R = Tb and Dy) compounds are investigated. The TbGa compound exhibits two successive magnetic transitions: spin-reorientation (SR) transition at TSR = 31 K and second-order ferromagnetic (FM)-paramagnetic (PM) transition at Curie temperature TC = 154 K, while the DyGa compound undergoes a SR transition with TSR=25 K and a FM-PM transition with TC = 113 K. It is noteworthy that a broad distribution of the magnetic entropy change peak is observed. The values of the refrigerant capacity (RC) for TbGa and DyGa are found to be 620.6 and 381.9 J/kg for a field change of 0-5 T, respectively. And for a field change of 0-7 T, the values are 900 and 584.2 J/kg, respectively. The large value of RC for TbGa and DyGa originates from the combined contribution from SR and FM-PM transitions, which enlarges the temperature span of large MCE.

  12. Magnetoelastic vibration damping properties of TbDy alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, J. A.; Good, N. R.; White, C. V.; Leland, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    Damping of axial and bending mode vibrations in giant magnetoelastic polycrystalline TbDy alloys was studied at cryogenic temperatures. All specimens of TbDy were arc-melted in the proper composition ratio and dropped into a chilled copper mold. Additional treatments consisted of cold plane-rolling to induce crystallographic texture and then heat-treating to relieve internal stress. Mechanical hysteretic losses were measured at various strains, frequencies, and loading configurations down to 77 K. Both as-cast and textured polycrystalline TbDy samples were tested along with an aluminum specimen for comparison. Loss factors at multiple natural vibration frequencies of the samples were measured for axial modes. Larger damping rates were measured for axial mode vibrations than for bending mode vibrations, possibly reflecting the larger specimen volume contributing to magnetoelastic damping. At LN2 temperatures TbDy materials demonstrated q > 0.05 at 0.01 Hz and q > 0.1 at higher frequencies from 0.6-1.5 kHz.

  13. Anomalies in rare earth distributions in seawater: Gd and Tb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Baar, Hein J. W.; Brewer, Peter G.; Bacon, Michael P.

    1985-09-01

    We have measured profiles of the rare earth elements (REE) in Atlantic and Pacific Ocean waters. The data, normalized versus shales, exhibit a pronounced anomaly in Gd relative to its neighbors Eu and Tb in the REE series such that the Gd concentrations are high by 30-50%. Closer inspection reveals that the anomaly is made up of both elevated Gd and depressed Tb concentrations, likely associated with solution chemistry shifts in the transition from an exactly half filled 4f electron shell. Anomalies in Gd and Tb solution complexation are also indicated by the Turner-Whitfield-Dickson speciation model. The overall trend of heavy REE(III) enrichment in seawater and the Gd/Tb anomaly described here tend to support scavenging as an important removal mechanism for the REE from seawater.

  14. Synthesis, structure and properties of the oxychalcogenide series A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} (A=Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Y)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuxworth, A.J.; Evans, J.S.O.

    2014-02-15

    Seven oxyselenide materials have been synthesised with composition A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} (A=Sm, GdEr, Y) via solid state reactions of A{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiSe{sub 2} and Se at 900 C. They are all isostructural with Gd{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4}. Structures have been refined from powder X-ray diffraction data and have monoclinic C2/m symmetry with unit cell parameters of a?15.7 , b?3.75 , c?9.65 and ??117.5. They contain infinite ribbons of edge-sharing A{sub 4}O and A{sub 3}TiO tetrahedra 4 units wide, which are linked by chains of TiSe{sub 4}O{sub 2} edge-sharing octahedra. Compositions A=GdHo, Y are semiconductors with conductivities 13 Sm{sup ?1} at 300 K, with electronic band gaps of between 0.25 and 0.37 eV. Magnetic susceptibility is reported from 1.8 K to 300 K for compositions A=GdHo. Rare earth moments appear to order antiferromagnetically at low temperatures with Gd and Tb showing evidence of ferromagnetism due to spin canting over a narrow temperature range close to T{sub N}. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} crystal structure (C2/m symmetry), A{sub 4}O and A{sub 3}TiO edge sharing tetrahedral ribbons in red, chains of edge-sharing TiSe{sub 4}O{sub 2} in blue. Rare earth=green, titanium=blue, selenium=yellow, and oxygen=red. Display Omitted - Highlights: Seven materials with A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} (A=Sm, GdEr, Y) have been synthesised as bulk phases for the first time. Materials are semiconductors and order antiferromagnetically at ?4 K. Structure contains M{sub 4}O tetrahedral ribbons and TiSe{sub 4}O{sub 2} 1D octahedral chains.

  15. Carbonato-bridged Ni(II)2Ln(III)2 (Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) complexes generated by atmospheric CO2 fixation and their single-molecule-magnet behavior: [(?4-CO3)2{Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(MeOH or H2O)Ln(III)(NO3)}2]solvent [3-MeOsaltn = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Soichiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Nishi, Koshiro; Matsumoto, Naohide; Mochida, Naotaka; Ishida, Takayuki; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Re, Nazzareno

    2013-06-17

    Atmospheric CO2 fixation of [Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(H2O)2]2.5H2O [3-MeOsaltn = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato], Ln(III)(NO3)36H2O, and triethylamine occurred in methanol/acetone, giving a first series of carbonato-bridged Ni(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes [(?4-CO3)2{Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(MeOH)Ln(III)(NO3)}2] (1Gd, 1Tb, and 1Dy). When the reaction was carried out in acetonitrile/water, it gave a second series of complexes [(?4-CO3)2{Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn)(H2O)Ln(III)(NO3)}2]2CH3CN2H2O (2Gd, 2Tb, and 2Dy). For both series, each Ni(II)2Ln(III)2 structure can be described as two di-?-phenoxo-bridged Ni(II)Ln(III) binuclear units bridged by two carbonato CO3(2-) units to form a carbonato-bridged (?4-CO3)2{Ni(II)2Ln(III)2} structure. The high-spin Ni(II) ion has octahedral coordination geometry, and the Ln(III) ion is coordinated by O9 donor atoms from Ni(II)(3-MeOsaltn), bidentate NO3(-), and one and two oxygen atoms of two CO3(2-) ions. The NO3(-) ion for the first series roughly lie on Ln-O(methoxy) bonds and are tilted toward the outside, while for the second series, the two oxygen atoms roughly lie on one of the Ln-O(phenoxy) bonds due to the intramolecular hydrogen bond. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities indicated a ferromagnetic interaction between the Ni(II) and Ln(III) ions (Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) for all of the complexes, with a distinctly different magnetic behavior between the two series in the lowest-temperature region due to the Ln(III)-Ln(III) magnetic interaction and/or different magnetic anisotropies of the Tb(III) or Dy(III) ion. Alternating-current susceptibility measurements under the 0 and 1000 Oe direct-current (dc) bias fields showed no magnetic relaxation for the Ni(II)2Gd(III)2 complexes but exhibited an out-of-phase signal for Ni(II)2Tb(III)2 and Ni(II)2Dy(III)2, indicative of slow relaxation of magnetization. The energy barriers, ?/kB, for the spin flipping were estimated from the Arrhenius plot to be 12.2(7) and 6.1(3) K for 1Tb and 2Tb, respectively, and 18.1(6) and 14.5(4) K for 1Dy and 2Dy, respectively, under a dc bias field of 1000 Oe. Compound 1Dy showed relatively slow relaxation of magnetization reorientation even at zero dc applied field with ?/kB = 6.6(4) K. PMID:23706096

  16. Structures cristallines de Sc/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/Ge/sub 4/, T. R. /sub 3/Cu/sub 4/Sn/sub 4/ (T. R. = Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er), ISOTYPES DE Gd/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/Ge/sub 4/, ET DE LA phase apparentee Tm/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/Sn/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Thirion, F.; Malaman, B.; Steinmetz, J.

    1983-12-01

    Tm/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/Sn/sub 4/ has been studied by single - crystal X - ray diffraction analysis. The structure is of a new type with space group C2/m and Z = 2 : a = 16.119(2), b = 4.3935(6), c = 6.896(1) A, ..beta.. = 115.88(2)/sup 0/, D /SUB x/ = 9.32 Mgm/sup -3/, ..mu..(MoK..cap alpha..) = 52 mm/sup -1/, F(000) = 1045, R = 0.056 for 558 independant reflexions (R /SUB w/ = 0.058). Tm/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/Sn/sub 4/ is a monoclinic distorded variety of the Gd/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/Ge/sub 4/ structure typ0e. Seven other compounds were characterized : Sc/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/Ge/sub 4/ and R.E/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/Sn/sub 4/ where R.E. = Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, isostructural with Gd/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/Sn/sub 4/.

  17. Lattice dynamics of rare-earth titanates with the structure of pyrochlore R 2Ti2O7 ( R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu): Ab initio calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, V. A.; Petrov, V. P.; Nikiforov, A. E.

    2015-05-01

    The ab initio calculation has been performed for the crystal structure and the phonon spectrum of titanates with the structure of pyrochlore R 2Ti2O7 ( R = Gd-Lu). The frequencies and types of fundamental vibrations have been found. For R = Tb, Tm, and Yb, this calculation has been carried out for the first time; furthermore, there is no available information on experimental studies of the phonon spectrum for Tm and Yb. The influence of hydrostatic pressure to 35 GPa on the structure, dynamics, and elastic properties of the Gd2Ti2O7 lattice has been investigated. The dependence of the phonon frequencies on the pressure has been obtained. The calculations have predicted that the relative change in the pyrochlore structure volume during compression at pressures to 35 GPa is well described by the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of states. The results of the calculations agree with the available experimental data. It has been shown that the structural, dynamic, and elastic properties of the R 2Ti2O7 crystal lattice can be adequately described in the case where the inner shells of the RE ion up to 4 f are replaced by the pseudopotential.

  18. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of a new family of tetra-nuclear {Mn2(III)Ln2}(Ln = Dy, Gd, Tb, Ho) clusters with an arch-type topology: single-molecule magnetism behavior in the dysprosium and terbium analogues.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Bag, Prasenjit; Speldrich, Manfred; van Leusen, Jan; Kgerler, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Sequential reaction of Mn(II) and lanthanide(III) salts with a new multidentate ligand, 2,2'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzylazanediyl)diethanol (LH3), containing two flexible ethanolic arms, one phenolic oxygen, and a methoxy group afforded heterometallic tetranuclear complexes [Mn2Dy2(LH)4(?-OAc)2](NO3)22CH3OH3H2O (1), [Mn2Gd2(LH)4(?-OAc)2](NO3)22CH3OH3H2O (2), [Mn2Tb2(LH)4(?-OAc)2](NO3)22H2O2CH3OHEt2O (3), and [Mn2Ho2(LH)4(?-OAc)2]Cl25CH3OH (4). All of these dicationic complexes possess an arch-like structural topology containing a central Mn(III)-Ln-Ln-Mn(III) core. The two central lanthanide ions are connected via two phenolate oxygen atoms. The remaining ligand manifold assists in linking the central lanthanide ions with the peripheral Mn(III) ions. Four doubly deprotonated LH(2-) chelating ligands are involved in stabilizing the tetranuclear assembly. A magnetochemical analysis reveals that single-ion effects dominate the observed susceptibility data for all compounds, with comparably weak LnLn and very weak LnMn(III) couplings. The axial, approximately square-antiprismatic coordination environment of the Ln(3+) ions in 1-4 causes pronounced zero-field splitting for Tb(3+), Dy(3+), and Ho(3+). For 1 and 3, the onset of a slowing down of the magnetic relaxation was observed at temperatures below approximately 5 K (1) and 13 K (3) in frequency-dependent alternating current (AC) susceptibility measurements, yielding effective relaxation energy barriers of ?E = 16.8 cm(-1) (1) and 33.8 cm(-1) (3). PMID:23614464

  19. Luminescent properties of Tb3+ and Gd3+ ions doped aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glasses.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chenggang; Lu, Anxian; Zhu, Ligang; Zhou, Zhihua; Long, Woyun

    2011-11-01

    Tb(3+) and Gd(3+) ions doped lithium-barium-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glasses have been prepared. The transmission, emission and excitation spectra were measured. It has been found that those Tb(3+)-doped lithium-barium-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glasses exhibit good UV-excited luminescence. The luminescence intensity of Tb(3+) ion increases for those (Tb(3+), Gd(3+))-codoped glasses. Energy transfer process from Gd(3+) ion to Tb(3+) ion is indicated. PMID:21831699

  20. Trinuclear heterobimetallic Ni2Ln complexes [L2Ni2Ln][ClO4] (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er; LH3=(S)P[N(Me)NCH-C6H3-2-OH-3-OMe]3): from simple paramagnetic complexes to single-molecule magnet behavior.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Pandian, Balasubramanian Murugesa; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy; Steiner, Alexander; Vittal, Jagadese J; Houri, Ahmad; Clrac, Rodolphe

    2008-06-01

    The reaction of LH3 with Ni(ClO4)(2).6H 2O and lanthanide salts in a 2:2:1 ratio in the presence of triethylamine leads to the formation of the trinuclear complexes [L2Ni2Ln][ClO4] (Ln=La (2), Ce (3), Pr (4), Nd (5), Sm (6), Eu (7), Gd (8), Tb (9), Dy (10), Ho (11) and Er (12) and L: (S)P[N(Me)NCH-C6H3-2-O-3-OMe]3). The cationic portion of these complexes consists of three metal ions that are arranged in a linear manner. The two terminal nickel(II) ions are coordinated by imino and phenolate oxygen atoms (3N, 3O), whereas the central lanthanide ion is bound to the phenolate and methoxy oxygen atoms (12O). The Ni-Ni separations in these complexes range from 6.84 to 6.48 A. The Ni-Ni, Ni-Ln and Ln-O phenolate bond distances in 2-12 show a gradual reduction proceeding from 2 to 12 in accordance with lanthanide contraction. Whereas all of the compounds (2-12) are paramagnetic systems, 8 displays a remarkable ST=(11)/2 ground state induced by an intramolecular Ni. . .Gd ferromagnetic interaction, and 10 is a new mixed metal 3d/4f single-molecule magnet generated by the high-spin ground state of the complex and the magnetic anisotropy brought by the dysprosium(III) metal ion. PMID:18459770

  1. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanide(III) thioarsenates [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n (Ln==Sm, Eu, Gd) and [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] (Ln==Tb, Dy, Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Tang, Chunying; Chen, Ruihong; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dingxian

    2013-10-01

    Solvothermal reactions of Ln2O3, As and S in diethylenetriamine (dien) at 170 °C for 6 days afforded two structural types of lanthanide thioarsenates with the general formulae [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3)] and [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] [Ln=Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6)]. The Ln2O3 oxides were converted to [Ln(dien)2]3+ complex units in the solvothermal reactions. The As atom binds four S atoms, forming a tetrahedral AsS4 unit. In 1-3, the AsS4 units interconnect the [Ln(dien)2]3+ cations via Ln-S bonds as tridentate μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4 bridging ligands, resulting in the neutral coordination polymers [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n (Ln1). In 4-6, the AsS4 units coordinate with the Ln3+ ion of [Ln(dien)2]3+ as 1κ2-AsS4 chelating ligands to form neutral coordination compounds [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] (Ln2). The Ln3+ ions are in nine- and eight-coordinated environments in Ln1 and Ln2, respectively. The formation of Ln1 and Ln2 is related with ionic size of the Ln3+ ions. Optical absorption spectra showed that 1-6 have potential use as semiconductors with the band gaps in the range 2.18-3.21 eV.

  2. Magnetic order of Y3NiSi3-type R3NiSi3 (R=Gd-DY) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Nirmala, R.; Malik, S. K.; Quezado, S.; Yao, Jinlei; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Nigam, A. K.; Isnard, O.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic measurements and neutron powder diffraction investigations on the Y3NiSi3-type R3NiSi3 compounds (R=Gd, Tb, Dy) reveal their complex antiferromagnetic ordering. Magnetic measurements on Gd3NiSi3, Tb3NiSi3 and Dy3NiSi3 indicate antiferromagnetic-like transition at temperatures 260 K, 202 K and 140 K, respectively. Also, the Tb3NiSi3 and Dy3NiSi3 compounds show spin-reorientation transition at 132 K and 99 K, respectively. Below the spin-reorientation transition, the isothermal magnetization curves indicate the metamagnetic-like behavior of Tb3NiSi3 and Dy3NiSi3. The magnetocaloric effect of Dy3NiSi3 is calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches a maximum value of -1.2 J/kg K and -1.1 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near 146 K and 92 K, respectively. The neutron diffraction studies of Tb3NiSi3 suggest the magnetic ordering of the Tb2 4j sublattice and no magnetic ordering of the Tb1 2a sublattice. Tb3NiSi3 transforms from the high temperature paramagnetic state to the commensurate high-temperature a- and c-axis antiferromagnet of I‧2/m magnetic space group below 250 K. Below 150 K, the high-temperature antiferromagnet transforms into the low-temperature a-, b- and c-axis antiferromagnet of I‧i magnetic space group. At 1.5 K, the terbium magnetic moment in Tb2 sublattice and its a-, b- and c-axis components reach the values of MTb2=8.2(1) μB, MaTb2=5.9(1) μB, MbTb2=4.3(2) μB and McTb2=3.7(2) μB, respectively.

  3. Magnetic properties of RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C (R = Pr, Sm, Dy and Tb)

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Z.; Dhar, S.K.; Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, L.C.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Godart, C.

    1995-11-01

    The authors report here the results of magnetization and heat capacity measurements on RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C (R = Pr, Sm, Dy and Tb). Sm, Dy and Tb compounds order magnetically at {approx}10 K, 11 K and 15 K respectively. Dy and Tb compounds show field induced magnetic transitions. In the new compound, PrNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C, magnetic susceptibility measured under zero field cooled and field cooled conditions show a significant difference.

  4. Angle-Resolved Photoemission Study of the Evolution of Band Structure And Charge Density Wave Properties in Rte (3) (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, And Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Brouet, V.; Yang, W.L.; Zhou, X.J.; Hussain, Z.; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D.H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.

    2009-05-12

    We present a detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of the RTe{sub 3} family, which sets this system as an ideal 'textbook' example for the formation of a nesting driven charge density wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDW instabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi surface (up to 0.4 eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k space. An additional advantage of RTe{sub 3} is that the band structure can be very accurately described by a simple two dimensional tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure by comparing our ARPES measurements with the linear muffin-tin orbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R, and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDW interaction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n(E{sub F}), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  5. Extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of Gd and Tb ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, D.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2010-11-15

    Theoretical extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of gadolinium and terbium ions calculated with the Cowan suite of codes and the flexible atomic code (FAC) relativistic code are presented. 4d-4f and 4p-4d transitions give rise to unresolved transition arrays in a range of ions. The effects of configuration interaction are investigated for transitions between singly excited configurations. Optimization of emission at 6.775 nm and 6.515 nm is achieved for Gd and Tb ions, respectively, by consideration of plasma effects. The resulting synthetic spectra are compared with experimental spectra recorded using the laser produced plasma technique.

  6. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanide(III) thioarsenates [Ln(dien){sub 2}(?-1?,2?{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} (Ln==Sm, Eu, Gd) and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1?{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] (Ln==Tb, Dy, Ho)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fang; Tang, Chunying; Chen, Ruihong; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dingxian

    2013-10-15

    Solvothermal reactions of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, As and S in diethylenetriamine (dien) at 170 C for 6 days afforded two structural types of lanthanide thioarsenates with the general formulae [Ln(dien){sub 2}(?-1?,2?{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3)] and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1?{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] [Ln=Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6)]. The Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides were converted to [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} complex units in the solvothermal reactions. The As atom binds four S atoms, forming a tetrahedral AsS{sub 4} unit. In 1?3, the AsS{sub 4} units interconnect the [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} cations via Ln?S bonds as tridentate ?-1?,2?{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4} bridging ligands, resulting in the neutral coordination polymers [Ln(dien){sub 2}(?-1?,2?{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} (Ln1). In 4?6, the AsS{sub 4} units coordinate with the Ln{sup 3+} ion of [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} as 1?{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4} chelating ligands to form neutral coordination compounds [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1?{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] (Ln2). The Ln{sup 3+} ions are in nine- and eight-coordinated environments in Ln1 and Ln2, respectively. The formation of Ln1 and Ln2 is related with ionic size of the Ln{sup 3+} ions. Optical absorption spectra showed that 1?6 have potential use as semiconductors with the band gaps in the range 2.18?3.21 eV. - Graphical abstract: Two types of Ln-thioarsenates [Ln(dien){sub 2}(?-1?,2?{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1?{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] were prepared by solvothermal methods and the soft Lewis basic AsS{sub 4}{sup 3} ligand to Ln(III) centers with polyamine co-ligand was obtained. Display Omitted - Highlights: Lanthanide thioarsenates were prepared by solvothermal methods. The soft Lewis basic AsS{sub 4} ligand coordinate Ln{sup 3+} ions with coexistence polyamine ligands. Two structural types of Ln-thioarsenates with structural turnover at Tb were obtained along Ln series. The Ln-thioarsenates are potential semiconductors with optical band gaps in the range 2.18?3.21 eV.

  7. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of core-shell structure CePO4:Tb/GdPO4 and GdPO4/CePO4:Tb nanophosphors and their photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yao-yao; Hu, Zong-chao; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Ling

    2013-02-01

    CePO4:Tb, CePO4:Tb/GdPO4, GdPO4/CePO4:Tb and (Ce, Tb, Gd)PO4 (4-8) nm (35-73) nm sized nanobars with the hexagonal crystal system have been obtained by ultrasonic-assisted synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectrum, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL). The shell thickness of CePO4:Tb/GdPO4 and GdPO4/CePO4:Tb core/shell structure is 1.04 nm and 1.10 nm respectively. Under ultraviolet excitation, these nanophosphors show Tb3+ characteristic emission, 5D4-7FJ (J = {6, 5, 4, 3}) and the fluorescence of CePO4:Tb/GdPO4 and GdPO4/CePO4:Tb increases superficially compared with CePO4:Tb and the co-precipitated (Ce, Tb, Gd)PO4. The photoluminescence intensity of CePO4:Tb/GdPO4 is 33 times, 7 times, 2 times as high as that of CePO4:Tb, GdPO4/CePO4:Tb and (Ce, Tb, Gd)PO4, respectively. It is worth mentioning that the increasing amount of intensity of CePO4:Tb/GdPO4 is double than that of GdPO4/CePO4:Tb. A possible formation mechanism for the fluorescent efficiency enhancement has been proposed. The results are helpful in developing effective phosphors and have potential applications in field emission display (FED) and plasma display panels (PDP).

  8. Defect-dicubane Ni2Ln2 (Ln = Dy, Tb) single molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Kostakis, George E; Lan, Yanhua; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2011-11-21

    Two pairs of Ni(2)Dy(2) and Ni(2)Tb(2) complexes, [Ni(2)Ln(2)(L)(4)(NO(3))(2)(DMF)(2)] {Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2)} and [Ni(2)Ln(2)(L)(4)(NO(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)]3MeOH {Ln = Dy (3), Tb (4)} (H(2)L is the Schiff base resulting from the condensation of o-vanillin and 2-aminophenol) possessing a defect-dicubane core topology were synthesized and characterized. All four complexes are ferromagnetically coupled, and the two Dy-analogues are found to be Single Molecule Magnets (SMMs) with energy barriers in the range 18-28 K. Compound 1 displays step-like hysteresis loops, confirming the SMM behavior. Although 1 and 3 show very similar structural topologies, the dynamic properties of 1 and 3 are different with blocking temperatures (3.2 and 4.2 K at a frequency of 1500 Hz) differing by 1 K. This appears to result from a change in orientation of the nitrate ligands on the Dy(III) ions, induced by changes in ligands on Ni(II). PMID:22022951

  9. Spectroscopy and energy transfer in lead borate glasses doubly doped with Dy(3)(+)-Tb(3+) and Tb(3)(+)-Eu(3+) ions.

    PubMed

    Pisarska, Joanna; Kos, Agnieszka; Pisarski, Wojciech A

    2014-08-14

    Lead borate glasses doubly doped with Dy(3)(+)-Tb(3+) and Tb(3+)-Eu(3+) were investigated using optical spectroscopy. Luminescence spectra of rare earths were detected under various excitation wavelengths. The main green emission band due to (5)D4→(7)F5 transition of Tb(3+) is observed under excitation of Dy(3+), whereas the main red emission band related to (5)D0→(7)F2 transition of Eu(3+) is successfully observed under direct excitation of Tb(3+). In both cases, the energy transfer processes from Dy(3+) to Tb(3+) and from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) in lead borate glasses occur through a nonradiative processes with efficiencies up to 16% and 18%, respectively. The presence of energy transfer process was also confirmed by excitation spectra measurements. PMID:24824577

  10. The magnetostriction and its ratio to hysteresis for Tb-Dy-Ho-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bowen; Lv, Yan; Li, Guolu; Huang, Wenmei; Sun, Ying; Cui, Baozhi

    2014-05-01

    The x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe2) + (1 - x)(Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2) alloys were prepared in an arc furnace under high purity argon. The as-cast samples wrapped in Mo foil were sealed in a silica tube filled with high purity argon. The static measurement of magnetostriction (?//, ??) was made by standard strain gauge, and the magnetization M was measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that the magnetostriction ?// of x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe2) + (1 - x)(Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2) alloys decreases with increasing x and it does from 880 10-6 for x = 0 to 210 10-6 for x = 0.9 at the magnetic field of 640 kA/m. The ratio (?///Wh) of magnetostriction to hysteresis exhibits a peak when x = 0.1, and it means that the Tb0.285Dy0.63Ho0.085Fe2 (x = 0.1) alloy possesses both large magnetostriction and small magnetostrictive hysteresis.

  11. Preparation and luminescent properties of GdOF:Ce, Tb nanoparticles and their transparent PMMA nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wen; Wang, Aiwu; Fu, Li; Hu, Jie; Rao, Tingke; Wang, Junqing; Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong

    2015-05-01

    GdOF:Ce, Tb nanoparticles and their poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites have been successfully prepared by a thermolysis route and thermal polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, respectively. The obtained nanoparticles and nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, EDS, TEM, FTIR, TGA, UV-Vis and PL spectrum. The as-synthesized transparent GdOF:Ce, Tb/PMMA nanocomposites exhibit green photoluminescence under the irradiation of 254 nm UV lamp due to the incorporation of luminescent GdOF:Ce, Tb nanoparticles into the PMMA matrix. The present route would provide a general strategy to prepare other functional nanocomposites.

  12. Measurements of 152Gd(p ,γ )153Tb and 152Gd(p ,n )152Tb reaction cross sections for the astrophysical γ process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güray, R. T.; Özkan, N.; Yalçın, C.; Rauscher, T.; Gyürky, Gy.; Farkas, J.; Fülöp, Zs.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.

    2015-05-01

    The total cross sections for the 152Gd(p ,γ )153Tb and 152Gd(p ,n) 152Tb reactions have been measured by the activation method at effective center-of-mass energies 3.47 ≤Ec.m .eff≤7.94 MeV and 4.96 ≤Ec.m .eff≤7.94 MeV, respectively. The targets were prepared by evaporation of 30.6% isotopically enriched 152Gd oxide on aluminum backing foils, and bombarded with proton beams provided by a cyclotron accelerator. The cross sections were deduced from the observed γ -ray activity, which was detected off-line by an HPGe detector in a low background environment. The results are presented and compared with predictions of statistical model calculations. This comparison supports a modified optical proton+152Gd potential suggested earlier.

  13. Magnetic Properties of RB66 (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, and Lu)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Budko, Serguei; ATanatar, Makariy; Avdashchenko, D.V.; Matovnikov, A.V.; Mitroshenkov, N.V.; Novikov, V.V.; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2012-05-17

    We report magnetic susceptibility measurements of RB66 (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, and Lu) boron-rich rare earth containing borides down to 50 mK. The data suggest a spin glass low temperature state for RB66 (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er) with the freezing temperatures below 1 K. The magnetic properties appear to be influenced by the anisotropy of the magnetic moments, probably via the crystalline electric field effects.

  14. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-Dy-Gd-Zr alloys for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Huang, Y; Feyerabend, F; Willumeit, R; Mendis, C; Kainer, K U; Hort, N

    2013-11-01

    In previous investigations, a Mg-10Dy (wt.%) alloy with a good combination of corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility showed great potential for use as a biodegradable implant material. However, the mechanical properties of Mg-10Dy alloy are not satisfactory. In order to allow the tailoring of mechanical properties required for various medical applications, four Mg-10(Dy+Gd)-0.2Zr (wt.%) alloys were investigated with respect to microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties. With the increase in Gd content, the number of second-phase particles increased in the as-cast alloys, and the age-hardening response increased at 200C. The yield strength increased, while the ductility reduced, especially for peak-aged alloys with the addition of Gd. Additionally, with increasing Gd content, the corrosion rate increased in the as-cast condition owing to the galvanic effect, but all the alloys had a similar corrosion rate (~0.5 mm year(-1)) in solution-treated and aged condition. PMID:23523938

  15. Characterization of {beta}'' precipitate phase in a Mg-Dy-Gd-Nd alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.H. Dong, J.; Zeng, X.Q.; Lu, C.; Ding, W.J.

    2007-10-15

    The morphology and crystal structure of {beta}'' precipitate phases in a Mg-Dy-Gd-Nd system have been studied using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Three orientation relationships have been observed between {beta}'' precipitate phases and the {alpha} matrix phase with the habit plane parallel to {l_brace}112-bar 0{r_brace}{sub {alpha}}. The orientation relationship between the {beta}'' precipitates and the matrix is [0001]{sub {beta}}{sub ''}//[0001]{sub {alpha}}, [11-bar 00]{sub {beta}}{sub ''}//[11-bar 00]{sub {alpha}}. The structure of the {beta}''phase, with the interspaces between Dy/Gd/Nd atoms filled with magnesium atoms, is completely consistent with that of the matrix.

  16. Thermochemical properties of Ln2BaCoO5 (Ln = Nd, Gd, Dy, Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiflova, L. A.; Kovba, M. L.; Monaenkova, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    The enthalpies of the reactions of double rare-earth and barium cobaltites Ln2BaCOO5 (Ln = Nd, Gd, Dy, Ho) and metallic dysprosium with 1 M hydrochloric acid are measured at 298.15 K using precision calorimetric equipment. The standard enthalpies of formation of Ln2BaCoO5 from simple components and binary oxides were calculated from the obtained results and reliable literature data.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of core-shell structured TbPO4:Ce(3+)@TbPO4:Gd(3+) nanocomposites for magnetic resonance and optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Huan; Hu, Wen-yong; Shao, Yuan-zhi

    2014-08-28

    Multi-modal imaging based on multifunctional nanoparticles provides deep, non-invasive and highly sensitive imaging and is a promising alternative approach that can improve the sensitivity of early cancer diagnosis. In this study, two nanoparticles, TbPO4:Ce(3+) and TbPO4:Ce(3+)@TbPO4:Gd(3+), were synthesized via the citric-acid-mediated hydrothermal route, and then systematically characterized by means of microstructure, photoluminescence, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biocompatibility, and bioimaging. The results of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) line scans indicated that TbPO4:Gd(3+) nanoshells about 5 nm in thickness were successfully coated on the TbPO4:Ce(3+) nanocores. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicated that the core-shell nanocomposites had a single crystal structure. The photoluminescence of the TbPO4:Ce(3+)@TbPO4:Gd(3+) and TbPO4:Ce(3+) nanoparticles was greatly intensified by 200 times and 100 times, respectively, compared with pure TbPO4 nanoparticles. In vitro cytotoxicity tests based on the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that the monodispersed nanoparticles of TbPO4:Ce(3+)@TbPO4:Gd(3+) had low toxicity. The intracellular luminescence of the nanoparticles after being internalized by HeLa cells was also observed using confocal fluorescence microscopes. MRI showed that the nanoshells of Gd-doped TbPO4 possessed a longitudinal relaxivity of 4.067 s(-1) mM(-1), which is comparable to that of the commercial MRI contrast Gd-TDPA. As a result, the core-shell structured TbPO4:Ce(3+)@TbPO4:Gd(3+) nanoparticles can potentially serve as multifunctional nanoprobes for both optical biolabels and MRI contrast agents. PMID:24985564

  18. Synthesis, characterization and luminescence studies in ZrO2:Dy3+ and ZrO2:Dy3+, Gd3+ films deposited by the Pyrosol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martnez-Olmos, R. C.; Guzmn-Mendoza, J.; Bez-Rodrguez, A.; lvarez-Fragoso, O.; Garca-Hiplito, M.; Falcony, C.

    2015-08-01

    ZrO2, ZrO2:Dy3+ and ZrO2:Dy3+, Gd3+ films were synthesized using the Pyrosol technique. These films have a ZrO2-metastable tetragonal crystalline structure, which is better defined as the deposition temperature increases. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of these films were studied as a function of deposition parameters such as substrate temperature and Dy3+ and Gd3+ relative concentrations. All luminescent emission spectra showed the typical electronic transitions 4f ? 4f of the Dy3+ ions at 480, 574 and 655 nm. The luminescent intensity is observed to increase with the Dy3+ ion concentration up to 7 at.% in the spraying solution (1.8 at.% inside films), higher concentration result in an inhibition of the luminescence. Incorporation of Gd3+ ions in ZrO2:Dy3+ films produced a marked increase in the luminescent emission intensity (approximately 15 times). The elemental composition and surface morphology of these films are also reported.

  19. High-efficient, bicolor-emitting GdVO4:Dy3+ phosphor under near ultraviolet excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinjin; Zhou, Jia; Jia, Huayu; Tian, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Bicolor emitting GdVO4:Dy3+ phosphor with short columniation-shape was prepared via a simple co-precipitation process. The optimal doping concentration for obtaining maximal luminescent intensity was confirmed to be 0.3 mol% and the electric dipole-dipole interaction is responsible for concentration quenching of Dy3+ emission in GdVO4 phosphor. In order to evaluate the luminescent performance of as-prepared phosphor, the luminescent efficiency and color coordinates were studied. The results show that luminescent efficiency of this phosphor is very high under near UV excitation and twice times higher than commercial Y2O2S:Eu3+ phosphor. In addition, the color coordinates for optimal Dy3+ concentration are (0.339, 0.379), which are close to equal energy point. Therefore, the GdVO4:Dy3+ phosphor may have potential application for solid state lighting.

  20. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Transparent Nanocrystalline GdF3:Tb Glass-Ceramic Scintillator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Savage, Nicholas; Wagner, Brent; Zhang, Yuelan; Jacobs, Benjamin; Menkara, Hisham; Summers, Christopher; Kang, Zhitao

    2014-01-01

    Transparent glass-ceramic containing rare-earth doped halide nanocrystals exhibits enhanced luminescence performance. In this study, a glass-ceramic with Tb doped gadolinium fluoride nanocrystals embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix is investigated for X-ray imaging applications. The nanocrystalline glass-ceramic scintillator was prepared by a melt-quench method followed by an anneal. The GdF3:Tb nanocrystals precipitated within the oxide glass matrix during the processing and their luminescence and scintillation properties were investigated. In this nanocomposite scintillator system, the incorporation of high atomic number Gd compound into the glass matrix increases the X-ray stopping power of the glass scintillator, and effective energy transfer between Gd3+ and Tb3+ ions in the nanocrystals enhances the scintillation efficiency. PMID:24610960

  1. A comparative study of the optical properties of TbRhGe and DyRhGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, Yu. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Kuz'min, Yu. I.; Gupta, Sachin; Suresh, K. G.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, experimental and theoretical optical properties of TbRhGe and DyRhGe have been reported and compared. Our measurements by the ellipsometric method in the wavelength range 0.22-15 ?m revealed significant differences in energy positions of the interband peaks in the spectral functions of these ternary compounds. The electronic structure of TbRhGe and DyRhGe calculated within the LSDA + U method was used to obtain theoretical optical conductivity, which is in good agreement with the experimental one. Further analysis allowed us to track changes in interband transitions related to the rare-earth 4f and rhodium 4d states, which are responsible for the observed differences in optical properties of TbRhGe and DyRhGe compounds.

  2. Single crystals of Tb 0.3Dy 0.7Fe 2 grown by Czochralski method with cold crucible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing-lan; Gao, Shu-xia; Wang, Wen-hong; Zhang, Ming; Wu, Guang-heng; Li, Yang-xian; Qu, Jing-ping; Xu, Gui-zhi

    2002-03-01

    Sngle crystals of Tb 0.3Dy 0.7Fe 2 have been obtained by CZ technique with cold crucible. The formation mechanism of defects such as RFe 3 strips, Widmanstatten precipitates (WSP), twins and inclusions were investigated in detail. They are generated by different phase relations and conditions of solidification. The geometrical morphology depends on the crystallographic orientation or the position of the interface. The relationship between growth conditions and compositions of starting materials has been discussed based on the normal freezing theory for rare earth-rich growth environment. Various growth rates were selected for growing defect-free single crystals of Tb 0.3Dy 0.7Fe 2. Optimized conditions are a growth rate of 10-30 mm/h, temperature gradient of 110-140C/cm and starting composition of Tb 0.3Dy 0.7Fe y ( y=1.78-1.85).

  3. Magnetic properties of NiFe2-xRExO4 (RE=Dy, Gd) using magnetic Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahariya, Jagrati; Mund, H. S.; Sharma, Arvind; Dashora, Alpa; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Ahuja, B. L.

    2014-06-01

    Temperature dependent spin momentum densities of NiFe2-xRExO4 (x=0, 0.05; RE=Dy, Gd) ferrites have been measured using a magnetic Compton spectrometer available at SPring-8, Japan. The experimental profiles of NiFe2O4 (NFO) with doping of Dy and Gd show almost similar spin moment as of undoped NFO. The contribution of different constituents in the formation of total spin moment is also deduced from the analysis of Compton line shape. It is seen that 5% doping of Dy3+ or Gd3+ ions at Fe3+ sites leads to a redistribution of spin moment at Fe3+ and RE3+ sites. The magnetic Compton data when compared with the magnetization data (using a vibrating sample magnetometer) show almost a constant orbital moment (0.210.03 B/f.u.) in the doped and undoped NFO.

  4. Multicolor tunable luminescence and paramagnetic properties of NaGdF?:Tb?/Sm? multifunctional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hongxia; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Jinxian; Dong, Xiangting; Yu, Wensheng

    2014-07-28

    Tb(3+) and/or Sm(3+) doped NaGdF4 luminescent nanomaterials have been successfully synthesized by an SDS-assisted one-step hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results show that the synthesized samples are all pure ?-NaGdF4. The as-prepared Tb(3+) or Sm(3+) doped samples show strong green and yellow emission, originating from the allowed (5)D3?(7)F(J) (J = 5, 4, 3, 2) and (5)D4?(7)F(J) (J = 6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of the Tb(3+) ions and the (4)G(5/2)?(6)H(5/2), (6)H(7/2), (6)H(9/2) transition of the Sm(3+) ions. Based on the excitation wavelengths, multiple (yellowish green, yellow, white) emissions are obtained by Sm(3+) ion co-activated NaGdF4:Tb(3+) phosphors. Moreover, an energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Sm(3+) is observed, which is justified through the luminescence spectra and the fluorescence decay curves. Furthermore, the resonance-type energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Sm(3+) is demonstrated to occur via the dipole-dipole mechanism. In addition, the obtained samples also exhibit paramagnetic properties at room temperature. It is obvious that these multifunctional Tb(3+), Sm(3+) co-doped ?-NaGdF4 nanomaterials, with tunable multicolors and intrinsic paramagnetic properties, may have potential application in the fields of full-color displays, biological labels, bioseparation and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24882267

  5. White light generation in Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-01-01

    A spectroscopic investigation of Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass focused on generation of white light is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time measurements. The white light emission obtained in the glass phosphor shows excitation wavelength dependent tunable tonality: neutral white (0.385, 0.441) of 4250 K and warm white (0.417, 0.412) of 3429 K, upon 445 and 322 nm excitations, respectively. A quantum yield of 26.1 ± 1.2% is attained upon Dy3+ excitation at 445 nm. The white luminescence is due mainly to terbium 5D4 → 7F5, dysprosium 4F9/2 → 6H15/2,13/2 and europium 5D0 → 7F2 transitions. It is demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfers Dy3+ to Tb3+ and Eu3+, and Tb3+ to Eu3+, take place in the glass phosphor excited at 445 or 322 nm. Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass, excited by AlGaN (322 nm) or InGaN (445 nm) LEDs, could then be appropriated for solid state lighting technology as neutral or warm white light phosphors.

  6. Anion disorder in lanthanoid zirconates Gd(2-x)Tb(x)Zr2O7.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Emily; Blanchard, Peter E R; Kennedy, Brendan J; Ling, Chris D; Liu, Samuel; Avdeev, Max; Zhang, Zhaoming; Cuello, Gabriel J; Tadich, Anton; Jang, Ling-Yun

    2013-08-01

    The pyrochlore-defect fluorite order-disorder transition has been studied for a series of oxides of the type Gd(2-x)Tb(x)Zr2O7 by a combination of diffraction and spectroscopy techniques. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data suggest an abrupt transition from the coexistence of pyrochlore and defect fluorite phases to a single defect fluorite phase with increasing Tb content. However neutron diffraction data, obtained at ? ? 0.497 for all Gd-containing samples to minimize absorption, not only provide evidence for independent ordering of the anion and cation sublattices but also suggest that the disorder transition across the pyrochlore-defect fluorite boundary of Ln2Zr2O7 is rather gradual. Such disorder was also evident in X-ray absorption measurements at the Zr L3-edge, which showed a gradual increase in the effective coordination number of the Zr from near 6-coordinate in the pyrochlore rich samples to near 7-coordinate in the Tb rich defect fluorites. These results indicate the presence of ordered domains throughout the defect fluorite region, and demonstrate the gradual nature of the order-disorder transition across the Gd(2-x)Tb(x)Zr2O7 series. PMID:23844979

  7. Static and dynamic magnetic properties and interplay of Dy3+, Gd3+ and Mn3+ spins in orthorhombic DyMnO3 and GdMnO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Raja; Jaiswal, Adhish; Poddar, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    Single-phase orthorhombic DyMnO3 and GdMnO3 nanoparticles in the size range 60-70 and 35-45 nm, respectively, were synthesized using a modified hydrothermal method. The magnetic property measurements of DyMnO3 nanocrystals show anomalies around ˜43 K (antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling between Mn3+ spins) and at 7 K in the form of a peak in the zero-field-cooled curve (AFM coupling between Dy3+ spins). Whereas, GdMnO3 undergoes a phase transition at ˜42 K from paramagnetic to an incommensurate-antiferromagnetic phase (ICAFM) followed by a second anomaly at ˜22 K, which could be associated with the transition from ICAFM into a canted A-type AFM ordering of the Mn3+ spins. This transition is followed by a long-range ordering of the Gd3+ moments at 6 K yielding the canting of the Gd3+ spins with a ferromagnetic (FM) component antiparallel to the FM moment of the canted Mn3+ spins. No anomaly near the Néel temperature of the Mn moments for both DyMnO3 and GdMnO3 nanoparticles was observed in ac magnetization which were observed in dc magnetization. The room temperature Raman spectra of DyMnO3 shows two most intense Raman modes at 480 and 609 cm-1 which can be assigned to an antisymmetric Jahn-Teller stretching mode and a symmetric or breathing stretching mode, respectively, involving Mn-O bond stretching.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of LnBa2Cu3O6 + z (Ln = Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb, and Y) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovba, M. L.; Voskov, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    Thermodynamic properties of superconductors of LnBa2Cu3O6 + z (Ln = Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb, and Y) are determined by means of EMF using fluoro-ion electrolyte in the temperature range of 900-1250 K. Comparative analyses of the experimental data and thermodynamic models is performed for YBa2Cu3O6 + z compound.

  9. Brilliant Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy chiral lanthanide complexes withstrong circularly polarized luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Petoud, Stephane; Muller, Gilles; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Sokolnicki, Jurek; Riehl, James P.; Le, Uyen; Cohen, Seth M.; Raymond,Kenneth N.

    2006-07-10

    The synthesis, characterization and luminescent behavior of trivalent Sm, Eu, Dy and Tb complexes of two enantiomeric, octadentate, chiral, 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands are reported. These complexes are highly luminescent in solution. Functionalization of the achiral parent ligand with a chiral 1-phenylethylamine substituent on the open face of the complex in close proximity to the metal center yields complexes with strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. This appears to be the first example of a system utilizing the same ligand architecture to sensitize four different lanthanide cations and display CPL activity. The luminescence dissymmetry factor, g{sub lum}, recorded for the Eu(III) complex is one of the highest values reported, and this is the first time the CPL effect has been demonstrated for a Sm(III) complex with a chiral ligand. The combination of high luminescence intensity with CPL activity should enable new bioanalytical applications of macromolecules in chiral environments.

  10. Magnetochromic effect in multiferroic R In 1 ₋ x Mn x O 3 ( R = Tb , Dy)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, P.; Holinsworth, B. S.; O'Neal, K. R.; Brinzari, T. V.; Mazumdar, D.; Topping, C. V.; Luo, X.; Cheong, S.-W.; Singleton, J.; McGill, S.; et al

    2015-05-26

    We combined high field magnetization and magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate spin-charge coupling in Mn-substituted rare-earth indium oxides of chemical formula RIn₁₋xMnxO₃ (R=Tb, Dy). The edge states, on-site Mn³⁺d to d excitations, and rare-earth f-manifold excitations all track the magnetization energy due to dominant Zeeman interactions. The field-induced modifications to the rare-earth excitations are quite large because spin-orbit coupling naturally mixes spin and charge, suggesting that the next logical step in the design strategy should be to bring spin-orbit coupling onto the trigonal bipyramidal chromophore site with a 4 or 5d center.

  11. Magnetochromic effect in multiferroic R In1 -xMnxO3 (R =Tb , Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Holinsworth, B. S.; O'Neal, K. R.; Brinzari, T. V.; Mazumdar, D.; Topping, C. V.; Luo, X.; Cheong, S.-W.; Singleton, J.; McGill, S.; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    We combined high field magnetization and magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate spin-charge coupling in Mn-substituted rare-earth indium oxides of chemical formula R In1 -xMnxO3 (R =Tb , Dy). The edge states, on-site Mn3 +d to d excitations, and rare-earth f -manifold excitations all track the magnetization energy due to dominant Zeeman interactions. The field-induced modifications to the rare-earth excitations are quite large because spin-orbit coupling naturally mixes spin and charge, suggesting that the next logical step in the design strategy should be to bring spin-orbit coupling onto the trigonal bipyramidal chromophore site with a 4 or 5 d center.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure, optical and thermal properties of lanthanide hydrogen-polyphosphates Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho).

    PubMed

    Frg, Katharina; Hppe, Henning A

    2015-11-28

    Lanthanide hydrogen-polyphosphates Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho) were synthesised as colourless (Ln = Tb, Dy) and light pink (Ln = Ho) crystalline powders by reaction of Tb4O7/Dy2O3/Ho2O3 with H3PO3 at 380 C. All compounds crystallise isotypically (P21/c (no. 14), Z = 4, aTb = 1368.24(4) pm, bTb = 710.42(2) pm, cTb = 965.79(3) pm, ?Tb = 101.200(1), 3112 data, 160 parameters, wR2 = 0.062, aHo = 1363.34(5) pm, bHo = 709.24(3) pm, cHo = 959.07(4) pm, ?Ho = 101.055(1), 1607 data, 158 parameters, wR2 = 0.058). The crystal structure comprises two different infinite helical chains of corner-sharing phosphate tetrahedra. In-between these chains the lanthanide ions are located, coordinated by seven oxygen atoms belonging to four different polyphosphate chains. Vibrational, UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra of Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho) as well as Dy[H(PO3)4]:Ln (Ln = Ce, Eu) and the magnetic and thermal behaviour of Tb[H(PO3)4] are reported. PMID:26485151

  13. Competing ?-rigid and ?-stable vibrations in neutron-rich Gd and Dy isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budaca, R.; Budaca, A. I.

    2015-10-01

    An exactly separable version of the Bohr Hamiltonian which combines the ?-stable and ?-rigid axial vibration-rotation is used to describe the collective properties of few neutron-rich transitional nuclei. The coupling between the two types of collective motion is managed through a rigidity parameter which also influences the geometry of the shape phase space. While the ?-angular part of the problem associated to axially symmetric shapes is treated within the small angles approximation and the stiff ? oscillation hypothesis, the ? vibration is described by means of a Davidson potential. The resulting model have three free parameters not counting the scale and was successfully applied for the description of the collective spectra for few heavier isotopes of Gd and Dy. In both cases a critical nucleus was identified through a discontinuous behavior in respect to the rigidity parameter and relevant experimental observables.

  14. Laser-plasma source parameters for Kr, Gd, and Tb ions at 6.6 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Masnavi, Majid; Szilagyi, John; Parchamy, Homaira; Richardson, Martin C.

    2013-04-22

    There is increasing interest in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) laser-based lamps for sub-10-nm lithography operating in the region of 6.6 nm. A collisional-radiative model is developed as a post-processor of a hydrodynamic code to investigate emission from resonance lines in Kr, Gd, and Tb ions under conditions typical for mass-limited EUV sources. The analysis reveals that maximum conversion efficiencies of Kr occur at 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}W/cm{sup 2}, while for Gd and Tb it was Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.9%/2{pi}sr for laser intensities of (2-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Host-sensitized luminescence properties in CaNb2O6:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+)) phosphors with abundant colors.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xuejiao; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A series of Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+)) ion doped CaNb2O6 (CNO) phosphors have been prepared via the conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and structure refinement, diffuse reflection, photoluminescence (PL), and fluorescent decay curves were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. Under UV radiation, the CNO host present a broad emission band from about 355 to 605 nm centered around 460 nm originating from the NbO6 octahedral groups, which has spectral overlaps with the excitation of f-f transitions of Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) samples. They show both host emission and respective emission lines derived from the characteristic f-f transitions of activators, which present different emission colors owing to the energy transfer from the NbO6 group in the host to Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) with increasing activator concentrations. The decreases of decay lifetimes of host emissions in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) demonstrate the energy transfer from the hosts to Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+). The energy transfer mechanisms in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) phosphors have been determined to be a resonant type via dipole-dipole mechanisms. For CNO:Sm(3+), the metal-metal charge transfer transition (MMCT) might contribute to the different variations of decay lifetimes and emission intensity from CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) samples. The best quantum efficiency is 71.2% for CNO:0.01/0.02Dy(3+). The PL properties of as-prepared materials indicate the promising application in UV-pumped white-emitting lighting diodes field. PMID:25495521

  16. Phase diagrams of the Tb-Ag-In and Dy-Ag-In systems at 870 K

    SciTech Connect

    Demchyna, M.; Belan, B.; Manyako, M.; Pietraszko, A.; Kalychak, Ya.

    2012-08-15

    The phase equilibria of Tb-Ag-In and Dy-Ag-In ternary systems have been studied at 870 K in the whole concentration range by means of X-ray powder, single crystal X-ray diffraction and EDX analyses. Isothermal sections of Tb-Ag-In and Dy-Ag-In phase diagrams at this temperature have been constructed. Both systems are characterized by formation of three ternary compounds: REAg{sub 3}In{sub 3} (YbAg{sub 2}In{sub 4}-type, space group Im-3), REAg{sub 2}In (MnCu{sub 2}Al-type, space group Fm-3m) and RE{sub 2}AgIn{sub 3} (CaIn{sub 2}-type, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc) RE=Tb, Dy. Homogeneity ranges of the ternary phases with CaIn{sub 2} structure type lies from 35 to 60 at% of In for Tb-containing phase and from 39 to 50 at% of In for Dy-containing phase. The existence of solid solutions based on REAg (CsCl-type, space group Pm-3m) binary compounds up to 30 at% of In and REIn{sub 3} (AuCu{sub 3}-type, space group Pm-3 m) binary compounds up to 5 at% of Ag has been found. - Graphical Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary systems Tb-Ag-In and Dy-Ag-In have been established for the isothermal section at T=870 K based on X-ray powder and single crystal diffraction analyses. The existence of three ternary compounds in each system were observed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isothermal section of Tb-Ag-In system at T=870 K was constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isothermal section of Dy-Ag-In system at T=870 K was constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ternary compounds and two solid solutions in each system were detected.

  17. Magnetooptics of the luminescent transitions in Tb3+:Gd3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, Uygun V.; Gruber, John B.; Ivanov, Igor'A.; Burdick, Gary W.; Liang, Hongbin; Zhou, Lei; Fu, Dejun; Pelenovich, Oleg V.; Pelenovich, Vasiliy O.; Lin, Zhou

    2015-08-01

    The spectra of the luminescence and magnetic circular polarization of luminescence in terbium-gadolinium gallium garnet Tb3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Tb3+:GGG) were studied within the visible spectral range at temperatures T = 90 and 300 K in an external magnetic field of 0.45 T. The Zeeman effect in the luminescence "green" band associated with 4f ? 4f transition 5D4 ? 7F5 of Tb3+:GGG was also studied at T = 90 K in an external field of 0.55 T. Measurement of the Zeeman effect in Tb3+:GGG carried out for some doublet lines of the luminescence band 5D4 ? 7F5 at T = 90 K shows that a magnetooptical effect of the intensity change of the emitted light is observed on these lines, in contrast to pure Zeeman splitting of the emission lines measured in the luminescence band 5D4 ? 7F6. For the systems we have studied, the maximal value of the magnetooptical effect of the intensity change of the luminescence line at low temperatures has been achieved in paramagnetic garnet Tb0.2Y2.8Al5O12 at comparatively low magnetic fields.

  18. Enhanced photoluminescence of Ba{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6}: Eu{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} phosphors by Li{sup +} doping

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.C.; Liu, X.M.; Yu, M.; Lin, C.K.; Li, C.X.; Wang, H.; Lin, J.

    2007-11-15

    The Ba{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6}: Eu{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} and Li{sup +}-doped Ba{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6}: Eu{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) as well as lifetimes, was utilized to characterize the resulting phosphors. Under the excitation of ultraviolet light, the Ba{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6}: Eu{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} and Li{sup +}-doped Ba{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6}: Eu{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} show the characteristic emissions of Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 1,2,3} transitions dominated by {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 1} at 593 nm) and Dy{sup 3+} ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 15/2},{sub 13/2} transitions dominated by {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} at 494 nm), respectively. The incorporation of Li{sup +} ions into the Ba{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6}: Eu{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} phosphors has enhanced the PL intensities depending on the doping concentration of Li{sup +}, and the highest emission was obtained in Ba{sub 2}Gd{sub 0.9}NbO{sub 6}: 0.10Eu{sup 3+}, 0.01Li{sup +} and Ba{sub 2}Gd{sub 0.95}NbO{sub 6}: 0.05Dy{sup 3+}, 0.07Li{sup +}, respectively. An energy level diagram was proposed to explain the luminescence process in the phosphors. - Graphical abstract: The Ba{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6}: Eu{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} and Li{sup +}-doped Ba{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6}: Eu{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction. The incorporation of Li{sup +} ions into the Ba{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6}: Eu{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} phosphors has enhanced the photoluminescence intensities of Eu{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+}, depending on the doping concentration of Li{sup +}.

  19. Size-dependent magnetic ordering and spin-dynamics in DyPO4 and GdPO4 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelisti, Marco; Sorop, Tibi G; Bakharev, Oleg N; Visser, Dirk; Hillier, Adrian D.; Alonso, Juan; Haase, Markus; Boatner, Lynn A; De Jongh, L. Jos

    2011-01-01

    Low-temperature magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements on nanoparticles (d 2.6 nm) of the antiferromagnetic compounds DyPO4 (TN = 3:4 K) and GdPO4 (TN = 0:77 K) provide clear demonstrations of finite-size effects, which limit the divergence of the magnetic correlation lengths, thereby suppressing the bulk long-range magnetic ordering transitions. Instead, the incomplete antiferromagnetic order inside the particles leads to the formation of net magnetic moments on the particles. For the nanoparticles of Ising-type DyPO4 superparamagnetic blocking is found in the ac-susceptibility at 1 K, those of the XY-type GdPO4 analogue show a dipolar spin-glass transition at 0:2 K. Monte Carlo simulations for the magnetic heat capacities of both bulk and nanoparticle samples are in agreement with the experimental data. Strong size effects are also apparent in the Dy3+ and Gd3+ spin-dynamics, which were studied by zero-field SR relaxation and high-field 31P-NMR nuclear relaxation measurements. The freezing transitions observed in the ac-susceptibility of the nanoparticles also appear as peaks in the temperature dependence of the zero-field SR rates, but at slightly higher temperatures - as to be expected from the higher frequency of the muon probe. For both bulk and nanoparticles of GdPO4, the muon and 31P-NMR rates are for T 5 K dominated by exchange-narrowed hyperfine broadening arising from the electron spin-spin interactions inside the particles. The dipolar hyperfine interactions acting on the muons and the 31P are, however, much reduced in the nanoparticles. For the DyPO4 analogues the high-temperature rates appear to be fully determined by electron spin-lattice relaxation processes.

  20. M (Tm3+, Tb3+, Ho3+, Dy3+, Mn2+)-doped transparent fluorophosphate glasses for white light-emitting-diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Chengguo; Song, Feng; Qin, Yueting; Ren, Xiaobin; An, Liqun

    2014-06-01

    M-doped (M=Tm3+, Tb3+, Ho3+, Dy3+, Mn2+) transparent fluorophosphate glasses were prepared by a high temperature melting method. Excitation and emission spectra of the samples were investigated. Under near-ultraviolet excitation, the emission colors of the Tm3+-and Mn2+-doped samples are blue and red, respectively; the emission colors of the Tb3+-, Ho3+-, and Dy3+-doped samples are green; and the emission color of Tb3+/ Mn2+/Tm3+ tridoped fluorophosphate glass is white to the naked eye. Our research will be helpful in developing luminescent materials for white light-emitting-diodes.

  1. Transport properties of RPtBi (R = Gd, Dy, Tm, and Lu) under applied magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Eundeok; Bud'Ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that the combination of strong spin-orbit coupling and noncentrosymmetric crystal structure make ternary Heusler compounds a strong candidate for 3D topological materials. The crystal structure of rare-earth platinum bismuth (RPtBi) half-Heusler compounds lacks an inversion symmetry, hence the material is a noncentrosymmeteric. The earlier electrical resistivity data of RPtBi revealed a systematic change from a small gap semiconductor for lighter rare-earth to metallic for heavier rare-earth compounds. The angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy showed a clear spin-orbit splitting of the surface bands that cross the Fermi surface. Here we present very large magnetic field dependences of transport properties in single crystals of RPtBi (R = Gd, Dy, Tm, and Lu). Successfully grown the high quality RPtBi single crystals reveal that a large non-saturating magnetoresistance (MR) of as high as 800 % at 2 K and over 300 % at 300 K under a moderate magnetic field of 14 T. In addition to the large MR, the samples exhibit pronounced temperature and magnetic field dependences of Hall coefficient and thermoelectric power. Obtained transport data suggest that the high hole and electron mobility dominate the magnetotransport.

  2. Mssbauer studies and enhanced electrical properties of R (R=Sm, Gd and Dy) doped Ni ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbanathan, S. S. R.; Vaithyanathan, V.; Arout Chelvane, J.; Markandeyulu, G.; Kamala Bharathi, K.

    2014-03-01

    Structural, Mssbauer studies and improved electrical characteristics of Sm, Gd and Dy doped Ni ferrite materials in comparison to that of pure NiFe2O4 are reported. Pure NiFe2O4 crystallizes in inverse spinel phase without any impurity phase. NiFe1.925Sm0.075O4, NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 and NiFe1.925Dy0.075O4 compounds crystallize in the cubic inverse spinel phase with a very small amount of RFeO3 as additional phase. The back scattered electron imaging analysis indicates the primary and secondary phase formation in NiFe1.925Sm0.075O4, NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 and NiFe1.925Dy0.075O4 compounds. The room temperature DC resistivity values of NiFe2O4, NiFe1.925Sm0.075O4, NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 and NiFe1.925Dy0.075O4 compounds are found to be 17107 ? cm, 162107 ? cm, 171107 ? cm and 305107 ? cm respectively. The AC resistivity values (at 1 KHz) of NiFe2O4, NiFe1.925Sm0.075O4, NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 and NiFe1.925Dy0.075O4 materials are 10105 ? cm, 77105 ? cm, 147105 ? cm and 251105 ? cm, respectively. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity curves reveal two different types of conduction mechanisms. The hyperfine parameters viz., the hyperfine magnetic field, the isomer shift and the quadrupole splitting confirms the substitutions of R3+ ions at B site and their effects on superexchange interactions and structural distortion. The enhanced electrical resistivity of rare earth doped Ni ferrite suggest that tuning properties for desired high frequency applications can be achieved by controlling the doping element and their amount.

  3. Bifunctional heterometallic Ln3+-Gd3+ (Ln = Eu, Tb) hybrid silica microspheres: luminescence and MRI contrast agent property.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Yan; Yan, Bing; Li, Qiu-Ping

    2013-02-01

    A novel series of homometallic and heterometallic lanthanide (Eu(3+)(Tb(3+))-Gd(3+)) hybrid silica microspheres (EDTA-(Eu(Tb)-Gd)-TTA-SiO(2)) are synthesized with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) functionalized silane and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) by sol-gel process, whose physical characterization are carried out and especially the luminescence and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent properties are discussed. These hybrids present uniform silica microsphere morphology with particle size of 1 ?m. Comparing to the homometallic hybrid silica microsphere EDTA-Ln-TTA-SiO(2) without Gd(3+) ion, the heterometallic hybrid silica microspheres EDTA-Eu-Gd-TTA-SiO(2) exhibit stronger luminescent intensity, longer lifetime and higher luminescent quantum efficiency, which is due to the fact that inert ion Gd(3+) can enhance the luminescence of the Eu(3+) or Tb(3+) within the hybrid system. In addition, the MRI relaxivity of the heterometallic lanthanide hybrid silica microspheres in water is assessed, showing a lower T1 relaxation rate than homometallic gadolinium hybrid one (EDTA-Gd-TTA-SiO(2)). Both of them show higher T1 relaxation rate than the conventional Gd chelate of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. These bifunctional hybrid materials exhibit both luminescent and MRI magnetic contrast agent properties, whose further investigation can be expected to have potential application in practical fields such as optical storage and sensors, etc. PMID:23154785

  4. Enhanced luminescence in Ln?-doped Y?WO? (Sm, Eu, Dy) 3D microstructures through Gd? codoping.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Anna M; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Deun, Rik

    2014-09-15

    Microstructures of Y2WO6 were prepared by applying a hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant, after which the materials were heat-treated at a temperature of 1100 C. When prepared at pH 3, the spherical 3D microstructures were built from nanosized particles. Raising the pH gave materials built from differently shaped building blocks, which influenced the final architecture. These materials, similarly to other previously investigated and reported rare-earth tungstate materials, were found to show very interesting luminescence properties. However, quantum yield (QY) values have scarcely been reported for such materials. In this work, a detailed study of the photoluminescence characteristics, decay times, and quantum yields of Y2WO6 doped with Sm(3+), Eu(3+), and Dy(3+) is presented. When doped with different concentrations of Ln(3+) ions, the luminescence properties of the samples changed. The 2.5% Dy:Y2WO6 sample gave white-light emission and showed a QY of 17%. For the optimal lanthanide-ion concentrations, the systems were codoped with 2% and 10% Gd(3+) ions to test the possible enhancement of luminescence through energy transfer from W-O and/or Gd(3+) to Ln(3+). The Eu(3+),Gd(3+)-codoped system showed QYs as high as 79%. The Sm,Gd-codoped system showed the highest enhancement of QY. After incorporation of Gd(3+) ions, the 2.5% Sm_10% Gd:Y2WO6 materials showed a QY approximately 2.4 times larger than that of the 2.5% Sm:Y 2WO6 material. PMID:25166489

  5. Family of carboxylate- and nitrate-diphenoxo triply bridged dinuclear Ni(II)Ln(III) complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Y): synthesis, experimental and theoretical magneto-structural studies, and single-molecule magnet behavior.

    PubMed

    Colacio, Enrique; Ruiz, Jos; Mota, Antonio J; Palacios, Mara A; Cremades, Eduard; Ruiz, Eliseo; White, Fraser J; Brechin, Euan K

    2012-05-21

    Seven acetate-diphenoxo triply bridged M(II)-Ln(III) complexes (M(II) = Ni(II) and Ln(III) = Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, and Y; M(II) = Zn(II) and Ln(III) = Ho(III) and Er(III)) of formula [M(?-L)(?-OAc)Ln(NO(3))(2)], one nitrate-diphenoxo triply bridged Ni(II)-Tb(III) complex, [Ni(?-L)(?-NO(3))Tb(NO(3))(2)]2CH(3)OH, and two diphenoxo doubly bridged Ni(II)-Ln(III) complexes (Ln(III) = Eu, Gd) of formula [Ni(H(2)O)(?-L)Ln(NO(3))(3)]2CH(3)OH have been prepared in one pot reaction from the compartmental ligand N,N',N"-trimethyl-N,N"-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)diethylenetriamine (H(2)L). Moreover, Ni(II)-Ln(III) complexes bearing benzoate or 9-anthracenecarboxylate bridging groups of formula [Ni(?-L)(?-BzO)Dy(NO(3))(2)] and [Ni(?-L)(?-9-An)Dy(9-An)(NO(3))(2)]3CH(3)CN have also been successfully synthesized. In acetate-diphenoxo triply bridged complexes, the acetate bridging group forces the structure to be folded with an average hinge angle in the M(?-O(2))Ln bridging fragment of ~22, whereas nitrate-diphenoxo doubly bridged complexes and diphenoxo-doubly bridged complexes exhibit more planar structures with hinge angles of ~13 and ~2, respectively. All Ni(II)-Ln(III) complexes exhibit ferromagnetic interactions between Ni(II) and Ln(III) ions and, in the case of the Gd(III) complexes, the J(NiGd) coupling increases weakly but significantly with the planarity of the M-(O)(2)-Gd bridging fragment and with the increase of the Ni-O-Gd angle. Density functional theory (DFT) theoretical calculations on the Ni(II)Gd(III) complexes and model compounds support these magneto-structural correlations as well as the experimental J(NiGd) values, which were found to be ~1.38 and ~2.1 cm(-1) for the folded [Ni(?-L)(?-OAc)Gd(NO(3))(2)] and planar [Ni(H(2)O)(?-L)Gd(NO(3))(3)]2CH(3)OH complexes, respectively. The Ni(II)Dy(III) complexes exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization with ?/k(B) energy barriers under 1000 Oe applied magnetic fields of 9.2 and 10.1 K for [Ni(?-L)(?-BzO)Dy(NO(3))(2)] and [Ni(?-L)(?-9-An)Dy(9-An)(NO(3))(2)]3CH(3)CN, respectively. PMID:22564020

  6. White light emitting LaGdSiO5:Dy3+ nanophosphors for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogugua, Simon N.; Swart, Hendrik C.; Ntwaeaborwa, Odireleng M.

    2016-01-01

    Powdered dysprosium (Dy3+) doped Lanthanum gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (LaGdSiO5) mixed phosphors were synthesized using urea-assisted solution combustion method. The X-ray diffractometer analysis showed that the samples crystalized in the pure monoclinic mixed phase of LaGdSiO5. The crystallite size and the lattice strain calculated from the X-ray diffraction peaks using Williamson-Hall equation varied from 12 nm to 16 nm and 1.6 ×10-2 to 2.43 ×10-2 respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra recorded using 425, 454 and 475 nm excitation wavelengths exhibit characteristic similar to the YAG:Ce phosphor pumped InGaN LED system, by absorbing portion of the excitation energy and re-emitting it. The emission spectra were characterized by radiative recombination at 425, 454, 475, 485 and 575 nm depending on the excitation wavelength. These emission line are ascribed to the f→f transitions of Dy3+. The peak intensity and hence the color of the emitted visible light were dependent on the concentration of Dy3+. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) color coordinates of (0.336, 0.313) and (0.359, 0.361) were obtained for Dy3+ molar concentration of 0.05 and 3.0 mol% when the emission was monitored using 454 nm and 475 nm respectively. The band gap measured from the reflectance curve using Tauc plot initially decreased with increasing Dy3+ concentration, but at higher concentration, it started to increase. These materials were evaluated for solid state lighting application.

  7. Phase transformations and indications for acoustic mode softening in Tb-Gd orthophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschauner, O.; Ushakov, S. V.; Navrotsky, A.; Boatner, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    At ambient conditions the anhydrous rare earth orthophosphates assume either the xenotime (zircon) or the monazite structure, with the latter favored for the heavier rare earths and by increasing pressure. Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 assumes the xenotime structure at ambient conditions but is at the border between the xenotime and monazite structures. Here we show that, at high pressure, Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 does not transform directly to monazite but through an intermediate anhydrite-type structure. Axial deformation of the unit cell near the anhydrite- to monazite-type transition indicates softening of the (c1133  +  c1313) combined elastic moduli. Stress response of rare-earth orthophosphate ceramics can be affected by both formation of the anhydrite-type phase and the elastic softening in the vicinity of the monazite-phase. We report the first structural data for an anhydrite-type rare earth orthophosphate.

  8. Phase transformations and indications for acoustic mode softening in Tb-Gd orthophosphate.

    PubMed

    Tschauner, O; Ushakov, S V; Navrotsky, A; Boatner, L A

    2016-01-27

    At ambient conditions the anhydrous rare earth orthophosphates assume either the xenotime (zircon) or the monazite structure, with the latter favored for the heavier rare earths and by increasing pressure. Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 assumes the xenotime structure at ambient conditions but is at the border between the xenotime and monazite structures. Here we show that, at high pressure, Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 does not transform directly to monazite but through an intermediate anhydrite-type structure. Axial deformation of the unit cell near the anhydrite- to monazite-type transition indicates softening of the (c1133  +  c1313) combined elastic moduli. Stress response of rare-earth orthophosphate ceramics can be affected by both formation of the anhydrite-type phase and the elastic softening in the vicinity of the monazite-phase. We report the first structural data for an anhydrite-type rare earth orthophosphate. PMID:26733233

  9. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Ln3+ (Ln3+=Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Er3+)-doped Ca2Nb2O7 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Jieqiang; Yi, Shuangping; Deng, Yaomin; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-02-01

    A series of Ln3+ (Ln3+=Tb3+/Dy3+/Sm3+/Er3+) ions doped Ca2Nb2O7 phosphors have been synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction. The Ln3+-doped samples are well indexed to the pure Ca2Nb2O7 phase which revealed for the X-ray diffraction (XRD) result. Under the ultraviolet light, the prepared Ca2-xNb2O7:xLn3+ (Ln3+=Tb3+/Dy3+/Sm3+/Er3+) phosphors show the characteristic cyan (Tb3+), green-white (Sm3+), yellowish (Dy3+) and green (Er3+) emissions. The energy transfer mechanisms in Ca2Nb2O7: Tb3+/Dy3+/Sm3+/Er3+ phosphors have been investigated and it deduced to be a resonant type via an electric dipole-dipole interaction. In addition, their critical distances have been calculated by concentration quenching methods. The luminescence properties of Ca2Nb2O7:Tb3+/Dy3+/Sm3+/Er3+ phosphors indicated that the Ca2Nb2O7 is a suitable host for rare earth doped laser crystal and optical materials.

  10. Specific heat studies of RCu 2Si 2 (R=Tb, Ho) and RCu 2Ge 2 (R=Gd, Tb) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szytu?a, A.; Ba?anda, M.; Gondek, ?.; Przewo?nik, J.; Nenkov, K.; Duraj, R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic properties of RCu 2Si 2 (R=Tb, Ho) and RCu 2Ge 2 (R=Gd, Tb), crystallizing with the tetragonal ThCr 2Si 2-type crystal structure, were investigated by means of magnetic and calorimetric measurements. All compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering below TN equal to 11.2 K for TbCu 2Si 2, 5.3 K for HoCu 2Si 2, 12.0 K for GdCu 2Ge 2 and 12.5 K for TbCu 2Ge 2. At temperatures of Tt=8.5 K for TbCu 2Si 2 and 9.8 K for TbCu 2Ge 2 additional phase transitions were observed. Apart from the investigation on magnetic phase transitions, magnetic contributions to the specific heat were analyzed in terms of Schottky effect. The corresponding crystal electric field (CEF) level splitting schemes were calculated. Moreover, the phononic characteristic temperatures were estimated.

  11. Luminescence studies of Sm3+ single-doped and Sm3+, Dy3+ co-doped NaGdTiO4 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangping; Wang, Xin; Li, Xuejing; Cheng, Lihong; Tong, Lili; Wang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiashi; Zhang, Jinsu; Chen, Baojiu

    2016-01-01

    Sm3+ single-doped and Sm3+, Dy3+ co-doped NaGdTiO4 phosphors were synthesized via a traditional high temperature solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure was characterized by means of x-ray diffraction. The luminescence properties and energy transfer in Sm3+ single-doped and Sm3+, Dy3+ co-doped NaGdTiO4 phosphors were systematically studied. The electric dipole-dipole interaction between Sm3+ ions was identified as the main mechanism for the concentration dependent fluorescence quenching in Sm3+ single-doped samples. It is confirmed that there is almost no energy transfer between Sm3+ and Dy3+ in Sm3+, Dy3+ co-doped samples. The introduction of Sm3+ can compensate the red emission component and adjust the colorimetric performance of Dy3+-doped NaGdTiO4 phosphors. Moreover, different emitting colors can be obtained from Sm3+, Dy3+ co-doped NaGdTiO4 phosphor by changing the excitation pathway.

  12. Laser Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy of the Lanthanides Tb, Dy and Ho as Homologues to Actinides and Super Heavy Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.; Lassen, J.; Liu, Y.

    2009-03-17

    Spectroscopic investigations of the rare earth elements Tb, Dy and Ho have been carried out using laser resonance ionization mass spectroscopy. A variety of new intermediate energy levels and autoionizing states were observed in these elements. Efficient and selective excitation and ionization schemes for the elements have been developed for Ti:Sapphire lasers using the spectroscopic data. Resonant ionization schemes for Np were also been studied as the preparation work for related investigations on actinide elements and for the spectroscopy on the heaviest elements, where spectroscopic data so far are scarce or not existing at all.

  13. Spin structure and magnetic frustration in multiferroic RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R=Tb,Ho,Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, G.R.; Chapon, L.C.; Radaelli, P.G.; Park, S.; Hur, N.; Cheong, S-W.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.

    2005-06-01

    We have studied the crystal and magnetic structures of the magnetoelectric materials RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R=Tb,Ho,Dy) using neutron diffraction as a function of temperature. All three materials display incommensurate antiferromagnetic ordering below 40 K, becoming commensurate on further cooling. For R=Tb,Ho, a commensurate-incommensurate transition takes place at low temperatures. The commensurate magnetic structures have been solved and are discussed in terms of competing exchange interactions. The spin configuration within the ab plane is essentially the same for each system, and the radius of R determines the sign of the magnetic exchange between adjacent planes. The inherent magnetic frustration in these materials is lifted by a small lattice distortion, primarily involving shifts of the Mn{sup 3+} cations and giving rise to a canted antiferroelectric phase.

  14. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetostriction of evaporated Co-(Pr,Nd,Gd,Dy,Er) amorphous binary alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Yoshihara, A.; Shimamori, T.; Miyazki, T.; Wakiyama, T. )

    1988-06-01

    The authors have been trying to clarify the origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (K{sub perpendicular}) of amorphous rare earth-transition metal ally films, by means of changing the kind of rare earths and their composition systematically for Fe or Co based binary systems. In this study, they used Gd, Dy, and Er as the rare earth elements, and investigated the temperature dependence of K{sub perpendicular} and the saturation magnetization M{sub s}, as well as the film magnetostriction.

  15. Specific features of the formation of atomic magnetic moments in amorphous films RE-Co ( RE = La, Gd, Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas'kovskiy, V. O.; Adanakova, O. A.; Balymov, K. G.; Kulesh, N. A.; Svalov, A. V.; Stepanova, E. A.

    2015-06-01

    A systematic investigation of the magnetic properties of amorphous films in ( RE) x Co100 - x binary systems in the ground state with rare-earth elements ( RE) of different types has been performed. The concentration dependences of the average atomic magnetic moments of cobalt ( m Co), gadolinium ( m Gd), and terbium ( m Tb) have been determined from the analysis of the spontaneous magnetization of the films with a nonmagnetic rare-earth element (La), a rare-earth element with a spherical electron shell (Gd), and a rareearth element with a large orbital magnetic moment (Tb). It has been shown that, in the range 0 < x < 50 at %, the magnetic moment m Co decreases from 1.7 ?B to zero, the magnetic moment m Gd remains unchanged and almost coincides with the magnetic moment of the free atom (7 ?B), and the value of m Tb decreases monotonically, but the rate of decrease depends on the method of the sample preparation. The revealed regularities are associated with the concentration change in the electronic structure of cobalt and with the specificity of the magnetic structure of the films, which has a ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, or sperimagnetic character for samples containing La, Gd, or Tb, respectively.

  16. Structural and magnetic studies of original tetranuclear CoII-LnIII complexes (LnIII = Gd, Tb, Y).

    PubMed

    Costes, Jean-Pierre; Vendier, Laure; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2011-02-28

    The syntheses, structural determinations and magnetic studies of tetranuclear Co(II)-Ln(III) complexes (Ln = Y, Gd, Tb) involving orthovanillin as main ligand are described. The structural studies demonstrate that centrosymmetric tetranuclear Co(2)-Ln(2) complex molecules with a defect-dicubane central core are obtained, with hexacoordinate Co ions in deformed octahedral environments and nine-coordinate lanthanide ions. The Co ions are linked by two hydroxo bridges and each Co ion is also involved in a double phenoxo-hydroxo bridge with the two Ln ions, so that each hydroxo group is triply linked to the two Co and one Gd ions. The four metal ions are coplanar. A ferromagnetic Co-Ln interaction operates in the Co(2)-Ln(2) complexes (Ln = Gd, Tb), along with a D zero-field splitting term for the cobalt ion and a weak ferromagnetic Co-Co interaction. The SMM behaviour of the Co(2)-Gd(2) complex is confirmed by observation of hysteresis loops, as a consequence of the slowing down of relaxation for this tetranuclear complex. The Co(2)-Tb(2) complex does not behave as a SMM, what could result from a subtractive combination of the Tb and Co anisotropies and an increased transverse anisotropy, leading to large tunnel splittings and quantum tunneling of magnetization. PMID:21246136

  17. Photoluminescent properties of Tb3+ doped GdSrAl3O7 nanophosphor using solution combustions synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatkar, Satyender Pal; Singh, Sonika; Lohra, Sheetal; Khatkar, Avni; Taxak, Vinod

    2015-05-01

    A color tunable terbium doped GdSrAl3O7 nanophosphor has been synthesized at low temperature using solution combustion synthesis. The photoluminescent properties of nanophosphors have been explored by analyzing their excitation and emission spectra alongwith their decay curves. The emission spectra exhibit dominating green light at 544 nm due to 5D4?7F5 transition of Tb3+ ions in GdSrAl3O7 on excitation by UV light of 239 nm. Furthermore, the luminescence in Gd( 1- x)SrAl3O7: xTb3+nanophosphors shifted from blue to green color by properly tuning the concentration of terbium ions. Decay curves indicate that non-radiative cross-relaxation is primarily responsible for concentration quenching phenomenon in the GdSrAl3O7 host. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that single tetragonal phased nanophosphor could be readily obtained at low temperature 550C. The smooth surfaced nanocrystals with particle size of 45 - 50 nm have also been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All these features augmented the probability of GdSrAl3O7: Tb3+ nanophosphor for potential applications in optical devices. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Record high magnetic exchange and magnetization blockade in Ln2@C79N (Ln = Gd(iii) and Dy(iii)) molecules: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mukesh Kumar; Yadav, Neeraj; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2015-12-01

    Ab initio and DFT calculations reveal a very strong ferromagnetic exchange of the order of 200 cm(-1) in an endohedral radical hetero-metallo-fullerene molecule Gd2@C79N. Calculations performed on the anisotropic Dy2@C79N molecule reveal that very strong Dy-radical exchange not only quenches the QTM effects but also immensely enhances the barrier height for magnetization reversal. PMID:26490382

  19. Magnetic circular dichroism in 5p photoemission from Gd and Tb metal

    SciTech Connect

    van der Laan, G.; Arenholz, E.; Navas, E.; Hu, Z.; Mentz, E.; Bauer, A.; Kaindl, G.

    1997-08-01

    The isotropic and magnetic-circular-dichroism (MCD) 5p core-level photoemission (PE) spectra of Gd(0001) and Tb(0001) are presented. Large MCD effects were observed at the low-binding-energy side, gradually reducing in amplitude at higher binding energies. Both the isotropic and the MCD-PE spectra can be well reproduced by a many-particle intermediate-coupling approach taking spin-orbit, Coulomb, and exchange interactions properly into account. We also present a simple model to understand the global line shape of the MCD spectra. The MCD permits an accurate determination of the values of the Coulomb and exchange interactions in the final state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Orientation Selection and Microstructural Evolution in Directionally Solidified Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palit, Mithun; Banumathy, S.; Singh, A. K.; Pandian, S.; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio

    2016-04-01

    Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 alloy was directionally solidified by using a modified Bridgman technique at a wide range of growth rates of 5 to 100 cm/h. The directionally grown samples exhibited plane front solidification morphology up to a growth rate of 90 cm/h. Typical island banding feature was observed closer to the chilled end, which eventually gave rise to irregular peritectic coupled growth (PCG). The PCG gained prominence with an increase in the growth rate. The texture study revealed formation of strong <311> texture in a lower growth rate regime, <110> and "rotated <110>" in an intermediate growth regime, and <112> in a higher growth rate regime. In-depth analysis of the atomic configuration of a solid-liquid interface revealed that the growth texture is influenced by the kinetics of atomic attachment to the solid-liquid interface, which is intimately related to a planar packing fraction and an atomic stacking sequence of the interfacial plane. The mechanism proposed in this article is novel and will be useful in addressing the orientation selection mechanism of topologically closed packed intermetallic systems. The samples grown at a higher growth rate exhibit larger magnetostriction ( λ) and dλ/dH owing to the absence of pro-peritectic (Tb,Dy)Fe3 and formation of <112> texture, which lies closer to the easy magnetization direction (EMD).

  1. Rare-earth transition-metal chalcogenides Ln{sub 3}MGaS{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Dy, Er; M=Co, Ni) and Ln{sub 3}MGaSe{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, M=Co; Ln=Nd, Gd, Dy, M=Ni)

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Wenlong; Shi, Youguo; Kang, Bin; Deng, Jianguo; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2014-05-01

    Fifteen new rare-earth transition-metal chalcogenides, Ln{sub 3}MGaS{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Dy, Er; M=Co, Ni) and Ln{sub 3}MGaSe{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, M=Co; Ln=Nd, Gd, Dy, M=Ni), have been synthesized by solid state reactions. They are isostructural, adopt Ce{sub 3}Al{sub 1.67}S{sub 7}—related structure type, and crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}. They adopt a three-dimensional framework composed of LnQ{sub 7} monocapped trigonal prisms with the interesting [MQ{sub 3}]{sup 4−} chains and isolated GaQ{sub 4} tetrahedra lying in two sets of channels in the framework. The magnetic susceptibility measurements on Ln{sub 3}CoGaQ{sub 7} (Ln=Dy, Er, Q=S; Ln=Dy, Q=Se) indicate that they are paramagnetic and obey the Curie–Weiss law over the entire experimental temperature, while the magnetic susceptibility of Sm{sub 3}CoGaSe{sub 7} deviates from the Curie–Weiss law as a result of the crystal field splitting. - Graphical abstract: Ln{sub 3}MGaS{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Dy, Er; M=Co, Ni) and Ln{sub 3}MGaSe{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, M=Co; Ln=Nd, Gd, Dy, M=Ni) adopt a three-dimensional framework composed of LnQ{sub 7} monocapped trigonal prisms with interesting [MQ{sub 3}]{sup 4−} chains and isolated GaQ{sub 4} tetrahedra lying in two sets of channels in the framework. - Highlights: • New compounds, Ln{sub 3}MGaQ{sub 7} (Ln=rare-earth; M=Co, Ni; Q=S, Se), were synthesized. • They are isostructural and crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric space group P6{sub 3}. • They adopt a three-dimensional framework built by LnQ{sub 7} monocapped trigonal prisms. • Ln{sub 3}CoGaQ{sub 7} (Ln=Dy, Er; Q=S, Se) are paramagnetic and obey the Curie–Weiss law. • The magnetic susceptibility of Sm{sub 3}CoGaSe{sub 7} deviates from the Curie–Weiss law.

  2. Superconductivity and magnetism in Chevrel-phase rare-earth molybdenum selenides single crystals REMo 6Se 8 (RE = Gd, Dy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, O.; LeBerre, F.; Sergent, M.; Horyń, R.; Wojakowski, A.

    1994-12-01

    Chevrel phases containing rare-earth atoms (REMo 6X 8; X = S, Se) are model systems which can present at the same time, phenomena of superconductivity and long-range magnetic interactions. We have recently developed a new crystal growth method specific to the selenides series, which was applied to RE = Gd, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb. We present results obtained on single crystals of GdMo 6Se 8 and DyMo 6Se 8. A discussion of the crystal growth method and of the ternary phase relations is done, and results are compared to those obtained for the binary isostructural compound Mo 3Se 4.

  3. RNi8Si3 (R=Gd,Tb): Novel ternary ordered derivatives of the BaCd11 type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, M.; Morozkin, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Nirmala, R.; Malik, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    The title compounds have been synthesized and characterized both from the structural and magnetic point of view. Both crystallize in a new monoclinic structure strictly related to the tetragonal BaCd11 type. The structure was solved by means of X-ray single-crystal techniques for GdNi8Si3 and confirmed for TbNi8Si3 on powder data; the corresponding lattice parameters (obtained from Guinier powder patterns) are a=6.3259(2), b=13.7245(5), c=7.4949(3) Å, β=113.522(3)°, Vcell=596.64(3) Å3 and a=6.3200(2), b=13.6987(4), c=7.4923(2) Å, β=113.494(2)°, Vcell=594.88(2) Å3. The symmetry relationship between the tI48-I41/amd BaCd11 aristotype and the new ordered mS48-C2/c GdNi8Si3 derivative is described via the Bärnighausen formalism within the group theory. The large Gd-Gd (Tb-Tb) distances, mediated via Ni-Si network, likely lead to weak magnetic interactions. Low-field magnetization vs temperature measurements indicate weak and field-sensitive antiferromagnetic ground state, with ordering temperatures of 3 K in GdNi8Si3 and about 2-3 K in TbNi8Si3. On the other hand, the isothermal field-dependent magnetization data show the presence of competing interactions in both compounds, with a field-induced ferromagnetic behavior for GdNi8Si3 and a ferrimagnetic-like behavior in TbNi8Si3 at the ordering temperature TC/N of about (or slightly higher than) 3K. The magnetocaloric effect, quantified in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change ΔSm, has the maximum values of -19.8 J(kg K)-1 (at 4 K for 140 kOe field change) and -12.1 J(kg K)-1 (at 12 K for 140 kOe field change) in GdNi8Si3 and TbNi8Si3, respectively.

  4. Magnetic interactions in CuII-LnIII cyclic tetranuclear complexes: is it possible to explain the occurrence of SMM behavior in CuII-TbIII and CuII-DyIII complexes?

    PubMed

    Hamamatsu, Takefumi; Yabe, Kazuya; Towatari, Masaaki; Osa, Shutaro; Matsumoto, Naohide; Re, Nazzareno; Pochaba, Andrzej; Mrozinski, Jerzy; Gallani, Jean-Louis; Barla, Alessandro; Imperia, Paolo; Paulsen, Carley; Kappler, Jean-Paul

    2007-05-28

    An extensive series of tetranuclear CuII2LnIII2 complexes [CuIILLnIII(hfac)2]2 (with LnIII being all lanthanide(III) ions except for the radioactive PmIII) has been prepared in order to investigate the nature of the CuII-LnIII magnetic interactions and to try to answer the following question: What makes the CuII2TbIII2 and CuII2DyIII2 complexes single molecule magnets while the other complexes are not? All the complexes within this series possess a similar cyclic tetranuclear structure, in which the CuII and LnIII ions are arrayed alternately via bridges of ligand complex (CuIIL). Regular SQUID magnetometry measurements have been performed on the series. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities from 2 to 300 K and the field-dependent magnetizations from 0 to 5 T at 2 K have been measured for the CuII2LnIII2 and NiII2LnIII2 complexes, with the NiII2LnIII2 complex containing diamagnetic NiII ions being used as a reference for the evaluation of the CuII-LnIII magnetic interactions. These measurements have revealed that the interactions between CuII and LnIII ions are very weakly antiferromagnetic if Ln=Ce, Nd, Sm, Yb, ferromagnetic if Ln=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and negligible if Ln=La, Eu, Pr, Lu. With the same goal of better understanding the evolution of the intramolecular magnetic interactions, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has also been measured on CuII2TbIII2, CuII2DyIII2, and NiII2TbIII2 complexes, either at the L- and M-edges of the metal ions or at the K-edge of the N and O atoms. Last, the CuII2TbIII2 complex exhibiting SMM behavior has received a closer examination of its low temperature magnetic properties down to 0.1 K. These particular measurements have revealed the unusual very slow setting-up of a 3D order below 0.6 K. PMID:17458954

  5. Soft-chemical synthesis and tunable luminescence of Tb3+, Tm3+/Dy(3+)-doped SrY2O4 phosphors for field emission displays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Geng, Dongling; Shang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xuejiao; Cheng, Ziyong; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

    2013-04-14

    Tb(3+), Tm(3+), and Dy(3+)-activated SrY2O4 phosphors have been prepared via Pechini-type sol-gel method. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and lifetimes, as well as cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra were used to characterize the samples. Under low-voltage electron beam excitation, the Tb(3+)-doped samples show a green luminescence, with a better CIE coordinates and higher emission intensity than the commercial product ZnO: Zn. Blue and yellow emissions could be obtained by doping with Tm(3+) and Dy(3+), respectively. A color-tunable emission in SrY2O4 phosphors can be realized by co-doping with Tm(3+) and Dy(3+). White cathodoluminescence (CL) has been realized in a single-phase SrY2O4 host by co-doping with Tm(3+) and Dy(3+) for the first time with CIE (0.315, 0.333). Furthermore, the cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of SrY2O4: Tb(3+)/Tm(3+)/Dy(3+) phosphors including the dependence of CL intensity on accelerating voltage and filament current, the decay behaviour of CL intensity under electron bombardment, and the stability of CIE chromaticity coordinate have been investigated in detail. The as-prepared phosphors might be promising for use in field-emission display (FED) devices. PMID:23299830

  6. Separating Ag, B, Cd, Dy, Eu, and Sm in a Gd matrix using 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester extraction chromatography for ICP-AES analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang-Heon; Kim, Jong-Goo; Kim, Won-Ho; Kang, Jun-Gill

    2007-02-15

    The separation procedure for Ag, B, Cd, Dy, Eu and Sm as impurities in Gd matrix using ICP-AES technique with an extraction chromatographic column has been developed. The spectral interference of the Gd matrix on the elements was eliminated using a chromatography technique with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC-88A) as the mobile phase and XAD-16 resin as the stationary phase. Ag(+), B(4)O(7)(2-), and Cd(2+) were eluted with 0.1M HNO(3), while rare earth ions were not. The best eluent for separating Eu and Sm in the Gd matrix was 0.3M HNO(3). The limit of quantitation for these elements was 0.6-3.0ng mL(-1). The recovery of Ag, B, and Cd was 90-104% using 0.1M HNO(3) as the eluent, while that of Eu, Gd, and Sm ranged from 100 to 102% with 0.3M HNO(3). Dy was recovered quantitatively with 4M HNO(3). The relative standard deviation of the methods for a set of three replicates was between 1.0 and 15.4% for the synthetic and standard Gd solutions. The proposed separation procedure was used to measure Ag, B, Cd, Dy, Eu, and Sm in a standard Gd solution. PMID:19071357

  7. Heteronuclear Ni(ii)-Ln(iii) (Ln = La, Pr, Tb, Dy) complexes: synthesis and single-molecule magnet behaviour.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Apoorva; Das, Chinmoy; Langley, Stuart K; Murray, Keith S; Srivastava, Anant K; Shanmugam, Maheswaran

    2016-02-16

    The reaction of hydrated nickel(ii) salts (chloride or nitrate) and hydrated lanthanide nitrate salts with the Schiff base ligand 2-methoxy-6-[(E)-phenyliminomethyl] phenol (HL) in methanol resulted in the isolation of three isostructural linear heterometallic trinuclear complexes and a heterometallic tetranuclear complex. The molecular structures of these complexes were determined via single crystal X-ray diffraction revealing molecular structures of formulae [Ni2La(L(-))6](NO3)0.55(OH)0.45 (), [Ni2Pr(L(-))6](NO3)0.48(OH)0.52 (), [Ni2Tb(L(-))6](NO3)0.5(Cl)0.5 () and [Ni2Dy2(L(-))2(o-vanillin)2(CO3)2(NO3)2(MeOH)2] (). Structural analysis for reveals that the lanthanide ion is sandwiched between two Ni(ii) ions and the NiLnNi metallic core displays a linear arrangement, with an average ∠NiLnNi bond angle of 179.7°. Analysis of reveals the metal ions are arranged such that two Ni-Dy subunits are bridged by two carbonate ligands via the Dy sites. Direct current magnetic susceptibility measurements for complexes reveal that the Ni(ii) ions are coupled ferromagnetically with the Tb(iii) () and Dy(iii) () ions, and antiferromagnetically with the Pr(iii) ion (). For complex a long range intramolecular ferromagnetic interaction is witnessed between the Ni(ii) ions (NiNi = 6.873(9) Å) via a closed shell La(iii) ion. The magnetic data of were fitted using the HDVV Hamiltonian revealing the following parameters; J = +0.46 cm(-1), g = 2.245, D = +4.91 cm(-1). Alternating current magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on complexes revealed that and displayed frequency dependent χ''M signals (Hac = 3.5 Oe and Hdc = 0 Oe) which is a characteristic signature of a single-molecule magnet behaviour. PMID:26810917

  8. The structure, magnetostriction, and hysteresis of (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bowen; Lv, Yan; Li, Guolu; Huang, Wenmei; Weng, Ling; Cui, Baozhi

    2015-05-01

    The (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys were prepared in an arc furnace under high purity argon. The as-cast samples wrapped in Mo foil were sealed in a silica tube filled with high purity argon and were homogenized at 1000 °C for 1 day and at 950 °C for 5 days. Then, the homogenized specimens with 5 mm in diameter and 8 mm in length were annealed under the magnetic field of 320 kA/m. The static measurement of magnetostriction (λ//, λ⊥) was made by standard strain gauge, and the magnetization M was measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that the main phase of annealed (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys is the (Tb,Dy,Ho)Fe2 phase with the MgCu2-type structure. The magnetostriction λ// and magnetization M of (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys increases with increasing x from x = 0.1 to x = 0.3 when H < 240 kA/m. The hysteresis becomes small with increasing x when x ≤ 0.3. For magnetically annealed rod alloys, the magnetostriction markedly increases and reaches 1080 × 10-6 for x = 0.3 when H = 240 kA/m.

  9. Electronic and magnetic structure of RScO{sub 3} (R=Sm,Gd,Dy) from x-ray spectroscopies and first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Raekers, M.; Bartkowski, S.; Prinz, M.; Neumann, M.; Kuepper, K.; Potzger, K.; Zhou, S.; Postnikov, A. V.; Arulraj, A.; Stuesser, N.; Uecker, R.; Yang, W. L.

    2009-03-15

    The electronic structures of SmScO{sub 3}, GdScO{sub 3}, and DyScO{sub 3} are investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). A strong hybridization between Sc 3d and O 2p is found, and a contribution of the rare-earth 5d states to this hybridization is not excluded. The band gaps of the compounds are determined by combining XES and XAS measurements. For SmScO{sub 3}, GdScO{sub 3}, and DyScO{sub 3} the band gaps were determined to be 5.6, 5.8, and 5.9 eV, respectively. Magnetization versus temperature measurements reveal antiferromagnetic coupling at 2.96 (SmScO{sub 3}), 2.61 (GdScO{sub 3}), and 3.10 K (DyScO{sub 3}). For DyScO{sub 3} a Rietveld refinement of a 2 K neutron-diffraction data set gives the spin arrangement of Dy in the Pbnm structure (Shubnikov group: Pb{sup '}n{sup '}m{sup '})

  10. An ultrasmall and metabolizable PEGylated NaGdF4:Dy nanoprobe for high-performance T(1)/T(2)-weighted MR and CT multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoying; Fang, Fang; Liu, Jianhua; Jiang, Chunhuan; Han, Xueli; Song, Zhongkai; Chen, Jinxing; Sun, Guoying; Lei, Hao; Lu, Lehui

    2015-10-14

    Lanthanide-based multimodal probes with high sensitivity, simple synthesis strategy, and good biocompatibility promise new applications for clinical diagnosis. However, today's challenge is not only to develop high-performance multimodal probes for more accurate and reliable diagnosis, but also to understand the fate of these probes in vivo. In this context, a novel PEGylated Dy-doped NaGdF4 nanoprobe (PEG-NaGdF4:Dy) was designed and fabricated as a T1/T2-weighted MRI/CT imaging agent. This nanoprobe has a distinct longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 5.17 mM(-1) s(-1)), relatively high transverse relaxivity (r2 = 10.64 mM(-1) s(-1)), and exhibits strong X-ray attenuation properties (44.70 HU L g(-1)) in vitro. Furthermore, T1/T2-weighted MRI/CT imaging in vivo confirmed that this PEG-NaGdF4:Dy nanoprobe could lead to a significant contrast enhancement effect on liver, spleen and kidney at 24 h post injection. The MTT assay, histological analysis, and biodistribution investigation demonstrated that this multifunctional nanoprobe possessed relatively low cytotoxicity, negligible tissue damage and could be completely excreted out of the body of mice as time prolonged. Therefore, the present PEG-NaGdF4:Dy nanoprobe has the potential for the development of multifunctional T1/T2-weighted MRI/CT imaging to provide more comprehensive and accurate diagnosis information. PMID:26350491

  11. Heterometallic cubane-like {M2Ln2} (M = Ni, Zn; Ln =, Gd, Dy) and {Ni2Y2} aggregates. Synthesis, structures and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhao-Sha; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Jun-Liang; Leng, Ji-Dong; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2012-02-28

    The syntheses, structural determinations and magnetic studies of tetranuclear M(II)Ln(III) complexes (M = Ni, Zn; Ln = Y, Gd, Dy) involving an in situ compartmentalized schiff base ligand HL derived from the condensation of o-vanillin and 2-hydrazinopyridine as main ligand are described. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that all complexes are closely isostructural, with the central core composed of distorted {M(2)Ln(2)O(4)} cubes of the formulas [Ni(2)Ln(2)(?(3)-OH)(2)(L)(2)(OAc)(4)(H(2)O)(3.5)](ClO(4))(2)3H(2)O (Ln = Y 1 and Gd 2), [Ni(2)Dy(2)(?(3)-OH)(2)(L)(2)(OAc)(5)(EtOH)(H(2)O)(1.5)](ClO(4))EtOHH(2)O (3) and [Zn(2)Ln(2)(?(3)-OH)(2)(L)(2)(OAc)(5)(EtOH)(H(2)O)](ClO(4))2EtOH1.5H(2)O (Gd 4 and Dy 5). The Ln(III) ions are linked by two hydroxo bridges and each M(II) ion is also involved in a double phenoxo-hydroxo bridge with the two Ln(III) ions, so that each hydroxo group is triply linked to the two Ln(III) and one M(II) ions. The magnetic properties of all complexes have been investigated. Ni(2)Y(2) (1) has a ferromagnetic Ni(II)Ni(II) interaction. A weak ferromagnetic Ni(II)Ln(III) interaction is observed in the Ni(2)Ln(2) complexes (Ln = Gd 2, Dy 3), along with a weak antiferromagnetic Ln(III)Ln(III) interaction, a D zero-field splitting term for the nickel ion and a ferromagnetic Ni(II)Ni(II) interaction. The isomorphous Zn(2)Ln(2) (Ln = Gd 4, Dy 5) does confirm the presence of a weak antiferromagnetic Ln(III)Ln(III) interaction. The Ni(2)Dy(2) complex (3) does not behave as a SMM, which could result from a subtractive combination of the Dy and Ni anisotropies and an increased transverse anisotropy, leading to large tunnel splittings and quantum tunneling of magnetization. On the other hand, Zn(2)Dy(2) (5) exhibits a possible SMM behavior, where its slow relaxation of magnetization is probably attributed to the presence of the anisotropic Dy(III) ions. PMID:22187722

  12. Magnetic properties of DyCo{sub 5} and TbCo{sub 5} intermetallics from the electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Miletic, G.I. Blazina, Z.

    2007-02-15

    LSDA and LSDA+U calculations, with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) included, were performed for DyCo{sub 5} and TbCo{sub 5} intermetallic compounds. In the case of magnetic moments, LSDA-SOC calculations give results in good agreement with the experimental data. However, LSDA has shown to be unable to predict relative stabilities of ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic configurations of the 4f and 3d spin sublattices giving the wrong result that the ferromagnetic configuration is more stable. LSDA+U method cures this problem and gives correct result. Additionally, within the accuracy of available experimental data, the corresponding effective exchange fields are in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  13. Host-sensitized luminescence in LaNbO4:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)) with different emission colors.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xuejiao; Shang, Mengmeng; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

    2015-02-14

    In this work, a series of Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Dy(3+) singly-doped and co-doped LaNbO4 (LNO) phosphors have been synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with Rietveld refinement, diffuse reflection spectra, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties, decay lifetimes, and PL quantum yields (QYs) were exploited to characterize the phosphors. Under UV excitation, energy transfer process from the host to the activators exists in the singly-doped samples, which leads to tunable emission color from blue to red for LNO:Eu(3+), green for LNO:Tb(3+), and yellow including white for LNO:Dy(3+). In Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) co-doped phosphors, LNO:Eu(3+), Tb(3+), the energy transfers from the host to the activators and Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) ions have also been deduced from the PL spectra, resulting in tunable emission color from green to red by adjusting the concentration ratio of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions. The decay times monitored at host emission and Tb(3+) emission confirm the existence of energy transfer in the as-prepared samples. The best quantum efficiency can reach 43.2% for LNO:0.01Tb(3+) among all the as-prepared phosphors. In addition, the CL spectra of LNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) are a little different from their PL spectra because another emission envelope around 530 nm appears in the samples, which is attributed to the bombardment of higher energy excitation source of low-voltage electron beam. However, the characteristic emissions similar to PL spectra were reserved. Moreover, the CL spectrum of LNO:0.02Tb(3+) has stronger emission intensity than that of ZnO:Zn commercial product. These results from the PL and CL properties of LNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) suggest their potential in solid-state lighting and display fields. PMID:25573075

  14. Couples Magnetic and Structural Transitions in High-Purity Dy and Gd5SbxGe4-x

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander S. Chernyshov

    2006-08-09

    Magnetic materials exhibiting magnetic phase transitions simultaneously with structural rearrangements of their crystal lattices hold a promise for numerous applications including magnetic refrigeration, magnetomechanical devices and sensors. We undertook a detailed study of a single crystal of dysprosium metal, which is a classical example of a system where magnetic and crystallographic sublattices can be either coupled or decoupled from one another. Magnetocaloric effect, magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity of high purity single crystals of dysprosium have been investigated over broad temperature and magnetic field intervals with the magnetic field vector parallel to either the a- or c-axes of the crystal. Notable differences in the behavior of the physical properties when compared to Dy samples studied in the past have been observed between 110 K and 125 K, and between 178 K and {approx}210 K. A plausible mechanism based on the formation of antiferromagnetic clusters in the impure Dy has been suggested in order to explain the reduction of the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the Neel point. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the influence of commensurability effects on the magnetic phase diagram and the value of the magnetocaloric effect have been conducted. The presence of newly found anomalies in the physical properties has been considered as evidence of previously unreported states of Dy. The refined magnetic phase diagram of dysprosium with the magnetic field vector parallel to the a-axis of a crystal has been constructed and discussed. The magnetic and crystallographic properties of Gd{sub 5}Sb{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} pseudo-binary system were studied by x-ray diffraction (at room temperature), heat capacity, ac-magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization in the temperature interval 5-320 K in magnetic fields up to 100 kOe. The magnetic properties of three composition (x = 0.5, 1,2) were examined in detail. The Gd{sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compound that adopts Tm{sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type of structure (space group is Cmca), shows a second order FM-PM transition at 200 K, whereas Gd{sub 5}Sb{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} compounds for x = 0.5 and x = 1 (Sm{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type of structure, space group is Pnma) exhibit first order phase transformations at 45 K and 37 K, respectively.

  15. "White" phosphor on the basis of Gd2(MoO4)3: Tm,Tb,Eu single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyn, V. V.; Redkin, B. S.; Kiselev, A. P.; Shmurak, S. Z.; Kolesnikov, N. N.; Kveder, V. V.; Ponyatovsky, E. G.

    2015-08-01

    A single-crystal sample of Gd2(MoO4)3 simultaneously doped with europium, terbium and thulium is grown. The Tm, Tb and Eu dopants are employed as the luminescent centers emitting light in the red, green and blue ranges. Spectroscopy investigation reveals that simultaneous luminescence of the centers of all three types to produce white light occurs only under the sample excitation with ultraviolet (UV) light within the wavelength range 350 < ? < 370 nm. A commercial UV light-emitting diode (LED) with ?LED = 365 nm is applied in order to show that the Gd2(MoO4)3:Tm,Tb,Eu crystal converts its UV flux into white light. So, it is demonstrated that white light may be produced using one matrix with luminous centers of three types.

  16. Structural Transition and Enhanced Ferromagnetic Properties of La, Nd, Gd, and Dy-Doped BiFeO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Varshney, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    The structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of rare-earth-doped Bi0.8 RE0.2FeO3 ceramics (rare-earth (RE) = La, Nd, Gd, and Dy) synthesized by solid-state reaction are reported and discussed. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Bi0.8La0.2FeO3 and Bi0.8Nd0.2FeO3 were indexed to rhombohedral ( R3 c) and triclinic ( P1) structures, respectively. Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern of Bi0.8Dy0.2FeO3 confirmed its biphasic nature ( Pnma + R3 c space groups) whereas for Bi0.8Gd0.2FeO3 the orthorhombic phase with Pna21 symmetry made a major contribution, with minor contributions from the orthorhombic ( Pnma) and rhombohedral ( R3 c) phases. Raman spectroscopy revealed changes in BiFeO3 mode positions, in addition to structural changes, on RE ion substitution. The effect of RE ion substitution on dielectric constant and loss tangent were studied at room temperature in a wide range of frequency, 50 Hz-1 MHz. Room temperature magnetization-magnetic field ( M- H) measurements indicated that magnetization increased with increasing structural distortion and with partial destruction of the spin cycloid as a result of doping of BiFeO3 ceramics with rare earth ions. These compounds, with improved remnant magnetization and coercive field, are suitable for use in spin-based electronic devices.

  17. Modulating the magnetic properties by structural modification in a family of Co-Ln (Ln = Gd, Dy) molecular aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Goswami, Soumyabrata; Konar, Sanjit

    2014-10-21

    Two types of heterometallic aggregates of the general formula [(Co(II))3(Co(III))2Ln3(?3-OH)5(O2C(t)Bu)12(L)2]2H2O (Ln = Gd(III) (), Dy(III) ()) and [(Co(III))3Ln3(?3-OH)4(O2C(t)Bu)6(L)3](NO3)22CH3CN2H2O (Ln = Gd(III) (), Dy(III) ()) were successfully isolated in reactions with [Co2(?-OH2)(O2C(t)Bu)4](HO2C(t)Bu)4, Ln(NO3)3 and n-N-butyldiethanolamine (H2L) under ambient conditions by a change in the stoichiometry of the reactants from 1?:?1?:?1 to 1?:?1?:?2 in order. Bond Valence Sum (BVS) calculations and bond lengths indicate the presence of mixed valent Co (Co(II), Co(III)) centres in compounds and and only Co(III) centres in and as required for the charge balances and supported by the magnetic measurements. Isostructural crab shaped complexes and feature distorted cubane cores that edge share to each other whereas the metallic core of or displays hemicubane like arrangement of metal centres and oxygen atoms. Overall structural symmetry was found to enhance on moving from the former to the latter series of complexes. Magnetic studies reveal significant magnetic entropy changes for complexes and (-?Sm = 21.57 and 19.39 J kg(-1) K(-1)) and single molecular magnetic behaviour for and . PMID:25135438

  18. Structure and optical properties of Dy3+/Tm3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing ?-NaGdF4 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao; Zhao, Shilong; Fei, Yong; Huang, Lihui; Xu, Shiqing

    2014-12-01

    Dy3+/Tm3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing hexagonal ?-NaGdF4 nanocrystals were prepared by the melt-quenching method and subsequent heat-treatment procedure. During the crystallization process, the structural evolution of glass network was systematically investigated using XRD, TEM and FTIR spectra. Experimental results provided new evidences that a silica-enriched layer around the precipitated fluoride nanocrystals was formed during the crystallization process. Strong white light emission was obtained in the oxyfluoride glass ceramics by modifying the relative concentration ratio of Tm3+ and Dy3+ ions.

  19. Optical and magneto-optical properties of single crystals of RFe{sub 2} (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, and Lu) and GdCo{sub 2} intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.J.

    1999-02-12

    The author has studied the diagonal and off-diagonal optical conductivity of RFe{sub 2}(R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Lu) and GdCo{sub 2} single crystals grown by the flux method. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry the author has measured the dielectric function from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. The magneto-optical Kerr spectrometer at temperatures between 7 and 295 K and applied magnetic fields between 0.5 to 1.6 T. The apparatus and calibration method are described in detail. Using magneto-optical data and optical constants he derives the experimental value of the off-diagonal conductivity components. Theoretical calculations of optical conductivities and magneto-optical parameters were performed using the tight binding-linear muffin tin orbitals method within the local spin density approximation. He applied this TB-LMTO method to LuFe{sub 2}. The theoretical results obtained agree well with the experimental data. The oxidation effects on the diagonal part of the optical conductivity were considered using a three-phase model. The oxidation effects on the magneto-optical parameters were also considered by treating the oxide layer as a nonmagnetic thin transparent layer. These corrections change not only the magnitude but also the shape of the optical conductivity and the magneto-optical parameters.

  20. Narrow spectral emission CaMoO4: Eu3+, Dy3+, Tb3+ phosphor crystals for white light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, A.; Dutta, P. S.

    2013-02-01

    Alkaline earth metal molybdates are promising candidates as a host material for high efficiency narrow spectral emission phosphors. These phosphors could potentially be used for the fabrication of phosphor-converted light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). Phosphor crystals of calcium molybdate doped with rare earth dopant Ln3+(Ln=Eu, Dy, Tb) grown using flux growth method have been shown to exhibit higher excitation efficiency than the powders synthesized by solid-state reaction process. Molybdenum (VI) oxide has been found to be a suitable flux for growing large size optically transparent high quality crystals at a temperature around 1100 C. Using the excitation wavelengths of 465 nm, 454 nm and 489 nm for CaMoO4: Eu3+, CaMoO4: Dy3+ and CaMoO4: Tb3+, respectively, intense emission lines at wavelengths of 615 nm, 575 nm and 550 nm were observed. The optimized doping concentrations of 12%, 2% and 5% for Eu3+, Dy3+ and Tb3+, respectively, provided the highest luminescence intensity.

  1. An ultrasmall and metabolizable PEGylated NaGdF4:Dy nanoprobe for high-performance T1/T2-weighted MR and CT multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaoying; Fang, Fang; Liu, Jianhua; Jiang, Chunhuan; Han, Xueli; Song, Zhongkai; Chen, Jinxing; Sun, Guoying; Lei, Hao; Lu, Lehui

    2015-09-01

    Lanthanide-based multimodal probes with high sensitivity, simple synthesis strategy, and good biocompatibility promise new applications for clinical diagnosis. However, today's challenge is not only to develop high-performance multimodal probes for more accurate and reliable diagnosis, but also to understand the fate of these probes in vivo. In this context, a novel PEGylated Dy-doped NaGdF4 nanoprobe (PEG-NaGdF4:Dy) was designed and fabricated as a T1/T2-weighted MRI/CT imaging agent. This nanoprobe has a distinct longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 5.17 mM-1 s-1), relatively high transverse relaxivity (r2 = 10.64 mM-1 s-1), and exhibits strong X-ray attenuation properties (44.70 HU L g-1) in vitro. Furthermore, T1/T2-weighted MRI/CT imaging in vivo confirmed that this PEG-NaGdF4:Dy nanoprobe could lead to a significant contrast enhancement effect on liver, spleen and kidney at 24 h post injection. The MTT assay, histological analysis, and biodistribution investigation demonstrated that this multifunctional nanoprobe possessed relatively low cytotoxicity, negligible tissue damage and could be completely excreted out of the body of mice as time prolonged. Therefore, the present PEG-NaGdF4:Dy nanoprobe has the potential for the development of multifunctional T1/T2-weighted MRI/CT imaging to provide more comprehensive and accurate diagnosis information.Lanthanide-based multimodal probes with high sensitivity, simple synthesis strategy, and good biocompatibility promise new applications for clinical diagnosis. However, today's challenge is not only to develop high-performance multimodal probes for more accurate and reliable diagnosis, but also to understand the fate of these probes in vivo. In this context, a novel PEGylated Dy-doped NaGdF4 nanoprobe (PEG-NaGdF4:Dy) was designed and fabricated as a T1/T2-weighted MRI/CT imaging agent. This nanoprobe has a distinct longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 5.17 mM-1 s-1), relatively high transverse relaxivity (r2 = 10.64 mM-1 s-1), and exhibits strong X-ray attenuation properties (44.70 HU L g-1) in vitro. Furthermore, T1/T2-weighted MRI/CT imaging in vivo confirmed that this PEG-NaGdF4:Dy nanoprobe could lead to a significant contrast enhancement effect on liver, spleen and kidney at 24 h post injection. The MTT assay, histological analysis, and biodistribution investigation demonstrated that this multifunctional nanoprobe possessed relatively low cytotoxicity, negligible tissue damage and could be completely excreted out of the body of mice as time prolonged. Therefore, the present PEG-NaGdF4:Dy nanoprobe has the potential for the development of multifunctional T1/T2-weighted MRI/CT imaging to provide more comprehensive and accurate diagnosis information. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04065e

  2. The lanthanoid(III) chloride cyclo-tetrasilicates M{sub 6}Cl{sub 10}[Si{sub 4}O{sub 12}] (M=Sm, Gd-Dy): Synthesis, structure and IR investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenbach, Ingo . E-mail: hartenbach@iac.uni-stuttgart.de; Jagiella, Stefan; Schleid, Thomas . E-mail: schleid@iac.uni-stuttgart.de

    2006-08-15

    The chloride derivatized lanthanoid(III) cyclo-tetrasilicates of the composition M{sub 6}Cl{sub 10}[Si{sub 4}O{sub 12}] (M=Sm, Gd-Dy) crystallize monoclinically in space group C2/m (a=1062-1065, b=1036-1052, c=1163-1187pm, {beta}{approx}103{sup o}, Z=2). They are obtained by the reaction of the sesquioxides M{sub 2}O{sub 3} (or the combination of Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7} and Tb in 3:2-molar ratio for the terbium case), the corresponding trichlorides MCl{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2} (silica gel) in stoichiometric ratios with double the amount of MCl{sub 3} as flux in evacuated silica tubes (7d at 850deg. C) as transparent, pseudo-octagonal, pillar-shaped single crystals with the colour of the respective lanthanoid trication M{sup 3+}. Their crystal structure can be considered as a layered arrangement in which cationic {sub {approx}}{sup 2}{l_brace}[(M2){sub 5}Cl{sub 9}]{sup 6+}{r_brace} layers are alternatingly piled with anionic ones of the kind {sub {approx}}{sup 2}{l_brace}[(M1)Cl[Si{sub 4}O{sub 12}

  3. Decay of {sup 161m1,m2}Dy isomers under conditions of a resonance environment (Moessbauer Screen)

    SciTech Connect

    Loginov, Yu. E. Zinoviev, V. G.; Kabina, L. P.; Lisin, S. S.; Maljutenkov, Ed. I.

    2013-06-15

    The half-lives of the isomers {sup 161m1}Dy and {sup 161m2}Dy (E = 25.6 keV and T{sub 1/2} {approx} 30 ns for the former and E = 74.6 keV and T{sub 1/2} {approx} 3 ns for the latter) placed in a {sup 160}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal lattice at T = 300 K and surrounded by stable {sup 161}Dy nuclei in the composition of {sup 161}Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} were measured by the method of ({beta}-{gamma}) coincidences in the beta-decay process {sup 161}Tb {yields} {sup 161}Dy. Nuclei of {sup 161m1,m2}Dy were obtained according to the chain {sup 160}Gd(n, {gamma}){sup 161}Gd {yields} {sup 161}Tb {yields} {sup 161}Dy from {sup 160}Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} weighted portions irradiated at the PWR-M reactor of the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI, Gatchina, Russia). The T{sub 1/2} value observed for the isomer {sup 161m1}Dy was found to be correlated with the number of surrounding {sup 161}Dy nuclei. The presence of this correlation in {sup 161m1}Dy can be explained by the multiple resonance scattering of photons from isomer decay within the sample used. No such correlation was observed for {sup 161m2}Dy. The half-lives measured for the isomers {sup 161m1}Dy and {sup 161m2}Dy in the absence of the above environment are 29.2(1) and 3.50(1) ns, respectively.

  4. Controlling the Two-Photon-Induced Photon Cascade Emission in a Gd3+/Tb3+-Codoped Glass for Multicolor Display

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Mao-Hui; Fan, Hai-Hua; Li, Hui; Lan, Sheng; Tie, Shao-Long; Yang, Zhong-Min

    2016-01-01

    We reported the first observation of the two-photon-induced quantum cutting phenomenon in a Gd3+/Tb3+-codoped glass in which two photons at ~400 nm are simultaneously absorbed, leading to the cascade emission of three photons in the visible spectral region. The two-photon absorption induced by femtosecond laser pulses allows the excitation of the energy states in Gd3+ which are inactive for single-photon excitation and enables the observation of many new electric transitions which are invisible in the single-photon-induced luminescence. The competition between the two-photon-induced photon cascade emission and the single-photon-induced emission was manipulated to control the luminescence color of the glass. We demonstrated the change of the luminescence color from red to yellow and eventually to green by varying either the excitation wavelength or the excitation power density. PMID:26899189

  5. Controlling the Two-Photon-Induced Photon Cascade Emission in a Gd(3+)/Tb(3+)-Codoped Glass for Multicolor Display.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mao-Hui; Fan, Hai-Hua; Li, Hui; Lan, Sheng; Tie, Shao-Long; Yang, Zhong-Min

    2016-01-01

    We reported the first observation of the two-photon-induced quantum cutting phenomenon in a Gd(3+)/Tb(3+)-codoped glass in which two photons at ~400?nm are simultaneously absorbed, leading to the cascade emission of three photons in the visible spectral region. The two-photon absorption induced by femtosecond laser pulses allows the excitation of the energy states in Gd(3+) which are inactive for single-photon excitation and enables the observation of many new electric transitions which are invisible in the single-photon-induced luminescence. The competition between the two-photon-induced photon cascade emission and the single-photon-induced emission was manipulated to control the luminescence color of the glass. We demonstrated the change of the luminescence color from red to yellow and eventually to green by varying either the excitation wavelength or the excitation power density. PMID:26899189

  6. Controlling the Two-Photon-Induced Photon Cascade Emission in a Gd3+/Tb3+-Codoped Glass for Multicolor Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mao-Hui; Fan, Hai-Hua; Li, Hui; Lan, Sheng; Tie, Shao-Long; Yang, Zhong-Min

    2016-02-01

    We reported the first observation of the two-photon-induced quantum cutting phenomenon in a Gd3+/Tb3+-codoped glass in which two photons at ~400 nm are simultaneously absorbed, leading to the cascade emission of three photons in the visible spectral region. The two-photon absorption induced by femtosecond laser pulses allows the excitation of the energy states in Gd3+ which are inactive for single-photon excitation and enables the observation of many new electric transitions which are invisible in the single-photon-induced luminescence. The competition between the two-photon-induced photon cascade emission and the single-photon-induced emission was manipulated to control the luminescence color of the glass. We demonstrated the change of the luminescence color from red to yellow and eventually to green by varying either the excitation wavelength or the excitation power density.

  7. Syntheses, crystal structures and vibrational spectra of K Ln(SO 4) 2H 2O ( Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmierczak, Karolina; Hppe, Henning A.

    2010-09-01

    The potassium lanthanide double sulphates K Ln(SO 4) 2H 2O ( Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) were obtained by evaporation of aqueous reaction mixtures of rare earth (III) sulphates and potassium thiocyanate at 298 K. X-ray single-crystal investigations show that K Ln(SO 4) 2H 2O ( Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) crystallise monoclinically ( Ln=Sm: P2 1/ c, Z=4, a=10.047(1), b=8.4555(1), c=10.349(1) , w R2=0.060, R1=0.024, 945 reflections, 125 parameters) while KLa(SO 4) 2H 2O adopts space group P3 221 (Z=3, a=7.1490(5), c=13.2439(12) , w R2=0.038, R1=0.017, 695 reflections, 65 parameters). The coordination environment of the lanthanide ions in K Ln(SO 4) 2H 2O is different in the case of the Nd/Sm/Gd and the Eu/Dy compounds, respectively. In the first case the Ln atoms are nine-fold coordinated in contrast to the latter where the Ln ions are eight-fold coordinated by oxygen atoms. The vibrational spectra of K Ln(SO 4) 2H 2O and the UV-vis reflection spectra of KEu(SO 4) 2H 2O and KNd(SO 4) 2H 2O are also reported.

  8. The hydration properties of Gd(III) and Tb(III): An ab initio quantum mechanical molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Lorenz R.; Passler, Peter P.; Rode, Bernd M.

    2015-04-01

    The quantum mechanical charge-field molecular dynamics (QMCF-MD) simulation method was employed to study the hydration properties of gadolinium(III) and terbium(III). Slight differences of the solvation shells' structural and dynamical properties were discovered. While the Lnsbnd O radial distribution functions are in excellent agreement with recent experiments, average coordination numbers of 8.5 (Gd) and 8.4 (Tb) were found. Vivid ligand exchange dynamics along with rapid intrashell rearrangements were observed, underlined by mean residence times in the picosecond range, which is characteristic for trivalent lanthanoides according to quantum mechanical simulations. Vibrational analysis yielded ion-water force constants below 100 N m-1.

  9. Optical properties and chemical composition analyses of mixed rare earth oxyorthosilicate (R2SiO5, R=La, Gd and Y) doped Dy3+ phosphors prepared by urea-assisted solution combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogugua, S. N.; Shaat, S. K. K.; Swart, H. C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

    2015-08-01

    Dysprosium (Dy3+) doped lanthanum gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (LaGdSiO5), lanthanum yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LaYSiO5) and gadolinium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (GdYSiO5) phosphors (in powder form) were synthesized by urea-assisted combustion method. The X-ray diffractometer analysis confirmed that the LaGdSiO5, LaYSiO5 and GdYSiO5 crystalized in monoclinic phases. The chemical composition of the phosphors was analyzed by measuring the atomic and molecular ionic species using the time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF SIMS). In addition, ToF SIMS imaging technique was used to determine the distribution of the Dy3+ dopant ions on the surface on the phosphors. The average crystallite sizes and lattice strains of the phosphor were increased by Dy3+ doping. The field emission scanning electron microscope images showed that the powders were made up of an agglomeration of particles with no regular shape. The photoluminescence data showed narrow line emission peaks at the wavelengths of 485 nm (minor emission) and 573 nm (major emission) associated with the f?f transitions of Dy3+. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that the emission peak of LaGdSiO5:Dy3+ was ~3 more intense than those of LaYSiO5:Dy3+ and GdYSiO5:Dy3+ when excited using monochromatic xenon lamp with a wavelength of 241 nm. However, when the powders were excited using a 325 nm He-Cd laser, the highest PL emission intensity was observed from GdYSiO5:Dy3+.

  10. One-dimensional GdVO{sub 4}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Dy, Sm) nanofibers: Electrospinning preparation and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue; Yu, Min; Hou, Zhiyao; Li, Guogang; Ma, Ping'an; Wang, Wenxin; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun

    2011-01-15

    One-dimensional GdVO{sub 4}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Dy, Sm) nanofibers have been prepared by a combination method of sol-gel process and electrospinning technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), quantum efficiency (QE), and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra as well as kinetic decays were used to characterize the samples. The XRD, FT-IR, and TG-DTA results show that GdVO{sub 4}:Ln{sup 3+} nanofibers samples crystallize at 700 {sup o}C. SEM images indicate that the as prepared precursor fibers are smooth. After being calcined at 700 {sup o}C for 4 h, the fibers still maintain their fiberlike morphology with rough surface. TEM image further manifests that the GdVO{sub 4}:Ln{sup 3+} nanofibers consist of nanoparticles. Under ultraviolet excitation and low-voltage electron beam excitation, GdVO{sub 4}:Ln{sup 3+} phosphors showed their strong characteristic emission due to an efficient energy transfer from vanadate groups to dopants. The optimum doping concentration of Ln{sup 3+} in the GdVO{sub 4} nanofibers also has been investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields}1D and Q-1D GdVO{sub 4} fiber-like nanostructures were prepared electrospinning technique. {yields}Under ultraviolet excitation and electron beam excitation, the Ln{sup 3+} ions show their characteristic emissions, respectively. {yields}The quantum efficiencies are 14 (Eu{sup 3+}), 6 (Dy{sup 3+}), and 5 % (Sm{sup 3+}) in GdVO{sub 4}, respectively.

  11. Structural transformations and phenomenological description of the formation of phase states in elpasolites Cs2RbDyF6 and Rb2K B'F6 ( B' = Ho, Dy, Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, I. N.; Misyul', S. V.; Molokeev, M. S.; Ivliev, M. P.

    2015-03-01

    The structures of the cubic and monoclinic phases of an Rb2KHoF6 crystal from a series of elpasolites Rb2K B'F6 ( B' = Ho, Dy, Tb), which undergoes a trigger phase transition, have been investigated using X-ray powder diffraction. The critical and noncritical displacements of atoms in the Rb2KHoF6 structure have been determined from the group-theoretical analysis of the complete condensate of order parameters. It has been reliably established that a change in the symmetry due to the phase transition in this crystal can be represented in the form . A phenomenological analysis of the conditions responsible for the formation of phase states upon the phase transitions in elpasolites Cs2RbDyF6 and Rb2K B'F6 ( B' = Ho, Dy, Tb) has been carried out. Taking into account the structural data and using the phenomenological theory, it has been found that the main factor determining the formation of phase states in these and related crystals is the instability of the elpasolite structure with respect to rotational distortions of two types. It has been shown that an important role in the formation of a sequence of structural transformations in these crystals is played by the interaction of rotational order parameters and displacements of the cation from the center of a cuboctahedral hole.

  12. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of Tb{sup 3+} doped K{sub 3}Gd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} nanophosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Palvi; Bedyal, A.K.; Kumar, Vinay; Khajuria, Y.; Lochab, S.P.; Pitale, S.S.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Swart, H.C.

    2014-12-15

    Energy level diagram of Tb{sup 3+} ion in the K{sub 3}Gd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} host lattice. - Highlights: • First time, a detailed TL and PL study on undoped and Tb{sup 3+} doped K{sub 3}Gd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} nanophosphor. • Combustion method was employed to synthesize the Tb{sup 3+} doped K{sub 3}Gd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} nanophosphor. • Mechanism of excitation and emission in undoped and Tb{sup 3+} doped K{sub 3}Gd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} nanophosphor was given. - Abstract: Tb{sup 3+} doped nanoparticulate K{sub 3}Gd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphor was prepared by combustion method using urea as a fuel. The structure, optical and luminescent properties of the phosphor were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopy. In undoped K{sub 3}Gd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, the excitation and emission peaks at 273 nm and 323 nm belongs to the {sup 8}S{sub 7/2} → {sup 6}I{sub J(J=7/2)} and {sup 6}P{sub J(J=7/2)} → {sup 8} S{sub 7/2} transitions of Gd{sup 3+} while green emission was observed in the Tb{sup 3+} doped K{sub 3}Gd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. TL study was carried out after exposing the samples to γ-radiations (0.1–5 kGy) in the K{sub 3}Gd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} (1.5 mol%). The calculated kinetic parameters were compared with different methods. The band gap of the phosphor was estimated as 5.80 eV. The green shade of the Tb{sup 3+} ion with the CIE coordinates (x, y) as (0.29, 0.54) was in good agreement with the well known green phosphors.

  13. Narrow spectral emission CaMoO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} phosphor crystals for white light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, A.; Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110, 8th Street, Troy, New York, 12180 ; Dutta, P.S.

    2013-02-15

    Alkaline earth metal molybdates are promising candidates as a host material for high efficiency narrow spectral emission phosphors. These phosphors could potentially be used for the fabrication of phosphor-converted light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). Phosphor crystals of calcium molybdate doped with rare earth dopant Ln{sup 3+}(Ln=Eu, Dy, Tb) grown using flux growth method have been shown to exhibit higher excitation efficiency than the powders synthesized by solid-state reaction process. Molybdenum (VI) oxide has been found to be a suitable flux for growing large size optically transparent high quality crystals at a temperature around 1100 Degree-Sign C. Using the excitation wavelengths of 465 nm, 454 nm and 489 nm for CaMoO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+}, CaMoO{sub 4}: Dy{sup 3+} and CaMoO{sub 4}: Tb{sup 3+}, respectively, intense emission lines at wavelengths of 615 nm, 575 nm and 550 nm were observed. The optimized doping concentrations of 12%, 2% and 5% for Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}, respectively, provided the highest luminescence intensity. - Graphical Abstract: CaMoO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} phosphor crystals grown using a molybdenum (VI) oxide flux exhibited around 1.5 times the emission intensity of powders obtained from solid-state reaction at the same synthesis temperature. These crystals were found to efficiently emit 615 nm red light when excited by near UV light up to a wavelength of 395 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaMoO{sub 4}: Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) phosphor crystals were successfully grown using high temperature flux (solutions) containing molybdenum (VI) oxide or lithium chloride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Narrow spectral emission at 615 nm, 575 nm and 550 nm, respectively, was observed from CaMoO{sub 4}: Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) phosphor crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimized doping concentrations of Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} in CaMoO{sub 4} for highest emission intensity were determined to be 12%, 2% and 5%, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CaMoO{sub 4}: Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) phosphor crystals grown with molybdenum (VI) oxide flux exhibited 50% higher emission intensity compared to the crystals grown with lithium chloride flux and the powders synthesized by solid-state reaction.

  14. A novel strong green phosphor: K3Gd(PO4)2:Ce3+, Tb3+ for a UV-excited white light-emitting-diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ting-Ming; Yu, Xue; Xu, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Da-Cheng; Yu, Hong-Ling; Yang, Peng-Hui; Qiu, Jian-Bei

    2014-02-01

    A series of K3Gd1-x-y(PO4)2:xCe3+, yTb3+ phosphors are synthesized by the solid-sate reaction method. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectra are utilized to characterize the structures and luminescence properties of the as-synthesized phosphors. Co-doping of Ce3+ enhances the emission intensity of Tb3+ greatly through an efficient energy transfer process from Ce3+ to Tb3+. The energy transfer is confirmed by photoluminescence spectra and decay time curves analysis. The efficiency and mechanism of energy transfer are investigated carefully. Moreover, due to the non-concentration quenching property of K3Tb(PO4)2, the photoluminescence spectra of K3Tb1-x(PO4)2:xCe3+ are studied and the results show that when x = 0.11 the strongest Tb3+ green emission can be realized.

  15. Crystallographic and magnetic phase transitions in the layered ruthenium oxy-arsenides TbRuAsO and DyRuAsO

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Michael A; May, Andrew F; Sales, Brian C

    2012-01-01

    The crystallographic and physical properties of TbRuAsO and DyRuAsO at and below room temperature are reported, including full structure refinements from powder X-ray diffraction data and measured electrical and thermal transport properties, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity. Both compounds are isostructural to LaFeAsO (ZrCuSiAs-type, P4/nmm) at room temperature. However, DyRuAsO undergoes a symmetry-lowering crystallographic phase transition near 25 K, and adopts an orthorhombic structure (Pmmn) below this temperature. This structural distortion is unlike those observed in the analogous Fe compounds. Magnetic phase transitions are observed in both compounds which suggest antiferromagnetic ordering of lanthanide moments occurs near 7.0 K in TbRuAsO and 10.5 K in DyRuAsO. The nature of the structural distortion as well as thermal conductivity and heat capacity behaviors indicate strong coupling between the magnetism and the lattice. The behaviors of both materials show magnetic ordering of small moments on Ru may occur at low temperatures.

  16. Bifunctional mixed-lanthanide cyano-bridged coordination polymers Ln(0.5)Ln'(0.5)(H2O)5[W(CN)8] (Ln/Ln' = Eu3+/Tb3+, Eu3+/Gd3+, Tb3+/Sm3+).

    PubMed

    Chelebaeva, Elena; Long, Jrme; Larionova, Joulia; Ferreira, Rute A S; Carlos, Luis D; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Gomes, Jos B R; Trifonov, Alexander; Gurin, Christian; Guari, Yannick

    2012-08-20

    A new family of mixed-lanthanide cyano-bridged coordination polymers Ln(0.5)Ln'(0.5)(H(2)O)(5)[W(CN)(8)] (where Ln/Ln' = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+), Eu(3+)/Gd(3+), and Tb(3+)/Sm(3+)) containing two lanthanide and one transition metal ions were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence spectroscopy, magnetic analyses, and theoretical computation. These compounds are isotypical and crystallize in the tetragonal system P4/nmm forming two-dimensional grid-like networks. They present a magnetic ordering at low temperature and display the red Eu(3+) ((5)D(0) ? (7)F(0-4)) and green Tb(3+) ((5)D(4) ? (7)F(6-2)) characteristic photoluminescence. The Tb(0.5)Eu(0.5)(H(2)O)(5)[W(CN)(8)] compound presents therefore green and red emission and shows Tb(3+)-to-Eu(3+) energy transfer. PMID:22849813

  17. Synthesis, structural, and magnetic characterization of new Hg{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}LnCu{sub 2}O{sub 8-{delta}} phases with Ln = Nd-Gd, Dy-Lu

    SciTech Connect

    Loureiro, S.M.; Chaillout, C. Gautier, E.

    1997-08-01

    New phases of general formula Hg{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}LnCu{sub 2}O{sub 8-{delta}} with Ln = Nd-Gd, Dy-Lu were synthesized by high-pressure, high-temperature technique. All the compounds crystallize in space group I 4/m m m and the lattice parameters were found to increase with the ionic radii, ranging from a = 3.8460(3) {angstrom}, c = 28.853(3) {angstrom} for Lu up to a = 3.9021(3) {angstrom}, c = 28.986(3) {angstrom} for Nd. Hg-2212 phases were not obtained with La, due to the high ionic radius of La{sup 3+}, or with cations having possible valences higher than (+3), such as Tb, Pr, and Ce. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis performed on samples with Lu, Yb, Er, and Gd showed significant Hg-deficiency as well as rare earth overstoichiometry. This allows us to suggest that lanthanide cations partially substitute for Hg and that these phases are better described as (Hg, Ln){sub 2}BA{sub 2}LnCu{sub 2}O{sub 8-{delta}}. The substitution rate depends on the ionic radii of the lanthanide cation, varying between 25% for Lu (0.977 {angstrom}) or ER (1.004 {angstrom}) to 15% for Gd (1.053 {angstrom}). In the case of Nd-sample it was found that Nd does not replace Hg but Ba instead. The large ionic radius of Nd (1.109 {angstrom}) can probably account for this effect and this phase would be described as Hg{sub 2}(Ba, Nd){sub 2}NdCu{sub 2}O{sub 8-{delta}}. The susceptibility of Sm, Eu, Dy, and Ho samples exhibits a sharp cusp at a temperature T{sub L} between 25 and 28 K. These temperatures are attributed to the antiferromagnetic binding of Cu spins, because they are too high to be due to rare earth ordering. Specific heat and neutron diffraction experiments are planned to establish an eventual cooperative ordering of Cu and rare earth moments.

  18. Magnetic properties of CaCu5-type RNi3TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Yao, Jinlei; Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of CaCu5-type RNi3TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds have been investigated. Magnetic measurements of RNi3TSi display the increasing of Curie temperature and the decreasing of magnetocaloric effect and saturated magnetic moment in the row of 'RNi3CuSi-RNi3NiSi-RNi3CoSi-RNi3MnSi-RNi3FeSi'. In contrast to GdNi3{Mn, Fe, Co}Si, TbNi3{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. The coercive field increases from TbNi4Si ( 0.5 kOe) to TbNi3CoSi (4 kOe), TbNi3MnSi (13 kOe) and TbNi3FeSi (16 kOe) in field of 50 kOe at 5 K, whereas TbNi3CuSi exhibits a negligible coercive field.

  19. Increase in the Tb{sup 3+} green emission in SiO{sub 2}-LaF{sub 3} nano-glass-ceramics by codoping with Dy{sup 3+} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Velazquez, J. J.; Rodriguez, V. D.; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Yanes, A. C.; Castillo, J. del

    2010-12-01

    95SiO{sub 2}-5LaF{sub 3} sol-gel derived nano-glass-ceramics single doped with 0.1Dy{sup 3+} or 0.1Tb{sup 3+} mol % and codoped with 0.1Dy{sup 3+} and xTb{sup 3+} (x=0.1,0.3) mol % were successfully obtained. XRD and HRTEM measurements confirm the precipitation of LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals during the ceramming process, with mean size ranging from 10 to 20 nm and increasing with the thermal treatment temperature. About 75% of lanthanide ions are partitioned into LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals, as calculated from luminescence decays. The effect of increasing the Tb{sup 3+} concentration and also of codoping with Dy{sup 3+} in the Tb{sup 3+} green emission from the {sup 5}D{sub 4} level have been studied. The energy transfer mechanisms between Tb{sup 3+} ions and also between Tb{sup 3+}-Dy{sup 3+} ions, which favor the green emission, have been analyzed.

  20. Crystal structure, electronic and physical properties of monoclinic RECuTe2 in contrast to RECuSe2 (RE = Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy and Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Mehdi; Forbes, Scott; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2014-10-01

    The ternary tellurides RECuTe2 (RE = Gd, Dy and Er) have been synthesized, their crystal structure and charge transport properties have been investigated. The tellurides adopt a monoclinicly distorted variant (C2/m, z = 2) of the trigonal structure (P 3 bar m1, Z = 1) observed for RECuSe2 with RE = Dy, Er. The charge transport properties of RECuSe2 with RE = Pr and Sm have been also explored. While RECuTe2 display a metallic type resistivity, RECuSe2 show semiconducting properties. The room-temperature resistivities are between 0.22 and 10.5 Ω cm, with larger values observed for the selenides. Electronic structure calculations support metallic and semiconducting conductivities for the tellurides and selenides, respectively. The Seebeck coefficient indicates that the dominant charge carries are holes for all phases.

  1. Influence of rare earth elements (Y, Gd and Lu) on the luminescent properties of green phosphor ZnMoO4:Tb3+.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Yang, W; Li, X; Li, W; Ju, X

    2014-11-01

    (Zn,Lnx )MoO4 :Tb(3+) (Ln = Y(3+), Gd(3+) and Lu(3+) ) were prepared using the co-precipitation method. Phase impurity, morphology and composition were investigated by power X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The experimental results show that crystal structure is not destroyed after doping an appropriate amount of Y(3+), Gd(3+) and Lu(3+). EDS analysis reveals that Y, Gd and Lu have been successfully doped into ZnMoO4 . In addition, the morphology of the phosphors is notably improved, exhibiting homogeneous dispersion morphology and irregular shapes of particle size ~ 0.5-1 m. The luminescent intensity of (Zn,Lnx )MoO4:Tb(3+) (Ln = Y(3+), Gd(3+) and Lu(3+)) phosphor is obviously higher than that of ZnMoO4 :Tb(3+) phosphor. The energy transfer process between trivalent rare earth ions indicates that the inert earth ions can act as an energy bridge from MoO4(2-) to Tb(3+). PMID:24282116

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of GdPO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O:Tb{sup 3+} nanorods and nanobundles

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hejuan Zhou, Liqun Li, Ling; Hong, Fei; Luo, Xinru

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: The GdPO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O:Tb{sup 3+} nanocrystals have been synthesized via a hydrothermal method. The formation mechanisms of the nanorods and nanobundles were put forward. The luminescent intensities are associated with the morphologies and sizes. - Abstract: In this paper, the Tb{sup 3+}-doped GdPO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O nanorods and nanobundles have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method with and without glycine, respectively. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGDTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectra (EDS) and photoluminescence (PL) were employed to characterize the as-obtained products. It was found that the addition of glycine and the pH value have crucial influences on the formation of the resulting morphologies and sizes. The possible formation mechanisms for GdPO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O:Tb{sup 3+} nanorods and nanobundles were put forward. A detailed investigation on the photoluminescence of GdPO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O:Tb{sup 3+} different samples revealed that the luminescent properties of products are strongly correlated with the morphologies, sizes, coordination environment and crystal field symmetry.

  3. Influence of structural distortions upon photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} activated Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd) borates

    SciTech Connect

    Asiri Naidu, S.; Boudin, S.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2012-06-15

    The comparative study of the structure and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} activated Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, with Ln=Y, Gd, showed the important role of the host lattice structure upon PL. Higher emission intensities of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} are observed for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} than for Na{sub 3}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, through direct Eu{sup 3+} excitation at 395 nm for Eu{sup 3+} doped borates, and through Gd{sup 3+} excitation around 280 nm for Tb{sup 3+} doped borates. This higher performance for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is due to the less regular environment of Eu{sup 3+} (Tb{sup 3+}) in the Gd sites than in the Y sites and to energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}(Tb{sup 3+}). The smaller critical concentration in Na{sub 3}Ln{sub 1-x}Tb{sub x}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} observed for Ln=Gd, x=0.5, compared to x=0.6 for Ln=Y, is explained by shorter Ln-Ln distances (4.11 A for Gd-Gd vs. 4.59 A for Y-Y). Both Na{sub 3}Y{sub 0.4}Tb{sub 0.6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Na{sub 3}Gd{sub 0.5}Tb{sub 0.5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} show intense green emission under UV excitation. - Graphical abstract: The PL properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} are studied in Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd) borates. Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}exhibits higher emission intensity in Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} compared to Na{sub 3}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} due to the less regular environment of the Gd{sup 3+} ion. Energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} is observed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structure of Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} by X-ray powder diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} emission for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} due to an irregular environment of Gd{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} emission for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} due to energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower Tb{sup 3+} critical concentration for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} due to short Gd{sup 3+}-Gd{sup 3+} distances.

  4. Stable lanthanide luminescence agents highly emissive in aqueous solution: multidentate 2-hydroxyisophthalamide complexes of Sm(3+), Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Dy(3+).

    PubMed

    Petoud, Stphane; Cohen, Seth M; Bnzli, Jean-Claude G; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2003-11-01

    Efficient lanthanide (Ln) luminescent probes require good ligand-to-metal energy transfer and high aqueous stability. A family of ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide chelating units is reported. These form highly stable, eight-coordinate Ln complexes. Several of these (Ln = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy) emit in the visible region with good ligand-to-lanthanide energy transfer. The absolute quantum yields of the two Tb complexes studies (Phi = 0.59, 0.61) and high absorbance make these the brightest luminescent probes for time-resolved detection; the emission spectrum of one complex can be seen down to 10-15 M. The low overlap of the four different Ln complexes enables their simultaneous detection and discrimination. PMID:14583005

  5. Properties of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} nanopowders obtained by sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A. de J. Morales; Murillo, A. Garcia; Romo, F. de J. Carrillo; Hernandez, M. Garcia; Vigueras, D. Jaramillo

    2010-01-15

    A significant practical application for nanostructured materials is X-ray medical imagery, because it is necessary to use dense materials in order to enable absorption of high energy photons. An important requirement of these materials is UV-vis range emission produced by X-ray excitation, which can be influenced by the particle size. Europium doped gadolinium oxide is a well known red phosphor. Moreover, nanophosphors of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} codoped with Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} increase their light yield by energy transfer between Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}. In this study, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders codoped with Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} (2.5 at.% Eu{sup 3+}, and 0.005 and 0.01 at.% Tb{sup 3+}) were obtained via a sol-gel process using gadolinium pentanedionate as precursor and europium and terbium nitrates as doping sources. In this paper, we report the influence of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and luminescent properties of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} by means of TGA, XRD, TEM and X-ray emission measurements.

  6. Syntheses, crystal structures and vibrational spectra of KLn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmierczak, Karolina; Hoeppe, Henning A.

    2010-09-15

    The potassium lanthanide double sulphates KLn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) were obtained by evaporation of aqueous reaction mixtures of rare earth (III) sulphates and potassium thiocyanate at 298 K. X-ray single-crystal investigations show that KLn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) crystallise monoclinically (Ln=Sm: P2{sub 1}/c, Z=4, a=10.047(1), b=8.4555(1), c=10.349(1) A, wR2=0.060, R1=0.024, 945 reflections, 125 parameters) while KLa(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O adopts space group P3{sub 2}21 (Z=3, a=7.1490(5), c=13.2439(12) A, wR2=0.038, R1=0.017, 695 reflections, 65 parameters). The coordination environment of the lanthanide ions in KLn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O is different in the case of the Nd/Sm/Gd and the Eu/Dy compounds, respectively. In the first case the Ln atoms are nine-fold coordinated in contrast to the latter where the Ln ions are eight-fold coordinated by oxygen atoms. The vibrational spectra of KLn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and the UV-vis reflection spectra of KEu(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and KNd(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O are also reported. - Graphical abstract: The lanthanide potassium double sulphates exhibit an unexpected change in the coordination mode by a simple rotation of sulphate tetrahedron 2.

  7. Crystal growth, structures, magnetic and photoluminescent properties of NaLnGeO4 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeon, Jeongho; Hardaway, John B.; Sefat, Athena S.; Latshaw, Allison M.; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2014-08-01

    Single crystals of NaLnGeO4 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd) were grown out of a molten sodium hydroxide flux, and their crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The lanthanide containing germanates crystallize in the orthorhombic space group of Pnma, and exhibit a complex three-dimensional structure consisting of corner- or edge-shared LnO6, GeO4, and NaO6 polyhedra. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that the reported oxides are insulating materials with wide band gaps. The magnetic susceptibility data shows paramagnetic behavior. For the NaEuGeO4 and NaTbGeO4 compositions intense room temperature photoluminescence was observed.

  8. Studies on the new superconducting system (RE) Ba2Ca3Sr4Cu5Ox (RE=Gd, Ho & Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, S.

    1996-03-01

    Superconducting studies have been carried out in the new high TC (50-65K) system (RE)Ba2Ca3Sr4Cu5OX [(RE) 12345] with RE=Gd, Ho&Dy. The unit cell dimensions are of the order of a=5.44 A, b=5.46A and c=14.62A. The data above the diamagnetic onset and below the upturn temperature due to ordering were analyzed to yield the effective magnetic moments (Peff) of the rare earth ions.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescent properties of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} microrods

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhenhe; Yang Jun; Hou Zhiyao; Li Chunxia; Zhang Cuimiao; Huang Shanshan; Lin Jun

    2009-09-15

    One-dimensional (1D) Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} microrods have been successfully prepared through a large-scale and facile hydrothermal method followed by a subsequent calcination process in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixed atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra as well as kinetic decays were used to characterize the samples. The as-formed products via the hydrothermal process could transform to cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} with the same morphology and slight shrinking in size after a postannealing process. Both Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} microrods exhibit strong green emission corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 4} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 5} transition (542 nm) of Tb{sup 3+} under UV light excitation (307 and 258 nm, respectively), and low-voltage electron beam excitation (1.5 {yields} 3.5 kV), which have potential applications in fluorescent lamps and field emission displays.

  10. Single-component and warm-white-emitting phosphor NaGd(WO4)2:Tm3+, Dy3+, Eu3+: synthesis, luminescence, energy transfer, and tunable color.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Jinxian; Dong, Xiangting; Yu, Wensheng

    2014-11-01

    Tm(3+), Dy(3+), and Eu(3+) codoped NaGd(WO4)2 phosphors were prepared by a facile hydrothermal process; they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), photoluminescence spectra, and fluorescence lifetime. The results show that the novel octahedral microcrystals with a mean side length of 2 ?m are obtained. Under the excitation of ultraviolet, individual RE(3+) ion (Tm(3+), Dy(3+), and Eu(3+)) activated NaGd(WO4)2 phosphors exhibit excellent emission properties in their respective regions. Moreover, when codoping Dy(3+) and Eu(3+)/Tm(3+) in the single component, the energy migration from Dy(3+) to Eu(3+) has been demonstrated to be a resonant type via a dipole-quadrupole mechanism as well as that from Tm(3+) to Dy(3+) ions, of which the critical distance (R(Dy-Eu)) is calculated to be 11.08 . More significantly, in the Tm(3+), Dy(3+), and Eu(3+) tridoped NaGd(WO4)2 phosphors, the energy migration of Tm(3+)-Dy(3+)-Eu(3+), utilized for sensitizing Eu(3+) ions besides compensating the red component at low Eu(3+) doping concentration, has been discussed first. In addition, under 365 nm near-ultraviolet radiation (nUV), the color-tunable emissions in octahedral NaGd(WO4)2 microcrystals are realized by giving abundant blue, green, white, yellow, and red emissions, especially warm white emission, and could be favorable candidates in full-color phosphors for nUV-LEDs. PMID:25303406

  11. Magnetocaloric properties of TbN, DyN and HoN nanopowders prepared by the plasma arc discharge method.

    PubMed

    Shinde, K P; Jang, S H; Kim, J W; Kim, D S; Ranot, M; Chung, K C

    2015-12-21

    We report for the first time the synthesis of nanopowders of TbN, DyN and HoN crystallized in a cubic structure by the plasma arc discharge (PAD) method and investigate their magnetocaloric properties for magnetic refrigeration applications. The nitridization of terbium, dysprosium and holmium was obtained using a mixture of nitrogen and argon gas inside a discharge chamber with 4 kPa pressure. The structural and microstructural properties of these rare earth nitrides were investigated by using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The studied nitrides undergo a second-order ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition at Curie temperatures of 35.7, 19.9 and 14.2 K for TbN, DyN and HoN, respectively. The magnetocaloric effects were estimated by calculating the magnetic entropy changes from the magnetization data sets measured at the different applied magnetic fields and temperatures. The changes in entropy -ΔSM were found to be 12.0, 13.6 and 24.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) at an applied magnetic field of 5 T. PMID:26492221

  12. Magnetic domain structure, crystal orientation, and magnetostriction of Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.95 solidified in various high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pengfei; Liu, Tie; Dong, Meng; Yuan, Yi; Wang, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we studied how applying a high magnetic field during solidification of Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.95 alloys affected their magnetic domain structure, crystal orientation, and magnetostriction. We observed the morphology of the magnetic domain during solidification, finding it change with the applied field: from fiber like (0 T) to dot like and closure mixed (4.4 T) to fiber like (8.8 T) to fishbone like (11.5 T). The alloy solidified at 4.4 T showed the best contrast of light and dark in its domain image, widest magnetic domain, fastest magnetization, and highest magnetostriction; this alloy is followed in descending order by the alloys solidified at 11.5 T, 8.8 T, and 0 T. The orientation of the (Tb, Dy)Fe2 phase changed with magnetic field from random (0 T) to <111> (4.4 T) to <113> (8.8 T) to <110> (11.5 T). The improvement in magnetostriction was likely caused by modification of both the magnetization process and the alloy microstructure.

  13. Trinuclear [CoIII 2 -LnIII] (Ln=Tb, Dy) single-ion magnets with mixed 6-chloro-2-hydroxypyridine and Schiff base ligands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cai-Ming; Zhang, De-Qing; Hao, Xiang; Zhu, Dao-Ben

    2014-07-01

    The Schiff base ligand N1,N3-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)diethylenetriamine (H(2)valdien) and the co-ligand 6-chloro-2-hydroxypyridine (Hchp) were used to construct two 3d-4f heterometallic single-ion magnets [Co(2) Dy(valdien)2 (OCH(3))(2) (chp)(2)]?ClO(4)?5?H(2)O 1 and [Co(2) Tb(valdien)(2) (OCH(3))(2)(chp)(2)]?ClO(4)?(2)?H(2)O?CH(3)OH(2). The two trinuclear [Co(III) 2 Ln(III)] complexes behave as a mononuclear Ln(III) magnetic system because of the presence of two diamagnetic cobalt(III) ions. Complex?1 has a molecular symmetry center, and it crystallizes in the C2/c space group, whereas complex?2 shows a lower molecular symmetry and crystallizes in the P(2)1/c space group. Magnetic investigations indicated that both complexes are field-induced single-ion magnets, and the Co(III)(2)-Dy(III) complex possesses a larger energy barrier [74.1(4.2)?K] than the Co(III)(2) -Tb(III) complex [32.3(2.6)?K]. PMID:24807145

  14. Exchange interactions at the origin of slow relaxation of the magnetization in {TbCu?} and {DyCu?} single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Kettles, Fraser J; Milway, Victoria A; Tuna, Floriana; Valiente, Rafael; Thomas, Lynne H; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Ochsenbein, Stefan T; Murrie, Mark

    2014-09-01

    New {TbCu3} and {DyCu3} single-molecule magnets (SMMs) containing a low-symmetry Ln(III) center (shape measurements relative to a trigonal dodecahedron and biaugmented trigonal prism are 2.2-2.3) surrounded by three Cu(II) metalloligands are reported. SMM behavior is confirmed by frequency-dependent out-of-phase ac susceptibility signals and single-crystal temperature and sweep rate dependent hysteresis loops. The ferromagnetic exchange interactions between the central Ln(III) ion and the three Cu(II) ions could be accurately measured by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy and modeled effectively. The excitations observed by INS correspond to flipping of Cu(II) spins and appear at energies similar to the thermodynamic barrier for relaxation of the magnetization, ~15-20 K, and are thus at the origin of the SMM behavior. The magnetic quantum number M(tot) of the cluster ground state of {DyCu3} is an integer, whereas it is a half-integer for {TbCu3}, which explains their vastly different quantum tunneling of the magnetization behavior despite similar energy barriers. PMID:25101774

  15. Brilliant photoluminescence and triboluminescence from ternary complexes of Dy(III) and Tb(III) with 3-phenyl-4-propanoyl-5-isoxazolonate and a bidentate phosphine oxide coligand.

    PubMed

    Biju, S; Gopakumar, N; Bnzli, J-C G; Scopelliti, R; Kim, H K; Reddy, M L P

    2013-08-01

    Three new lanthanide heterocyclic ?-diketonate complexes [Dy(PPI)3(EtOH)2] (1), [Dy(PPI)3(DPEPO)] (2), and [Tb(PPI)3(DPEPO)] (3) [where HPPI = 3-phenyl-4-propanoyl-5-isoxazolone and DPEPO = bis(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)ether oxide] have been synthesized and fully characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that these complexes are mononuclear and that the central Ln(III) ion is coordinated to eight oxygen atoms that are provided by three bidentate ?-diketonate ligands and ethanol or bidentate DPEPO in a distorted square antiprismatic geometry. These complexes have high molar absorption coefficients (up to 3 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) at 285 nm) and display strong visible and, for Dy(III), NIR luminescence upon irradiation at the ligand-centered band in the range 250-350 nm. The emission quantum yields and the luminescence lifetimes at room temperature are 3 0.5% and 15 1 ?s for 1, 12 2% and 33 1 ?s for 2, and 42 6% and 795 1 ?s for 3. Moreover, the crystals of 2 and 3 exhibit brilliant triboluminescence, visible in daylight. PMID:23848056

  16. Synthesis, structure and luminescence studies of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III), Dy(III) cationic complexes with acetylacetone and bis(5-(pyridine-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)propane☆

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Alexey N.; Hasegawa, Miki; Shimizu, Tomohito; Fukawa, Tomonori; Sakurai, Shoya; Nishchymenko, Galyna A.; Shul’gin, Victor F.; Meshkova, Svetlana B.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Studies concerning synthesis, structure and luminescence of eight-coordinate Eu, Tb, Sm and Dy complexes of the type [Ln(acac)2(L)]Cl (Hacac = pentanedione-2,4 and L = bis(5-(pyridine-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)propane) are reported in detail. The obtained complexes were investigated by various means including elemental- and thermogravimetric analysis, IR- and electron transition spectroscopy. The structure of the Tb complex was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography: Tb is eight-coordinate, and L acting only as a tetradentate chelate together with two bidentate acac ligands. Photophysical studies of the complexes were carried out. The Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes show strong emissions both in solid state and solution. The intensity of the luminescence of Dy(III) and Sm(III) are relatively weak. The factors determining the intensity of the photoluminescence are discussed. PMID:24068839

  17. Magnetic order of Tb3Co2.2Si1.8 and Dy3Co2.2Si1.8 as a representative of the family of compounds with orthorhombic distortion of rare earth lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Isnard, O.; Nirmala, R.; Malik, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic measurements indicate that the rare earth intermetallic compounds Tb3Co2.2Si1.8 and Dy3Co2.2Si1.8 (Dy3Co2.2Si1.8-type) exhibit ferromagnetic transition at 132 K and 74 K and a spin-reorientation transition around 42 K and 35 K, respectively. Below Curie temperature, both compounds are soft ferromagnets, whereas below the spin reorientation transition they are permanent magnets with antiferromagnetic component: the values of critical field Hc=30 kOe, coercive field Hcoer=17 kOe and residual magnetization Mres=4.1 ?B/Tb for Tb3Co2.2Si1.8 and Hc=14 kOe, Hcoer=21.5 kOe and Mres=3.7 ?B/Dy for Dy3Co2.2Si1.8 at 2 K. The magnetocaloric effect of Dy3Co2.2Si1.8 is calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change (?Sm) and it reaches a values of -16.5 J/kg K at 75 K for a field change of 140 kOe (-8.1 J/kg K at 70 K, for 0-50 kOe change) and -6.0 J/kg K for a field change of 140 kOe (-1.4 J/kg K, for 0-50 kOe change) around 40 K. Neutron diffraction study in zero applied field shows mixed ferro-antiferromagnetic ordering of Tb3Co2.2Si1.8 below ~127 K with wave vectors K0=[0, 0, 0] and K1=[Kx, 0, 0] (Kx?3/10). Between ~127 K and 53 K the magnetic structure of Tb3Co2.2Si1.8 is set of canted ferromagnetic cones with a resulting b-axis ferromagnetic component, whereas below 43 K its magnetic structure is set of canted ferromagnetic cones with a resulting c-axis ferromagnetic component. Between 53 K and 43 K the high-temperature magnetic order of Tb3Co2.2Si1.8 transforms to the low-temperature order via an intermediate state. The level of orthorhombic distortion of the Tb-sublattice determines the magnetic ordering of Tb3Co2.2Si1.8 in the Tb?Tb3Co2.2Si1.8?Tb3Co2Ge3?TbGe sequence.

  18. Cu(II)-Gd(III) cryogenic magnetic refrigerants and Cu8Dy9 single-molecule magnet generated by in situ reactions of picolinaldehyde and acetylpyridine: experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Liang; Lin, Wei-Quan; Chen, Yan-Cong; Gmez-Coca, Silvia; Aravena, Daniel; Ruiz, Eliseo; Leng, Ji-Dong; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2013-12-16

    A series of heterometallic [Ln(III)(x)Cu(II)(y)] complexes, [Gd2Cu2]n (1), [Gd4Cu8] (2), [Ln9Cu8] (Ln=Gd, 3Gd; Ln=Dy, 3Dy), were successfully synthesized by a one-pot route at room temperature with three kinds of in situ carbonyl-related reactions: Cannizzaro reaction, aldol reaction, and oxidation. This strategy led to dysprosium analogues that behaved as single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and gadolinium analogues that showed significant magnetocaloric effect (MCE). In this study a numerical DFT approach is proposed by using pseudopotentials to calculate the exchange coupling constants in three polynuclear [Gd(x)Cu(y)] complexes; with these values exact diagonalization or quantum Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to calculate the variation of the magnetic entropy involved in the MCE. For the [Dy9Cu8] complexes, local magnetic properties of the Dy(III) centers have been determined by using the CASSCF+RASSI method. PMID:24265054

  19. Construction of Ni(II)Ln(III)M(III) (Ln = Gd(III), Tb(III); M = Fe(III), Cr(III)) clusters showing slow magnetic relaxations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Yashu; Li, Ping; Zhou, Hongbo; Shen, Xiaoping

    2015-12-14

    Four heterotrimetallic 3d-3d'-4f complexes, [Ni(L)Gd(H2O)4][Cr(CN)6]CH3OH2H2O (1), [Ni(L)Tb(H2O)4][Cr(CN)6]CH3OH2H2O (2), [Ni(L)Gd(H2O)4][Fe(CN)6]3H2O (3), and [Ni(L)Tb(H2O)4][Fe(CN)6]CH3OH2H2O (4) (H2L = N,N-ethylenebis(3-methoxysalicylaldiimine)), were synthesized and characterized structurally and magnetically. The X-ray structural analysis revealed that these complexes are isostructural, in which Ni(II)Ln(III)M(III) (Ln = Tb(III), Gd(III); M = Fe(III), Cr(III)) is arranged in trinuclear clusters. Then, these clusters further interact with each other via weak hydrogen bonds to form high dimensional supramolecular networks. Magnetic investigation indicates that the Ni(II) centers are diamagnetic. Dominant antiferromagnetic coupling is presented in complexes 1 and 3. An ac magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates that complexes 2 and 4 show typical field induced slow magnetic relaxation, which might be caused by the magnetic anisotropy of the central Tb(III) ions. PMID:26536585

  20. Photoluminescence properties of rare earths (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) activated NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} wolframite host lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Asiri Naidu, S.; Boudin, S.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2012-01-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) studies on NaIn{sub 1-x}RE{sub x}W{sub 2}O{sub 8}, with RE=Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} phases have shown that the relative contribution of the host lattice and of the intra-f-f emission of the activators to the PL varies with the nature of the rare earth cation. In the case of Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} activators, with yellow and blue emission, respectively, the energy transfer from host to the activator plays a major role. In contrast for Eu{sup 3+}, with intense red emission, the host absorption is less pronounced and the intra-f-f transitions of the Eu{sup 3+} ions play a major role, whereas for Tb{sup 3+} intra-f-f transitions are only observed, giving rise to green emission. - Graphical abstract: NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} double tungstate doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}and Tm{sup 3+} shows characteristic emission of intense red for Eu{sup 3+}, yellow for Dy{sup 3+}, green for Tb{sup 3+} and blue for Tm{sup 3+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic emissions of rare earths (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) are observed NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} wolframite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy transfer from host to the activators (Eu{sup 3+} Dy{sup 3+} Tm{sup 3+} is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL properties of rare earth ions depend on minor structural variations in the host lattice.

  1. Magnetic properties of cubic R(x)Y(1-x)Al2 (R = Dy,Tb) intermetallic random anisotropy magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Moral, A.; Arnaudas, J. I.; de La Fuente, C.; Ciria, M.; Joven, E.; Gehring, P. M.

    1994-11-01

    A short review is made of the key magnetic properties of dilute cubic R(x)Y(1-x)Al2 (R = Tb, Dy) intermetallics, in order to show their main magnetic features. Dilution by Y introduces a weak random magnetic anisotropy (RMA). The rich magnetic phase diagram is described, including paramagnetic (P), spin glass (SG), correlated spin glass (CSG), random ferromagnetic (RFM), and ferromagnetic (F) phases, with a triple point and two multicritical ones. The paper deals with the induced macroscopic magnetic anisotropy cooling in a magnetic field below T(sub SG) or T(sub CSG) transition temperatures, which can be either unidirectional or uniaxial or both. High-field (3 T) magnetostriction in Tb series shows, for x = 0.48, 0.59, 0.87, a decrease of the Callen alpha exponent (lambda(sub t) approx. equal to m(sup alpha), m = reduced magnetization) below 3. The Sompolinsky irreversibility parameter delta has been determined for the Tb series in the SG regime, and a replica model is presented to explain the delta (T) dependence. The character of the p goes to SG or P goes to CSG transitions is addressed, through the scaling of nonlinear susceptibility (SG regime) or a ferromagnetic-like scaling of magnetization, respectively. From quasielastic neutron scattering around Q = (1,1,1) we determine the temperature dependence of the magnetic correlation length in Dy0.8Y0.2Al2, which peaks, but does not diverge at T(sub c). A magnon excitation at 3.5 meV is reported for x = 0.8.

  2. Honeycombs of triangles and magnetic frustration in SrL{sub 2}O{sub 4} (L=Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb)

    SciTech Connect

    Karunadasa, H.; Regan, K.A.; Cava, R.J.; Huang, Q.; Lynn, J.W.; Ueland, B.G.; Schiffer, P.

    2005-04-01

    The crystal structures, magnetic order, and susceptibility have been investigated for magnetically frustrated SrDy{sub 2}O{sub 4}, SrHo{sub 2}O{sub 4}, SrEr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, SrTm{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and SrYb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Powder neutron-diffraction structural refinements reveal columns of LO{sub 6} octahedra that run along one crystallographic direction, with Sr-O polyhedra in the interstices. The lanthanide sublattice displays multiple triangular interconnections: one-dimensional strings form the backbones of four types of chains of lanthanide triangles sharing edges arranged in a honeycomb pattern. This crystal structure produces strong geometric frustration for the magnetic system that is evidenced in both magnetic susceptibility and neutron-scattering data at low temperatures. The susceptibility measurements for the series, including SrGd{sub 2}O{sub 4} for which data are also reported, lack the sharp features characteristic of three-dimensional long-range magnetic ordering. Metamagnetic behavior is observed in the magnetization vs applied field data at 1.8 K for the cases of L=Dy, Er, and Ho. Magnetic neutron-scattering studies for the Dy and Er materials show only very broad magnetic scattering at low temperatures, while the Ho system exhibits long-range two-dimensional order. Any magnetic scattering in the Tm and Yb compounds, if present, was too weak to be detected in these measurements.

  3. Systematic studies of the structures and magnetic properties for a family of cubane complexes with the formula: [M2Ln2] (Ln = Dy, Gd; M = Ni, Zn) and [Ni2Y2].

    PubMed

    Yu, Wan-Rong; Lee, Gene-Hsian; Yang, En-Che

    2013-03-21

    Studies of magnetic properties of a family of tetranuclear M(II)(2)Ln(III)(2) (M = Ni, Zn; Ln = Dy, Gd and Y) complexes with hmp (anion of 2-hydroxymethylpyridine) and benzoate as ligands are reported. In these complexes, metal ions (M or Ln) occupy the four alternative corners of a distorted cubane with oxygen atoms from alkoxyl groups on the others. Complexes 1, 2 and 3 crystallized in P2(1)/c and complexes 4 and 5 in C2/c space groups. Although in different space groups, complexes 1-5 have very similar structures which permit the magnetic interactions to be systematically compared with respect to metal ion pairs. In complex 3 (Ni(2)Y(2)), clear ferromagnetic coupling between Ni(II) ions can be seen, with: g = 2.16, S = 2, D = -0.95 cm(-1), J = +3.77 cm(-1) (or g = 2.20, S = 2, D = +1.51 cm(-1)). In complex 5 (Zn(2)Gd(2)), a very weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the Gd(III) ions was observed: g = 2.08, J = -0.05 cm(-1). Based on these data, we concluded that the decrease in ?(M)T-T upon cooling for complex 2 (Zn(2)Dy(2)) might be partly due to antiferromagnetic coupling between Dy(III) ions. The data from complex 4 (Ni(2)Gd(2)) were analyzed based on the preceding results and gave moderate ferromagnetic coupling between Ni(II) and Gd(III) with J = 0.26 cm(-1). A detailed study of magnetic properties of complex 1 (Ni(2)Dy(2)) was not possible, because of its strong orbital contributions from Dy(III) ions. In addition, frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals were clearly observed for both complexes 1 and 2 which can be attributed to magnetoanisotropy contributions from Dy(III) ions. PMID:23334432

  4. Dy-V magnetic interaction and local structure bias on the complex spin and orbital ordering in Dy₁₋xTbxVO₃ (x=0 and 0.2)

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, J.-Q.; Cao, H. B.; McGuire, M. A.; Ren, Y.; Sales, B. C.; Mandrus, D. G.

    2013-06-10

    The spin and orbital ordering in Dy₁₋xTbxVO₃ (x=0 and 0.2) was studied by measuring x-ray powder diffraction, magnetization, specific heat, and neutron single-crystal diffraction. The results show that G-OO/C-AF and C-OO/G-AF phases coexist in Dy0.8Tb0.20VO3 in the temperature range 2–60 K, and the volume fraction of each phase is temperature and field dependent. The ordering of Dy moments at T* = 12 K induces a transition from G-OO/C-AF to a C-OO/G-AF phase. Magnetic fields suppress the long-range order of Dy moments and thus the C-OO/G-AF phase below T*. The polarized moments induced at the Dy sublattice by external magnetic fields couple to the V 3d moments, and this coupling favors the G-OO/C-AF state. Also discussed is the effect of the Dy-V magnetic interaction and local structure distortion on the spin and orbital ordering in Dy₁₋xTbxVO₃.

  5. Intervalence charge transfer in Pr 3+- and Tb 3+-doped double tungstate crystals KRE(WO 4) 2 (RE = Y, Gd, Yb, Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinaud, P.; Bettinelli, M.; Diaz, F.

    2010-10-01

    First experimental evidences of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) transitions in Pr 3+- and Tb 3+-doped double tungstate crystals KRE(WO 4) 2 (RE = Y, Gd, Yb, Lu) are reported. The IVCT bands are located nearly at the same energies for Pr 3+ and Tb 3+ in a given crystal and these energies are consistent with an empirical model recently developed for Pr 3+ ions in titanates, vanadates, niobates and tantalates. These data made it possible to locate the 4f n states of trivalent lanthanides in KREW crystals by applying the "double seat" empirical model proposed by Dorenbos.

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Hydrothermal Synthesis and Vacuum Ultraviolet-Excited Luminescence Properties of Novel Dy3+-doped GdPO4 White Light Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guo-Cai; Wang, Yu-Hua; Wu, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Jia-Chi; Lu, Yang-Hua

    2009-06-01

    Novel Dy3+-doped GdPO4 white light phosphors with a monoclinic system are successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method at 240C. The strong absorption at around 147 nm in the excitation spectrum is assigned to the host absorption. It is suggested that the vacuum ultraviolet excited energy is transferred from the host to the Dy3+ ions. The f - d transition of the Dy3+ ion is observed to be located at 182 nm, which is consistent with the calculated value using Dorenbos's expression. Under 147nm excitation, Gd0.92PO4:0.08Dy3+ phosphor exhibits two emission bands located at 572 nm (yellow) and 478 nm (blue), which correspond to the hypersensitive transitions 4F9/2-6H13/2 and 4F9/2-6H15/2. The two emission bands lead to the white light. Because of the strong absorption at about 147nm, Gd0.92PO4:0.08Dy3+ under vacuum ultraviolet excitation is an effective white light phosphor, and has promising applications to mercury-free lamps.

  7. Performance characteristics of an irreversible regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle using Gd0.74Tb0.26 as the working substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diguet, Gildas; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2012-10-01

    The cycle model of an irreversible regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigerator using Gd0.74Tb0.26 as the working substance is established. Based on the experimental characteristics of iso-field heat capacities of the material Gd0.74Tb0.26 at 0 T and 2 T, the corresponding iso-field entropies are calculated and the thermodynamic performance of an irreversible regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle is investigated. The effects of the irreversibilities in the two adiabatic processes and non-perfect regenerative process of the magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle on the cooling quantity, the heat quantity released to the hot reservoir, the net cooling quantity and the coefficient of performance are discussed in detail. Some significant results are obtained.

  8. Influence of electron beam irradiation on the structural, electrical and thermal properties of Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, B. S.; Rao, Ashok; Babu, P. D.; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Okram, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present systematic studies on the effect of electron beam irradiation on structural, electrical and thermal properties of Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 manganites. The XRD patterns and Rietveld analysis show that the samples remain single phased even after they undergo electron beam irradiation. Both the series of the samples Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 show insulating trends in their temperature dependent electrical resistivity, ρ(T) behavior. The resistivity data for both the series of samples (pristine as well as irradiated) indicate that the small polaron hopping model is valid in high temperature region; on contrary, variable range hopping model governs the low temperature regime. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the Neel temperatures of pristine and irradiated samples of Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 do not change appreciably when they are subjected to irradiation. Thermo-electrical power is observed to increase with irradiation in Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 samples, whereas for Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 samples a decrease in thermo-electric power is seen when the samples are irradiated.

  9. The extended chain compounds Ln {sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Gd, Dy): Synthesis, structure and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ryazanov, Mikhail; Mattausch, Hansjuergen; Simon, Arndt

    2007-04-15

    The title compounds are obtained in high yield from stoichiometric mixtures of Ln, LnI{sub 3} and graphite, heated at 900-950 deg. C in welded Ta containers. The crystal structures of new Pr and Nd phases determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction are related to those of other Ln {sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17}-type compounds (C 2/c, a=19.610(1) and 19.574(4) A, b=12.406(2) and 12.393(3) A, c=19.062(5) and 19.003(5) A, {beta}=90.45(3){sup o} and 90.41(3){sup o}, for Pr{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17} and Nd{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17}, respectively). All compounds contain infinite zigzag chains of C{sub 2}-centered metal atom octahedra condensed by edge-sharing into the [tcc] {sub {infinity}} sequence (c=cis, t=trans) and surrounded by edge-bridging iodine atoms as well as by apical iodine atoms that bridge between chains. The polycrystalline Gd{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17} sample exhibits semiconducting thermal behavior which is consistent with an ionic formulation (Ln {sup 3+}){sub 12}(C{sub 2} {sup 6-}){sub 3}(I{sup -}){sub 17}(e{sup -}) under the assumption that one extra electron is localized in metal-metal bonding. The magnetization measurements on Nd{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17}, Gd{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17} and Dy{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17} indicate the coexistence of competing magnetic interactions leading to spin freezing at T {sub f}=5 K for the Gd phase. The Nd and Dy compounds order antiferromagnetically at T {sub N}=25 and 29 K, respectively. For Dy{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17}, a metamagnetic transition is observed at a critical magnetic field H{approx}25 kOe. - Graphical abstract: Zigzag chains of edge-sharing metal atom octahedra in Ln {sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17}.

  10. Morphotropic phase boundary and magnetoelastic behaviour in ferromagnetic Tb{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}Fe{sub 2} system

    SciTech Connect

    Adil, Murtaza; Yang, Sen Mi, Meng; Zhou, Chao Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Rui; Liao, Xiaoqi; Wang, Yu; Ren, Xiaobing; Song, Xiaoping; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-30

    Morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), separating two ferroic phases of different crystal symmetries, has been studied extensively for its extraordinary enhancement of piezoelectricity in ferroelectrics. Based on the same mechanism, we have designed a magnetic MPB in the pseudobinary ferromagnetic system of Tb{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}Fe{sub 2} and the corresponding crystal structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostriction are explored. With the synchrotron x-ray diffractometry, the structure symmetry of TbFe{sub 2}-rich compositions is detected to be rhombohedral (R) and that of GdFe{sub 2}-rich compositions is tetragonal (T) below T{sub c}. With the change of concentration, the value of magnetostriction of the samples changes monotonously, while the MPB composition Tb{sub 0.1}Gd{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 2}, which corresponds to the coexistence of R and T phases, exhibits the maximum magnetization among all available compositions and superposition of magnetostriction behaviour of R and T phases. Our result of MPB phenomena in ferromagnets may provide an effective route to design functional magnetic materials with exotic properties.

  11. The generalized planar fault energy, ductility, and twinnability of Al and AlRE (RE = Sc, Y, Dy, Tb, Nd) at different temperatures: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao-Zhi; Liu, Li-Li; Wang, Rui; Liu, Qing

    2014-06-01

    The genearlized planar fault energies of Al and AlRE (RE = Sc, Y, Dy, Tb, Nd) alloys have been investigated using first-principles methods combined with a quasiharmonic approach. The stacking fault energies, unstable stacking fault energies, and unstable twinning energies decrease slightly with increasing temperature. The ductility parameter D, the relative barrier difference ?utus, and the twinnability ?a of Al and AlRE alloys at different temperatures have been determined. It is found that the ductilities of Al and Al alloys are nearly the same and the ductilities increase slightly with increasing temperature. The RE alloying elements make twinning more likely and the twinnabilities of Al and Al alloys decrease with increasing temperature.

  12. Photoelectron spectra of the late rare-earth misfit layer compounds (LnS)1 + x TS2 (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho; T = Nb, Ta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, C. M.; Wiegers, G. A.; Haas, C.

    1997-05-01

    Photoemission spectra (XPS and UPS) are presented for the valence band of misfit layer compounds (LnS) 1+ xTS 2 with Ln = Dy, Ho or Tb; T = Nb or Ta. The Nb 4d z 2 (or Ta 5d z 2) conduction band is almost filled, which indicates a charge transfer of slightly less than one electron per T from the LnS to the TS 2 layers. The spectra are similar to the spectrum of (LaS) 1.14NbS 2, except for the Ln 4f contribution. The rare-earth atoms in these compounds are trivalent. The localized 4f states shift about 2 eV to lower energy, as compared with the rare-earth metals. The electronic structure of the rare-earth misfit layer compounds is discussed.

  13. Synthesis of SrAl2O4:Eu2+ phosphors co-doped with Dy3+, Tb3+, Si4+ and optimization of co-doping amount by response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan; Liang, Xiaoping; Liu, Kai; Zhou, Qianqian; Chen, Peng; Wang, Jun; Li, Jianxin

    2016-03-01

    Dy3+ doped SrAl2O4:Eu2+ phosphors were synthesized by high temperature solid phase method in a weak reducing atmosphere (5% H2 + 95% N2). The relationship between the crushed granularity and the phosphors brightness was studied. The effect of co-doping amount of Dy3+, Tb3+ and Si4+ on the structure and properties of SrAl2O4:Eu2+ via response surface method was investigated. Photoluminescence measurement results showed that the initial afterglow brightness of 0.002 mol% Dy3+ doped SrAl2O4:Eu2+0.002 phosphors decreased after first increased within the sintering temperature range from 1150 to 1400 °C, which created the highest value of 12,101 mcd/m2 at 1300 °C. Numerous coarse particles in the powder ought to be crushed for the practical application, however, the brightness became lower accompanied by the decrease of the granularity. The luminescence property of SrAl2O4:Eu2+ sintered at 1200 °C improved by co-doping Dy3+-Tb3+-Si4+. The results of response surface method showed that the influence extent on the luminescence property was Dy3+ > Tb3+ > Si4+. When the co-doping amount in SrAl2O4:Eu2+0.002 phosphors of Dy3+, Tb3+ and Si4+ was 0.001 mol%, 0.0005 mol% and 0.002 mol%, respectively, the initial afterglow brightness of SrAl2O4 was up to the highest value of 12,231 mcd/m2, which was in good agreement on the predicted maximum value of 12,519 mcd/m2 with the optimum co-doping amount of 0.0015 mol% Dy3+, 0.0005 mol% Tb3+ and 0.0017 mol% Si4+. The brightness of co-doped phosphors not only increased by 56.79% than that of SrAl2O4:Eu2+0.002, Dy3+0.002 sintered at 1200 °C, but also was above that of 1300 °C. The emission spectra results showed that, compared with 0.001 mol% Dy3+ doped phosphor, the emission peak of 0.001 mol% Dy3+-0.001 mol% Tb3+ co-doped phosphor generated red shift and increased by 9.3% in emission intensity; 0.001 mol% Dy3+-0.004 mol% Si4+ and 0.001 mol% Dy3+-0.001 mol% Tb3+-0.004 mol% Si4+ co-doped SrAl2O4:Eu2+0.002 emission peak created blue shift and increased by 37.2% and 47.6% in emission intensity, respectively.

  14. The luminous and magnetic properties of Tb3+-doped four angle star-like NaGd(WO4)2.

    PubMed

    Xin, Shuangyu; Wang, Yuhua; Lil, Fenghua; Liu, Bitao; Zhang, Jia; Tao, Ye

    2014-05-01

    Four angle star-like double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2 have been prepared hydrothermally with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the chelating agent and ethanol as the mixing solvent. Monodisperse micron-sized four angle star-like NaGd(WO4)2 were fabricated for the first time. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetrometer (VSM) techniques. This work emphasizes the luminescence properties of Tb(3+)-doped NaGd(WO4)2 under ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation and the magnetic properties. The results demonstrate the phosphors are expected to have potential applications in weak lighting systems and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24734626

  15. Influence of Gd{sup 3+} on the visible quantum cutting in green-emitting silicate Na{sub 3}Gd{sub 0.9?x}Y{sub x}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}:0.1Tb{sup 3+} phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Lili; Wang, Yuhua; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Yanzhao; Tao, Ye

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? The visible quantum cutting between Tb{sup 3+} in silicate Na{sub 3}Gd{sub 0.9?x}Y{sub x}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}:0.1Tb{sup 3+} phosphors are firstly investigated. ? Gd{sup 3+} plays an important intermediate role during the QC process and reinforces the cross relaxation efficiency. ? Na{sub 3}Gd{sub 0.9}Tb{sub 0.1}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9} has potential application for 3D-PDPs and Hg-free lamps for the total QE of 151.2%. - Abstract: The visible quantum cutting via cross-relaxation between Tb{sup 3+} ions in Na{sub 3}Gd{sub 0.9?x}Y{sub x}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}:0.1Tb{sup 3+} phosphors are identified for the first time. It has also been found that with the increase of the ratio of Gd{sup 3+}/Y{sup 3+}, the quantum cutting efficiency increases, which indicates the Gd{sup 3+} plays an important intermediate role in energy transfer to convert vacuum ultraviolet light to visible light and reinforces the cross relaxation efficiency during the quantum cutting process. In addition, the energy transfer process from Gd{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} is also investigated and discussed in terms of luminescence spectra.

  16. Heat capacities, magnetic properties, and resistivities of ternary RPdBi alloys where R = La, Nd, Gd, Dy, Er, and Lu

    SciTech Connect

    Riedemann, T.M.

    1996-05-01

    Over the past four and a half decades research on the rare earths, their compounds, and their alloys has yielded significant insights into the nature of materials. The rare earths can be used to systematically study a series of alloys or compounds. Magnetic ordering, crystalline fields, spin fluctuations, the magnetocaloric effect, and magnetostriction are a small sample of phenomena studied that are exhibited by the rare earth family. A significant portion of research has been conducted on the abundant RM{sub 2} and RM phases, where R is the rare earth and M is a transition metal. The natural progression of science has led to the study of related RMX ternary phases, where X is either another transition metal or semimetal. There are now over 1,000 known RMX phases. The focus of this study is on RPdBi where R = La, Nd, Gd, Dy, Er, and Lu. Their heat capacities, magnetic properties, and resistivities are studied.

  17. Rare earth anthracenedicarboxylate metal-organic frameworks: slow relaxation of magnetization of Nd(3+), Gd(3+), Dy(3+), Er(3+) and Yb(3+) based materials.

    PubMed

    Calahorro, Antonio J; Oyarzabal, Itziar; Fernndez, Beln; Seco, Jos M; Tian, Tian; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Colacio, Enrique; Rodrguez-Diguez, Antonio

    2015-12-22

    We have synthesized a new family of metal-organic-frameworks (MOFs) based on a 9,10-anthracenedicarboxylate linker. We report the formation of lanthanide-based MOFs using soft solvothermal routes with dimethylformamide as a solvent. These materials display intense photoluminescence properties in the solid state at room temperature. What is more interesting is, some of them exhibit slow relaxation of magnetization with activation barriers of 22.9, 15.4, 52.7, 13.0 and 16.2 K for Nd(3+), Gd(3+), Dy(3+), Er(3+) and Yb(3+), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, Nd(3+) and Yb(3+) materials are the first examples of 3D- and 2D-MOFs, respectively, that show slow relaxation of magnetization. PMID:26610692

  18. Magnetic and magnetotransport behavior of R F e5A l7(R =Gd and Dy ) : Observation of reentrant inverse-magnetocaloric phenomenon and asymmetric magnetoresistance behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandragiri, Venkatesh; Iyer, Kartik K.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    We have compared and contrasted magnetic, magnetocaloric, and magnetoresistive properties of Gd and Dy members of the rare-earth (R ) series R F e5A l7 , crystallizing in ThM n12 structure, known to order antiferromagnetically. Among other observations, we would like to emphasize the following findings: (i) There are multiple sign crossovers in the temperature (T ) dependence of isothermal entropy change (Δ S ) in the case of Dy compound. In addition to nil Δ S at the magnetic compensation point known for two-magnetic-sublattice systems, there is an additional sign crossover at low temperatures, as though there is a "reentrant inverse-magnetocaloric" phenomenon. Corresponding sign reversals could also be observed in the magnetoresistance data. (ii) The plots of magnetoresistance versus magnetic field are found to be highly asymmetric with the reversal of the direction of magnetic field (H ) well below TN for both compounds, similar to those known for antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions. We attribute these to subtle changes in spin orientations of R and Fe moments induced by T and H .

  19. Completing the series of +2 ions for the lanthanide elements: synthesis of molecular complexes of Pr2+, Gd2+, Tb2+, and Lu2+.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Matthew R; Bates, Jefferson E; Ziller, Joseph W; Furche, Filipp; Evans, William J

    2013-07-01

    The first examples of crystallographically characterizable complexes of Tb(2+), Pr(2+), Gd(2+), and Lu(2+) have been isolated, which demonstrate that Ln(2+) ions are accessible in soluble molecules for all of the lanthanides except radioactive promethium. The first molecular Tb(2+) complexes have been obtained from the reaction of Cp'3Ln (Cp' = C5H4SiMe3, Ln = rare earth) with potassium in the presence of 18-crown-6 in Et2O at -35 °C under argon: [(18-crown-6)K][Cp'3Tb], {[(18-crown-6)K][Cp'3Tb]}n, and {[K(18-crown-6)]2(μ-Cp')}{Cp'3Tb}. The first complex is analogous to previously isolated Y(2+), Ho(2+), and Er(2+) complexes, the second complex shows an isomeric structural form of these Ln(2+) complexes, and the third complex shows that [(18-crown-6)K](1+) alone is not the only cation that will stabilize these reactive Ln(2+) species, a result that led to further exploration of cation variants. With 2.2.2-cryptand in place of 18-crown-6 in the Cp'3Ln/K reaction, a more stable complex of Tb(2+) was produced as well as more stable Y(2+), Ho(2+), and Er(2+) analogs: [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][Cp'3Ln]. Exploration of this 2.2.2-cryptand-based reaction with the remaining lanthanides for which Ln(2+) had not been observed in molecular species provided crystalline Pr(2+), Gd(2+), and Lu(2+) complexes. These Ln(2+) complexes, [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][Cp'3Ln] (Ln = Y, Pr, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Lu), all have similar UV-vis spectra and exhibit Ln-C(Cp') bond distances that are ~0.03 Å longer than those in the Ln(3+) precursors, Cp'3Ln. These data, as well as density functional theory calculations and EPR spectra, suggest that a 4f(n)5d(1) description of the electron configuration in these Ln(2+) ions is more appropriate than 4f(n+1). PMID:23697603

  20. Quaternary rare-earth arsenides REAg1-xZnyAs2 (RE=La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy) with tetragonal SrZnBi2- and HfCuSi2-type structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Krishna K.; Genet, Clément; Mar, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    Reactions of the elements at 800 °C with the nominal compositions REAg1-xZnxAs2 resulted in quaternary arsenides REAg1-xZnyAs2 in which the combined Ag and Zn content deviates increasingly from unity in the Zn-richer phases, reflecting the transition from the fully stoichiometric ternary silver-containing arsenides REAgAs2 to the substoichiometric zinc-containing ones REZn0.67As2. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis indicated SrZnBi2-type (space group I4/mmm, Z=4; RE=La, Ce) and HfCuSi2-type structures (space group P4/nmm, Z=2; RE=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis performed on LaAg0.5Zn0.5As2, PrAg0.5Zn0.5As2, and NdAg0.5Zn0.5As2 indicated that the Ag and Zn atoms are disordered within metal-centred tetrahedra and provided no evidence for distortion of the square As nets. The small electron excess tolerated in these quaternary arsenides and the absence of distortion in the square nets can be traced to the occurrence of As-As states that are only weakly antibonding near the Fermi level. PrAg0.5Zn0.5As2 and NdAg0.5Zn0.5As2 are paramagnetic with effective magnetic moments consistent with trivalent RE species.

  1. Variations of magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance across RCuGe (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sachin; Suresh, K. G.

    2015-10-01

    RCuGe (R=Tb-Er) compounds have been studied by structural, magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport measurements. All these compounds are iso-structural and show antiferromagnetic ordering below their Nel temperatures (TN). Except TbCuGe, all the studied compounds show large magnetocaloric effect (MCE), arising due to the field induced metamagnetic transition. They also show a sign reversal of magnetoresistance (MR) with change in temperature or field. The non-monotonic variation of the magnitude of MR is attributed to the competing effects of Lorentz force, changes in the spin disorder scattering and the spin fluctuations.

  2. Nine members of a family of nine-membered cyclic coordination clusters; Fe6Ln3 wheels (Ln = Gd to Lu and Y).

    PubMed

    Kühne, Irina A; Mereacre, Valeriu; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2016-01-01

    We report a family of isostructural nonanuclear Fe(III)-Ln(III) cyclic coordination clusters [FeLn(μ-OMe)9(vanox)6(benz)6]. (Ln = Tb (), Dy (), Ho (), Er (), Tm (), Yb (), Lu (), Y () and Gd ()), containing an odd number of metal ions. The planar cyclic coordination cluster cores are built up from three [Fe2Ln] subunits. PMID:26592179

  3. A new family of Pb-based 1222 cuprates Pb(Sr,La) 2Ln 2Cu 2O z (Ln?Gd, Dy, Eu, and Pr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, J. R.; Liang, J. K.; Jin, H.; Wang, C.; Chen, H.; Yu, Y. D.; Dong, C.; Rao, G. H.

    1995-02-01

    A series of new Pb-based 1222 cuprates of the general formula Pb(Sr,La) 2Ln 2Cu 2O z (Ln?Gd, Dy, Eu, and Pr) has been reported in this paper. In this kind of compounds, cations in the rock-salt-type monolayer completely consist of Pb ions, but the iodometric titration results indicate that the Pb ions in the rock-salt-type monolayer actually exist in the form of mixed valence states, i.e., Pb 4+ and Pb 2+, and the proportion of Pb 4+ and Pb 2+ is close to 1:1. The Pb-1222 phases Pb(Sr 2- xLa x)Ln 2Cu 2O z are very sensitive to sintering temperature and atmosphere, as well as the Sr content. For example, pure Pb-1222 can be only obtained at 920C in air for the composition Pb(Sr 1.2La 0.8)Gd 2Cu 2CO z. All these Pb-1222 phases are not superconducting.

  4. Manifestation of ?-? stacking interactions in luminescence properties and energy transfer in aromatically-derived Tb, Eu and Gd tris(pyrazolyl)borate complexes.

    PubMed

    Mikhalyova, Elena A; Yakovenko, Anastasiya V; Zeller, Matthias; Kiskin, Mikhail A; Kolomzarov, Yuriy V; Eremenko, Igor L; Addison, Anthony W; Pavlishchuk, Vitaly V

    2015-04-01

    The three new complexes Tp(Py)Ln(CH3CO2)2(H2O) (Ln = Eu (1), Gd(2), or Tb (3)) were prepared and characterized crystallographically. In the crystal lattices of these complexes, separate molecules are connected in infinite chains by ?-stacking interactions. Complexes 1 and 3 display intense photoluminescence and triboluminescence (red and green respectively), while compound 3 exhibits electroluminescence commencing at 9 V in an ITO/PVK/3/Al device (ITO = indium-tin oxide, PVK = poly(N-vinylcarbazole)). A series of Eu/Tb-doped Gd compounds was prepared by cocrystallization from mixtures of 1 and 2 or 2 and 3, respectively. It was shown that ?-stacking interactions are involved in increasing the efficiency of energy transfer from the gadolinium complex to emitting [Tp(Py)Eu](2+) or [Tp(Py)Tb](2+) centers, and this energy transfer occurs through hundreds of molecules, resembling the process of energy harvesting in chloroplast stacks. PMID:25797500

  5. Color-tunable properties and energy transfer in Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphor pumped for n-UV w-LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chao; Liu, Haikun; Hu, Yingmo; Liao, Libing; Mei, Lefu

    2015-11-01

    A series of Eu2+ and Eu2+/Tb3+ co-doped Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F phosphors have been synthesized via a high temperature solid-state reaction. The relative intensity of PL spectra of Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:xEu2+ increases with increasing x value, and reaches a maximum at x=0.04. Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphors exhibit a broad excitation band ranging from 220 to 450 nm, which matches perfectly with the characteristic emission of n-UV light-emitting diode (LED) chips. Upon 365 nm excitation, the Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphors show two dominating bands peaked at 466 and 543 nm, which are assigned to the 4f7?4f65d1 transition of the Eu2+ ions and the 5D4?7F5 transition of the Tb3+ ions, respectively. In view of the energy transfer mechanism between Eu2+ and Tb3+, the Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ emission color can adjust from blue to green, and their chromatic coordinates (x, y) vary from (0.16, 0.135) to (0.254, 0.398). The critical distance was also calculated to be 16.90 . The above results indicate that the Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F: Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphors are a candidate for blue-green components in the application of n-UV w-LEDs.

  6. Terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb) scintillation-based polymer optical fibre sensor for real time monitoring of radiation dose in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, E.; O'Keeffe, S.; Grattan, M.; Hounsell, A.; McCarthy, D.; Woulfe, P.; Cronin, J.; Mihai, L.; Sporea, D.; Santhanam, A.; Agazaryan, N.

    2014-05-01

    A PMMA based plastic optical fibre sensor for use in real time radiotherapy dosimetry is presented. The optical fibre tip is coated with a scintillation material, terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb), which fluoresces when exposed to ionising radiation (X-Ray). The emitted visible light signal penetrates the sensor optical fibre and propagates along the transmitting fibre at the end of which it is remotely monitored using a fluorescence spectrometer. The results demonstrate good repeatability, with a maximum percentage error of 0.5% and the response is independent of dose rate.

  7. Luminescence and energy transfer of the color-tunable phosphor Li6Gd(BO3)3:Tb(3+)/Bi(3+), Eu(3.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Peican; Mo, Fuwang; Guan, Anxiang; Wang, Rongfang; Wang, Guofang; Xia, Siyu; Zhou, Liya

    2016-02-01

    Bi(3+)/Tb(3+), Eu(3+) co-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 (LGBO) phosphors were synthesized via a traditional solid-state method. Phase purity was investigated using X-ray diffraction, absorption strength of the phosphors were investigated by UV-vis absorption spectra, and the photoluminescence properties of the phosphors were studied systematically. Results showed that the emission intensity of Bi(3+), Eu(3+) co-doped LBOG was 2.76 times higher than that of Eu(3+)-doped LGBO irradiated at 275nm, thereby implying the possibility of energy transfer from Bi(3+) to Eu(3+). The excitation spectra of Tb(3+), Eu(3+) co-doped LGBO phosphors are broader in comparison with single-doped phosphors and show tunable colors from green to yellow to orange-red when the ratio of Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) is adjusted These results demonstrate that LGBO:Tb(3+), Eu(3+) phosphors have potential use in light-emitting diodes. PMID:26720264

  8. Magnetic properties of quadruple perovskites Ba{sub 4}LnRu{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ln=La, Nd, Sm-Gd, Dy-Lu)

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoda, Yuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2010-01-15

    Quadruple perovskites Ba{sub 4}LnRu{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ln=La, Nd, Sm-Gd, Dy-Lu) were prepared and their magnetic properties were investigated. They adopt the 12L-perovskite-type structure consisting of Ru{sub 3}O{sub 12} trimers and LnO{sub 6} octahedra. All of these compounds show an antiferromagnetic transition at 2.5-30 K. For Ba{sub 4}NdRu{sub 3}O{sub 12}, ferrimagnetic ordering has been observed at 11.5 K. The observed magnetic transition is due to the magnetic behavior of the Ru{sup 4.33+}{sub 3}O{sub 12} trimer with S=1/2 . Magnetic properties of Ba{sub 4}LnRu{sub 3}O{sub 12} were compared with those of triple perovskites Ba{sub 3}LnRu{sub 2}O{sub 9} and double perovskites Ba{sub 2}LnRuO{sub 6}. - Graphical abstract: Quadruple perovskites Ba{sub 4}LnRu{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ln=La, Nd, Sm-Gd, Dy-Lu) were prepared. They adopt the 12L-perovskite-type structure consisting of Ru{sub 3}O{sub 12} trimers and LnO{sub 6} octahedra. All of these compounds show an antiferromagnetic transition at 2.5-30 K. For Ba{sub 4}NdRu{sub 3}O{sub 12}, ferrimagnetic ordering has been observed at 11.5 K. The observed magnetic transition is due to the magnetic behavior of the Ru{sup 4.33+}{sub 3}O{sub 12} trimer with S=1/2 . Magnetic properties of Ba{sub 4}LnRu{sub 3}O{sub 12} were compared with those of triple perovskites Ba{sub 3}LnRu{sub 2}O{sub 9} and double perovskites Ba{sub 2}LnRuO{sub 6}.

  9. Suitability of the rare-earth compounds Dy2Ti2O7 and Gd3Al5O12 for low temperature (4K-20K) magnetic refrigeration cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements were made of the magnetic entropy and magnetization of powered samples of the compounds Dy2Ti2O7 and Gd3Al5O12. The magnetization was measured for temperatures at and below 4.2 K, in applied fields ranging to 7.0 tesla. Isothermal changes in magnetic entropy were measured for temperatures from 1.2 to 20 K, in applied fields up to 10 tesla. The results of the measurements are consistent with a doublet ground state for Dy2Ti2O7, and an eight-fold degenerate ground state for Gd3Al5O12. Absolute values of magnetic entropy have been obtained at the lower temperatures, permitting the isotherms to be properly located in the S-H plane with the use of adiabatic magnetization data. The iso-field lines in the S-T plane were determined. The results indicate that Dy2Ti2O7 can absorb a maximum of 71 + or - 4 joules/kg of heat at 4.2 K, while Gd3Al5O12 can absorb 233 + or - joules/kg at the same temperature. The large difference between the two is most likely a result of crystal field interactions in the dysoprosium compound. Both materials can be cycled adiabatically between 4.2 and 20 K.

  10. Effects of rare earth ions (Tb, Ce, Eu, Dy) on the thermoluminescence characteristics of sol-gel derived and ?-irradiated SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Namrata; Tiwari, Ashish; Khan, S A; Kher, R S; Bramhe, Namita; Dhoble, S J

    2014-09-01

    Highly pure SiO2 and SiO2 :RE nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD results indicate that all the samples studied were free from impurities. SEM/TEM results indicate that the samples were well dispersed. Surface characterization of the nanocrystals by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been carried out and the structure of surface-bound SiO2 based on spectral analysis is proposed. Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics were investigated to study the influence of rare earth dopants (Tb, Ce, Eu, Dy) on SiO2 matrix subjected to 0.5?kG (1?h) ?-irradiation. Among these rare earth elements, Eu(3+) was found to be the most efficient dopant for SiO2 showing maximum thermoluminescence intensity. SiO2 :Eu0.5 seems to be a promising candidate for use as a TL dosimeter. PMID:24222272

  11. Local rhombohedral symmetry in Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 2} near the morphotropic phase boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaolian; Pan, Xingwen; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Yinzhu; Yan, Mi; Li, Huiying; Fang, Minxia; Ren, Xiaobing

    2014-11-10

    The recently reported morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in a number of giant magnetostrictive materials (GMMs) has drawn considerable interest to the local symmetry/structure near MPB region of these materials. In this letter, by in-situ X-ray diffraction and AC magnetic susceptibility measurements, we show that Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 2}, the typical composition of Terfenol-D GMMs, has coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases over a wide temperature range in the vicinity of MPB. High resolution transmission electron microscopy provides direct evidence for local rhombohedral symmetry of the ferromagnetic phase and reveals regular-shaped nanoscale domains below 10?nm. The nano-sized structural/magnetic domains are hierarchically inside a single micron-sized stripe-like domain with the same average magnetization direction. Such domain structures are consistent with the low magnetocrystalline anisotropy and easy magnetic/structural domain switching under magnetic field, thus generating large magnetostriction at low field.

  12. Octanuclear Mn(III)6Mn(II)Ln (Ln = Gd, Dy and Er) clusters with a novel core topology: syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Ma, Cheng-Bing; Hu, Ming-Qiang; Wen, Hui-Min; Cui, Hong-Hua; Liu, Jin-Ying; Song, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Chang-Neng

    2013-04-14

    Reactions of [Mn6O2(piv)10(py)2.5(piv)1.5], Ln(NO3)3·6H2O and N-mdeaH2 in MeCN in the presence of Me3SiCl generated a family of octanuclear Mn/Ln complexes [Mn6(III)Mn(II)Ln(N-mdea)3(N-mdeaH)(piv)8O2(OH)3(NO3)(H2O)]·xCH3CN·xH2O [Ln = Gd (1), Dy (2), Er (3), pivH = pivalic acid, N-mdeaH2 = N-methyl diethanolamine]. Each complex possesses a [Mn6(III)Mn(II)Ln(μ3-O)2(μ3-OH)3](16+) core containing two butterfly-like subunits of [Mn3Ln(μ3-OH)2] and [Mn4(μ3-O)2] sharing a common vertex, and an outer Mn atom ligated to one of the subunits through a μ3-OH(-) ligand. The core topology represents a new Mn/Ln core type. The magnetic susceptibility study of 1-3 indicates the presence of dominant antiferromagnetic interactions within the complexes. For complex 1, which contains an isotropic Gd(III) atom, fitting of the obtained M/(NμB) vs. H/T data gave S = 4, g = 1.90, and D = -0.31 cm(-1). The results were further supported by ac data. Complex exhibits out-of-phase ac susceptibility signals, indicating it may be a SMM. PMID:23377042

  13. Preparation and Dielectric Measurements of the Rare Earth Green Phases R2BaCuO(5-x) (R = Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Titman, Carlos

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that R2BaCuO(5-x) (R = Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) does not undergo significant densification unless the sintering temperatures are near the incongruent melting point or the sintering times are long. Good quality powders of Y2BaCuO(5-x) have been synthesized by using oxide raw materials or precursors such as acetates and nitrates. The acetates- and the nitrates-derived yttrium green phase resulted in finer particle sizes, acceptable dielectric properties and lower melting temperatures than those processed via oxide raw materials. The hot pressing technique has been employed to produce a dense R2BaCuO(5-x) (R=Y,Gd) substrate with satisfactory dielectric properties. Reactivity to reducing conditions, i.e. graphite die, limited the optimization of the properties. A high sensitivity to the annealing atmosphere has been demonstrated in Y2BaCuO,.,,. Oxygen treatment at 950 OC has been shown to improve the dielectric properties while treatment in nitrogen, at the same temperature, degraded desirable properties. A high sensitivity to the annealing atmosphere has been demonstrated in Y2BaCuO(5-x). Oxygen treatment at 950 C has been shown to improve the dielectric properties while treatment in nitrogen, at the same temperature, degraded desirable properties. The dielectric constants of the rare earth green phases R2BaCuO(5-x) were found to be low. Relaxation peaks were detected at low temperatures (T less than 150 K) and at high temperatures (150 less than T greater than 420 K). The dielectric losses and conductivities at 77 K were measured to be in the range of 10(exp -4) and 10(exp -12) (Omega-cm)(exp -1), respectively. Many parameters were found to exhibit dependencies on the rare earth cation sizes.

  14. Fabrication and evaluation of a Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor screen film for development of a CMOS-based X-ray imaging detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji Koon; Choi, Su Rim; Noh, Si Cheol; Jung, Bong Jae; Choi, Il Hong; Kang, Sang Sik

    2014-08-01

    In this study, Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor screen films were fabricated by using a special particle-inbinder sedimentation method. The phosphor particles used in this study were manufactured in two sizes, 2.5- μm and 5- μm. To evaluate luminescence efficiency and the spatial resolution according to the thickness, we fabricated screen films with thicknesses of 120, 150, 170, and 210- μm. The spatial resolution of the fabricated films was assessed by using an edge method to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF). From the experimental results, the spatial resolution of the mammography exposures (low-energy X-ray quality) was better than that of dental radiography (high-energy X-ray quality). Also, with the same film thickness, the screen with 2.5- μm particles had better resolution than the screen with 5.0- μm particles, but it showed about 20% lower resolution than a commercial Gd2O2S:Tb screen. In the evaluation of the results for the dependence of the spatial resolution on the film's thickness, the 120- μm-thick screen showed the highest resolution, which was similar to that of a commercial screen.

  15. Synthesis and structure of a new family of 3d-4f heterometallic compounds Rb{sub 7}LnFe{sub 6}O{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 8} (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy): Magnetic properties of the Sm-, Gd-, Dy-derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; Palmer West, J.; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    2012-08-15

    A new family of mixed lanthanide(III) and iron(III) oxo-phosphate phases, Rb{sub 7}LnFe{sub 6}O{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 8} (Ln=Sm 1, Eu 2, Gd 3, Dy 4), was isolated by using a high-temperature, solid-state method in molten-salt media. The X-ray single-crystal structure analysis shows that these isomorphic derivatives crystallize in a triclinic space group P-1 (no. 2); Z=1. The 3-D framework of these 3d-4f oxo-phosphates are comprised of LnO{sub 6} octahedral, FeO{sub 5} trigonal bipyramidal (tbp), and {mu}{sub 3}-oxo [Fe{sub 4}O{sub 18}] tetrameric units interconnected through PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The preliminary results of the temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements for selected compounds (1, 3, 4) reveal antiferromagnetic-like behavior. 1 shows a weak antiferromagnetric ordering at T{sub N}={approx}7 K while others show little evidence of long-range magnetic order down to 2 K. All three compounds have measured magnetic moments significantly smaller than the expected values. - Graphical abstract: The extended framework is described by the connectivity of three distinct types of paramagnetic units. The temperature-dependent, lower than expected effective magnetic moments are reported. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new family of mixed lanthanide(III) and iron(III) oxo-phosphates is isolated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features PO{sub 4}-linked paramagnetic units of LnO{sub 6}, FeO{sub 5}, and {mu}{sub 3}-oxo [Fe{sub 4}O{sub 18}]. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sm-derivative orders at T{sub N}{approx}7 K while Gd- and Dy-derivatives show absence of order.

  16. Preparation of new fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite nanohybrids using the tricationic Pr(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) complexes with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Behnamfar, Mohammad Taghi; Dinari, Mohammad; Hadadzadeh, Hassan

    2015-02-01

    New fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite (LCs-C) nanohybrids have been prepared by the intercalation reaction of Cloisite Na+ with the tricationic lanthanide complexes (1-3), [M(PQ)3(DMF)2(H2O)2]3+ (M = Pr(III) (1), Gd(III) (2), and Dy(III) (3); PQ = 9,10-phenanthrenequinone), in aqueous solutions. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the modified clays (LCs-C) showed an increase in the interlayer distance (d) as compared to the pure Cloisite Na+. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to study the morphology of the modified clays and the results were demonstrated a homogeneous morphology for the nanohybrids. The thermal behavior of the LCs-C nanohybrids was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Solid-state fluorescence properties of the LCs-C nanohybrids were also investigated. The results show that all tricationic complexes have a significant fluorescence at room temperature when the complexes are adsorbed onto Cloisite.

  17. Preparation of new fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite nanohybrids using the tricationic Pr(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) complexes with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

    PubMed

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Behnamfar, Mohammad Taghi; Dinari, Mohammad; Hadadzadeh, Hassan

    2015-02-25

    New fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite (LCs-C) nanohybrids have been prepared by the intercalation reaction of Cloisite Na(+) with the tricationic lanthanide complexes (1-3), [M(PQ)3(DMF)2(H2O)2](3+) (M=Pr(III) (1), Gd(III) (2), and Dy(III) (3); PQ=9,10-phenanthrenequinone), in aqueous solutions. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the modified clays (LCs-C) showed an increase in the interlayer distance (d) as compared to the pure Cloisite Na(+). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to study the morphology of the modified clays and the results were demonstrated a homogeneous morphology for the nanohybrids. The thermal behavior of the LCs-C nanohybrids was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Solid-state fluorescence properties of the LCs-C nanohybrids were also investigated. The results show that all tricationic complexes have a significant fluorescence at room temperature when the complexes are adsorbed onto Cloisite. PMID:25305612

  18. Preparation, Characterization, and Ionic Transport Properties of Nanoscale Ln2Zr2O7 (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, and Yb) Energy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sam; George, Aneesh; Thomas, Jijimon Kumpakkattu; John, Annamma

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles of lanthanide (Ln)-based zirconates have been prepared through the autoignited combustion technique. The structure of the system was analyzed by powder x-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopic tools. The compounds with Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, and Gd have pyrochlore cubic structure, whereas those with Ln = Dy, Er, and Yb possess anion-deficient disordered cubic fluorite structure. The optical properties of the powder were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Pellets of the compounds were sintered in the range from 1325C to 1530C for 2 h. The surface morphology of sintered Nd2Zr2O7 was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Impedance spectroscopic studies of the samples were carried out at different temperatures. The conductivity increased to the order of 10-2 S/m at 750C, and the highest conductivity of 13.21 10-2 S/m was obtained for Er2Zr2O7. All samples of this system are suitable candidates for fabrication of electrolytes for use in solid oxide fuel cells, particularly at moderate temperatures.

  19. Optical emission, vibrational feature, and shear-thinning aspect of Tb3+-doped Gd2O3 nanoparticle-based novel ferrofluids irradiated by gamma photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Nibedita; Hazarika, Samiran; Saha, Abhijit; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2013-10-01

    The present work reports on the spectroscopic and rheological properties of un-exposed and gamma (?-) irradiated rare earth (RE) oxide nanoparticle-based ferrofluids (FFs). The FFs were produced by dispersing surfactant coated terbium (Tb3+)-doped gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles in the ethanol medium and later on they were subjected to energetic ?-irradiation (1.25 MeV) at select doses (97 Gy and 2.635 kGy). The synthesized RE oxide nanoparticles were of 7 nm size and having a cubic crystal structure, as predicted from transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies. Fourier transformed infra-red (FT-IR) spectra showed an adequate blue shift of the Gd-O vibrational stretching mode from a wavenumber value of 558 cm-1, for the un-irradiated sample to a value of 540 cm-1 corresponding to the irradiated sample (2.635 kGy). In contrast, photoluminescence spectra have revealed modification of defect states along with Tb3+ assisted radiative transitions. The rheology measurements have illustrated unusual shear thinning behavior of the FFs, with an apparently improved power index (s) value from 0.34 to 0.50, obtained for increasing ?-dose cases. The variation of the decay parameter with irradiation dose, as predicted from the nature of apparent viscosity curves, is attributed to the defect formation, role of impurity ions (Tb3+), and weakening of inter nanoparticle bonding. The unusual properties of the novel RE oxide based FFs may find scope in sealing and shielding elements in the radiation environment including accelerator and other related zones.

  20. Synthesis and structure determination of seven ternary bismuthides: crystal chemistry of the RELi3Bi2 family (RE = La-Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tb).

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Schäfer, Marion C; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-10-01

    Zintl phases are renowned for their diverse crystal structures with rich structural chemistry and have recently exhibited some remarkable heat- and charge-transport properties. The ternary bismuthides RELi3Bi2 (RE = La-Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tb) (namely, lanthanum trilithium dibismuthide, LaLi3Bi2, cerium trilithium dibismuthide, CeLi3Bi2, praseodymium trilithium dibismuthide, PrLi3Bi2, neodymium trilithium dibismuthide, NdLi3Bi2, samarium trilithium dibismuthide, SmLi3Bi2, gadolinium trilithium dibismuthide, GdLi3Bi2, and terbium trilithium dibismuthide, TbLi3Bi2) were synthesized by high-temperature reactions of the elements in sealed Nb ampoules. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all seven compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the LaLi3Sb2 type structure in the trigonal space group P-3m1 (Pearson symbol hP6). The unit-cell volumes decrease monotonically on moving from the La to the Tb compound, owing to the lanthanide contraction. The structure features a rare-earth metal atom and one Li atom in a nearly perfect octahedral coordination by six Bi atoms. The second crystallographically unique Li atom is surrounded by four Bi atoms in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. The atomic arrangements are best described as layered structures consisting of two-dimensional layers of fused LiBi4 tetrahedra and LiBi6 octahedra, separated by rare-earth metal cations. As such, these compounds are expected to be valance-precise semiconductors, whose formulae can be represented as (RE(3+))(Li(1+))3(Bi(3-))2. PMID:26422218

  1. Effect of symmetry reduction on the electronic transitions in polytypic GdAl3(BO3)4:Eu:Tb crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, K.; Beregi, E.; Földvári, I.; Corradi, G.; Kovács, L.; Solarz, P.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.

    2016-03-01

    The existence of a recently described monoclinic phase (C2/c, Z = 8) (Beregi et al., 2012) in addition to the well-known Huntite type rhombohedral (R32) polytypic modification of the GdAl3(BO3)4 (GAB) crystal at room temperature provides a unique possibility to investigate the incorporation of rare earth dopants into slightly modified crystal lattice by spectroscopic methods. In these characteristic GAB structures the dopant ions, e.g. Tb3+ or Eu3+, possess slightly different neighbor geometries and local symmetries. The Tb3+: 7F6 → 5D4 and Eu3+: 7F0,1,2 → 5D0,1,2 electronic transitions were successfully identified in the absorption spectra using polarization, concentration and temperature dependent measurements in both polytypic modifications. The positions of the investigated Tb lines are shifted by up to 10 cm-1 due to symmetry changes. In addition, some of the Eu lines show splittings of about 4-30 cm-1 as a consequence of the change of the local environment. From the room temperature absorption measurements some of the low energy crystal field levels of 7F and 5D states of the Eu3+ ions were successfully determined for both modifications.

  2. Dopant-mediated structural and magnetic properties of TbMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vinit; McDannald, A.; Staruch, M.; Ramprasad, R.; Jain, M.

    2015-07-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of the doped terbium manganites (Tb,A)MnO3 (A = Gd, Dy, and Ho) have been investigated using first-principles calculations and further confirmed by subsequent experimental studies. Both computational and experimental studies suggest that compared to the parent material, namely, TbMnO3 (with a magnetic moment of 9.7 ? B for Tb3+) Dy- and Ho-ion substituted TbMnO3 results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility at low fields ( ? 10.6 ? B for Dy3+ and Ho3+). The observed spiral-spin AFM order in TbMnO3 is stable with respect to the dopant substitutions, which modify the Mn-O-Mn bond angles and lead to stronger the ferromagnetic component of the magnetic moment. Given the fact that magnetic ordering in TbMnO3 causes the ferroelectricity, this is an important step in the field of the magnetically driven ferroelectricity in the class of magnetoelectric multiferroics, which traditionally have low magnetic moments due to the predominantly antiferromagnetic order. In addition, the present study reveals important insights on the phenomenological coupling mechanism in detail, which is essential in order to design new materials with enhanced magneto-electric effects at higher temperatures.

  3. Development of lead free magnetoelectric laminates of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 for power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabahar, K.; Mirunalini, Josephine; Sowmya, N. Shara; Chelvane, J. Arout; Mahendiran, M.; Kamat, S. V.; Srinivas, A.

    2014-09-01

    Lead free magnetoelectric laminates has been prepared by sandwiching Sodium Bismuth Titanate (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3) between two Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 (TDF) by epoxy bonding. The piezoelectric material Sodium Bismuth Titanate (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3) has been prepared by conventional solid state double sintering method and the magnetostrictive material, Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 (TDF) by vacuum induction melting process. NBT showed a saturated ferroelectric hysteresis behavior with the values of Ps=22.24 ?C/cm2, Ec=41 kV/cm and Pr=27 ?C/cm2. The piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) measured for NBT was 102 pC/N. Magnetization versus magnetic field measurements were performed in longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) modes of TDF specimen that showed ferromagnetic hysteresis behavior. The magnetostriction of 950 ppm at 4 kOe and static strain coefficient of 0.3710-6 kOe-1 at 1 kOe magnetic field were recorded for Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95. The magnetoelectric output was measured in L and T modes for the different NBT thickness of 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mm with TDF thickness of 1.5 mm. The high magnetoelectric coefficient (?) was found to be 0.08 mV/cm Oe (L mode) and 0.13 mV/cm Oe (T mode) for the NBT/TDF laminates with 1.0 mm thick NBT.

  4. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Emission from Highly Ionized Si, Kr, Mo, Gd, and Tb Plasmas at 6.6 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parchamy, Homaira; Szilagyi, John; Masnavi, Majid; Richardson, Martin; One Team

    2013-10-01

    There is increasing interest in high-power extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) laser-based lamps for sub-10 nm lithography operating in the region of 6.6 nm based on the LaN/B4C multilayer mirrors for manufacturing the next generation of microelectronics. A detailed multilevel non-LTE atomic model is developed to investigate emissivity and absorption properties of highly ionized Si, Kr, Mo, Gd, and Tb plasmas at 6.6 nm. Experimental spectra are presented together with analysis based on calculations using the relativistic Flexible Atomic Code. We will present the optimum regions for conversion efficiency of mass-limited targets against target density and laser parameters by means of 1D hydrodynamic coupled to a developed population kinetics codes.

  5. The crystal structure and luminescence of Ce3+, Tb3+ and Eu3+ in KBaLn3+(BO3)2 [Ln3+ = Sc, Y, Lu, Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camardello, S. J.; Her, J. H.; Toscano, P. J.; Srivastava, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    The structure of KBaLn3+(BO3)2 [Ln3+ = Sc, Lu, Gd] was solved by Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction data. The materials crystallize with the mineral Buetschliite [K2Ca(CO3)2] structure. The lattice parameters of KBaLn3+(BO3)2 [Ln3+ = Sc, Lu, Gd] increased with increasing ionic radius of the Ln3+ cation. In this structure, the Ln3+ cations are octahedrally coordinated. The phase formation region is dependent on the ionic radii of the Ln3+ cation. The optical properties of Ce3+, Tb3+ and Eu3+ and their dependence on the host lattice composition are investigated and discussed. It is noteworthy that the optical properties of these ions are independent of the Ln3+ cation in KBaLn3+(BO3)2. It is concluded that in this family of materials, the crystalline field strength and the covalence at the rare earth site is independent of the host lattice composition.

  6. Structural investigation of the new Ca{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Dy) compounds and luminescence spectroscopy of Ca{sub 3}Gd{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} doped with the Eu{sup 3+} ion

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinelli, F.; Lausi, A.; Bettinelli, M.

    2013-09-15

    The crystal structures of new rare earth-based germanate compounds (Ca{sub 3}Pr{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}, Ca{sub 3}Nd{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}, Ca{sub 3}Sm{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}, Ca{sub 3}Gd{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} and Ca{sub 3}Dy{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) have been determined by Rietveld refinement calculations on the collected synchrotron X-ray diffraction powder patterns. A different distribution of the rare earth ions in the three available crystal sites was observed, as the main structural feature. The reasons of the instability of the silico-carnotite structure for lanthanide ions out of the range PrDy have been proposed. Finally, the luminescence spectroscopy of the Eu{sup 3+} dopant ion in Ca{sub 3}Gd{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} was presented and analyzed taking into account the observed structural characteristics. The Eu{sup 3+} luminescence spectroscopy was also compared with the one of Eu{sup 3+} doped Ca{sub 3}Gd{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} and Ca{sub 3}Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} isostructural materials. - Graphical abstract: The structural study on Ca{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} exploiting synchrotron X-ray diffraction, allows us to determine the detailed geometry of the coordination polyhedra of the metals and their distribution in the crystal sites. These features are, in the case of Ca{sub 3}Gd{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} host, closely related to the luminescence spectroscopy of the Eu{sup 3+} dopant ion. Display Omitted - Highlights: The structure of the Ca{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Dy) was determined. Different distribution of Ln{sup 3+} ions on the three available crystal sites was observed. A detailed structural study focused on the metal coordination polyhedra was performed. The instability of the silico-carnotite structure out of the range PrDy was discussed. The luminescence of the dopant Eu{sup 3+} ion in Ca{sub 3}Gd{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} was presented and analyzed.

  7. Up/down conversion luminescence and charge compensation investigation of Ca0.5Y1-x(WO4)2:xLn3+ (Ln = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb/Er) phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalingam, Venkatakrishnan; Thirumalai, Jagannathan; Krishnan, Rajagopalan; Mantha, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Microstructures of Ca0.5Y(1-x)(WO4)2:xLn3+ (Ln = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb/Er) phosphors were prepared via the solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence were used to characterize the prepared phosphor samples. The results reveal that the phosphor samples have single phase scheelite structures with tetragonal symmetry of I41/a. The down/up conversion photoluminescence of the Ca0.5Y(1-x)(WO4)2:xLn3+ (Ln = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb/Er) phosphors properties reveal characteristic visible emissions. The energy transfer process, fluorescence lifetime and color coordinates are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the phosphor Ca0.5Y(1-x)(WO4)2:xPr3+ co-doped with alkali chlorides shows the enhancement of luminescence, which was found in the sodium chloride co-doped powder phosphor. The photometric characteristics indicate the suitability of the inorganic powder phosphors for solid-state lighting and display applications.

  8. Corrosion study of single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga alloy and Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.95 alloy for the design of new medical microdevices.

    PubMed

    Pouponneau, Pierre; Savadogo, Oumarou; Napporn, Teko; Yahia, L'Hocine; Martel, Sylvain

    2011-02-01

    Once placed in a magnetic field, smart magnetic materials (SMM) change their shape, which could be use for the development of smaller minimally invasive surgery devices activated by magnetic field. However, the potential degradation and release of cytotoxic ions by SMM corrosion has to be determined. This paper evaluates the corrosion resistance of two SMM: a single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga alloy and Tb(0.27)Dy(0.73)Fe(1.95) alloy. Ni-Mn-Ga alloy displayed a corrosion potential (E (corr)) of -0.58V/SCE and a corrosion current density (i (corr)) of 0.43 ?A/cm(2). During the corrosion assay, Ni-Mn-Ga sample surface was partially protected; local pits were formed on 20% of the surface and nickel ions were mainly found in the electrolyte. Tb(0.27)Dy(0.73)Fe(1.95) alloy exhibited poor corrosion properties such as E (corr) of -0.87V/SCE and i (corr) of 5.90 ?A/cm(2). During the corrosion test, this alloy was continuously degraded, its surface was impaired by pits and cracks extensively and a high amount of iron ions was measured in the electrolyte. These alloys exhibited low corrosion parameters and a selective degradation in the electrolyte. They could only be used for medical applications if they are coated with high strain biocompatible materials or embedded in composites to prevent direct contact with physiological fluids. PMID:21222141

  9. Up/down conversion luminescence and charge compensation investigation of Ca0.5Y1-x(WO4)2:xLn(3+) (Ln=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb/Er) phosphors.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Venkatakrishnan; Thirumalai, Jagannathan; Krishnan, Rajagopalan; Mantha, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Microstructures of Ca0.5Y(1-x)(WO4)2:xLn(3+) (Ln=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb/Er) phosphors were prepared via the solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence were used to characterize the prepared phosphor samples. The results reveal that the phosphor samples have single phase scheelite structures with tetragonal symmetry of I41/a. The down/up conversion photoluminescence of the Ca0.5Y(1-x)(WO4)2:xLn(3+) (Ln=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb/Er) phosphors properties reveal characteristic visible emissions. The energy transfer process, fluorescence lifetime and color coordinates are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the phosphor Ca0.5Y(1-x)(WO4)2:xPr(3+) co-doped with alkali chlorides shows the enhancement of luminescence, which was found in the sodium chloride co-doped powder phosphor. The photometric characteristics indicate the suitability of the inorganic powder phosphors for solid-state lighting and display applications. PMID:26208272

  10. Electronic structure of rare-earth chromium antimonides RECrSb{sub 3} (RE=La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy, Yb) by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Crerar, Shane J.; Mar, Arthur; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2012-12-15

    The electronic structure of the ternary rare-earth chromium antimonides RECrSb{sub 3} (RE=La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy, Yb) has been examined by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the first time. The RE 3d or 4d core-line spectra are substantially complicated by the presence of satellite peaks but their general resemblance to those of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} tends to support the presence of trivalent RE atoms in RECrSb{sub 3}. However, the Yb 4d spectrum of YbCrSb{sub 3} also shows peaks that are characteristic of divalent ytterbium. The Cr 2p core-line spectra exhibit asymmetric lineshapes and little change in binding energy (BE) relative to Cr metal, providing strong evidence for electronic delocalization. The Sb 3d core-line spectra reveal slightly negative BE shifts relative to elemental antimony, supporting the presence of anionic Sb species in RECrSb{sub 3}. The experimental valence band spectrum of LaCrSb{sub 3} matches well with the calculated density of states, and it can be fitted to component peaks belonging to individual atoms to yield an average formulation that agrees well with expectations ('La{sup 3+}Cr{sup 3+}(Sb{sup 2-}){sub 3}'). On progressing from LaCrSb{sub 3} to NdCrSb{sub 3}, the 4f-band in the valence band spectra grows in intensity and shifts to higher BE. The valence band spectrum for YbCrSb{sub 3} also supports the presence of divalent ytterbium. - Graphical Abstract: In their valence band spectra, the 4f-band intensifies and shifts to higher BE on progressing from LaCrSb{sub 3} to NdCrSb{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-resolution core-line and valence band XPS spectra were measured for RECrSb{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Divalent Yb is present in YbCrSb{sub 3}, in contrast to trivalent RE in other members. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asymmetric Cr 2p spectral lineshape confirms delocalization of Cr valence electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small negative Sb 3d BE shifts support assignment of anionic Sb atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fitted valence band spectra show shifts in the 4f band as RE is changed.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis, structure, and optical properties of two nanosized Ln26 @CO3 (Ln=Dy and Tb) cluster-based lanthanide-transition-metal-organic frameworks (Ln MOFs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Lian; Miao, Hao; Wan, Hong Xiang; Mei, Hua; Liu, Ying; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-16

    Two Ln26 @CO3 (Ln=Dy and Tb) cluster-based lanthanide-transition-metal-organic frameworks (Ln MOFs) formulated as [Dy26 Cu3 (Nic)24 (CH3 COO)8 (CO3 )11 (OH)26 (H2 O)14 ]Cl ⋅3 H2 O (1; HNic=nicotinic acid) and [Tb26 NaAg3 (Nic)27 (CH3 COO)6 (CO3 )11 (OH)26 Cl(H2 O)15 ]⋅7.5 H2 O (2) have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal methods and characterized by IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, and single X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Cc with a=35.775(12) Å, b=33.346(11) Å, c=24.424(8) Å, β=93.993(5)°, V=29065(16) Å(3) , whereas 2 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P$\\bar 1$ with a=20.4929(19) Å, b=24.671(2) Å, c=29.727(3) Å, α=81.9990(10)°, β=88.0830(10)°, γ=89.9940(10)°, V=14875(2) Å(3) . Structural analysis indicates the framework of 1 is a 3D perovskite-like structure constructed out of CO3 @Dy26 building units and Cu(+) centers by means of nicotinic acid ligand bridging. In 2, however, nanosized CO3 @Tb26 units and [Ag3 Cl](2+) centers are connected by Nic(-) bridges to give rise to a 2D structure. It is worth mentioning that this kind of 4d-4f cluster-based MOF is quite rare as most of the reported analogous compounds are 3d-4f ones. Additionally, the solid-state emission spectra of pure compound 2 at room temperature suggest an efficient energy transfer from the ligand Nic(-) to Tb(3+) ions, which we called the "antenna effect". Compound 2 shows a good two-photon absorption (TPA) with a TPA coefficient of 0.06947 cm GM(-1) (1 GM=10(-50)  cm(4)  s photon(-1) ), which indicates that compound 2 might be a good choice for third-order nonlinear optical materials. PMID:25487542

  12. Preparation, structure, and peritectic transition of RBa{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (R = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, and Y) superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.Y.; Huang, J.T.; Kao, H.C.I.; Wang, C.M.

    1998-08-01

    A series of single-phase RBa{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (T = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, and Y) compounds with a triple-perovskite unit cell has been prepared by solid-state reaction method. Samples with a larger radius of the R ion (R = La and Nd) are tetragonal, whereas those with a smaller radius of the R ion (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, and Y) are orthorhombic. Unit-cell parameters of RBa{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} decrease monotonically with a decrease of the radius of the R ion. A maximum at R = Nd, Sm, and Eu is found in the peritectic transition temperature (t{sub p}), the amount of oxygen loss ({Delta}w) in this transition, and the enthalpy of fusion ({Delta}H{sub f}), respectively. An increase in the {Delta}H{sub f} is correlated with increasing t{sub p} for the respective orthorhombic and tetragonal phases of RBa{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} compounds. {Tc} of the title compounds gradually increased from 52 to 86 K with a decrease in the radius of the R ion.

  13. Family of dumbbell Ni4Ln2 (Ln = Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er) complexes: syntheses, structures, luminescent and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Liu, Qingxia; Xiao, Hongping; Zhang, Wu; Tao, Ruojie

    2013-04-14

    The synthesis and characterization of a family of heterometallic Ni4Ln2 complexes (Ln = Pr(1), Sm(2), Eu(3), Gd(4), Tb(5), Ho(6) and Er(7)) of the formula [Ni2LnL1L2(OH)(H2O)]2 are reported, where H4L1 is 3,3?-(1E,1?E)-(2,2?-(2-aminoethylazanediyl)bis(ethane-2,1-diyl)bis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(2-hydroxybenzoic acid) and H2L2 is 3-formyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid. The molecular structures of 17 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and reveal that they are isostructural. In all of these compounds, the six metal ions are held together to form a novel Ni4Ln2O10 core and exhibit a relatively rare dumbbell-type structure. In these compounds, the Ni ions are in slightly distorted square-pyramidal or octahedral environments. An all-oxygen coordination environment (8O) is present around the central lanthanide ion, which is present in a distorted square antiprismatic geometry. The LnLn and LnOavg bond distances in 17 show a gradual reduction proceeding from 1 to 7, in accordance with the lanthanide contraction. The luminescent properties of all the compounds have been studied. The magnetic susceptibility analysis demonstrate antiferromagnetic interactions within complex 4. PMID:23396382

  14. A new type of silica-coated Gd?(CO?)?:Tb nanoparticle as a bifunctional agent for magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescent imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanli; Xu, Xianzhu; Tang, Qun; Li, Yongxiu

    2012-05-25

    We report a new type of dual modal nanoprobe to combine optical and magnetic resonance bioimaging. A simple reverse microemulsion method and coating process was introduced to synthesize silica-coated Gd(2)(CO(3))(3):Tb nanoparticles, and the particles, with an average diameter of 16 nm, can be dispersed in water. As in vitro cell imaging of the nanoprobe shows, the nanoprobe accomplishes delivery to gastric SGC7901 cancer cells successfully in a short time, as well as NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, it presents no evidence of cell toxicity or adverse affect on kidney cell growth under high dose, which makes the nanoprobe's optical bioimaging modality available. The possibility of using the nanoprobe for magnetic resonance imaging is also demonstrated, and the nanoprobe displays a clear T(1)-weighted effect and could potentially serve as a bimodal T(1)-positive contrast agent. Therefore, the new nanoprobe formed from carbonate nanoprobe doped with rare earth ions provides the dual modality of optical and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22543843

  15. Polydentate-ligand-supported self-assembly of heterometallic T-shaped Co4RE (RE = Gd, Tb, Y) clusters: synthesis, structure and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hongshan; Zhao, Lang; Guo, Yang; Tang, Jinkui

    2012-08-28

    A series of mixed-valent heterometallic pentanuclear Co(III)(3)Co(II)RE(III) (RE = Gd (1), Tb (2), Y (3)) clusters have been rationally assembled by taking advantage of a bifunctional ligand with o-vanillin and tripodal tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane units. Structural determinations reveal that all compounds are isomorphous and possess a T-shaped Co(4)RE core, which comprises two nearly linear Co(2)RE subunits sharing a common RE ion. Their magnetic properties were thoroughly studied. The static magnetic susceptibility studies of 1 demonstrate the presence of weak ferromagnetic interactions between the magnetic centres and magnetic anisotropy reflected by the single ion zero-field splitting (ZFS) D term. Both 1 and 2 behave magnetically as heterodinuclear metal systems, while the magnetic behaviour of 3 is identical to an isolated Co(II) ion. Moreover, alternating-current susceptibility measurements did not exhibit any out-of-phase signal, suggesting that slow magnetic relaxation is absent above 2 K within them. These isomorphous Co(4)RE clusters offer an opportunity to systematically probe the contribution of different metal ions to the overall magnetic behaviour in Co(II)-RE(III) systems. PMID:22767361

  16. A new type of silica-coated Gd2(CO3)3:Tb nanoparticle as a bifunctional agent for magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescent imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanli; Xu, Xianzhu; Tang, Qun; Li, Yongxiu

    2012-05-01

    We report a new type of dual modal nanoprobe to combine optical and magnetic resonance bioimaging. A simple reverse microemulsion method and coating process was introduced to synthesize silica-coated Gd2(CO3)3:Tb nanoparticles, and the particles, with an average diameter of 16 nm, can be dispersed in water. As in vitro cell imaging of the nanoprobe shows, the nanoprobe accomplishes delivery to gastric SGC7901 cancer cells successfully in a short time, as well as NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, it presents no evidence of cell toxicity or adverse affect on kidney cell growth under high dose, which makes the nanoprobe’s optical bioimaging modality available. The possibility of using the nanoprobe for magnetic resonance imaging is also demonstrated, and the nanoprobe displays a clear T1-weighted effect and could potentially serve as a bimodal T1-positive contrast agent. Therefore, the new nanoprobe formed from carbonate nanoprobe doped with rare earth ions provides the dual modality of optical and magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Heterobinuclear Zn-Ln (Ln = La, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Er and Yb) complexes based on asymmetric Schiff-base ligand: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shunsheng; Liu, Xiangrong; Lü, Xingqiang; Wong, Wai-Kwok

    2013-01-01

    With a novel asymmetric Schiff-base zinc complex ZnL (H2 L = N-(3-methoxysalicylidene)-N'-(5-bromo-3-methoxysalicylidene)phenylene-1,2-diamine), obtained from phenylene-1,2-diamine, 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde and 5-bromo-3-methoxysalicylaldehyde, as the precursor, a series of heterobinuclear Zn-Ln complexes [ZnLnL(NO3 )3 (CH3 CN)] (Ln = La, 1; Ln = Nd, 2; Ln = Eu, 3; Ln = Gd, 4; Ln = Tb, 5; Ln = Er, 6; Ln = Yb, 7) were synthesized by the further reaction with Ln(NO3 )3 ·6H2 O, and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared, fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Photophysical studies of these complexes show that the strong and characteristic near-infrared luminescence of Nd(3+) , Yb(3+) and Er(3+) with emissive lifetimes in the microsecond range has been sensitized from the excited state of the asymmetric Schiff-base ligand due to effective intramolecular energy transfer; the other complexes do not show characteristic emission due to the energy gap between the chromophore and lanthanide ions. PMID:23001932

  18. Crystal structures of RPt{sub 3-x}Si{sub 1-y}(R=Y, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gribanov, Alexander; Grytsiv, Andriy; Rogl, Peter; Seropegin, Yurii; Giester, Gerald

    2009-07-15

    The crystal structures of ternary compounds RPt{sub 3-x}Si{sub 1-y}(R=Y, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) have been elucidated from X-ray single crystal CCD data. All compounds are isotypic and crystallize in the tetragonal space group P4/mbm. The general formula RPt{sub 3-x}Si{sub 1-y} arises from defects: x{approx}0.20, y{approx}0.14. The crystal structure of RPt{sub 3-x}Si{sub 1-y} can be considered as a packing of four types of building blocks which derive from the CePt{sub 3}B-type unit cell by various degrees of distortion and Pt, Si-defects. - Graphical Abstract: Electron density in RPt{sub 3-x}Si{sub 1-y} at 0, 1/2 , 0.

  19. High-Temperature Salt Flux Crystal Growth of New Lanthanide Molybdenum Oxides, Ln5Mo2O12 Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er: Magnetic Coupling within Mixed Valent Mo(IV/V) Rutile-Like Chains.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Anthony J; Abeysinghe, Dileka; Wilkins, Branford; Smith, Mark D; Morrison, Gregory; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2015-12-21

    Five new lanthanide molybdenum oxides containing mixed valent Mo(IV/V) rutile-like chains, Ln5Mo2O12 Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, were prepared utilizing a high-temperature molten salt flux synthesis involving an in situ reduction utilizing metallic reducing agents. All five compounds were structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction methods and were found to crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/m. The molybdates all contain rare infinite chains consisting of MoO2O4/2 edge-sharing octahedra. The chains exhibit alternating long and short separations between octahedra caused by the presence of Mo-Mo bonds to form Mo2O10 units containing one unpaired electron. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of these compounds was measured, and antiferromagnetic ordering was observed in all cases. PMID:26629588

  20. Enhancing photoluminescence performance of SrSi2O2N2:Eu(2+) phosphors by Re (Re = La, Gd, Y, Dy, Lu, Sc) substitution and its thermal quenching behavior investigation.

    PubMed

    L, Wei; Jiao, Mengmeng; Shao, Baiqi; Zhao, Lingfei; You, Hongpeng

    2015-09-21

    Eu(2+)-doped SrSi2O2N2 has recently been identified as a viable green phosphor that in conjunction with a blue-emitting diode can be used in solid-state white-lighting sources. In this study, we attempt to improve the photoluminescence and thermal quenching behavior by codoping Re(3+) (Re = La, Gd, Y, Dy, Lu, Sc) and Li(+) instead of Sr(2+). Trivalent cation substitution at the Sr(2+) site enhances the photoluminescence intensities and also achieves better thermal stability at high temperature. The lifetime decay properties in the related substituted phosphors are investigated. Furthermore, under the 460 nm blue light irradiation, this green phosphor exhibits excellent luminescence properties with absorption and internal/external efficiencies. High-color-rendition warm-white LEDs using the phosphor have the color temperature and color rendition of 4732 K and 91.2, respectively, validating its suitability for use in solid-state white lighting. PMID:26331531

  1. Development of uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy in SrFe12-x(DyGd)xO19 thin film synthesized by incorporation of high coercivity nanoparticles in sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Ali

    2014-06-01

    SrFe12-x(DyGd)xO19 thin films with x=0-2.5 were synthesized by a sol-gel method on thermally oxidized silicon wafer (Si/SiO2). XRD patterns and FE-SEM micrographs demonstrated that single phase c-axis hexagonal ferrite films with rather narrow grain size distribution were obtained. It was found that the grain size is decreased from about 110 nm (for the film with no substitution) to 35 nm (for the film with the highest amount of substitution cations). AFM micrographs exhibited that the surface roughness decreases with an increase in substitution content. It was found from the VSM graphs that with an increase in substitution contents coercivity and saturation of magnetization increase. The maximum saturation of magnetization and coercivity at perpendicular direction were 250 emu/g and 5.5 kOe, respectively.

  2. Synthesis, magnetism, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic study of a family of [Ln3Fe7] coordination clusters (Ln = Gd, Tb, and Er).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Lan, Yanhua; Mereacre, Valeriu; Buth, Gernot; Sougrati, Moulay T; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2013-10-21

    The reaction of N-methydiethanolamine (mdeaH2), benzoic acid, FeCl3, and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O or LnCl3·xH2O yields a series of decanuclear coordination clusters, [Ln3Fe7(μ4-O)2(μ3-OH)2(mdea)7(μ-benzoate)4(N3)6]·4MeCN·H2O, where Ln = Gd(III) (1) or Tb(III) (2), and [Er3Fe7(μ4-O)2(μ3-OH)2(mdea)7(μ-benzoate)4(N3)5(MeOH)]Cl·7.5H2O·11.5MeOH (3). The isostructural compounds 1-3 all crystallize isotypically in the triclinic space group P1̅ with Z = 2, as does the previously reported dysprosium analogue 4. Six of the Fe(III) ions are pseudooctahedrally coordinated, whereas the seventh has a trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry. Temperature-dependent direct-current magnetic susceptibility studies indicate that intracluster antiferromagnetic interactions are dominant in 1-3. The frequency-dependent out-of-phase (χ″) alternating-current susceptibility reveals that 2 undergoes a slow relaxation of its magnetization, presumably resulting from anisotropy of the Tb(III) ions. Between 30 and 295 K, the (57)Fe Mössbauer spectra reveal paramagnetic behavior with six partially resolved quadrupole doublets, one for the trigonal-bipyramidal Fe(III) site and five for the six pseudooctahedral Fe(III) sites. The Mössbauer spectra of 2 and 3 obtained between 3 and 30 K are consistent with the presence of Fe(III) intracluster antiferromagnetic coupling with slow magnetic relaxation relative to the Larmor precession time. Further, the observed changes in the effective magnetic field values in the spectra measured at 3 K with increasing applied field are consistent with the effect of the local spin polarization along the applied magnetic field direction, a behavior reminiscent of antiparallel spin-coupled iron molecular paramagnetic systems. PMID:24089701

  3. Heterometallic octanuclear RE(III)3Ni(II)5 (RE = Dy(III), Gd(III) and Y(III)) clusters with slow magnetic relaxation for the dysprosium derivative.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiyu; Ke, Hongshan; Lin, Shuang-Yan; Guo, Yang; Zhao, Lang; Tang, Jinkui; Li, Yun-Hui

    2013-04-21

    Reactions of rare earth benzoate and nickel perchlorate with a Schiff-base ligand, 2-([(2-hydroxyphenyl)imino]methyl) phenol (H2L), in the presence of triethylamine yielded three heterobimetallic octanuclear clusters of general formula [RE3Ni5L5(PhCOO)3(?3-OH)5(?3-OCH3)(CH3OH)4(H2O)]xCH3OHyH2O (RE = Dy(III), x = 4, y = 4 (1), RE = Gd(III), x = 5, y = 4 (2), RE = Y(III), x = 5, y = 3 (3)). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the metal core of each cluster consists of two distorted [RE2Ni2O4] cubane-like moieties and a heterobimetallic triangular [RE2NiO2] unit, with RE ions arranged in a typical triangular fashion. Variable-temperature solid state magnetic susceptibilities of these complexes were measured in the temperature range 2-300 K and the results indicate that an overall ferromagnetic interaction among the metal ions is operative for compounds 2 and 3. Under zero external field, the Dy3Ni5 compound shows a frequency dependence of the out-of-phase (?'') signals, which indicates slow relaxation of the magnetization. PMID:23403627

  4. The molecular structure of TbI 3, DyI 3, HoI 3 and ErI 3 as determined by synchronous gas-phase electron diffraction and mass spectrometric experiment assisted by quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlykov, Sergey A.; Giricheva, Nina I.; Lapykina, Elena A.; Girichev, Georgiy V.; Oberhammer, Heinz

    2010-08-01

    A first gas electron diffraction study of TbI 3, DyI 3, HoI 3 and ErI 3 has been carried out in combination with mass spectrometric vapour monitoring at 1117(10), 1117(10), 1132(10) and 1102(10) K, respectively. Up to 4 mol.% of dimeric species was observed in addition to the dominating monomeric molecules. The change of the thermal-averaged rg-configuration parameters of the molecules in the series TbI 3 ? ErI 3 reflect the lanthanide contraction. A low value of the shrinkage ?(II) even at such a high temperatures may be considered due to vibration effects in molecule whose equilibrium geometric nuclear structure is planar and which correspond to configurationally-averaged 4f n electronic state. B3LYP and ??2 calculations performed in this work with large core potential for lanthanide atoms also resulted in equilibrium geometry of D 3h symmetry. According to the both quantum chemical methods applied the potential function the non-planar vibration is essentially anharmonic, which is therefore to be taken into account to correctly describe nuclear dynamics in molecules such as LnI 3. Different models applied in this study predict the equilibrium distance re(Ln-I) to be shorter than the thermal-averaged rg(Ln-I) distance by 0.002-0.018(1) .

  5. Size dependent magnetic moments and electric polarizabilities of free Tb, Ho, and Tm clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowlan, J.; van Dijk, C. N.; Kirilyuk, A.; Liang, A.; Yin, S.; Rasing, Th.; de Heer, W. A.

    2010-05-01

    Stern-Gerlach deflection measurements have been performed on rare earth clusters TbN, HoN, and TmN (N ?40) at cryogenic temperatures (T ?77 K). TbN and HoN share a common size dependence in their magnetic moments. They both exhibit common "magic number" sizes which show reduced net magnetic moments, similar to previous observations for Gd and Dy clusters. TmN have smaller magnetic moments that do not differ significantly between cluster sizes. The reduced net magnetic moments are evidence that the atomic moments are canceled by a canted or antiferromagnetic alignment. Electric deflection experiments reveal that TmN have electric dipole moments and show an enhanced response to an electric field compared to TbN and HoN.

  6. Synthesis, phase composition modification, and optical properties of Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} activated KGdF{sub 4} and GdF{sub 3} submicrocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Chunyan; Yang, Hyun Kyoung; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2012-03-15

    Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped series of samples have been synthesized based on a citric acid assisted hydrothermal method. By controlling the hydrothermal treating time, the samples evolve from the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped cubic phase KGdF{sub 4} with spherical morphology into the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped orthorhombic phase GdF{sub 3} with rhombic shape finally. The X-ray diffraction data illustrate the phase composition modification process of the samples. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy images suggest the transformation in the morphology of final products. The spectra of the energy-dispersive spectroscopy reveal the constituents of the samples. And the selected area electronic diffraction patterns prove the crystalline phases of the samples. Based on previous studies and the experimental data, one possible phase composition modification process has been summarized. The photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra and the luminescent dynamic decay curves demonstrate the variations in optical properties of the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped final products. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the phase composition modification from the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} doped KGdF{sub 4} to the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+}doped GdF{sub 3} with multiform morphologies and different sizes. (C presents cubic phase, H presents hexagonal phase, and O presents orthorhombic phase.) Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples evolved from the cubic phase KGdF{sub 4} into the orthorhombic phase GdF{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology evolved from the spherical shape into the rhombic shape finally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible phase composition modification process was summarized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical properties of final products were compared and studied.

  7. Syntheses, structures, and properties of a series of novel high-nuclear 3d-4f clusters with mixed amino acids as ligands: {Ln6Cu24}(Ln = Gd, Tb, Pr and Sm).

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao-Jun; Hu, Sheng-Min; Sheng, Tian-Lu; Xue, Zhen-Zhen; Wu, Xin-Tao

    2015-04-14

    The first examples of high-nuclear 3d-4f heterometallic clusters with mixed amino acid ligands are reported. Four 30-nuclear clusters {Ln6Cu24}(Ln = Gd, Tb, Pr and Sm) were obtained through the self-assembly of Ln(III), Cu(II) and mixed amino acid ligands of glycine (HGly) and ?-alanine (HAla). The metal skeleton of clusters may be described as a huge {Ln6Cu12} octahedron connected with 12 additional Cu(II) ions. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibilities of compounds were also studied. PMID:25756855

  8. Trends in Syntheses, Structures, and Properties for Three Series of Ammine Rare-Earth Metal Borohydrides, M(BH4)3nNH3 (M = Y, Gd, and Dy).

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Lars H; Ley, Morten B; ?ern, Radovan; Lee, Young-Su; Cho, Young Whan; Ravnsbk, Dorthe; Besenbacher, Flemming; Skibsted, Jrgen; Jensen, Torben R

    2015-08-01

    Fourteen solvent- and halide-free ammine rare-earth metal borohydrides M(BH4)3nNH3, M = Y, Gd, Dy, n = 7, 6, 5, 4, 2, and 1, have been synthesized by a new approach, and their structures as well as chemical and physical properties are characterized. Extensive series of coordination complexes with systematic variation in the number of ligands are presented, as prepared by combined mechanochemistry, solvent-based methods, solid-gas reactions, and thermal treatment. This new synthesis approach may have a significant impact within inorganic coordination chemistry. Halide-free metal borohydrides have been synthesized by solvent-based metathesis reactions of LiBH4 and MCl3 (3:1), followed by reactions of M(BH4)3 with an excess of NH3 gas, yielding M(BH4)37NH3 (M = Y, Gd, and Dy). Crystal structure models for M(BH4)3nNH3 are derived from a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (PXD), (11)B magic-angle spinning NMR, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The structures vary from two-dimensional layers (n = 1), one-dimensional chains (n = 2), molecular compounds (n = 4 and 5), to contain complex ions (n = 6 and 7). NH3 coordinates to the metal in all compounds, while BH4(-) has a flexible coordination, i.e., either as a terminal or bridging ligand or as a counterion. M(BH4)37NH3 releases ammonia stepwise by thermal treatment producing M(BH4)3nNH3 (6, 5, and 4), whereas hydrogen is released for n ? 4. Detailed analysis of the dihydrogen bonds reveals new insight about the hydrogen elimination mechanism, which contradicts current hypotheses. Overall, the present work provides new general knowledge toward rational materials design and preparation along with limitations of PXD and DFT for analysis of structures with a significant degree of dynamics in the structures. PMID:26196159

  9. Powder metallurgical processing of Tb sub 0. 27 Dy sub 0. 73 Fe sub 2 minus X (0 lt X le 0. 5) by a hydrogen-decrepitation (HD) route

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G.R.; Abell, J.S.; Harris, I.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The hydrogen absorption/desorption behavior of giant magnetostrictive alloys represented by the general formula Tb{sub 0.27}Dy{sub 0.73}Fe{sub 2{minus}{ital X}} (0{lt}{ital X}{le}0.5) has been investigated to provide background information for the production of powder by the hydrogen-decrepitation (HD) route. X-ray-diffraction studies indicate a range of hydriding behaviors depending upon the particular conditions. Thus, cubic, rhombohedral, and amorphous hydrides have been observed and under certain conditions disproportionation occurs with the production of iron and rare-earth hydrides. Metallographic examination of the latter material reveals the phases produced by this disproportionation. Sintered compacts have been made from the disproportionated material by the HD process and compacts with up to 96% of theoretical density have been achieved after only 1-h sinters. The static magnetostrictive properties of these compacts have been investigated, and compare well with values obtained by other workers on samples produced using conventional powder metallurgical methods. The HD process appears to offer significant advantages over more conventional powder metallurgical routes for the production of compacts of these materials.

  10. Structure determination of KScS?, RbScS? and KLnS? (Ln = Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) and crystal-chemical discussion.

    PubMed

    Havlk, Lubomr; Fbry, Jan; Henriques, Margarida; Duek, Michal

    2015-07-01

    The title structures of KScS2 (potassium scandium sulfide), RbScS2 (rubidium scandium sulfide) and KLnS2 [Ln = Nd (potassium neodymium sufide), Sm (potassium samarium sulfide), Tb (potassium terbium sulfide), Dy (potassium dysprosium sulfide), Ho (potassium holmium sulfide), Er (potassium erbium sulfide), Tm (potassium thulium sulfide) and Yb (potassium ytterbium sulfide)] are either newly determined (KScS2, RbScS2 and KTbS2) or redetermined. All of them belong to the ?-NaFeO2 structure type in agreement with the ratio of the ionic radii r(3+)/r(+). KScS2, the member of this structural family with the smallest trivalent cation, is an extreme representative of these structures with rare earth trivalent cations. The title structures are compared with isostructural alkali rare earth sulfides in plots showing the dependence of several relevant parameters on the trivalent cation crystal radius; the parameters thus compared are c, a and c/a, the thicknesses of the S-S layers which contain the respective constituent cations, the sulfur fractional coordinates z(S(2-)) and the bond-valence sums. PMID:26146403

  11. Construction of Polynuclear Lanthanide (Ln = Dy(III), Tb(III), and Nd(III)) Cage Complexes Using Pyridine-Pyrazole-Based Ligands: Versatile Molecular Topologies and SMM Behavior.

    PubMed

    Bala, Sukhen; Sen Bishwas, Mousumi; Pramanik, Bhaskar; Khanra, Sumit; Fromm, Katharina M; Poddar, Pankaj; Mondal, Raju

    2015-09-01

    Employment of two different pyridyl-pyrazolyl-based ligands afforded three octanuclear lanthanide(III) (Ln = Dy, Tb) cage compounds and one hexanuclear neodymium(III) coordination cage, exhibiting versatile molecular architectures including a butterfly core. Relatively less common semirigid pyridyl-pyrazolyl-based asymmetric ligand systems show an interesting trend of forming polynuclear lanthanide cage complexes with different coordination environments around the metal centers. It is noteworthy here that construction of lanthanide complex itself is a challenging task in a ligand system as soft N-donor rich as pyridyl-pyrazol. We report herein some lanthanide complexes using ligand containing only one or two O-donors compare to five N-coordinating sites. The resultant multinuclear lanthanide complexes show interesting magnetic and spectroscopic features originating from different spatial arrangements of the metal ions. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements of the two dysprosium complexes display frequency- and temperature-dependent out-of-phase signals in zero and 0.5 T direct current field, a typical characteristic feature of single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, indicating different energy reversal barriers due to different molecular topologies. Another aspect of this work is the occurrence of the not-so-common SMM behavior of the terbium complex, further confirmed by ac susceptibility measurement. PMID:26347289

  12. A family of 12-azametallacrown-4 structural motif with heterometallic Mn(III) -Ln-Mn(III) -Ln (Ln=Dy, Er, Yb, Tb, Y) alternate arrangement and single-molecule magnet behavior.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Cao, Fan; Li, Dacheng; Zeng, Suyuan; Song, You; Dou, Jianmin

    2015-10-01

    Mixed 3d-4f 12-azametallacrown-4 complexes, [Mn2 Ln2 (OH)2 (hppt)4 (OAc)2 (DMF)2 ]?2?DMF?H2 O [Ln=Dy (1), Er (2), Yb (3), Tb (4) and Y (5), H2 hppt=3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole)], were synthesized by reactions of H2 hppt with Mn(OAc)2 ?4?H2 O and Ln(NO3 )3 ?6?H2 O. This is the first 3d-4f azametallacrown family to incorporate Ln ions into the ring sets. These isostructural complexes exhibit alternating arrangements of two Mn and two Ln ions in the rings with each pair of metal centers bound by an N?N group and ?2 -O bridging. Magnetic measurements revealed dominant antiferromagnetic interactions between metal centers, and frequency-dependent out-of-phase (${\\chi {^\\prime}{^\\prime}_{\\rm{M}} }$) signals below 4?K suggest slow relaxation of magnetization. PMID:26295925

  13. UV-visible Faraday rotators based on rare-earth fluoride single crystals: LiREF4 (RE = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb), PrF3 and CeF3.

    PubMed

    Vasyliev, Valentyn; Villora, Encarnacon G; Nakamura, Masaru; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2012-06-18

    High optical quality LiREF(4) (RE = Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+) and Yb(3+)), PrF(3) and CeF(3) single crystals have been grown by the Czochralski technique. Their magneto-optical properties have been measured and analyzed in detail in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength region, and their figures of merit as Faraday rotators have been determined. CeF(3) presents superior properties above 300 nm, showing a figure of merit higher than that of the reference material, terbium-gallium-garnet, which is nowadays used in the visible-near infrared. PrF(3) is the best rotator for the 220-300 nm range. Towards shorter wavelength and in the vacuum ultraviolet, it is shown that the LiREF(4) crystals are unique rotators. Overall, the rare-earth fluoride single crystals studied here exhibit better properties than other materials considered so far, and therefore they have potential to cover the increasing demand for new and improved Faraday rotators in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength region. PMID:22714507

  14. Fully opposite spin polarization of electron and hole bands in DyN and related band structures of GdN and HoN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheiwchanchamnangij, Tawinan; Lambrecht, Walter R. L.

    2015-07-01

    Using quasiparticle self-consistent G W calculations, we show that DyN has an unusual nearly zero indirect gap semimetallic band structure in which the states near the valence band maximum are fully minority spin polarized at ? while the states near the conduction band minimum (at X ) have fully majority spin character. This arises due to a strong hybridization of one of the minority spin f states of dysprosium with the N-2 p bands. The reason why only one of the f bands hybridizes is explained using symmetry arguments. We show that in HoN, this hybridization is already strongly reduced because of the deeper Ho-4 f minority spin states.

  15. Pentanuclear 3d-4f Heterometal Complexes of M(II)3Ln(III)2 (M = Ni, Cu, Zn and Ln = Nd, Gd, Tb) Combinations: Syntheses, Structures, Magnetism, and Photoluminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Maity, Manoranjan; Majee, Mithun Chandra; Kundu, Sanchita; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Saudo, E Carolina; Ghosh, Sanjib; Chaudhury, Muktimoy

    2015-10-19

    A new family of pentanuclear 3d-4f heterometal complexes of general composition [Ln(III)2(M(II)L)3(?3-O)3H](ClO4)xH2O (1-5) [Ln = Nd, M = Zn, 1; Nd, Ni, 2; Nd, Cu, 3; Gd, Cu, 4; Tb, Cu, 5] have been synthesized in moderate yields (50-60%) following a self-assembly reaction involving the hexadentate phenol-based ligand, viz., N,N-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)-N('),N(')-diethylethylenediamine (H2L). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses have been used to characterize these complexes. The compounds are all isostructural, having a 3-fold axis of symmetry that passes through the 4f metal centers. The [M(II)L] units in these complexes are acting as bis-bidentate metalloligands and, together with ?3-oxido bridging ligands, complete the slightly distorted monocapped square antiprismatic nine-coordination environment around the 4f metal centers. The cationic complexes also contain a H(+) ion that occupies the central position at the 3-fold axis. Magnetic properties of the copper(II) complexes (3-5) show a changeover from antiferromagnetic in 3 to ferromagnetic 3d-4f interactions in 4 and 5. For the isotropic Cu(II)-Gd(III) compound 4, the simulation of magnetic data provides very weak Cu-Gd (J1 = 0.57 cm(-1)) and Gd-Gd exchange constants (J2 = 0.14 cm(-1)). Compound 4 is the only member of this triad, showing a tail of an out-of-phase signal in the ac susceptibility measurement. A large-spin ground state (S = 17/2) and a negative value of D (-0.12 cm(-1)) result in a very small barrier (8 cm(-1)) for this compound. Among the three Nd(III)2M(II)3 (M = Zn(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II)) complexes, only the Zn(II) analogue (1) displays an NIR luminescence due to the (4)F(3/2) ? (4)I(11/2) transition in Nd(III) when excited at 290 nm. The rest of the compounds do not show such Nd(III)/Tb(III)-based emission. The paramagnetic Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions quench the fluorescence in 2-5 and thereby lower the population of the triplet state. PMID:26407121

  16. A-site size effect in a family of unfilled ferroelectric tetragonal tungsten bronzes: Ba?R(0.67)Nb??O?? (R = La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy and Y).

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jonathan; Morrison, Finlay D

    2014-08-14

    The effect of A-cation size on the structural and electrical properties in a family of ferroelectric tetragonal tungsten bronzes (TTBs) Ba4R(0.67)?(1.33)Nb10O30 (R = La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy and Y; ? = vacancy) was investigated. In each case, the crystal structure, as determined from lab-based ambient powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), is metrically tetragonal and can be refined in the P4bm space group. XRD data show an increased splitting of hk0 00l reflections with decreasing R cation size indicating an increasing tetragonal distortion (measured by tetragonality c/a). Dielectric data and ferroelectric measurements indicate that the ferroelectric Curie temperature, T(C), increases with decreasing R size and so a direct correlation between T(C) and tetragonality/ionic radius of R is demonstrated. Rietveld refinements show that the large A2-site is fully occupied by Ba(2+) and, in addition to the R cation size, the presence of vacancies at the A1-site (perovskite-like site) is also shown to strongly affect the stability of ferroelectricity in this structure type. PMID:24950736

  17. Simple correction for the sample shape and radial offset effects on SQUID magnetometers: Magnetic measurements on Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Ln=Gd, Dy, Er) standards

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Gregory; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur

    2015-01-15

    An increased focus on magnetic measurements of oriented single crystals, thin films, and magnetically dilute systems has led to a demand for the measurement of weak magnetic moments. This level of sensitivity and precision can be achieved on SQUID magnetometers by decreasing the size of the detection coils. However, the smaller detection coils can amplify two errors in the magnitude of the measured moment, the sample shape and radial offset effects, which were small and typically unaccounted for on previous magnetometers. We report a simple method to determine the radial offset of a sample by taking advantage of the two basic scan modes, DC and lock-in, typically used on magnetometers. This technique allows for the correction of the sample shape and radial offset effects in order to obtain the true moment of a sample. To show the efficacy of this technique, we report the magnetic properties of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Ln=Gd, Dy, Er). - Graphical abstract: Correction for the sample shape and radial offset effects on SQUID magnetometers using a combination of DC and VSM scan data. - Highlights: • Sample shape and radial offset effects alter the moment measured by magnetometers. • We present a simple method to correct for these sample effects on magnetometers. • We measure magnetic susceptibilities of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} to show the efficacy of this method.

  18. Single-molecule magnet behavior and magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetically coupled Ln(III)-Ni(II)-Ni(II)-Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy(III) and Gd(III)) linear complexes.

    PubMed

    Meseguer, Carlos; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Hnninen, Mikko M; Navarrete, R; Mota, A J; Evangelisti, Marco; Ruiz, Jos; Colacio, Enrique

    2014-11-17

    New types of linear tetranuclear Ln(III)-Ni(II)-Ni(II)-Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy (1), Gd (2)) complexes have been prepared using the multidentate ligand N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)-1,3-diaminobenzene, which has two sets of NO and OO' coordination pockets that are able to selectively accommodate Ni(II) and Ln(III) ions, respectively. The X-ray structure analysis reveals that the Ni(II) ions are bridged by phenylenediimine groups forming a 12-membered metallacycle in the central body of the complex, whereas the Ln(III) ions are located at both sides of the metallacycle and linked to the Ni(II) ions by diphenoxo bridging groups. Phenylenediimine and diphenoxo bridging groups transmit ferromagnetic exchange interactions between the two Ni(II) ions and between the Ni(II) and the Ln(III) ions, respectively. Complex 1 shows slow relaxation of the magnetization at zero field and a thermal energy barrier Ueff = 7.4 K with HDC = 1000 Oe, whereas complex 2 exhibits an S = 9 ground state and significant magnetocaloric effect (-?Sm = 18.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 3 K and ?B = 5 T). PMID:25350578

  19. Syntheses, structure, and luminescent properties of novel hydrated rare earth borates Ln2B6O10OH4H2O (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, and Y).

    PubMed

    Cong, Rihong; Yang, Tao; Wang, Zheming; Sun, Junliang; Liao, Fuhui; Wang, Yingxia; Lin, Jianhua

    2011-03-01

    Ln(2)B(6)O(10)(OH)(4)H(2)O (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm-Gd, Dy, Ho, and Y), a new series of hydrated rare earth borates, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. A single crystal of Nd analogue was used for the structure determination by X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with lattice constants a = 21.756(4), b = 4.3671(9), c = 12.192(2) , and ? = 108.29(3). The other compounds are isostructural to Nd(2)B(6)O(10)(OH)(4)H(2)O. The fundamental building block (FBB) of the polyborate anion in this structure is a three-membered ring [B(3)O(6)(OH)(2)](5-). The FBBs are connected by sharing oxygen atoms forming an infinite [B(3)O(5)(OH)(2)](3-) chain, and the chains are linked by hydrogen bonds, establishing a two-dimensional (2-D) [B(6)O(10)(OH)(4)H(2)O](6-) layer. The 2-D borate layers are thus interconnected by Ln(3+) ions to form the complex three-dimensional structure. Ln(2)B(6)O(10)(OH)(4)H(2)O dehydrates stepwise, giving rise to two new intermediate compounds Ln(2)B(6)O(10)(OH)(4) and Ln(2)B(6)O(11)(OH)(2). The investigation on the luminescent properties of Gd(2-2x)Eu(2x)B(6)O(10)(OH)(4)H(2)O (x = 0.01-1.00) shows a high efficiency of Eu(3+) f-f transitions and the existence of the energy transfer process from Gd(3+) to Eu(3+). Eu(2)B(6)O(10)(OH)(4)H(2)O and its two dehydrated products, Eu(2)B(6)O(10)(OH)(4) and Eu(2)B(6)O(11)(OH)(2), present the strongest emission peak at 620 nm ((5)D(0) ? (7)F(2) transition), which may be potential red phosphors. PMID:21250637

  20. Structural Characterization and Polymorphism of R2BaNiO 5 ( R = Nd, Gd, Dy, Y, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) Studied by Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca-Matres, E.; Martnez, J. L.; Rodrguez-Carvajal, J.; Alonso, J. A.; Salinas-Snchez, A.; Saez-Puche, R.

    1993-04-01

    The family of compounds R2BaNiO 5 ( R = Nd, Dy, Y, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) has been studied by neutron powder diffraction at room temperature. All of them present, orthorhombic symmetry (space group Immm , Z = 2). The main feature of these materials is the existence of one-dimesional chains of vertex-sharing NiO 6 octahedra along the a-axis. The present research has revealed the effect of the size of the rare earth ions on the structural parameters, which plays a role nearly equivalent to a hydrostatic "chemical pressure" in the geometric distortion of the structure. The volume or the Ni and Ba polyhedra varies linearly vs the ionic radius of the rare earth. The overall agreement between the valence bond sums and formal charges is very poor. This fact indicates that the present structure is under very high internal stress and may be metastable. We speculate that there may exist a dimorphism in the other members of this family of oxides, similar to that already found for the Tm, Yb, and Lu compounds.

  1. TB Terms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Verified Case of Tuberculosis National Tuberculosis Indicators Project (NTIP): Frequently Asked Questions TB Genotyping TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS) Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant ...

  2. Tetranuclear lanthanide (III) complexes containing dimeric subunits: single-molecule magnet behavior for the Dy4 analogue.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Das, Sourav; Dey, Atanu; Hossain, Sakiat; Sutter, Jean-Pascal

    2013-10-21

    The reaction of the lanthanide(III) salts [Dy(III), Tb(III), and Gd (III)] with a hetero donor chelating ligand N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-6-(hydroxymethyl) picolinohydrazide (LH3) and pivalic acid (PivH) in the presence of tetra-n-butylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) afforded the tetranuclear Ln(III) coordination compounds, [Ln4(LH)2(LH2)2(?2-?(1)?(1)Piv)2(?(1)Piv)4]2CHCl3 [Ln = Dy(1), Tb(2), and Gd(3)]. The molecular structure of these complexes reveals that the tetranuclear derivatives are composed of two dinuclear subunits which are interconnected through the coordination action of the picolinoyl hydrazine ligand. Within each subunit two different types of Ln(III) ions are present. One of these is eight-coordinate in a distorted triangular dodecahedral geometry while the other is nine-coordinate in a distorted spherical capped square antiprism geometry. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements of complex 1 reveal a frequency- and temperature-dependent two step out-of-phase signals under 1kOe DC field which is characteristic of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior. Analysis of the magnetic data afforded the anisotropic barriers and relaxation times: ?/kB = 62.6 K, ?0 = 8.7 10(-7) s; ?/kB = 26.3 K, ?0 = 1.26 10(-6) s for the slow and fast relaxations respectively. PMID:24111517

  3. Doxorubicin-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) multifunctional, phosphor nanorods: a multi-modal, luminescent, magnetic probe for simultaneous optical and magnetic resonance imaging and an excellent pH-triggered anti-cancer drug delivery nanovehicle.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Preeti; Alam, Aftab; Ghorai, Suvankar; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Poddar, Pankaj

    2015-12-14

    Herein, we report the fabrication of a multifunctional nanoprobe based on highly monodispersed, optically and magnetically active, biocompatible, PEI-functionalized, highly crystalline β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) nanorods as an excellent multi-modal optical/magnetic imaging tool and a pH-triggered intracellular drug delivery nanovehicle. The static and dynamic photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the presence of sharp emission peaks, with long lifetimes (∼3.5 milliseconds), suitable for optical imaging. The static magnetic susceptibility measurements at room temperature showed a strong paramagnetic signal (χ∼ 3.8 × 10(-5) emu g(-1) Oe(-1)). The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements showed fair T1 relaxivity (r1 = 1.14 s(-1) mM(-1)) and magnetic resonance imaging gave enhanced T1-weighted MRI images with increased concentrations of β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) making them suitable for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to the amine-functionalized β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) nanorods via pH-sensitive hydrazone bond linkages enabling them as a pH-triggered, site-specific drug delivery nanovehicle for DOX release inside tumor cells. A comparison between in vitro DOX release studies undertaken in normal physiological (pH 7.4) and acidic (pH 5.0) environments showed an enhanced DOX dissociation (∼80%) at pH 5.0. The multifunctional material was also applied as an optical probe to confirm the conjugation of DOX and to monitor DOX release via a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. The DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) nanorods exhibited a cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their uptake by MCF-7 cells was demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The comparative cellular uptakes of free DOX and DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) nanorods were studied in tumor microenvironment conditions (pH 6.5) using confocal imaging, which showed an increased uptake of DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) nanorods. Thus, DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) nanorods combining pH-triggered drug delivery, efficient luminescence and paramagnetic properties are promising for a potential multifunctional platform for cancer therapy, biodetection, and optical and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26538278

  4. Doxorubicin-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ multifunctional, phosphor nanorods: a multi-modal, luminescent, magnetic probe for simultaneous optical and magnetic resonance imaging and an excellent pH-triggered anti-cancer drug delivery nanovehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhye, Preeti; Alam, Aftab; Ghorai, Suvankar; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Poddar, Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report the fabrication of a multifunctional nanoprobe based on highly monodispersed, optically and magnetically active, biocompatible, PEI-functionalized, highly crystalline β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods as an excellent multi-modal optical/magnetic imaging tool and a pH-triggered intracellular drug delivery nanovehicle. The static and dynamic photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the presence of sharp emission peaks, with long lifetimes (~3.5 milliseconds), suitable for optical imaging. The static magnetic susceptibility measurements at room temperature showed a strong paramagnetic signal (χ ~ 3.8 × 10-5 emu g-1 Oe-1). The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements showed fair T1 relaxivity (r1 = 1.14 s-1 mM-1) and magnetic resonance imaging gave enhanced T1-weighted MRI images with increased concentrations of β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ making them suitable for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to the amine-functionalized β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods via pH-sensitive hydrazone bond linkages enabling them as a pH-triggered, site-specific drug delivery nanovehicle for DOX release inside tumor cells. A comparison between in vitro DOX release studies undertaken in normal physiological (pH 7.4) and acidic (pH 5.0) environments showed an enhanced DOX dissociation (~80%) at pH 5.0. The multifunctional material was also applied as an optical probe to confirm the conjugation of DOX and to monitor DOX release via a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. The DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods exhibited a cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their uptake by MCF-7 cells was demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The comparative cellular uptakes of free DOX and DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods were studied in tumor microenvironment conditions (pH 6.5) using confocal imaging, which showed an increased uptake of DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods. Thus, DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods combining pH-triggered drug delivery, efficient luminescence and paramagnetic properties are promising for a potential multifunctional platform for cancer therapy, biodetection, and optical and magnetic resonance imaging.Herein, we report the fabrication of a multifunctional nanoprobe based on highly monodispersed, optically and magnetically active, biocompatible, PEI-functionalized, highly crystalline β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods as an excellent multi-modal optical/magnetic imaging tool and a pH-triggered intracellular drug delivery nanovehicle. The static and dynamic photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the presence of sharp emission peaks, with long lifetimes (~3.5 milliseconds), suitable for optical imaging. The static magnetic susceptibility measurements at room temperature showed a strong paramagnetic signal (χ ~ 3.8 × 10-5 emu g-1 Oe-1). The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements showed fair T1 relaxivity (r1 = 1.14 s-1 mM-1) and magnetic resonance imaging gave enhanced T1-weighted MRI images with increased concentrations of β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ making them suitable for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to the amine-functionalized β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods via pH-sensitive hydrazone bond linkages enabling them as a pH-triggered, site-specific drug delivery nanovehicle for DOX release inside tumor cells. A comparison between in vitro DOX release studies undertaken in normal physiological (pH 7.4) and acidic (pH 5.0) environments showed an enhanced DOX dissociation (~80%) at pH 5.0. The multifunctional material was also applied as an optical probe to confirm the conjugation of DOX and to monitor DOX release via a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. The DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods exhibited a cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their uptake by MCF-7 cells was demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The comparative cellular uptakes of free DOX and DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods were studied in tumor microenvironment conditions (pH 6.5) using confocal imaging, which showed an increased uptake of DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods. Thus, DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods combining pH-triggered drug delivery, efficient luminescence and paramagnetic properties are promising for a potential multifunctional platform for cancer therapy, biodetection, and optical and magnetic resonance imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04473a

  5. Tuberculosis (TB)

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    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis (TB) Overview In developed countries, such as the ... thought to be infected with TB bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). TB is a chronic bacterial infection. It ...

  6. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of TB Diagnosing Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Active TB Disease Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Latent TB Infection TB Preventive Treatment History of TB Lifestyle Management of TB Risk Factors for TB Types ...

  7. Facile synthesis and luminescence properties of Y2O3:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Sm(3+), Er(3+), Ho(3+), Tm(3+), Yb(3+)/Er(3+), Yb(3+)/Tm(3+), Yb(3+)/Ho(3+)) microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenhe; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Baoyi; You, Lixin; Sun, Yaguang

    2014-08-01

    Multicolor and monodisperse Y2O3:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Sm(3+), Er(3+), Ho(3+), Tm(3+), Yb(3+)/Er(3+), Yb(3+)/Ho(3+)) microspheres were prepared through a facile urea-assisted homogeneous precipitation method followed by a subsequent calcination process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra were employed to characterize the samples. The XRD results reveal that the as-prepared spheres can be well indexed to cubic Y2O3 phase with high purity. The SEM and TEM images show the obtained Y2O3:Ln(3+) samples consist of regular nanospheres with the mean diameter of 350 nm. And the possible formation mechanism is also proposed. Upon ultraviolet and low-voltage electron beams excitation, Y2O3:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Sm(3+), Er(3+), Ho(3+), Tm(3+)) samples exhibit respective bright red (Eu(3+), (5)D0 --> (7)F2), green (Tb(3+), (5)D4 --> (7)F5), blue (Dy(3+), (4)F9/2 --> (6)H13/2), yellow (Sm(3+), (4)G5/2 --> (6)H7/2), green (Er(3+), (4)S3/2 --> (4)I15/2), green (Ho(3+), (5)S2 --> (5)I8), blue (Tm(3+), (1)D2 --> (3)F4) down-conversion (DC) emissions. Under 980 nm NIR irradiation, Y2O3:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Yb(3+)/Er(3+), Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) and Yb(3+)/Ho(3+)) exhibit characteristic up-conversion (UC) emissions of green (Er(3+), (2)H11/2, (4)S3/2, (2)H11/2 --> (4)I5/2), blue (Tm(3+), (1)G4 --> (3)H6) and green (Ho(3+), (5)F4, (5)S2 --> (5)I8), respectively. These merits of multicolor emissions in the visible region endow this kind of material with potential applications in the field of light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25936002

  8. Tuberculosis (TB)

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    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis Research The New Challenge for TB Research NIAID ... HIV/AIDS Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Research Agenda (PDF) TB Research at NIAID Research ...

  9. The structure and magnetic properties of new iridium(IV) perovskites Sr{sub 2}LnIrO{sub 6} (Ln = Ce, Tb)

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Daijitsu; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio

    1999-06-01

    New compounds with the formula Sr{sub 2}LnIrO{sub 6} (Ln = Ce, Sm--Lu) were characterized from X-ray diffraction measurements and magnetic susceptibility measurements in the temperatures between 5 and 300 K. They were determined to have ordered monoclinic perovskite structures with space group P2{sub 1}/n. The oxidation state of iridium is considered to be pentavalent for Sr{sub 2}LnIrO{sub 6} (Ln = Sm--Gd, Dy--Lu), whereas it is tetravalent for Sr{sub 2}LnIrO{sub 6} (Ln = Ce, Tb). The compounds in which the iridium is in the tetravalent state show an antiferromagnetic transition. Sr{sub 2}CeIrO{sub 6} has a transition temperature at 21 K, and Sr{sub 2}TbIrO{sub 6} has two transition temperatures at 25 and 51 K. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Crystal structures of new potassium silicates and aluminosilicates of Sm, Tb, Gd, and Yb and their relation to the armstrongite (CaZr(Si6O15)3H2O) structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroev, Vladimir K.; Kashaev, Anvar A.; Malcherek, Thomas; Goettlicher, Joerg; Kaneva, Ekaterina V.; Vasiljev, Alexander D.; Suvorova, Ludmila F.; Suvorova, Daria S.; Tauson, Vladimir L.

    2015-07-01

    Silicates of composition K7.81Sm3Si12O32(OH)0.810.77H2O and K7Tb3Si12O321.36H2O, with the space group P 1 bar and unit cell parameters of a=6.9218(3), b=11.4653(4), c=11.6215(4) , ?=88.063(3), ?=88.449(3), ?=79.266(3) and a=6.872(3), b=11.440(5), c=11.542(6) , ?=88.19(4), ?=88.86(4), ?=79.65(4), respectively, were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Both crystal structures were determined from twinned crystals, and can be idealized to a composition of K7Ln3Si12O32 (KOH)x(H2O)(2-x) (Ln=Sm, Tb), which is closely related to K8Nd3Si12O32(OH). Crystals of the aluminosilicates K2GdAlSi4O120.25H2O and K2SmAlSi4O120.375H2O prepared by the same method possess monoclinic symmetry with the space group C2/c. The corresponding unit cell parameters are: a=26.67(1), b=7.294(3), c=14.835(6) , ?=123.44(3); and a=26.7406(9), b=7.3288(2), c=14.8498 (6) , ?=123.514(1), respectively. A new type of silicate anion that forms tubes was detected in the K4Yb2Si8O21 structure. K4Yb2Si8O21 is of monoclinic symmetry with the space group C2/c. The unit cell parameters are: a=17.440(2), b=11.786(1), c=12.802 (2) , and ?=130.902(1). The structure is a mixed framework of tubes formed by silica-oxygen tetrahedra connected by pairs of edge sharing Yb-octahedra. The relation of the silicate layers and frameworks encountered in these compounds to the armstrongite silicate framework is discussed.

  11. Spontaneous polarization and pyroelectric effect in the improper ferroelectrics-ferroelastics Gd2(MoO4)3 and Tb2(MoO4)3 at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyjasik, S.; Shaldin, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    The experimental variations in the spontaneous polarization ΔPs(T) and pyroelectric coefficient γs(T) for Gd2(MoO4)3 (GMO) and Tb2(MoO4)3 (TMO) at low temperatures reported here differ from those for intrinsic ferroelectrics. A fundamental difference is found in the repolarization behavior of samples of GMO and TMO at fixed temperatures of 300 and 4.2 K. While the single domain formation temperature essentially has no effect on the measurements for TMO, a fundamental difference is observed in the case of GMO: single domain formation in the latter at 4.2 K leads to an order of magnitude increase in ΔPs at T > 85 K and distinct anomalies are observed in γs(T), at one of which the pyroelectric coefficient reaches a record peak of 3 × 10-4 C/(m2.K) at T = 25 K. At T = 200 K the pyroelectric coefficients equal -1.45 and -1.8 in units of 10-6 C/(m2.K). Based on these results and taking published data on the rotational structural transformation in the (001) plane and symmetry considerations into account, we propose a crystal physical model for GMO-type improper ferroelectrics consisting of four mesotetrahedra, each of which is made up of three different types (a, b, c) of MoO4 coordination tetrahedra. The physical significance of the pseudodeviator coefficient Q12*, which initiates the phase transition at T > 433 K from one non-centrally symmetric phase (mm2) into another (4¯2m), is discussed in terms of this model.

  12. Magnetic and transport properties of i-R-Cd icosahedral quasicrystals (R=Y, Gd-Tm)

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Tai; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Jesche, Anton; McArthur, John; Kreyssig, Andreas; Goldman, Alan I.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2014-07-01

    We present a detailed characterization of the recently discovered i-R-Cd (R=Y,Gd-Tm) binary quasicrystals by means of x-ray diffraction, temperature-dependent dc and ac magnetization, temperature-dependent resistance, and temperature-dependent specific heat measurements. Structurally, the broadening of x-ray diffraction peaks found for i-R-Cd is dominated by frozen-in phason strain, which is essentially independent of R. i-Y-Cd is weakly diamagnetic and manifests a temperature-independent susceptibility. i-Gd-Cd can be characterized as a spin glass below 4.6 K via dc magnetization cusp, a third order nonlinear magnetic susceptibility peak, a frequency-dependent freezing temperature, and a broad maximum in the specific heat. i-R-Cd (R=Ho-Tm) is similar to i-Gd-Cd in terms of features observed in thermodynamic measurements. i-Tb-Cd and i-Dy-Cd do not show a clear cusp in their zero-field-cooled dc magnetization data, but instead show a more rounded, broad local maximum. The resistivity for i-R-Cd is of order 300μΩ cm and weakly temperature dependent. The characteristic freezing temperatures for i-R-Cd (R=Gd-Tm) deviate from the de Gennes scaling, in a manner consistent with crystal electric field splitting induced local moment anisotropy.

  13. Monte Carlo study on the imaging performance of powder Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce phosphor screens under x-ray excitation: Comparison with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb screens

    SciTech Connect

    Liaparinos, Panagiotis F.; Kandarakis, Ioannis S.; Cavouras, Dionisis A.; Delis, Harry B.; Panayiotakis, George S.

    2007-05-15

    Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce (LSO) scintillator is a relatively new luminescent material which has been successfully applied in positron emission tomography systems. Since it has been recently commercially available in powder form, it could be of value to investigate its performance for use in x-ray projection imaging as both physical and scintillating properties indicate a promising material for such applications. In the present study, a custom and validated Monte Carlo simulation code was used in order to examine the performance of LSO, under diagnostic radiology (mammography and general radiography) conditions. The Monte Carlo code was based on a model using Mie scattering theory for the description of light attenuation. Imaging characteristics, related to image brightness, spatial resolution and noise of LSO screens were predicted using only physical parameters of the phosphor. The overall performance of LSO powder phosphor screens was investigated in terms of the: (i) quantum detection efficiency (ii) emitted K-characteristic radiation (iii) luminescence efficiency (iv) modulation transfer function (v) Swank factor and (vi) zero-frequency detective quantum efficiency [DQE(0)]. Results were compared to the traditional rare-earth Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb (GOS) phosphor material. The relative luminescence efficiency of LSO phosphor was found inferior to that of GOS. This is due to the lower intrinsic conversion efficiency of LSO (0.08 instead of 0.15 of GOS) and the relatively high light extinction coefficient m{sub ext} of this phosphor (0.239 {mu}m{sup -1} instead of 0.218 {mu}m{sup -1} for GOS). However, the property of increased light extinction combined with the rather sharp angular distribution of scattered light photons (anisotropy factor g=0.624 for LSO instead of 0.494 for GOS) reduce lateral light spreading and improve spatial resolution. In addition, LSO screens were found to exhibit better x-ray absorption as well as higher signal to noise transfer properties in the energy range from 18 keV up to 50.2 keV (e.g. DQE(0)=0.62 at 18 keV and for 34 mg/cm{sup 2}, instead of 0.58 for GOS). The results indicate that certain optical properties of LSO (optical extinction coefficient, scattering anisotropy factor) combined with the relatively high x-ray coefficients, make this material a promising phosphor which, under appropriate conditions, could be considered for use in x-ray projection imaging detectors.

  14. Monte Carlo study on the imaging performance of powder Lu2SiO5:Ce phosphor screens under x-ray excitation: comparison with Gd2O2S:Tb screens.

    PubMed

    Liaparinos, Panagiotis F; Kandarakis, Ioannis S; Cavouras, Dionisis A; Delis, Harry B; Panayiotakis, George S

    2007-05-01

    Lu2SiO5: Ce (LSO) scintillator is a relatively new luminescent material which has been successfully applied in positron emission tomography systems. Since it has been recently commercially available in powder form, it could be of value to investigate its performance for use in x-ray projection imaging as both physical and scintillating properties indicate a promising material for such applications. In the present study, a custom and validated Monte Carlo simulation code was used in order to examine the performance of LSO, under diagnostic radiology (mammography and general radiography) conditions. The Monte Carlo code was based on a model using Mie scattering theory for the description of light attenuation. Imaging characteristics, related to image brightness, spatial resolution and noise of LSO screens were predicted using only physical parameters of the phosphor. The overall performance of LSO powder phosphor screens was investigated in terms of the: (i) quantum detection efficiency (ii) emitted K-characteristic radiation (iii) luminescence efficiency (iv) modulation transfer function (v) Swank factor and (vi) zero-frequency detective quantum efficiency [DQE(0)]. Results were compared to the traditional rare-earth Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) phosphor material. The relative luminescence efficiency of LSO phosphor was found inferior to that of GOS. This is due to the lower intrinsic conversion efficiency of LSO (0.08 instead of 0.15 of GOS) and the relatively high light extinction coefficient mext of this phosphor (0.239 mircom(-1) instead of 0.218 /microm(-1) for GOS). However, the property of increased light extinction combined with the rather sharp angular distribution of scattered light photons (anisotropy factor g=0.624 for LSO instead of 0.494 for GOS) reduce lateral light spreading and improve spatial resolution. In addition, LSO screens were found to exhibit better x-ray absorption as well as higher signal to noise transfer properties in the energy range from 18 keV up to 50.2 keV (e.g. DQE(0)=0.62 at 18 keV and for 34 mg/cm2, instead of 0.58 for GOS). The results indicate that certain optical properties of LSO (optical extinction coefficient, scattering anisotropy factor) combined with the relatively high x-ray coefficients, make this material a promising phosphor which, under appropriate conditions, could be considered for use in x-ray projection imaging detectors. PMID:17555254

  15. Lanthanide dinuclear complexes constructed from mixed oxygen-donor ligands: the effect of substituent positions of the neutral ligand on the magnetic dynamics in Dy analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Li, Shan; Gao, Chen; Xiong, Xia; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Li; Powell, Annie K; Gao, Song

    2016-03-21

    Two series of lanthanide dinuclear complexes with the general formulae, [Ln(n-PNO)(Bza)3(H2O)] {Bza = benzoic acid; n = 3, n-PNO = 3-picoline N-oxide, Dy(1) and Er(2); and n = 4, n-PNO = 4-picoline N-oxide, Nd(3), Eu(4), Gd(5), Tb(6), Dy(7), Er(8) and Y(9)} have been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments illustrate that the two series of compounds possess similar carboxylic ligand-bridged dinuclear structure and coordination geometry around the lanthanide ions despite the different methyl-substituent positions on the neutral ligand. Comparative studies of the Dy analogues in the static-field measurements reveal only a little difference with a small butterfly-shaped opening for complex 1 and a close hysteresis loop for 7 at 2.0 K. However, systematic investigations of the alternating-current (ac) measurements indicate that the different substituent positions of the picoline N-oxide ligand have a significant effect on the magnetic relaxation dynamics. A more substantial suppression of the quantum tunnelling of magnetization (QTM) effect and pronounced slow magnetic relaxation were observed in complex 7 as compared to 1 under both zero and a 1 kOe static field. PMID:26847996

  16. Estimation of single ion anisotropy in pyrochlore Dy 2Ti 2O 7, a geometrically frustrated system, using crystal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Y. M.; Sengupta, A.; Ghosh, D.

    2002-07-01

    From accurate measurement of magnetic susceptibility K of powder sample and single crystal of cubic Dy 2Ti 2O 7 (DyT) between 300 and 70 K, a change of slope of 1/ K was detected at 130 K because of crystal field (CF) effect. For analysing K, Mssbauer spectra and other available results on DyT consistently, the full form of the D 3d symmetry of CF was considered and J-mixing of the intermediately coupled states due to CF was done. The best fitted CF parameters were found as B 20=-880, B 40=-110, B 60=1040 , B 43=120, B 63=175, B 66=-1900 (all in cm -1). The corresponding multiplet of the ground 6H 15/2 has a lowest CF doublet level, well separated from the next doublet level (?100 cm-1) for which reason giant magnetostriction in DyT was not observed, unlike in TbT for which ?12 cm-1. Using the best fitted electronic and nuclear energy patterns, different quantities were calculated, viz., the Curie constant, saturated magnetisation and saturated magnetic moment per Dy spin at low temperatures, the values of which were respectively, 9 emu K/g ion, 3.7410 5 A/m, 4.7 ? B, being close to the measured values, g? value of ground doublet, which was reduced by 8% from the free ion value, and the quadrupolar interaction parameter, which was nearly zero at 110 K and attained a constant value of 124030 MHz at 4 K as observed. The hyperfine magnetic field Heff and the internal molecular field Hmol were found to be 540 and 0.2 T, respectively at 4 K. The calculated value of the single ion magnetic anisotropy ? K at low temperature was larger in DyT compared to HoT. Calculations also showed that compared to the classical Heisenberg exchange interaction (HEI), the ferromagnetic n.n. dipolar interaction (FDI) dominates in DyT being respectively, 1.53 and 0.3 K, whereas in HoT and in GdT the ratio between these interactions are much reduced. The magnetic energy gains associated with FDI and HEI were calculated and found to be 1.66 and 0.6 K, respectively. The large values of ? K and FDI, and weak HEI, are expected to make DyT a spin-ice system even at 0.2 K.

  17. Gadolinium complex and phosphorescent probe-modified NaDyF4 nanorods for T1- and T2-weighted MRI/CT/phosphorescence multimodality imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Lu, Zhigao; Shan, Guogang; Wang, Sihui; Liao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To compensate for the deficiencies of individual imaging modalities, lanthanide-based nanoparticles are ideal building blocks for multifunctional contrast agents. Herein, oleic acid-coated NaDyF4 nanorods (DyNPs) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method, and then coated with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and modified with gadolinium complex (Gd-DTPA) to obtain hydrophilic and functionalized nanoparticles (DyNPs-Gd). By loading the phosphorescent probe (iridium-complex) within the surface hydrophobic layer, the developed nanophosphors (DyNPs-Gd-Ir) could be further applied in phosphorescent cell labeling. The Dy in the host induces a high X-ray absorption ability for X-ray computed tomography (CT) and negative enhancement for T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whereas positive contrast for T1-weighted MRI results from the Gd-DTPA. DyNPs-Gd-Ir has been successfully applied to T1- and T2-weighted MRI/CT in vivo. Toxicity studies demonstrated that DyNPs-Gd-Ir exhibited low toxicity to living systems. Therefore, DyNPs-Gd-Ir could be a platform for next-generation contrast agents for T1- and T2-weighted MRI/CT/phosphorescence multimodal imaging. PMID:24119502

  18. Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties of Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2:xRE3+ (RE = Eu, Pr, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb/Er, Yb/Tm, and Yb/Ho) phosphors by hydrothermal method versus pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalingam, Venkatakrishnan; Thirumalai, Jagannathan; Krishnan, Rajagopalan; Chandramohan, Rathinam

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report on rare-earth (RE) activated Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2:xRE3+ (RE = Eu, Pr, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb/Er, Yb/Ho, and Yb/Tm) phosphors synthesized using a surfactant-mediated hydrothermal route. Timedependent experiments were performed, and the morphological evolution of the phosphors was studied. From prepared powder samples of Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2:xRE3+ (RE = Eu and Yb/Er), nano-sized thin phosphor films were grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The surface topography of the as-grown thin phosphor films was analyzed. The asprepared phosphors were characterized by structural and optical studies. The powder phosphor exhibited bi pyramid-like micro-architectures. Structural studies indicated that Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2 possesses the scheelite tetragonal crystal structure. The down-conversion luminescence of Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2:xRE3+ (RE = Eu, Pr, Sm, Tb, and Dy) as powder phosphors and Eu3+ doped Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2 thin phosphor film were studied. Upon irradiation with a 980 nm laser, the Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2: xRE3+ (RE = Yb/Er, Yb/Ho, and Yb/Tm) powder phosphors and Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2:xRE3+ (RE = Yb/Er) thin phosphor film showed intense up-converted visible emissions in green, yellow, and blue regions. The fluorescence decay time and color co-ordinates were determined for all synthesized phosphors. From the obtained results, the prepared powder and thin film phosphors are suggested to be suitable candidates for display and electro-luminescence applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Search for neutrinoless double-electron capture of 156Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, S. W.; Tornow, W.

    2015-12-01

    Background: Multiple large collaborations are currently searching for neutrinoless double-? decay, with the ultimate goal of differentiating the Majorana-Dirac nature of the neutrino. Purpose: Investigate the feasibility of resonant neutrinoless double-electron capture, an experimental alternative to neutrinoless double-? decay. Method: Two clover germanium detectors were operated underground in coincidence to search for the de-excitation ? rays of 156Gd following the neutrinoless double-electron capture of 156Dy. 231.95 d of data were collected at the Kimballton underground research facility with a 231.57 mg enriched 156Dy sample. Results: No counts were seen above background and half-life limits are set at O (1016-1018) yr for the various decay modes of 156Dy. Conclusion: Low background spectra were efficiently collected in the search for neutrinoless double-electron capture of 156Dy, although the low natural abundance and associated lack of large quantities of enriched samples hinders the experimental reach.

  20. Ring-type electric current sensor based on ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate of epoxy-bonded Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 1.92} short-fiber/NdFeB magnet magnetostrictive composite and Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Chung Ming; Or, Siu Wing; Zhang, Shengyao; Ho, S. L.

    2010-05-15

    A ring-type electric current sensor operated in vortex magnetic field detection mode is developed based on a ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate of an axially polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic ring bonded between two circumferentially magnetized epoxy-bonded Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 1.92} (Terfenol-D) short-fiber/NdFeB magnet magnetostrictive composite rings. The electric current sensitivity of the sensor was evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally. The sensor showed a high nonresonance sensitivity of {approx}12.6 mV/A over a flat frequency range of 1 Hz-30 kHz and a large resonance sensitivity of 92.2 mV/A at the fundamental shape resonance of 67 kHz, besides an excellent linear relationship between the input electric current and the output magnetoelectrically induced voltage. The power-free, bias-free, high-sensitive, and wide-bandwidth natures of the sensor make it great potential for real-time condition monitoring of engineering systems having electric current-carrying cables or conductors.

  1. Magnetic ordering in the pyrochlore Ho{sub 2}CrSbO{sub 7} determined from neutron diffraction, and the magnetic properties of other RE{sub 2}CrSbO{sub 7} phases (RE=Y, Tb, Dy, Er)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Mariana J.; Greaves, Colin

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic structure of the pyrochlore Ho{sub 2}CrSbO{sub 7}, which orders magnetically below 13 K, has been studied using neutron powder diffraction. Ho{sub 2}CrSbO{sub 7} is found to form an “ordered spin-ice structure” where the magnetic moments are constrained along the 111 axes, but with a ferromagnetic moment in one direction. The Cr{sup 3+} ions order ferromagnetically and this is thought to lift the degeneracy of the x, y and z directions in the cubic structure causing the ferromagnetic component from the Ho{sup 3+} ions to align. The pyrochlores RE{sub 2}CrSbO{sub 7} where RE=Y, Tb, Dy and Er have also been prepared and studied using SQUID magnetometry. - Graphical abstract: The Ho magnetic moments align to provide an overall ferromagnetic moment along [001]. - Highlights: • Despite having inherent frustration on the Ho sublattice, Ho{sub 2}CrSbO{sub 7} orders ferromagnetically below 13 K. • Ordering on the Cr/Sb sublattice appears to remove the degenerate ground state for the Ho order. • The Ho{sup 3+} magnetic moments are aligned along <111> directions by crystal field effects. • Y{sub 2}CrSbO{sub 7} with diamagnetic Y{sup 3+} ions also has a ferromagnetic ground state.

  2. Discrete decay of the yrast superdeformed band in the {sup 151}Tb nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, J.; Duchene, G.; Beck, F. A.; Byrski, Th.; Curien, D.; Courtin, S.; Dorvaux, O.; Gall, B.; Nourredine, A.; Pachoud, E.; Piqueras, I.; Vivien, J. P.; Twin, P.; Cullen, D. M.; King, S. L.; Paul, E. S.; Adimi, N.; Appelbe, D. E.; Simpson, J.

    2008-09-15

    The Euroball array has been used to search for linking transitions between the superdeformed (SD) and the normal deformed (ND) wells in {sup 151}Tb. Many {gamma} rays in the energy range 2-4 MeV have been observed in coincidence with the yrast SD band. It is proposed that the highest energy transition of 3748 keV and the strongest line (2818 keV) of the previously observed transitions both decay from the same SD level as their links with the ND states have been identified. The current spectra have insufficient statistics to completely identify the decay point in the SD band. Theoretical calculations covering SD bands in the A{approx_equal}150 region enable the two possible spin assignments to be compared with experimental data on proposed links in {sup 149}Gd and {sup 152}Dy. It is concluded that the energy of the lowest SD band member in {sup 151}Tb has an excitation energy of 12861 keV and a spin of 65/2{sup +}.

  3. Structure and magnetic properties of rare-earth chromium germanides RECr xGe 2 ( RE=Sm, Gd-Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bie, Haiying; Tkachuk, Andriy V.; Mar, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    The ternary rare-earth chromium germanides RECr xGe 2 ( RE=Sm, Gd-Er) have been obtained by reactions of the elements, either in the presence of tin or indium flux, or through arc-melting followed by annealing at 800 C. The homogeneity range is limited to 0.25? x?0.50 for DyCr xGe 2. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies on the RECr 0.3Ge 2 members revealed that they adopt the CeNiSi 2-type structure (space group Cmcm, Z=4, a=4.1939(5)-4.016(2) , b=16.291(2)-15.6579(6) , c=4.0598(5)-3.9876(2) in the progression for RE=Sm to Er), which can be considered to be built up by stuffing transition-metal atoms into the square pyramidal sites of a " REGe 2" host with the ZrSi 2-type structure. (The existence of YbCr 0.3Ge 2 is also implicated.) Only the average structure was determined here, because unusually short Cr-Ge distances imply the development of a superstructure involving distortions of the square Ge net. Magnetic measurements on RECr 0.3Ge 2 ( RE=Gd-Er) indicated that antiferromagnetic ordering sets in below TN (ranging from 3 to 17 K), with additional transitions observed at lower temperatures for the Tb and Dy members.

  4. Eu{sup 3+} luminescence in La{sub 5}Si{sub 2}BO{sub 13} with apatite related structure and magnetic studies in Ln{sub 5}Si{sub 2}BO{sub 13} (Ln=Gd, Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Asiri Naidu, S.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2010-08-15

    Eu{sup 3+} photoluminescence is studied in La{sub 5}Si{sub 2}BO{sub 13} with apatite related structure. La{sub 5-x}Eu{sub x}Si{sub 2}BO{sub 13} [x=0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 2.0] compositions are synthesized. The emission results shows that Eu{sup 3+} ions occupy two different cationic sites viz., La(1) and La(2). The increase in the intensity of {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 0} line with increasing Eu{sup 3+} content shows the preferential occupancy of Eu{sup 3+} in La(2) site due to the existence of short La(2)-O(4) (free oxide ion) bond. The observation of antiferromagnetic interactions in Gd and Dy analogues supports the structural features elucidates from photoluminescence studies. - Graphical abstract: In La{sub 5}Si{sub 2}BO{sub 13}, the La(1)O{sub 9} polyhedra share faces, the La(2)O{sub 7} polyhedra are connected through corners and La(2)O{sub 7} and La(1)O{sub 9} polyhedra are connected to each other by edge sharing along 'z'-axis.

  5. Magnetochromic effect in multiferroic R In 1 x Mn x O 3 ( R = Tb , Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Holinsworth, B. S.; O'Neal, K. R.; Brinzari, T. V.; Mazumdar, D.; Topping, C. V.; Luo, X.; Cheong, S.-W.; Singleton, J.; McGill, S.; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2015-05-26

    We combined high field magnetization and magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate spin-charge coupling in Mn-substituted rare-earth indium oxides of chemical formula RIn₁₋xMnxO₃ (R=Tb, Dy). The edge states, on-site Mn³⁺d to d excitations, and rare-earth f-manifold excitations all track the magnetization energy due to dominant Zeeman interactions. The field-induced modifications to the rare-earth excitations are quite large because spin-orbit coupling naturally mixes spin and charge, suggesting that the next logical step in the design strategy should be to bring spin-orbit coupling onto the trigonal bipyramidal chromophore site with a 4 or 5d center.

  6. Dual-resonance converse magnetoelectric and voltage step-up effects in laminated composite of long-type 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 piezoelectric single-crystal transformer and Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 magnetostrictive alloy bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming Leung, Chung; Wing Or, Siu; Wang, Feifei; Ho, S. L.

    2011-05-01

    We report a dual-resonance converse magnetoelectric effect and a dual-resonance voltage step-up effect in a laminated composite made by sandwiching the output (or secondary) section of a long-type 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric single-crystal transformer having a longitudinal-longitudinal polarization between two Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 (Terfenol-D) magnetostrictive alloy bars having a longitudinal magnetization. The reported converse magnetoelectric effect originates from the mechanically mediated resonance converse piezoelectric effect in the PMN-PT transformer and resonance converse magnetostrictive effect in the Terfenol-D bars. The additional voltage step-up effect results from the mechanically mediated resonance converse and direct piezoelectric effects in the PMN-PT transformer. The composite shows two sharp resonance peaks of 0.39 and 0.54 G/V in converse magnetoelectric coefficient (αB = dB/dVin) and of 1.4 and 2.1 in voltage step-up ratio (Vout/Vin) at about 54 and 120 kHz, corresponding to the half- and full-wavelength longitudinal mode resonances, respectively. The measured magnetic induction (B) exhibits good linear relationships to the applied ac voltage (Vin) with amplitude varying from 10 to 100 V in both resonance and nonresonance conditions. These dual-resonance effects make the composite great promise for coil-free electromagnetic device applications.

  7. Enhanced magnetostrictive effect in epoxy-bonded Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 0.9−x}Nd{sub 0.1}(Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}){sub 1.93} pseudo 1–3 particulate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. J. E-mail: liujjimr@gmail.com; Pan, Z. B.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, Z. R.; Ren, W. J.

    2015-05-07

    The spin configuration and spontaneous magnetostriction λ{sub 111} of Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 0.9−x}Nd{sub 0.1}(Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}){sub 1.93} (0.20 ≤ x ≤ 0.60) alloys have been investigated. The easy magnetization direction (EMD) at room temperature was observed towards the 〈111〉 axis when 0.40 ≤ x ≤ 0.60, accompanied by a rhombohedral distortion with large spontaneous magnetostriction coefficients λ{sub 111}, which increases from 1640 ppm for x = 0.40 to 1900 ppm for x = 0.60. The strong 〈111〉-oriented pseudo 1–3 particulate composite was fabricated by embedding and aligning particles in a passive epoxy matrix under an applied magnetic field. An enhanced magnetostrictive effect, the large low-field magnetostriction, λ{sub a}, as high as 480 ppm at 3 kOe, was obtained for the sample of x = 0.40, in an excess of 75% of its polycrystalline alloy although it only contains 27 vol. % alloy particles. This enhanced effect can be attributed to its low magnetic anisotropy, anisotropic magnetostrictive nature (e.g., λ{sub 111} ≠ λ{sub 100,} 〈111〉EMD), chain structure, and the 〈111〉-textured orientation. In addition, we give a direct experimental support that the 〈111〉EMD of particle and the strong 〈111〉-textured orientation are the crucial factors to realize the enhanced magnetostrictive effect in 1–3 particulate composites.

  8. Planar Dy3 + Dy3 clusters: design, structure and axial ligand perturbed magnetic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Li, Han; Chen, Di-Ming; Wang, Chao; Wu, Jianfeng; Tang, Jinkui; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Peng

    2015-12-21

    Two unique Dy6 complexes with fascinating Dy3 + Dy3 structures were assembled, showing single-molecule magnetic behavior with high energy barriers of 116 and 181 K for Dy6-NO3 and Dy6-SCN. PMID:26549377

  9. Location of trivalent lanthanide dopant energy levels in (Lu{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Retot, H.; Viana, B.; Bessiere, A.; Galtayries, A.

    2011-06-15

    The location of Ln{sup 3+} dopant energy levels relative to bands in (Lu{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied. A several-steps analysis of XPS measurements on heavy lanthanides sesquioxides Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) and on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} reference materials were used to locate Ln{sup 3+} dopant ground state relative to the top of the valence band in (Lu{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 3} within an error bar of {+-}0.4 eV. The agreement between XPS data and model was found improved relative to previous studies. When compared to XPS analysis, prediction based on optical absorption shows a slight underestimation attributed to the lack of precision in Ce{sup 4+} charge transfer band measurement.

  10. Synthesis and morphology of Ba{sub 1-x}RE{sub 2x/3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanocrystals with tungsten bronze structure in RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}-BaO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses (RE: Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er)

    SciTech Connect

    Ida, H.; Shinozaki, K.; Honma, T.; Oh-ishi, K.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-15

    Ba{sub 1-x}RE{sub 2x/3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanocrystals with a tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure are synthesized using a conventional glass crystallization technique in 2.3RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}-27.4BaO-34.3Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-36B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol%) (RE=Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, and Er) glasses. One sharp crystallization peak is observed at {approx}670 Degree-Sign C in both powdered and bulk glasses, and the formation of Ba{sub 1-x}RE{sub 2x/3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanocrystals with unit cell parameters of a{approx}1.24 nm and c{approx}0.39 nm was confirmed. It is found from high resolution transmission electron microscope observations that the morphology of Ba{sub 1-x}RE{sub 2x/3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanocrystals is ellipsoidal. Their average particle size is in the range of 15-60 nm and decreases with decreasing ionic radius of RE{sup 3+} being present in the precursor glasses. The optical transparent crystallized glass (bulk) shows the total photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of 53% in the visible region of Eu{sup 3+} ions, suggesting a high potential of Ba{sub 1-x}RE{sub 2x/3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanocrystals as PL materials. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows a TEM photograph for the heat-treated (667 Degree-Sign C, 3 h) sample of 2.3Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}-27.4BaO-34.3Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-36B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. An ellipsoidal-shaped Ba{sub 1-x}Dy{sub 2x/3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanocrystal with diameters of 17 and 28 nm is observed. The ellipsoidal morphology is a common feature in Ba{sub 1-x}RE{sub 2x/3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanocrystals synthesized by the crystallization of 2.3RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}-27.4BaO-34.3Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-36B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ba{sub 1-x}RE{sub 2x/3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanocrystals with a tetragonal tungsten bronze structure are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A glass crystallization technique was applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of Ba{sub 1-x}RE{sub 2x/3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanocrystals is ellipsoidal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average particle size with 15-60 nm decreases with decreasing ionic radius of RE{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ba{sub 1-x}RE{sub 2x/3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanocrystals have a high potential as photoluminescence materials.

  11. Magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}P-type Tb{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2}, Tb{sub 6}CoTe{sub 2}, Tb{sub 6}NiTe{sub 2} and Er{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2} compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Morozkin, A.V.; Mozharivskyj, Yu.; SvitlyK, V.; Nirmala, R.; Nigam, A.K.

    2010-12-15

    The magnetic ordering of the Fe{sub 2}P-type Tb{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2}, Tb{sub 6}CoTe{sub 2} Tb{sub 6}NiTe{sub 2} and Er{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2} phases (space group P6-bar 2m) has been investigated through magnetization measurement and neutron powder diffraction. Tb{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2}, Tb{sub 6}CoTe{sub 2} and Tb{sub 6}NiTe{sub 2} demonstrate high-temperature ferromagnetic and low-temperature spin reorientation transitions, whereas Er{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2} shows antiferromagnetic transition, only. The Tb{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2} and Tb{sub 6}NiTe{sub 2} phases show same high-temperature collinear ferromagnetic structure, whereas Tb{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2} is the commensurate non-collinear ferromagnet and Tb{sub 6}NiTe{sub 2} is the canted ferromagnetic cone with K{sub 1}=[0, 0, {+-}3/10] and K{sub 2}=[{+-}2/9, {+-}2/9, 0] wave vectors at 2 K. The magnetic structure of Er{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2} is a flat spiral with K{sub 1}=[0, 0, {+-}1/10] at 2 K. The magnetic entropy change for Tb{sub 6}NiTe{sub 2} is {Delta}S{sub m}=-4.86 J/kg K at 229 K for the field change {Delta}{mu}{sub 0}H=0-5 T. In addition, novel Fe{sub 2}P-type Gd{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2}, Zr{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2}, Hf{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2}, Dy{sub 6}NiTe{sub 2}, Zr{sub 6}NiTe{sub 2} and Hf{sub 6}NiTe{sub 2} phases have been obtained. -- Graphical abstract: The novel Fe{sub 2}P-type Tb{sub 6{l_brace}}Fe, Co, Te{r_brace}Te{sub 2} and Er{sub 6}FeTe{sub 2} phases (space group P6-bar 2m) show the complex magnetic ordering below 18-228 K. The magnetocaloric effect for Tb{sub 6}NiTe{sub 2} in terms of the isothermal entropy change, -{Delta}S{sub m}, has the maximum value of 4.86 J/kg K at 229 K for the 0-5 T field change.

  12. Enhancement of optical Faraday effect of nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Koji; Fujita, Koji; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ito, Hajime; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2014-07-21

    The effective magneto-optical properties of novel nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes with Tb-O lattice (specifically, [Tb9(sal-R)16(?-OH)10](+)NO3(-), where sal-R = alkyl salicylate (R = -CH3 (Me), -C2H5 (Et), -C3H7 (Pr), or -C4H9 (Bu)) are reported. The geometrical structures of these nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes were characterized using X-ray single-crystal analysis and shape-measure calculation. Optical Faraday rotation was observed in nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes in the visible region. The Verdet constant per Tb(III) ion of the Tb9(sal-Me) complex is 150 times larger than that of general Tb(III) oxide glass. To understand their large Faraday rotation, electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of Gd(III) complexes were carried out. In this Report, the magneto-optical relation to the coordination geometry of Tb ions is discussed. PMID:24956446

  13. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    MedlinePLUS

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  14. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    MedlinePLUS

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  15. A phosphorus-based compartmental ligand, (S)P[N(Me)N=CH-C6H3-2-O-3-OMe]3 (LH3), enables the assembly of luminescent heterobimetallic linear {L2Zn2Ln}+ [Ln = Gd, Tb, Nd and Eu] complexes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Bag, Prasenjit; Murugesapandian, Balasubramanian; Pandey, Mrituanjay D

    2013-11-21

    The sequential reaction of a phosphorus-based trishydrazone ligand, LH3 with anhydrous ZnCl2 and LnCl36H2O in a 2?:?2?:?1 stoichiometric ratio in the presence of triethylamine as the base leads to the formation of monocationic trinuclear complexes [L2Zn2Ln]Cl {Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Nd (3), Eu (4) and L = [(S)P[N(Me)N=CH-C6H3-2-O-3-OMe]3}. All the three metal ions, in each of these compounds, are arranged in a linear fashion. The two terminal Zn(II) ions are encapsulated by three imino and three phenolate oxygen atoms while the lanthanide ion remains in the centre with an all-oxygen coordination environment. Detailed photophysical measurements reveal the complete absence of antenna sensitization in all the four complexes. However, a strong emission was found for 2 and 4 when excited directly at their f-f levels. PMID:24018551

  16. Treatment: Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Verified Case of Tuberculosis National Tuberculosis Indicators Project (NTIP): Frequently Asked Questions TB Genotyping TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS) Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant ...

  17. Methane as a Selectivity Booster in the Arc-Discharge Synthesis of Endohedral Fullerenes: Selective Synthesis of the Single-Molecule Magnet Dy2TiC@C80 and Its Congener Dy2TiC2@C80.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Katrin; Schlesier, Christin; Kostanyan, Aram; Samoylova, Nataliya A; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Schiemenz, Sandra; Westerstrm, Rasmus; Greber, Thomas; Bchner, Bernd; Popov, Alexey A

    2015-11-01

    The use of methane as a reactive gas dramatically increases the selectivity of the arc-discharge synthesis of M-Ti-carbide clusterfullerenes (M=Y, Nd, Gd, Dy, Er, Lu). Optimization of the process parameters allows the synthesis of Dy2TiC@C80-I and its facile isolation in a single chromatographic step. A new type of cluster with an endohedral acetylide unit, M2TiC2@C80, is discovered along with the second isomer of M2TiC@C80. Dy2TiC@C80-(I,II) and Dy2TiC2@C80-I are shown to be single-molecule magnets (SMM), but the presence of the second carbon atom in the cluster Dy2TiC2@C80 leads to substantially poorer SMM properties. PMID:26350440

  18. High-spin states in {sup 152}Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Hua, H.; Meng, J.; Li, Z.H.; Zhang, S.Q.; Xu, F.R.; Liu, H.L.; Ye, Y.L.; Jiang, D.X.; Zheng, T.; Wang, Q.J.; Chen, Z.Q.; Wu, C.E.; Zhang, G.L.; Pang, D.Y.; Wang, J.; Lou, J.L.; Guo, B.; Jin, G.; Zhou, S.G.

    2005-08-01

    High-spin states of {sup 152}Gd have been studied via the {sup 148}Nd({sup 9}Be,5n){sup 152}Gd fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 54 MeV. The ground-state band, octupole band, and {beta} band have been extended up to spins 20{sup +}, 21{sup -}, and 16{sup +}, respectively. A possible aligned two quasineutron band, which becomes the yrast band above the spin 16{sup +}, was observed for the first time. The kinematic behaviors of the ground-state bands and yrast bands in {sup 152,154}Gd indicate that the shape of {sup 152}Gd may change with increasing rotational frequency and the difference of quadrupole deformations between {sup 152}Gd and {sup 154}Gd obviously reduces around the first band crossing region. These observations are consistent with the theoretical calculations using cranked Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky methods. The first band crossing observed in {sup 152}Gd can be ascribed to the alignment of a pair of i{sub 13/2} neutrons. The identical ground-state bands in {sup 152}Gd and {sup 154}Dy were extended.

  19. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 3. Heavy Lanthanides (Gd-Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumi?ski, Cezary; Zeng, Dewen

    2015-06-01

    This is the third part of the volume devoted to solubility data for the rare earth metal (REM) fluorides in water and in aqueous ternary and multicomponent systems. It covers experimental results of trivalent fluorides of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu (so-called heavy lanthanides), since no quantitative data on solubilities of TbF4 and YbF2 (the most stable compounds at these valencies) are available. The related literature has been covered through the end of 2014. Compilations of all available papers with the solubility data are introduced for each REM fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such assessment contains a collection of all solubility results in aqueous solution, a selection of suggested solubility data, a solubility equation, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or double salts) are treated as the input substances in this report. General features of the systems, such as nature of the equilibrium solid phases, solubility as a function of temperature, influence of ionic strength, solution pH, mixed solvent medium on the solubility, quality of the solubility results, and the solubility as a function of REM atomic number, have already been presented in Part 1 of the volume.

  20. Questions and Answers about TB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Verified Case of Tuberculosis National Tuberculosis Indicators Project (NTIP): Frequently Asked Questions TB Genotyping TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS) Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant ...

  1. Testing for TB Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... where TB disease is more common (homeless shelters, prison or jails, or some nursing homes) People who ... and Race Pediatric TB Cases by Origin of Birth Pediatric Cases, Percentages and Rates by States Pediatric ...

  2. Luminescence study on Eu or Tb doped lanthanum-gadolinium pyrosilicate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shishido, Toetsu; Sugawara, Takamasa; Nomura, Akiko; Yubuta, Kunio; Pejchal, Jan; Murakami, Rikito; Yokota, Yuui; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2015-03-01

    (Eu0.01, Gd0.90, La0.09)2Si2O7 (Eu:La-GPS) and (Tb0.01, Gd0.90, La0.09)2Si2O7 (Tb:La-GPS) crystals were grown by the floating zone method, and their optical and scintillation properties were investigated. Gd3+-to-Tb3+ or -Eu3+ energy transfer processes were found, and photo-luminescence and radio-luminescence emission spectra showed 5D0-7Fi (i = 1-4) Eu3+ transitions in Eu:La-GPS, and 5D3-7Fi (i = 3-6) and 5D4-7Fi (i = 3-6) transitions in Tb:La-GPS. Using these scintillators, alpha-ray imaging was possible with a CMOS camera. These materials can be used for X-ray detection as well.

  3. Concerning the effect of certain admixtures on properties of LaOBr - Tb-luminophor

    SciTech Connect

    Golovkova, S.I.; Gurvich, A.M.; Kra, G.; Bel'shtedt, K.; Birman, T.A.; Katomina, R.V.

    1985-08-01

    It is shown that among lanthanides the most strong effect on the LaOBr - Tb X-ray phosphor luminescence is exerted by Ce (phosphorogen and sensitizer), Sm (luminescence killer), Eu and Yb (phosphorescence killers). The Nd, Dy, Tm, Yb, Fe and Ni impurities in concentration of about 10/sup -5/ g-atom/mol intensify the roentgenoluminescence of LaOBr - Tb. The luminescent-photographic method makes it possible to detect traces of radioactive impurities which accompany lanthanum.

  4. The first dinitrile frameworks of the rare earth elements: infinity(3)[LnCl3(1,4-Ph(CN)2)] and infinity(3)[Ln2Cl6(1,4-Ph(CN)2)], Ln = Sm, Gd, Tb, Y; access to novel metal-organic frameworks by solvent free synthesis in molten 1,4-benzodinitrile.

    PubMed

    Hller, Christoph J; Mller-Buschbaum, Klaus

    2008-11-01

    The three-dimensional frameworks infinity(3)[LnCl3(1,4-Ph(CN)2)] of the lanthanides Ln = Sm (1), Gd (2), Tb (3), and infinity(3)[Ln2Cl6(1,4-Ph(CN)2)] for the group 3 metal Y (4) were obtained as single crystalline materials by the reaction of the anhydrous chlorides of the referring rare earth elements with a melt of 1,4-benzodinitrile. No additional solvents were used for the reactions. The dinitrile ligand is strongly coordinating and substitutes parts of the chlorine coordination. The Ln halide structures are reduced to two-dimensional networks, whereas coordination of both nitrile functions to the metal ions renders bridging in the third direction accessible. This enables formation of new metal organic framework (MOF) structure types with the large 1,4-benzodinitrile spacers interlinking infinity (2)[LnCl3] planes. In comparison to 1,4-Ph(CN)2 the mono functional benzonitrile ligand does not constitute framework structures, which is underlined by comparison with a reaction of yttrium chloride with PhCN resulting in the molecular complex [Y2Cl6(PhCN)6] (5) with end-on coordination PhCN ligands. The coordination spheres of the rare earth ions consist of double capped (infinity(3)[LnCl3(1,4-Ph(CN)2)] (1-3)) as well as single capped trigonal prisms (infinity(3)[Ln2Cl6(1,4-Ph(CN)2)] (4)) of chloride ions and N[triple bond]C groups while 5 displays edge sharing pentagonal bipyramids as coordination polyhedra. Sm (1), Gd (2), and Tb (3) exhibit isotypic framework structures with intercrossing dinitrile ligands. The group 3 metal Y (4) gives a framework with a coplanar arrangement of ligands and a lower ligand content. The largest cavities within the MOF structures of 1-4 have diameters of 3.9-8.0 A. All compounds were identified by single crystal X-ray analysis. Mid IR, Far IR, and Raman spectroscopy, microanalyses and simultaneous Differential Thermal Analysis-Thermogravimetry (DTA/TG) were also carried out to characterize the products. Crystal data for infinity(3)[LnCl3(1,4-Ph(CN)2)] (1-3): Pnma, T = 170(2) K; Sm (1): a = 7.172(1) A, b = 22.209(3) A, c = 6.375(1) A, V = 1015.4(3) A(3), R1 for F(o) > 4sigma(F(o)) = 0.032, wR2 = 0.079. Gd (2): a = 7.116(1) A, b = 22.147(4) A, c = 6.345(1) A, V = 1000.0(3) A(3), R1 for F(o) > 4sigma(F(o)) = 0.033, wR2 = 0.085. Tb (3): a = 7.090(2) A, b = 22.140(4) A, c = 6.325(2) A, V = 992.8(3) A(3), R1 for F(o) > 4sigma(F(o)) = 0.025, wR2 = 0.061. Crystal data for infinity (3)[Y2Cl6(1,4-Ph(CN)2)] (4): P1, T = 170(2) K; a = 6.653(2) A, b = 6.799(2) A, c = 9.484(2) A, V = 397.9(2) A(3), R1 for F(o) > 4sigma(F(o)) = 0.027, wR2 = 0.069. Crystal data for [Y2Cl6(PhCN)6] (5): P2(1)/c, T = 170(2) K; a = 9.767 (2) A, b = 12.304(3) A, c = 19.110(4) A, V = 2294.8(8) A(3), R1 for F(o) > 4sigma(F(o)) = 0.041, wR2 = 0.092. PMID:18841934

  5. A two-step synthetic route to GdOF:Ln(3+) nanocrystals with multicolor luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Shao, Baiqi; Feng, Yang; Jiao, Mengmeng; L, Wei; You, Hongpeng

    2016-02-14

    GdOF:Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu, Tb, Eu/Tb, Ce/Tb, Yb/Er, and Yb/Tm) nanocrystals with a hexagonal prism morphology have been readily synthesized by a novel topotactic transformation route. The Gd(OH)2F precursor was first synthesized and structurally analyzed by the Rietveld refinement method. It has been found that the Gd(OH)2F precursor was formed by a novel type of ion-exchange from the brucite-like Gd2(OH)5NO30.9H2O (LGdH). Such an ion-exchange behavior is different from the traditional case for the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in which the intercalated anions are exchanged by the external ions. The detailed structural analysis showed that GdOF prefered [0001] epitaxial growth direction of Gd(OH)2F due to the structural matching of [0001]Gd(OH)2F//[110]GdOF. Furthermore, the potential application of the as-prepared nanocrystals as phosphors is emphasized by demonstrating strong multicolor emissions including both down-conversion and upconversion, and energy transfer (Ce-Tb) processes by GdOF:Ln(3+) in detail. Our nonorganic green synthetic strategy based on the novel ion-exchange for the LDHs may enrich the synthetic methodology for nanomaterials. PMID:26699240

  6. Determination of crystal-field energy levels and temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility for Dy3+ in [Dy2Pd] heterometallic complex.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Miros?aw; Rudowicz, Czes?aw; Ishida, Takayuki

    2013-11-18

    This study is the first in a series of experimental and theoretical investigations of the crystal-field (CF) energy levels obtained from optical electronic spectra for selected heterometallic 4f-3d compounds intensively studied for the development of novel single-molecule magnets (SMMs). An intriguing question is why the [{Dy(III)(hfac)3}2Cu(II)(dpk)2] (abbreviated as [Dy2Cu]; Hhfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione, Hdpk = di-2-pyridyl ketoxime) has antiferromagnetic coupling, whereas [Gd2Cu] and heavy [Ln2Cu] systems usually show ferromagnetic coupling. As the first step to explain this peculiarity, the recently synthesized complex, [Dy2Pd], is investigated. This complex is isostructural with [Dy2Cu] yet contains the diamagnetic Pd ion instead of the magnetic Cu(II) ion. Experimental energy levels of Dy(3+) ions in the powder [Dy2Pd] sample were determined from the 4.2 K absorption spectra. CF analysis was performed yielding the fitted free ion and CF parameters. The number of freely varied parameters was restricted using the superposition model. The fittings yield very satisfactory agreement between the experimental and the calculated energy levels (rms = 12.0 cm(-1)). The energies and exact composition of the state vector for the ground multiplet (6)H(15/2) of Dy(3+) are determined. These results are used for the simulation of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility, which enables the theoretical interpretation of the experimentally measured magnetic susceptibility in the range 1.8-300 K for the [Dy2Pd] complex. This study provides background for the subsequent investigation of the magnetic exchange interactions in the pertinent heterometallic complexes. PMID:24187974

  7. Two C3 -symmetric Dy3III complexes with triple di-?-methoxo-?-phenoxo bridges, magnetic ground state, and single-molecule magnetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Hnninen, Mikko M; Mota, Antonio J; Aravena, Daniel; Ruiz, Eliseo; Sillanp, Reijo; Camn, Agustn; Evangelisti, Marco; Colacio, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    Two series of isostructural C(3)-symmetric Ln(3) complexes Ln(3)?[BPh(4)] and Ln(3)?0.33[Ln(NO(3))(6)] (in which Ln(III) =Gd and Dy) have been prepared from an amino-bis(phenol) ligand. X-ray studies reveal that Ln(III) ions are connected by one ?(2)-phenoxo and two ?(3)-methoxo bridges, thus leading to a hexagonal bipyramidal Ln(3)O(5) bridging core in which Ln(III) ions exhibit a biaugmented trigonal-prismatic geometry. Magnetic susceptibility studies and ab initio complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations indicate that the magnetic coupling between the Dy(III) ions, which possess a high axial anisotropy in the ground state, is very weakly antiferromagnetic and mainly dipolar in nature. To reduce the electronic repulsion from the coordinating oxygen atom with the shortest Dy-O distance, the local magnetic moments are oriented almost perpendicular to the Dy(3) plane, thus leading to a paramagnetic ground state. CASSCF plus restricted active space state interaction (RASSI) calculations also show that the ground and first excited state of the Dy(III) ions are separated by approximately 150 and 177?cm(-1), for Dy(3)?[BPh(4)] and Dy(3)?0.33[Dy(NO(3))(6)], respectively. As expected for these large energy gaps, Dy(3)?[BPh(4)] and Dy(3)?0.33[Dy(NO(3)(6)] exhibit, under zero direct-current (dc) field, thermally activated slow relaxation of the magnetization, which overlap with a quantum tunneling relaxation process. Under an applied Hdc field of 1000?Oe, Dy(3)?[BPh(4)] exhibits two thermally activated processes with U(eff) values of 34.7 and 19.5?cm(-1), whereas Dy(3)?0.33[Dy(NO(3))(6)] shows only one activated process with Ueff =19.5?cm(-1). PMID:24890335

  8. Rotational structures and their evolution with spin in Gd152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Laird, R. W.; Riley, M. A.; Simpson, J.; Kondev, F. G.; Hartley, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Brown, T. B.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fallon, P.; Fischer, S. M.; Lauritsen, T.; Nisius, D.; Ragnarsson, I.

    2007-06-01

    The fusion-evaporation reaction involving a 175 MeV S36 beam and a Sn124 target was performed, and the emitted γ rays were observed with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Significant additions to the level scheme of Gd152 were made in spite of the relative weakness of the α4n exit channel, being only ˜2% of the total fusion cross-section. The high-spin behavior of Gd152 was compared with that of other N=88 nuclei. A striking similarity was observed with Dy154 and it is therefore suggested that the angular-momentum-induced shape changes that take place in Dy154 also occur in Gd152 in the 30 40ħ spin range. This is supported by Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations which were used to interpret the high-spin bands. It is found that a better agreement between calculation and experiment is obtained if the Z=64 shell gap increases with a decreasing number of valence particles outside the doubly-closed 64146Gd82 nucleus.

  9. TB Is Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1992-01-01

    The reemergence of tuberculosis, particularly of new drug-resistant strains, points up the need for well-coordinated school health programs. Immigration effects, growing populations of HIV-infected persons, and relaxed screening procedures are partly responsible for TB's reemergence. Two sidebars offer advice on coping with TB at school and…

  10. TB Is Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1992-01-01

    The reemergence of tuberculosis, particularly of new drug-resistant strains, points up the need for well-coordinated school health programs. Immigration effects, growing populations of HIV-infected persons, and relaxed screening procedures are partly responsible for TB's reemergence. Two sidebars offer advice on coping with TB at school and

  11. DyBi garnet films with improved temperature dependence of Faraday rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Y.; Hibiya, T.; Shiroki, K.

    1987-02-01

    The effects of host rare-earth ions (Dy, Gd, Yb) on Bi-substituted garnet film Faraday rotation coefficient (theta/sub F/) variation with temperature were investigated in an effort to improve the isolation of such media used in optical isolators. Even when semiconductor laser wavelength fluctuations (1.310 +- 0.0025 ..mu..m) due to environmental temperature change were taken into consideration, observations and calculations showed that in the temperature range 0 to 50/sup 0/C, the theoretical isolation value for Dy/sub 2.5/Bi/sub 0.5/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ can exceed 29 dB. The authors determined that (DyBi)/sub 3/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ epitaxial film Faraday rotation coefficient (-900 deg/cm, 1.3 ..mu..m) has low temperature variation when used as isolator material.

  12. Magnetic order and electromagnon excitations in DyMnO3 studied by neutron scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, T.; Binder, K.; Sidis, Y.; Maljuk, A.; Argyriou, D. N.; Braden, M.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic order and excitations in multiferroic DyMnO3 were studied by neutron scattering experiments using a single crystal prepared with an enriched 162Dy isotope. The ordering of Mn moments exhibits pronounced hysteresis arising from the interplay between Mn and Dy magnetism, which has a strong impact on the ferroelectric polarization. The magnon dispersion resembles that reported for TbMnO3. We identify the excitations at the magnetic zone center and near the zone boundary in the b direction, which can possess electromagnon character. The lowest frequency of the zone-center magnons is in good agreement with a signal in a recent optical measurement, so this mode can be identified as the electromagnon coupled by the same Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction as the static multiferroic phase.

  13. Synthesis And Characterization Of Gd2O3: Tb 30%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djebara, Abdelhakim; Halimi, Rachid

    2008-09-01

    Over the past decade, nanotechnology has grown leading to the control of the synthesis and functionalization of nanoparticule for applications in the biological marking. The manufacture of nanoparticule luminescent intrinsically could move towards a single detection. By saving this very small optical signal, we can track the movement of the receptor in the membrane during unprecedented times, reaching overtime. This result is a significant advantage compared to the fluorescent molecules whose average lifespan is more limited. These particles can be detected by both the luminescence of rare earth ions present in the heart and that of organic fluorophore. The results look very encouraging. This work aims to study the development of nanoparticule of rare earth oxide as probes to monitor the dynamics of action unique biological entities. The goal of my work has been improved reproducibility of the synthesis and optimization protocol synthesis.

  14. Structural origin for the local strong anisotropy in melt-spun Fe-Ga-Tb: Tetragonal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Tianyu; Hu, Shanshan; Bai, Guohua; Yan, Mi; Lu, Yunhao; Li, Huiying; Peng, Xiaoling; Ren, Xiaobing

    2015-03-16

    Soluting rare earth atoms Tb or Dy into body centered cubic (BCC) Fe-Ga through rapid cooling significantly enhances the magnetostriction due to strong localized magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Origin of the local strong anisotropy, however, awaits comprehensive microstructural investigation. In this letter, formation of tetragonal nanoparticles with c/a???0.979 has been found in the giant magnetostrictive ribbons Fe{sub 82.89}Ga{sub 16.88}Tb{sub 0.23} due to local symmetry breaking of the BCC lattice using high resolution transmission electronic microscopy. First principal calculations suggest that random replacement of Tb atoms for Fe or Ga in the ordered DO{sub 3} superlattice is beneficial in the formation of such tetragonal symmetry. Exchange couplings between the nearest Tb-Fe or Tb-Tb pairs of the tetragonal nanoparticles might generate strong localized magnetocrystalline anisotropy, leading to extraordinary magnetostriction enhancement.

  15. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  16. Investigation on visible quantum cutting of Tb{sup 3+} in oxide hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jia Chen, Guibin; Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Yan

    2014-03-07

    Visible quantum cutting (QC) through downconversion was observed upon 4f{sup 8}-4f{sup 7}5d{sup 1} excitation of Tb{sup 3+} in both BaGdB{sub 9}O{sub 16} and Ca{sub 8}MgGd(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} compounds. The QC involves a cross relaxation process between two neighboring Tb{sup 3+}. Modified and new QC models are proposed based on the QC mechanisms in Gd{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+} system. Two calculation equations for the cross relaxation efficiency are suggested according to the energy transfer theory and spectral results. By studying the spectral characteristics of Tb{sup 3+} in hosts from fluoride to oxide, it indicates that the visible QC in Gd{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+} system may occur mainly depending on the structural features of phosphors, rather than the phonon energies of matrixes. All of the above conclusions have meaning of guidance for investigating other phosphors with QC phenomenon.

  17. Crystal growth, structure, and physical properties of Ln(Cu,Al)12 (Ln = Y, Ce, Pr, Sm, and Yb) and Ln(Cu, Ga)12 (Ln = Y, Gd-Er, and Yb).

    PubMed

    Drake, Brenton L; Capan, C; Cho, Jung Young; Nambu, Y; Kuga, K; Xiong, Y M; Karki, A B; Nakatsuji, S; Adams, P W; Young, D P; Chan, Julia Y

    2010-02-17

    Single crystals of Ln(Cu,Al)12 and Ln(Cu,Ga)12 compounds (Ln = Y, Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd-Ho, and Yb for Al and Ln = Y, Gd-Er, Yb for Ga) have been grown by flux-growth methods and characterized by means of single-crystal x-ray diffraction, complemented with microprobe analysis, magnetic susceptibility, resistivity and heat capacity measurements. Ln(Cu,Ga)12 and Ln(Cu,Al)12 of the ThMn12 structure type crystallize in the tetragonal I4/mmm space group with lattice parameters a approximately 8.59 and c approximately 5.15 and a approximately 8.75 and c approximately 5.13 for Ga and Al containing compounds, respectively. For aluminium containing compounds, magnetic susceptibility data show Curie-Weiss paramagnetism in the Ce and Pr analogues down to 50 K with no magnetic ordering down to 3 K, whereas the Yb analogue shows a temperature-independent Pauli paramagnetism. Sm(Cu,Al)12 orders antiferromagnetically at T(N)approximately 5 K and interestingly exhibits Curie-Weiss behaviour down to 10 K with no Van Vleck contribution to the susceptibility. Specific heat data show that Ce(Cu,Al)12 is a heavy fermion antiferromagnet with T(N) approximately 2 K and with an electronic specific heat coefficient ?0 as large as 390 mJ K2 mol(-1). In addition, this is the first report of Pr(Cu,Al)12 and Sm(Cu,Al)12 showing an enhanced mass (approximately 80 and 120 mJ K(2) mol(-1)). For Ga containing analogues, magnetic susceptibility data also show the expected Curie-Weiss behaviour from Gd to Er, with the Yb analogue being once again a Pauli paramagnet. The antiferromagnetic transition temperatures range over 12.5, 13.5, 6.7, and 3.4 K for Gd, Tb, Dy, and Er. Metallic behaviour is observed down to 3 K for all Ga and Al analogues. A large positive magnetoresistance up to 150% at 9 T is also observed for Dy(Cu,Ga)12. The structure, magnetic, and transport properties of these compounds will be discussed. PMID:21389376

  18. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2/13 By Dr. Iseman Michael Iseman, MD Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment Given the many effective medications available ... News View Daily Pollen Count Doctors Who Treat Tuberculosis Charles L. Daley more/less Sign Up for ...

  19. Ternary aluminides R{sub 0.67}Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 6} (R=Sc, Y, Gd-Lu) with partly disordered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Matselko, Oksana; Pukas, Svitlana; Lutsyshyn, Yuriy; Gladyshevskii, Roman; Kaczorowski, Dariusz

    2013-02-15

    Ten rare-earth nickel aluminides R{sub 0.67}Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 6} (R=Sc, Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) were synthesized by arc melting and their crystal structures studied by X-ray powder diffraction. They crystallize in the hexagonal structure type Yb{sub 0.67}Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 6}: Pearson symbol hP11-2.33, space group P-6m2, a=4.18904(2), c=9.09816(6) A, which can be decomposed into three kinds of layer. The sequence of layers along [001] is Yb{sub 0.67}Al-NiAl{sub 2}-Al-NiAl{sub 2}, but stacking faults appear due to relative shifts of consecutive Yb{sub 0.67}Al layers containing two rare-earth metal atoms for one Al-atom triangle. An ordered superstructure is the type ErNi{sub 3}Al{sub 9} (Pearson symbol hR78, space group R32, a={radical}(3)a{sub 0}, c=3c{sub 0}), refined on single crystals. The physical properties of the R{sub 0.67}Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 6} (R=Tb, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) compounds were determined by means of magnetic and electrical transport measurements. All these materials but Lu{sub 0.67}Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 6} exhibit Curie-Weiss paramagnetic behavior due to the trivalent R ions, and order magnetically at low temperatures. They show good metallic conductivity. The Yb-containing compound is a dense Kondo system with distinct features in the paramagnetic state of the interplay between Kondo and crystalline electric field interactions. - Graphical abstract: Stacking of layers along [001] in the Yb{sub 0.67}Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 6}-type structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aluminides R{sub 0.67}Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 6} (R=Sc, Y, Gd-Lu) adopt a partly disordered structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure is characterized by R{sub 2}Al{sub 3} layers with two R atoms for one Al{sub 3} triangle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds with R=Tb, Er, Tm are paramagnets at rt and order magnetically at lt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Yb-compound exhibits a magnetically ordered Kondo lattice with strong CEF effect.

  20. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    MedlinePLUS

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  1. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    MedlinePLUS

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  2. Spin-reorientation in DyGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilo, R. A.; Cadogan, J. M.; Muoz-Prez, S.; Cobas, R.; Hutchison, W. D.; Avdeev, M.

    2015-09-01

    We have used neutron powder diffraction to determine the magnetic structure of DyGa. This compound crystallises in the orthorhombic CrB-type structure with the Cmcm space group (#63) and the magnetic structure comprises ferromagnetic order of the Dy sublattice along the c-axis below TC=115 K. Upon cooling below 25 K, the Dy magnetic moments cant away from the c-axis towards the a-axis. At 3 K, the Dy moment is 9.8(2) ?B and the Dy magnetic moments point in the direction ? = 22(2) , ? = 0 relative to the c-axis.

  3. Crystal structure of fluorite-related Ln{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} (Ln=LaDy) ceramics studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Siqueira, K.P.F.; Borges, R.M.; Granado, E.; Malard, L.M.; Paula, A.M. de; Moreira, R.L.; Bittar, E.M.; Dias, A.

    2013-07-15

    Ln{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reaction in optimized conditions of temperature and time to yield single-phase ceramics. The crystal structures of the obtained ceramics were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, second harmonic generation (SHG) and Raman scattering. All samples exhibited fluorite-type orthorhombic structures with different oxygen arrangements as a function of the ionic radius of the lanthanide metal. For ceramics with the largest ionic radii (LaNd), the ceramics crystallized into the Cmcm space group, while the ceramics with intermediate and smallest ionic radii (SmDy) exhibited a different crystal structure belonging to the same space group, described under the Ccmm setting. The results from SHG and Raman scattering confirmed these settings and ruled out any possibility for the non-centrosymmetric C222{sub 1} space group describing the structure of the small ionic radii ceramics, solving a recent controversy in the literature. Besides, the Raman modes for all samples are reported for the first time, showing characteristic features for each group of samples. - Graphical abstract: Raman spectrum for La{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} ceramics showing their 22 phonon modes adjusted through Lorentzian lines. According to synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering, this material belongs to the space group Cmcm. - Highlights: Ln{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} ceramics belonging to the space groups Cmcm and Ccmm are synthesized. SXRD, SHG and Raman scattering confirmed the orthorhombic structures. Ccmm instead of C222{sub 1} is the correct one based on SHG and Raman data.

  4. Childhood TB: can the End TB Strategy deliver?

    PubMed

    Seddon, James A; Graham, Stephen M

    2016-03-01

    The accelerated reductions in global TB incidence required to achieve the End TB Strategy goal will result in reductions in the burden of childhood TB. Contact screening and preventive therapy have emerged as important components of TB burden reduction, and family-centered approaches could be an effective route in delivering these activities. Lack of accurate diagnostics for children remains a critical barrier and a need remains for better collaborative and supportive links between the child health and TB control sectors. Irrespective of whether the ambitious targets can be achieved, the unprecedented opportunities provided by the End TB Strategy must be embraced. PMID:26884493

  5. Scissors Mode of 162 Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; et al

    2015-05-28

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions,more » (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ’) reactions.« less

  6. Scissors Mode of 162Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions, (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ') reactions.

  7. Difference Between Latent TB Infection and Active TB Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A person with TB disease • • Usually has a skin test or blood test result indicating TB infection • • May have an abnormal chest x-ray, or positive sputum smear or culture • • Has active TB bacteria in his/her body • • ...

  8. Unequivocal synthetic pathway to heterodinuclear (4f,4f') complexes: magnetic study of relevant (Ln(III), Gd(III)) and (Gd(III), Ln(III)) complexes.

    PubMed

    Costes, Jean-Pierre; Nicodme, Franck

    2002-08-01

    The tripodal ligand tris[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-aza-3-buten]amine (LH(3)) is capable of coordinating to two different lanthanide ions to give complexes formulated as [LLnLn'(NO(3))(3)].x H(2)O. The stepwise synthetic procedure consists of introducing first a Ln(III) ion in the inner N(4)O(3) coordination site. The isolated neutral complex LLn is then allowed to react with a second and different Ln' ion that occupies the outer O(6) site, thus yielding a [LLnLn'(NO(3))(3)].x H(2)O complex. A FAB(+) study has confirmed the existence of (Ln, Ln') entities as genuine, when the Ln' ion in the outer site has a larger ionic radius than the Ln ion in the inner site. The qualitative magnetic study of the (Gd, Ln) and (Ln, Gd) complexes, based on the comparison of the magnetic properties of (Gd, Ln) (or (Ln, Gd)) pairs and (Y, Ln) (or (Ln, La)) pairs, is very informative. Indeed, these former complexes are governed by the thermal population of the Ln(III) Stark levels and the Ln-Gd interaction, while the latter are influenced by the thermal population of the Ln(III) Stark levels. We have been able to show that a ferromagnetic interaction exists at low temperature in the (Gd, Nd), (Gd, Ce), and (Yb, Gd) complexes. In contrast, an antiferromagnetic interaction occurs in the (Dy, Gd) and (Er, Gd) complexes. Although we cannot give a quantitative value to these interactions, we can affirm that their magnitudes are weak since they are only perceptible at very low temperature. PMID:12203324

  9. TB in Children in the United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Verified Case of Tuberculosis National Tuberculosis Indicators Project (NTIP): Frequently Asked Questions TB Genotyping TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS) Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant ...

  10. Magnetic, Caloric and Crystallographic Properties of Dy5(SixGe1-x)4 Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Vitaliy Vladislavovich Ivchenko

    2002-07-19

    Polycrystals of the intermetallic compound of the Dy{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} system, where x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.625, 0.675, 0.725, 0.75, 0.775, 0.825, 0.875, and 1, have been prepared by electric-arc-melting on water-cooled copper hearth in an argon atmosphere. A study of phase relationships and crystallography in the pseudobinary system Dy{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} using X-ray powder diffraction data and optical metallography was completed. It revealed that silicides in the composition range from 0.825 to 1 crystallize in the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type crystal structure: germanides in the composition range from 0 to 0.625 crystallize in the Sm{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type structure, and alloys with intermediate composition range from 0.675 to 0.775 crystallize in the monoclinic Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}-type structure. The -{Delta}S{sub m} values were determined from magnetization measurements for 7 alloys. The alloys with a monoclinic crystal structure which belong to an intermediate phase region have large MCE value, which exceeds those observed in the other two phase regions by 300 to 500%. The nature of the observed magnetic and structural transformations in the Dy{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} system seems to be similar with those reported for the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} system. However, the interval and concentration range of three different phase regions in the Dy{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} system are different from that observed in Gd-based alloys. A non-collinear ordering of magnetic moments at low temperature was observed for the alloys with monoclinic crystal structure. The Dy{sub 5}Si{sub 3}Ge alloy exhibited FM phase transition below Curie temperature. A series of magnetic transitions were observed at low temperature in the Dy{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} alloys. The number of transitions increased and the magnetization decreased with increasing germanium content in the alloys. The -{Delta}S{sub m} and -{Delta}T values were calculated from heat capacity data for Dy{sub 5}Si{sub 3.5}Ge{sub 0.5} and Dy{sub 5}Si{sub 4} alloys only, due to the fragile nature of the germanides-rich samples. Based on the MCe values, the alloys from the orthorhombic Dy{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-based solid solution and the intermediate monoclinic phase regions may be useful magnetic refrigerant materials in the temperature range {approx}50K to -160K.

  11. TB Screening Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be ... TB Screening Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

  12. A simple method to synthesize Dy(OH)(3) and Dy(2)O(3) nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Xu, An-Wu; Fang, Yue-Ping; You, Li-Ping; Liu, Han-Qin

    2003-02-12

    Here we report the first synthesis of Dy(OH)(3) nanotubes by facile hydrothermal treatment of bulky Dy(2)O(3) crystals. Dy(OH)(3) nanotubes were calcined to produce Dy(2)O(3) nanotubes. Ho(OH)(3) and Ho(2)O(3) nanotubes were also obtained by the same method. The growth of nanotubes occurred through a dissolution-recrystallization process. PMID:12568606

  13. Substitution and liquid quenching effects on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of (Gd1-xTbx)12Co7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, D. A.; Baranov, N. V.; Volegov, A. S.; Gaviko, V. S.

    2016-02-01

    The influence of rapid quenching from the melt on the magnetic and magnetothermal properties of the (Gd1-xTbx)12Co7 samples has been investigated. The melt-spun (Gd1-xTbx)12Co7 alloys are observed to exhibit a ferromagnetic-like behavior and increased TC values at low Tb concentration in comparison with crystalline counterparts. The amorphization is suggested to result in the appearance of a small magnetic moment on Co atoms in Gd-rich liquid-quenched alloys. In low magnetic fields, the melt-spun (Gd1-xTbx)12Co7 alloys with high Tb concentrations exhibit enhanced values of the isothermal entropy change and refrigerant capacity then the crystalline compounds of the same composition.

  14. Phase formation in the systems Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-Ln{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln=La, Nd, Dy, Er) and properties of triple molybdates LiKLn{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Basovich, O.M.; Khaikina, E.G. . E-mail: ekha@binm.bsc.buryatia.ru; Solodovnikov, S.F.; Tsyrenova, G.D.

    2005-05-15

    Subsolidus phase relations in the systems Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-Ln{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln=La, Nd, Dy, Er) were determined. Formation of LiKLn{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} was confirmed in the systems with Ln=Nd, Dy, Er at the LiLn(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}-KLn(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} joins. No intermediate phases of other compositions were found. No triple molybdates exist in the system Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-La{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The join LiLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}-KLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} is characterized by formation of solid solutions. Triple molybdates LiKLn{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} for Ln=Nd-Lu, Y were synthesized by solid state reactions (single phases with ytterbium and lutetium were not prepared). Crystal and thermal data for these molybdates were determined. Compounds LiKLn{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} form isostructural series and crystallized in the monoclinic system with the unit cell parameters a=5.315-5.145A, b=12.857-12.437A, c=19.470-19.349A, {beta}=92.26-92.98{sup o}. When heated, the compounds decompose in solid state to give corresponding double molybdates. The dome-shaped curve of the decomposition temperatures of LiMLn{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} has the maximum in the Gd-Tb-Dy region. While studying the system Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-Dy{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} we revealed a new low-temperature modification of KDy(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} with the triclinic structure of {alpha}-KEu(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} (a=11.177(2)A, b=5.249(1)A, c=6.859(1)A, {alpha}=112.33(2){sup o}, {beta}=111.48(1){sup o}, {gamma}=91.30(2){sup o}, space group P1-bar , Z=2)

  15. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  16. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  17. Crystal Field Disorder in the Quantum Spin Ice Ground State of Tb2Sn2 xTixO7

    SciTech Connect

    Gaulin, Bruce D.; Zhang, J.; Dahlberg, M. L.; Matthews, Maria J.; Bert, F.; Kermarrec, E.; Fritsch, Katharina; Granroth, Garrett E; Jiramongkolchai, P.; Amato, A.; Baines, C.; Cava, R. J.; Mendels, P.; Schiffer, P

    2015-01-01

    Spin ice physics marries that of hydrogen disorder in water ice, first discussed almost 60 years ago by Pauling, and that of low temperature magnetism on certain networks of connected tetrahedra. Recently the classical spin ice mag- nets Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 have shown an emergent artificial magneto- statics , which manifests itself as Coulombic spin correlations and excitations behaving as diffusive magnetic monopoles. The related pyrochlore magnet, Tb2Ti2O7, has been proposed as a quantum variant of spin ice, stabilized by 1 virtual excitations between the crystal field (CF) ground state doublet appro- priate to Tb3+, and its low lying excited state doublet. Isostructural Tb2Sn2O7 displays soft spin ice order, and its Tb3+ ground and excited CF eigenstates are known to differ relative to those of Tb2Ti2O7. We present a comprehensive study of Tb2Sn2 xTixO7 showing a novel, dynamic spin liquid state for all x other than the end members (0, 2). This state is the result of disorder in the low lying Tb3+ CF environments which de-stabilizes the mechanism by which quantum fluctuations contribute to ground state selection in Tb2Sn2 xTixO7.

  18. TB back with a vengeance.

    PubMed

    1993-11-15

    3 million deaths annually may be attributed to tuberculosis (TB), while 8 million new cases are added to the world each year. The major increase in the number of cases in the West, especially among those infected with HIV, and the emergence of drug-resistant strains have forced interested parties in the developed world to take another look at TB. An annual public health forum held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine April 18-21, 1993, on TB called for extra investment in existing cost-effective tools against TB with research in the area a priority. Accountability and an interdisciplinary approach are needed. It was also expressed that national TB programs must provide affordable, well-managed treatment; diagnoses should be faster and be joined by active case-finding; patients' compliance should be encouraged and empowered; education should be targeted to a wide variety of groups involved in the fight against TB; commitment should be made to develop new drugs; appropriate interventions should be developed and implemented to prevent and manage TB among HIV-positive individuals; a new TB vaccine should be developed; political partnerships should be fostered; and measures adopted to fight poverty in the developing world. Finally, political will and cooperation are needed among private and public agencies in the fight against TB. PMID:12179170

  19. TB control: challenges and opportunities for India.

    PubMed

    Pai, Madhukar; Daftary, Amrita; Satyanarayana, Srinath

    2016-03-01

    India's TB control programme has treated over 19 million patients, but the incidence of TB continues to be high. TB is a major killer and drug-resistant TB is a growing threat. There are several likely reasons, including social conditions and co-morbidities that fuel the TB epidemic: under-investment by the government, weak programme implementation and management, suboptimal quality of care in the private sector, and insufficient advocacy around TB. Fortunately, India possesses the technical know-how, competence and resources to address these challenges. The End TB Strategy by WHO offers India an excellent blueprint to advance the agenda of TB control. PMID:26884494

  20. Polytypic modifications in heavily Tb and Eu doped gadolinium aluminum borate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beregi, E.; Saj, I.; Lengyel, K.; Bombicz, P.; Czugler, M.; Fldvri, I.

    2012-07-01

    The evidence of a new polytypic phase was demonstrated in double doped gadolinium aluminum borate (GAB) crystals grown by the high temperature top seeded solution growth (HTTSSG) method. The structures of the rhombohedral and the new monoclinic phases in the Eu0.02Tb0.12Gd0.86Al3(BO3)4 and Eu0.18Tb0.19Gd0.63Al3(BO3)4 compositions were determined by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction methods. The monoclinic crystals with different compositions have identical structures with space group C2/c. It was concluded that the starting crystallization temperature was the dominant factor in formation of the rhombohedral and monoclinic phases. The crystals with non-centrosymmetric rhombohedral structure (R32) may possess similar compositions as the previous ones but their starting crystallization temperature was lower.

  1. Synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of Dy{sup 3+} doped NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaohua; Xiang, Wendou; Chen, Fengming; Hu, Zhengfa; Zhang, Wei

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The phosphor powders of NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}: Dy{sup 3+} were prepared by solid state reaction. For the different kinds of excitations, the dependence of luminescence intensity on the Tb{sup 3+} concentration was investigated. Display Omitted Highlights: ► We synthesize NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphors by the solid-state reaction technique. ► We observe and explain the change of Y/B ratio with Dy{sup 3+} content. ► The I−x curve shows different behavior for different excitations. ► The concentration quenching mechanism is the d–d interaction. -- Abstract: The novel phosphor powders of NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} doped with Dy{sup 3+} were synthesized by solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the phosphors sintered at 900 °C for 6 h were a pure NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase for all the Dy{sup 3+} doping concentrations. The room temperature excitation spectra of the phosphors vary with the Dy{sup 3+} concentration and consist of an intense charge transfer band of WO{sub 4}{sup 2−} groups and weak f–f transition absorption peaks of Dy{sup 3+}. The photoluminescence spectra, excited at the peak wavelength of charge transfer band, exhibit three bands centered at 488, 575 and 662 nm, which originate from the transitions of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 15/2} (blue), {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 13/2} (yellow) and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 11/2} (red) of Dy{sup 3+}, respectively. The effects of Dy{sup 3+} concentration on luminescence intensity and the yellow-to-blue intensity ratio of the phosphors were investigated. The different behaviors for the doping concentration dependence of luminescence intensity resulted from the different kinds of excitation was discussed.

  2. Tricks to translating TB transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Deffur, Armin; Wilkinson, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomics and other high-throughput methods are increasingly applied to questions relating to tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis. Whole blood transcriptomics has repeatedly been applied to define correlates of TB risk and has produced new insight into the late stage of disease pathogenesis. In a novel approach, authors of a recently published study in Science Translational Medicine applied complex data analysis of existing TB transcriptomic datasets, and in vitro models, in an attempt to identify correlates of protection in TB, which are crucially required for the development of novel TB diagnostics and therapeutics to halt this global epidemic. Utilizing latent TB infection (LTBI) as a surrogate of protection, they identified IL-32 as a mediator of interferon gamma (IFNγ)-vitamin D dependent antimicrobial immunity and a marker of LTBI. Here, we provide a review of all TB whole-blood transcriptomic studies to date in the context of identifying correlates of protection, discuss potential pitfalls of combining complex analyses originating from such studies, the importance of detailed metadata to interpret differential patient classification algorithms, the effect of differing circulating cell populations between patient groups on the interpretation of resulting biomarkers and we decipher weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), a recently developed systems biology tool which holds promise of identifying novel pathway interactions in disease pathogenesis. In conclusion, we propose the development of an integrated OMICS platform and open access to detailed metadata, in order for the TB research community to leverage the vast array of OMICS data being generated with the aim of unraveling the holy grail of TB research: correlates of protection. PMID:26046091

  3. Tricks to translating TB transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Deffur, Armin; Wilkinson, Robert J; Coussens, Anna K

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomics and other high-throughput methods are increasingly applied to questions relating to tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis. Whole blood transcriptomics has repeatedly been applied to define correlates of TB risk and has produced new insight into the late stage of disease pathogenesis. In a novel approach, authors of a recently published study in Science Translational Medicine applied complex data analysis of existing TB transcriptomic datasets, and in vitro models, in an attempt to identify correlates of protection in TB, which are crucially required for the development of novel TB diagnostics and therapeutics to halt this global epidemic. Utilizing latent TB infection (LTBI) as a surrogate of protection, they identified IL-32 as a mediator of interferon gamma (IFNγ)-vitamin D dependent antimicrobial immunity and a marker of LTBI. Here, we provide a review of all TB whole-blood transcriptomic studies to date in the context of identifying correlates of protection, discuss potential pitfalls of combining complex analyses originating from such studies, the importance of detailed metadata to interpret differential patient classification algorithms, the effect of differing circulating cell populations between patient groups on the interpretation of resulting biomarkers and we decipher weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), a recently developed systems biology tool which holds promise of identifying novel pathway interactions in disease pathogenesis. In conclusion, we propose the development of an integrated OMICS platform and open access to detailed metadata, in order for the TB research community to leverage the vast array of OMICS data being generated with the aim of unraveling the holy grail of TB research: correlates of protection. PMID:26046091

  4. X-ray excited photoluminescence near the giant resonance in solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals and their retention upon solvothermal topotactic transformation to Gd1-xTbxF3.

    PubMed

    Waetzig, Gregory R; Horrocks, Gregory A; Jude, Joshua W; Zuin, Lucia; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2015-12-23

    Design rules for X-ray phosphors are much less established as compared to their optically stimulated counterparts owing to the absence of a detailed understanding of sensitization mechanisms, activation pathways and recombination channels upon high-energy excitation. Here, we demonstrate a pronounced modulation of the X-ray excited photoluminescence of Tb(3+) centers upon excitation in proximity to the giant resonance of the host Gd(3+) ions in solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals prepared by a non-hydrolytic cross-coupling method. The strong suppression of X-ray excited optical luminescence at the giant resonance suggests a change in mechanism from multiple exciton generation to single thermal exciton formation and Auger decay processes. The solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals are further topotactically transformed with retention of a nine-coordinated cation environment to solid-solution Gd1-xTbxF3 nanocrystals upon solvothermal treatment with XeF2. The metastable hexagonal phase of GdF3 can be stabilized at room temperature through this topotactic approach and is transformed subsequently to the orthorhombic phase. The fluoride nanocrystals indicate an analogous but blue-shifted modulation of the X-ray excited optical luminescence of the Tb(3+) centers upon X-ray excitation near the giant resonance of the host Gd(3+) ions. PMID:26661920

  5. Tuning interfacial domain walls in GdCo/Gd/GdCo' spring magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Roldn, C.; Choi, Y.; Quirs, C.; Valvidares, S. M.; Zarate, R.; Vlez, M.; Alameda, J. M.; Haskel, D.; Martn, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Spring magnets based on GdCo multilayers have been prepared to study the nucleation and evolution of interfacial domain walls (iDWs) depending on layer composition and interlayer coupling. GdCo alloy compositions in each layer were chosen so that their net magnetization aligns either with the Gd (G d35C o65 ) or Co (G d11C o89 ) sublattices. This condition forces an antiparallel arrangement of the layers' net magnetization and leads to nucleation of iDWs above critical magnetic fields whose values are dictated by the interplay between Zeeman and exchange energies. By combining x-ray resonant magnetic scattering with Kerr magnetometry, we provide detailed insight into the nucleation and spatial profile of the iDWs. For strong coupling (GdCo/GdCo' bilayer), iDWs are centered at the interface but with asymmetric width depending on each layer magnetization. When interlayer coupling is weakened by introducing a thin Gd interlayer, the exchange spring effect becomes restricted to a lower temperature and field range than observed in the bilayer structure. Due to the ferromagnetic alignment between the high magnetization G d35C o65 layer and the Gd interlayer, the iDW shrinks and moves into the lower exchange Gd interlayer, causing a reduction of iDW energy.

  6. Electromagnetic transition strengths in Dy156

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, O.; Dewald, A.; Petkov, P.; Saha, B.; Fitzler, A.; Jessen, K.; Tonev, D.; Klug, T.; Heinze, S.; Jolie, J.; VonBrentano, P.; Bazzacco, D.; Ur, C. A.; Farnea, E.; Axiotis, M.; Lunardi, S.; De Angelis, G.; Napoli, D. R.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Caprio, M. A.; Casten, R. F.

    2006-08-01

    Reliable and precise lifetimes of excited states in Dy156 were measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique in the coincidence mode. The experiment was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro with the GASP array and the Cologne coincidence plunger apparatus using the reaction Sn124(S36,4n)Dy156 at a beam energy of 155 MeV. New values of the branching ratios of transitions depopulating the levels of the first excited band have been derived. The measured transition probabilities of Dy156 in the ground-state band and the first excited band as well as the energy spectra are compared to the predictions of the recently proposed X(5) model and to an interacting boson approximation fit. The comparison reveals a different behavior of the intraband transition strengths and indicates a possible coexistence of a normal deformed ground-state band and an X(5)-like first excited band. It also reveals that in Dy156, the γ degree of freedom plays a more important role than it does in the well-established X(5) nuclei with N=90. A fit of the data using the general collective model suggests that a deeper collective potential V(β,γ) may also be a reason for the differences in the spectroscopic properties of Dy156 and those nuclei.

  7. Room temperature coercivities of Tb1-xDyxFe2 (110) molecular beam epitaxy grown films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaujour, J.-M. L.; Bowden, G. J.; Zhukov, A. A.; Rainford, B. D.; de Groot, P. A. J.; Ward, R. C. C.; Wells, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    It has been known for many years that the rare-earth intermetallic compound terfenol (Tb0.3Dy0.7)Fe2 is characterized by "giant magnetostriction," which has found practical applications. In this article we report the magnetic properties of a series of molecular beam epitaxially (MBE) grown (110) Tb1-xDyxFe2 alloy films, on sapphire substrates. All the measurements were performed at room temperature with the field applied along an in-plane [110] axis. However, unlike bulk Tb1-xDyxFe2, it is shown that the coercivity does not fall to zero at the magic ratio of x0.7. Instead, the coercivities fall almost on a straight line, with the maximum coercivity for pure TbFe2 (0.64 T) and the smallest for DyFe2 (0.22 T). The difference between the bulk and MBE films is attributed to the presence of a magnetoelastic strain term, induced during crystal growth by the sapphire substrate. In practice, the measured coercivities can be described, approximately, with a modified Stoner-Wohlfarth model.

  8. Manipulation of Dy-Mn coupling and ferrielectric phase diagram of DyMn2O5: The effect of Y substitution of Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Wang, Y. L.; Lin, L.; Liu, M. F.; Li, X.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-11-01

    DyMn2O5 is an extraordinary example in the family of multiferroic manganites and it accommodates both the 4f and 3d magnetic ions with strong Dy-Mn (4f-3d) coupling. The electric polarization origin is believed to arise not only from the Mn spin interactions but also from the Dy-Mn coupling. Starting from proposed scenario on ferrielectricity in DyMn2O5 where the exchange-strictions associated with the Mn3+-Mn4+-Mn3+ blocks and Dy3+-Mn4+-Dy3+ blocks generate the two ferroelectric sublattices, we perform a set of characterizations on the structure, magnetism, and electric polarization of Dy1-xYxMn2O5 in order to investigate the roles of Dy-Mn coupling in manipulating the ferrielectricity. It is revealed that the non-magnetic Y substitution of Dy suppresses gradually the Dy3+ spin ordering and the Dy-Mn coupling. Consequently, the ferroelectric sublattice generated by the exchange striction associated with the Dy3+-Mn4+-Dy3+ blocks is destabilized, but the ferroelectric sublattice generated by the exchange striction associated with the Mn3+-Mn4+-Mn3+ blocks remains less perturbed, enabling the ferrielectricity-ferroelectricity transitions with the Y substitution. A phenomenological ferrielectric domain model is suggested to explain the polarization reversal induced by the Y substitution. The present work presents a possible scenario of the multiferroic mechanism in not only DyMn2O5 but probably also other RMn2O5 members with strong 4f-3d coupling.

  9. Simulation of the magnetocaloric effect in Tb nanofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmo, Dory Hélio A. L.; Mello, Vamberto D.; Vasconcelos, Manoel S.

    2014-03-31

    Rare-earth (RE) metals have different magnetic structures resulting from the competition between the crystal-field and exchange interactions. When a magnetic field is applied it creates a third interaction and the magnetic structures are more complicated. In thin films, it is expected that even the magnetic arrangement itself can be strongly modified. Rare-earth helimagnets such as Terbium (Tb), Holmium (Ho) and Dysprosium (Dy) represent the best candidates to evidence such finite-size effects. This finite-size effect is caused by the reduced number of atoms in the direction perpendicular to the film plane that leads to a decrease of the total magnetic exchange energy. We report this contribution to the investigation of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of thin Terbium films in the helimagnetic temperature range, from T{sub C} = 219 K to T{sub N} = 231 K, for external fields of the order of 1 kOe. We find that for strong fields, H = 50 kOe, the adiabatic temperature change ΔT near the Néel temperature is around 15 K for any thickness of Tb films. However large thickness effects are found for small values of the magnetic field. For field strength of the order of a few kOe, the thermocaloric efficiency increases significantly for ultrathin (nanomagnetic) films.

  10. X-ray excited photoluminescence near the giant resonance in solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals and their retention upon solvothermal topotactic transformation to Gd1-xTbxF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waetzig, Gregory R.; Horrocks, Gregory A.; Jude, Joshua W.; Zuin, Lucia; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2015-12-01

    Design rules for X-ray phosphors are much less established as compared to their optically stimulated counterparts owing to the absence of a detailed understanding of sensitization mechanisms, activation pathways and recombination channels upon high-energy excitation. Here, we demonstrate a pronounced modulation of the X-ray excited photoluminescence of Tb3+ centers upon excitation in proximity to the giant resonance of the host Gd3+ ions in solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals prepared by a non-hydrolytic cross-coupling method. The strong suppression of X-ray excited optical luminescence at the giant resonance suggests a change in mechanism from multiple exciton generation to single thermal exciton formation and Auger decay processes. The solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals are further topotactically transformed with retention of a nine-coordinated cation environment to solid-solution Gd1-xTbxF3 nanocrystals upon solvothermal treatment with XeF2. The metastable hexagonal phase of GdF3 can be stabilized at room temperature through this topotactic approach and is transformed subsequently to the orthorhombic phase. The fluoride nanocrystals indicate an analogous but blue-shifted modulation of the X-ray excited optical luminescence of the Tb3+ centers upon X-ray excitation near the giant resonance of the host Gd3+ ions.Design rules for X-ray phosphors are much less established as compared to their optically stimulated counterparts owing to the absence of a detailed understanding of sensitization mechanisms, activation pathways and recombination channels upon high-energy excitation. Here, we demonstrate a pronounced modulation of the X-ray excited photoluminescence of Tb3+ centers upon excitation in proximity to the giant resonance of the host Gd3+ ions in solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals prepared by a non-hydrolytic cross-coupling method. The strong suppression of X-ray excited optical luminescence at the giant resonance suggests a change in mechanism from multiple exciton generation to single thermal exciton formation and Auger decay processes. The solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals are further topotactically transformed with retention of a nine-coordinated cation environment to solid-solution Gd1-xTbxF3 nanocrystals upon solvothermal treatment with XeF2. The metastable hexagonal phase of GdF3 can be stabilized at room temperature through this topotactic approach and is transformed subsequently to the orthorhombic phase. The fluoride nanocrystals indicate an analogous but blue-shifted modulation of the X-ray excited optical luminescence of the Tb3+ centers upon X-ray excitation near the giant resonance of the host Gd3+ ions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Actual and intended concentrations of incorporated Tb-dopants as determined from ICP-MS studies; optical absorption spectrum of Gd0.985Tb0.015OCl nanocrystals. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07819a

  11. Pentanuclear [2.2] spirocyclic lanthanide(III) complexes: slow magnetic relaxation of the Dy(III) analogue.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Das, Sourav; van Leusen, Jan; Kgerler, Paul; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2015-11-28

    The reaction of LnCl36H2O (Ln = Dy(3+), Tb(3+) and Ho(3+)) with the multisite coordinating ligand N'-(2-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-methylbenzylidene)acetohydrazide (LH3) in the presence of pivalic acid (PivH) leads to the formation of three isostructural homometallic pentanuclear complexes, [Dy5(LH)4(?(1)-Piv)(?(2)-Piv)3(?2-?(2)?(1)Piv)2(H2O)]Cl95H2O5MeOH (1), [Tb5(LH)4(?(1)-Piv)(?(2)-Piv)3(?2-?(2)?(1)Piv)2(H2O)]Cl10.5H2O2MeOH2CHCl3 (2) and [Ho5(LH)4(?(1)-Piv)(?(2)-Piv)3(?2-?(2)?(1)Piv)2(H2O)]Cl14.5H2O2CHCl3 (3). 1-3 are monocationic and are comprised of four doubly deprotonated [LH](2-) ligands along with six pivalate ions. These complexes possess a [2.2] spirocyclic topology formed by the fusion of two triangles of Ln(III) ions at a common vertex. The magneto chemical analysis reveals the presence of antiferromagnetic exchange interactions at low temperature, and the Dy(III) complex 1 gives an out-of-phase signal with a small curvature in alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurement. Application of a 3000 G static field during ac measurement intensifies the signals, revealing a second slow relaxation process in the Dy(III) analogue. PMID:26489889

  12. Two-dimensional coordination polymers constructed by [Ni(II)Ln(III)] nodes and [W(IV)(bpy)(CN)6]2- spacers: a network of [Ni(II)Dy(III)] single molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Alexandru, Maria-Gabriela; Visinescu, Diana; Shova, Sergiu; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Andruh, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Three isomorphous two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymers of general formula {[Ni(II)(valpn)Ln(III)(NO3)(H2O)(?-NC)4W(IV)(bipy)(CN)2]xH2OyCH3CN}n have been synthesized by reacting Ph4P[W(V)(CN)6(bipy)] with the heterodinuclear [Ni(II)Ln(III)(valpn)(O2NO)3] complexes [H2valpn = 1,3-propanediyl-bis(2-iminomethylene-6-methoxyphenol), bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, and Ln = Gd (1), Dy (2), and Tb (3) with x = 2 (1), 3.9 (2), and 3.35 (3) and y = 2.50 (1), 2 (2), and 1.8 (3)]. Their crystal structures consist of [Ni(II)Ln(III)] 3d-4f nodes which are connected by [W(IV)(bipy)(CN)6](2-) diamagnetic linkers resulting from the reduction of W(V) to W(IV) during the reaction process. The Ni(II) and Ln(III) ions occupy the inner and outer coordination sites of the dideprotonated valpn ligand, respectively, and they are doubly bridged by the phenoxo oxygen atoms of such a ligand. The value of Ni(II)Ln(III) separation through this bridge is 3.4919(10) (1), 3.4760(10) (2), and 3.4799(9) (3) , and those of the angles at the bridgehead phenoxo atoms are 106.6(2) and 107.3(2) (1), 106.9(2), and 107.8(2) (2) and 106.5(2)-106.8(2) (3). Each W(IV) is eight-coordinated with a bidentate bipy molecule and six cyanide-carbon atoms building a somewhat distorted square antiprism environment. The rare-earth cations are nine-coordinated, the donor atoms describing a monocapped square antiprism for 1 and 3 and a tricapped trigonal prism for 2. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in the temperature range 1.9-300 K show the occurrence of ferromagnetic interactions between the Ni(II) and Ln(III) ions in 1-3. Frequency-dependent alternating susceptibility signals were observed for the Dy(III) derivative below 8.0 K under an applied dc field of 2500 G indicating the presence of slow magnetic relaxation with values of the pre-exponential factor (?0) and energy barrier (E(#)) of ca. 5.7 10(-8) s and 15.9 cm(-1), respectively. Complex 2 constitutes the first example of a 2D 3d-4f heterobimetallic single molecule magnet (SMM). PMID:24067093

  13. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    PubMed

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain contagious and infect others. PMID:12320054

  14. Dose-dependent biodistribution of [153Gd]Gd(acetate)n in mice.

    PubMed

    Wedeking, P; Kumar, K; Tweedle, M F

    1993-07-01

    [153Gd]Gd(acetate)n was administered i.v. to mice to study the effect of dose on the distribution of free Gd. Distribution from blood was slow with the majority of the Gd distributing in the liver. Gd saturated in bone. Heart, lungs, kidneys, brain and skeletal muscle exhibited time-dependent decreases in Gd concentration. Gd that washed out of heart, lungs, kidneys and/or muscle redistributed in liver, spleen and femur. These results indicate a complex dose- and time-dependent tissue distribution for Gd and emphasize the importance of eliminating unchelated free Gd as a contaminant in Gd-chelates before testing in biodistribution experiments. The long-term residual accumulation of Gd suggests the need to minimize Gd-chelate dissociation in vivo. PMID:8358355

  15. A comparative investigation of Lu2SiO5:Ce and Gd2O2S:Eu powder scintillators for use in x-ray mammography detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michail, C. M.; Fountos, G. P.; David, S. L.; Valais, I. G.; Toutountzis, A. E.; Kalyvas, N. E.; Kandarakis, I. S.; Panayiotakis, G. S.

    2009-10-01

    The dominant powder scintillator in most medical imaging modalities for decades has been Gd2O2S:Tb due to the very good intrinsic properties and overall efficiency. Apart from Gd2O2S:Tb, there are alternative powder phosphor scintillators such as Lu2SiO5:Ce and Gd2O2S:Eu that have been suggested for use in various medical imaging modalities. Gd2O2S:Eu emits red light and can be combined mainly with digital mammography detectors such as CCDs. Lu2SiO5:Ce emits blue light and can be combined with blue sensitivity films, photocathodes and some photodiodes. For the purposes of the present study, two scintillating screens, one from Lu2SiO5:Ce and the other from Gd2O2S:Eu powders, were prepared using the method of sedimentation. The screen coating thicknesses were 25.0 and 33.1 mg cm-2 respectively. The screens were investigated by evaluating the following parameters: the output signal, the modulation transfer function, the noise equivalent passband, the informational efficiency, the quantum detection efficiency and the zero-frequency detective quantum efficiency. Furthermore, the spectral compatibility of those materials with various optical detectors was determined. Results were compared to published data for the commercially employed 'Kodak Min-R film-screen system', based on a 31.7 mg cm-2 thick Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor. For Gd2O2S:Eu, MTF data were found comparable to those of Gd2O2S:Tb, while the MTF of Lu2SiO5:Ce was even higher resulting in better spatial resolution and image sharpness properties. On the other hand, Gd2O2S:Eu was found to exhibit higher output signal and zero-frequency detective quantum efficiency than Lu2SiO5:Ce.

  16. Tuning Magnetic Relaxation in a Tb-Nitronyl Nitroxide Complex by Using Cocrystalline Paramagnetic Complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan-Juan; Sun, Juan; Yang, Meng; Li, Li-Cun

    2015-12-01

    New 2p-4f and 2p-3d-4f compounds [Tb(hfac)3(NIT-PhNO2)2]0.5C7H16 (1) and [Ln(hfac)3(NIT-PhNO2)2]2[Cu(hfac)2(NIT-PhNO2)2] (Ln(III) = Gd 2, Tb 3; hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate; NIT-PhNO2 = 2-(p-nitrophenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) have been obtained. Complex 1 consists of mononuclear trispin [Tb(hfac)3(NIT-PhNO2)2] units in which two radical ligands are ligated to the Tb(III) ion as monodentate ligands through the NO groups, while complexes 2 and 3 contain two kinds of trispin moieties, namely, [Ln(hfac)3(NIT-PhNO2)2] and [Cu(hfac)2(NIT-PhNO2)2]. In the [Cu(hfac)2(NIT-PhNO2)2] moiety, the radicals are bonded to the copper(II) ion in the axial positions via the nitroxides. For three compounds, 1D supramolecular chains are formed via the ?-? stacking interactions involving the radical ligands. Magnetic investigations show that both Tb complexes exhibit slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperature; strikingly, complex 3 displays a higher energy barrier than that of 1. It represents the first example to use the paramagnetic complex to tune magnetic relaxation of 4f-based compounds. PMID:26558481

  17. Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV (the AIDS Virus)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Verified Case of Tuberculosis National Tuberculosis Indicators Project (NTIP): Frequently Asked Questions TB Genotyping TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS) Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant ...

  18. Stability of multiferroicity against Dy/Mn off-stoichiometry in DyMnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. X.; Liu, M. F.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2014-05-07

    We investigate the effects of slight Dy/Mn off-stoichiometry on the multiferroic behaviors of DyMnO{sub 3} (Dy{sub 1−x}Mn{sub 1+x}O{sub 3}). It is revealed that the distorted lattice structure and ferroelectric property exhibit higher stability against the Mn deficiency than the Dy deficiency. Since the electric polarization includes the contributions from the Mn-Mn and Dy-Mn interactions, the measured polarization exhibits different dependence on the Mn deficiency from that on the Dy deficiency. The present work suggests that the Dy/Mn off-stoichiometry is detrimental to the ferroelectricity, owing to the modulated spin interactions and reshuffled spin frustration.

  19. Inelastic Neutron Scattering on 160Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesher, S. R.; Casarella, C.; Crider, B. P.; Ikeyama, R.; Marsh, I.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estvez, F. M.; Smith, M. K.; Tully, Z.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Aprahamian, A.; Yates, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    The nature of low-lying excitations, K?=0+ bands in deformed nuclei remain enigmatic in the field, especially in relationship to quadrupole vibrations. One method of characterizing these states beyond excitation energies is through measurements of absolute transition probabilities. In the rare earth region of deformation, there are five stable Gd isotopes, 154Gd, 156Gd, and 158Gd have been studied to obtain B(E2) values, a fourth, 160Gd is the focus of this work. We have examined 160Gd with the (n, n'?) reaction and neutron energies up to 3.0 MeV to confirm known 0+ states.

  20. Staying on Track with TB Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    Staying on TB Track with Medicine TUBERCULOSIS What’s Inside: Read this brochure to learn about TB and what you can do to get healthy. Put it in a familiar ... department at ___________________________________________________ or visit the CDC Division of Tuberculosis Elimination website at http://www.cdc.gov/tb ...

  1. Is TB in Your Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Joanne; Elwell, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Points out the importance of effective health education to fight against tuberculosis (TB) which is the number one fatal infectious disease around the world. Describes a science curriculum on tuberculosis that includes information on the facts about tuberculosis, a forum on tuberculosis, and evaluation. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  2. TB epidemiology and human genetics.

    PubMed

    van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo; Babb, Chantal; Warren, Robin; Walzl, Gerhard; Uys, Pieter; Hoal, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is considerably lower than one may expect, since in the absence of immunosuppression, fewer than 10% of infected individuals will develop active disease. The relatively low proportion of individuals who progress to active disease after infection can probably be ascribed to innate resistance in most infected individuals, since vaccination using BCG or a previous episode of TB does not work reliably or effectively to confer protection in high burden parts of the world. Innate factors affecting resistance or susceptibility can be modulated by the environment and such external influences cannot be ignored. Specifically, we will address bacterial variability as well as environmental factors such as diet, smoking, helminths and hormones. We will also discuss host genes that may be involved in susceptibility or resistance at various stages of infection or disease. The discovery of as yet unknown genes impacting on TB susceptibility or disease course may lead to new insights into mechanisms of disease and novel therapies. With adaptive immunity being of little value and good TB control programmes being rare, innate resistance is still our best defence against this PMID:17278383

  3. Scissors Mode of 162 Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-28

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions, (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ’) reactions.

  4. Magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties in RRhSn (R = Tb-Tm) series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sachin B.; Suresh, K. G.; Nigam, A. K.

    2012-11-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline RRhSn (R = Tb-Tm) compounds, which crystallize in the hexagonal structure with space group P62m. All the compounds, except HoRhSn, are antiferromagnetic at low temperatures. TbRhSn and DyRhSn show multiple magnetic transitions and metamagnetic behavior. Heat capacity and electrical resistivity data in different temperature regimes were fitted to identify various contributions to them. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in all the compounds has been calculated in terms of the isothermal magnetic entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change. ErRhSn and TmRhSn show Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity data. Among the compounds studied, HoRhSn shows the maximum adiabatic temperature change of 6.5 K for a field of 50 kOe. DyRhSn and TmRhSn also show large positive magnetocaloric effect below 10 K. A sign reversal accompanied by a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) at low temperatures appears to be a common feature in this series of compounds. Narrow domain wall dynamics appears to be the main reason behind the large positive magnetoresistance in all the compounds.

  5. Rare-earth chromium gallides RE4CrGa12 (RE=Tb-Tm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Brianna R.; Bie, Haiying; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Bauer, Eric D.; Thompson, Joe D.; Mar, Arthur

    2012-12-01

    The ternary rare-earth-metal chromium gallides RE4CrGa12 (RE=Tb-Tm) have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1000 C in the presence of excess gallium used as a self-flux. Their structures are derived by inserting Cr atoms into a quarter of the empty Ga6 octahedral clusters found in the parent binary gallides REGa3 (AuCu3-type), although single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies suggest that complex superstructures may be adopted. An ideal ordered Y4PdGa12-type structure was successfully refined for a crystal of Dy4CrGa12 (Pearson symbol cI34, space group Im3barm, Z=2, a=8.572(1) ). Magnetic measurements on single-crystal samples reveal ferromagnetic or possibly ferrimagnetic ordering for the Tb, Dy, and Er members (TC=22, 15, and 2.8 K, respectively) and antiferromagnetic ordering for the Ho member (TN=7.5 K). Band structure calculations on a hypothetical Y4CrGa12 model suggest that the Cr atoms carry no local magnetic moment.

  6. Morphotropic phase boundary and magnetoelastic behaviour in ferromagnetic Tb1-xGdxFe2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adil, Murtaza; Yang, Sen; Mi, Meng; Zhou, Chao; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Rui; Liao, Xiaoqi; Wang, Yu; Ren, Xiaobing; Song, Xiaoping; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), separating two ferroic phases of different crystal symmetries, has been studied extensively for its extraordinary enhancement of piezoelectricity in ferroelectrics. Based on the same mechanism, we have designed a magnetic MPB in the pseudobinary ferromagnetic system of Tb1-xGdxFe2 and the corresponding crystal structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostriction are explored. With the synchrotron x-ray diffractometry, the structure symmetry of TbFe2-rich compositions is detected to be rhombohedral (R) and that of GdFe2-rich compositions is tetragonal (T) below Tc. With the change of concentration, the value of magnetostriction of the samples changes monotonously, while the MPB composition Tb0.1Gd0.9Fe2, which corresponds to the coexistence of R and T phases, exhibits the maximum magnetization among all available compositions and superposition of magnetostriction behaviour of R and T phases. Our result of MPB phenomena in ferromagnets may provide an effective route to design functional magnetic materials with exotic properties.

  7. Investigations of the effect of nonmagnetic Ca substitution for magnetic Dy on spin-freezing in Dy?Ti?O?.

    PubMed

    Anand, V K; Tennant, D A; Lake, B

    2015-11-01

    Physical properties of partially Ca substituted hole-doped Dy2Ti2O7 have been investigated by ac magnetic susceptibility ?(ac)(T), dc magnetic susceptibility ?(T), isothermal magnetization M(H) and heat capacity C(p)(T) measurements on Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7. The spin-ice system Dy2Ti2O7 exhibits a spin-glass type freezing behavior near 16 K. Our frequency dependent ?(ac)(T) data of Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7 show that the spin-freezing behavior is significantly influenced by Ca substitution. The effect of partial nonmagnetic Ca(2+)?substitution for magnetic Dy(3+) is similar to the previous study on nonmagnetic isovalent Y(3+) substituted Dy(2-x)Y(x) Ti2O7 (for low levels of dilution), however the suppression of spin-freezing behavior is substantially stronger for Ca than Y. The Cole-Cole plot analysis reveals semicircular character and a single relaxation mode in Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7 as for Dy2Ti2O7. No noticeable change in the insulating behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 results from the holes produced by 10% Ca(2+) substitution for Dy(3+) ions. PMID:26443921

  8. Thermochromism and fluorescence in dyed PEO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, Archana; S, Raghu; V, Mini; C, Sharanappa; H, Devendrappa

    2015-06-01

    The optical absorbance spectra of solution casted pure & methyl blue (MB) dyed polyethylene oxide (PEO) films were recorded in a wavelength range from 190-1100nm at different temperatures. The absorbance was found to increases with increasing temperature. Fluorescence micrographs confirmed the interaction between polymer and dye and also revealed decreased crystallinity of the sample. Fluorescence quantum yield has been calculated with the help of fluorescence spectra.

  9. Domain pinning and disorder in Fe/Gd magnetic multilayers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Jyoti; Tripathi, Ashish; Shipton, Erik; Chan, Keith; Kim, Sangsoo; McNulty, Ian; Fullerton, Eric; Shpyrko, Oleg

    2009-03-01

    We study the evolution of magnetic domains and effect of pinning centers in thin film magnetic systems as a function of magnetic field, temperature, and dopants to identify the role the disorder in formation and stability of the domains in these systems. We have studied Fe/Gd multilayer exhibiting ordered stripes due to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Samples are well characterized using Polar Kerr effect and Vibrating sample magnetometry. Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) measurements show out-of-plane magnetized stripe domains. We study the effects of field pinning of the local magnetic structure of these systems through their magnetization hysteresis loops and their temperature driven dynamics. Using element sensitivity and depth resolution of resonant magnetic x-ray coherent scattering technique we investigate the magnetic domain structure and intermittent switching dynamics. Comparison of the magnetic speckles (in momentum space) provides information on correlation between the magnetic structures (in real space). We will present the X-ray Coherent Speckle Metrology approach to study of Barkhausen noise spectrum as a function of the applied magnetic field, and will discuss extension of this study to Tb-doped Fe/Gd magnetic films, which would induce strong PMA.

  10. Magnetic domain dynamics in Fe/Gd magnetic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Jyoti; Dietze, Sebastian; Tripathi, Ashish; Shipton, Erik; Chan, Keith; Kim, Sangsoo; McNulty, Ian; Fullerton, Eric; Shpyrko, Oleg

    2010-03-01

    We study the evolution of magnetic domains and effect of pinning centers in thin film magnetic systems as a function of magnetic field and dopants to identify the role the disorder in formation and stability of the domains in these systems. We have studied Fe/Gd multilayer exhibiting ordered stripes due to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Polar Kerr effect and Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements are used to characterize the sample. Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) measurements show out-of-plane magnetized stripe domains. We study the effects of field pinning of the local magnetic structure of these systems through their magnetization hysteresis loops both along easy and hard axis of magnetization. Using element sensitivity and depth resolution of resonant magnetic x-ray coherent scattering technique we investigate the magnetic domain structure and intermittent switching dynamics. Comparison of the magnetic speckles (in momentum space) provides information on correlation between the magnetic structures (in real space). We will present the X-ray Coherent Speckle Metrology approach to study Barkhausen noise spectrum as a function of the applied magnetic field, and will discuss extension of this study to Tb-doped Fe/Gd magnetic films.

  11. Tunable luminescence of Dy3+ single-doped and Dy3+/Tm3+ co-doped tungsten borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Gong, X. H.; Chen, Y. J.; Huang, J. H.; Lin, Y. F.; Luo, Z. D.; Huang, Y. D.

    2014-12-01

    RE3+ (RE3+ = Tm3+, Dy3+) ion single and co-doped tungsten borate glasses for white light emitting diodes (LEDs) were prepared by melt quenching method. Emission and excitation spectra of the glasses were measured. The color of luminescence can be tuned by changing the composition of glass matrix or the concentrations of Tm3+ and Dy3+ ions. White light emission can be achieved from 0.5Dy3+ single-doped 15WO3-25La2O3-60B2O3 and 0.4Tm3+/1.5Dy3+ co-doped 50WO3-25La2O3-25B2O3 glasses. In addition, energy transfers between Tm3+ and Dy3+ were also analyzed. The Dy3+/Tm3+ co-doped tungsten borate glasses may be potential candidates for white LED application.

  12. {beta}-Decay Half-Lives of New Neutron-Rich Isotopes of Elements from Pm to Tb

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ichikawa; M. Asai; K. Tsukada; A. Osa; M. Sakama; Y. Kojima; M. Shibata; I. Nishinaka; Y. Nagame; Y. Oura; K. Kawade

    1999-12-31

    Eight new neutron-rich lanthanide isotopes produced in the proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U have been identified using the JAERI on-line isotope separator (JAERI-ISOL) coupled to a gas-jet transport system. For six of these, each half-life was determined: {sup 159}Pm (2 {+-} 1 s), {sup 161}Sm (4.8 {+-} 0.8 s), {sup 165}Gd (10.3 {+-} 1.6 s), {sup 166}Tb (21 {+-} 6 s), {sup 167}Tb (19.4 {+-} 2.7 s) and {sup 168}Tb (8.2 {+-} 1.3 s). The observed half-lives were compared with theoretical calculations. The recent calculation by the gross theory with the new one-particle strength function shows quite good agreement with the experimental half-lives.

  13. {beta}-decay half-lives of new neutron-rich isotopes of elements from Pm to Tb

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, S.; Asai, M.; Tsukada, K.; Nishinaka, I.; Nagame, Y.; Osa, A.; Sakama, M.; Oura, Y.; Kojima, Y.; Shibata, M.; Kawade, K.

    1999-11-16

    Eight new neutron-rich lanthanide isotopes produced in the proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U have been identified using the JAERI on-line isotope separator (JAERI-ISOL) coupled to a gas-jet transport system. For six of these, each half-life was determined: {sup 159}Pm (2{+-}1 s), {sup 161}Sm (4.8{+-}0.8 s), {sup 165}Gd (10.3{+-}1.6 s), {sup 166}Tb (21{+-}6 s), {sup 167}Tb (19.4{+-}2.7 s) and {sup 168}Tb (8.2{+-}1.3 s). The observed half-lives were compared with theoretical calculations. The recent calculation by the gross theory with the new one-particle strength function shows quite good agreement with the experimental half-lives.

  14. μ-Raman and infrared reflectance spectroscopy characterization of (Lu1-xGdx)2SiO5 solid solution single crystals doped with Dy3+ or Sm3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bińczyk, M.; Głowacki, M.; Łapiński, A.; Berkowski, M.; Runka, T.

    2016-04-01

    Single crystals of Lu2SiO5:5 at% Dy3+ - LSO:5Dy,(Lu0.6Gd0.4)2SiO5:4 at% Dy3+ - 60LGSO:4Dy and (Lu0.4Gd0.6)2SiO5:5 at% Sm3+ - 40LGSO:5Sm were obtained by the Czochralski method. It was found that the crystallographic structure of investigated crystals is isostructural with Lu2SiO5 which crystallizes in monoclinic system within a space group C2/c. Detailed spectroscopic analysis in a wide spectral region was carried out for these three solid solution crystals using two complementary techniques polarized Raman and infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Additional interesting information for the low-wavenumber range phonons were obtained using an NExT filter. The red shift of almost all modes with increasing gadolinium content was observed. It results from an increase in the lattice constants. The change in the splitting of the most intense symmetric stretching mode ν1 assigned to vibrations of SiO4 tetrahedra was observed with increasing gadolinium content. The spectral distance between the two components of this mode decreased from 23 cm-1 for LSO:5Dy through 20 cm-1 for 60LGSO:4Dy to 14 cm-1 for 40LGSO:5Sm. Analysis of vibrational spectra provides the information about structural changes and increase in crystal structure disorder with increasing gadolinium content. Increasing disorder observed in vibrational spectra indicates the possibility of substantial broadening of spectral lines of optically active ions in luminescence spectra.

  15. Photo- and cathodoluminescence of hydrothermally synthesized Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb and NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Potter, B.G. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    Cathodoluminescent (CL) phosphors with improved low-voltage characteristics are needed for use in emissive flat panel displays. Conventional high-temperature methods for phosphor synthesis yield large polycrystalline grains that must be pulverized prior to screen deposition. Grinding has been implicated in reducing phosphor efficiency by causing surface contamination and defects. Hydrothermal synthesis has been used to improve the quality of ceramic powders by producing fine, well-formed crystallites without grinding. Two green-emitting phosphors, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb (YAG:Tb) and NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb, were used to test the effects of hydrothermal. synthesis on grain size and morphology, and on low-voltage CL properties. YAG:Th prepared hydrothermally consisted of submicron crystallites with a typical garnet habit. The CL efficiency of hydrothermally synthesized YAG:Tb (3 lm/W at 800 V) was comparable to that of equivalent YAG:Tb compositions prepared via high-temperature solid state reaction. In comparison, CL intensities of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub l2}:Tb were slightly better (3.5 lm/W at 800 V), while those of NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb were approximately 1/100th that of YAG:Tb. Both CL and photoluminescence data show that the difference in the cathodoluminescence of YAG and NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} can be understood in terms of differences in the mechanism of activation.

  16. First-Line Treatment for Tuberculosis (TB), Drug Resistant TB -- A Visual Tour

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Drug-Resistant TB TB Home Page Photo Credit : The photo of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is from the ... Prevention , CDC/Dr. Ray Butler, Janice Carr. Illustration Credit : This illustration is in the public domain. Please ...

  17. Why healthcare workers are sick of TB.

    PubMed

    von Delft, Arne; Dramowski, Angela; Khosa, Celso; Kotze, Koot; Lederer, Philip; Mosidi, Thato; Peters, Jurgens A; Smith, Jonathan; van der Westhuizen, Helene-Mari; von Delft, Dalene; Willems, Bart; Bates, Matthew; Craig, Gill; Maeurer, Markus; Marais, Ben J; Mwaba, Peter; Nunes, Elizabete A; Nyirenda, Thomas; Oliver, Matt; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-03-01

    Dr Thato Mosidi never expected to be diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB), despite widely prevalent exposure and very limited infection control measures. The life-threatening diagnosis of primary extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) came as an even greater shock. The inconvenient truth is that, rather than being protected, Dr Mosidi and thousands of her healthcare colleagues are at an increased risk of TB and especially drug-resistant TB. In this viewpoint paper we debunk the widely held false belief that healthcare workers are somehow immune to TB disease (TB-proof) and explore some of the key factors contributing to the pervasive stigmatization and subsequent non-disclosure of occupational TB. Our front-line workers are some of the first to suffer the consequences of a progressively more resistant and fatal TB epidemic, and urgent interventions are needed to ensure the safety and continued availability of these precious healthcare resources. These include the rapid development and scale-up of improved diagnostic and treatment options, strengthened infection control measures, and focused interventions to tackle stigma and discrimination in all its forms. We call our colleagues to action to protect themselves and those they care for. PMID:25809771

  18. New rare earth metal-rich indides RE14Ni 3In 3 ( RE=Sc, Y, Gd-Tm, Lu)—synthesis and crystal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukachuk, Mar'yana; Galadzhun, Yaroslav V.; Zaremba, Roman I.; Dzevenko, Mariya V.; Kalychak, Yaroslav M.; Zaremba, Vasyl I.; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2005-09-01

    The rare earth-nickel-indides RE14Ni 3In 3 ( RE=Sc, Y, Gd-Tm, Lu) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting and subsequent annealing. The compounds were investigated on the basis of X-ray powder and single crystal data: Lu 14Co 2In 3 type, P4 2/ nmc, Z=4, a=888.1(1), c=2134.7(4), wR2=0.0653, 1381 F2 values, 63 variables for Sc 13.89Ni 3.66In 2.45; a=961.2(1), c=2316.2(5), wR2=0.0633, 1741 F2 values, 64 variables for Y 13.84Ni 3.19In 2.97; a=965.3(1), c=2330.5(5), wR2=0.0620, 1765 F2 values, 63 variables for Gd 14Ni 3.29In 2.71; a=956.8(1), c=2298.4(5), wR2=0.0829, 1707 F2 values, 64 variables for Tb 13.82Ni 3.36In 2.82; a=951.7(1), c=2289.0(5), wR2=0.0838, 1794 F2 values, 64 variables for Dy 13.60Ni 3.34In 3.06; a=948.53(7), c=2270.6(1), wR2=0.1137, 1191 F2 values, 64 variables for Ho 13.35Ni 3.17In 3.48; a=943.5(1), c=2269.1(5), wR2=0.0552, 1646 F2 values, 64 variables for Er 13.53Ni 3.14In 3.33; a=938.42(7), c=2250.8(1), wR2=0.1051, 1611 F2 values, 64 variables for Tm 13.47Ni 3.28In 3.25; a=937.3(1), c=2249.6(5), wR2=0.0692, 1604 F2 values, 64 variables for Tm 13.80Ni 3.49In 2.71; and a=933.4(1), c=2263.0(5), wR2=0.0709, 1603 F2 values, 64 variables for Lu 13.94Ni 3.07In 2.99. The RE14Ni 3In 3 indides show significant Ni/In mixing on the 4 c In1 site. Except the gadolinium compound, the RE14Ni 3In 3 intermetallics also reveal RE/In mixing on the 4 c RE1 site, leading to the refined compositions. Due to the high rare earth metal content, the seven crystallographically independent RE sites have between 9 and 10 nearest RE neighbors. The RE14Ni 3In 3 structures can be described as a complex intergrowth of rare earth-based polyhedra. Both nickel sites have a distorted trigonal-prismatic rare earth coordination. An interesting feature is the In2-In2 dumb-bell at an In2-In2 distance of 304 pm (for Gd 14Ni 3.29In 2.71). The crystal chemical peculiarities of the RE14Ni 3In 3 indides are briefly discussed.

  19. Radiative strength functions in {sup 163,164}Dy

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhus, H. T.; Siem, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Buerger, A.; Syed, N. U. H.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.

    2010-02-15

    The nuclei {sup 163,164}Dy have been investigated using the Oslo method on data from the pickup reaction {sup 164}Dy({sup 3}He,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 163}Dy and the inelastic scattering {sup 164}Dy({sup 3}He,{sup 3}He{sup '}{gamma}){sup 164}Dy, respectively. The radiative strength functions for both nuclei have been extracted, and a small resonance centered around E{sub {gamma}}approx =3 MeV is observed in both cases. The parameters of this so-called pygmy M1 resonance (the scissors mode) are compared with previous results on {sup 160,161,162}Dy using the Oslo method, and with data on {sup 163}Dy measured by the Prague group using the two-step cascade method. In particular, the integrated reduced transition probability B(M1arrow up) of the pygmy resonance is compared with neighboring dysprosium isotopes. We also observe an enhanced strength in the region above E{sub {gamma}}approx =5 MeV in {sup 164}Dy. Possible origins of this feature are discussed.

  20. Dy-V magnetic interaction and local structure bias on the complex spin and orbital ordering in Dy₁₋xTbxVO₃ (x=0 and 0.2)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yan, J.-Q.; Cao, H. B.; McGuire, M. A.; Ren, Y.; Sales, B. C.; Mandrus, D. G.

    2013-06-10

    The spin and orbital ordering in Dy₁₋xTbxVO₃ (x=0 and 0.2) was studied by measuring x-ray powder diffraction, magnetization, specific heat, and neutron single-crystal diffraction. The results show that G-OO/C-AF and C-OO/G-AF phases coexist in Dy0.8Tb0.20VO3 in the temperature range 2–60 K, and the volume fraction of each phase is temperature and field dependent. The ordering of Dy moments at T* = 12 K induces a transition from G-OO/C-AF to a C-OO/G-AF phase. Magnetic fields suppress the long-range order of Dy moments and thus the C-OO/G-AF phase below T*. The polarized moments induced at the Dy sublattice by external magnetic fieldsmore » couple to the V 3d moments, and this coupling favors the G-OO/C-AF state. Also discussed is the effect of the Dy-V magnetic interaction and local structure distortion on the spin and orbital ordering in Dy₁₋xTbxVO₃.« less

  1. Analysis of the electrostatics in Dy(III) single-molecule magnets: the case study of Dy(Murex)3.

    PubMed

    Jung, J; Yi, X; Huang, G; Calvez, G; Daiguebonne, C; Guillou, O; Cador, O; Caneschi, A; Roisnel, T; Le Guennic, B; Bernot, K

    2015-11-01

    A Dy(III)-based single-molecule magnet is reported. Ab initio calculations highlight that molecular symmetry plays a predominant role over site symmetry in determining the shape and orientation of Dy(III) magnetic anisotropy. Moreover the dipolar component of the electrostatic potential created by the surrounding ligands is shown to be the driving force of its magnetic behaviour. PMID:26435506

  2. Low-temperature nuclear orientation of160Tb in Tb/Fe multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trhlik, Miloš; de Moor, Piet; Pari, Patrick; Rotter, Miloš; Severijns, Nathal; van Geert, Anja; Vanneste, Ludo

    1996-04-01

    Magnetic moment direction of Tb in [Fe(40 Å)/Tb(x Å)]30 multilayers (x=20 and 10) has been studied by the low-temperature nuclear orientation technique in the temperature range of 5-50 mK and in the external magnetic field (Bext) range of 0-1 T, applied along the sample plane. The γ-ray anisotropy of the 299 keV160Tb line was monitored. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the Tb magnetic moments has been found at zero B ext for both systems. The PMA effect increased when the Tb layer thickness decreased.

  3. Spectroscopy of Gd153 and Gd157 using the (p,dγ) reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ross, T. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Allmond, J. M.; Beausang, C. W.; Angell, C. T.; Basunia, M. S.; Bleuel, D. L.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Escher, J. E.; et al

    2014-10-31

    Low-spin single quasineutron levels in 153Gd and 157Gd have been studied following the 154Gd(p,d-γ )153Gd and 158Gd(p,d-γ )157Gd reactions. A combined Si telescope and high-purity germanium array was utilized, allowing d-γ and d-γ-γ coincidence measurements. Almost all of the established low-excitation-energy, low-spin structures were confirmed in both 153Gd and 157Gd. Several new levels and numerous new rays are observed in both nuclei, particularly for Ex ≥1 MeV. Lastly, residual effects of a neutron subshell closure at N = 64 are observed in the form of a large excitation energy gap in the single quasineutron level schemes.

  4. Estimating the cost of TB and its social impact on TB patients and their households

    PubMed Central

    Onazi, O.; Gidado, M.; Onazi, M.; Daniel, O.; Kuye, J.; Obasanya, O.; Odusote, T.; Gande, S.

    2015-01-01

    Illness often poses a significant financial burden on individuals and their households, and tuberculosis (TB) is no exception. Although TB treatment is free in Nigeria, patients are likely to incur costs due to multiple visits during treatment. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the health-seeking behaviour of TB patients and the costs borne by TB patients in Nigeria, and 2) to assess the social impact of TB disease on TB patients and their families/households. Of 260 TB patients surveyed, the majority (74.7%) were aged between 20 and 49 years. TB patients expended an average of US$52.02 (N = 8323.58, at the rate of US$1 = N = 160) per person on all visits associated with diagnosis and receipt of diagnostic test results. Overall, households experienced a shortfall of about US$57.30 (N = 9174.72) or 24.9% of income loss due to TB illness. Further analysis revealed that 9.7% of TB patients relied on children of school age or below to finance the costs of TB illness. PMID:26400384

  5. Estimating the cost of TB and its social impact on TB patients and their households.

    PubMed

    Onazi, O; Gidado, M; Onazi, M; Daniel, O; Kuye, J; Obasanya, O; Odusote, T; Gande, S

    2015-06-21

    Illness often poses a significant financial burden on individuals and their households, and tuberculosis (TB) is no exception. Although TB treatment is free in Nigeria, patients are likely to incur costs due to multiple visits during treatment. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the health-seeking behaviour of TB patients and the costs borne by TB patients in Nigeria, and 2) to assess the social impact of TB disease on TB patients and their families/households. Of 260 TB patients surveyed, the majority (74.7%) were aged between 20 and 49 years. TB patients expended an average of US$52.02 (N = 8323.58, at the rate of US$1 = N = 160) per person on all visits associated with diagnosis and receipt of diagnostic test results. Overall, households experienced a shortfall of about US$57.30 (N = 9174.72) or 24.9% of income loss due to TB illness. Further analysis revealed that 9.7% of TB patients relied on children of school age or below to finance the costs of TB illness. PMID:26400384

  6. Magnetoresistance in nanostructured Tb/Ti and Tb/Si multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Svalov, A. V.; Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.; Sorokin, A. N.; Diercks, D.

    2011-01-15

    Magnetic, magnetoresistive and structural properties were studied for [Tb/Ti]{sub n} and [Tb/Si]{sub n} multilayers which were prepared by rf-sputtering. The thickness of the Tb layers varied from 1.5 to 12 nm. The thickness of 2 nm nonmagnetic spacers of Ti or Si was kept constant. Both anisotropic and isotropic magnetoresistance was observed in [Tb/Ti]{sub n} and [Tb/Si]{sub n} multilayers. A decrease in the thickness of the terbium layers led to a decrease in the anisotropic contribution to the total magnetoresistance. The negative isotropic magnetoresistanse in [Tb/Ti]{sub n} and [Tb/Si]{sub n} multilayers can be attributed to the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and/or high field isotropic magnetoresistance. The structure of the samples of both types enabled the existence of the GMR effect.

  7. Ferromagnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, T. P. Passamani, E. C.; Larica, C.; Nascimento, V. P.; Takeuchi, A. Y.

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered Gd thin films grown on Si (100) substrates kept at two different temperatures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, ac magnetic susceptibility, and dc magnetization measurements. The obtained Gd thin films have a mixture of hcp and fcc structures, but with their fractions depending on the substrate temperature T{sub S} and film thickness x. Gd fcc samples were obtained when T{sub S} = 763 K and x = 10 nm, while the hcp structure was stabilized for lower T{sub S} (300 K) and thicker film (20 nm). The fcc structure is formed on the Ta buffer layer, while the hcp phase grows on the fcc Gd layer as a consequence of the lattice relaxation process. Spin reorientation phenomenon, commonly found in bulk Gd species, was also observed in the hcp Gd thin film. This phenomenon is assumed to cause the magnetization anomalous increase observed below 50 K in stressed Gd films. Magnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films are: Curie temperature above 300 K, saturation magnetization value of about 175 emu/cm{sup 3}, and coercive field of about 100 Oe at 300 K; features that allow us to classify Gd thin films, with fcc structure, as a soft ferromagnetic material.

  8. Elevated overview of Piers GD1 and GD2, showing rail lines, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevated overview of Piers GD-1 and GD-2, showing rail lines, GD-2 Quay Wall of Dry Dock No. 2 on left - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 1, Approach Pier & Caisson Docking Wharf, Ocean end of Fifth Street between Dry Dock Nos. 1 & 2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Neutron cross sections for /sup 152/Gd and /sup 153/Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    Cross section data is tabulated for /sup 152/Gd and /sup 153/Gd. Resonance data is given for /sup 152/Gd. Both reported and revised measurements are presented for cross sections and resonance parameters. Recommendations for further cross section and resonance research for these two isotopes are made. (DWL). 15 ref., 3 tabs.

  10. A triacontanuclear [Zn12Dy18] cluster: a ring of [Dy4] cubes.

    PubMed

    Stavgianoudaki, Nikoleta; Siczek, Milosz; Lis, Tadeusz; Inglis, Ross; Milios, Constantinos J

    2016-01-01

    The reaction between Dy(NO3)36H2O, Zn(OAc)24H2O, salicylaldehyde and 2-amino-isobutyric acid, in MeOH in the presence of NEt3 under solvothermal conditions, led to the isolation of the triacontanuclear mixed-metal cluster [Zn(II)12Dy(III)18(OH)30(L)12(sal)6(OAc)6(NO3)3(H2O)6](NO3)312MeOH5H2O (112MeOH5H2O), which displays frequency- and temperature-dependent out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility signals. PMID:26514878

  11. Excited quasiparticles and entropy in 161,162Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, R.; Mohassel, A. Rashed; Mohammadi, S.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the nuclear level densities of 161,162Dy is studied by the use of a microscopic theory which includes nuclear pairing interaction. It is based on the modified harmonic oscillator model according to the Nilsson potential. The entropy of even-odd and even-even nuclei as a function of nuclear temperature is obtained. The entropy excess of 161Dy is compared with that of 162Dy. It is concluded that the difference is related to the entropy carried by the neutron hole coupled to the even-even core. The numbers of excited quasiparticles are calculated. Good agreement was observed between calculated results and the experimental data.

  12. Forensic analysis of dyed textile fibers.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, John V; Liszewski, Elisa A

    2009-08-01

    Textile fibers are a key form of trace evidence, and the ability to reliably associate or discriminate them is crucial for forensic scientists worldwide. While microscopic and instrumental analysis can be used to determine the composition of the fiber itself, additional specificity is gained by examining fiber color. This is particularly important when the bulk composition of the fiber is relatively uninformative, as it is with cotton, wool, or other natural fibers. Such analyses pose several problems, including extremely small sample sizes, the desire for nondestructive techniques, and the vast complexity of modern dye compositions. This review will focus on more recent methods for comparing fiber color by using chromatography, spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The increasing use of multivariate statistics and other data analysis techniques for the differentiation of spectra from dyed fibers will also be discussed. PMID:19543886

  13. A trimetallic strategy towards ZnDyCr and ZnDyCo single-ion magnets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kong-Qiu; Jiang, Xiang; Wu, Shu-Qi; Liu, Cai-Ming; Cui, Ai-Li; Kou, Hui-Zhong

    2015-09-21

    Two cyano- and phenoxo-bridged octanuclear complexes ZnDyCo (complex ) and ZnDyCr (complex ) with diamagnetic Zn(ii) and Co(iii) are reported. Dy(iii) is surrounded by nine oxygen atoms of two [Zn(Me2valpn)] (Me2valpn(2-) = dianion of N,N'-2,2-dimethylpropylenebis(3-methoxysalicylideneimine)) and one water molecule. Magnetic studies reveal that both exhibit single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior with the energy barrier of 85.9 K for complex and 100.9 K for complex . PMID:26256244

  14. Valence photoelectron spectroscopy of Gd silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Braicovich, L. ); Puppin, E.; Lindau, I. ); Iandelli, A.; Olcese, G.L.; Palenzona, A. )

    1990-02-15

    Gd{sub 3}Si{sub 5}, GdSi, and Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 3} were investigated with photoemission spectroscopy in the photon-energy range 40.8--149 eV by exploiting the energy dependence of the photoemission cross sections and the valence resonance at the crossing of the Gd 4{ital d}-4{ital f} threshold. The modification of the spectra versus photon energy, along with their stoichiometry dependence, show the relevance of covalent mixed Gd 5{ital d}--Si 3{ital sp} states in the formation of the chemical bond. In the region close to the Fermi level an increase of the {ital d} contribution is observed. These points are discussed in connection with the existing models of the silicide bond.

  15. GD2-targeted immunotherapy and radioimmunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dobrenkov, Konstantin; Cheung, Nai-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Ganglioside GD2 is a tumor-associated surface antigen found in a broad spectrum of human cancers and stem cells. They include pediatric embryonal tumors (neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, brain tumors, osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma), as well as adult cancers (small cell lung cancer, melanoma, soft tissue sarcomas). Because of its restricted normal tissue distribution, GD2 has been proven safe for antibody targeting. Anti-GD2 antibody is now incorporated into the standard of care for the treatment of high risk metastatic neuroblastoma. Building on this experience, novel combinations of antibody, cytokines, cells and genetically engineered products all directed at GD2 are rapidly moving into the clinic. In the review, past and present immunotherapy trials directed at GD2 will be summarized, highlighting the lessons learned and the future directions. PMID:25440605

  16. A comparative study of magnetic behaviors in TbNi2, TbMn2 and TbNi2Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Md Din, M. F.; Kennedy, S. J.; Hong, F.; Campbell, S. J.; Studer, A. J.; Wu, G. H.; Cheng, Z. X.; Dou, S. X.

    2014-05-01

    All TbNi2, TbMn2, and TbNi2Mn compounds exhibit the cubic Laves phase with AB2-type structure in spite of the fact that the ratio of the Tb to transition-metal components in TbNi2Mn is 1:3. Rietveld refinement indicates that in TbNi2Mn the Mn atoms are distributed on both the A (8a) and B (16d) sites. The values of the lattice constants were measured to be a = 14.348 (space group F-43 m), 7.618 , and 7.158 (space group Fd-3 m) for TbNi2, TbMn2, and TbNi2Mn, respectively. The magnetic transition temperatures TC were found to be TC = 38 K and TC = 148 K for TbNi2 and TbNi2Mn, respectively, while two magnetic phase transitions are detected for TbMn2 at T1 = 20 K and T2 = 49 K. Clear magnetic history effects in a low magnetic field are observed in TbMn2 and TbNi2Mn. The magnetic entropy changes have been obtained.

  17. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Tb magnetic moments in Tb/Fe multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trhlík, M.; De Moor, P.; Mibu, K.; Severijns, N.; Shinjo, T.; Van Geert, A.; Vanneste, L.

    1997-01-01

    The direction of the magnetic moment of Tb in Fe(40 Å)/Tb( x Å) ( x = 10 and 20) multilayers has been studied using the low-temperature nuclear orientation technique in the temperature range 5-50 mK and in the external magnetic field range Bext = 0-8.5 T, with Bext applied along the sample plane. The anisotropy of the 299 keV 160Tb γ-line was monitored in three directions with respect to Bext and the sample plane. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the Tb magnetic moments has been found at zero Bext for both systems. The PMA effect is increased when the Tb layers are thinner. An application of Bext turned the Tb magnetic moments towards the sample plane, without reaching a full alignment even at Bext = 8.5 T.

  18. Crystal and magnetic structure of the R15Si9C compounds (R = Ho, Er, Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, C.; Wrubl, F.; Hill, A. H.; Pani, M.; Manfrinetti, P.

    2011-07-01

    The synthesis of the new compounds R15Si9C with R = Sm, Gd-Er, Y and R15Ge9C with R = Ce, Pr and Nd has been recently reported; these compounds crystallize in the hexagonal La15Ge9Fe structure type, hP50-P63mc, Z = 2 (ordered superstructure of La5Ge3 (Mn5Si3-type, hP 16-P63/mcm, Z = 2)). Here we report the results of a neutron diffraction investigation that we have performed to study the crystal and magnetic structures of the R15Si9C compounds with R = Tb, Ho and Er. All three compounds see the establishment of commensurate magnetic order with a predominantly ferromagnetic interaction. Details of mixed antiferro-ferromagnetic spin arrangements (? = [000]) (for Tb15Si9C and Ho15Si9C) or of purely ferromagnetic ordering (Er15Si9C), and of their temperature dependence, are given and linked to the different coordination of the four dissimilar rare earth sites. In the Tb and Ho compounds the thermal evolution of the magnetic moment values strongly differs between the different R sites. The position occupied by the principal carbon has been determined (Wyckoff site 2b) and the existence of a second position available for the interstitial carbon (Wyckoff site 2a) has been revealed for R = Ho, Tb. Moreover, in the Tb and Ho compounds the magnetic moment value of the rare earth site R4, surrounding the second interstitial carbon site, is strongly reduced if compared to the value on the other rare earth sites. The magnetic transition temperatures of all three compounds, i.e. TC = 130, 43 and 45 K for Tb15Si9C, Ho15Si9C and Er15Si9C, are remarkably high compared to those of the parent R5Si3 compounds. The magnetic behaviour of the partly filled Tb5Si3C0.25 is reported.

  19. Hydrogenation behavior of the R4MgCo (R=Y, La, Nd, Tb) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtender, V. V.; Paul-Boncour, V.; Riabov, A. B.; Denys, R. V.; Zavaliy, I. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    The hydrogen absorption properties of the R4MgCo compounds (R=Y, La, Nd, Tb; str. type Gd4RhIn; sp.gr. F 4 bar 3 m) have been studied for the first time. It was shown that their hydrogen storage capacity reaches about 2 wt%. At low pressure hydrogenation and moderately elevated temperatures the formed hydrides preserve the original structure of the metallic matrix. The crystal structure of the R4MgCoHx hydrides have been determined by XRD. Experimental hydrogen storage capacity (12 at.H/f.u. for Y4MgCo) is in good agreement with the theoretically calculated models, which allow also to estimate the distribution of H-atoms in metal lattice. TDS and DSC experiments demonstrated the multistep desorption process. XRD studies of the Tb4MgCoHx sample after TDS demonstrated the formation of TbH2 as the main phase and disproportionation of the parent compound.

  20. Bortezomib Does Not Reduce Muscular Dystrophy in the dy2J/dy2J Mouse Model of Laminin ?2 Chain-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Krner, Zandra; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin ?2 chain-deficiency, also known as MDC1A, is a severe neuromuscular disorder for which there is no cure. Patients with complete laminin ?2 chain-deficiency typically have an early onset disease with a more severe muscle phenotype while patients with residual laminin ?2 chain expression usually have a milder disease course. Similar genotype-phenotype correlations can be seen in the dy3K/dy3K and dy2J/dy2J mouse models of MDC1A, respectively, with dy3K/dy3K mice presenting the more severe phenotype. Recently, we demonstrated that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib partially improves muscle morphology and increases lifespan in dy3K/dy3K mice. Here, we explore the use of bortezomib in dy2J/dy2J animals. However, bortezomib neither improved histological hallmarks of disease nor increased muscle strength and locomotive activity in dy2J/dy2J mice. Altogether our data suggest that proteasome inhibition does not mitigate muscle dysfunction caused by partial laminin ?2 chain-deficiency. Still, it is possible that proteasome inhibition could be useful as a supportive therapy in patients with complete absence of laminin ?2 chain. PMID:26731667

  1. Bortezomib Does Not Reduce Muscular Dystrophy in the dy2J/dy2J Mouse Model of Laminin ?2 Chain-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Krner, Zandra; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin ?2 chain-deficiency, also known as MDC1A, is a severe neuromuscular disorder for which there is no cure. Patients with complete laminin ?2 chain-deficiency typically have an early onset disease with a more severe muscle phenotype while patients with residual laminin ?2 chain expression usually have a milder disease course. Similar genotype-phenotype correlations can be seen in the dy3K/dy3K and dy2J/dy2J mouse models of MDC1A, respectively, with dy3K/dy3K mice presenting the more severe phenotype. Recently, we demonstrated that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib partially improves muscle morphology and increases lifespan in dy3K/dy3K mice. Here, we explore the use of bortezomib in dy2J/dy2J animals. However, bortezomib neither improved histological hallmarks of disease nor increased muscle strength and locomotive activity in dy2J/dy2J mice. Altogether our data suggest that proteasome inhibition does not mitigate muscle dysfunction caused by partial laminin ?2 chain-deficiency. Still, it is possible that proteasome inhibition could be useful as a supportive therapy in patients with complete absence of laminin ?2 chain. PMID:26731667

  2. A New Gd(3+) Spin Label for Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) Distance Measurements in Proteins Produces Narrow Distance Distributions.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Elwy H; Lee, Michael D; Feintuch, Akiva; Cohen, Marie Ramirez; Swarbrick, James D; Otting, Gottfried; Graham, Bim; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2015-12-17

    Gd(3+) tags have been shown to be useful for performing distance measurements in biomolecules via the double electron-electron resonance (DEER) technique at Q- and W-band frequencies. We introduce a new cyclen-based Gd(3+) tag that exhibits a relatively narrow electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, affording high sensitivity, and which yields exceptionally narrow Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distance distributions in doubly tagged proteins owing to a very short tether. Both the maxima and widths of distance distributions measured for tagged mutants of the proteins ERp29 and T4 lysozyme, featuring Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distances of ca. 6 and 4 nm, respectively, were well reproduced by simulated distance distributions based on available crystal structures and sterically allowed rotamers of the tag. The precision of the position of the Gd(3+) ion is comparable to that of the nitroxide radical in an MTSL-tagged protein and thus the new tag represents an attractive tool for performing accurate distance measurements and potentially probing protein conformational equilibria. PMID:26623480

  3. Standards for TB care in India: A tool for universal access to TB care.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Sachdeva, K S; Malik, Parmar; Chandra, S; Ramachandran, R; Kulshrestha, N; Chopra, K K; Khaparde, S D

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, Government of India in collaboration with World Health Organization Country Office for India released the policy document on Standards for tuberculosis (TB) care in India after in-depth deliberation with national and international experts. The standards for TB care represent what is expected for quality TB care from the Indian healthcare system including both public and private systems. The details of each standard have been compiled in this review article. It is envisioned that the standards detailed in the manuscript are adapted by all TB care providers across the country. PMID:26970459

  4. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prisons, or homeless shelters. If you work in hospitals or health-care settings where TB patients are likely to be seen, you should consult infection control or occupational health experts. Ask about administrative and ...

  5. Immunomodulation by vitamin D: implications for TB

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Rene F; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2011-01-01

    TB remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Low vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of TB and other immune disorders. These observations suggest a role for vitamin D as a modulator of normal human immune function. This article will detail the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system and how vitamin D insufficiency may lead to immune dysregulation. The importance of vitamin D bioavailability as a mechanism for defining the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D and its impact on TB will also be discussed. The overall aim will be to provide a fresh perspective on the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of TB. PMID:22046197

  6. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... patients in crowded, enclosed environments like clinics, hospitals, prisons, or homeless shelters. Can the TB vaccine (BCG) ... places where transmission has occurred include crowded hospitals, prisons, homeless shelters, and other settings where susceptible persons ...

  7. HIV/STD/TB PREVENTION NEWS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN) is the U.S. reference, referral, and distribution service for information on HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB). NPIN produces, collects, catalogs, processes, stocks, and disseminates materi...

  8. Scissors Mode in Gd Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Becker, J. A.; Be?v?, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Krti?ka, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Parker, W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, G. J.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Wu, C. Y.

    2012-02-01

    Spectra of ? rays following neutron capture at isolated resonances of 6 stable Gd isotopes were measured with highly segmented BaF2 detector DANCE at the Los Alamos LANSCE spallation neutron source. The main emphasis was put on studying the ?-cascade decay of neutron resonances to get unique information on photon strength. An analysis of the accumulated ?-ray spectra within the extreme statistical model leads to an inescapable conclusion that scissors mode resonances are built not only on the ground-state, but also on excited levels in all product nuclei studied. The results on summed B(M1)? strength and energy of the scissors mode are compared with systematics of scissors mode parameters for the ground-state transitions deduced from nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements. A specific feature of our experiments is the investigation of scissors mode of odd nuclei, for which the nuclear resonance fluorescence provides only limited information.

  9. Recommendations for TB respiratory protection.

    PubMed

    Notarianni, G L

    1993-10-01

    After a long decline, tuberculosis is making a comeback. Because of this risk, several government agencies have developed in-depth recommendations designed to minimize the transmission of tuberculosis. 1990 CDC guidelines have formed the basis for most current recommendations, but those guidelines are undergoing revision. Great controversy surrounds the recommendations, particularly in the area of respiratory protection. According to NIOSH, the inability to adequately fit-test and fit-check disposable respirators is a major flaw that could compromise their ability to protect the wearer. OSHA has been enforcing guidelines for occupational exposure to TB under several existing standards, especially its respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134), and is currently enforcing the use of dust/mist/fume respirators. The agency can be expected to issue a National Compliance Directive upgrading required respiratory protection to HEPA filters. The author recommends implementing recommendations for appropriate administrative and engineering controls and using low-maintenance, reusable, half-face elastomeric respirators with disposable filter cartridges for employees in identified high-risk, exposure situations. PMID:10129223

  10. Hetero-tri-spin [2p-3d-4f] chain compounds based on nitronyl nitroxide lanthanide metallo-ligands: synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mei; Hu, Peng; Li, Yungai; Wang, Xiufeng; Li, Licun; Liao, Daizheng; Durga Prasad Goli, V M L; Ramasesha, S; Sutter, Jean-Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Employing nitronyl nitroxide lanthanide(III) complexes as metallo-ligands allowed the efficient and highly selective preparation of three series of unprecedented hetero-tri-spin (Cu-Ln-radical) one-dimensional compounds. These 2p-3d-4f spin systems, namely [Ln3Cu(hfac)11(NitPhOAll)4] (Ln(III) = Gd 1Gd, Tb 1Tb, Dy 1Dy; NitPhOAll = 2-(4'-allyloxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), [Ln3Cu(hfac)11(NitPhOPr)4] (Ln(III) = Gd 2Gd, Tb 2Tb, Dy 2Dy, Ho 2Ho, Yb 2Yb; NitPhOPr = 2-(4'-propoxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) and [Ln3Cu(hfac)11(NitPhOBz)4] (Ln(III) = Gd 3Gd, Tb 3Tb, Dy 3Dy; NitPhOBz=2-(4'-benzyloxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) involve O-bound nitronyl nitroxide radicals as bridging ligands in chain structures with a [Cu-Nit-Ln-Nit-Ln-Nit-Ln-Nit] repeating unit. The dc magnetic studies show that ferromagnetic metal-radical interactions take place in these hetero-tri-spin chain complexes, these and the next-neighbor interactions have been quantified for the Gd derivatives. Complexes 1Tb and 2Tb exhibit frequency dependence of ac magnetic susceptibilities, indicating single-chain magnet behavior. PMID:25169024

  11. pH-induced Dy? and Dy?? cluster-based 1D chains with different magnetic relaxation features.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Lei; Dong, Jie; Ni, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Bo-Wen; Cui, Jian-Zhong; Zhao, Bin

    2014-11-28

    Two novel tetra- and deca-nuclear dysprosium compounds, namely, [Dy4(?3-OH)2(L)10(bipy)2(H2O)2]n (1) and {[Dy10(?3-OH)8(L)22(bipy)2(H2O)2]5H2O}n (2) (L = 3-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine), have been successfully obtained by hydrothermal reaction at different pH values. The solid state structures of 1 and 2 were established by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique, and both of them exhibit complicated 1D chains with [Dy4] (1) and [Dy10] (2) cluster units, respectively. Adjacent [Dy4] in 1 and [Dy10] in 2 are connected by two bridging carboxylate groups in the ?(1):?(1):?2 mode. Magnetic studies reveal that they exhibit different magnetic relaxation behaviors with the energy barrier of 23.6 K for 1 and 3.2 K for 2. Interestingly, the large divergence in both the structures and magnetic properties for 1 and 2 only originated from the different pH values in preparing them. PMID:25293936

  12. Magnetism in Gd-W films

    SciTech Connect

    Gadioli, Giovana Z.; Rouxinol, Francisco P.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Santos, Adenilson O. dos; Cardoso, Lisandro P.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A.

    2008-05-01

    Vapor condensation techniques are useful to prepare magnetic alloys whose components have low or even negligible equilibrium mutual solubility. In this work, one of these techniques--sputtering--was used to obtain Gd{sub x}W{sub 1-x} alloys whose magnetic properties were investigated as a function of the Gd atomic concentration x. Gadolinium and various Gd-based alloys are promising materials for magnetic refrigeration and this was one of the motivations for this study. The Gd{sub x}-W{sub 1-x} films were sputter deposited from Gd and W targets with x ranging from 0 to 1 as determined by x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopic analyses. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that crystalline structures were formed at low and high Gd concentrations, while at intermediate concentrations, the films were amorphous. Magnetization measurements, performed as a function of temperature and with static and alternating applied fields, reveal a spin glasslike behavior in all the W-containing samples for temperatures below the freezing temperature T{sub f}. For low and intermediate Gd concentrations, and for T>T{sub f}, the films were paramagnetic, while a ferromagnetic phase was observed in the Gd-W alloy of the highest Gd content. The magnetocaloric effect was investigated from the magnetization isotherms M versus H, from which the isothermal magnetic entropy variation {delta}S{sub M} as a function of T, for the removal of an applied field of 50 kOe, was determined. It was observed that the maximum value of {delta}S{sub M} for each {delta}S{sub M} versus T curve and the temperature at which these maxima occur, are strongly dependent on x.

  13. Probing the structure-relaxivity relationship of bis-hydrated Gd(DOTAla) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Boros, Eszter; Caravan, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Two structural isomers of the heptadentate chelator DO3Ala were synthesized, with carboxymethyl groups at either the 1,4- or 1,7-positions of the cyclen macrocycle. To interrogate the relaxivity under different rotatational dynamics regimes, the pendant primary amine was coupled to ibuprofen to enable binding to serum albumin. These chelators 6a and 6b form bis(aqua) ternary complexes with Gd(III) or Tb(III) as estimated from relaxivity measurements or luminescence lifetime measurements in water. The relaxivity of [Gd(6a)(H2O)2] and [Gd(6b)(H2O)2] was measured in the presence and absence of coordinating anions prevalent in vivo such as phosphate, lactate, and bicarbonate and compared with data attained for the q = 2 complex [Gd(DO3A)(H2O)2]. We found that relaxivity was reduced through formation of ternary complexes with lactate and bicarbonate, albeit to a lesser degree then the relaxivity of Gd(DO3A). In the presence of 100-fold excess phosphate, relaxivity was slightly increased and typical for q = 2 complexes of this size (8.3 mM(-1) s(-1) and 9.5 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively, at 37 C, 60 MHz). Relaxivity for the complexes in the presence of HSA corresponded well to relaxivity obtained for complexes with reduced access for inner-sphere water (13.5 and 12.7 mM(-1) s(-1) at 37 C, 60 MHz). Mean water residency time at 37 C was determined using temperature-dependent (17)O-T2 measurements at 11.7 T and calculated to be (310)?M = 23 1 ns for both structural isomers. Kinetic inertness under forcing conditions (pH 3, competing DTPA ligand) was found to be comparable to [Gd(DO3A)(H2O)]. Overall, we found that the replacement of one of the acetate arms of DO3A with an amino-propionate arm does not significantly alter the relaxometric and kinetic inertness properties of the corresponding Gd complexes; however, it does provide access to easily functionalizable q = 2 derivatives. PMID:25693053

  14. Macrocyclic Gd(3+) complexes with pendant crown ethers designed for binding zwitterionic neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Oukhatar, Fatima; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Logothetis, Nikos K; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2015-07-27

    A series of Gd(3+) complexes exhibiting a relaxometric response to zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters was synthesized. The design concept involves ditopic interactions 1) between a positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated Gd(3+) chelate and the carboxylate group of the neurotransmitters and 2) between an azacrown ether appended to the chelate and the amino group of the neurotransmitters. The chelates differ in the nature and length of the linker connecting the cyclen-type macrocycle that binds the Ln(3+) ion and the crown ether. The complexes are monohydrated, but they exhibit high proton relaxivities (up to 7.7 mM(-1)  s(-1) at 60 MHz, 310 K) due to slow molecular tumbling. The formation of ternary complexes with neurotransmitters was monitored by (1) H relaxometric titrations of the Gd(3+) complexes and by luminescence measurements on the Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) analogues at pH 7.4. The remarkable relaxivity decrease (≈80 %) observed on neurotransmitter binding is related to the decrease in the hydration number, as evidenced by luminescence lifetime measurements on the Eu(3+) complexes. These complexes show affinity for amino acid neurotransmitters in the millimolar range, which can be suited to imaging concentrations of synaptically released neurotransmitters. They display good selectivity over non-amino acid neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, and noradrenaline) and hydrogenphosphate, but selectivity over hydrogencarbonate was not achieved. PMID:26118946

  15. The performance and limitation of T-SPOT.TB for the diagnosis of TB in a high prevalence setting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis remains difficulty. The previous reports have shown that the T-SPOT.TB assay may be a more promising diagnostic tool for TB, however, it needs a further study to evaluate the diagnostic value of T-SPOT.TB for the specific populations in a high prevalence setting. Methods In this present study, we conducted stratified and comparable analyses to explore the clinical value and the limitation of T-SPOT.TB assay in TB diagnosis in a high TB prevalence setting, Southern China. A total of 413 subjects including 163 pulmonary TB (PTB), 39 extrapulmonary TB (EPTB), 106 non-TB pulmonary diseases (NTBPDs), 20 medical staff and 85 healthy controls were included in the study. Results According to T-SPOT.TB, there had a high incidence of latent TB infection (LTBI) in general population in Southern China, especially in the NTBPDS and medical staff. The T-SPOT.TB had a high performance in the diagnosis of active TB (ATB) in a lower risk of TB infection population such as the general population, however, the T-SPOT.TB for the diagnosis of ATB in the high risk of TB infection populations involving close contacts such as the patients with pulmonary diseases (PD) or medical staff isn’t reliable due to the interference by LTBI. Under this condition, the value of rule-out of the assay was seemed to be better than that of rule-in. We believed that the T-SPOT.TB is suitable for screening both the EPTB and the ATB combined with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, we found that the sensitivity of T-SPOT.TB in sputum smear-negative population wasn’t as high as that in smear-positive population. Conclusions The T-SPOT.TB testing results should be interpreted with caution combined with subject’s characteristics in a high prevalence setting. PMID:24976994

  16. Long range ordered magnetic and atomic structures of the quasicrystal approximant in the Tb-Au-Si system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebresenbut, Girma; Svante Andersson, Mikael; Beran, P?emysl; Manuel, Pascal; Nordblad, Per; Sahlberg, Martin; Pay Gomez, Cesar

    2014-08-01

    The atomic and magnetic structure of the 1/1 Tb(14)Au(70)Si(16) quasicrystal approximant has been solved by combining x-ray and neutron diffraction data. The atomic structure is classified as a Tsai-type 1/1 approximant with certain structural deviations from the prototype structures; there are additional atomic positions in the so-called cubic interstices as well as in the cluster centers. The magnetic property and neutron diffraction measurements indicate the magnetic structure to be ferrimagnetic-like below 9 K in contrast to the related Gd(14)Au(70)Si(16) structure that is reported to be purely ferromagnetic.

  17. Temperature Sensing Above 1000 C Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Spin-Allowed Broadband Luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Chambers, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) is shown to produce remarkably high-intensity spin-allowed broadband luminescence with sufficiently long decay times to make effective luminescence-decay-time based temperature measurements above 1000 C. This phosphor is therefore an attractive alternative to the much lower luminescence intensity rare-earth-doped thermographic phosphors that are typically utilized at these elevated temperatures. In particular, Cr:GdAlO3 will be preferred over rare-earth-doped phosphors, such as Dy:YAG, at temperatures up to 1200 C for intensity-starved situations when the much lower emission intensity from rare-earth-doped phosphors is insufficient for accurate temperature measurements in the presence of significant radiation background. While transition-metal-doped phosphors such as Cr:Al2O3 (ruby) are known to exhibit high luminescence intensity at low dopant concentrations, quenching due to nonradiative decay pathways competing with the (sup 2)E to (sup 4)A(sub 2) radiative transition (R line) has typically restricted their use for temperature sensing to below 600 C. Thermal quenching of the broadband (sup 4)T(sub 2) to (sup 4)A(sub 2) radiative transition from Cr:GdAlO3, however, is delayed until much higher temperatures (above 1000 C). This spin-allowed broadband emission persists to high temperatures because the lower-lying (sup 2)E energy level acts as a reservoir to thermally populate the higher shorter-lived (sup 4)T(sub 2) energy level and because the activation energy for nonradiative crossover relaxation from the (sup 4)T(sub 2) level to the (sup 4)A(sub 2) ground state is high. The strong crystal field associated with the tight bonding of the AlO6 octahedra in the GdAlO3 perovskite structure is responsible for this behavior.

  18. Spectral comparison of Dy, Tm and Dy/Tm in ? thermoluminescent dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karali, T.; Rowlands, A. P.; Townsend, P. D.; Prokic, M.; Olivares, J.

    1998-03-01

    Spectrally resolved thermoluminescence of co-doped Dy:Tm:0022-3727/31/6/025/img8 shows that the maximum peak temperature for the nominal 0022-3727/31/6/025/img9C dosimetry peak differs by 0022-3727/31/6/025/img10C for Dy and Tm emission. This is interpreted as evidence that the rare earth ions form part of a complex defect which variously provides both the charge trapping and, during heating, the radiative decay. The peaks have the same activation energies but different pre-exponential factors. Modifications of the material by thermal treatments using furnace or laser pulse heating convert the state of dispersion of the rare earth ions between isolated, pair or defect clusters, which alter the dosimetry efficiency. In some cases the modified geometries are detectable via movement of the emission lines. For rapidly quenched materials, discontinuities in the thermoluminescence responses are suggested to be indicative of new microcrystalline phases. Slow cooling degrades the efficiency but also indicates the presence of further thermoluminescence glow peaks within the region of the main dosimetry signal. Pulsed laser heating with a UV laser altered the glow curve and resulted in strong signals. Mechanisms for this process are considered.

  19. Influence of the rare earth concentration on the crystallization process of Fe-Dy-B amorphous alloys. Study of Fe74Dy6B20 and Fe70Dy10B20 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravach, G.; Machizaud, F.; Teillet, J.; LeBreton, J. M.; Fnidiki, A.

    2000-04-01

    The crystallization behaviour of Fe74 Dy6 B20 and Fe70 Dy10 B20 amorphous alloys was carefully investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, Mssbauer spectrometry and x-ray diffraction up to 800 C. Calorimetric studies were performed in limited temperature ranges that were progressively extended. For Fe74 Dy6 B20 , after partial crystallization into the tetragonal Fe3 B compound, the remaining amorphous part segregates into two amorphous `phases', respectively enriched and impoverished in dysprosium. Tetragonal Fe3 B further transforms into orthorhombic Fe3 B. Metastable Dy3 Fe62 B14 compound then forms from the Dy-impoverished amorphous fraction, and subsequent crystallization of the Dy1 + icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> Fe4 B4 phase occurs in the Dy-enriched fraction. Finally, Dy3 Fe62 B14 decomposes into bcc iron, Dy1 + icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> Fe4 B4 and iron borides. The nature of the first crystallization product suggests the existence of local environments of t-Fe3 B type for this Dy concentration. The crystallization process of Fe70 Dy10 B20 strongly differs from that of Fe74 Dy6 B20 . Segregation phenomena occur in the amorphous state prior to any crystallization. If the nature of the first crystallization product is assumed to be correlated with short-range order in the amorphous state, our results suggest that the local environments differ from those of Fe74 Dy6 B20 , as they probably involve dysprosium atoms. This behaviour would agree with a previous Mssbauer study performed on the as-quenched amorphous alloys, providing evidence for a structural modification of the iron environments in the rare earth concentration range 8-9 at.%.

  20. GAPS IN THE GD-1 STAR STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, R. G.; Grillmair, C. J. E-mail: carl@ipac.caltech.edu

    2013-05-10

    GD-1 is a long, thin, Milky Way star stream that has readily visible density variations along its length. We quantify the locations, sizes, and statistical significance of the density structure, i.e., gaps, using a set of scaled filters. The shapes of the filters are based on the gaps that develop in simulations of dark matter sub-halos crossing a star stream. The high Galactic latitude 8.4 kpc long segment of GD-1 that we examine has 8 {+-} 3 gaps of 99% significance or greater, with the error estimated on the basis of tests of the gap-filtering technique. The cumulative distribution of gaps more than three times the width of the stream is in good agreement with predictions for dark matter sub-halo encounters with cold star streams. The number of gaps narrower than three times the width of the GD-1 stream falls well below the cold stream prediction which is taken into account for the gap creation rate integrated over all sizes. Simple warm stream simulations scaled to GD-1 show that the falloff in gaps is expected for sub-halos below a mass of 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. The GD-1 gaps requires 100 sub-halos >10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} within 30 kpc, the apocenter of GD-1 orbit. These results are consistent with LCDM sub-halo predictions but further improvements in stream signal-to-noise and gap modeling will be welcome.

  1. Detailed Investigation of superdeformation in ^149Tb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharraja, B.; Garg, U.; Jin, H.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fisher, S.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Nisius, D.; Kaczarowski, R.; Govil, I. M.; Kruecken, R.; Machiavelli, A.; MacLeod, R.; Beck, F. A.; Byrski, Th.; Haas, B.

    1997-04-01

    To extend our investigations of the SD phenomenon below the neutron gap N = 86, we have performed an experiment at GAMMASPHERE to study in detail the superdeformed bands in ^149_65Tb_84. The ^128Te(^27Al, 6n) reaction was employed at a beam energy of 155 MeV. We have observed, so far, three SD bands in this nucleus. The ^149Tb (band 1) and ^150Tb (band 1) have identical transition energies. We suggest that ^149Tb (band 1) has the ? 6^3 ? 7^1 ([651]1/2)-1 (? = -i) intruder configuration. Band 2 is also "identical" to these two bands, with a shift at high energies. This band could be the the signature partner of the yrast band (band 1), involving a hole in the positive signature branch of the [651]1/2 neutron orbital. Other proton and/or neutron multi-particle excitations are also expected in ^149Tb; the search for these SD bands is in progress.

  2. Recent tuberculosis diagnosis toward the end TB strategy.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Seon Ah; Cho, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jeonghyo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite global TB eradication efforts, it is still a global public health concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Most of the active TB infections are curable with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, but drug-resistant TB is difficult and expensive to treat in immunocompetent as well as immunocompromised individuals. Thus, rapid, economic, and accurate point-of care tools for TB diagnosis are required urgently. This review describes the history of M. tuberculosis detection methods up to date and the recent advances using nanotechnology for point-of-care testing of TB diagnosis. PMID:26853124

  3. Cell Death and Autophagy in TB

    PubMed Central

    Moraco, Andrew H.; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has succeeded in infecting one third of the human race though inhibition or evasion of innate and adaptive immunity. The pathogen is a facultative intracellular parasite that uses the niche provided by mononuclear phagocytes for its advantage. Complex interactions determine whether the bacillus will or will not be delivered to acidified lysosomes, whether the host phagocyte will survive infection or die, and whether the timing and mode of cell death works to the advantage of the host or the pathogen. Here we discuss cell death and autophagy in TB. These fundamental processes of cell biology feature in all aspects of TB pathogenesis and may be exploited to the treatment or prevention of TB disease. PMID:25453227

  4. Investigations of the effect of nonmagnetic Ca substitution for magnetic Dy on spin-freezing in Dy2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, V. K.; Tennant, D. A.; Lake, B.

    2015-11-01

    Physical properties of partially Ca substituted hole-doped Dy2Ti2O7 have been investigated by ac magnetic susceptibility {?\\text{ac}}(T) , dc magnetic susceptibility ? (T) , isothermal magnetization M(H) and heat capacity {{C}\\text{p}}(T) measurements on Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7. The spin-ice system Dy2Ti2O7 exhibits a spin-glass type freezing behavior near 16 K. Our frequency dependent {?\\text{ac}}(T) data of Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7 show that the spin-freezing behavior is significantly influenced by Ca substitution. The effect of partial nonmagnetic Ca2+?substitution for magnetic Dy3+ is similar to the previous study on nonmagnetic isovalent Y3+ substituted Dy2-x Y x Ti2O7 (for low levels of dilution), however the suppression of spin-freezing behavior is substantially stronger for Ca than Y. The Cole-Cole plot analysis reveals semicircular character and a single relaxation mode in Dy1.8Ca0.2Ti2O7 as for Dy2Ti2O7. No noticeable change in the insulating behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 results from the holes produced by 10% Ca2+ substitution for Dy3+ ions.

  5. Dysprosium-saving improvement of coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by Dy2S3 additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, A. M.; Marinescu, M.; Li, W. F.; Liu, J. F.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2011-04-01

    Dysprosium-added sintered magnets were prepared from blends of Nd15.5(Fe,Co,Ga)78.2B6.3 and Dy2S3 powders; their microstructure and magnetic properties were compared to those of the magnets made with Dy2O3 additions or from single (Nd,Dy)-(Fe,Co,Ga)-B alloys. The addition of Dy2S3 leads to replacement of the neodymium oxide phases in the sintered magnets by the Nd2O2S and NdS phases. The magnets prepared with both the Dy2S3 and Dy2O3 powders exhibited inhomogeneous distribution of Dy within the (Nd,Dy)2Fe14B grains with Dy-rich outer grain regions. However, in a marked difference from the Dy2O3-added and single-alloy magnets, where the grain-boundary oxide phases were Dy-rich, the magnets prepared with Dy2S3 had their sulfur-containing grain-boundary phases depleted of Dy. With the larger fraction of Dy atoms available for alloying the main (Nd,Dy)2Fe14B phase, the magnets prepared with Dy2S3 showed the largest coercivity gain per 1 at.% of the added Dy.

  6. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF A DYED FOOD MARKING TECHNIQUE FOR CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of marking adult Cx. quinquefasciatus by feeding the larvae commercial hog chow dyed with methylene blue, Giemsa, and crystal violet was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Of 243 mosquitoes fed the dyed food, 230 had visible marks (94.6 %). The dyed food did increase the development tim...

  7. The variation in γ-ray multiplicity with nuclear temperature studied in 160Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekstad, J.; Henriquez, A.; Ingebretsen, F.; Midttun, G.; Skaali, B.; Øyan, R.; Haugland, R.; Messelt, S.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Løvhøiden, G.; Ekström, L. P.

    1982-11-01

    A novel method of obtaining detailed infromation on the level density far above the yrast line is described. The γ-ray multiplicity as a function of excitation energy in 160Dy is studied by means of the 161Dy(3He, α)160Dy reaction.

  8. 26 CFR 48.6715-1 - Penalty for misuse of dyed fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penalty for misuse of dyed fuel. 48.6715-1... of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes 48.6715-1 Penalty for misuse of dyed... of any dye or marking done pursuant to 48.4082-1 in any dyed fuel, then section 6715(a)(3)...

  9. 26 CFR 48.6715-1 - Penalty for misuse of dyed fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalty for misuse of dyed fuel. 48.6715-1... of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes 48.6715-1 Penalty for misuse of dyed... of any dye or marking done pursuant to 48.4082-1 in any dyed fuel, then section 6715(a)(3)...

  10. 26 CFR 48.6715-1 - Penalty for misuse of dyed fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penalty for misuse of dyed fuel. 48.6715-1... of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes 48.6715-1 Penalty for misuse of dyed... of any dye or marking done pursuant to 48.4082-1 in any dyed fuel, then section 6715(a)(3)...

  11. 26 CFR 48.6715-1 - Penalty for misuse of dyed fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Penalty for misuse of dyed fuel. 48.6715-1... of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes 48.6715-1 Penalty for misuse of dyed... of any dye or marking done pursuant to 48.4082-1 in any dyed fuel, then section 6715(a)(3)...

  12. Evidence for M1 scissors resonances built on the levels in the quasicontinuum of 163Dy.

    PubMed

    Krticka, M; Becvr, F; Honztko, J; Tomandl, I; Heil, M; Kppeler, F; Reifarth, R; Voss, F; Wisshak, K

    2004-04-30

    Spectra of two-step gamma cascades following the thermal 162Dy(n,gamma)163Dy reaction have been measured. Distinct peaklike structures observed at the midpoints of these spectra are interpreted as a manifestation of the low-energy isovector M1 vibrational mode of excited 163Dy nuclei. PMID:15169140

  13. Overview of GD2 and GD3 with Caisson of Dry Dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of GD-2 and GD-3 with Caisson of Dry Dock No. 2 in center - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Oblique view of GD5 taken from Pier GD4 U.S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of GD-5 taken from Pier GD-4 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. GD4 with GD3 at oblique view on left U.S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GD-4 with GD-3 at oblique view on left - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Pier GD3, oblique view taken from Pier GD2, Caisson of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pier GD-3, oblique view taken from Pier GD-2, Caisson of Dry Dock No. 2 to left - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Oblique of GD4 and GD5, Dry Dock No. 3 Caisson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique of GD-4 and GD-5, Dry Dock No. 3 Caisson between piers - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Dy-Free Nd-Fe-B Based Permanent Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Arjun; Khan, Mahmud; Gschneidner, Karl, Jr.; McCallum, Ralph; Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2015-03-01

    Nd2Fe14B based permanent magnets are the current state of the art for high performance magnets. The prototype crystallize in the P42 / mnm tetragonal crystal structure, where the Nd atoms occupy the 4f and 4gsites, Fe atoms occupy six different atomic sites (16k1, 16k2, 8j1, 8j2, 4e, 4c), and B occupies only the 4g site. The leading contribution to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in Nd2Fe14B energy comes from the Nd ions, which strongly prefer a c-axis alignment at ambient temperature. Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet has excellent magnetic properties at room temperature but has poor high temperature properties (T>400 K). A small amount of Dy (up to 10%) is substituted for Nd in Nd2Fe14B to increase the high temperature performance. Although Dy containing Nd2Fe14B magnets are desired for high temperature applications, the high price and limited supply of Dy urges the development of Dy-free permanent magnets. Here, we discuss the magnetic properties of several Dy-free Nd-Fe-B based nanostructured magnets and propose alternatives for Dy-based Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets for high temperature applications such as electric drive motors and wind turbines. This work was supported by the U.S.DOE, ARPA-E, Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies for Energy (REACT). The research was performed at the Ames Laboratory which is operated for the U.S. DOE by Iowa State University under contract #DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  19. Dy163-Ho163 branching: an s-process barometer

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, H.; Walter, G.; Macklin, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of Dy163 and Er164 have been measured to analyze the s-process branching at Dy163-Ho163. The reproduction of the s-process abundance of Er164 via this branching is sensitive to temperature kT, neutron density, and electron density n/sub e/. The calculations using information from other branchings on kT and the neutron density n/sub n/ give constraints for n/sub e/ at the site of the s-process.

  20. Dy163-Ho163 branching: An s-process barometer

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, H.; Walter, G.; Macklin, R.L.

    1985-01-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of Dy163 and Er164 have been measured to analyse the s-process branching at Dy163-Ho163. The reproduction of the s-process abundance of Er164 via this branching is sensitive to temperature kT, neutron density, and electron density n/sub e/. The calculations using information from other branchings on kT and the neutron density n/sub n/ give constraints for n/sub e/ at the site of the s-process.

  1. A comparative study of magnetic behaviors in TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. L.; Md Din, M. F.; Hong, F.; Cheng, Z. X.; Dou, S. X.; Kennedy, S. J.; Studer, A. J.; Campbell, S. J.; Wu, G. H.

    2014-05-07

    All TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn compounds exhibit the cubic Laves phase with AB{sub 2}-type structure in spite of the fact that the ratio of the Tb to transition-metal components in TbNi{sub 2}Mn is 1:3. Rietveld refinement indicates that in TbNi{sub 2}Mn the Mn atoms are distributed on both the A (8a) and B (16d) sites. The values of the lattice constants were measured to be a = 14.348 Å (space group F-43 m), 7.618 Å, and 7.158 Å (space group Fd-3 m) for TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively. The magnetic transition temperatures T{sub C} were found to be T{sub C} = 38 K and T{sub C} = 148 K for TbNi{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively, while two magnetic phase transitions are detected for TbMn{sub 2} at T{sub 1} = 20 K and T{sub 2} = 49 K. Clear magnetic history effects in a low magnetic field are observed in TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn. The magnetic entropy changes have been obtained.

  2. TAIMA (Stop) TB: The Impact of a Multifaceted TB Awareness and Door-to-Door Campaign in Residential Areas of High Risk for TB in Iqaluit, Nunavut

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Gonzalo G.; VanDyk, Deborah D.; Aaron, Shawn D.; Cameron, D. William; Davies, Naomi; Stephen, Natasha; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Momoli, Franco; Moreau, Katherine; Obed, Natan; Baikie, Maureen; Osborne, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of active tuberculosis (TB) disease in the Canadian Territory of Nunavut has shown a rising trend over the past 10 years. In 2010 it was 60 times greater than the national incidence rate. The objective of the Taima (translates to “stop” in Inuktitut) TB study was to implement and evaluate a public health campaign to enhance existing TB prevention efforts in Nunavut. Methods A TB awareness campaign followed by a door-to-door screening campaign was carried out in Iqaluit, Nunavut. The aim of the campaign was to raise awareness about TB, and to provide in-home screening and treatment for people living in residential areas at high risk for TB. Screening was based on geographic location rather than on individual risk factors. Results During the general awareness campaign an increase in the number of people who requested TB testing at the local public health clinic was observed. However, this increase was not sustained following cessation of the awareness campaign. Targeted TB screening in high risk residential areas in Iqaluit resulted in 224 individuals having TSTs read, and detection of 42 previously unidentified cases of latent TB, (overall yield of 18.8% or number needed to screen = 5.3). These cases of latent TB infection (LTBI) were extra cases that had not been picked up by traditional screening practices (34% relative increase within the community). This resulted in a 33% relative increase in the completion of LTBI treatment within the community. The program directly and indirectly identified 5/17 new cases of active TB disease in Iqaluit during the study period (29.5% of all incident cases). Conclusions While contact tracing investigations remain a cornerstone of TB prevention, additional awareness, screening, and treatment programs like Taima TB may contribute to the successful control of TB in Aboriginal communities. PMID:25033320

  3. Tuberculosis: Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Tuberculosis (TB) Disease: Symptoms & Risk Factors Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ...

  4. HIV-1 and the immune response to TB

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Naomi F; Meintjes, Graeme; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    TB causes 1.4 million deaths annually. HIV-1 infection is the strongest risk factor for TB. The characteristic immunological effect of HIV is on CD4 cell count. However, the risk of TB is elevated in HIV-1 infected individuals even in the first few years after HIV acquisition and also after CD4 cell counts are restored with antiretroviral therapy. In this review, we examine features of the immune response to TB and how this is affected by HIV-1 infection and vice versa. We discuss how the immunology of HIVTB coinfection impacts on the clinical presentation and diagnosis of TB, and how antiretroviral therapy affects the immune response to TB, including the development of TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. We highlight important areas of uncertainty and future research needs. PMID:23653664

  5. One health/veterinary links associated with TB vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: participants will understand the current status of veterinary tuberculosis (TB) vaccine research for cattle and wildlife and their potential applications for development of human TB vaccines. Vaccines are lacking for many chronic intracellular pathogens requiring cell-mediated immunity ...

  6. TB in Correctional Facilities Is a Public Health Concern

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Past Emails CDC Features TB in Correctional Facilities is a Public Health Concern Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... time of diagnosis. Figure 2 (larger view). TB is Diagnosed in all Types of Correctional Facilities Persons ...

  7. The isothermal section of Gd-Ni-Si system at 1070 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pani, M.; Provino, A.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    The Gd-Ni-Si system has been investigated at 1070 K by X-ray and microprobe analyses. The existence of the known compounds, i.e.: GdNi10Si2, GdNi8Si3, GdNi5Si3, GdNi7Si6, GdNi6Si6, GdNi4Si, GdNi2Si2, GdNiSi3, Gd3Ni6Si2, GdNiSi, GdNiSi2, GdNi0.4Si1.6, Gd2Ni2.35Si0.65, Gd3NiSi2, Gd3NiSi3 and Gd6Ni1.67Si3, has been confirmed. Moreover, five new phases have been identified in this system. The crystal structure for four of them has been determined: Gd2Ni16-12.8Si1-4.2 (Th2Zn17-type), GdNi6.6Si6 (GdNi7Si6-type), Gd3Ni8Si (Y3Co8Si-type) and Gd3Ni11.5Si4.2(Gd3Ru4Ga12-type). The compound with composition ~Gd2Ni4Si3 still remains with unknown structure. Quasi-binary phases, solid solutions, were detected at 1070 K to be formed by the binaries GdNi5, GdNi3, GdNi2, GdNi, GdSi2 and GdSi1.67; while no appreciable solubility was observed for the other binary compounds of the Gd-Ni-Si system. Magnetic properties of the GdNi6Si6, GdNi6.6Si6 and Gd3Ni11.5Si4.2 compounds have also been investigated and are here reported.

  8. Structure and magnetic properties of bulk nanocrystalline Dy metal prepared by spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, M.; Wang, K. J.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, D. T.; Zhang, J. X.

    2008-11-17

    The structure and magnetic properties were studied for bulk nanocrystalline dysprosium (Dy) metal prepared by spark plasma sintering method. All the as-prepared samples have hexagonal close packed structure. A decrease in grain size results in remarkable changes in magnetic ordering temperature of the nanocrystalline Dy metal. At 5 K, the magnetization drops by 3.35%, and the coercive force increases by three times for nanocrystalline Dy compared to those of coarse-grained bulk Dy sample. These results indicate the remarkable influence of the nanostructure on the magnetism of Dy due to finite size effect.

  9. Structural and phase dependent thermo and photoluminescent properties of Dy(OH){sub 3} and Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhar, M.; Department of Physics, Acharya Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560090 ; Sunitha, D.V.; Dhananjaya, N.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S.C.; Nagabhushana, B.M.; Shivakumara, C.; Chakradhar, R.P.S.

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Packing diagram of (a) hexagonal Dy(OH){sub 3} and (b) cubic Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods. Highlights: ? Hexagonal Dy(OH){sub 3} and Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal route. ? Phase dependent PL and TL studies were carried out. ? The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), order of kinetics (b), and frequency factor (s) were estimated using peak shape method. ? Linear response of cubic Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase is useful for its application in dosimetry. -- Abstract: Hexagonal Dy(OH){sub 3} and cubic Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal method. Dy(OH){sub 3} nanorods was directly obtained at 180 C for 20 h after hydrothermal treatment whereas subsequently heat treatment at 750 C for 2 h gives pure cubic Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}. SEM micrographs reveal that needle shaped rods with different sizes were observed in both the phases. TEM results also confirm this. The TL response of hexagonal Dy(OH){sub 3} and cubic Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods have been analyzed for ?-irradiation over a wide range of exposures (15 kGy). TL glow peak intensity increases with ? dose in both the phases. The activation energy (E), order of kinetics (b), and frequency factor (s) for both the phases have been determined using Chen's peak shape method. The simple glow curve shape, structure and linear response to ?-irradiation over a large span of exposures makes the cubic Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a useful dosimetric material to estimate high exposures of ?-rays.

  10. Lifetime Measurements of Levels in 160Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casarella, Clark; Aprahamian, Ani; Crider, Ben; Lesher, Shelly; Marsh, Ian; Peters, Erin; Prados-Estevez, Francisco; Smith, Mallory; Vanhoy, Jeffrey; Yates, Steven

    2013-10-01

    The rare earth region of nuclei has been well established as a region of deformation for decades. However, the nature of vibrations built on a deformed ground state remain far from understood and present an oustanding challenge to nuclear structure physics. Studies of 158Gd has shown a preponderance of excited 0+ states with varying degrees of collectivity. We have measured level lifetimes, reduced transition probabilities and angular distributions of gamma-rays excited by inelastic neutron scattering and the use of the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) at the University of Kentucky 7 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility. Low lying excited states of 160Gd were populated up to an excitation energy of E < 2 MeV. We will present and discuss the measured level lifetimes of 160Gd and their implied degrees of collectivity. This work was supported by the NSF under contract numbers PHY-1068192, PHY-12-05412, and PHY-0956310.

  11. Pulsating White Dwarf Star GD99

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chynoweth, K. M.; Thompson, S.; Mullally, F.; Yeates, C.

    2004-12-01

    We present 15 hours of time-series photometry of the variable white dwarf star GD99. These data were obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope in January 2003, using the Argos CCD photometer. We achieved a noise level as low as 0.07 %, as measured from the power spectrum of our first night. Our observations confirm that GD99 is a unique pulsating white dwarf whose modes show characteristics of both the hot and cold type of DA variable stars. Additionally, GD99 has a large number of modes, making it a good candidate for asteroseismological study. Our preliminary results indicate that this star merits further study to decipher its abundant set of unusual modes. With such a rich period structure, longer continuous data sets will be required to fully resolve the pulsation spectrum.

  12. TB drug development: immunology at the table

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Carl; Barry, Clifton E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our understanding of the host-pathogen relationship in tuberculosis can help guide tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery in at least two ways. First, the recognition that host immunopathology affects lesional TB drug distribution means that pharmacokinetic evaluation of drug candidates needs to move beyond measurements of drug levels in blood, whole lungs or alveolar epithelial lining fluid to include measurements in specific types of lesions. Second, by restricting the replication of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) subpopulations in latent TB infection and in active disease, the host immune response puts Mtb into a state associated with phenotypic tolerance to TB drugs selected for their activity against replicating Mtb. This has spurred a major effort to conduct high throughput screens in vitro for compounds that can kill Mtb when it is replicating slowly if at all. Each condition used in vitro to slow Mtb’s replication and thereby model the phenotypically drug-tolerant state has advantages and disadvantages. Lead candidates emerging from such in vitro studies face daunting challenges in the design of proof-of-concept studies in animal models. Moreover, some non-replicating subpopulations of Mtb fail to resume replication when plated on agar, although their viability is demonstrable by other means. There is as yet no widely replicated assay in which to screen compounds for their ability to kill this ‘viable but non-culturable’ subpopulation. Despite these hurdles, drugs that can kill slowly replicating or non-replicating Mtb may offer our best hope for treatment-shortening combination chemotherapy of TB. PMID:25703568

  13. Magnetic Behavior of a Dy8 Molecular Nanomagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Sarachik, Myriam; Baker, Michael; Chen, Yizhang; Kent, Andrew; Stamatatos, Theocharis

    2015-03-01

    As part of a study of quantum tunneling in a newly synthesized family of dysprosium-based molecular magnets that exhibit a chiral spin structure, we report initial investigations of the magnetic response of a Dy8 cluster with the formula (Et4N)4[Dy8O(nd)8(NO3)10(H2O)2] .2MeCN. The molecular complex contains triangular arrangements of exchange coupled Dy(III) ions. The compound forms an approximate snub-square Archimedean lattice unit. The measured magnetization of this network of four triangles suggests the presence of multiple spin chiral vortexes. Single crystal susceptibility and magnetization measurements indicate the presence of a hard-axis direction and an easy plane. These principal orientations have been investigated in magnetic fields up to 5 Tesla for temperatures between 1.8 and 100 K using a SQUID-based Quantum Design MPMS magnetometer. Complex easy plane magnetic hysteresis loops emerge at lower temperatures measured using Hall probe magnetometry at sub 1 K temperatures. The analysis of these measurements will be discussed and compared with results of theoretical calculations. Work supported by ARO W911NF-13-1-1025 (CCNY), NSF-DMR-1309202 (NYU); the synthesis of the Dy8 cluster was supported by NSERC (Discovery grant to Th.C.S.).

  14. Surface activation of dyed fabric for cellulase treatment.

    PubMed

    Schimper, Christian B; Ibanescu, Constanta; Bechtold, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Surface activation of fabric made from cellulose fibres, such as viscose, lyocell, modal fibres and cotton, can be achieved by printing of a concentrated NaOH-containing paste. From the concentration of reducing sugars formed in solution, an increase in intensity of the cellulase hydrolysis by a factor of six to eight was observed, which was mainly concentrated at the activated parts of the fabric surface. This method of local activation is of particular interest for modification of materials that have been dyed with special processes to attain an uneven distribution of dyestuff within the yarn cross-section, e.g., indigo ring-dyed denim yarn for jeans production. Fabrics made from regenerated cellulose fibres were used as model substrate to express the effects of surface activation on indigo-dyed material. Wash-down experiments on indigo-dyed denim demonstrated significant colour removal from the activated surface at low overall weight loss of 4-5%. The method is of relevance for a more eco-friendly processing of jeans in the garment industry. PMID:21491605

  15. Intracluster interactions in butterfly {Fe3LnO2} molecules with the non-Kramers ions Tb(III) and Ho(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badía-Romano, L.; Rubín, J.; Bartolomé, F.; Bartolomé, J.; Luzón, J.; Prodius, D.; Turta, C.; Mereacre, V.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2015-08-01

    The intracluster exchange interactions within the "butterfly" [Fe3Ln (μ3-O )2(CCl3COO )8(H2O )(THF )3] molecules, where Ln(III) represents a lanthanide cation, have been determined by a combination of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) along with an interaction model. We have studied the compounds with Ln =Tb and Ho, both non-Kramers lanthanides and with high uniaxial anisotropy, and Ln =Lu (III) and Y(III) as pseudolanthanides, which supply nonmagnetic Ln reference cases. At low temperature, the three Fe atoms can be considered as a self-unit with total spin SFe 3=5 /2 . Using the element selectivity of the XMCD magnetometry, measured at the Ln L2 ,3 edges, together with the VSM measurements, the local magnetization of the Ln ion and the Fe3 subcluster, as a function of the field and low temperature (T ≈2.5 K ), has been determined separately. These results are described quantitatively in the framework of a theoretical model based on an effective spin Hamiltonian, which considers the competing effects of intracluster interactions and the external applied magnetic field. The Ln -Fe3 exchange interaction within the {Fe3LnO2} cluster has been determined to be antiferromagnetic, in both Tb and Ho compounds, with JFeTb/kB=-0.13 (1 ) K and JFeHo/kB=-0.18 (1 ) K , respectively. In both cases, a field-induced reorientation of the Fe3 and Ln spins from antiparallel to parallel orientation takes place at a threshold field μ0H =1.1 and 2 T, for the {Fe3TbO2} and {Fe3HoO2} compounds, respectively. By comparison with other compounds of the series with uniaxial anisotropy, it is concluded that the polarizability of the Fe3 subcluster magnetic moment decreases in the trend {Fe3YO2}→{Fe3TbO2}→{Fe3HoO2}→{Fe3DyO2} , because of the increasing opposition of the exchange antiferromagnetic field caused by the Ln ion. In the Ln =Tb , Ho, and Dy, the magnetization of the whole molecule is dominated by the anisotropy of the Ln ion. The intracluster Fe3-Ln exchange interactions are very weak compared to the Ln ligand field and Fe-Fe exchange interactions.

  16. Redetermination of Dy3Ni from single-crystal X-ray data

    PubMed Central

    Levytskyy, Volodymyr; Babizhetskyy, Volodymyr; Kotur, Bohdan; Smetana, Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    The classification of the title compound, tridysprosium nickel, into the Fe3C (or Al3Ni) structure type has been deduced from powder X-ray diffraction data with lattice parameters reported in a previous study [Lemaire & Paccard (1967 ?). Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 40, 311315]. The current re-investigation of Dy3Ni based on single-crystal X-ray data revealed atomic positional parameters and anisotropic displacement parameters with high precision. The asymmetric unit consists of two Dy and one Ni atoms. One Dy atom has site symmetry .m. (Wyckoff position 4c) and is surrounded by twelve Dy and three Ni atoms. The other Dy atom (site symmetry 1, 8d) has eleven Dy and three Ni atoms as neighbours, forming a distorted FrankKasper polyhedron. The coordination polyhedron of the Ni atom (.m., 4c) is a tricapped trigonal prism formed by nine Dy atoms. PMID:24454015

  17. To conquer TB, patients must take their medicine.

    PubMed

    1994-07-15

    Although the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) should report that the total number of tuberculosis (TB) cases has dropped 5.1% since 1992, experts stress that the potentially fatal lung disease is not yet under control. The incidence of drug-resistant TB remained about 13.7% of all reported TB cases in 1991 and 1992. TB is most commonly treated through the administration of four drugs given three times per week over a six-month period. TB experts and treatment specialists at the CDC and the American Thoracic Society jointly issued new treatment guidelines stressing the importance of ensuring that patients take all of their prescribed medications, even if it means going into the community and watching them swallow their pills. Patients who fail to adhere strictly to their treatment regimen of drugs risk developing drug-resistant TB disease and present a contagious public health threat. In addition to the acute risk of mortality from such resistant disease, the treatment cost of up to $150,000 dwarfs the $1,500-3,000 total expense required to treat patients with non-resistant TB under the new community based treatment program, Directly Observed Therapy (DOT). In DOT, health workers visit patients with TB in the workplace, home, and community to monitor their timely ingestion of prescribed medication against TB. Some patients have reported preference for this approach since it removes any personal worry that they may forget to comply with treatment on a regular basis. The experts also recommend that HIV-seropositive people with TB receive standard TB therapy and suggest treating TB positive parents with preventive drug therapy to control TB in children even if the children test negative for TB. The World Health Organization predicts that more than one third of the eight million new cases of TB this year will occur in people with AIDS. PMID:12179176

  18. Tailoring the magnetism of Tb5Si2Ge2 compounds by La substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Belo, Joao; Pereira, Andre; Araujo, Joao Pedro; Dela Cruz, Clarina R; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F; Goncalves, Joao Nuno; Amaral, Vitor; Morellon, Luis; Ibarra, M. Ricardo; Algarabel, Pedro A.; Magen, C

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the crystal structure, phase relationships, and magnetic properties of the system Tb5-xLaxSi2Ge2, a series of polycrystalline samples with compositions ranging from x = 0 to x = 5 have been synthesized and characterized in detail. At room temperature, two structures have been detected: Compounds in the concentration range 0 <= x < 1 present a monoclinic Gd5Si2Ge2-type structure, while for x > 1 a tetragonal Zr5Si4-type structure is observed. The unit cell volume increases linearly with La concentration but with two different slopes: similar to 18 angstrom(3)/x and similar to 33 angstrom(3)/x for 0 <= x < 1 (monoclinic) andx > 1 (tetragonal), respectively. In the monoclinic region, an increase of T-C was observed, reaching a maximum value of T-C similar to 154 K, at the x = 0.75 composition. This feature is explained based on specific La occupancy at the R2 site which was supported by density functional calculations for low La concentration. The samples that crystallized in the tetragonal structure exhibit a linear decrease of T-C(x) with a slope of partial derivative T-C/partial derivative x similar to -38 K/x, reaching 0 K for the x = 5 composition. A magnetic and structural x-T phase diagram of the Tb5-xLaxSi2Ge2 system in the temperature range 4-300 K is proposed.

  19. Rare-earth chromium gallides RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} (RE=Tb-Tm)

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Brianna R.; Bie, Haiying; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Bauer, Eric D.; Thompson, Joe D.; Mar, Arthur

    2012-12-15

    The ternary rare-earth-metal chromium gallides RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} (RE=Tb-Tm) have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1000 Degree-Sign C in the presence of excess gallium used as a self-flux. Their structures are derived by inserting Cr atoms into a quarter of the empty Ga{sub 6} octahedral clusters found in the parent binary gallides REGa{sub 3} (AuCu{sub 3}-type), although single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies suggest that complex superstructures may be adopted. An ideal ordered Y{sub 4}PdGa{sub 12}-type structure was successfully refined for a crystal of Dy{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} (Pearson symbol cI34, space group Im3{sup Macron }m, Z=2, a=8.572(1) A). Magnetic measurements on single-crystal samples reveal ferromagnetic or possibly ferrimagnetic ordering for the Tb, Dy, and Er members (T{sub C}=22, 15, and 2.8 K, respectively) and antiferromagnetic ordering for the Ho member (T{sub N}=7.5 K). Band structure calculations on a hypothetical 'Y{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12}' model suggest that the Cr atoms carry no local magnetic moment. - Graphical abstract: RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} is derived by inserting Cr atoms into empty Ga{sub 6} octahedral clusters present in the parent binary gallides REGa{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RE{sub 4}MGa{sub 12} (previously known for M=Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag) has been extended to M=Cr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} compounds show predominantly ferromagnetic ordering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Band structure calculations suggest that Cr atoms carry no local magnetic moment.

  20. Effect of Dy/Nd double layer on coercivity in Nd-Fe-B thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, K. Umezawa, J.; Ishikawa, H.; Ogawa, D.; Mizuno, Y.; Kato, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Ando, Y.

    2014-05-07

    The Nd-Fe-B (t{sub NFB} = 30 nm)/[Dy (t{sub Dy} nm)/Nd (t{sub Nd} nm)] (t{sub Dy/Nd} = 20 nm) (thickness t{sub Dy} = 0–10 nm) thin films were deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate and subsequently in-situ annealed at 470 °C. As-deposited Nd-Fe-B thin films with a highly perpendicular orientation of c-axis were deposited by introducing bcc-Mo(111) single crystal buffer layer. After post-annealing, the grain size of the Nd-Fe-B/Dy/Nd thin films with the t{sub Dy} = 10 nm and t{sub Nd} = 10 nm becomes large due to the Dy and the Nd atoms thermal diffusion, while DyFe{sub 2} and Dy oxide compounds are formed in Nd-Fe-B layers, which is confirmed by means of a combination of atomic force microscopy observation and X-ray diffraction measurement. The H{sub c} of Nd-Fe-B/Dy/Nd thin films with the t{sub Dy} = 10 nm and t{sub Nd} = 10 nm was approximately the same value of the Nd-Fe-B thin films without Dy/Nd double layer annealed at 470 °C. On the other hand, H{sub c} is enhanced to be about 22.1 kOe in the annealed Nd-Fe-B/Dy/Nd films with the t{sub Dy} = 0.8 nm and t{sub Nd} = 19.2 nm.

  1. A world of cities and the end of TB.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Amit; Ross, Alex; Rosenberg, Paul; Dye, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    The WHO's End TB Strategy aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and incidence by 90% between 2015 and 2035. As the world rapidly urbanizes, more people could have access to better infrastructure and services to help combat poverty and infectious diseases, including TB. And yet large numbers of people now live in overcrowded slums, with poor access to urban health services, amplifying the burden of TB. An alignment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for health and for urban development provides an opportunity to accelerate the overall decline in infection and disease, and to create cities free of TB. PMID:26884491

  2. A world of cities and the end of TB

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit; Ross, Alex; Rosenberg, Paul; Dye, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The WHO's End TB Strategy aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and incidence by 90% between 2015 and 2035. As the world rapidly urbanizes, more people could have access to better infrastructure and services to help combat poverty and infectious diseases, including TB. And yet large numbers of people now live in overcrowded slums, with poor access to urban health services, amplifying the burden of TB. An alignment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for health and for urban development provides an opportunity to accelerate the overall decline in infection and disease, and to create cities free of TB. PMID:26884491

  3. Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole-Based Agents Active Against Tuberculosis (TB), Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) TB and Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR) TB

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Marco; Tipparaju, Suresh K.; Lun, Shichun; Song, Yang; Sturm, A. Willem; Bishai, William R.; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    The struggle against tuberculosis (TB) is still far from over. TB, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the deadliest infections worldwide. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains have further increased the burden for this disease. Herein, we report the discovery of 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-methyl-1-oxo-1H,5H-pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole-4-carbonitrile as an effective antitubercular agent and the structural modifications of this molecule that have led to analogues with improved potency and lower toxicity. A number of these derivatives were also active at sub-micromolar concentrations against resistant TB strains and devoid of apparent toxicity to Vero cells, thereby underscoring their value as novel scaffolds for the development of new anti-TB drugs. PMID:21259445

  4. Growth and properties of Gd:NBW crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongsheng, Shi; Dingzhong, Shen; Haibin, Zhang; Jianming, Chen; Guohao, Ren

    2002-11-01

    Gd:NBW crystals are grown by modified Bridgman method for the first time. The Gd segregation coefficient is calculated. Photoluminescence and the light yield of the Gd:NBW crystal are measured. The main elements and the impure ions in the NBW crystal are respectively analyzed by EPMA and GDMS. All these results show that the Gd:NBW crystal is a promising scintillator material.

  5. Luminescence studies on Dy3+ and Dy3+:Eu3+ co-doped boro-phosphate glasses for WLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Uma, V.; Arunkumar, S.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    Dy3+ and Dy3+:Eu3+ co-doped boro-phosphate glasses have been prepared and optically characterized using absorption, luminescence and decay measurements. The Nephelauxetic ratios (?), Bonding parameters (?) and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters ?? (? = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated to study the nature of the environment around the RE3+ ions in the prepared glasses. The yellow to blue (Y/B) intensity ratio and the chromaticity color coordinates were calculated from the luminescence measurements. The lifetimes of the 4F9/2 excited level were measured using decay curves and is found to decrease in the Dy3+:Eu3+ co-doped glass due to the occurrence of resonant energy transfer between Dy3+-Eu3+ ions and the non-exponential decay rates have been fitted with Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model. The decay curves are well fitted for S= 6 suggesting that the interaction between active ions for the energy transfer is of dipole-dipole nature.

  6. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    PubMed

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it informed the first South African HIV and TB Investment Cases and successfully leveraged additional resources from the National Treasury at a time of austerity. In Ghana, a long-term TIME model-centred interaction with the NTP provided new insights into the local epidemiology and guided resource allocation decisions to improve impact. PMID:27012808

  7. Innovative clinical trial designs to rationalize TB vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R D; Hatherill, M; Tait, D; Snowden, M; Churchyard, G; Hanekom, W; Evans, T; Ginsberg, A M

    2015-05-01

    A recent trial of a leading tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidate in 3000 South African infants failed to show protection over that from BCG alone, and highlights the difficulties in clinical development of TB vaccines. Progression of vaccine candidates to efficacy trials against TB disease rests on demonstration of safety and immunogenicity in target populations and protection against challenge in preclinical models, but immunologic correlates of protection are unknown, and animal models may not be predictive of results in humans. Even in populations most heavily affected by TB the sample sizes required for Phase 2b efficacy trials using TB disease as an endpoint are in the thousands. Novel clinical trial models have been developed to evaluate candidate TB vaccines in selected populations using biologically relevant outcomes and innovative statistical approaches. Such proof of concept studies can be used to more rationally select vaccine candidates for advancement to large scale trials against TB disease. PMID:25802031

  8. TB control in Singapore: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Chee, Cynthia Bin-Eng; Wang, Yee Tang

    2012-04-01

    The total number of new tuberculosis (TB) cases notified in Singapore among citizens, permanent residents and foreigners rose by 46% from 2004 to 2010. During this period, the proportion of foreigners increased from 29% to 47% of the total case burden. In 2008, the TB incidence rate among Singapore citizens and permanent residents increased for the first time in ten years, despite the on-going efforts of the Singapore TB Elimination Programme. Additional measures and resources are clearly needed to curb this rising trend. Pivotal to this is to address TB among foreigners. The political will to battle TB in Singapore must result in action to remove barriers to diagnosis, to enable all TB patients to undergo treatment under directly observed therapy (DOT), and to ensure that all healthcare providers who manage TB patients are responsible and accountable to the public health system. PMID:22511043

  9. Magnetic, Structural and Resistivity Characterization of New R3Gd3Ba2Ca2Cu7O10:Li Compounds (R= rare earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, C.; Marinero, E. E.; Chavira, E.; Bucio, L.; Pfeiffer, H.

    2012-02-01

    We report on the synthesis of R3Gd3Ba2Ca2Cu7O10:Li compounds with different rare earth elements (R= Dy, Ho) by solid state reaction. Reaction products during the synthesis were identified by XRD and their thermal stability measured by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Rietveld refinement of the XRD spectra enabled us to identify two coupled phases: a tetragonal one and an orthorhombic component. Magnetic measurements were conducted in the range of 5 to 300K to determine their Curie point and evidence for superconducting transitions. We find that in spite of the fact that both the Dy and Ho containing samples have the same crystalline structure, they exhibit different magnetic behavior over the temperature range studied. Evidence for a critical temperature at 15K for the Dy containing sample is observed exhibiting the characteristic Ms vs. T dependence ascribed to superconducting behavior. Detailed structural characterization results and measurements of R vs. T will be presented to confirm that the behavior observed at 15K is evidence for superconducting behavior.

  10. Reinvestigation of the Cd–Gd phase diagram

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Thomas L.; Ipser, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The complete Cd–Gd equilibrium phase diagram was investigated by a combination of powder-XRD, SEM and DTA. All previously reported phases, i.e., CdGd, Cd2Gd, Cd3Gd, Cd45Gd11, Cd58Gd13, and Cd6Gd, could be confirmed. In addition, a new intermetallic compound with a stoichiometric composition corresponding to “Cd8Gd” was found to exist. It was obtained that “Cd8Gd” decomposes peritectically at 465 °C. Homogeneity ranges of all intermetallic compounds were determined at distinct temperatures. In addition, the maximum solubilities of Cd in the low- and high-temperature modifications of Gd were determined precisely as 4.6 and 22.6 at.%, respectively. All invariant reaction temperatures (with the exception of the formation of Cd58Gd13) as well as liquidus temperatures were determined, most probably, Cd58Gd13 is formed in a peritectoid reaction from Cd45Gd11 and Cd6Gd at a temperature below 700 °C. PMID:25544803

  11. Phase separation in ternary Co-Gd-Ti liquids.

    PubMed

    Han, J H; Mattern, N; Kaban, I; Holland-Moritz, D; Bednar?ik, J; Nowak, R; Sobczak, N; Kim, D H; Eckert, J

    2013-06-19

    The phase equilibria and the solidification behavior of ternary Co-Gd-Ti (Co ?35 at.%) alloys have been investigated. The phase transformation and equilibria in the liquid phase were studied in situ for two alloys, Co30Gd35Ti35 and Co30Gd50Ti20, by combining electrostatic levitation of the samples with high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) at elevated temperature. The XRD patterns with two diffuse maxima for molten Co30Gd35Ti35 give direct evidence for liquid-liquid phase separation in this composition. In contrast, no indication for phase separation in the Co30Gd50Ti20 alloy is detected. Coarsened microstructures, typical for the phase-separating systems, are observed for the Co30Gd35Ti35, Co25Gd37.5Ti37.5, Co10Gd45Ti45 and Co30Gd20Ti50 cast alloys. Our findings suggest that the stable miscibility gap of binary Gd-Ti extends into the ternary Co-Gd-Ti system (up to about 30 at.% Co). Thermodynamic calculations of the ternary Co-Gd-Ti system by the CALPHAD method are in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:23719025

  12. Phase separation in ternary Co-Gd-Ti liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. H.; Mattern, N.; Kaban, I.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Bednar?ik, J.; Nowak, R.; Sobczak, N.; Kim, D. H.; Eckert, J.

    2013-06-01

    The phase equilibria and the solidification behavior of ternary Co-Gd-Ti (Co ?35 at.%) alloys have been investigated. The phase transformation and equilibria in the liquid phase were studied in situ for two alloys, Co30Gd35Ti35 and Co30Gd50Ti20, by combining electrostatic levitation of the samples with high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) at elevated temperature. The XRD patterns with two diffuse maxima for molten Co30Gd35Ti35 give direct evidence for liquid-liquid phase separation in this composition. In contrast, no indication for phase separation in the Co30Gd50Ti20 alloy is detected. Coarsened microstructures, typical for the phase-separating systems, are observed for the Co30Gd35Ti35, Co25Gd37.5Ti37.5, Co10Gd45Ti45 and Co30Gd20Ti50 cast alloys. Our findings suggest that the stable miscibility gap of binary Gd-Ti extends into the ternary Co-Gd-Ti system (up to about 30 at.% Co). Thermodynamic calculations of the ternary Co-Gd-Ti system by the CALPHAD method are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Pressure Induced Structural Transformation in Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Weber, William J.

    2011-01-05

    Ab initio total energy calculations have been performed to study the phase stability of Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores over the pressure range from 0 to 60 GPa. Both compounds are unstable under pressure, and phase transformations to the defect-cotunnite structure are predicted. The phase transformation pressure of 43.6 GPa for Gd2Ti2O7 is considerably larger than the value of 13 GPa for Gd2Zr2O7, in good agreement with experiments. The decreased structural stability of Gd2Zr2O7 under pressure, relative to Gd2Ti2O7, is a consequence of the lower compressibility of the langZrOrang bond and the higher compressibility of the langGdOrang bond. In addition, the Gd 4f electrons are found to have only a small effect in determining the pressure induced phase transformation.

  14. Double-Beta Decay of 96Zr and Double-Electron Capture of 156Dy to Excited Final States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean W.

    Two separate experimental searches for second-order weak nuclear decays to excited final states were conducted. Both experiments were carried out at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility to provide shielding from cosmic rays. The first search is for the two-neutrino double-beta decay of 96Zr to excited final states of the daughter nucleus, 96Mo. As a by product of this experiment, the beta decay of 96Zr was also investigated. Two coaxial high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to detect gamma rays produced by the daughter nucleus as it de-excited to the ground state. After collecting 1.92 years of data with 17.91 g of enriched 96Zr, half-life limits at the level of 10 20 yr were produced. Measurements of this decay are important to test neutrinoless double-beta decay nuclear matrix element calculations, which are necessary to extract the neutrino mass from a measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life. The second experiment is a search for the resonantly-enhanced neutrinoless double-electron capture decay of 156Dy to excited states in 156Gd. Double-electron capture is a possible experimental alternative to neutrinoless-double beta decay, which could distinguish the Dirac or Majorana nature of the neutrino. Two clover high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to investigate the decay. A 213.5 mg enriched 156Dy sample was observed for 0.635 year, producing half-life limits of 10 17 yr. The limits produced by both of these experiments are currently the most stringent limits available for these decays.

  15. (Tb_1-xY_x)Ni_2Ge_2: From Ising Antiferromagnet to Ising Spin Glass.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, P. C.; Wiener, T.; Bud'Ko, S. L.

    2000-03-01

    Recent measurements [1,2] on single crystals of RNi_2Ge2 compounds have revealed complex, anisotropies and H-T phase diagrams. In addition recent work on (Gd_1-xEu_x)Ni_2Ge2 has demonstrated our ability to change the band filling so as to tune the ordering wave-vector of the magnetically ordered state [3]. In this talk we will present the results of measurements on another pseudo- ternary series: (Tb_1-xY_x)Ni_2Ge_2. The Tb local moments are aligned along the crystallographic c-axis for all concentrations of Y and as Y replaces Tb the two magnetic transition temperatures decrease rapidly. For x > 0.6 the low temperature ground state of the magnetic sublattice is that of an Ising spin glass. T -x phase diagrams and detailed characterization of the spin glass state will be presented. [1]S.L.Bud'ko et al. JMMM 205, 53 (1999). [2]Z.Islam et al. PRB 58, 8522 (1998). [3]Z.Islam et al. PRL 83, 2817 (1999). Ames Laboratory is operated for the US Department of Energy by Iowa State University under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-82. This work was supported by the Director for Energy Research, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  16. Uniform hollow Lu2O3:Ln (Ln = Eu3+, Tb3+) spheres: facile synthesis and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Piaoping; Gai, Shili; Liu, Yanchao; Wang, Wenxin; Li, Chunxia; Lin, Jun

    2011-03-21

    Uniform hollow Lu(2)O(3):Ln (Ln = Eu(3+), Tb(3+)) phosphors have been successfully prepared via a urea-assisted homogeneous precipitation method using carbon spheres as templates, followed by a subsequent calcination process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra, kinetic decays, quantum yields (QY), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra were employed to characterize the samples. The results show that hollow Lu(2)O(3):Ln spheres can be indexed to cubic Gd(2)O(3) phase with high purity. The as-prepared hollow Lu(2)O(3):Ln phosphors are confirmed to be uniform in shape and size with diameter of about 300 nm and shell thickness of approximate 20 nm. The possible formation mechanism of evolution from the carbon spheres to the amorphous precursor and to the final hollow Lu(2)O(3):Ln microspheres has been proposed. Upon ultraviolet (UV) and low-voltage electron beams excitation, the hollow Lu(2)O(3):Ln (Ln = Eu(3+), Tb(3+)) spheres exhibit bright red (Eu(3+), (5)D(0)-(7)F(2)) and green (Tb(3+), (5)D(4)-(7)F(5)) luminescence, which may find potential applications in the fields of color display and biomedicine. PMID:21323378

  17. Measurement of Gd content in (U,Gd)O 2 using thermal gravimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keon Sik; Yang, Jae Ho; Kang, Ki Won; Song, Kun Woo; Kim, Gil Moo

    2004-02-01

    We propose a simple and precise method for measuring the Gd content in the (U,Gd)O 2 pellet by only measuring the weight variation of the pellet during thermal heat treatment in air. The (U,Gd)O 2 fuel pellets were oxidized at 475 C, subsequently heat treated at 1300 C, and then cooled to room temperature in air. The accompanying weight variations were measured using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The measured weight variations were mathematically analyzed with reference to the successive phase reactions during the heat treatment. This method provides an advantage in that the rare-earth element content including Gd can be measured using relatively simple equipment such as an electric furnace and a balance.

  18. Magneto-elastic coupling across the first-order transition in the distorted kagome lattice antiferromagnet Dy3Ru4Al12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, M. S.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Kriegner, D.; Valika, M.; Andreev, A. V.; Mat?j, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Structural changes through the first-order paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic phase transition of Dy3Ru4Al12 at 7 K have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction and thermal expansion measurements. The compound crystallizes in a hexagonal crystal structure of Gd3Ru4Al12 type (P63/mmc space group), and no structural phase transition has been found in the temperature interval between 2.5 and 300 K. Nevertheless, due to the spin-lattice coupling the crystal volume undergoes a small orthorhombic distortion of the order of 210-5 as the compound enters the antiferromagnetic state. We propose that the first-order phase transition is not driven by the structural changes but rather by the exchange interactions present in the system.

  19. Basidiomycete DyPs: Genomic diversity, structural-functional aspects, reaction mechanism and environmental significance.

    PubMed

    Linde, Dolores; Ruiz-Dueas, Francisco J; Fernndez-Fueyo, Elena; Guallar, Victor; Hammel, Kenneth E; Pogni, Rebecca; Martnez, Angel T

    2015-05-15

    The first enzyme with dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) activity was described in 1999 from an arthroconidial culture of the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. However, the first DyP sequence had been deposited three years before, as a peroxidase gene from a culture of an unidentified fungus of the family Polyporaceae (probably Irpex lacteus). Since the first description, fewer than ten basidiomycete DyPs have been purified and characterized, but a large number of sequences are available from genomes. DyPs share a general fold and heme location with chlorite dismutases and other DyP-type related proteins (such as Escherichia coli EfeB), forming the CDE superfamily. Taking into account the lack of an evolutionary relationship with the catalase-peroxidase superfamily, the observed heme pocket similarities must be considered as a convergent type of evolution to provide similar reactivity to the enzyme cofactor. Studies on the Auricularia auricula-judae DyP showed that high-turnover oxidation of anthraquinone type and other DyP substrates occurs via long-range electron transfer from an exposed tryptophan (Trp377, conserved in most basidiomycete DyPs), whose catalytic radical was identified in the H2O2-activated enzyme. The existence of accessory oxidation sites in DyP is suggested by the residual activity observed after site-directed mutagenesis of the above tryptophan. DyP degradation of substituted anthraquinone dyes (such as Reactive Blue 5) most probably proceeds via typical one-electron peroxidase oxidations and product breakdown without a DyP-catalyzed hydrolase reaction. Although various DyPs are able to break down phenolic lignin model dimers, and basidiomycete DyPs also present marginal activity on nonphenolic dimers, a significant contribution to lignin degradation is unlikely because of the low activity on high redox-potential substrates. PMID:25637654

  20. [Present and future perspectives for the rapid molecular diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB].

    PubMed

    Tanasescu, Mihaela; Didilescu, Cristian; Marica, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still one of the diseases with a major medical and social impact, and in terms of early diagnosis (which would imply a fair treatment and established at the time), difficulties related to the delay bacilli isolation in culture, decreased susceptibility testing methods to antituberculosis drugs, lack of methods for differentiation of M. Tuberculosis complex germs of non-TB Mycobacteria, may have important clinical implications. Traditional testing of anti-TB drug susceptibility on solid Löwenstein-Jensen medium (gold standard) or liquid media can only be performed using grown samples. Determining the time it takes up to 42 days on solid media and 12 days for liquid media. For MDR/XDR TB cases itis absolutely essential to reduce the detection time. In these cases rapid diagnostic methods prove their usefulness. Automatic testing in liquid medium, molecular hybridization methods are currently recommended by the current WHO guidelines. Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TBis extremely useful for the early establishment of an effective treatment tailored more accurately on the spectrum of sensitivity of the resistant strain (thus reducing the risk of developing additional resistance to other drugs) and control the spread of these strains. Genetic diagnostic methods, approved and recommended by the WHO, can reduce the time of diagnosis of TB case and, importantly, the case of MDR-TB. They do not replace the current standard diagnostic methods and resistance profile, but complete them in selected cases. PMID:24734352

  1. Decay properties of long-lived isomers in the odd-odd N=81 nucleus {sup 146}Tb compared to the {sup 148}Ho and {sup 150}Tm nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kownacki, J.; Kisielinski, M.; Droste, Ch.; Morek, T.; Ruchowska, E.; Grodner, E.; Lieder, R. M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Hadynska-KlePk, K.; Mierzejewski, J.; Andrzejewski, J.; Perkowski, J.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Zielinska, M.; Kordyasz, A.; Srebrny, J.; Korman, A.

    2011-02-15

    Excited states of the {sup 146}Tb nucleus have been studied using {gamma}-ray and electron spectroscopy in off-beam and in-beam modes following {sup 112}Sn({sup 40}Ar,3n3p) reaction with the use of the OSIRIS-II, HPGe detector array and the conversion electron spectrometer. The multipolarity of the 343 keV transition deexciting the (7{sup -}) level in {sup 146}Tb shows mainly an E2 nature and the first excited state above the 23 s isomer is assigned as a (5{sup -},6{sup -}) state. The log ft values have been deduced for 11 {beta}{sup +}/EC transitions populating excited states in {sup 146}Gd. The systematic behavior of spins and parities of the long-lived levels at 0+x keV and the first excited states above them in the N=81 isotones {sup 146}Tb, {sup 148}Ho, and {sup 150}Tm is discussed.

  2. Terahertz magnetization dynamics induced by femtosecond resonant pumping of Dy3 + subsystem in the multisublattice antiferromagnet DyFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylovskiy, R. V.; Huisman, T. J.; Popov, A. I.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Rasing, Th.; Pisarev, R. V.; Kimel, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Resonant optical pumping of f -f electronic transitions in the Dy3 + subsystem with femtosecond laser pulses in the multisublattice antiferromagnet DyFeO3 produces a strongly pronounced effect on the induced magnetization dynamics. Analyzing the polarization and spectral properties of the emitted THz radiation, we infer that the resonant pumping magnetizes the partially ordered Dy3 + ions on a femtosecond time scale with the induced longitudinal change of the magnetization reaching almost 1 % . We also show that for laser photon energies close to the f -f resonance of Dy3 + ions, a minimum in the efficiency of spin-wave excitation in the Fe3 + subsystem via the inverse Faraday effect is observed. This observation reveals that the resonant photo-induced magnetization in the Dy3 + subsystem and the off-resonant excitation of spin waves in the Fe3 + subsystem are intrinsically competing processes.

  3. HIV and TB co-infection in Indian context.

    PubMed

    Mahyoub, E M; Garg, Suneela; Singh, M M; Agarwal, Paras; Gupta, V K; Gupta, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in a Anti-Retroviral Therapy Clinic and TB center of a tertiary level hospital to find out socio-demographic correlates of HIV/TB individuals and risk factors of HIV/TB co-infection in Indian context. It is a case-control study comprising 420 subjects, 3 groups of 140 each. For a case group of HIV-TB co-infected subjects, two control groups, one comprising HIV patients (not having TB), and the other TB patients (not having HIV). Majority 267 (63.6%) males, 100 (71.4%) in case group (HIV/ TB), 74 (52.9%) in control group 1 (TB) and 93 (66.4%) in control group 2 (HIV). Mean (+/-SD) age of case-group was 34.91 (+/- 8.57) years. New TB cases were 213 (76.1%), more among control-group 1, compared to case-group. Multivariate analysis showed that risk of co-infection was 1.94 times higher among individuals aged >35 years. Difference statistically significant amongst those who were not on ART than who were on ART (p < 0.001). Those with CD4 counts <200 had 1.85 times risk of TB. Smokers had 1.92 times risk of TB. Co-infection higher in males, in age group 35-44 years, urban area, lower educational status and lower socioeconomic class. Current history of smoking significantly associated with co-infection. HIV status during TB infection was detected in 1/4th of study subjects. History of TB symptoms in family significantly associated with co-infection. PMID:25141551

  4. Magnetic properties of Dy2Ti2O7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements were made of the magnetization, differential magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic entropy of powered samples of Dy2Ti2O7. The saturation magnetic moment is 4.7 + or - 0.2 Bohr magnetons per Dy ion, instead of 10 as predicted by Hund's rules. A temperature-independent magnetization is observed in the saturation region. Absolute values of magnetic entropy have been obtained for temperatures from 1.25 to 20 K, in applied fields up to 10.4 tesla. The magnetic entropy approaches a maximum value consistent with a ground-state multiplicity of 2. Low field magnetization and differential susceptibility data show a transition to antiferromagnetism near 1.35 K. A construction of the magnetic specific heat from the zero field entropy shows an anomaly near the same temperature.

  5. Muon spin precession in ferromagnetic DyAl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, O.; Kalvius, G. M.; Wppling, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Laves phase intermetallics REAl2 were studied by ?SR over several decades. Results had mainly been obtained for the temperature and field dependencies of relaxation rates in the paramagnetic state. However, it turned out that spontaneous precession signals in the ordered magnetic state were very difficult to observe. We report here the observation a weak precession signal in a single crystalline sample of DyAl2. The precession signal seen has low asymmetry and is heavily damped. This is understood with the notion that the magnetic structure of DyAl2 splits the internal field at the interstitial muon stopping site into several components, and that of those only one of the field components leads to the visible precession signal. The observed temperature dependence of the precession frequency is compatible with the change of easy axis of magnetization at T = 40K.

  6. Ground State Magnetic Properties of Odd Neutron DY Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakut, Hakan; Tabar, Emre; Kuliev, Ali Akbar; Zenginerler, Zemine; Kaplan, Pinar

    2013-10-01

    Using the quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (QPNM) and taking into account the spin-spin interaction, the effects of the spin polarization on spin gyromagnetic factors (gs) as well as the intrinsic magnetic moments (gK) of the deformed odd neutron 155-165Dy isotopes were studied. The calculated values of gs and gK are in fair agreement with the experiment as well as with other microscopic calculations. Our calculations indicated that because of the core polarization, the gs factors of the nucleons in the nucleus reduce noticeably from its free nucleon value and the spin-spin interactions play an important role in the explanation of the quenching of the gs factors. A very good reproduction of the phenomenological quenching of gs factor from its free values (gs eff = 0.6-0.7gs free) is obtained for 155-165Dy.

  7. High-field magnetization of Dy2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetization of powdered samples of Dy2O3 has been measured at temperatures between 1.45 deg and 4.2 K, in applied magnetic fields ranging to 7 Teslas. A linear dependence of magnetization on applied field is observable in high field region, the slope of which is independent of temperature over the range investigated. The extrapolated saturation magnetic moment is 2.77 + or - 0.08 Bohr magnetons per ion.

  8. High-field magnetization of Dy2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetization of powdered samples of Dy2O3 has been measured at temperatures between 1.45 and 4.2 K, in applied magnetic fields ranging to 70 kilogauss. A linear dependence of magnetization on applied field is observable in the high-field region, the slope of which is independent of temperature over the range investigated. The extrapolated saturation magnetic moment is about 2.77 Bohr magnetons per ion.

  9. Photographic copy of plan of new Dy horizontal station and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of plan of new Dy horizontal station and accumulator additions to Test Stand "D," also showing existing Dd test station. JPL drawing by VTN Consolidated, Inc. Engineers, Architects, Planners, 2301 Campus Drive, Irvine, California 92664: "Jet Propulsion Laboratory-Edwards Test Station, Motive Steam Supply & Ejector Pumping System: Plan - Test Stand "D," sheet M-3 (JPL sheet number E24/33), 21 December 1976 - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Characteristics of Patients with Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) in a Region with High TB and HIV Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Leandro Cruz; Rocha, Marcos Vinícius Vieira; Willers, Denise Maria Cunha; Silva, Denise Rossato

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smear-negative pulmonary TB (SNPT) represents 30–60% of all pulmonary TB cases. The mortality of these patients can reach 25% in populations with high prevalence of HIV infection, and 10–20% of TB transmission at the population level are attributable to SNPT cases. Methods We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate epidemiological, clinical, and radiological characteristics of patients with SNPT and to compare these with patients who were diagnosed as having smear-positive pulmonary TB (SPPT). All adult patients (≥ 18 years old) with a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and a diagnosis of pulmonary TB were included in the study. Results 198 patients met the inclusion criteria (positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and were included in the analysis. Of these patients, 69 (34.8%) were smear positive (SPPT) and 129 (65.2%) were smear negative (SNPT). In univariate analysis, cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis were less frequent in SNPT patients in comparison with SPPT patients. In a multivariate model, having no cough and no radiographic pattern typical of TB were the characteristics independently associated with a diagnosis of SNPT. Conclusions We found a very high prevalence of SNPT among patients with TB in a setting with high TB and HIV prevalence. The absence of cough in the presence of other symptoms suggestive of TB, and having no radiographic pattern typical of TB where independent predictors of SNPT. PMID:26808299

  11. Mechanical properties of DyBaCuO superconducting bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Shimada, H.; Yoshizawa, S.

    2007-10-01

    Melt-processed REBaCuO (RE: rare earth) superconductors have a high Jc at 77 K and a high magnetic field, which are expected to be used for high field applications such as superconducting permanent magnets with liquid nitrogen refrigeration, flywheels, current leads and so on. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength, fracture toughness and ductility are very crucial as well as the superconducting properties: Tc, Jc, and Hirr for industrial applications of high-Tc oxide superconductors. However, oxide superconductors have the intrinsic brittleness of the perovskite structure, thus, the strength and the fracture toughness of REBaCuO superconductors have been reported to be low and anisotropic. Therefore, we should investigate and improve mechanical properties to achieve structural reliability for applications. Large single domain of melt-processed REBaCuO (Dy-123) superconductors with Dy2BaCuO5 (Dy-211) particles and Ag2O of 10 wt% was fabricated with a seeding and temperature gradient method in air. In this study, we discuss mechanical properties such as the hardness and the surface roughness, and the flexural strength of the RE-123 bulk, measured at RT. The results of Vickers hardness, surface roughness and the flexural strength showed very important information for evaluating characteristics of RE-123 bulks.

  12. Dipstick urinalysis for diabetes screening in TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Blanca I.; Pino, Paula A.; Zarate, Izelda; Mora-Guzman, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes knowledge among TB patients can contribute to improved TB treatment outcomes, but lack of diabetes diagnosis awareness is a limitation in developing countries. Given its low cost, the sensitivity of urine glucose dipsticks for diabetes screening in TB patients was assessed. Methods Glycosuria was assessed in 90 newly diagnosed TB patients (38 with diabetes) in south Texas, USA (n = 20) and northeast Mexico (n = 70) during January 2009December 2010. Results Glycosuria was detected in 65% of the diabetic patients with chronic hyperglycemia (positive predictive value 91%, negative predictive value 84%). Conclusion We propose that TB clinics with limited budgets where portable glucometers may not be available conduct universal screening for diabetes with urine dipsticks. This could be followed by blood glucose or HbA1c testing in the subset of patients requiring confirmation or higher sensitivity assessment, to improve the comanagement of TB and diabetes. PMID:24030116

  13. Laser-induced magnetization dynamics of lanthanide-doped permalloy thin films.

    PubMed

    Radu, I; Woltersdorf, G; Kiessling, M; Melnikov, A; Bovensiepen, U; Thiele, J-U; Back, C H

    2009-03-20

    We investigate the effect of Ho, Dy, Tb, and Gd impurities on the femtosecond laser-induced magnetization dynamics of thin Permalloy films using the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. Varying the amount of Ho, Dy, Tb content from 0% to 8%, we observe a gradual change of the characteristic demagnetization time constant from approximately 60 to approximately 150 fs. In contrast, Gd concentrations up to 15% do not influence the time scale of the initial photoinduced magnetization loss. We propose a demagnetization mechanism that relies on strong magnetic inertia of the rare-earth dopant which stabilizes the ferrimagnetic ordering and thereby delays the demagnetization. PMID:19392235

  14. AC-magnetic susceptibility of Dy doped ZnO compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyol, Mustafa; Ekicibil, Ahmet; Kiyma, Kerim

    2015-07-01

    Dy doped ZnO polycrystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor compounds have been prepared by the so called solid state reaction method. We have studied the M-H and AC magnetic properties of the compounds by using a PPMS magnetometer, and explored the phases and crystal structure by using a X-ray powder diffractometer. The XRD spectra of the compounds show that the substitution of Dy3+ for Zn2+ causes almost no change in the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO, and the Dy3+ ions are successfully substituted into the Zn2+ site of the ZnO matrix. The magnetic measurements, M-H and ?-T, for T in the range from 10 to 300 K, show a paramagnetic behavior, including indirect antiferromagnetic couplings between some Dy3+ magnetic moments. Since the Curie-Weiss temperatures, ?, are all negative but decrease in magnitude with increasing Dy concentration. On the other hand, the calculated effective magnetic moments, ?eff, per Dy3+ ion slowly increase with increasing Dy concentration, but are all very close to the free ion value of ?eff, ~11.0 ?B. Therefore, the trends of the magnitudes of ?s and ?eff s indicate that the samples are not only paramagnetic but also have antiferromagnetic couplings due to the complex nature of the compounds. In addition, the thermal variation of average magnetic moment, Peff(T), per Dy3+ ion have been calculated, and have been found to be gradually increasing with increasing temperature and Dy concentration.

  15. Magnetostriction of growth textured Tb-Zn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, D. W.; Lograsso, T. A.

    1999-11-01

    The magnetostrictive performance of aligned microstructural composites of Tb-Zn alloys were experimentally tested at 77 K under compressive loads ranging from approximately 0-50 MPa and applied magnetic field up to 2000 Oe. Tb-8a/oZn, Tb-42a/oZn and the eutectic composition of Tb-27.8a/oZn were all directionally solidified to prepare aligned, textured microstructures. The eutectic sample grew with lamellar plates with the magnetically hard axes for each phase parallel with the rod axis and exhibited a strain of less than 100 ppm. The Tb-42a/oZn alloy solidified with TbZn dendrites in the magnetically hard [1 1 1] direction and exhibited a strain of 375 ppm. The Tb-8a/oZn alloy solidified pure Tb dendrites in the magnetically easy direction, the b-axis, yet it only displayed a 350-ppm magnetostriction at a maximum field of 2000 Oe due to the high anisotropy of the Tb dendrites.

  16. Subpicosecond magnetization dynamics in TbCo alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alebrand, Sabine; Bierbrauer, Ute; Hehn, Michel; Gottwald, Matthias; Schmitt, Oliver; Steil, Daniel; Fullerton, Eric E.; Mangin, Stphane; Cinchetti, Mirko; Aeschlimann, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Since the discovery of all-optical magnetization switching in rare-earth transition-metal alloys the underlying magnetization dynamics of multisublattice magnets has become a hot topic of modern magnetism. We studied the ultrafast magnetization dynamics in TbCo alloys as a function of the alloy composition and the laser fluence using either 800 nm or 400 nm probe pulses. Direct comparison between TbCo samples with different compositions for equal excitation conditions demonstrates that the magnetization dynamics of the Co sublattice strongly depends on the Tb concentration. For Tb32Co68 the magnetization of the sublattices can even transiently be reversed on a subpicosecond time scale.

  17. Enneanuclear [Ni6Ln3] Cages: [Ln(III)3] Triangles Capping [Ni(II)6] Trigonal Prisms Including a [Ni6Dy3] Single-Molecule Magnet.

    PubMed

    Canaj, Angelos B; Tzimopoulos, Demetrios I; Siczek, Milosz; Lis, Tadeusz; Inglis, Ross; Milios, Constantinos J

    2015-07-20

    The use of (2-(β-naphthalideneamino)-2-hydroxymethyl-1-propanol) ligand, H3L, in Ni/Ln chemistry has led to the isolation of three new isostructural [Ni(II)6Ln(III)3] metallic cages. More specifically, the reaction of Ni(ClO4)2·6H2O, the corresponding lanthanide nitrate salt, and H3L in MeCN, under solvothermal conditions in the presence of NEt3, led to the isolation of three complexes with the formulas [Ni6Gd3(OH)6(HL)6(NO3)3]·5.75MeCN·2Et2O·1.5H2O (1·5.75MeCN·2Et2O·1.5H2O), [Ni6Dy3(OH)6(HL)6(NO3)3]·2MeCN·2.7Et2O·2.4H2O (2·2MeCN·2.7Et2O·2.4H2O), and [Ni6Er3(OH)6(HL)6(NO3)3]·5.75MeCN·2Et2O·1.5H2O (3·5.75MeCN·2Et2O·1.5H2O). The structure of all three clusters describes a [Ln(III)3] triangle capping a [Ni(II)6] trigonal prism. Direct current magnetic susceptibility studies in the 5-300 K range for complexes 1-3 reveal the different nature of the magnetic interactions within the clusters: dominant antiferromagnetic exchange interactions for the Dy(III) and Er(III) analogues and dominant ferromagnetic interactions for the Gd(III) example. Alternating current magnetic susceptibility measurements under zero external dc field displayed fully formed temperature- and frequency-dependent out-of-phase peaks for the [Ni(II)6Dy(III)3] analogue, establishing its single molecule magnetism behavior with Ueff = 24 K. PMID:26135204

  18. Occurrence of magnetoelectric effect correlated to the Dy order in Dy2NiMnO6 double perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud, Md G.; Dey, K.; Ghosh, A.; Majumdar, S.; Giri, S.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic, dielectric, and ac conductivity as well as room temperature structural and Raman studies are performed on double perovskite Dy2NiMnO6. The crystal structure of the compound adopts monoclinic P21/n space group, where alternate Mn and Ni distorted octahedral are arranged in anti-phase a- a- b+ order in Glazer notation. Magnetization studies show two magnetic transitions around 100 K and 20 K which are related to the ordering of transition and rare earth cations moment, respectively. Temperature dependent dielectric permittivity shows Havriliak-Negami type thermally activated dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity at different temperature is found to follow Jonscher power law behavior. Time-temperature scaling of the conductivity spectra reveals that the charge transport dynamics is independent of temperature. Intriguingly, an anomaly in the dielectric constant is observed close to the order of Dy moment which indicates intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling. The hybridization between Dy and Ni/Mn is suggested to be correlated with the magnetoelectric coupling.

  19. Thermochemical investigations in the system Cd-Gd.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Thomas L; Ganesan, Rajesh; Ipser, Herbert

    2014-10-15

    Vapour pressure measurements were performed in terms of a non-isothermal isopiestic method to determine vapour pressures of Cd in the system Cd-Gd between 693 and 1045K. From these results thermodynamic activities of Cd were derived as a function of temperature for the composition range 52-86at.% Cd. By employing an adapted Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, partial molar enthalpies of mixing of Cd were obtained for the corresponding composition range, which were used to convert the activity values of Cd to a common average sample temperature of 773K. The relatively large variation of the activity across the homogeneity ranges of the phases Cd2Gd and Cd45Gd11 indicates that they probably belong to the most stable intermetallic compounds in this system. An activity value of Gd for the two phase field Cd6Gd+L was available from literature and served as an integration constant for a Gibbs-Duhem integration. Integral Gibbs energies are presented between 51 and 100at.% Cd at 773K, referred to Cd(l) and ?-Gd(s) as standard states. Gibbs energies of formation for the exact stoichiometric compositions of the phases Cd58Gd13, Cd45Gd11, Cd3Gd and Cd2Gd were obtained at 773K as about -19.9, -21.1, -24.8, and -30.0kJgatom-(1), respectively. PMID:25328283

  20. GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showi ng how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.