Dynamic coupling of plasmonic resonators
Lee, Suyeon; Park, Q-Han
2016-01-01
We clarify the nature of dynamic coupling in plasmonic resonators and determine the dynamic coupling coefficient using a simple analytic model. We show that plasmonic resonators, such as subwavelength holes in a metal film which can be treated as bound charge oscillators, couple to each other through the retarded interaction of oscillating screened charges. Our dynamic coupling model offers, for the first time, a quantitative analytic description of the fundamental symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of coupled resonators which agrees with experimental results. Our model also reveals that plasmonic electromagnetically induced transparency arises in any coupled resonators of slightly unequal lengths, as confirmed by a rigorous numerical calculation and experiments. PMID:26911786
The Challenges to Coupling Dynamic Geospatial Models
Goldstein, N
2006-06-23
Many applications of modeling spatial dynamic systems focus on a single system and a single process, ignoring the geographic and systemic context of the processes being modeled. A solution to this problem is the coupled modeling of spatial dynamic systems. Coupled modeling is challenging for both technical reasons, as well as conceptual reasons. This paper explores the benefits and challenges to coupling or linking spatial dynamic models, from loose coupling, where information transfer between models is done by hand, to tight coupling, where two (or more) models are merged as one. To illustrate the challenges, a coupled model of Urbanization and Wildfire Risk is presented. This model, called Vesta, was applied to the Santa Barbara, California region (using real geospatial data), where Urbanization and Wildfires occur and recur, respectively. The preliminary results of the model coupling illustrate that coupled modeling can lead to insight into the consequences of processes acting on their own.
Coupling Dynamics in Aircraft: A Historical Perspective
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Day, Richard E.
1997-01-01
Coupling dynamics can produce either adverse or beneficial stability and controllability, depending on the characteristics of the aircraft. This report presents archival anecdotes and analyses of coupling problems experienced by the X-series, Century series, and Space Shuttle aircraft. The three catastrophic sequential coupling modes of the X-2 airplane and the two simultaneous unstable modes of the X-15 and Space Shuttle aircraft are discussed. In addition, the most complex of the coupling interactions, inertia roll coupling, is discussed for the X-2, X-3, F-100A, and YF-102 aircraft. The mechanics of gyroscopics, centrifugal effect, and resonance in coupling dynamics are described. The coupling modes discussed are interacting multiple degrees of freedom of inertial and aerodynamic forces and moments. The aircraft are assumed to be rigid bodies. Structural couplings are not addressed. Various solutions for coupling instabilities are discussed.
Designing the Dynamics of Globally Coupled Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orosz, G.; Moehlis, J.; Ashwin, P.
2009-09-01
A method for designing cluster states with prescribed stability is presented for coupled phase oscillator systems with all-to-all coupling. We determine criteria for the coupling function that ensure the existence and stability of a large variety of clustered configurations. We show that such criteria can be satisfied by choosing Fourier coefficients of the coupling function. We demonstrate that using simple trigonometric and localized coupling functions one can realize arbitrary patterns of stable clusters and that the designed systems are capable of performing finite state computation. The design principles may be relevant when engineering complex dynamical behavior of coupled systems, e.g. the emergent dynamics of artificial neural networks, coupled chemical oscillators and robotic swarms.
Dynamic mode coupling in terahertz metamaterials
Su, Xiaoqiang; Ouyang, Chunmei; Xu, Ningning; Tan, Siyu; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Yan, Fengping; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2015-01-01
The near and far field coupling behavior in plasmonic and metamaterial systems have been extensively studied over last few years. However, most of the coupling mechanisms reported in the past have been passive in nature which actually fail to control the coupling mechanism dynamically in the plasmonic metamaterial lattice array. Here, we demonstrate a dynamic mode coupling between resonators in a hybrid metal-semiconductor metamaterial comprised of metallic concentric rings that are physically connected with silicon bridges. The dielectric function of silicon can be instantaneously modified by photodoped carriers thus tailoring the coupling characteristics between the metallic resonators. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model is developed, which shows that the optical responses depend on mode coupling that originates from the variation of the damping rate and coupling coefficient of the resonance modes. This particular scheme enables an in-depth understanding of the fundamental coupling mechanism and, therefore, the dynamic coupling enables functionalities and applications for designing on-demand reconfigurable metamaterial and plasmonic devices. PMID:26035057
Dynamic mode coupling in terahertz metamaterials.
Su, Xiaoqiang; Ouyang, Chunmei; Xu, Ningning; Tan, Siyu; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Yan, Fengping; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2015-01-01
The near and far field coupling behavior in plasmonic and metamaterial systems have been extensively studied over last few years. However, most of the coupling mechanisms reported in the past have been passive in nature which actually fail to control the coupling mechanism dynamically in the plasmonic metamaterial lattice array. Here, we demonstrate a dynamic mode coupling between resonators in a hybrid metal-semiconductor metamaterial comprised of metallic concentric rings that are physically connected with silicon bridges. The dielectric function of silicon can be instantaneously modified by photodoped carriers thus tailoring the coupling characteristics between the metallic resonators. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model is developed, which shows that the optical responses depend on mode coupling that originates from the variation of the damping rate and coupling coefficient of the resonance modes. This particular scheme enables an in-depth understanding of the fundamental coupling mechanism and, therefore, the dynamic coupling enables functionalities and applications for designing on-demand reconfigurable metamaterial and plasmonic devices. PMID:26035057
Coupled dynamics analysis of wind energy systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, J. A.
1977-01-01
A qualitative description of all key elements of a complete wind energy system computer analysis code is presented. The analysis system addresses the coupled dynamics characteristics of wind energy systems, including the interactions of the rotor, tower, nacelle, power train, control system, and electrical network. The coupled dynamics are analyzed in both the frequency and time domain to provide the basic motions and loads data required for design, performance verification and operations analysis activities. Elements of the coupled analysis code were used to design and analyze candidate rotor articulation concepts. Fundamental results and conclusions derived from these studies are presented.
Novel coupling scheme to control dynamics of coupled discrete systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shekatkar, Snehal M.; Ambika, G.
2015-08-01
We present a new coupling scheme to control spatio-temporal patterns and chimeras on 1-d and 2-d lattices and random networks of discrete dynamical systems. The scheme involves coupling with an external lattice or network of damped systems. When the system network and external network are set in a feedback loop, the system network can be controlled to a homogeneous steady state or synchronized periodic state with suppression of the chaotic dynamics of the individual units. The control scheme has the advantage that its design does not require any prior information about the system dynamics or its parameters and works effectively for a range of parameters of the control network. We analyze the stability of the controlled steady state or amplitude death state of lattices using the theory of circulant matrices and Routh-Hurwitz criterion for discrete systems and this helps to isolate regions of effective control in the relevant parameter planes. The conditions thus obtained are found to agree well with those obtained from direct numerical simulations in the specific context of lattices with logistic map and Henon map as on-site system dynamics. We show how chimera states developed in an experimentally realizable 2-d lattice can be controlled using this scheme. We propose this mechanism can provide a phenomenological model for the control of spatio-temporal patterns in coupled neurons due to non-synaptic coupling with the extra cellular medium. We extend the control scheme to regulate dynamics on random networks and adapt the master stability function method to analyze the stability of the controlled state for various topologies and coupling strengths.
Dynamical robustness of coupled heterogeneous oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Gouhei; Morino, Kai; Daido, Hiroaki; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2014-05-01
We study tolerance of dynamic behavior in networks of coupled heterogeneous oscillators to deterioration of the individual oscillator components. As the deterioration proceeds with reduction in dynamic behavior of the oscillators, an order parameter evaluating the level of global oscillation decreases and then vanishes at a certain critical point. We present a method to analytically derive a general formula for this critical point and an approximate formula for the order parameter in the vicinity of the critical point in networks of coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. Using the critical point as a measure for dynamical robustness of oscillator networks, we show that the more heterogeneous the oscillator components are, the more robust the oscillatory behavior of the network is to the component deterioration. This property is confirmed also in networks of Morris-Lecar neuron models coupled through electrical synapses. Our approach could provide a useful framework for theoretically understanding the role of population heterogeneity in robustness of biological networks.
Dynamical Coupling of Pygmy and Giant Resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertulani, Carlos; Brady, Nathan; Aumann, Thomas; Thomas, James
2016-03-01
One of the effects overseen in studies of excitation of pygmy resonances is the fact that both pygmy and giant resonances are strongly coupled. This coupling leads to dynamical effects such as the modification of transition probabilities and and cross sections. We make an assessment of such effects by means of the relativistic coupled channels equations developed by our group. Supported by the U.S. NSF Grant No. 1415656 and the U.S. DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER41533.
Coupled dislocation and martensitic phase transformation dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barros, Kipton; Acharya, Amit; Lookman, Turab
2013-03-01
We present a field theoretic model that couples dislocation dynamics and plasticity with martensitic phase transformation. Dislocations produce long-range stress via incompatibility of the elastic-distortion field. Phase transformations are modeled with a non-convex elastic potential that contains the crystal symmetries of austenite and martensite phases. We discuss the effects of dislocation dynamics on material microstructure produced under extreme conditions.
Synchronization Dynamics of Coupled Chemical Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tompkins, Nathan
The synchronization dynamics of complex networks have been extensively studied over the past few decades due to their ubiquity in the natural world. Prominent examples include cardiac rhythms, circadian rhythms, the flashing of fireflies, predator/prey population dynamics, mammalian gait, human applause, pendulum clocks, the electrical grid, and of the course the brain. Detailed experiments have been done to map the topology of many of these systems and significant advances have been made to describe the mathematics of these networks. Compared to these bodies of work relatively little has been done to directly test the role of topology in the synchronization dynamics of coupled oscillators. This Dissertation develops technology to examine the dynamics due to topology within networks of discrete oscillatory components. The oscillatory system used here consists of the photo-inhibitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction water-in-oil emulsion where the oscillatory drops are diffusively coupled to one another and the topology is defined by the geometry of the diffusive connections. Ring networks are created from a close-packed 2D array of drops using the Programmable Illumination Microscope (PIM) in order to test Turing's theory of morphogenesis directly. Further technology is developed to create custom planar networks of BZ drops in more complicated topologies which can be individually perturbed using illumination from the PIM. The work presented here establishes the validity of using the BZ emulsion system with a PIM to study the topology induced effects on the synchronization dynamics of coupled chemical oscillators, tests the successes and limitations of Turing's theory of morphogenesis, and develops new technology to further probe the effects of network topology on a system of coupled oscillators. Finally, this Dissertation concludes by describing ongoing experiments which utilize this new technology to examine topology induced transitions of synchronization
Dynamics of strongly-coupled spiking neurons.
Bressloff, P C; Coombes, S
2000-01-01
We present a dynamical theory of integrate-and-fire neurons with strong synaptic coupling. We show how phase-locked states that are stable in the weak coupling regime can destabilize as the coupling is increased, leading to states characterized by spatiotemporal variations in the interspike intervals (ISIs). The dynamics is compared with that of a corresponding network of analog neurons in which the outputs of the neurons are taken to be mean firing rates. A fundamental result is that for slow interactions, there is good agreement between the two models (on an appropriately defined timescale). Various examples of desynchronization in the strong coupling regime are presented. First, a globally coupled network of identical neurons with strong inhibitory coupling is shown to exhibit oscillator death in which some of the neurons suppress the activity of others. However, the stability of the synchronous state persists for very large networks and fast synapses. Second, an asymmetric network with a mixture of excitation and inhibition is shown to exhibit periodic bursting patterns. Finally, a one-dimensional network of neurons with long-range interactions is shown to desynchronize to a state with a spatially periodic pattern of mean firing rates across the network. This is modulated by deterministic fluctuations of the instantaneous firing rate whose size is an increasing function of the speed of synaptic response. PMID:10636934
Dynamic coupling of three hydrodynamic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartnack, J. N.; Philip, G. T.; Rungoe, M.; Smith, G.; Johann, G.; Larsen, O.; Gregersen, J.; Butts, M. B.
2008-12-01
The need for integrated modelling is evidently present within the field of flood management and flood forecasting. Engineers, modellers and managers are faced with flood problems which transcend the classical hydrodynamic fields of urban, river and coastal flooding. Historically the modeller has been faced with having to select one hydrodynamic model to cover all the aspects of the potentially complex dynamics occurring in a flooding situation. Such a single hydrodynamic model does not cover all dynamics of flood modelling equally well. Thus the ideal choice may in fact be a combination of models. Models combining two numerical/hydrodynamic models are becoming more standard, typically these models combine a 1D river model with a 2D overland flow model or alternatively a 1D sewer/collection system model with a 2D overland solver. In complex coastal/urban areas the flood dynamics may include rivers/streams, collection/storm water systems along with the overland flow. The dynamics within all three areas is of the same time scale and there is feedback in the system across the couplings. These two aspects dictate a fully dynamic three way coupling as opposed to running the models sequentially. It will be shown that the main challenges of the three way coupling are time step issues related to the difference in numerical schemes used in the three model components and numerical instabilities caused by the linking of the model components. MIKE FLOOD combines the models MIKE 11, MIKE 21 and MOUSE into one modelling framework which makes it possible to couple any combination of river, urban and overland flow fully dynamically. The MIKE FLOOD framework will be presented with an overview of the coupling possibilities. The flood modelling concept will be illustrated through real life cases in Australia and in Germany. The real life cases reflect dynamics and interactions across all three model components which are not possible to reproduce using a two-way coupling alone. The
Modeling coupled avulsion and earthquake timescale dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitz, M. D.; Steckler, M. S.; Paola, C.; Seeber, L.
2014-12-01
River avulsions and earthquakes can be hazardous events, and many researchers work to better understand and predict their timescales. Improvements in the understanding of the intrinsic processes of deposition and strain accumulation that lead to these events have resulted in better constraints on the timescales of each process individually. There are however several mechanisms by which these two systems may plausibly become linked. River deposition and avulsion can affect the stress on underlying faults through differential loading by sediment or water. Conversely, earthquakes can affect river avulsion patterns through altering the topography. These interactions may alter the event recurrence timescales, but this dynamic has not yet been explored. We present results of a simple numerical model, in which two systems have intrinsic rates of approach to failure thresholds, but the state of one system contributes to the other's approach to failure through coupling functions. The model is first explored for the simplest case of two linear approaches to failure, and linearly proportional coupling terms. Intriguing coupling dynamics emerge: the system settles into cycles of repeating earthquake and avulsion timescales, which are approached at an exponential decay rate that depends on the coupling terms. The ratio of the number of events of each type and the timescale values also depend on the coupling coefficients and the threshold values. We then adapt the model to a more complex and realistic scenario, in which a river avulses between either side of a fault, with parameters corresponding to the Brahmaputra River / Dauki fault system in Bangladesh. Here the tectonic activity alters the topography by gradually subsiding during the interseismic time, and abruptly increasing during an earthquake. The river strengthens the fault by sediment loading when in one path, and weakens it when in the other. We show this coupling can significantly affect earthquake and avulsion
Dynamical coupled-channel analysis at EBAC.
Lee, T.-S. H.; Physics
2008-01-01
In this contribution, the author reports on the dynamical coupled-channels analysis being pursued at the Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) of Jefferson Laboratory. EBAC was established in January 2006. Its objective is to extract the parameters associated with the excited states (N*) of the nucleon from the world data of meson production reactions, and to also develop theoretical interpretations of the extracted N* parameters.
Coupling dynamic of twin supersonic jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, Ching-Wen; Cluts, Jordan; Samimy, Mo
2015-11-01
In a supersonic shock-containing jet, the interaction of large-scale structures in the jet's shear layer with the shock waves generates acoustic waves. The waves propagate upstream, excite the jet initial shear layer instability, establish a feedback loop at certain conditions, and generate screech noise. The screech normally contains different modes of various strengths. Similarly, twin-jet plumes contain screech tones. If the dynamics of the two jet plumes are synchronized, the screech amplitude could be significantly amplified. There is a proposed analytical model in the literature for screech synchronization in twin rectangular jets. This model shows that with no phase difference in acoustic waves arriving at neighboring nozzle lips, twin-jet plumes feature a strong coupling with a significant level of screech tones. In this work the maximum nozzle separation distance for sustained screech synchronization and strong coupling is analytically derived. This model is used with our round twin-jet experiments and the predicted coupling level agrees well with the experimental results. Near-field microphone measurements and schlieren visualization along with the analytical model are used to investigate the coupling mechanisms of twin supersonic jets. Supported by ONR.
Dynamics of coupled human-landscape systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, B. T.; McNamara, D. E.
2007-11-01
A preliminary dynamical analysis of landscapes and humans as hierarchical complex systems suggests that strong coupling between the two that spreads to become regionally or globally pervasive should be focused at multi-year to decadal time scales. At these scales, landscape dynamics is dominated by water, sediment and biological routing mediated by fluvial, oceanic, atmospheric processes and human dynamics is dominated by simplifying, profit-maximizing market forces and political action based on projection of economic effect. Also at these scales, landscapes impact humans through patterns of natural disasters and trends such as sea level rise; humans impact landscapes by the effect of economic activity and changes meant to mitigate natural disasters and longer term trends. Based on this analysis, human-landscape coupled systems can be modeled using heterogeneous agents employing prediction models to determine actions to represent the nonlinear behavior of economic and political systems and rule-based routing algorithms to represent landscape processes. A cellular model for the development of New Orleans illustrates this approach, with routing algorithms for river and hurricane-storm surge determining flood extent, five markets (home, labor, hotel, tourism and port services) connecting seven types of economic agents (home buyers/laborers, home developers, hotel owners/ employers, hotel developers, tourists, port services developer and port services owners/employers), building of levees or a river spillway by political agents and damage to homes, hotels or port services within cells determined by the passage or depth of flood waters. The model reproduces historical aspects of New Orleans economic development and levee construction and the filtering of frequent small-scale floods at the expense of large disasters.
Dynamic optical coupled system employing Dammann gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di, Caihui; Zhou, Changhe; Ru, Huayi
2004-10-01
With the increasing of the number of users in optical fiber communications, fiber-to-home project has a larger market value. Then the need of dynamic optical couplers, especially of N broad-band couplers, becomes greater. Though some advanced fiber fusion techniques have been developed, they still have many shortcomings. In this paper we propose a dynamic optical coupled system employing even-numbered Dammann gratings, which have the characteristic that the phase distribution in the first half-period accurately equals to that in the second-period with π phase inversion. In our experiment, we divide a conventional even-numbered Dammann grating into two identical gratings. The system can achieve the beam splitter and combiner as the switch between them according to the relative shift between two complementary gratings. When there is no shift between the gratings, the demonstrated 1×8 dynamic optical coupler achieves good uniformity of 0.06 and insertion loss of around 10.8 dB for each channel as a splitter. When the two gratings have an accurate shift of a half-period between them, our system has a low insertion loss of 0.46 dB as a combiner at a wavelength of 1550 nm.
Coupling geodynamic earthquake cycles and dynamic ruptures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Zelst, Iris; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Heuret, Arnauld
2016-04-01
Studying the seismicity in a subduction zone and its effects on tsunamis requires diverse modelling methods that span spatial and temporal scales. Hundreds of years are necessary to build the stresses and strengths on a fault, while consequent earthquake rupture propagation is determined by both these initial fault conditions and the feedback of seismic waves over periods of seconds up to minutes. This dynamic rupture displaces the sea floor, thereby causing tsunamis. The aim of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulations of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project is to study all these aspects and their interactions. Here, we present preliminary results of the first aspects in this modelling chain: the coupling of a seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) code to the dynamic rupture model SeisSol. STM models of earthquake cycles have the advantage of solving multiple earthquake events in a self-consistent manner concerning stress, strength and geometry. However, the drawback of these models is that they often lack in spatial or temporal resolution and do not include wave propagation. In contrast, dynamic rupture models solve for frictional failure coupled to seismic wave propagation. We use the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org) based on an ADER-DG discretization allowing high-order accuracy in space and time as well as flexible tetrahedral meshing. However, such simulations require assumptions on the initial fault stresses and strengths and its geometry, which are hard to constrain due to the lack of near-field observations and the complexity of coseismic conditions. By adapting the geometry as well as the stress and strength properties of the self-consistently developing non-finite fault zones from the geodynamic models as initial conditions for the dynamic rupture models, the advantages of both methods are exploited and modelling results may be compared. Our results show that a dynamic rupture can be triggered spontaneously and that the propagating rupture is
G-protein-coupled receptor heteromer dynamics
Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Agnati, Luigi F.; Fuxe, Kjell; Ciruela, Francisco
2010-01-01
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of cell surface receptors, and have evolved to detect and transmit a large palette of extracellular chemical and sensory signals into cells. Activated receptors catalyze the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins, which modulate the propagation of second messenger molecules and the activity of ion channels. Classically thought to signal as monomers, different GPCRs often pair up with each other as homo- and heterodimers, which have been shown to modulate signaling to G proteins. Here, we discuss recent advances in GPCR heteromer systems involving the kinetics of the early steps in GPCR signal transduction, the dynamic property of receptor–receptor interactions, and how the formation of receptor heteromers modulate the kinetics of G-protein signaling. PMID:21123619
Restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks
Zou, Wei; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Nagao, Raphael; Kiss, István Z.; Tang, Yang; Koseska, Aneta; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
Oscillatory behaviour is essential for proper functioning of various physical and biological processes. However, diffusive coupling is capable of suppressing intrinsic oscillations due to the manifestation of the phenomena of amplitude and oscillation deaths. Here we present a scheme to revoke these quenching states in diffusively coupled dynamical networks, and demonstrate the approach in experiments with an oscillatory chemical reaction. By introducing a simple feedback factor in the diffusive coupling, we show that the stable (in)homogeneous steady states can be effectively destabilized to restore dynamic behaviours of coupled systems. Even a feeble deviation from the normal diffusive coupling drastically shrinks the death regions in the parameter space. The generality of our method is corroborated in diverse non-linear systems of diffusively coupled paradigmatic models with various death scenarios. Our study provides a general framework to strengthen the robustness of dynamic activity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks. PMID:26173555
Restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks.
Zou, Wei; Senthilkumar, D V; Nagao, Raphael; Kiss, István Z; Tang, Yang; Koseska, Aneta; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
Oscillatory behaviour is essential for proper functioning of various physical and biological processes. However, diffusive coupling is capable of suppressing intrinsic oscillations due to the manifestation of the phenomena of amplitude and oscillation deaths. Here we present a scheme to revoke these quenching states in diffusively coupled dynamical networks, and demonstrate the approach in experiments with an oscillatory chemical reaction. By introducing a simple feedback factor in the diffusive coupling, we show that the stable (in)homogeneous steady states can be effectively destabilized to restore dynamic behaviours of coupled systems. Even a feeble deviation from the normal diffusive coupling drastically shrinks the death regions in the parameter space. The generality of our method is corroborated in diverse non-linear systems of diffusively coupled paradigmatic models with various death scenarios. Our study provides a general framework to strengthen the robustness of dynamic activity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks. PMID:26173555
Restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Wei; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Nagao, Raphael; Kiss, István Z.; Tang, Yang; Koseska, Aneta; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-07-01
Oscillatory behaviour is essential for proper functioning of various physical and biological processes. However, diffusive coupling is capable of suppressing intrinsic oscillations due to the manifestation of the phenomena of amplitude and oscillation deaths. Here we present a scheme to revoke these quenching states in diffusively coupled dynamical networks, and demonstrate the approach in experiments with an oscillatory chemical reaction. By introducing a simple feedback factor in the diffusive coupling, we show that the stable (in)homogeneous steady states can be effectively destabilized to restore dynamic behaviours of coupled systems. Even a feeble deviation from the normal diffusive coupling drastically shrinks the death regions in the parameter space. The generality of our method is corroborated in diverse non-linear systems of diffusively coupled paradigmatic models with various death scenarios. Our study provides a general framework to strengthen the robustness of dynamic activity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks.
Dynamics of strongly coupled spatially distributed logistic equations with delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashchenko, I. S.; Kashchenko, S. A.
2015-04-01
The dynamics of a system of two logistic delay equations with spatially distributed coupling is studied. The coupling coefficient is assumed to be sufficiently large. Special nonlinear systems of parabolic equations are constructed such that the behavior of their solutions is determined in the first approximation by the dynamical properties of the original system.
Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators
Dima, Germán C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.
2014-06-15
We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.
Dynamics of dark energy with a coupling to dark matter
Boehmer, Christian G.; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Maartens, Roy; Lazkoz, Ruth
2008-07-15
Dark energy and dark matter are the dominant sources in the evolution of the late universe. They are currently only indirectly detected via their gravitational effects, and there could be a coupling between them without violating observational constraints. We investigate the background dynamics when dark energy is modeled as exponential quintessence and is coupled to dark matter via simple models of energy exchange. We introduce a new form of dark sector coupling, which leads to a more complicated dynamical phase space and has a better physical motivation than previous mathematically similar couplings.
Phase dynamics of coupled oscillators reconstructed from data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenblum, Michael; Kralemann, Bjoern; Pikovsky, Arkady
2013-03-01
We present a technique for invariant reconstruction of the phase dynamics equations for coupled oscillators from data. The invariant description is achieved by means of a transformation of phase estimates (protophases) obtained from general scalar observables to genuine phases. Staring from the bivariate data, we obtain the coupling functions in terms of these phases. We discuss the importance of the protophase-to-phase transformation for characterization of strength and directionality of interaction. To illustrate the technique we analyse the cardio-respiratory interaction on healthy humans. Our invariant approach is confirmed by high similarity of the coupling functions obtained from different observables of the cardiac system. Next, we generalize the technique to cover the case of small networks of coupled periodic units. We use the partial norms of the reconstructed coupling functions to quantify directed coupling between the oscillators. We illustrate the method by different network motifs for three coupled oscillators. We also discuss nonlinear effects in coupling.
CHARACTERIZING COUPLED CHARGE TRANSPORT WITH MULTISCALE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS
Swanson, Jessica
2011-08-31
This is the final progress report for Award DE-SC0004920, entitled 'Characterizing coupled charge transport with multi scale molecular dynamics'. The technical abstract will be provided in the uploaded report.
Effective quantum dynamics of interacting systems with inhomogeneous coupling
Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Christ, H.; Solano, E.
2007-03-15
We study the quantum dynamics of a single mode (particle) interacting inhomogeneously with a large number of particles and introduce an effective approach to find the accessible Hilbert space, where the dynamics takes place. Two relevant examples are given: the inhomogeneous Tavis-Cummings model (e.g., N atomic qubits coupled to a single cavity mode, or to a motional mode in trapped ions) and the inhomogeneous coupling of an electron spin to N nuclear spins in a quantum dot.
Dynamics of symmetry breaking in strongly coupled QED
Bardeen, W.A.
1988-10-01
I review the dynamical structure of strong coupled QED in the quenched planar limit. The symmetry structure of this theory is examined with reference to the nature of both chiral and scale symmetry breaking. The renormalization structure of the strong coupled phase is analysed. The compatibility of spontaneous scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied using effective lagrangian methods. 14 refs., 3 figs.
Nonadiabatic multichannel dynamics of a spin-orbit-coupled condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Bo; Zheng, Jun-hui; Wang, Daw-wei
2015-06-01
We investigate the nonadiabatic dynamics of a driven spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in both weak and strong driven force. It is shown that the standard Landau-Zener (LZ) tunneling fails in the regime of weak driven force and/or strong spin-orbital coupling, where the full nonadiabatic dynamics requires a new mechanism through multichannel effects. Beyond the semiclassical approach, our numerical and analytical results show an oscillating power-law decay in the quantum limit, different from the exponential decay in the semiclassical limit of the LZ effect. Furthermore, the condensate density profile is found to be dynamically fragmented by the multichannel effects and enhanced by interaction effects. Our work therefore provides a complete picture to understand the nonadiabatic dynamics of a spin-orbit coupled condensate, including various ranges of driven force and interaction effects through multichannel interference. The experimental indication of these nonadiabatic dynamics is also discussed.
Superlinearly scalable noise robustness of redundant coupled dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F.; Ditto, William L.
2016-03-01
We illustrate through theory and numerical simulations that redundant coupled dynamical systems can be extremely robust against local noise in comparison to uncoupled dynamical systems evolving in the same noisy environment. Previous studies have shown that the noise robustness of redundant coupled dynamical systems is linearly scalable and deviations due to noise can be minimized by increasing the number of coupled units. Here, we demonstrate that the noise robustness can actually be scaled superlinearly if some conditions are met and very high noise robustness can be realized with very few coupled units. We discuss these conditions and show that this superlinear scalability depends on the nonlinearity of the individual dynamical units. The phenomenon is demonstrated in discrete as well as continuous dynamical systems. This superlinear scalability not only provides us an opportunity to exploit the nonlinearity of physical systems without being bogged down by noise but may also help us in understanding the functional role of coupled redundancy found in many biological systems. Moreover, engineers can exploit superlinear noise suppression by starting a coupled system near (not necessarily at) the appropriate initial condition.
Dynamics of chaotic systems with attractive and repulsive couplings.
Chen, Yuehua; Xiao, Jinghua; Liu, Weiqing; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian
2009-10-01
Together with attractive couplings, repulsive couplings play crucial roles in determining important evolutions in natural systems, such as in learning and oscillatory processes of neural networks. The complex interactions between them have great influence on the systems. A detailed understanding of the dynamical properties under this type of couplings is of practical significance. In this paper, we propose a model to investigate the dynamics of attractive and repulsive couplings, which give rise to rich phenomena, especially for amplitude death (AD). The relationship among various dynamics and possible transitions to AD are illustrated. When the system is in the maximally stable AD, we observe the transient behavior of in-phase (high frequency) and out-of-phase (low frequency) motions. The mechanism behind the phenomenon is given. PMID:19905414
Molecular Dynamics Study of Naturally Existing Cavity Couplings in Proteins
Barbany, Montserrat; Meyer, Tim; Hospital, Adam; Faustino, Ignacio; D'Abramo, Marco; Morata, Jordi; Orozco, Modesto; de la Cruz, Xavier
2015-01-01
Couplings between protein sub-structures are a common property of protein dynamics. Some of these couplings are especially interesting since they relate to function and its regulation. In this article we have studied the case of cavity couplings because cavities can host functional sites, allosteric sites, and are the locus of interactions with the cell milieu. We have divided this problem into two parts. In the first part, we have explored the presence of cavity couplings in the natural dynamics of 75 proteins, using 20 ns molecular dynamics simulations. For each of these proteins, we have obtained two trajectories around their native state. After applying a stringent filtering procedure, we found significant cavity correlations in 60% of the proteins. We analyze and discuss the structure origins of these correlations, including neighbourhood, cavity distance, etc. In the second part of our study, we have used longer simulations (≥100ns) from the MoDEL project, to obtain a broader view of cavity couplings, particularly about their dependence on time. Using moving window computations we explored the fluctuations of cavity couplings along time, finding that these couplings could fluctuate substantially during the trajectory, reaching in several cases correlations above 0.25/0.5. In summary, we describe the structural origin and the variations with time of cavity couplings. We complete our work with a brief discussion of the biological implications of these results. PMID:25816327
Coupled intertwiner dynamics: A toy model for coupling matter to spin foam models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinhaus, Sebastian
2015-09-01
The universal coupling of matter and gravity is one of the most important features of general relativity. In quantum gravity, in particular spin foams, matter couplings have been defined in the past, yet the mutual dynamics, in particular if matter and gravity are strongly coupled, are hardly explored, which is related to the definition of both matter and gravitational degrees of freedom on the discretization. However, extracting these mutual dynamics is crucial in testing the viability of the spin foam approach and also establishing connections to other discrete approaches such as lattice gauge theories. Therefore, we introduce a simple two-dimensional toy model for Yang-Mills coupled to spin foams, namely an Ising model coupled to so-called intertwiner models defined for SU (2 )k. The two systems are coupled by choosing the Ising coupling constant to depend on spin labels of the background, as these are interpreted as the edge lengths of the discretization. We coarse grain this toy model via tensor network renormalization and uncover an interesting dynamics: the Ising phase transition temperature turns out to be sensitive to the background configurations and conversely, the Ising model can induce phase transitions in the background. Moreover, we observe a strong coupling of both systems if close to both phase transitions.
Stochastic dynamics of coupled active particles in an overdamped limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ann, Minjung; Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock; Park, Pyeong Jun
2015-10-01
We introduce a model for Brownian dynamics of coupled active particles in an overdamped limit. Our system consists of several identical active particles and one passive particle. Each active particle is elastically coupled to the passive particle and there is no direct coupling among the active particles. We investigate the dynamics of the system with respect to the number of active particles, viscous friction, and coupling between the active and passive particles. For this purpose, we consider an intracellular transport process as an application of our model and perform a Brownian dynamics simulation using realistic parameters for processive molecular motors such as kinesin-1. We determine an adequate energy conversion function for molecular motors and study the dynamics of intracellular transport by multiple motors. The results show that the average velocity of the coupled system is not affected by the number of active motors and that the stall force increases linearly as the number of motors increases. Our results are consistent with well-known experimental observations. We also examine the effects of coupling between the motors and the cargo, as well as of the spatial distribution of the motors around the cargo. Our model might provide a physical explanation of the cooperation among active motors in the cellular transport processes.
Dynamics of coupled vortices in perpendicular field
Jain, Shikha; Novosad, Valentyn Fradin, Frank Y.; Pearson, John E.; Bader, Samuel D.
2014-02-24
We explore the coupling mechanism of two magnetic vortices in the presence of a perpendicular bias field by pre-selecting the polarity combinations using the resonant-spin-ordering approach. First, out of the four vortex polarity combinations (two of which are degenerate), three stable core polarity states are achieved by lifting the degeneracy of one of the states. Second, the response of the stiffness constant for the vortex pair (similar polarity) in perpendicular bias is found to be asymmetric around the zero field, in contrast to the response obtained from a single vortex core. Finally, the collective response of the system for antiparallel core polarities is symmetric around zero bias. The vortex core whose polarization is opposite to the bias field dominates the response.
The dynamics of strong coupling gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niedermaier, Max
2015-01-01
In the limit of infinite Newton constant, the 1+d dimensional vacuum Einstein equations reduce to their ‘velocity dominated’ counterparts. We construct all solutions with generic initial data and spatially closed sections by employing the constant mean curvature (CMC) gauge [1]. The latter is a nonlinearly admissible gauge in which the evolution equations are integrable ordinary differential equations and the diffeomorphism constraint decouples from the Hamiltonian constraint. The dynamical fields in this gauge are invariant under all gauge transformations but time independent spatial diffeomorphisms. The decoupled constraints are solved using a lapse-weighted conformal-traceless decomposition and produce equivalence classes of physical configurations modulo spatial diffeomorphisms. The CMC gauge can be augmented by a gauge condition {{χ }a} on the unimodular part of the spatial metric to provide a complete gauge fixing. Based on it a complete set of fully gauge invariant dynamical fields (observables) is constructed. By utilizing an algebraic gauge condition {{χ }a} a variant of the construction is found that isolates the physical degrees of freedoms algebraically.
Dynamic plasticity in coupled avian midbrain maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atwal, Gurinder Singh
2004-12-01
Internal mapping of the external environment is carried out using the receptive fields of topographic neurons in the brain, and in a normal barn owl the aural and visual subcortical maps are aligned from early experiences. However, instantaneous misalignment of the aural and visual stimuli has been observed to result in adaptive behavior, manifested by functional and anatomical changes of the auditory processing system. Using methods of information theory and statistical mechanics a model of the adaptive dynamics of the aural receptive field is presented and analyzed. The dynamics is determined by maximizing the mutual information between the neural output and the weighted sensory neural inputs, admixed with noise, subject to biophysical constraints. The reduced costs of neural rewiring, as in the case of young barn owls, reveal two qualitatively different types of receptive field adaptation depending on the magnitude of the audiovisual misalignment. By letting the misalignment increase with time, it is shown that the ability to adapt can be increased even when neural rewiring costs are high, in agreement with recent experimental reports of the increased plasticity of the auditory space map in adult barn owls due to incremental learning. Finally, a critical speed of misalignment is identified, demarcating the crossover from adaptive to nonadaptive behavior.
Molecular dynamics with coupling to an external bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berendsen, H. J. C.; Postma, J. P. M.; van Gunsteren, W. F.; DiNola, A.; Haak, J. R.
1984-10-01
In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations the need often arises to maintain such parameters as temperature or pressure rather than energy and volume, or to impose gradients for studying transport properties in nonequilibrium MD. A method is described to realize coupling to an external bath with constant temperature or pressure with adjustable time constants for the coupling. The method is easily extendable to other variables and to gradients, and can be applied also to polyatomic molecules involving internal constraints. The influence of coupling time constants on dynamical variables is evaluated. A leap-frog algorithm is presented for the general case involving constraints with coupling to both a constant temperature and a constant pressure bath.
Dynamics of the Phase Oscillators with Plastic Couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasatkin, D. V.; Nekorkin, V. I.
2016-05-01
We study the dynamical regimes in the system of two identical interacting phase oscillators with plastic couplings. The joint evolution of the states of the elements and the interelement couplings is a feature of the system studied. It is shown that the introduction of plastic couplings leads to a multistable behavior of the system and emergence of the asynchronous regimes which are not observed for the considered parameter values in the case of static couplings. The parameter plane is divided into regions with different dynamic regimes of the system. In particular, the regions in which the system demonstrates bistable synchronous behavior and the region in which the coexistence of many various asynchronous regimes is observed are singled out.
Pinning impulsive directed coupled delayed dynamical network and its applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chunnan; Wu, Quanjun; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Jin
2015-01-01
The main objective of the present paper is to further investigate pinning synchronisation of a complex delayed dynamical network with directionally coupling by a single impulsive controller. By developing the analysis procedure of pinning impulsive stability for undirected coupled dynamical network previously, some simple yet general criteria of pinning impulsive synchronisation for such directed coupled network are derived analytically. It is shown that a single impulsive controller can always pin a given directed coupled network to a desired homogenous solution, including an equilibrium point, a periodic orbit, or a chaotic orbit. Subsequently, the theoretical results are illustrated by a directed small-world complex network which is a cellular neural network (CNN) and a directed scale-free complex network with the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley neuron oscillators. Numerical simulations are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.
A dynamical stochastic coupled model for financial markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govindan, T. E.; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Ruiz de Chávez, J.
2007-07-01
A model coupling a deterministic dynamical system which represents trading, with a stochastic one that represents asset prices evolution is presented. Both parts of the model have connections with well established dynamic models in mathematical economics and finance. The main objective is to represent the double feedback between trading dynamics (the demand/supply interaction) and price dynamics (assumed as largely random). We present the model, and address to some extent existence and uniqueness, continuity with respect to initial conditions and stability of solutions. The non-Lipschitz case is briefly considered as well.
Synchronization in complex dynamical networks coupled with complex chaotic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Bo
2015-11-01
This paper investigates synchronization in complex dynamical networks with time delay and perturbation. The node of complex dynamical networks is composed of complex chaotic system. A complex feedback controller is designed to realize different component of complex state variable synchronize up to different scaling complex function when complex dynamical networks realize synchronization. The synchronization scaling function is changed from real field to complex field. Synchronization in complex dynamical networks with constant delay and time-varying coupling delay are investigated, respectively. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Collective dynamics in strongly coupled dusty plasma medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Amita; Dharodi, Vikram; Tiwari, Sanat; Tiwari
2014-12-01
A simplified description of dynamical response of strongly coupled medium is desirable in many contexts of physics. The dusty plasma medium can play an important role in this regard due to its uniqueness, as its dynamical response typically falls within the perceptible grasp of human senses. Furthermore, even at room temperature and normal densities it can be easily prepared to be in a strongly coupled regime. A simplified phenomenological fluid model based on the visco - elastic behaviour of the medium is often invoked to represent the collective dynamical response of a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium. The manuscript reviews the role of this particular Generalized Hydrodynamic (GHD) fluid model in capturing the collective properties exhibited by the medium. In addition the paper also provides new insights on the collective behaviour predicted by the model for the medium, in terms of coherent structures, instabilities, transport and mixing properties.
Dynamic Plasticity of Coupled Cortical Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atwal, G. S.
2003-03-01
Spatiotemporal location of an object may be achieved by inference from a combination of different noisy stimuli such as in the case of barn owls which locate prey using both aural and visual stimuli. The symbolic representation of an event is carried out using the receptive fields of neurons in the cortex, and in a normal barn owl the aural and visual receptive fields are aligned from early experiences. However, misalignment induced by the wearing of prismatic glasses may result in adaptive behavior, manifested by physical modification of the receptive fields. A model of this dynamic plasticity is presented and analyzed by maximising the weighted information of both sensory neural outputs, demonstrating a transition from adaptive to non-adaptive behavior as the rate of misalignment increases.
Invisible RNA state dynamically couples distant motifs
Lee, Janghyun; Dethoff, Elizabeth A.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.
2014-01-01
Using on- and off-resonance carbon and nitrogen R1ρ NMR relaxation dispersion in concert with mutagenesis and NMR chemical shift fingerprinting, we show that the transactivation response element RNA from the HIV-1 exists in dynamic equilibrium with a transient state that has a lifetime of ∼2 ms and population of ∼0.4%, which simultaneously remodels the structure of a bulge, stem, and apical loop. This is accomplished by a global change in strand register, in which bulge residues pair up with residues in the upper stem, causing a reshuffling of base pairs that propagates to the tip of apical loop, resulting in the creation of three noncanonical base pairs. Our results show that transient states can remodel distant RNA motifs and possibly give rise to mechanisms for rapid long-range communication in RNA that can be harnessed in processes such as cooperative folding and ribonucleoprotein assembly. PMID:24979799
Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities
Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina
2012-09-01
The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.
Time-delayed coupled logistic capacity model in population dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cáceres, Manuel O.
2014-08-01
This study proposes a delay-coupled system based on the logistic equation that models the interaction of a population with its varying environment. The integro-diferential equations of the model are presented in terms of a distributed time-delayed coupled logistic-capacity equation. The model eliminates the need for a prior knowledge of the maximum saturation environmental carrying capacity value. Therefore the dynamics toward the final attractor in a distributed time-delayed coupled logistic-capacity model is studied. Exact results are presented, and analytical conclusions have been done in terms of the two parameters of the model.
Nonadiabatic dynamics of two strongly coupled nanomechanical resonator modes.
Faust, Thomas; Rieger, Johannes; Seitner, Maximilian J; Krenn, Peter; Kotthaus, Jörg P; Weig, Eva M
2012-07-20
The Landau-Zener transition is a fundamental concept for dynamical quantum systems and has been studied in numerous fields of physics. Here, we present a classical mechanical model system exhibiting analogous behavior using two inversely tunable, strongly coupled modes of the same nanomechanical beam resonator. In the adiabatic limit, the anticrossing between the two modes is observed and the coupling strength extracted. Sweeping an initialized mode across the coupling region allows mapping of the progression from diabatic to adiabatic transitions as a function of the sweep rate. PMID:22861892
Coupled dynamics of translation and collapse of acoustically driven microbubbles.
Reddy, Anil J; Szeri, Andrew J
2002-10-01
Pressure gradients drive the motion of microbubbles relative to liquids in which they are suspended. Examples include the hydrostatic pressure due to a gravitational field, and the pressure gradients in a sound field, useful for acoustic levitation. In this paper, the equations describing the coupled dynamics of radial oscillation and translation of a microbubble are given. The formulation is based on a recently derived expression for the hydrodynamic force on a bubble of changing size in an incompressible liquid [J. Magnaudet and D. Legendre, Phys. Fluids 10, 550-556 (1998)]. The complex interaction between radial and translation dynamics is best understood by examination of the added momentum associated with the liquid motion caused by the moving bubble. Translation is maximized when the bubble collapses violently. The new theory for coupled collapse and translation dynamics is compared to past experiments and to previous theories for decoupled translation dynamics. Special attention is paid to bubbles of relevance in biomedical applications. PMID:12398441
Dynamic regimes of hydrodynamically coupled self-propelling particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llopis, I.; Pagonabarraga, I.
2006-09-01
We analyze the collective dynamics of self-propelling particles (spps) which move at small Reynolds numbers including the hydrodynamic coupling to the suspending solvent through numerical simulations. The velocity distribution functions show marked deviations from Gaussian behavior at short times, and the mean-square displacement at long times shows a transition from diffusive to ballistic motion for appropriate driving mechanism at low concentrations. We discuss the structures the spps form at long times and how they correlate to their dynamic behavior.
An elementary mode coupling theory of random heteropolymer dynamics.
Takada, S; Portman, J J; Wolynes, P G
1997-03-18
The Langevin dynamics of a random heteropolymer and its dynamic glass transition are studied using elementary mode coupling theory. Contrary to recent reports using a similar framework, a discontinuous ergodic-nonergodic phase transition is predicted for all Rouse modes at a finite temperature T(A). For sufficiently long chains, T(A) is almost independent of chain length and is in good agreement with the value previously estimated by a static replica theory. PMID:9122192
The dynamical correlation in spacer-mediated electron transfer couplings
Yang, C.-H.; Hsu, C.-P.
2006-06-28
The dynamical correlation effect in electron transfer (ET) coupling was studied in this work, for cases where electrons tunnel through a many-electron environment. The ET couplings for three different bridge-mediated model systems were calculated: (I) trans-alkyl chains [H{sub 2}C-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}-CH{sub 2}, n=2-10], (II) two isomers of trans-1,4-dimethylenecyclohexane, and (III) two ethylenes spaced by a saturated ethane molecule. The couplings were calculated as half energy gaps of the two lowest adiabatic states. The dynamical correlation was included with spin-flip (SF) and ionization potential or electron affinity coupled-cluster singles and doubles (SF-CCSD and IP/EA-CCSD) and a {delta}CCSD scheme. The direct coupling (DC) scheme is also used as a way to obtain a solution with nondynamical correlation, since DC uses approximated eigenstates that are symmetry-restoring linear combinations of two symmetry-broken unrestricted Hartree-Fock configurations. For all cases tested except for one, results from the DC scheme closely follow the CCSD data, indicating that the dual-configuration solutions can be a good approximation of wave functions with nondynamical correlation included, but there exist exceptions. Comparing the DC results with SF-CCSD and IP or EA-CCSD data, we concluded that the dynamical correlation effect is small for most of the cases we tested.
Inductive-dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling via MHD waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Jiannan; Song, Paul; Vasyliūnas, Vytenis M.
2014-01-01
In the present study, we investigate magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere (M-IT) coupling via MHD waves by numerically solving time-dependent continuity, momentum, and energy equations for ions and neutrals, together with Maxwell's equations (Ampère's and Faraday's laws) and with photochemistry included. This inductive-dynamic approach we use is fundamentally different from those in previous magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling models: all MHD wave modes are retained, and energy and momentum exchange between waves and plasma are incorporated into the governing equations, allowing a self-consistent examination of dynamic M-I coupling. Simulations, using an implicit numerical scheme, of the 1-D ionosphere/thermosphere system responding to an imposed convection velocity at the top boundary are presented to show how magnetosphere and ionosphere are coupled through Alfvén waves during the transient stage when the IT system changes from one quasi steady state to another. Wave reflection from the low-altitude ionosphere plays an essential role, causing overshoots and oscillations of ionospheric perturbations, and the dynamical Hall effect is an inherent aspect of the M-I coupling. The simulations demonstrate that the ionosphere/thermosphere responds to magnetospheric driving forces as a damped oscillator.
Coupling Dynamics Interlip Coordination in Lower Lip Load Compensation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Lieshout, Pascal; Neufeld, Chris
2014-01-01
Purpose: To study the effects of lower lip loading on lower and upper lip movements and their coordination to test predictions on coupling dynamics derived from studies in limb control. Method: Movement data were acquired using electromagnetic midsagittal articulography under 4 conditions: (a) without restrictions, serving as a baseline; (b) with…
SOLITONS: Dynamics of strong coupling formation between laser solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosanov, Nikolai N.; Fedorov, S. V.; Shatsev, A. N.
2005-03-01
The dynamics of the strong coupling formation between two solitons with the unit topological charge is studied in detail for a wide-aperture class A laser. The sequence of bifurcations of the vector field of energy fluxes in the transverse plane was demonstrated during the formation of a soliton complex.
Analysis of the numerics of physics-dynamics coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staniforth, Andrew; Wood, Nigel; Côté, Jean
2002-10-01
A methodology for analysing the numerical properties of schemes for coupling physics parametrizations to a dynamical core is presented. As an example of its application, the methodology is used to study four coupling schemes ('explicit', 'implicit', 'split-implicit' and 'symmetrized split-implicit') in the context of a semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian dynamical core. Each coupling scheme is assessed in terms of its numerical stability and of the accuracy of both its transient and steady-state responses. Additionally, the occurrence of spurious, computational resonance is analysed and discussed. It is found that in this respect all four schemes behave similarly.In particular, in the absence of any damping mechanism to control resonance, the time-step restriction needed to avoid spurious resonance is twice as restrictive for time-dependent forcing as for stationary forcing.
Dynamics of Coupled Cell Networks: Synchrony, Heteroclinic Cycles and Inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguiar, M.; Ashwin, P.; Dias, A.; Field, M.
2011-04-01
We consider the dynamics of small networks of coupled cells. We usually assume asymmetric inputs and no global or local symmetries in the network and consider equivalence of networks in this setting; that is, when two networks with different architectures give rise to the same set of possible dynamics. Focussing on transitive (strongly connected) networks that have only one type of cell (identical cell networks) we address three questions relating the network structure to dynamics. The first question is how the structure of the network may force the existence of invariant subspaces (synchrony subspaces). The second question is how these invariant subspaces can support robust heteroclinic attractors. Finally, we investigate how the dynamics of coupled cell networks with different structures and numbers of cells can be related; in particular we consider the sets of possible "inflations" of a coupled cell network that are obtained by replacing one cell by many of the same type, in such a way that the original network dynamics is still present within a synchrony subspace. We illustrate the results with a number of examples of networks of up to six cells.
Magnetization dynamics in exchange coupled antiferromagnet spin superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yizhou; Barlas, Yafis; Yin, Gen; Zang, Jiadong; Lake, Roger
Antiferromagnets (AFMs) are commonly used as the exchange bias layer in magnetic recording and spintronic devices. Recently, several studies on the spin transfer torque and spin pumping in AFMs reveal much more interesting physics in AFMs. Properties of AFMs such as the ultrafast switching within picoseconds and spin superfluidity demonstrate the potential to build AFM based spintronic devices. Here, we study the magnetization dynamics in an exchange coupled AFM systems. Beginning from the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, we derive a Josephson-like equation for the exchange coupled system. We investigate the detailed magnetization dynamics by employing spin injection and spin pumping theory. We also propose a geometry that could be used to measure this magnetization dynamics. This work was supported as part of the Spins and Heat in Nanoscale Electronic Systems (SHINES) an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award #SC0012670.
Quench dynamics of two coupled zig-zag ion chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klumpp, Andrea; Liebchen, Benno; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-08-01
We explore the non-equilibrium dynamics of two coupled zig-zag chains of trapped ions in a double well potential. Following a quench of the potential barrier between both wells, the induced coupling between both chains due to the long-range interaction of the ions leads to the complete loss of order in the radial direction. The resulting dynamics is however not exclusively irregular but leads to phases of motion during which various ordered structures appear with ions arranged in arcs, lines and crosses. We quantify the emerging order by introducing a suitable measure and complement our analysis of the ion dynamics using a normal mode analysis showing a decisive population transfer between only a few distinguished modes.
Quantum emitters dynamically coupled to a quantum field
Acevedo, O. L.; Quiroga, L.; Rodríguez, F. J.; Johnson, N. F.
2013-12-04
We study theoretically the dynamical response of a set of solid-state quantum emitters arbitrarily coupled to a single-mode microcavity system. Ramping the matter-field coupling strength in round trips, we quantify the hysteresis or irreversible quantum dynamics. The matter-field system is modeled as a finite-size Dicke model which has previously been used to describe equilibrium (including quantum phase transition) properties of systems such as quantum dots in a microcavity. Here we extend this model to address non-equilibrium situations. Analyzing the system’s quantum fidelity, we find that the near-adiabatic regime exhibits the richest phenomena, with a strong asymmetry in the internal collective dynamics depending on which phase is chosen as the starting point. We also explore signatures of the crossing of the critical points on the radiation subsystem by monitoring its Wigner function; then, the subsystem can exhibit the emergence of non-classicality and complexity.
Dynamics of the excitonic coupling in organic crystals.
Aragó, Juan; Troisi, Alessandro
2015-01-16
We show that the excitonic coupling in molecular crystals undergoes a very large fluctuation at room temperature as a result of the combined thermal motions of the nuclei. This observation dramatically affects the description of exciton transport in organic crystals and any other phenomenon (like singlet fission or exciton dissociation) that originates from an exciton in a molecular crystal or thin film. This unexpected result is due to the predominance of the short-range excitonic coupling mechanisms (exchange, overlap, and charge-transfer mediated) over the Coulombic excitonic coupling for molecules in van der Waals contact. To quantify this effect we develop a procedure to evaluate accurately the short-range excitonic coupling (via a diabatization scheme) along a molecular dynamics trajectory of the representative molecular crystals of anthracene and tetracene. PMID:25635554
Dynamics of the Excitonic Coupling in Organic Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aragó, Juan; Troisi, Alessandro
2015-01-01
We show that the excitonic coupling in molecular crystals undergoes a very large fluctuation at room temperature as a result of the combined thermal motions of the nuclei. This observation dramatically affects the description of exciton transport in organic crystals and any other phenomenon (like singlet fission or exciton dissociation) that originates from an exciton in a molecular crystal or thin film. This unexpected result is due to the predominance of the short-range excitonic coupling mechanisms (exchange, overlap, and charge-transfer mediated) over the Coulombic excitonic coupling for molecules in van der Waals contact. To quantify this effect we develop a procedure to evaluate accurately the short-range excitonic coupling (via a diabatization scheme) along a molecular dynamics trajectory of the representative molecular crystals of anthracene and tetracene.
Reduction of Additive Colored Noise Using Coupled Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F.; Ditto, William L.
We study the effect of additive colored noise on the evolution of maps and demonstrate that the deviations caused by such noise can be reduced using coupled dynamics. We consider both Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as well as 1/fα noise in our numerical simulations. We observe that though the variance of deviations caused by noise depends on the correlations in the noise, under optimal coupling strength, it decreases by a factor equal to the number of coupled elements in the array as compared to the variance of deviations in a single isolated map. This reduction in noise levels occurs in chaotic as well as periodic regime of the maps. Lastly, we examine the effect of colored noise in chaos computing and find that coupling the chaos computing elements enhances the robustness of chaos computing.
Coupled Polarization/magnetization Dynamics in Composite Multiferroics: AN Overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sukhov, A.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Jia, C. L.; Berakdar, J.
In this chapter we present a theoretical approach for modeling the coupled polarization-magnetization dynamics in composite multiferroic nanostructures. The free energy functional is based on coupling established expressions for the the Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire polarization free energy density with the Landau-Ginzburg magnetization free energy density. The polarization/magnetization coupling term depends on the nature of the underlying magnetoelectric interaction. As an example we inspect the role of an emerging non-collinear spin order at the ferroelectric/magnetic interface and discuss how this mechanism is reflected in the total free energy density. We present and analyze numerical results for the coupled polarization and magnetization dynamics driven by external electric and magnetic fields and show how this dynamics can be accessed experimentally via ferromagnetic resonance in nanostructured multiferroic BaTiO3/Fe or BaTiO3/Co composites. As a way for robust signal transmission and conversion, solitonic excitations are envisaged. The finding is that initially prepared magnetic (electric) solitonic signals propagate towards the interface where they are efficiently converted into electric (magnetic) signals. In a further section we explore the potential of multiferroics for quantum information applications.
Dynamic Jahn-Teller coupling and high T c superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clougherty, Dennis P.; Johnson, Keith H.; McHenry, Michael E.
1989-12-01
Based on the cooperative dynamic Jahn-Teller effect, a universal model of superconductivity is sketched which accounts for many aspects of conventional BCS and high T c superconductors. Within the quasi-molecular approximation, a real space vibronic coupling of degenerate (or nearly degenerate) electronic states to anharmonically mixed nuclear distortions is shown to lead to electron pairing. The crossover from electron-phonon behavior to electronic behavior as a function of Jahn-Teller coupling and anharmonic mixing is illustrated for the case of a CuO 4 cluster having D 4 h symmetry.
The Coupled Chemical and Physical Dynamics Model of MALDI.
Knochenmuss, Richard
2016-06-12
The coupled physical and chemical dynamics model of ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) has reproduced and explained a wide variety of MALDI phenomena. The rationale behind and elements of the model are reviewed, including the photophysics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of primary and secondary reaction steps. Experimental results are compared with model predictions to illustrate the foundations of the model, coupling of ablation and ionization, differences between and commonalities of matrices, secondary charge transfer reactions, ionization in both polarities, fluence and concentration dependencies, and suppression and enhancement effects. PMID:27070182
Multimode dynamics in a network with resource mediated coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Postnov, D. E.; Sosnovtseva, O. V.; Scherbakov, P.; Mosekilde, E.
2008-03-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the special forms of multimode dynamics that one can observe in systems with resource-mediated coupling, i.e., systems of self-sustained oscillators in which the coupling takes place via the distribution of primary resources that controls the oscillatory state of the individual unit. With this coupling, a spatially inhomogenous state with mixed high and low-amplitude oscillations in the individual units can arise. To examine generic phenomena associated with this type of interaction we consider a chain of resistively coupled electronic oscillators connected to a common power supply. The two-oscillator system displays antiphase synchronization, and it is interesting to note that two-mode oscillations continue to exist outside of the parameter range in which oscillations occur for the individual unit. At low coupling strengths, the multi-oscillator system shows high dimensional quasiperiodicity with little tendency for synchronization. At higher coupling strengths, one typically observes spatial clustering involving a few oscillating units. We describe three different scenarios according to which the cluster can slide along the chain as the bias voltage changes.
Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review.
Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T
2015-12-01
It is increasingly recognized that a key component of successful infection control efforts is understanding the complex, two-way interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. Human behavior such as contact precautions and social distancing clearly influence disease prevalence, but disease prevalence can in turn alter human behavior, forming a coupled, nonlinear system. Moreover, in many cases, the spatial structure of the population cannot be ignored, such that social and behavioral processes and/or transmission of infection must be represented with complex networks. Research on studying coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks in particular is growing rapidly, and frequently makes use of analysis methods and concepts from statistical physics. Here, we review some of the growing literature in this area. We contrast network-based approaches to homogeneous-mixing approaches, point out how their predictions differ, and describe the rich and often surprising behavior of disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks, and compare them to processes in statistical physics. We discuss how these models can capture the dynamics that characterize many real-world scenarios, thereby suggesting ways that policy makers can better design effective prevention strategies. We also describe the growing sources of digital data that are facilitating research in this area. Finally, we suggest pitfalls which might be faced by researchers in the field, and we suggest several ways in which the field could move forward in the coming years. PMID:26211717
Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A.; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T.
2015-12-01
It is increasingly recognized that a key component of successful infection control efforts is understanding the complex, two-way interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. Human behavior such as contact precautions and social distancing clearly influence disease prevalence, but disease prevalence can in turn alter human behavior, forming a coupled, nonlinear system. Moreover, in many cases, the spatial structure of the population cannot be ignored, such that social and behavioral processes and/or transmission of infection must be represented with complex networks. Research on studying coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks in particular is growing rapidly, and frequently makes use of analysis methods and concepts from statistical physics. Here, we review some of the growing literature in this area. We contrast network-based approaches to homogeneous-mixing approaches, point out how their predictions differ, and describe the rich and often surprising behavior of disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks, and compare them to processes in statistical physics. We discuss how these models can capture the dynamics that characterize many real-world scenarios, thereby suggesting ways that policy makers can better design effective prevention strategies. We also describe the growing sources of digital data that are facilitating research in this area. Finally, we suggest pitfalls which might be faced by researchers in the field, and we suggest several ways in which the field could move forward in the coming years.
Nonlinearly coupled dynamics of irregularities in the equatorial electrojet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atul, J. K.; Sarkar, S.; Singh, S. K.
2016-04-01
Kinetic wave description is used to study the nonlinear influence of background Farley Buneman (FB) modes on the Gradient Drift (GD) modes in the equatorial electrojet ionosphere. The dominant nonlinearity is mediated through the electron flux term in the governing fluid equation which further invokes a turbulent current into the system. Electron dynamics reveals the modification in electron collision frequency and inhomogeneity scale length. It is seen that the propagation and growth rate of GD modes get modified by the background FB modes. Also, a new quasimode gets excited through the quadratic dispersion relation. Physical significance of coupled dynamics between the participating modes is also discussed.
Dynamic model of neural networks with asymmetric diluted couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, M. Y.; Choi, Meekyoung
1990-06-01
We study an asymmetric diluted version of the dynamic model for neural networks proposed recently, which explicitly takes into account the existence of several time scales without discretizing the time. The dynamics is neither totally synchronous nor totally asynchronous, and the couplings in the neural networks are asymmetric. These considerations may be regarded as more biologically realistic. We obtain the phase diagram as a function of the temperature ɛ-1, the capacity α, and the ratio a of the refractory period to the action potential duration.
Sequential dynamics in the motif of excitatory coupled elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korotkov, Alexander G.; Kazakov, Alexey O.; Osipov, Grigory V.
2015-11-01
In this article a new model of motif (small ensemble) of neuron-like elements is proposed. It is built with the use of the generalized Lotka-Volterra model with excitatory couplings. The main motivation for this work comes from the problems of neuroscience where excitatory couplings are proved to be the predominant type of interaction between neurons of the brain. In this paper it is shown that there are two modes depending on the type of coupling between the elements: the mode with a stable heteroclinic cycle and the mode with a stable limit cycle. Our second goal is to examine the chaotic dynamics of the generalized three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra model.
Integrable order parameter dynamics of globally coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pritula, G. M.; Prytula, V. I.; Usatenko, O. V.
2016-02-01
We study the nonlinear dynamics of globally coupled nonidentical oscillators in the framework of two order parameter (mean field and amplitude-frequency correlator) reduction. The main result of the paper is the exact solution of a corresponding nonlinear system on a two-dimensional invariant manifold. We present a complete classification of phase portraits and bifurcations, obtain explicit expressions for invariant manifolds (a limit cycle among them) and derive analytical solutions for arbitrary initial data and different regimes.
Pinning synchronization of discrete dynamical networks with delay coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Ranran; Peng, Mingshu; Zuo, Jun
2016-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pinning synchronization analysis for nonlinear coupled delayed discrete dynamical networks with the identical or nonidentical topological structure. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, pinning control method and linear matrix inequalities, several adaptive synchronization criteria via two kinds of pinning control method are obtained. Two examples based on Rulkov chaotic system are included to illustrate the effectiveness and verification of theoretical analysis.
Relationship dynamics around depression in gay and lesbian couples.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
2015-12-01
Research on intimate relationship dynamics around depression has primarily focused on heterosexual couples. This body of work shows that wives are more likely than husbands to offer support to a depressed spouse. Moreover, when wives are depressed, they are more likely than husbands to try and shield their spouse from the stress of their own depression. Yet, previous research has not examined depression and relationship dynamics in gay and lesbian couples. We analyze in-depth interviews with 26 gay and lesbian couples (N = 52 individuals) in which one or both partners reported depression. We find evidence that dominant gender scripts are both upheld and challenged within gay and lesbian couples, providing important insight into how gender operates in relation to depression within same-sex contexts. Our results indicate that most gay and lesbian partners offer support to a depressed partner, yet lesbian couples tend to follow a unique pattern in that they provide support both as the non-depressed and depressed partner. Support around depression is sometimes viewed as improving the relationship, but if the support is intensive or rejected, it is often viewed as contributing to relationship strain. Support is also sometimes withdrawn by the non-depressed partner because of caregiver exhaustion or the perception that the support is unhelpful. This study points to the importance of considering depression within gay and lesbian relational contexts, revealing new ways support sustains and strains intimate partnerships. We emphasize the usefulness of deploying couple-level approaches to better understand depression in sexual minority populations. PMID:26523788
The coupled nonlinear dynamics of a lift system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crespo, Rafael Sánchez; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan; Picton, Phil; Su, Huijuan
2014-12-01
Coupled lateral and longitudinal vibrations of suspension and compensating ropes in a high-rise lift system are often induced by the building motions due to wind or seismic excitations. When the frequencies of the building become near the natural frequencies of the ropes, large resonance motions of the system may result. This leads to adverse coupled dynamic phenomena involving nonplanar motions of the ropes, impact loads between the ropes and the shaft walls, as well as vertical vibrations of the car, counterweight and compensating sheave. Such an adverse dynamic behaviour of the system endangers the safety of the installation. This paper presents two mathematical models describing the nonlinear responses of a suspension/ compensating rope system coupled with the elevator car / compensating sheave motions. The models accommodate the nonlinear couplings between the lateral and longitudinal modes, with and without longitudinal inertia of the ropes. The partial differential nonlinear equations of motion are derived using Hamilton Principle. Then, the Galerkin method is used to discretise the equations of motion and to develop a nonlinear ordinary differential equation model. Approximate numerical solutions are determined and the behaviour of the system is analysed.
The coupled nonlinear dynamics of a lift system
Crespo, Rafael Sánchez E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk; Picton, Phil E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk; Su, Huijuan E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk
2014-12-10
Coupled lateral and longitudinal vibrations of suspension and compensating ropes in a high-rise lift system are often induced by the building motions due to wind or seismic excitations. When the frequencies of the building become near the natural frequencies of the ropes, large resonance motions of the system may result. This leads to adverse coupled dynamic phenomena involving nonplanar motions of the ropes, impact loads between the ropes and the shaft walls, as well as vertical vibrations of the car, counterweight and compensating sheave. Such an adverse dynamic behaviour of the system endangers the safety of the installation. This paper presents two mathematical models describing the nonlinear responses of a suspension/ compensating rope system coupled with the elevator car / compensating sheave motions. The models accommodate the nonlinear couplings between the lateral and longitudinal modes, with and without longitudinal inertia of the ropes. The partial differential nonlinear equations of motion are derived using Hamilton Principle. Then, the Galerkin method is used to discretise the equations of motion and to develop a nonlinear ordinary differential equation model. Approximate numerical solutions are determined and the behaviour of the system is analysed.
Coarse-Grained Clustering Dynamics of Heterogeneously Coupled Neurons.
Moon, Sung Joon; Cook, Katherine A; Rajendran, Karthikeyan; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G; Cisternas, Jaime; Laing, Carlo R
2015-12-01
The formation of oscillating phase clusters in a network of identical Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is studied, along with their dynamic behavior. The neurons are synaptically coupled in an all-to-all manner, yet the synaptic coupling characteristic time is heterogeneous across the connections. In a network of N neurons where this heterogeneity is characterized by a prescribed random variable, the oscillatory single-cluster state can transition-through [Formula: see text] (possibly perturbed) period-doubling and subsequent bifurcations-to a variety of multiple-cluster states. The clustering dynamic behavior is computationally studied both at the detailed and the coarse-grained levels, and a numerical approach that can enable studying the coarse-grained dynamics in a network of arbitrarily large size is suggested. Among a number of cluster states formed, double clusters, composed of nearly equal sub-network sizes are seen to be stable; interestingly, the heterogeneity parameter in each of the double-cluster components tends to be consistent with the random variable over the entire network: Given a double-cluster state, permuting the dynamical variables of the neurons can lead to a combinatorially large number of different, yet similar "fine" states that appear practically identical at the coarse-grained level. For weak heterogeneity we find that correlations rapidly develop, within each cluster, between the neuron's "identity" (its own value of the heterogeneity parameter) and its dynamical state. For single- and double-cluster states we demonstrate an effective coarse-graining approach that uses the Polynomial Chaos expansion to succinctly describe the dynamics by these quickly established "identity-state" correlations. This coarse-graining approach is utilized, within the equation-free framework, to perform efficient computations of the neuron ensemble dynamics. PMID:26458901
Vanag, Vladimir K; Smelov, Pavel S; Klinshov, Vladimir V
2016-02-21
The dynamic regimes in networks of four almost identical spike oscillators with pulsatile coupling via inhibitor are systematically studied. We used two models to describe individual oscillators: a phase-oscillator model and a model for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. A time delay τ between a spike in one oscillator and the spike-induced inhibitory perturbation of other oscillators is introduced. Diagrams of all rhythms found for three different types of connectivities (unidirectional on a ring, mutual on a ring, and all-to-all) are built in the plane C(inh)-τ, where C(inh) is the coupling strength. It is shown analytically and numerically that only four regular rhythms are stable for unidirectional coupling: walk (phase shift between spikes of neighbouring oscillators equals the quarter of the global period T), walk-reverse (the same as walk but consecutive spikes take place in the direction opposite to the direction of connectivity), anti-phase (any two neighbouring oscillators are anti-phase), and in-phase oscillations. In the case of mutual on the ring coupling, an additional in-phase-anti-phase mode emerges. For all-to-all coupling, two new asymmetrical patterns (two-cluster and three-cluster modes) have been found. More complex rhythms are observed at large C(inh), when some oscillators are suppressed completely or generate smaller number of spikes than others. PMID:26863079
Phase response curves elucidating the dynamics of coupled oscillators.
Granada, A; Hennig, R M; Ronacher, B; Kramer, A; Herzel, H
2009-01-01
Phase response curves (PRCs) are widely used in circadian clocks, neuroscience, and heart physiology. They quantify the response of an oscillator to pulse-like perturbations. Phase response curves provide valuable information on the properties of oscillators and their synchronization. This chapter discusses biological self-sustained oscillators (circadian clock, physiological rhythms, etc.) in the context of nonlinear dynamics theory. Coupled oscillators can synchronize with different frequency ratios, can generate toroidal dynamics (superposition of independent frequencies), and may lead to deterministic chaos. These nonlinear phenomena can be analyzed with the aid of a phase transition curve, which is intimately related to the phase response curve. For illustration purposes, this chapter discusses a model of circadian oscillations based on a delayed negative feedback. In a second part, the chapter provides a step-by-step recipe to measure phase response curves. It discusses specifications of this recipe for circadian rhythms, heart rhythms, neuronal spikes, central pattern generators, and insect communication. Finally, it stresses the predictive power of measured phase response curves. PRCs can be used to quantify the coupling strength of oscillations, to classify oscillator types, and to predict the complex dynamics of periodically driven oscillations. PMID:19216921
Self-organized network evolution coupled to extremal dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garlaschelli, Diego; Capocci, Andrea; Caldarelli, Guido
2007-11-01
The interplay between topology and dynamics in complex networks is a fundamental but widely unexplored problem. Here, we study this phenomenon on a prototype model in which the network is shaped by a dynamical variable. We couple the dynamics of the Bak-Sneppen evolution model with the rules of the so-called fitness network model for establishing the topology of a network; each vertex is assigned a `fitness', and the vertex with minimum fitness and its neighbours are updated in each iteration. At the same time, the links between the updated vertices and all other vertices are drawn anew with a fitness-dependent connection probability. We show analytically and numerically that the system self-organizes to a non-trivial state that differs from what is obtained when the two processes are decoupled. A power-law decay of dynamical and topological quantities above a threshold emerges spontaneously, as well as a feedback between different dynamical regimes and the underlying correlation and percolation properties of the network.
Phase and amplitude dynamics of nonlinearly coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cudmore, P.; Holmes, C. A.
2015-02-01
This paper addresses the amplitude and phase dynamics of a large system of nonlinearly coupled, non-identical damped harmonic oscillators, which is based on recent research in coupled oscillation in optomechanics. Our goal is to investigate the existence and stability of collective behaviour which occurs due to a play-off between the distribution of individual oscillator frequency and the type of nonlinear coupling. We show that this system exhibits synchronisation, where all oscillators are rotating at the same rate, and that in the synchronised state the system has a regular structure related to the distribution of the frequencies of the individual oscillators. Using a geometric description, we show how changes in the non-linear coupling function can cause pitchfork and saddle-node bifurcations which create or destroy stable and unstable synchronised solutions. We apply these results to show how in-phase and anti-phase solutions are created in a system with a bi-modal distribution of frequencies.
Fractional dynamics of coupled oscillators with long-range interaction
Tarasov, Vasily E.; Zaslavsky, George M.
2006-06-15
We consider a one-dimensional chain of coupled linear and nonlinear oscillators with long-range powerwise interaction. The corresponding term in dynamical equations is proportional to 1/|n-m|{sup {alpha}}{sup +1}. It is shown that the equation of motion in the infrared limit can be transformed into the medium equation with the Riesz fractional derivative of order {alpha}, when 0<{alpha}<2. We consider a few models of coupled oscillators and show how their synchronization can appear as a result of bifurcation, and how the corresponding solutions depend on {alpha}. The presence of a fractional derivative also leads to the occurrence of localized structures. Particular solutions for fractional time-dependent complex Ginzburg-Landau (or nonlinear Schroedinger) equation are derived. These solutions are interpreted as synchronized states and localized structures of the oscillatory medium.
Bell states and entanglement dynamics on two coupled quantum molecules
Oliveira, P.A.; Sanz, L.
2015-05-15
This work provides a complete description of entanglement properties between electrons inside coupled quantum molecules, nanoestructures which consist of two quantum dots. Each electron can tunnel between the two quantum dots inside the molecule, being also coupled by Coulomb interaction. First, it is shown that Bell states act as a natural basis for the description of this physical system, defining the characteristics of the energy spectrum and the eigenstates. Then, the entanglement properties of the eigenstates are discussed, shedding light on the roles of each physical parameters on experimental setup. Finally, a detailed analysis of the dynamics shows the path to generate states with a high degree of entanglement, as well as physical conditions associated with coherent oscillations between separable and Bell states.
Calcium dynamics in astrocyte processes during neurovascular coupling
Otsu, Yo; Couchman, Kiri; Lyons, Declan G; Collot, Mayeul; Agarwal, Amit; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Pfrieger, Frank W; Bergles, Dwight E; Charpak, Serge
2015-01-01
Enhanced neuronal activity in the brain triggers a local increase in blood flow, termed functional hyperemia, via several mechanisms, including calcium (Ca2+) signaling in astrocytes. However, recent in vivo studies have questioned the role of astrocytes in functional hyperemia because of the slow and sparse dynamics of their somatic Ca2+ signals and the absence of glutamate metabotropic receptor 5 in adults. Here, we reexamined their role in neurovascular coupling by selectively expressing a genetically encoded Ca2+ sensor in astrocytes of the olfactory bulb. We show that in anesthetized mice, the physiological activation of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) terminals reliably triggers Ca2+ increases in astrocyte processes but not in somata. These Ca2+ increases systematically precede the onset of functional hyperemia by 1–2 s, reestablishing astrocytes as potential regulators of neurovascular coupling. PMID:25531572
Photoexcitation dynamics of coupled semiconducting carbon nanotube thin films.
Mehlenbacher, Randy D; Wu, Meng-Yin; Grechko, Maksim; Laaser, Jennifer E; Arnold, Michael S; Zanni, Martin T
2013-04-10
Carbon nanotubes are a promising means of capturing photons for use in solar cell devices. We time-resolved the photoexcitation dynamics of coupled, bandgap-selected, semiconducting carbon nanotubes in thin films tailored for photovoltaics. Using transient absorption spectroscopy and anisotropy measurements, we found that the photoexcitation evolves by two mechanisms with a fast and long-range component followed by a slow and short-range component. Within 300 fs of optical excitation, 20% of nanotubes transfer their photoexcitation over 5-10 nm into nearby nanotube fibers. After 3 ps, 70% of the photoexcitation resides on the smallest bandgap nanotubes. After this ultrafast process, the photoexcitation continues to transfer on a ~10 ps time scale but to predominantly aligned tubes. Ultimately the photoexcitation hops twice on average between fibers. These results are important for understanding the flow of energy and charge in coupled nanotube materials and light-harvesting devices. PMID:23464618
Cheung, Nicole W T
2015-02-01
Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. PMID:25452063
Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint
Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.
2006-03-01
This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of the two concepts
Simulating the Dynamic Coupling of Market and Physical System Operations
Widergren, Steven E.; Roop, Joseph M.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Huang, Zhenyu
2004-06-01
Abstract-As energy trading products cover shorter time periods and demand response programs move toward real-time pricing, financial market-based activity impacts ever more directly the physical operation of the system. To begin to understand the complex interactions between the market-driven operation signals, the engineered controlled schemes, and the laws of physics, new system modeling and simulation techniques must be explored. This discussion describes requirements for new simulation tools to address such market transaction control interactions and an approach to capture the dynamic coupling between energy markets and the physical operation of the power system appropriate for dispatcher reaction time frames.
Dynamic Binding of Driven Interfaces in Coupled Ultrathin Ferromagnetic Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metaxas, P. J.; Stamps, R. L.; Jamet, J.-P.; Ferré, J.; Baltz, V.; Rodmacq, B.; Politi, P.
2010-06-01
We demonstrate experimentally dynamic interface binding in a system consisting of two coupled ferromagnetic layers. While domain walls in each layer have different velocity-field responses, for two broad ranges of the driving field H, walls in the two layers are bound and move at a common velocity. The bound states have their own velocity-field response and arise when the isolated wall velocities in each layer are close, a condition which always occurs as H→0. Several features of the bound states are reproduced using a one-dimensional model, illustrating their general nature.
Dynamic binding of driven interfaces in coupled ultrathin ferromagnetic layers.
Metaxas, P J; Stamps, R L; Jamet, J-P; Ferré, J; Baltz, V; Rodmacq, B; Politi, P
2010-06-11
We demonstrate experimentally dynamic interface binding in a system consisting of two coupled ferromagnetic layers. While domain walls in each layer have different velocity-field responses, for two broad ranges of the driving field H, walls in the two layers are bound and move at a common velocity. The bound states have their own velocity-field response and arise when the isolated wall velocities in each layer are close, a condition which always occurs as H→0. Several features of the bound states are reproduced using a one-dimensional model, illustrating their general nature. PMID:20867268
Non-stationary resonance dynamics of weakly coupled pendula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manevitch, L. I.; Romeo, F.
2015-11-01
In this letter we fill the gap in understanding the non-stationary Hamiltonian dynamics of the weakly coupled pendula model having significant applications in numerous fields of physics. While common knowledge of this model is predominantly based on the stationary theory and quasi-linear approach to non-stationary dynamics, we consider a strongly nonlinear system without any polynomial approximation of the anharmonic potential. In the adopted asymptotics only closeness to any inter-pendulum resonance frequency is assumed. Being able to explore the whole diapason of initial conditions, two key nonlinear features are revealed by means of the Limiting Phase Trajectories concept: the conditions of intense energy exchange between the pendula and transition to energy localization. The roots and the domain of chaotic behavior are clarified as they are associated with the latter, purely non-stationary, topological transition.
Dynamic stabilization of a coupled ultracold atom-molecule system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Sheng-Chang; Ye, Chong
2015-12-01
We numerically demonstrate the dynamic stabilization of a strongly interacting many-body bosonic system which can be realized by coupled ultracold atom-molecule gases. The system is initialized to an unstable equilibrium state corresponding to a saddle point in the classical phase space, where subsequent free evolution gives rise to atom-molecule conversion. To control and stabilize the system, periodic modulation is applied that suddenly shifts the relative phase between the atomic and the molecular modes and limits their further interconversion. The stability diagram for the range of modulation amplitudes and periods that stabilize the dynamics is given. The validity of the phase diagram obtained from the time-average calculation is discussed by using the orbit tracking method, and the difference in contrast with the maximum absolute deviation analysis is shown as well. A brief quantum analysis shows that quantum fluctuations can put serious limitations on the applicability of the mean-field results.
Dynamic stabilization of a coupled ultracold atom-molecule system.
Li, Sheng-Chang; Ye, Chong
2015-12-01
We numerically demonstrate the dynamic stabilization of a strongly interacting many-body bosonic system which can be realized by coupled ultracold atom-molecule gases. The system is initialized to an unstable equilibrium state corresponding to a saddle point in the classical phase space, where subsequent free evolution gives rise to atom-molecule conversion. To control and stabilize the system, periodic modulation is applied that suddenly shifts the relative phase between the atomic and the molecular modes and limits their further interconversion. The stability diagram for the range of modulation amplitudes and periods that stabilize the dynamics is given. The validity of the phase diagram obtained from the time-average calculation is discussed by using the orbit tracking method, and the difference in contrast with the maximum absolute deviation analysis is shown as well. A brief quantum analysis shows that quantum fluctuations can put serious limitations on the applicability of the mean-field results. PMID:26764672
Emerging dynamics in neuronal networks of diffusively coupled hard oscillators.
Ponta, L; Lanza, V; Bonnin, M; Corinto, F
2011-06-01
Oscillatory networks are a special class of neural networks where each neuron exhibits time periodic behavior. They represent bio-inspired architectures which can be exploited to model biological processes such as the binding problem and selective attention. In this paper we investigate the dynamics of networks whose neurons are hard oscillators, namely they exhibit the coexistence of different stable attractors. We consider a constant external stimulus applied to each neuron, which influences the neuron's own natural frequency. We show that, due to the interaction between different kinds of attractors, as well as between attractors and repellors, new interesting dynamics arises, in the form of synchronous oscillations of various amplitudes. We also show that neurons subject to different stimuli are able to synchronize if their couplings are strong enough. PMID:21411276
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of hydrodynamically-coupled stainless steel structures
Zhao, Y.
1996-12-01
Spent nuclear fuel is usually stored temporarily on the site of nuclear power plants. The spent fuel storage racks are nuclear-safety-related stainless steel structures required to be analyzed for seismic loads. When the storage pool is subjected to three-dimensional (3-D) floor seismic excitations, rack modules, stored fuel bundles, adjacent racks and pool walls, and surrounding water are hydrodynamically coupled. Hydrodynamic coupling (HC) significantly affects the dynamic responses of the racks that are free-standing and submerged in water within the pool. A nonlinear time-history dynamic analysis is usually needed to describe the motion behavior of the racks that are both geometrically nonlinear and material nonlinear in nature. The nonlinearities include the friction resistance between the rack supporting legs and the pool floor, and various potential impacts of fuel-rack, rack-rack, and rack-pool wall. The HC induced should be included in the nonlinear dynamic analysis using the added-hydrodynamic-mass concept based on potential theory per the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) acceptance criteria. To this end, a finite element analysis constitutes a feasible and effective tool. However, most people perform somewhat simplified 1-D, or 2-D, or 3-D single rack and 2-D multiple rack analyses. These analyses are incomplete because a 3-D single rack model behaves quite differently from a 2-D mode. Furthermore, a 3-D whole pool multi-rack model behaves differently than a 3-D single rack model, especially when the strong HC effects are unsymmetrical. In this paper 3-D nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses were performed in a more quantitative manner using sophisticated finite element models developed for a single rack as well as all twelve racks in the whole-pool. Typical response results due to different HC effects are determined and discussed.
Coupled Radiative-Dynamical GCM Simulations of Hot Jupiters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, J. J.; Lian, Y.; Marley, M. S.
2007-10-01
The stellar flux incident on hot Jupiters is expected to drive an atmospheric circulation that shapes the day-night temperature difference, infrared lightcurve, spectra, albedo, and atmospheric composition. Recent Spitzer lightcurve observations show that on some hot Jupiters, including HD189733b and HD209458b, the circulation efficiently homogenizes the temperature, whereas other planets such as Ups And b may exhibit large day-night temperature differences. Moreover, Spitzer infrared photometry and spectra constrain the vertical temperature structure in the atmosphere, which may deviate strongly from radiative equilibrium. Several groups have investigated the atmospheric circulation with a variety of 2D and 3D models (Showman and Guillot 2002; Cho et al. 2003, 2006; Langton and Laughlin 2007; Cooper and Showman 2005, 2006; Dobbs-Dixon and Lin 2007). However, all of these models drive the dynamics with simplified heating/cooling schemes that preclude robust predictions for the 3D temperature patterns, spectra, and lightcurves. Here, we present the first simulations of cloud-free hot Jupiters from a 3D general circulation model (GCM) that couples the atmospheric dynamics to a realistic representation of radiative transfer. For the dynamics, we adopt the MITgcm, which is a state-of-the-art circulation model that solves the 3D primitive equations of meteorology. Our radiation model is that of Marley and McKay (1999), which solves the two-stream radiative-transfer equations using the correlated-k method for the opacities; this radiative-transfer model has been extensively applied to brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets by Marley, Fortney, and collaborators. By coupling these components, the GCM provides a much more realistic representation of the radiative-dynamical interaction than possible with previous models. Here, we will present simulations of HD209458b and HD189733b, compare the predicted temperatures, spectra, and lightcurves with existing data, and make
Physical Modeling of Dynamic Coupling between Chromosomal Loci.
Lampo, Thomas J; Kennard, Andrew S; Spakowitz, Andrew J
2016-01-19
The motion of chromosomal DNA is essential to many biological processes, including segregation, transcriptional regulation, recombination, and packaging. Physical understanding of these processes would be dramatically enhanced through predictive, quantitative modeling of chromosome dynamics of multiple loci. Using a polymer dynamics framework, we develop a prediction for the correlation in the velocities of two loci on a single chromosome or otherwise connected by chromatin. These predictions reveal that the signature of correlated motion between two loci can be identified by varying the lag time between locus position measurements. In general, this theory predicts that as the lag time interval increases, the dual-loci dynamic behavior transitions from being completely uncorrelated to behaving as an effective single locus. This transition corresponds to the timescale of the stress communication between loci through the intervening segment. This relatively simple framework makes quantitative predictions based on a single timescale fit parameter that can be directly compared to the in vivo motion of fluorescently labeled chromosome loci. Furthermore, this theoretical framework enables the detection of dynamically coupled chromosome regions from the signature of their correlated motion. PMID:26789757
Coupling a geodynamic seismic cycling model to rupture dynamic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabriel, Alice; van Dinther, Ylona
2014-05-01
The relevance and results of dynamic rupture scenarios are implicitly linked to the geometry and pre-existing stress and strength state on a fault. The absolute stresses stored along faults during interseismic periods, are largely unquantifiable. They are, however, pivotal in defining coseismic rupture styles, near-field ground motion, and macroscopic source properties (Gabriel et al., 2012). Obtaining these in a physically consistent manner requires seismic cycling models, which directly couple long-term deformation processes (over 1000 year periods), the self-consistent development of faults, and the resulting dynamic ruptures. One promising approach to study seismic cycling enables both the generation of spontaneous fault geometries and the development of thermo-mechanically consistent fault stresses. This seismo-thermo-mechanical model has been developed using a methodology similar to that employed to study long-term lithospheric deformation (van Dinther et al., 2013a,b, using I2ELVIS of Gerya and Yuen, 2007). We will innovatively include the absolute stress and strength values along physically consistent evolving non-finite fault zones (regions of strain accumulation) from the geodynamic model into dynamic rupture simulations as an initial condition. The dynamic rupture simulations will be performed using SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) scheme (Pelties et al., 2012). The dynamic rupture models are able to incorporate the large degree of fault geometry complexity arising in naturally evolving geodynamic models. We focus on subduction zone settings with and without a splay fault. Due to the novelty of the coupling, we first focus on methodological challenges, e.g. the synchronization of both methods regarding the nucleation of events, the localization of fault planes, and the incorporation of similar frictional constitutive relations. We then study the importance of physically consistent fault stress, strength, and
A first analysis regarding matter-dynamical diffeomorphism coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldaya, V.; Jaramillo, J. L.
2000-12-01
A first attempt at adding matter degrees of freedom to the two-dimensional `vacuum' gravity model presented in Aldaya and Jaramillo (2000 Class. Quantum Grav. 17 1649) is analysed in this paper. Just as in the previous pure gravity case, quantum diffeomorphism operators (constructed from a Virasoro algebra) possess a dynamical content; their gauge nature is recovered only after the classical limit. Emphasis is placed on the new physical modes modelled on an SU(1,1)-Kac-Moody algebra. The non-trivial coupling to `gravity' is a consequence of the natural semi-direct structure of the entire extended algebra. A representation associated with the discrete series of the rigid SU(1,1) algebra is revisited in the light of previously neglected crucial global features which imply the appearance of an SU(1,1)-Kac-Moody fusion rule, determining the rather entangled quantum structure of the physical system. In the classical limit, an action which explicitly couples gravity and matter modes governs the dynamics.
Dynamics of learning in coupled oscillators tutored with delayed reinforcements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trevisan, M. A.; Bouzat, S.; Samengo, I.; Mindlin, G. B.
2005-07-01
In this work we analyze the solutions of a simple system of coupled phase oscillators in which the connectivity is learned dynamically. The model is inspired by the process of learning of birdsongs by oscine birds. An oscillator acts as the generator of a basic rhythm and drives slave oscillators which are responsible for different motor actions. The driving signal arrives at each driven oscillator through two different pathways. One of them is a direct pathway. The other one is a reinforcement pathway, through which the signal arrives delayed. The coupling coefficients between the driving oscillator and the slave ones evolve in time following a Hebbian-like rule. We discuss the conditions under which a driven oscillator is capable of learning to lock to the driver. The resulting phase difference and connectivity are a function of the delay of the reinforcement. Around some specific delays, the system is capable of generating dramatic changes in the phase difference between the driver and the driven systems. We discuss the dynamical mechanism responsible for this effect and possible applications of this learning scheme.
Model of bound interface dynamics for coupled magnetic domain walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Politi, P.; Metaxas, P. J.; Jamet, J.-P.; Stamps, R. L.; Ferré, J.
2011-08-01
A domain wall in a ferromagnetic system will move under the action of an external magnetic field. Ultrathin Co layers sandwiched between Pt have been shown to be a suitable experimental realization of a weakly disordered 2D medium in which to study the dynamics of 1D interfaces (magnetic domain walls). The behavior of these systems is encapsulated in the velocity-field response v(H) of the domain walls. In a recent paper [P. J. Metaxas , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.237206 104, 237206 (2010)] we studied the effect of ferromagnetic coupling between two such ultrathin layers, each exhibiting different v(H) characteristics. The main result was the existence of bound states over finite-width field ranges, wherein walls in the two layers moved together at the same speed. Here we discuss in detail the theory of domain wall dynamics in coupled systems. In particular, we show that a bound creep state is expected for vanishing H and we give the analytical, parameter free expression for its velocity which agrees well with experimental results.
Cavity-coupled molecular vibrational spectra and dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owrutsky, Jeffrey; Dunkelberger, Adam; Long, James; Fears, Kenan; Dressick, Walter; Compton, Ryan; Spann, Bryan; Simpkins, Blake
Coherent coupling between an optical transition and confined optical mode, when sufficiently strong, gives rise to new modes separated by the vacuum Rabi splitting. Such systems have been investigated for electronic-state transitions, for quantum wells and dots, however, only very recently have vibrational transitions been explored. Both static and dynamic results are described for vibrational bands strongly coupled to optical cavities. First, we experimentally and numerically describe coupling between a Fabry-Perot cavity and carbonyl stretch (~1730 cm1) in poly-methylmethacrylate as a function of several parameters of the system including absorber strength and concentration as well as cavity length. Similar studies are carried out for anions both in solution and exchanged into cationic polymers. Ultrafast pump-probe studies are performed on W(CO)6 in solution which reveals changes to the transient spectra and modified relaxation rates. We believe these modified relaxation rates are a consequence of the energy separation between the vibration-cavity polariton modes and excited state transitions. Cavity-modified vibrational states and energy transfer may provide a new avenue for systematic control of molecular processes and chemistry. The work supported by the Office of Naval Research through the Naval Research Laboratory.
Feedbacks between coupled subglacial hydrology and glacier dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffman, Matthew; Price, Stephen
2014-03-01
On most glaciers and ice sheet outlets the majority of motion is due to basal slip, a combination of basal sliding and bed deformation. The importance of basal water in controlling sliding is well established, with increased sliding generally related to high basal water pressure, but the details of the interactions between the ice and water systems has not received much study when there is coupling between the systems. Here we use coupled subglacial hydrology and ice dynamics models within the Community Ice Sheet Model to investigate feedbacks between the ice and water systems. The dominant feedback we find is negative: sliding over bedrock bumps opens additional cavity space, which lowers water pressure and, in turn, sliding. We also find two small positive feedbacks: basal melt increases through frictional heat during sliding, which raises water pressure, and strain softening of basal ice during localized speedup causes cavities to close more quickly and maintain higher water pressures. Our coupled modeling demonstrates that a sustained input of surface water to a distributed drainage system can lead to a speedup event that decays even in the absence of channelization, due to increased capacity of the system through opening of cavities, which is enhanced through the sliding-opening feedback. We find that the negative feedback resulting from sliding-opening is robust across a wide range of parameter values. However, our modeling also argues that subglacial channelization is required to terminate speedup events over timescales that are commensurate with observations of late summer slowdown on mountain glaciers.
CIDGA - Coupling of Interior Dynamic models with Global Atmosphere models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noack, Lena; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Breuer, Doris
2010-05-01
Atmosphere temperatures and in particular the surface temperatures mostly depend on the solar heat flux and the atmospheric composition. The latter can be influenced by interior processes of the planet, i.e. volcanism that releases greenhouse gases such as H2O, CO2 and methane into the atmosphere and plate tectonics through which atmospheric CO2 is recycled via carbonates into the mantle. An increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere results in an increase of the surface temperature. Changes in the surface temperature on the other hand may influence the cooling behaviour of the planet and hence influence its volcanic activity [Phillips et al., 2001]. This feedback relation between mantle convection and atmosphere is not very well understood, since until now mostly either the interior dynamic of a planet or its atmosphere was investigated separately. 2D or 3D mantle convection models to the authors' knowledge haven't been coupled to the atmosphere so far. We have used the 3D spherical simulation code GAIA [Hüttig et al., 2008] including partial melt production and coupled it with the atmosphere module CIDGA using a gray greenhouse model for varying H2O concentrations. This way, not only the influence of mantle dynamics on the atmosphere can be investigated, but also the recoupling effect, that the surface temperature has on the mantle dynamics. So far, we consider one-plate planets without crustal and thus volatile recycling. Phillips et al. [2001] already investigated the coupling effect of the surface temperature on mantle dynamics by using simple parameterized convection models for Venus. In their model a positive feedback mechanism has been observed, i.e., an increase of the surface temperature leads to an increase of partial melt and hence an increase of atmosphere density and surface temperature. Applying our model to Venus, we show that an increase of surface temperature leads not only to an increase of partial melt in the mantle; it also
Charge dynamics in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulze, J.; Schüngel, E.; Donkó, Z.; Czarnetzki, U.
2010-06-01
In a capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) discharge the number of positive and negative charges lost to each electrode must balance within one RF period to ensure a constant total uncompensated charge in the discharge, Qtot, on time average. This balance is the result of a compensation of electron and ion fluxes at each electrode within one RF period. Although Qtot is constant on temporal average, it is time dependent on time scales shorter than one RF period, since it results from a balance of the typically constant ion flux and the strongly time dependent electron flux at each electrode. Nevertheless, Qtot is assumed to be constant in various models. Here the dynamics of Qtot is investigated in a geometrically symmetric CCRF discharge operated in argon at 13.56 and 27.12 MHz with variable phase shift θ between the driving voltages by a PIC simulation and an analytical model. Via the electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) a variable dc self-bias is generated as a function of θ. It is found that Qtot is not temporally constant within the low frequency period, but fluctuates by about 10% around its time average value. This modulation is understood by an analytical model. It is demonstrated that this charge dynamics leads to a phase shift of the dc self-bias not captured by models neglecting the charge dynamics. This dynamics is not restricted to dual frequency discharges. It is a general phenomenon in all CCRF discharges and can generally be described by the model introduced here. Finally, Qtot is split into the uncompensated charges in each sheath. The sheath charge dynamics and the self-excitation of non-linear plasma series resonance oscillations of the RF current via the EAE at low pressures of a few pascals are discussed.
Coupled climate network analysis of multidecadal dynamics in the Arctic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiedermann, M.; Donges, J. F.; Heitzig, J.; Kurths, J.
2012-04-01
Climate network analysis provides a powerful tool for investigating the correlation structure of the dynamical system Earth. Elements of time series analysis and the theory of complex networks are combined to give new insights into the dynamics of the climate system by delivering a spatially resolved image of the underlying correlation structure from which the network is constructed. Recent results have indicated a possible correlation between the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) with a time lag of 15 to 30 years. However, identifying the involved physical mechanisms remains an open problem of ocean science and atmospheric research. We perform a climate network analysis aiming at assessing the importance of the Arctic for this connection between North Atlantic and North Pacific. As storm tracks were suggested to play a role and the large delay between AMO and PDO points to oceanic processes at work, we focus on analyzing the coupling structure between oceanic sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric sea level pressure (SAP) as well as geopotential height (GPH) fields. We employ the recently developed theory of interacting networks, with the corresponding statistical cross-network measures, that enables us to study the properties of a coupled climate network that divides into several subnetworks representing horizontal fields of different observables. As the analysis is performed in a region close to the north pole one has to bear in mind that climatological datasets are often arranged on a rectangular grid such that the density of nodes increases rapidly towards the poles. To correct for the distortions in our results resulting from this inhomogenous node density, we refine the cross-network measures in a way that enables us to assign every node with an individual weight according to the area that the node represents on the Earth's surface. This method has already been applied to the standard set of measures
Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Athenodorou, Andreas; Bennett, Ed; Bergner, Georg; Elander, Daniel; Lin, C.-J. David; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio
2016-06-01
Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio R between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in which (non-perturbative) large anomalous dimensions arise dynamically, we show indications that this mass ratio can be large, with R>5. Moreover,our results suggest that R might be related to universal properties of the IR fixed point. Our findings provide an interesting step towards understanding large mass ratios in the non-perturbative regime of quantum field theories with (near) IR conformal behaviour.
Coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of fully flexible aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Weihua
This dissertation introduces an approach to effectively model and analyze the coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of highly flexible aircraft. A reduced-order, nonlinear, strain-based finite element framework is used, which is capable of assessing the fundamental impact of structural nonlinear effects in preliminary vehicle design and control synthesis. The cross-sectional stiffness and inertia properties of the wings are calculated along the wing span, and then incorporated into the one-dimensional nonlinear beam formulation. Finite-state unsteady subsonic aerodynamics is used to compute airloads along lifting surfaces. Flight dynamic equations are then introduced to complete the aeroelastic/flight dynamic system equations of motion. Instead of merely considering the flexibility of the wings, the current work allows all members of the vehicle to be flexible. Due to their characteristics of being slender structures, the wings, tail, and fuselage of highly flexible aircraft can be modeled as beams undergoing three dimensional displacements and rotations. New kinematic relationships are developed to handle the split beam systems, such that fully flexible vehicles can be effectively modeled within the existing framework. Different aircraft configurations are modeled and studied, including Single-Wing, Joined-Wing, Blended-Wing-Body, and Flying-Wing configurations. The Lagrange Multiplier Method is applied to model the nodal displacement constraints at the joint locations. Based on the proposed models, roll response and stability studies are conducted on fully flexible and rigidized models. The impacts of the flexibility of different vehicle members on flutter with rigid body motion constraints, flutter in free flight condition, and roll maneuver performance are presented. Also, the static stability of the compressive member of the Joined-Wing configuration is studied. A spatially-distributed discrete gust model is incorporated into the time simulation
Particle dynamics in a strongly-coupled dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goree, J.; Pieper, J. B.
1996-11-01
We have used video imaging to study the dynamics of 9 μ m plastic spheres suspended in low-power Krypton discharges. The spheres, which are highly charged and levitated by the electrode sheath, form a strongly-coupled system. Using a digitized series of images, we tracked individual particles and measured collective and random particle motions.footnote J. B. Pieper and J. Goree, submitted to PRL Dust acoustic waves were excited at <= 10 Hz and their dispersion relation verified. Fitting the measured and theoretical dispersion relations also give a measurement of the particle charge and the "linearized" Debye length. The temperature of random particle motion in the horizontal plane (parallel to the electrode) was measured to be 2-10 times room temperature and about 2 times the temperature in the vertical plane. It is proposed that the particles are heated by low-frequency (kHz) electrostatic plasma fluctuations. Work supported by NSF and NASA
Particle dynamics in a strongly-coupled dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinn, R. A.; Goree, J.; Pieper, J. B.
1996-10-01
We have used video imaging to study the dynamics of 9 μ m plastic spheres in low-power Krypton discharges. The spheres, which are highly charged and levitated by the electrode sheath, form a strongly-coupled system. Using a digitized series of images, we tracked individual particles and measured collective and random particle motions.footnote Pieper and Goree, submitted to PRL Dust acoustic waves were excited at <= 10 Hz and their dispersion relation verified. The temperature of random particle motion in the horizontal plane (parallel to the electrode) was measured to be 2-10 times room temperature and about 2 times the temperature in the vertical plane. It is proposed that the particles are heated by low-frequency (kHz) electrostatic plasma fluctuations.
Viscoplasticity with dynamic yield surface coupled to damage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, M.; Runesson, K.
1997-07-01
A formulation of viscoplasticity theory, with kinetic coupling to damage, is presented. The main purpose is to describe rate-dependent material behavior and failure processes, including creep-rupture (for constant load) and creep-fatigue (for cyclic load). The Duvaut-Lions' formulation of viscoplasticity is adopted with quite general hardening of the quasistatic yield surface. The formulation is thermodynamically consistent, i.e. the dissipation inequality is satisfied. Like in the classical viscoplasticity formulations, the rate-independent response is activated at a very small loading rate. In addition, an (unconventional) dynamic yield surface is introduced, and this is approached asymptotically at infinite loading rate. Explicit constitutive relations are established for a quasistatic yield surface of von Mises type with nonlinear hardening. The resulting model is assessed for a variety of loading situations.
Dynamical coupled channel calculation of pion and omega meson production
Paris, Mark
2009-01-01
A dynamical coupled channel approach is used to study $\\pi$ and $\\omega$--meson production induced by pions and photons scattering from the proton. Six-channels are used to fit unpolarized and polarized scattering data including $\\pi N$, $\\eta N$, $\\pi\\Delta$, $\\sigma N$, $\\rho N$, $\\omega N$. Bare parameters in an effective hadronic Lagrangian are fixed in $\\chi^2$-fits to data from $\\pi N \\to \\pi N$, $\\gamma N \\to \\pi N$, $\\pi^- p \\to \\omega n$, and $\\gamma p \\to \\omega p$ reactions at center-of-mass energies from threshold to $E < 2.0$ GeV. The $T$ matrix determined in these fits is used to calculate the photon beam asymmetry for $\\omega$-meson production and the $\\omega N \\to \\omega N$ total cross section and scattering lengths.
Hybrid dynamics in delay-coupled swarms with ``mothership'' networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindes, Jason; Schwartz, Ira
Swarming behavior continues to be a subject of immense interest because of its centrality in many naturally occurring systems in biology and physics. Moreover, the development of autonomous mobile agents that can mimic the behavior of swarms and can be engineered to perform complex tasks without constant intervention is a very active field of practical research. Here we examine the effects on delay-coupled swarm pattern formation from the inclusion of a small fraction of highly connected nodes, ``motherships'', in the swarm interaction network. We find a variety of new behaviors and bifurcations, including new hybrid motions of previously analyzed patterns. Both numerical and analytic techniques are used to classify the dynamics and construct the phase diagram. The implications for swarm control and robustness from topological heterogeneity are also discussed. This research was funded by the office of Naval Research (ONR), and was performed while JH held a National Research Council Research Associateship Award.
Dynamics of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling including turbulent transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lysak, R. L.; Dum, C. T.
1982-01-01
A two dimensional two-fluid MHD model including anomalous resistivity was used to investigate the dynamics of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. When a field-aligned current is generated on auroral field lines, the disturbance propagates towards the ionosphere in the form of a kinetic Alfven wave. When the current exceeds a critical value, microscopic turbulence is produced, which modifies the propagation of the Alfven wave. This process is modeled by a nonlinear collision frequency, which increases with the excess of the drift velocity over the critical value. Turbulence leads to absorption and reflection of the Alfven wave, partially decoupling the generator from the ionosphere. The approach to a steady-state is strongly dependent on the presence or absence of the turbulence. The current is self-limiting, since a current in excess of critical causes a diffusion of the magnetic field perturbation and a reduction of current.
Probing cell membrane dynamics using plasmon coupling microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rong, Guoxin
The plasma membrane of mammalian cells is depicted as a two-dimensional hybrid material which is compartmentalized into submicron-sized domains. These membrane domains play a pivotal role in cellular signaling processes due to selective recruitment of specific cell surface receptors. The structural dynamics of the membrane domains and their exact biological functions are, however, still unclear, partially due to the wave nature of light, which limits the optical resolution in the visible light to approximately 400 nm in conventional optical microscopy. Here, we provide a non-fluorescence based approach for monitoring distance changes on subdiffraction limit length scales in a conventional far-field optical microscope. This approach, which is referred to as plasmon coupling microscopy (PCM), utilizes the distance dependent near-field coupling between noble metal nanoparticle (NP) labels to resolve close contacts on the length scale of approximately one NP diameter. We firstly utilize this PCM strategy to resolve interparticle separations during individual encounters of gold NP labeled fibronectin-integrin complexes in living HeLa cells. We then further refine this ratiometric detection methodology by augmenting it with a polarization-sensitive detection, which enables simultaneous monitoring of the distance and conformation changes in NP dimers and clusters. We apply this polarization resolved PCM approach to characterize the structural lateral heterogeneity of cell membranes on sub-micron length scales. Finally, we demonstrate that PCM can provide quantitative information about the structural dynamics of individual epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1)-enriched membrane domains in living cells.
Vibrational Dynamics and Guest-Host Coupling in Clathrate Hydrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koza, Michael M.; Schober, Helmut
Clathrate hydrates may turn out either a blessing or a curse for mankind. On one hand, they constitute a huge reservoir of fossil fuel. On the other hand, their decomposition may liberate large amounts of green house gas and have disastrous consequences on sea floor stability. It is thus of paramount importance to understand the formation and stability of these guest-host compounds. Neutron diffraction has successfully occupied a prominent place on the stage of these scientific investigations. Complete understanding, however, is not achieved without an explanation for the thermal properties of clathrates. In particular, the thermal conductivity has a large influence on clathrate formation and conservation. Neutron spectroscopy allows probing the microscopic dynamics of clathrate hydrates. We will show how comparative studies of vibrations in clathrate hydrates give insight into the coupling of the guest to the host lattice. This coupling together with the anharmonicity of the vibrational modes is shown to lay the foundations for the peculiar thermodynamic properties of clathrate hydrates. The results obtained reach far beyond the specific clathrate system. Similar mechanisms are expected to be at work in any guest-host complex.
Ultrafast electron relaxation dynamics in coupled metal nanoparticles in aggregates.
Jain, Prashant K; Qian, Wei; El-Sayed, Mostafa A
2006-01-12
We report the effect of aggregation in gold nanoparticles on their ultrafast electron-phonon relaxation dynamics measured by femtosecond transient absorption pump-probe spectroscopy. UV-visible extinction and transient absorption of the solution-stable aggregates of gold nanoparticles show a broad absorption in the 550-700-nm region in addition to the isolated gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance. This broad red-shifted absorption can be attributed to contributions from gold nanoparticle aggregates with different sizes and/or different fractal structures. The electron-phonon relaxation, reflected as a fast decay component of the transient bleach, is found to depend on the probe wavelength, suggesting that each wavelength interrogates one particular subset of the aggregates. As the probe wavelength is changed from 520 to 635 nm across the broad aggregate absorption, the rate of electron-phonon relaxation increases. The observed trend in the hot electron lifetimes can be explained on the basis of an increased overlap of the electron oscillation frequency with the phonon spectrum and enhanced interfacial electron scattering, with increasing extent of aggregation. The experimental results strongly suggest the presence of intercolloid electronic coupling within the nanoparticle aggregates, besides the well-known dipolar plasmon coupling. PMID:16471511
Finite-amplitude dynamics of coupled cylindrical menisci.
Cox, B L; Steen, P H
2011-10-01
The cylindrical meniscus is a liquid/gas interface of circular-cap cross-section constrained along its axis and bounded by end-planes. The inviscid motions of coupled cylindrical menisci are studied here. Motions result from the competition between inertia and surface tension forces. Restriction to shapes that are of circular-cap cross-section leads to an ordinary differential equation (ode) model, with the advantage that finite-amplitude stability can be examined. The second-order nonlinear ode model has a Hamiltonian structure, showing dynamical behavior like the Duffing-oscillator. The energy landscape has either a single- or double-welled potential depending on the extent of volume overfill. Total liquid volume is a bifurcation parameter, as in the corresponding problem for coupled spherical-cap droplets. Unlike the spherical-cap problem, however, axial disturbances can also destabilize, depending on overfill. For large volumes, previously known axial stability results are applied to find the limit at which axial symmetry is lost and comparison is made to the Plateau-Rayleigh limit. PMID:21723560
Dynamical equivalence of networks of coupled dynamical systems: I. Asymmetric inputs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, N.; Field, M.
2010-06-01
We give a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the dynamical equivalence of two coupled cell networks. The results are applicable to both continuous and discrete dynamical systems and are framed in terms of what we term input and output equivalence. We also give an algorithm that allows explicit construction of the cells in a system with a given network architecture in terms of the cells from an equivalent system with different network architecture. Details of proofs are provided for the case of cells with asymmetric inputs—details for the case of symmetric inputs are provided in a companion paper.
Coupled-Cluster Dynamic Polarizabilities Including Triple Excitations
Hammond, Jeffrey R.; De Jong, Wibe A.; Kowalski, Karol
2008-06-10
Dynamic polarizabilities for open- and closed-shell molecules were obtained using coupled-cluster (CC) linear response theory with full treatment of singles, doubles and triples (CCSDT-LR) with large basis sets utilizing the NWChem software suite. Using four approximate CC methods in conjunction with augmented cc-pVNZ basis sets, we are able to evaluate the convergence in both many-electron and one-electron spaces. For systems with primarily dynamic correlation, the results for CC3 and CCSDT are almost indistinguishable. For systems with more static correlation, the PS(T) approximation [J. Chem. Phs. 127, 164105 (2007) performs better that CC3. Additionally, the PS(T) approach separates the triples contribution to the poles of the response function from the triples amplitudes themselves, and demonstrates that the latter are less important than originally thought Lastly, our results show that the choice of reference (ROHF versus UHF) can have a significant impact on the accuracy of polarizabilities for open-shell systems.
Dynamic Coupling among Protein Binding, Sliding, and DNA Bending Revealed by Molecular Dynamics.
Tan, Cheng; Terakawa, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Shoji
2016-07-13
Protein binding to DNA changes the DNA's structure, and altered DNA structure can, in turn, modulate the dynamics of protein binding. This mutual dependency is poorly understood. Here we investigated dynamic couplings among protein binding to DNA, protein sliding on DNA, and DNA bending by applying a coarse-grained simulation method to the bacterial architectural protein HU and 14 other DNA-binding proteins. First, we verified our method by showing that the simulated HU exhibits a weak preference for A/T-rich regions of DNA and a much higher affinity for gapped and nicked DNA, consistent with biochemical experiments. The high affinity was attributed to a local DNA bend, but not the specific chemical moiety of the gap/nick. The long-time dynamic analysis revealed that HU sliding is associated with the movement of the local DNA bending site. Deciphering single sliding steps, we found the coupling between HU sliding and DNA bending is akin to neither induced-fit nor population-shift; instead they moved concomitantly. This is reminiscent of a cation transfer on DNA and can be viewed as a protein version of polaron-like sliding. Interestingly, on shorter time scales, HU paused when the DNA was highly bent at the bound position and escaped from pauses once the DNA spontaneously returned to a less bent structure. The HU sliding is largely regulated by DNA bending dynamics. With 14 other proteins, we explored the generality and versatility of the dynamic coupling and found that 6 of the 15 assayed proteins exhibit the polaron-like sliding. PMID:27309278
Drift dynamics in a coupled model initialized for decadal forecasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Cassou, Christophe; Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Fernandez, Elodie; Terray, Laurent
2016-03-01
Drifts are always present in models when initialized from observed conditions because of intrinsic model errors; those potentially affect any type of climate predictions based on numerical experiments. Model drifts are usually removed through more or less sophisticated techniques for skill assessment, but they are rarely analysed. In this study, we provide a detailed physical and dynamical description of the drifts in the CNRM-CM5 coupled model using a set of decadal retrospective forecasts produced within CMIP5. The scope of the paper is to give some physical insights and lines of approach to, on one hand, implement more appropriate techniques of initialisation that minimize the drift in forecast mode, and on the other hand, eventually reduce the systematic biases of the models. We first document a novel protocol for ocean initialization adopted by the CNRM-CERFACS group for forecasting purpose in CMIP5. Initial states for starting dates of the predictions are obtained from a preliminary integration of the coupled model where full-field ocean surface temperature and salinity are restored everywhere to observations through flux derivative terms and full-field subsurface fields (below the prognostic ocean mixed layer) are nudged towards NEMOVAR reanalyses. Nudging is applied only outside the 15°S-15°N band allowing for dynamical balance between the depth and tilt of the tropical thermocline and the model intrinsic biased wind. A sensitivity experiment to the latitudinal extension of no-nudging zone (1°S-1°N instead of 15°, hereafter referred to as NOEQ) has been carried out. In this paper, we concentrate our analyses on two specific regions: the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic basins. In the Pacific, we show that the first year of the forecasts is characterized by a quasi-systematic excitation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm events whatever the starting dates. This, through ocean-to-atmosphere heat transfer materialized by diabatic heating
Thermomechanical coupling and dynamic strain ageing in ductile fracture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delafosse, David
1995-01-01
This work is concerned with plastic deformation at the tip of a ductile tearing crack during propagation. Two kinds of effects are investigated: the thermomechanical coupling at the tip of a mobile ductile crack, and the influence of Dynamic Strain Aging (DSA) on ductile fracture. Three alloys are studied: a nickel based superalloy (N18), a soft carbon steel, and an Al-Li light alloy (2091). The experimental study of the thermo mechanical coupling effects by means of infrared thermography stresses the importance of plastic dissipation in the energy balance of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations involving plastic deformation as the only dissipation mechanism account for the main part of the measured heating. The effects of DSA on ductile tearing are investigated in the 2091 Al-Li alloy. Based on the strain rate/temperature dependence predicted by the standard model of DSA, an experimental procedure is set up for this purpose. Three main effects are evidenced. A maximum in tearing resistance is shown to be associated with the minimum of strain rate sensitivity. Through a simple model, this peak in tearing resistance is attributed to an increase in plastic dissipation as the strain rate sensitivity is decreased. Heterogenous plastic deformation is observed in the crack tip plastic zone. Comparison with uniaxial testing allows us to identify the observed strain heterogeneities as Portevin-Le Chatelier instabilities in the crack tip plastic zone. We perform a simplified numerical analysis of the effect of strain localization on crack tip screening. Finally, small crack propagation instabilities appear at temperatures slightly above that of the tearing resistance peak. These are interpreted as resulting from a positive feed-back between the local heating at the tip of a moving crack and the decrease in tearing resistance with increasing temperature.
Dynamically reconfigurable nanoscale modulators utilizing coupled hybrid plasmonics
Lin, Charles; Helmy, Amr S.
2015-01-01
The balance between extinction ratio (ER) and insertion loss (IL) dictates strict trade-off when designing travelling-wave electro-optic modulators. This in turn entails significant compromise in device footprint (L3dB) or energy consumption (E). In this work, we report a nanoscale modulator architecture that alleviates this trade-off while providing dynamic reconfigurability that was previously unattainable. This is achieved with the aide of three mechanisms: (1) Utilization of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect, which maximizes the attainable attenuation that an ultra-thin active material can inflict on an optical mode. (2) Non-resonant coupled-plasmonic structure which supports modes with athermal long-range propagation. (3) Triode-like biasing scheme for flexible manipulation of field symmetry and subsequently waveguide attributes. By electrically inducing indium tin oxide (ITO) to be in a local ENZ state, we show that a Si/ITO/HfO2/Al/HfO2/ITO/Si coupled-plasmonic waveguide can provide amplitude modulation with ER = 4.83 dB/μm, IL = 0.03 dB/μm, L3dB = 622 nm, and E = 14.8 fJ, showing at least an order of magnitude improvement in modulator figure-of-merit and power efficiency compared to other waveguide platforms. Employing different biasing permutations, the same waveguide can then be reconfigured for phase and 4-quadrature-amplitude modulation, with actively device length of only 5.53 μm and 17.78 μm respectively. PMID:26189813
Dynamically reconfigurable nanoscale modulators utilizing coupled hybrid plasmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Charles; Helmy, Amr S.
2015-07-01
The balance between extinction ratio (ER) and insertion loss (IL) dictates strict trade-off when designing travelling-wave electro-optic modulators. This in turn entails significant compromise in device footprint (L3dB) or energy consumption (E). In this work, we report a nanoscale modulator architecture that alleviates this trade-off while providing dynamic reconfigurability that was previously unattainable. This is achieved with the aide of three mechanisms: (1) Utilization of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect, which maximizes the attainable attenuation that an ultra-thin active material can inflict on an optical mode. (2) Non-resonant coupled-plasmonic structure which supports modes with athermal long-range propagation. (3) Triode-like biasing scheme for flexible manipulation of field symmetry and subsequently waveguide attributes. By electrically inducing indium tin oxide (ITO) to be in a local ENZ state, we show that a Si/ITO/HfO2/Al/HfO2/ITO/Si coupled-plasmonic waveguide can provide amplitude modulation with ER = 4.83 dB/μm, IL = 0.03 dB/μm, L3dB = 622 nm, and E = 14.8 fJ, showing at least an order of magnitude improvement in modulator figure-of-merit and power efficiency compared to other waveguide platforms. Employing different biasing permutations, the same waveguide can then be reconfigured for phase and 4-quadrature-amplitude modulation, with actively device length of only 5.53 μm and 17.78 μm respectively.
Dynamically reconfigurable nanoscale modulators utilizing coupled hybrid plasmonics.
Lin, Charles; Helmy, Amr S
2015-01-01
The balance between extinction ratio (ER) and insertion loss (IL) dictates strict trade-off when designing travelling-wave electro-optic modulators. This in turn entails significant compromise in device footprint (L3dB) or energy consumption (E). In this work, we report a nanoscale modulator architecture that alleviates this trade-off while providing dynamic reconfigurability that was previously unattainable. This is achieved with the aide of three mechanisms: (1) Utilization of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect, which maximizes the attainable attenuation that an ultra-thin active material can inflict on an optical mode. (2) Non-resonant coupled-plasmonic structure which supports modes with athermal long-range propagation. (3) Triode-like biasing scheme for flexible manipulation of field symmetry and subsequently waveguide attributes. By electrically inducing indium tin oxide (ITO) to be in a local ENZ state, we show that a Si/ITO/HfO2/Al/HfO2/ITO/Si coupled-plasmonic waveguide can provide amplitude modulation with ER = 4.83 dB/μm, IL = 0.03 dB/μm, L3dB = 622 nm, and E = 14.8 fJ, showing at least an order of magnitude improvement in modulator figure-of-merit and power efficiency compared to other waveguide platforms. Employing different biasing permutations, the same waveguide can then be reconfigured for phase and 4-quadrature-amplitude modulation, with actively device length of only 5.53 μm and 17.78 μm respectively. PMID:26189813
Dynamical coupled channels calculation of pion and omega meson production
Paris, Mark W.
2009-02-15
The dynamical coupled-channels approach developed at the Excited Baryon Analysis Center is extended to include the {omega}N channel to study {pi}- and {omega}-meson production induced by scattering pions and photons from the proton. Six intermediate channels, including {pi}N, {eta}N, {pi}{delta}, {sigma}N, {rho}N, and {omega}N, are employed to describe unpolarized and polarized data. Bare parameters in an effective hadronic Lagrangian are determined in a fit to the data for {pi}N{yields}{pi}N, {gamma}N{yields}{pi}N, {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{omega}n, and {gamma}p{yields}{omega}p reactions at center-of-mass energies from threshold to W<2.0 GeV. The T matrix determined in these fits is used to calculate the photon beam asymmetry for {omega}-meson production and the {omega}N{yields}{omega}N total cross section and {omega}N-scattering lengths. The calculated beam asymmetry is in good agreement with the observed in the range of energies near threshold to W < or approx. 2.0 GeV.
Wealth distribution of simple exchange models coupled with extremal dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagatella-Flores, N.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.
2015-01-01
Punctuated Equilibrium (PE) states that after long periods of evolutionary quiescence, species evolution can take place in short time intervals, where sudden differentiation makes new species emerge and some species extinct. In this paper, we introduce and study the effect of punctuated equilibrium on two different asset exchange models: the yard sale model (YS, winner gets a random fraction of a poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (TF, winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. In order to do this, we consider PE as a perturbation with probability ρ of being applied. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different increasing values of ρ in both models. We found that in the case of the TF model, the Gini index reduces as the perturbation ρ increases, not showing dependence with the agents number. While for YS we observe a phase transition which happens around ρc = 0.79. For perturbations ρ <ρc the Gini index reaches the value of one as time increases (an extreme wealth condensation state), whereas for perturbations greater than or equal to ρc the Gini index becomes different to one, avoiding the system reaches this extreme state. We show that both simple exchange models coupled with PE dynamics give more realistic results. In particular for YS, we observe a power low decay of wealth distribution.
Dynamics of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling including turbulent transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lysak, R. L.; Dum, C. T.
1983-01-01
The dynamics of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling has been investigated by means of a two-dimensional two-fluid MHD model including anomalous resistivity. When field-aligned current is generated on auroral field lines, the disturbance propagates toward the ionosphere in the form of a kinetic Alfven wave. When the current exceeds a critical value, microscopic turbulence is produced, which modifies the propagation of the Alfven wave. This process is modeled by a nonlinear collision frequency, which increases with the excess of the drift velocity over the critical value. The system evolves toward an electrostatic structure, with the perpendicular electric field having a shorter scale than the field-aligned current. The approach to a steady state is strongly dependent on the presence or absence of the turbulence and on the boundary conditions imposed in the generator. As current is increased or scale size is decreased, the turbulent region reflects and absorbs most of the Alfven wave energy, decoupling the generator from the ionosphere.
Numerical simulations of coupled sea waves and boundary layer dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chalikov, D.
2009-04-01
Wind-wave dynamic and thermodynamic interaction belongs to one of the most important problems of geophysical fluid dynamics. At present this interaction in a parameterized form is taken into account for formulation of boundary conditions in atmospheric and oceanic models, weather forecast models, coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models and wave forecasting models. However, the accuracy of this parameterization is mostly unknown. The main difficulty in experimental and theoretical investigation of small-scale ocean-atmosphere interaction is the presence of a multi-mode (and, occasionally, non- single-valued) nonstationary interface. It makes impossible many types of measurements in close vicinity of the physical surface, and highly complicates construction of numerical models. Existing approaches on the wind-wave interaction problem are based on assumptions that a wave field can be represented as superposition of linear waves whilst the process of wind-wave interaction is a superposition of elementary processes. This assumption is acceptable only for very small amplitude waves due to: (1) wave surface cannot be represented as superposition of linear waves with random phases as a result of nonlinearity leading to formation of ‘bound' waves, focusing energy in physical space and wave breaking; (2) dynamic interactions of waves with the air (for example, long waves modify the local flow, which influences energy input into short waves, while short waves create local drag that affects the flow over large waves). In general, all waves "spring, burgeon and fall" in the environment provided by the entire spectrum; (3) energy input into waves of even moderate steepness is concentrated rather in physical space than in Fourier space. Hence, a Fourier image of the input is often not quite representative. The new approach to the problem is based on coupled 2-D modeling of waves and boundary layer in joint conformal surface-following coordinates. The wave model is based on full
Coupling all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of ions in water with Brownian dynamics
2016-01-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Cl−) in aqueous solutions are investigated. Water is described using the SPC/E model. A stochastic coarse-grained description for ion behaviour is presented and parametrized using MD simulations. It is given as a system of coupled stochastic and ordinary differential equations, describing the ion position, velocity and acceleration. The stochastic coarse-grained model provides an intermediate description between all-atom MD simulations and Brownian dynamics (BD) models. It is used to develop a multiscale method which uses all-atom MD simulations in parts of the computational domain and (less detailed) BD simulations in the remainder of the domain. PMID:27118886
Coupled Radiative-Dynamical GCM Simulations of Hot Jupiters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, J. J.; Lian, Y.; Marley, M. S.; Knutson, H. A.; Charbonneau, D.
2008-09-01
The stellar flux incident on hot Jupiters -- gas giants within 0.1 AU of their stars -- is expected to drive an atmospheric circulation that shapes the day-night temperature difference, infrared lightcurves, spectrum, albedo, and atmospheric composition. Although several atmospheric-dynamics models of these objects have been published, all adopt simplified heating/cooling schemes that preclude robust predictions for the 3D temperature patterns, spectra, and lightcurves. Here, we present cloud-free simulations of hot Jupiters from the first 3D general circulation model (GCM) that couples the atmospheric dynamics to a realistic representation of radiative transfer. We emphasize HD189733b and HD209458b, which are the best observationally constrained hot Jupiters and which represent an interesting pair because one (HD209458b) appears to have a dayside stratosphere while the other (HD189733b) does not. Our simulations develop large day-night temperature contrasts and winds reaching speeds of several km/sec. A prograde equatorial jet forms with retrograde flows at higher latitudes, which leads to an eastward displacement of the hottest regions from the substellar point and coldest regions from the antistellar point. For HD189733b, our predicted lightcurves compare favorably with lightcurves observed at 8 and 24 microns with the Spitzer Space Telescope, including the modest day-night flux variation and offset of the flux peak from the time of secondary eclipse. The simulated temperatures decrease with altitude, leading to a spectrum dominated by absorption features. For HD209458b, inclusion of TiO and VO opacity leads to a dayside thermal inversion layer (stratosphere) where temperatures rise above 2000 K, consistent with suggestions offered to explain the observed secondary-eclipse spectrum. Interestingly, however, our 3D models do not match the observed spectrum, which suggests that our simulated stratosphere does not yet have the correct properties (e.g., altitude and
Couples Therapy: Treating Selected Personality-disordered Couples Within a Dynamic Therapy Framework
Foley, Gretchen N.
2014-01-01
Personality disordered couples present unique challenges for couples therapy. Novice therapists may feel daunted when taking on such a case, especially given the limited literature available to guide them in this specific area of therapy. Much of what is written on couples therapy is embedded in the larger body of literature on family therapy. While family therapy techniques may apply to couples therapy, this jump requires a level of understanding the novice therapist may not yet have. Additionally, the treatment focus within the body of literature on couples therapy tends to be situation-based (how to treat couples dealing with divorce, an affair, illness), neglecting how to treat couples whose dysfunction is not the product of a crisis, but rather a longstanding pattern escalated to the level of crisis. This is exactly the issue in therapy with personality disordered couples, and it is an important topic, as couples with personality pathology often do present for treatment. This article strives to present practical techniques, modeled in case vignettes, that can be applied directly to couples therapy— specifically therapy with personality disordered couples. PMID:24800131
Subotnik, Joseph E; Alguire, Ethan C; Ou, Qi; Landry, Brian R; Fatehi, Shervin
2015-05-19
Electronically photoexcited dynamics are complicated because there are so many different relaxation pathways: fluorescence, phosphorescence, radiationless decay, electon transfer, etc. In practice, to model photoexcited systems is a very difficult enterprise, requiring accurate and very efficient tools in both electronic structure theory and nonadiabatic chemical dynamics. Moreover, these theoretical tools are not traditional tools. On the one hand, the electronic structure tools involve couplings between electonic states (rather than typical single state energies and gradients). On the other hand, the dynamics tools involve propagating nuclei on multiple potential energy surfaces (rather than the usual ground state dynamics). In this Account, we review recent developments in electronic structure theory as directly applicable for modeling photoexcited systems. In particular, we focus on how one may evaluate the couplings between two different electronic states. These couplings come in two flavors. If we order states energetically, the resulting adiabatic states are coupled via derivative couplings. Derivative couplings capture how electronic wave functions change as a function of nuclear geometry and can usually be calculated with straightforward tools from analytic gradient theory. One nuance arises, however, in the context of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT): how do we evaluate derivative couplings between TD-DFT excited states (which are tricky, because no wave function is available)? This conundrum was recently solved, and we review the solution below. We also discuss the solution to a second, pesky problem of origin dependence, whereby the derivative couplings do not (strictly) satisfy translation variance, which can lead to a lack of momentum conservation. Apart from adiabatic states, if we order states according to their electronic character, the resulting diabatic states are coupled via electronic or diabatic couplings. The couplings
Suppression of dynamics and frequency synchronization in coupled slow and fast dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Kajari; Ambika, G.
2016-06-01
We present our study on the emergent states of two interacting nonlinear systems with differing dynamical time scales. We find that the inability of the interacting systems to fall in step leads to difference in phase as well as change in amplitude. If the mismatch is small, the systems settle to a frequency synchronized state with constant phase difference. But as mismatch in time scale increases, the systems have to compromise to a state of no oscillations. We illustrate this for standard nonlinear systems and identify the regions of quenched dynamics in the parameter plane. The transition curves to this state are studied analytically and confirmed by direct numerical simulations. As an important special case, we revisit the well-known model of coupled ocean-atmosphere system used in climate studies for the interactive dynamics of a fast oscillating atmosphere and slowly changing ocean. Our study in this context indicates occurrence of multi stable periodic states and steady states of convection coexisting in the system, with a complex basin structure.
Kirrander, Adam; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.
2011-09-15
We present an alternate version of the coupled-coherent-state method, specifically adapted for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for multielectron dynamics in atoms and molecules. This theory takes explicit account of the exchange symmetry of fermion particles, and it uses fermion molecular dynamics to propagate trajectories. As a demonstration, calculations in the He atom are performed using the full Hamiltonian and accurate experimental parameters. Single- and double-ionization yields by 160-fs and 780-nm laser pulses are calculated as a function of field intensity in the range 10{sup 14}-10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, and good agreement with experiments by Walker et al. is obtained. Since this method is trajectory based, mechanistic analysis of the dynamics is straightforward. We also calculate semiclassical momentum distributions for double ionization following 25-fs and 795-nm pulses at 1.5x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, in order to compare them with the detailed experiments by Rudenko et al. For this more challenging task, full convergence is not achieved. However, major effects such as the fingerlike structures in the momentum distribution are reproduced.
Dynamical couplings, dynamical vacuum energy and confinement/deconfinement from R2-gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guendelman, Eduardo; Kaganovich, Alexander; Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana
2013-01-01
We study within Palatini formalism an f (R)-gravity with f (R) = R + αR2 interacting with a dilaton and a special kind of nonlinear gauge field system containing a square-root of the standard Maxwell term, which is known to produce confinement in flat space-time. Reformulating the model in the physical Einstein frame we find scalar field effective potential with a flat region where the confinement dynamics disappears, while in other regions it remains intact. The effective gauge couplings as well as the induced cosmological constant become dynamical. In particular, a conventional Maxwell kinetic term for the gauge field is dynamically generated even if absent in the original theory. We find few interesting classes of explicit solutions: (i) asymptotically (anti-)de Sitter black holes of non-standard type with additional confining vacuum electric potential even for the electrically neutral ones; (ii) non-standard Reissner-Nordström black holes with additional constant vacuum electric field and having non-flat-space-time "hedgehog" asymptotics; (iii) generalized Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson "tube-like" space-times.
Dynamic analysis of pretwisted elastically-coupled rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nixon, Mark W.; Hinnant, Howard E.
1994-01-01
The accuracy of using a one-dimensional analysis to predict frequencies of elastically-coupled highly-twisted rotor blades is addressed. Degrees of freedom associated with shear deformation are statically condensed from the formulation, so the analysis uses only those degrees of freedom associated with classical beam theory. The effects of cross section deformation (warping) are considered, and are shown to become significant for some types of elastic coupling. Improved results are demonstrated for highly-coupled blade structures through account of warping in a local cross section analysis, without explicit inclusion of these effects in the beam analysis. A convergence study is also provided which investigates the potential for improving efficiency of elastically-coupled beam analysis through implementation of a p-version beam finite element.
Dynamic properties of one-component strongly coupled plasmas: The sum-rule approach
Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Askaruly, A.; Davletov, A. E.; Ballester, D.; Tkachenko, I. M.
2010-02-15
The dynamic characteristics of strongly coupled one-component plasmas are studied within the moment approach. Our results on the dynamic structure factor and the dynamic local-field correction satisfy the sum rules and other exact relations automatically. A quantitative agreement is obtained with numerous simulation data on the plasma dynamic properties, including the dispersion and decay of collective modes. Our approach allows us to correct and complement the results previously found with other treatments.
Experimental and Mathematical Evaluation of Dynamic Behaviour of AN Oil-Air Coupling Shock Absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
PING, Y.
2003-11-01
The physical mechanism of the actual shock absorber with multi-types of damping and non-linear stiffness through coupling the oil, air, rubber and spring by ingenious devices is systematically investigated. The experimental results of the key-model machine in multi-parameter coupling dynamic test show complex non-linearity dynamic characteristics. Based on this, the non-linear dynamic model for the shock absorber is presented by analysing the internal fluid dynamic phenomenon with respect to the shock absorber. Comparisons with experimental data confirm the validity of the model. Using the model, it is possible to evaluate the importance of different factors for designing the shock absorber.
Li Xiantao Yang, Jerry Z. E, Weinan
2010-05-20
We present a multiscale model for numerical simulations of dynamics of crystalline solids. The method combines the continuum nonlinear elasto-dynamics model, which models the stress waves and physical loading conditions, and molecular dynamics model, which provides the nonlinear constitutive relation and resolves the atomic structures near local defects. The coupling of the two models is achieved based on a general framework for multiscale modeling - the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM). We derive an explicit coupling condition at the atomistic/continuum interface. Application to the dynamics of brittle cracks under various loading conditions is presented as test examples.
Wide dynamic range microwave planar coupled ring resonator for sensing applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarifi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshmand, Mojgan
2016-06-01
A highly sensitive, microwave-coupled ring resonator with a wide dynamic range is studied for use in sensing applications. The resonator's structure has two resonant rings and, consequently, two resonant frequencies, operating at 2.3 and 2.45 GHz. Inductive and capacitive coupling mechanisms are explored and compared to study their sensing performance. Primary finite element analysis and measurement results are used to compare the capacitive and inductive coupled ring resonators, demonstrating sensitivity improvements of up to 75% and dynamic range enhancement up to 100% in the capacitive coupled structure. In this work, we are proposing capacitive coupled planar ring resonators as a wide dynamic range sensing platform for liquid sensing applications. This sensing device is well suited for low-cost, real-time low-power, and CMOS compatible sensing technologies.
Nonequilibrium Spin Dynamics: from Protons in Water to a Gauge Theory of Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokatly, I. V.; Sherman, E. Ya.
Nonequilibrium dynamics of spin degrees of freedom in condensed matter, ranging from classical liquids to solids and ultracold atomic gases, is one of the focus topics in physics. Here we present a gauge theory of spin dynamics in spinorbit coupled gases for a "pure" gauge realization of the spin-orbit coupling field. This approach allows one to describe the spin dynamics in fermionic systems in terms of exact general response functions and to map it on the density dynamics in a dual system without spin-orbit coupling. We apply this approach to electrons in disordered two-dimensional structures and to cold atomic gases of interacting fermions with synthetic spin-orbit coupling at very low temperatures.
Dynamical coupled-channels study of meson production reactions from EBAC@Jlab
Hiroyuki Kamano
2011-10-01
We present the current status of a combined and simultaneous analysis of meson production reactions based on a dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model, which is conducted at Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) of Jefferson Lab.
Dynamical coupled-channels study of meson production reactions from EBACatJLab
Kamano, Hiroyuki
2011-10-24
We present the current status of a combined and simultaneous analysis of meson production reactions based on a dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model, which is conducted at Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) of Jefferson Lab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpenter, Michael
Almost any change that occurs in a crystal structure results in some lattice strain and it is inevitable that this will appear also as a change in elastic properties. It follows that one of the most characteristic features of phase transitions, whether driven by structural, magnetic or electronic effects, will be variations of elastic constants. In addition, transformation microstructures such as ferroelastic twins may be mobile under some conditions of temperature and stress and will give characteristic patterns of acoustic loss when measured by dynamical methods. Thanks substantially to the pioneering work of Dr Albert Migliori in developing the technique of Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), it has been possible to follow the elastic and anelastic behaviour associated with phase transitions quantitatively as a function of temperature through the interval 2-1600 K. It is also possible to add magnetic and electric fields. The frequency window 0.1-2 MHz and inherently small strains of RUS appear to be particularly sensitive for observing the consequences of strain coupling and microstructure relaxation dynamics. Recent collaborative work carried out using the RUS facilities in Cambridge will be presented, relating to phase transitions in multiferroic perovskites, such as PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3-PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3 and Sr2FeMoO6, the ferroelectric/improper ferroelastic transition in GeTe, and magnetoelastic behaviour of EuTiO3. A common feature of these is softening of the shear modulus ahead of the transition that is not expected on the basis of linear/quadratic coupling between strain and the driving order parameter (improper ferroelastic). This appears to be due to coupling of acoustic modes with unseen central modes which are related to collective motions of domains with short range order. In some cases the ferroelastic twin walls have a well defined freezing interval (GeTe) whereas anelastic loss and stiffening over a wide temperature interval appears to be diagnostic
Beougher, Sean C.; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Darbes, Lynae A.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Neilands, Torsten B.; Garcia, Carla C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
2013-01-01
Discordant couples are unique because neither partner shares the same serostatus. Yet research overlooks how they became discordant, mistakenly assuming that they have always been that way and, by extension, that being discordant impacts the relationship in a similar manner. This study examines HIV infection history and its impact on relationship dynamics using qualitative data from 35 discordant gay male couples. Most couples met discordant (69%); however, many did not (31%). Those couples that met discordant felt being discordant had a lesser impact on their sexual and relational satisfaction, while those that did not meet discordant felt it had a greater impact, reporting sexual frustration and anxiety over seroconverting. This suggests that relationship dynamics may differ for discordant couples depending on HIV infection history. HIV prevention and counseling services for discordant couples can be better tailored and more effective when differences in HIV infection history are recognized. PMID:24244082
Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule
Kapfinger, Stephan; Reichert, Thorsten; Lichtmannecker, Stefan; Müller, Kai; Finley, Jonathan J.; Wixforth, Achim; Kaniber, Michael; Krenner, Hubert J.
2015-01-01
Strongly confined photonic modes can couple to quantum emitters and mechanical excitations. To harness the full potential in quantum photonic circuits, interactions between different constituents have to be precisely and dynamically controlled. Here, a prototypical coupled element, a photonic molecule defined in a photonic crystal membrane, is controlled by a radio frequency surface acoustic wave. The sound wave is tailored to deliberately switch on and off the bond of the photonic molecule on sub-nanosecond timescales. In time-resolved experiments, the acousto-optically controllable coupling is directly observed as clear anticrossings between the two nanophotonic modes. The coupling strength is determined directly from the experimental data. Both the time dependence of the tuning and the inter-cavity coupling strength are found to be in excellent agreement with numerical calculations. The demonstrated mechanical technique can be directly applied for dynamic quantum gate operations in state-of-the-art-coupled nanophotonic, quantum cavity electrodynamic and optomechanical systems. PMID:26436203
Beougher, Sean C; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Darbes, Lynae A; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Neilands, Torsten B; Garcia, Carla C; Hoff, Colleen C
2013-10-01
Discordant couples are unique because neither partner shares the same serostatus. Yet research overlooks how they became discordant, mistakenly assuming that they have always been that way and, by extension, that being discordant impacts the relationship in a similar manner. This study examines HIV infection history and its impact on relationship dynamics using qualitative data from 35 discordant gay male couples. Most couples met discordant (69%); however, many did not (31%). Those couples that met discordant felt being discordant had a lesser impact on their sexual and relational satisfaction, while those that did not meet discordant felt it had a greater impact, reporting sexual frustration and anxiety over seroconverting. This suggests that relationship dynamics may differ for discordant couples depending on HIV infection history. HIV prevention and counseling services for discordant couples can be better tailored and more effective when differences in HIV infection history are recognized. PMID:24244082
Choi, Bumkyoo; Lee, Seung-Yop; Kim, Taekhyun; Baek, Seog Soon
2008-01-01
In a vertical type, vibratory gyroscope, the coupled motion between reference (driving) and sensing vibrations causes the zero-point output, which is the unwanted sensing vibration without angular velocity. This structural coupling leads to an inherent discrepancy between the natural frequencies of the reference and the sensing oscillations, causing curve veering in frequency loci. The coupled motion deteriorates sensing performance and dynamic stability. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics associated with the coupling phenomenon are theoretically analyzed. The effects of reference frequency and coupling factor on the rotational direction and amplitude of elliptic oscillation are determined. Based on the analytical studies on the coupling effects, we propose and fabricate a vertically decoupled vibratory gyroscope with the frequency matching.
A Dynamic Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Ring Current Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pembroke, Asher
In this thesis we describe a coupled model of Earth's magnetosphere that consists of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation, the MIX ionosphere solver and the Rice Convection Model (RCM). We report some results of the coupled model using idealized inputs and model parameters. The algorithmic and physical components of the model are described, including the transfer of magnetic field information and plasma boundary conditions to the RCM and the return of ring current plasma properties to the LFM. Crucial aspects of the coupling include the restriction of RCM to regions where field-line averaged plasma-beta ¡=1, the use of a plasmasphere model, and the MIX ionosphere model. Compared to stand-alone MHD, the coupled model produces a substantial increase in ring current pressure and reduction of the magnetic field near the Earth. In the ionosphere, stronger region-1 and region-2 Birkeland currents are seen in the coupled model but with no significant change in the cross polar cap potential drop, while the region-2 currents shielded the low-latitude convection potential. In addition, oscillations in the magnetic field are produced at geosynchronous orbit with the coupled code. The diagnostics of entropy and mass content indicate that these oscillations are associated with low-entropy flow channels moving in from the tail and may be related to bursty bulk flows and bubbles seen in observations. As with most complex numerical models, there is the ongoing challenge of untangling numerical artifacts and physics, and we find that while there is still much room for improvement, the results presented here are encouraging. Finally, we introduce several new methods for magnetospheric visualization and analysis, including a fluid-spatial volume for RCM and a field-aligned analysis mesh for the LFM. The latter allows us to construct novel visualizations of flux tubes, drift surfaces, topological boundaries, and bursty-bulk flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pahlavani, H.; Kolur, E. Rahmanpour
2016-08-01
Based on the electrical charge discreteness, the Hamiltonian operator for the mutual inductance coupled quantum mesoscopic LC circuits has been found. The persistent current on two driven coupled mesoscopic electric pure L circuits (two quantum loops) has been obtained by using algebraic quantum dynamic approach. The influence of the mutual inductance on energy spectrum and quantum fluctuations of the charge and current for two coupled quantum electric mesoscopic LC circuits have been investigated.
Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Analyses of Dynamically Loaded Rubber Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Arthur R.; Chen, Tzi-Kang
2000-01-01
A procedure that models coupled thermo-mechanical deformations of viscoelastic rubber cylinders by employing the ABAQUS finite element code is described. Computational simulations of hysteretic heating are presented for several tall and short rubber cylinders both with and without a steel disk at their centers. The cylinders are compressed axially and are then cyclically loaded about the compressed state. The non-uniform hysteretic heating of the rubber cylinders containing a steel disk is presented. The analyses performed suggest that the coupling procedure should be considered for further development as a design tool for rubber degradation studies.
Collective dynamics in a binary mixture of hydrodynamically coupled microrotors.
Yeo, Kyongmin; Lushi, Enkeleida; Vlahovska, Petia M
2015-05-01
We study, numerically, the collective dynamics of self-rotating nonaligning particles by considering a monolayer of spheres driven by constant clockwise or counterclockwise torques. We show that hydrodynamic interactions alter the emergence of large-scale dynamical patterns compared to those observed in dry systems. In dilute suspensions, the flow stirred by the rotors induces clustering of opposite-spin rotors, while at higher densities same-spin rotors phase separate. Above a critical rotor density, dynamic hexagonal crystals form. Our findings underscore the importance of inclusion of the many-body, long-range hydrodynamic interactions in predicting the phase behavior of active particles. PMID:26001020
Coupling dynamic analysis of spacecraft with multiple cylindrical tanks and flexible appendages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Wen-Jun; Yue, Bao-Zeng; Huang, Hua
2016-02-01
This paper is mainly concerned with the coupling dynamic analysis of a complex spacecraft consisting of one main rigid platform, multiple liquid-filled cylindrical tanks, and a number of flexible appendages. Firstly, the carrier potential function equations of liquid in the tanks are deduced according to the wall boundary conditions. Through employing the Fourier-Bessel series expansion method, the dynamic boundaries conditions on a curved free-surface under a low-gravity environment are transformed to general simple differential equations and the rigid-liquid coupled sloshing dynamic state equations of liquid in tanks are obtained. The state vectors of rigid-liquid coupled equations are composed with the modal coordinates of the relative potential function and the modal coordinates of wave height. Based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and the D'Alembert's principle, the rigid-flexible coupled dynamic state equations of flexible appendages are directly derived, and the coordinate transform matrixes of maneuvering flexible appendages are precisely computed as time-varying. Then, the coupling dynamics state equations of the overall system of the spacecraft are modularly built by means of the Lagrange's equations in terms of quasi-coordinates. Lastly, the coupling dynamic performances of a typical complex spacecraft are studied. The availability and reliability of the presented method are also confirmed.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Mechanics and Its Coupling to Cerebrovascular Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linninger, Andreas A.; Tangen, Kevin; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Frim, David
2016-01-01
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not stagnant but displays fascinating oscillatory flow patterns inside the ventricular system and reversing fluid exchange between the cranial vault and spinal compartment. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of pulsatile CSF motion. Observations contradicting classical views about its bulk production and clearance are highlighted. A clinical account of diseases of abnormal CSF flow dynamics, including hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, Chiari malformation type 1, and pseudotumor cerebri, is also given. We survey medical imaging modalities used to observe intracranial dynamics in vivo. Additionally, we assess the state of the art in predictive models of CSF dynamics. The discussion addresses open questions regarding CSF dynamics as they relate to the understanding and management of diseases.
Comparing Effects of Cluster-Coupled Patterns on Opinion Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yun; Si, Xia-Meng; Zhang, Yan-Chao
2012-07-01
Community structure is another important feature besides small-world and scale-free property of complex networks. Communities can be coupled through specific fixed links between nodes, or occasional encounter behavior. We introduce a model for opinion evolution with multiple cluster-coupled patterns, in which the interconnectivity denotes the coupled degree of communities by fixed links, and encounter frequency controls the coupled degree of communities by encounter behaviors. Considering the complicated cognitive system of people, the CODA (continuous opinions and discrete actions) update rules are used to mimic how people update their decisions after interacting with someone. It is shown that, large interconnectivity and encounter frequency both can promote consensus, reduce competition between communities and propagate some opinion successfully across the whole population. Encounter frequency is better than interconnectivity at facilitating the consensus of decisions. When the degree of social cohesion is same, small interconnectivity has better effects on lessening the competence between communities than small encounter frequency does, while large encounter frequency can make the greater degree of agreement across the whole populations than large interconnectivity can.
Dynamics of globally delay-coupled neurons displaying subthreshold oscillations.
Masoller, Cristina; Torrent, M C; García-Ojalvo, Jordi
2009-08-28
We study an ensemble of neurons that are coupled through their time-delayed collective mean field. The individual neuron is modelled using a Hodgkin-Huxley-type conductance model with parameters chosen such that the uncoupled neuron displays autonomous subthreshold oscillations of the membrane potential. We find that the ensemble generates a rich variety of oscillatory activities that are mainly controlled by two time scales: the natural period of oscillation at the single neuron level and the delay time of the global coupling. When the neuronal oscillations are synchronized, they can be either in-phase or out-of-phase. The phase-shifted activity is interpreted as the result of a phase-flip bifurcation, also occurring in a set of globally delay-coupled limit cycle oscillators. At the bifurcation point, there is a transition from in-phase to out-of-phase (or vice versa) synchronized oscillations, which is accompanied by an abrupt change in the common oscillation frequency. This phase-flip bifurcation was recently investigated in two mutually delay-coupled oscillators and can play a role in the mechanisms by which the neurons switch among different firing patterns. PMID:19620122
Dynamic Coupling of Alaska Based Ecosystem and Geophysical Models into an Integrated Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, A.; Carman, T. B.
2012-12-01
As scientific models and the challenges they address have grown in complexity and scope, so has interest in dynamically coupling or integrating these models. Dynamic model coupling presents software engineering challenges stemming from differences in model architectures, differences in development styles between modeling groups, and memory and run time performance concerns. The Alaska Integrated Ecosystem Modeling (AIEM) project aims to dynamically couple three independently developed scientific models so that each model can exchange run-time data with each of the other models. The models being coupled are a stochastic fire dynamics model (ALFRESCO), a permafrost model (GIPL), and a soil and vegetation model (DVM-DOS-TEM). The scientific research objectives of the AIEM project are to: 1) use the coupled models for increasing our understanding of climate change and other stressors on landscape level physical and ecosystem processes, and; 2) provide support for resource conservation planning and decision making. The objectives related to the computer models themselves are modifiability, maintainability, and performance of the coupled and individual models. Modifiability and maintainability are especially important in a research context because source codes must be continually adapted to address new scientific concepts. Performance is crucial to delivering results in a timely manner. To achieve the objectives while addressing the challenges in dynamic model coupling, we have designed an architecture that emphasizes high cohesion for each individual model and loose coupling between the models. Each model will retain the ability to run independently, or to be available as a linked library to the coupled model. Performance is facilitated by parallelism in the spatial dimension. With close collaboration among modeling groups, the methodology described here has demonstrated the feasibility of coupling complex ecological and geophysical models to provide managers with more
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Kadlec, Kelly M.; McArdle, John J.
2009-01-01
This study examined dyadic interrelations between episodic memory and depressive symptom trajectories of change in old and advanced old age. The authors applied dynamic models to 10-year incomplete longitudinal data of initially 1,599 married couples from the study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (M[subscript age] = 75 years at…
Observation of chaotic dynamics of coupled nonlinear oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Buskirk, R.; Jeffries, C.
1985-05-01
Experimental data are employed as bases for theoretically modelling the behavior of a finite number of driven nonlinear coupled oscillators. Attention is focused on Si p-n junction resonators exposed to an external inductance. A junction oscillator displays period doubling, Hopf figuracions to quasi-periodicity, entrainment horns and breakup of the invariant torus. Calculated and measured data are compared, with favorable results, by means of Poincare' sections, bifurcation diagrams and parameter phase space diagrams for the drive voltage and frequency. Fractal dimensions 2.03 and 2.33 are expressed in Poincare' sections to illustrate the behavior of single and dual coupled resonators which experience a breakup of the strange attractor.
Dynamics of an ion coupled to a parametric superconducting circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kafri, Dvir; Adhikari, Prabin; Taylor, Jacob M.
2016-01-01
Superconducting circuits and trapped ions are promising architectures for quantum information processing. However, the natural frequencies for controlling these systems—radio-frequency ion control and microwave domain superconducting qubit control—make direct Hamiltonian interactions between them weak. In this paper we describe a technique for coupling a trapped ion's motion to the fundamental mode of a superconducting circuit, by applying to the circuit a carefully modulated external magnetic flux. In conjunction with a nonlinear element (Josephson junction), this gives the circuit an effective time-dependent inductance. We then show how to tune the external flux to generate a resonant coupling between the circuit and ion's motional mode and discuss the limitations of this approach compared to using a time-dependent capacitance.
Delay model for dynamically switching coupled RLC interconnects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Devendra Kumar; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Sharma, Rajender Kumar
2014-04-01
With the evolution of integrated circuit technology, the interconnect parasitics can be the limiting factor in high speed signal transmission. With increasing frequency of operation, length of interconnect and fast transition time of the signal, the RC models are not sufficient to estimate the delay accurately. To mitigate this problem, accurate delay models for coupled interconnects are very much required. This paper proposes an analytical model for estimating propagation delay in lossy coupled RLC interconnect lines for simultaneously switching scenario. To verify the proposed model, the analytical results are compared with those of FDTD and SPICE results for the two cases of inputs switching under consideration. An average error of 2.07% is observed which shows an excellent agreement with SPICE simulation and FDTD computations.
Ab initio quantum dynamics using coupled-cluster.
Kvaal, Simen
2012-05-21
The curse of dimensionality (COD) limits the current state-of-the-art ab initio propagation methods for non-relativistic quantum mechanics to relatively few particles. For stationary structure calculations, the coupled-cluster (CC) method overcomes the COD in the sense that the method scales polynomially with the number of particles while still being size-consistent and extensive. We generalize the CC method to the time domain while allowing the single-particle functions to vary in an adaptive fashion as well, thereby creating a highly flexible, polynomially scaling approximation to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The method inherits size-consistency and extensivity from the CC method. The method is dubbed orbital-adaptive time-dependent coupled-cluster, and is a hierarchy of approximations to the now standard multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method for fermions. A numerical experiment is also given. PMID:22612082
Dynamics of two coupled semiconductor spin qubits in a noisy environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das Sarma, S.; Throckmorton, Robert E.; Wu, Yang-Le
2016-07-01
We theoretically consider the temporal dynamics of two coupled spin qubits (e.g., semiconductor quantum dots) driven by the interqubit spin-spin coupling. The presence of environmental noise (e.g., charge traps, nuclear spins, random magnetic impurities) is accounted for by including random magnetic field and random interqubit coupling terms in the Hamiltonian. Both Heisenberg coupling and Ising coupling between the spin qubits are considered, corresponding respectively to exchange and capacitive gates as appropriate for single spin and singlet-triplet semiconductor qubit systems, respectively. Both exchange (Heisenberg) and capacitive (Ising) coupling situations can be solved numerically exactly even in the presence of noise, leading to the key findings that (i) the steady-state return probability to the initial state remains close to unity in the presence of strong noise for many, but not all, starting spin configurations, and (ii) the return probability as a function of time is oscillatory with a characteristic noise-controlled decay toward the steady-state value. We also provide results for the magnetization dynamics of the coupled two-qubit system. Our predicted dynamics can be directly tested in the already existing semiconductor spin qubit setups providing insight into their coherent interaction dynamics. Retention of the initial state spin memory even in the presence of strong environmental noise has important implications for quantum computation using spin qubits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Megam Ngouonkadi, Elie B.; Nono, Martial Kabong; Tamba, Victor Kamdoum; Fotsin, Hilaire B.
2015-11-01
Diffusive electrical connections in neuronal networks are instantaneous, while excitatory or inhibitory couplings through chemical synapses contain a transmission time-delay. Moreover, chemical synapses are nonlinear dynamical systems whose behavior can be described by nonlinear differential equations. In this work, neuronal networks with diffusive electrical couplings and time-delayed dynamic chemical couplings are considered. We investigate the effects of distributed time delays on phase synchronization of bursting neurons. We observe that in both excitatory and Inhibitory chemical connections, the phase synchronization might be enhanced when time-delay is taken into account. This distributed time delay can induce a variety of phase-coherent dynamical behaviors. We also study the collective dynamics of network of bursting neurons. The network model presents the so-called Small-World property, encompassing neurons whose dynamics have two time scales (fast and slow time scales). The neuron parameters in such Small-World network, are supposed to be slightly different such that, there may be synchronization of the bursting (slow) activity if the coupling strengths are large enough. Bounds for the critical coupling strengths to obtain burst synchronization in terms of the network structure are given. Our studies show that the network synchronizability is improved, as its heterogeneity is reduced. The roles of synaptic parameters, more precisely those of the coupling strengths and the network size are also investigated.
Sediment dynamics in the Adriatic Sea investigated with coupled models
Sherwood, Christopher R.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Carniel, Sandro; Cavaleri, Luigi; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Das, Himangshu; Doyle, James D.; Harris, Courtney K.; Niedoroda, Alan W.; Perkins, Henry; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Pullen, Julie; Reed, Christopher W.; Russo, Aniello; Sclavo, Mauro; Signell, Richard P.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Warner, John C.
2004-01-01
Several large research programs focused on the Adriatic Sea in winter 2002-2003, making it an exciting place for sediment dynamics modelers (Figure 1). Investigations of atmospheric forcing and oceanic response (including wave generation and propagation, water-mass formation, stratification, and circulation), suspended material, bottom boundary layer dynamics, bottom sediment, and small-scale stratigraphy were performed by European and North American researchers participating in several projects. The goal of EuroSTRATAFORM researchers is to improve our ability to understand and simulate the physical processes that deliver sediment to the marine environment and generate stratigraphic signatures. Scientists involved in the Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) experiment benefited from other major research programs including ACE (Adriatic Circulation Experiment), DOLCE VITA (Dynamics of Localized Currents and Eddy Variability in the Adriatic), EACE (the Croatian East Adriatic Circulation Experiment project), WISE (West Istria Experiment), and ADRICOSM (Italian nowcasting and forecasting) studies.
Dynamical spin-density waves in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan; Qu, Chunlei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-07-01
Synthetic spin-orbit (SO) coupling, an important ingredient for quantum simulation of many exotic condensed matter physics, has recently attracted considerable attention. The static and dynamic properties of a SO-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) have been extensively studied in both theory and experiment. Here we numerically investigate the generation and propagation of a dynamical spin-density wave (SDW) in a SO-coupled BEC using a fast moving Gaussian-shaped barrier. We find that the SDW wavelength is sensitive to the barrier's velocity while varies slightly with the barrier's peak potential or width. We qualitatively explain the generation of SDW by considering a rectangular barrier in a one-dimensional system. Our results may motivate future experimental and theoretical investigations of rich dynamics in the SO-coupled BEC induced by a moving barrier.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Jianbin; Xiao, Dingbang; Wu, Xuezhong; Hou, Zhanqiang; Chen, Zhihua
2013-07-01
We present a dynamic electrical balancing of coupling stiffness for improving the bias stability of micromachined gyroscopes, which embeds the coupling stiffness in a closed-loop system to make the micromachined gyroscope possess more robust bias stability by suppressing the variation of coupling stiffness. The effect of the dynamic electrical balancing control is theoretically analyzed and implemented using a silicon micromachined gyroscope as an example case. It has been experimentally shown that, comparing with open loop detection, the proposed method increased the stability of the amplitude of the mechanical quadrature signal by 38 times, and therefore improved the bias stability by 5.2 times from 89 to 17 deg/h, and the temperature stability of scale factor by 2.7 times from 622 to 231 ppm/°C. Experimental results effectively indicated the theoretical model of dynamic electrical balancing of coupling stiffness.
Generic behavior of master-stability functions in coupled nonlinear dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Liang; Chen, Qingfei; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Pecora, Louis M.
2009-09-01
Master-stability functions (MSFs) are fundamental to the study of synchronization in complex dynamical systems. For example, for a coupled oscillator network, a necessary condition for synchronization to occur is that the MSF at the corresponding normalized coupling parameters be negative. To understand the typical behaviors of the MSF for various chaotic oscillators is key to predicting the collective dynamics of a network of these oscillators. We address this issue by examining, systematically, MSFs for known chaotic oscillators. Our computations and analysis indicate that it is generic for MSFs being negative in a finite interval of a normalized coupling parameter. A general scheme is proposed to classify the typical behaviors of MSFs into four categories. These results are verified by direct simulations of synchronous dynamics on networks of actual coupled oscillators.
Dynamics of the locomotor-respiratory coupling at different frequencies.
Hoffmann, Charles P; Bardy, Benoît G
2015-05-01
The locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC) is a universal phenomenon reported for various forms of rhythmic exercise. In this study, we investigated the effect of movement and respiratory frequencies on LRC. Participants were instructed to cycle or breath in synchrony with a periodic auditory stimulation at preferred and non-preferred frequencies. LRC stability was assessed by frequency and phase coupling indexes using the theory of nonlinear coupled oscillators through the sine circle map model, and the Farey tree. Results showed a stabilizing effect of sound on LRC for all frequencies and for the two systems paced. The sound-induced effect was more prominent when the rhythm of the stimulation corresponded to the preferred frequencies. The adoption of cycling or respiratory frequencies far off preferential ones led to a loss of stability in LRC. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that LRC is not unidirectional-from locomotion onto respiration-but bidirectional between the two systems. They also suggest that auditory information plays an important role in the modulation of LRC. PMID:25796188
Ultrafast Polariton-Phonon Dynamics of Strongly Coupled Quantum Dot-Nanocavity Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Kai; Fischer, Kevin A.; Rundquist, Armand; Dory, Constantin; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Kelaita, Yousif A.; Borish, Victoria; Vučković, Jelena
2015-07-01
We investigate the influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the dynamics of a strongly coupled quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity system and explore the effects of this interaction on different schemes for nonclassical light generation. By performing time-resolved measurements, we map out the detuning-dependent polariton lifetime and extract the spectrum of the polariton-to-phonon coupling with unprecedented precision. Photon-blockade experiments for different pulse-length and detuning conditions (supported by quantum optical simulations) reveal that achieving high-fidelity photon blockade requires an intricate understanding of the phonons' influence on the system dynamics. Finally, we achieve direct coherent control of the polariton states of a strongly coupled system and demonstrate that their efficient coupling to phonons can be exploited for novel concepts in high-fidelity single-photon generation.
On the use of attachment modes in substructure coupling for dynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Craig, R. R., Jr.; Chang, C.-J.
1977-01-01
Substructure coupling or component-mode synthesis may be employed in the solution of dynamics problems for complex structures. Although numerous substructure-coupling methods have been devised, little attention has been devoted to methods employing attachment modes. In the present paper the various mode sets (normal modes, constraint modes, attachment modes) are defined. A generalized substructure-coupling procedure is described. Those substructure-coupling methods which employ attachment modes are described in detail. One of these methods is shown to lead to results (e.g., system natural frequencies) comparable to or better than those obtained by the Hurty (1965) method.
The effect of inertial coupling in the dynamics and control of flexible robotic manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tesar, Delbert; Curran, Carol Cockrell; Graves, Philip Lee
1988-01-01
A general model of the dynamics of flexible robotic manipulators is presented, including the gross motion of the links, the vibrations of the links and joints, and the dynamic coupling between the gross motions and vibrations. The vibrations in the links may be modeled using lumped parameters, truncated modal summation, a component mode synthesis method, or a mixture of these methods. The local link inertia matrix is derived to obtain the coupling terms between the gross motion of the link and the vibrations of the link. Coupling between the motions of the links results from the kinematic model, which utilizes the method of kinematic influence. The model is used to simulate the dynamics of a flexible space-based robotic manipulator which is attached to a spacecraft, and is free to move with respect to the inertial reference frame. This model may be used to study the dynamic response of the manipulator to the motions of its joints, or to externally applied disturbances.
Quantum-Classical Nonadiabatic Dynamics: Coupled- vs Independent-Trajectory Methods.
Agostini, Federica; Min, Seung Kyu; Abedi, Ali; Gross, E K U
2016-05-10
Trajectory-based mixed quantum-classical approaches to coupled electron-nuclear dynamics suffer from well-studied problems such as the lack of (or incorrect account for) decoherence in the trajectory surface hopping method and the inability of reproducing the spatial splitting of a nuclear wave packet in Ehrenfest-like dynamics. In the context of electronic nonadiabatic processes, these problems can result in wrong predictions for quantum populations and in unphysical outcomes for the nuclear dynamics. In this paper, we propose a solution to these issues by approximating the coupled electronic and nuclear equations within the framework of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function. We present a simple quantum-classical scheme based on coupled classical trajectories and test it against the full quantum mechanical solution from wave packet dynamics for some model situations which represent particularly challenging problems for the above-mentioned traditional methods. PMID:27030209
Coupling Eruptive Dynamics Models to Multi-fluid Plasma Dynamic Simulations at Enceladus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paty, C. S.; Dufek, J.; Waite, J. H.; Tokar, R. L.
2011-12-01
The interaction of Saturn's magnetosphere with Enceladus provides an exciting natural laboratory for expanding our understanding of charge-neutral-dust interactions and their impact on mass and momentum loading of the system and the associated magnetic perturbations. However, one of the more challenging questions regarding the Enceladus plume relates to the subsurface eruptive mechanism responsible for generating the observed jets of material that compose the plume, and the three-dimensional distribution of neutral gas and dust in the plume. In this work we implement a multiphase eruptive dynamics model [cf. Dufek & Bergantz, 2007; Dufek and Bergantz, 2005] to examine the evolution of the plume morphology for a given eruption. We model the eruptive mechanism in a two-part, coupled domain including a fissure model and a plume model. A high resolution, multiphase, fissure model examines eruptive processes in a fissure from fragmentation to the surface. The fissure model is two-dimensional and provides spatial and temporal information about the dust/ice grains and gas. The depth to the fragmentation surface is currently treated as a free parameter and we examine a range of fissure morphologies. We do not explicitly force choked conditions at the vent, but rather due to the geometry, the velocities of the particle and gas mixture approach the sound speed for a 'dusty' gas mixture. The fissure model provides a source for the 3D plume model which examines the morphology of the plume resulting from different fissure configurations and provides a self-consistent physical basis to link concentrations in different regions of the plume to an eruptive mechanism. These initial models describing the resulting gas and dust grain distribution will be presented in the context of existing observations. We will also demonstrate the first stages of integration of these results into the existing multi-fluid plasma dynamic simulations of Enceladus' interaction with Saturn
Dynamical transition between weak and strong coupling in Brillouin laser pulse amplification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schluck, F.; Lehmann, G.; Müller, C.; Spatschek, K. H.
2016-08-01
Short laser pulse amplification via stimulated Brillouin backscattering in plasma is considered. Previous work distinguishes between the weakly and strongly coupled regime and treats them separately. It is shown here that such a separation is not generally applicable because strong and weak coupling interaction regimes are entwined with each other. An initially weakly coupled amplification scenario may dynamically transform into strong coupling. This happens when the local seed amplitude grows and thus triggers the strongly driven plasma response. On the other hand, when in a strong coupling scenario, the pump pulse gets depleted, and its amplitude might drop below the strong coupling threshold. This may cause significant changes in the final seed pulse shape. Furthermore, experimentally used pump pulses are typically Gaussian-shaped. The intensity threshold for strong coupling may only be exceeded around the maximum and not in the wings of the pulse. Also here, a description valid in both strong and weak coupling regimes is required. We propose such a unified treatment which allows us, in particular, to study the dynamic transition between weak and strong coupling. Consequences for the pulse forms of the amplified seed are discussed.
GENERAL: Bistability in Coupled Oscillators Exhibiting Synchronized Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olusola, O. I.; Vincent, U. E.; Njah, A. N.; Olowofela, J. A.
2010-05-01
We report some new results associated with the synchronization behavior of two coupled double-well Duffing oscillators (DDOs). Some sufficient algebraic criteria for global chaos synchronization of the drive and response DDOs via linear state error feedback control are obtained by means of Lyapunov stability theory. The synchronization is achieved through a bistable state in which a periodic attractor co-exists with a chaotic attractor. Using the linear perturbation analysis, the prevalence of attractors in parameter space and the associated bifurcations are examined. Subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations and abundance of Arnold tongues — a signature of mode locking phenomenon are found.
Dynamic simulation of kinematic Stirling engines: Coupled and decoupled analysis
Fischer, K.; Lemrani, H.; Stouffs, P.
1995-12-31
A coupled analysis modelling method of Stirling engines is presented. The main feature of this modelling method is the use of a software package combining the capabilities of a pre-/post-processor with a differential algebraic equations solver. As a result, modelling is merely a matter of linking appropriate objects from a model library and the outcoming tool is very flexible and powerful. Some simulation results are presented and compared with those obtained from a decoupled analysis. It clearly appears that the main imperfection of the model does not come from the modelling process itself but from their incomplete knowledge of the physics behind the Stirling engine operation.
The dynamics of a coupled soilscape-landscape evolution model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welivitiya, Dimuth; Willgoose, Garry; Hancock, Greg
2016-04-01
In this study we present results obtained from a landform evolution model coupled with SSSPAM5D soilscape evolution model. This presentation will show a number of computer animations with this coupled model using a range of widely accepted soil profile weathering models, and erosion/armouring models. The animations clearly show that subtle changes in process can result in dramatic changes in long-term equilibrium hillslope and soilscape form. We will discuss the reasons for these differences, arguing from the various mathematical and physical assumptions modelled, and infer how observed hillslope form may provide identifiable (and perhaps quantifiable) landform and soilscape signatures of landscape and soilscape process, and in particular the coupling between the landscape and the soilscape. Specifically we have simulated soilscapes using 3 depth dependent weathering functions: 1) Exponential, 2) Humped and 3) Reversed exponential. The Exponential weathering function simulates physical weathering due to thermal effects, and the weathering rate exponentially decreases with depth. The Humped function simulates chemical and/or physical weathering with moisture feedbacks, where the highest weathering rate is at a finite depth below the surface and exponentially declines with depth. The Reversed exponential function simulates chemical weathering, and the highest weathering rate is at the soil-saprolite interface and exponentially decreases both above and below the interface. Both the Humped and Reversed exponential functions can be used as approximations to chemical weathering as they can be derived analytically by solving widely accepted geochemical weathering equations. The Humped function can arise where the weathering fluid is introduced at the top of the soil profile (e.g. rainfall equilibrated with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere), while the Reversed exponential can be derived when carbon dioxide is generated within the profile (e.g. by biodegradation of soil
Proton Dynamics on Goethite Nanoparticles and Coupling to Electron Transport.
Zarzycki, Piotr; Smith, Dayle M; Rosso, Kevin M
2015-04-14
The surface chemistry of metal oxide particles is governed by the charge that develops at the interface with aqueous solution. Mineral transformation, biogeochemical reactions, remediation, and sorption dynamics are profoundly affected in response. Here we report implementation of replica-exchange constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations that use classical molecular dynamics for exploring configurational space and Metropolis Monte Carlo walking through protonation space with a simulated annealing escape route from metastable configurations. By examining the archetypal metal oxide, goethite (α-FeOOH), we find that electrostatic potential gradients spontaneously arise between intersecting low-index crystal faces and across explicitly treated oxide nanoparticles at a magnitude exceeding the Johnson-Nyquist voltage fluctuation. Fluctuations in adsorbed proton density continuously repolarize the surface potential bias between edge-sharing crystal faces, at a rate slower than the reported electron-polaron hopping rate in goethite interiors. This suggests that these spontaneous surface potential fluctuations will control the net movement of charge carriers in the lattice. PMID:26574382
Coupling dynamic blow down and pool evaporation model for LNG.
Woodward, John L
2007-02-20
Treating the dynamic effects of accidental discharges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is important for realistic predictions of pool radius. Two phenomena have important influence on pool spread dynamics, time-varying discharge (blow down) and pool ignition. Time-varying discharge occurs because a punctured LNG tanker or storage tank drains with a decreasing liquid head and decreasing head-space pressure. Pool ignition increases the evaporation rate of a pool and consequently decreases the ultimate pool area. This paper describes an approach to treat these phenomena in a dynamic pool evaporation model. The pool evaporation model developed here has two separate regimes. Early in the spill, momentum forces dominate and the pool spreads independently of pool evaporation rate and the corresponding heat transfer rate. After the average pool depth drops below a minimum value, momentum forces are largely dissipated and the thin edges of the pool completely evaporate, so pool area is established by the heat transfer rate. The maximum extent of a burning pool is predicted to be significantly less than that of an unignited pool because the duration of the first regime is reduced by higher heat transfer rates. The maximum extent of an LNG pool is predicted to be larger upon accounting for blow down compared with using a constant average discharge rate. However, the maximum pool extent occurs only momentarily before retreating. PMID:17184912
Collective Dynamics of Elastically Coupled Myosin V Motors*
Lu, Hailong; Efremov, Artem K.; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Krementsova, Elena B.; Driver, Jonathan W.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Diehl, Michael R.
2012-01-01
Characterization of the collective behaviors of different classes of processive motor proteins has become increasingly important to understand various intracellular trafficking and transport processes. This work examines the dynamics of structurally-defined motor complexes containing two myosin Va (myoVa) motors that are linked together via a molecular scaffold formed from a single duplex of DNA. Dynamic changes in the filament-bound configuration of these complexes due to motor binding, stepping, and detachment were monitored by tracking the positions of different color quantum dots that report the position of one head of each myoVa motor on actin. As in studies of multiple kinesins, the run lengths produced by two myosins are only slightly larger than those of single motor molecules. This suggests that internal strain within the complexes, due to asynchronous motor stepping and the resultant stretching of motor linkages, yields net negative cooperative behaviors. In contrast to multiple kinesins, multiple myosin complexes move with appreciably lower velocities than a single-myosin molecule. Although similar trends are predicted by a discrete state stochastic model of collective motor dynamics, these analyses also suggest that multiple myosin velocities and run lengths depend on both the compliance and the effective size of their cargo. Moreover, it is proposed that this unique collective behavior occurs because the large step size and relatively small stalling force of myoVa leads to a high sensitivity of motor stepping rates to strain. PMID:22718762
Doshi, Urmi; Holliday, Michael J.; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Hamelberg, Donald
2016-01-01
Detailed understanding of how conformational dynamics orchestrates function in allosteric regulation of recognition and catalysis remains ambiguous. Here, we simulate CypA using multiple-microsecond-long atomistic molecular dynamics in explicit solvent and carry out NMR experiments. We analyze a large amount of time-dependent multidimensional data with a coarse-grained approach and map key dynamical features within individual macrostates by defining dynamics in terms of residue–residue contacts. The effects of substrate binding are observed to be largely sensed at a location over 15 Å from the active site, implying its importance in allostery. Using NMR experiments, we confirm that a dynamic cluster of residues in this distal region is directly coupled to the active site. Furthermore, the dynamical network of interresidue contacts is found to be coupled and temporally dispersed, ranging over 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Finally, using network centrality measures we demonstrate the changes in the communication network, connectivity, and influence of CypA residues upon substrate binding, mutation, and during catalysis. We identify key residues that potentially act as a bottleneck in the communication flow through the distinct regions in CypA and, therefore, as targets for future mutational studies. Mapping these dynamical features and the coupling of dynamics to function has crucial ramifications in understanding allosteric regulation in enzymes and proteins, in general. PMID:27071107
Dynamics of coupled maps with a conservation law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoriev, R. O.; Cross, M. C.
1997-06-01
A particularly simple model belonging to a wide class of coupled maps which obey a local conservation law is studied. The phase structure of the system and the types of the phase transitions are determined. It is argued that the structure of the phase diagram is robust with respect to mild violations of the conservation law. Critical exponents possibly determining a new universality class are calculated for a set of independent order parameters. Numerical evidence is produced suggesting that the singularity in the density of Lyapunov exponents at λ=0 is a reflection of the singularity in the density of Fourier modes (a "Van Hove" singularity) and disappears if the conservation law is broken. Applicability of the Lyapunov dimension to the description of spatiotemporal chaos in a system with a conservation law is discussed.
Dynamics of coupled maps with a conservation law.
Grigoriev, R. O.; Cross, M. C.
1997-06-01
A particularly simple model belonging to a wide class of coupled maps which obey a local conservation law is studied. The phase structure of the system and the types of the phase transitions are determined. It is argued that the structure of the phase diagram is robust with respect to mild violations of the conservation law. Critical exponents possibly determining a new universality class are calculated for a set of independent order parameters. Numerical evidence is produced suggesting that the singularity in the density of Lyapunov exponents at lambda=0 is a reflection of the singularity in the density of Fourier modes (a "Van Hove" singularity) and disappears if the conservation law is broken. Applicability of the Lyapunov dimension to the description of spatiotemporal chaos in a system with a conservation law is discussed. (c) 1997 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779659
Coupling surface and mantle dynamics: A novel experimental approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiraly, Agnes; Faccenna, Claudio; Funiciello, Francesca; Sembroni, Andrea
2015-05-01
Recent modeling shows that surface processes, such as erosion and deposition, may drive the deformation of the Earth's surface, interfering with deeper crustal and mantle signals. To investigate the coupling between the surface and deep process, we designed a three-dimensional laboratory apparatus, to analyze the role of erosion and sedimentation, triggered by deep mantle instability. The setup is constituted and scaled down to natural gravity field using a thin viscous sheet model, with mantle and lithosphere simulated by Newtonian viscous glucose syrup and silicon putty, respectively. The surface process is simulated assuming a simple erosion law producing the downhill flow of a thin viscous material away from high topography. The deep mantle upwelling is triggered by the rise of a buoyant sphere. The results of these models along with the parametric analysis show how surface processes influence uplift velocity and topography signals.
The kinesin walk: a dynamic model with elastically coupled heads.
Derényi, I; Vicsek, T
1996-01-01
Recently individual two-headed kinesin molecules have been studied in in vitro motility assays revealing a number of their peculiar transport properties. In this paper we propose a simple and robust model for the kinesin stepping process with elastically coupled Brownian heads that show all of these properties. The analytic and numerical treatment of our model results in a very good fit to the experimental data and practically has no free parameters. Changing the values of the parameters in the restricted range allowed by the related experimental estimates has almost no effect on the shape of the curves and results mainly in a variation of the zero load velocity that can be directly fitted to the measured data. In addition, the model is consistent with the measured pathway of the kinesin ATPase. PMID:8692894
Energetic Consistency and Coupling of the Mean and Covariance Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohn, Stephen E.
2008-01-01
The dynamical state of the ocean and atmosphere is taken to be a large dimensional random vector in a range of large-scale computational applications, including data assimilation, ensemble prediction, sensitivity analysis, and predictability studies. In each of these applications, numerical evolution of the covariance matrix of the random state plays a central role, because this matrix is used to quantify uncertainty in the state of the dynamical system. Since atmospheric and ocean dynamics are nonlinear, there is no closed evolution equation for the covariance matrix, nor for the mean state. Therefore approximate evolution equations must be used. This article studies theoretical properties of the evolution equations for the mean state and covariance matrix that arise in the second-moment closure approximation (third- and higher-order moment discard). This approximation was introduced by EPSTEIN [1969] in an early effort to introduce a stochastic element into deterministic weather forecasting, and was studied further by FLEMING [1971a,b], EPSTEIN and PITCHER [1972], and PITCHER [1977], also in the context of atmospheric predictability. It has since fallen into disuse, with a simpler one being used in current large-scale applications. The theoretical results of this article make a case that this approximation should be reconsidered for use in large-scale applications, however, because the second moment closure equations possess a property of energetic consistency that the approximate equations now in common use do not possess. A number of properties of solutions of the second-moment closure equations that result from this energetic consistency will be established.
Coupling dynamics and chemistry in the air pollution modelling of street canyons: A review.
Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James
2016-07-01
Air pollutants emitted from vehicles in street canyons may be reactive, undergoing mixing and chemical processing before escaping into the overlying atmosphere. The deterioration of air quality in street canyons occurs due to combined effects of proximate emission sources, dynamical processes (reduced dispersion) and chemical processes (evolution of reactive primary and formation of secondary pollutants). The coupling between dynamics and chemistry plays a major role in determining street canyon air quality, and numerical model approaches to represent this coupling are reviewed in this article. Dynamical processes can be represented by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The choice of CFD approach (mainly the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) models) depends on the computational cost, the accuracy required and hence the application. Simplified parameterisations of the overall integrated effect of dynamics in street canyons provide capability to handle relatively complex chemistry in practical applications. Chemical processes are represented by a chemical mechanism, which describes mathematically the chemical removal and formation of primary and secondary species. Coupling between these aspects needs to accommodate transport, dispersion and chemical reactions for reactive pollutants, especially fast chemical reactions with time scales comparable to or shorter than those of typical turbulent eddies inside the street canyon. Different approaches to dynamical and chemical coupling have varying strengths, costs and levels of accuracy, which must be considered in their use for provision of reference information concerning urban canopy air pollution to stakeholders considering traffic and urban planning policies. PMID:27149146
Meister, M; Caplan, S R; Berg, H C
1989-05-01
The bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular engine that couples the flow of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane to rotation of the flagellar filament. We analyze the steady-state behavior of an explicit mechanical model in which a fixed number of protons carries the filament through one revolution. Predictions of this model are compared with experimentally determined relationships between protonmotive force, proton flux, torque, and speed. All such tightly coupled mechanisms produce the same torque when the motor is stalled but vary greatly in their behavior at high speed. The speed at zero load predicted by our model is limited by the rates of association and dissociation of protons at binding sites on the rotor and by the mobility of force generators containing transmembrane channels that interact with these sites. Our analysis suggests that more could be learned about the motor if it were driven by an externally applied torque backwards (at negative speed) or forwards at speeds greater than the zero-load speed. PMID:2720081
Dynamic coupling of bulk chemistry, trace elements and mantle flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, J. H.; Heck, H. V.; Nowacki, A.; Wookey, J. M.; Elliott, T.; Porcelli, D.
2015-12-01
Fully dynamical models that not only track the evolution of chemical heterogeneities through the mantle, but also incorporate the effect of chemical heterogeneities on the dynamics of mantle convection are now emerging. Since in general analytical solutions to these complex problems are lacking, careful testing and investigations of the effect and usefulness of these models is needed. We extend our existing numerical mantle convection code that can track fluid flow in 3D spherical geometry and tracks both bulk chemical components (basal fraction) and different trace elements. The chemical components fractionate upon melting when and where the solidus is crossed. Now, the chemical information will effect the flow of the fluid in the following ways: The bulk composition will link to density and the (radioactive) trace element abundance to heat production. Results will be reported of the effect of different density structures; either starting with a primordial dense layer at the base of the mantle, having all density variation originate from melting (basalt production), or a combination between these two end-member scenarios. In particular we will focus on the connection between large scale bulk chemical structures in the (deep) mantle and the evolution of the distribution of noble gasses (He and Ar). The distribution of noble gasses depend upon 1) assumptions on the initial distributions in the mantle, 2) the mantle flow, 3) radioactive production and, 4) outgassing to the atmosphere upon melting close to the surface.
Hawke, B.C.
1963-02-26
This patent relates to a releasable coupling connecting a control rod to a control rod drive. This remotely operable coupling mechanism can connect two elements which are laterally and angviarly misaligned, and provides a means for sensing the locked condition of the elements. The coupling utilizes a spherical bayonet joint which is locked against rotation by a ball detent lock. (AEC)
Asboth, J. K.; Domokos, P.
2007-11-15
In two recent articles [D. Meiser and P. Meystre, Phys. Rev. A 73, 033417 (2006); 74, 065801 (2006)], Meiser and Meystre describe the coupled dynamics of a dense gas of atoms and an optical cavity pumped by a laser field. They make two important simplifying assumptions: (i) The gas of atoms forms a regular lattice and can be replaced by a fictitious mirror and (ii) the atoms strive to minimize the dipole potential. We show that the two assumptions are inconsistent: The configuration of atoms minimizing the dipole potential is not a perfect lattice. Assumption (ii) is erroneous, as in the strong coupling regime the dipole force does not arise from the dipole potential. The real steady state, where the dipole forces vanish, is indeed a regular lattice. Furthermore, the bistability predicted by Meiser and Meystre does not occur in this system.
Coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control for displaced solar orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Shengping; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng
2009-09-01
The paper discusses the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics of a solar sail. The equilibrium point of the coupled dynamical equations is obtained by designing the inertia of the sail. The stability of the equilibrium is analyzed through a linearization. It is found that the stability of the coupled equilibrium is determined by the stability of the attitude and orbital equilibrium point, respectively. For the sail discussed in this paper, the stability of the orbital equilibrium determines the stability of coupled system since the attitude is always marginally stable. Several numerical examples are employed to validate the conclusions. For unstable displaced orbits, active control is employed to stabilize the attitude and orbit. The results show that a small control torque can stabilize both the attitude and orbit.
Wind tunnel determination of dynamic cross-coupling derivatives - A new approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanff, E. S.; Orlik-Rueckemann, J.
1980-01-01
The latest developments in the NAE ongoing dynamic stability research program are briefly summarized. Emphasis is placed on the recently developed wind-tunnel data reduction procedures used to obtain cross and cross-coupling derivatives due to an oscillatory motion. These procedures, which account for the dynamic behaviour of the model-balance subsystem, are described for the balance configurations currently in use. The principles on which they are based, however, are quite general and can therefore be applied to other balance configurations. Two full-model dynamic stability apparatuses are described and typical results, obtained from dynamic calibrations as well as from wind-tunnel experiments, are presented.
Rieffel, John A.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Lipson, Hod
2010-01-01
Traditional engineering approaches strive to avoid, or actively suppress, nonlinear dynamic coupling among components. Biological systems, in contrast, are often rife with these dynamics. Could there be, in some cases, a benefit to high degrees of dynamical coupling? Here we present a distributed robotic control scheme inspired by the biological phenomenon of tensegrity-based mechanotransduction. This emergence of morphology-as-information-conduit or ‘morphological communication’, enabled by time-sensitive spiking neural networks, presents a new paradigm for the decentralized control of large, coupled, modular systems. These results significantly bolster, both in magnitude and in form, the idea of morphological computation in robotic control. Furthermore, they lend further credence to ideas of embodied anatomical computation in biological systems, on scales ranging from cellular structures up to the tendinous networks of the human hand. PMID:19776146
Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Sun, Rui; De Jong, Wibe A.; Windus, Theresa L.; Hase, William L.
2014-03-01
The interface for VENUS and NWChem, and the resulting software package for direct dynamics simulations are described. The coupling of the two codes is considered to be a tight coupling. The two codes are compiled and linked together and act as one executable with data being passed between the two codes through routine calls. The advantages of this type of coupling are discussed. The interface has been designed to have as little interference as possible with the core codes of both VENUS and NWChem. VENUS is the code that propagates the direct dynamics trajectories and, therefore, is the program that drives the overall execution of VENUS/NWChem. VENUS has remained an essentially sequential code, which uses the highly parallel structure of NWChem. Subroutines of the interface which accomplish the data transmission and communication between the two computer programs are described. Recent examples of the use of VENUS/NWChem for direct dynamics simulations are summarized.
Coupling Dynamical Quantum Diffeomorphisms to Matter Degrees of Freedom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldaya, V.; Jaramillo, J. L.
2002-12-01
We introduce matter degrees of freedom into a recently proposed 2D quantum gravity model based on the Virasoro group. Quantum diffeomorphisms have dynamical content in this model, thus spoiling their classical gauge nature. The algebra of observables is enlarged now with the inclusion of an ensemble of new operators closing the affine Kac-Moody algebra of the (non-compact) semi-simple group SL(2, R), and constituting the modes of a set of scalar fields. The gravity effect on those new fields is accomplished by the natural semi-direct action of the Virasoro group on the new subalgebra. While the model is rather entangled at the severe quantum regime, at the semi-classical level we recover the action of the scalar fields modified with an added gravitational interaction term...
Northern Forest Ecosystem Dynamics Using Coupled Models and Remote Sensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ranson, K. J.; Sun, G.; Knox, R. G.; Levine, E. R.; Weishampel, J. F.; Fifer, S. T.
1999-01-01
Forest ecosystem dynamics modeling, remote sensing data analysis, and a geographical information system (GIS) were used together to determine the possible growth and development of a northern forest in Maine, USA. Field measurements and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were used to produce maps of forest cover type and above ground biomass. These forest attribute maps, along with a conventional soils map, were used to identify the initial conditions for forest ecosystem model simulations. Using this information along with ecosystem model results enabled the development of predictive maps of forest development. The results obtained were consistent with observed forest conditions and expected successional trajectories. The study demonstrated that ecosystem models might be used in a spatial context when parameterized and used with georeferenced data sets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omrani, Nour-Eddine
2016-04-01
There is increasing evidence that the response to future anthropogenic climate changes in Northern hemisphere is characterized by weakening of high-latitude westerlies in the coupled stratosphere/troposphere-system and strengthening of mid-latitude tropospheric eddy-driven jet with strong impact on large-scale precipitation. Here we show using different model experiments and wave geometry diagnostics that the overall dynamics of this response can be understood in the framework of two competing atmospheric bridges. One bridge is located in the stratosphere and connect the tropical Sea Surface Temperature (SST) with the coupled high-latitude stratosphere/troposphere system through changes in the upper flank of subtropical jet and downward stratosphere/troposphere dynamical coupling. This bridge is responsible for the weakening of the westerlies in high latitude stratosphere/troposphere system. The second bridge is in the troposphere and connects the tropical ocean warming with the extra-tropics trough changes in the static stability. This bridge is responsible for the wave-induced strengthening of the tropospheric eddy-driven jet. It is shown that the large-scale precipitation response in mid-to-high latitudes results mainly from the dynamical adjustment to wave-driven changes in the tropospheric meridional overturning circulation. The competing interaction between the stratospheric and tropospheric pathway constitutes another aspect of stratosphere/troposphere dynamical coupling. Her we will show how that such coupling can help understanding model discrepancies in the Northern Hemisphere future climate change.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, P.; Grillot, F.
2013-07-01
We numerically investigate the complex nonlinear dynamics for two independently coupled laser systems consisting of (i) mutually delay-coupled edge emitting diode lasers and (ii) injection-locked quantum nanostructures lasers. A comparative study in dependence on the dynamical role of α parameter, which determine the phase-amplitude coupling of the optical field, in both the cases is probed. The variation of α lead to conspicuous changes in the dynamics of both the systems, which are characterized and investigated as a function of optical injection strength η for the fixed coupled-cavity delay time τ. Our analysis is based on the observation that the cross-correlation and bifurcation measures unveil the signature of enhancement of amplitude-death islands in which the coupled lasers mutually stay in stable phase-locked states. In addition, we provide a qualitative understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the observed dynamical behavior and its dependence on α. The amplitude death and the existence of multiple amplitude death islands could be implemented for applications including diode lasers stabilization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vannitsem, Stéphane; Lucarini, Valerio
2016-04-01
We study the dynamics of the error in a simplified coupled atmosphere-ocean model using the formalism of covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs), which link physically-based directions of perturbations to growth/decay rates. The model is obtained via a severe truncation of quasi-geostrophic equations for the two fluids, and includes a simple yet physically meaningful representation of their dynamical/thermodynamical coupling. The model has 36 degrees of freedom, and the parameters are chosen so that a chaotic behaviour is observed. Furthermore, for some specific coupling strength a Low-Frequency Variability is developing reminiscent of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Different behaviors of the error were found depending on the specific norm chosen to measure the amplitude of the error. For the L2 norm, a super-exponential behavior is found, inducing a mean error amplification in the stable subspace described by the CLVs dominating the error dynamics within the ocean. This behavior disappears when the logarithmic norm is used, except for a few CLVs in the highly degenerate subspace defined by CLVs 6-10 for which complicate mixing and amplifications arise. Furthermore the long term dynamics of the error considerably changes when the LFV is developing in the system. When the LFV is not developing, the error saturation arises on different time scales associated to the variables under considerations, while once the LFV is present, the error along all variables of the model - and in particular of the atmosphere - is saturating on the longer time scales associated with the dynamics of the ocean. The implications of this error dynamics on the predictability of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system at short, medium and long term are discussed.
Modeling dynamically coupled fluid-duct systems with finite line elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saxon, J. B.
1994-01-01
Structural analysis of piping systems, especially dynamic analysis, typically considers the duct structure and the contained fluid column separately. Coupling of these two systems, however, forms a new dynamic system with characteristics not necessarily described by the superposition of the two component system's characteristics. Methods for modeling the two coupled components simultaneously using finite line elements are presented. Techniques for general duct intersections, area or direction changes, long radius bends, hydraulic losses, and hydraulic impedances are discussed. An example problem and results involving time transients are presented. Additionally, a program to enhance post-processing of line element models is discussed.
On the coupling of fluid dynamics and electromagnetism at the top of the earth's core
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benton, E. R.
1985-01-01
A kinematic approach to short-term geomagnetism has recently been based upon pre-Maxwell frozen-flux electromagnetism. A complete dynamic theory requires coupling fluid dynamics to electromagnetism. A geophysically plausible simplifying assumption for the vertical vorticity balance, namely that the vertical Lorentz torque is negligible, is introduced and its consequences are developed. The simplified coupled magnetohydrodynamic system is shown to conserve a variety of magnetic and vorticity flux integrals. These provide constraints on eligible models for the geomagnetic main field, its secular variation, and the horizontal fluid motions at the top of the core, and so permit a number of tests of the underlying assumptions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolfe, Michael; Kestner, Jason
Electrons confined in lateral quantum dots are promising candidates for scalable quantum bits. Particularly, singlet-triplet qubits can entangle electrostatically and offer long coherence times due to their weak interactions with the environment. However, fast two-qubit operations are challenging. We examine the dynamics of singlet triplet qubits capacitively coupled to a classical transmission line resonator driven near resonance. We numerically simulate the dynamics of the von Neumann entanglement entropy and investigate parameters of the coupling element that optimizes the operation time for the qubit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, Gaurav; Izadi, Maziar; Sanyal, Amit; Scheeres, Daniel
2016-04-01
The effects of dynamical coupling between the rotational (attitude) and translational (orbital) motion of spacecraft near small Solar System bodies is investigated. This coupling arises due to the weak gravity of these bodies, as well as solar radiation pressure. The traditional approach assumes a point-mass spacecraft model to describe the translational motion of the spacecraft, while the attitude motion is considered to be completely decoupled from the translational motion. The model used here to describe the rigid-body spacecraft dynamics includes the non-uniform rotating gravity field of the small body up to second degree and order along with the attitude dependent terms, solar tide, and solar radiation pressure. This model shows that the second degree and order gravity terms due to the small body affect the dynamics of the spacecraft to the same extent as the orbit-attitude coupling due to the primary gravity (zeroth order) term. Variational integrators are used to simulate the dynamics of both the rigid spacecraft and the point mass. The small bodies considered here are modeled after Near-Earth Objects (NEO) 101955 Bennu, and 25143 Itokawa, and are assumed to be triaxial ellipsoids with uniform density. Differences in the numerically obtained trajectories of a rigid spacecraft and a point mass are then compared, to illustrate the impact of the orbit-attitude coupling on spacecraft dynamics in proximity of small bodies. Possible implications on the performance of model-based spacecraft control and on the station-keeping budget, if the orbit-attitude coupling is not accounted for in the model of the dynamics, are also discussed. An almost globally asymptotically stable motion estimation scheme based solely on visual/optical feedback that estimates the relative motion of the asteroid with respect to the spacecraft is also obtained. This estimation scheme does not require a model of the dynamics of the asteroid, which makes it perfectly suited for asteroids whose
Coupled Dynamic Modeling to Assess Human Impact on Watershed Hydrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammed, I. N.; Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Bomblies, A.; Zia, A.
2014-12-01
Humans are intrinsic to the hydrologic system, both as agents of change and as beneficiaries of ecosystem services. This connection has been underappreciated in hydrology. We present a modeling linkage framework of an agent-based land use change model with a physical-based watershed model. The coupled model framework presented constitutes part of an integrated assessment model that is being developed to study human-ecosystem interaction in Missisquoi Bay, spanning Vermont and Québec, which is experiencing high concentrations of nutrients from the Missisquoi River watershed. The integrated assessment approach proposed is comprised of linking two simulation models: the Interactive Land-Use Transition Agent-Based Model (ILUTABM) and a physically based process model, the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). The ILUTABM treats both landscape and landowners as agents and simulates annual land-use patterns resulting from landowners annual land-use decisions and Best Management Practices (BMPs) adaptations to landowners utilities, land productivity and perceived impacts of floods. The Missisquoi River at Swanton watershed RHESSys model (drainage area of 2,200 km2) driven by climate data was first calibrated to daily streamflows and water quality sensor data at the watershed outlet. Simulated land-use patterns were then processed to drive the calibrated RHESSys model to obtain streamflow nutrient loading realizations. Nutrients loading realizations are then examined and routed back to the ILUTAB model to obtain public polices needed to manage the Missisquoi watershed as well as the Lake Champlain in general. We infer that the applicability of this approach can be generalized to other similar watersheds. Index Terms: 0402: Agricultural systems; 1800: Hydrology; 1803: Anthropogenic effects; 1834 Human impacts; 6344: System operation and management; 6334: Regional Planning
Nonlinear dynamics of magnetically coupled beams for multi-modal vibration energy harvesting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abed, I.; Kacem, N.; Bouhaddi, N.; Bouazizi, M. L.
2016-04-01
We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of magnetically coupled beams for multi-modal vibration energy harvesting. A multi-physics model for the proposed device is developed taking into account geometric and magnetic nonlinearities. The coupled nonlinear equations of motion are solved using the Galerkin discretization coupled with the harmonic balance method and the asymptotic numerical method. Several numerical simulations have been performed showing that the expected performances of the proposed vibration energy harvester are significantly promising with up to 130 % in term of bandwidth and up to 60 μWcm-3g-2 in term of normalized harvested power.
The coupled dynamics of fluids and spacecraft in low gravity and low gravity fluid measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hansman, R. John; Peterson, Lee D.; Crawley, Edward F.
1987-01-01
The very large mass fraction of liquids stored on broad current and future generation spacecraft has made critical the technologies of describing the fluid-spacecraft dynamics and measuring or gauging the fluid. Combined efforts in these areas are described, and preliminary results are presented. The coupled dynamics of fluids and spacecraft in low gravity study is characterizing the parametric behavior of fluid-spacecraft systems in which interaction between the fluid and spacecraft dynamics is encountered. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of nonlinear fluid free surface phenomena to the coupled dynamics. An experimental apparatus has been developed for demonstrating a coupled fluid-spacecraft system. In these experiments, slosh force signals are fed back to a model tank actuator through a tunable analog second order integration circuit. In this manner, the tank motion is coupled to the resulting slosh force. Results are being obtained in 1-g and in low-g (on the NASA KC-135) using dynamic systems nondimensionally identical except for the Bond numbers.
Reed, Rebecca G; Barnard, Kobus; Butler, Emily A
2015-02-01
Well-regulated emotions, both within people and between relationship partners, play a key role in facilitating health and well-being. The present study examined 39 heterosexual couples' joint weight status (both partners are healthy-weight, both overweight, 1 healthy-weight, and 1 overweight) as a predictor of 2 interpersonal emotional patterns during a discussion of their shared lifestyle choices. The first pattern, coregulation, is one in which partners' coupled emotions show a dampening pattern over time and ultimately return to homeostatic levels. The second, codysregulation, is one in which partners' coupled emotions are amplified away from homeostatic balance. We demonstrate how a coupled linear oscillator (CLO) model (Butner, Amazeen, & Mulvey, 2005) can be used to distinguish coregulation from codysregulation. As predicted, healthy-weight couples and mixed-weight couples in which the man was heavier than the woman displayed coregulation, but overweight couples and mixed-weight couples in which the woman was heavier showed codysregulation. These results suggest that heterosexual couples in which the woman is overweight may face formidable coregulatory challenges that could undermine both partners' well-being. The results also demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between various interpersonal emotional dynamics for understanding connections between interpersonal emotions and health. PMID:25664951
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yonghong; Rangarajan, Govindan; Ding, Mingzhou
2006-12-01
In arbitrarily coupled dynamical systems (maps or ordinary differential equations), the stability of synchronized states (including equilibrium point, periodic orbit or chaotic attractor) and the formation of patterns from loss of stability of the synchronized states are two problems of current research interest. These two problems are often treated separately in the literature. Here, we present a unified framework in which we show that the eigenvalues of the coupling matrix determine the stability of the synchronized state, while the eigenvectors correspond to patterns emerging from desynchronization. Based on this simple framework three results are derived: First, general approaches are developed that yield constraints directly on the coupling strengths which ensure the stability of synchronized dynamics. Second, when the synchronized state becomes unstable spatial patterns can be selectively realized by varying the coupling strengths. Distinct temporal evolution of the spatial pattern can be obtained depending on the bifurcating synchronized state. Third, given a desired spatiotemporal pattern, one is able to design coupling schemes which give rise to that pattern as the coupled system evolves. Systems with specific coupling schemes are used as examples to illustrate the general methods.
Lattice Dynamics of EuO: Evidence for Giant Spin-Phonon Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradip, R.; Piekarz, P.; Bosak, A.; Merkel, D. G.; Waller, O.; Seiler, A.; Chumakov, A. I.; Rüffer, R.; Oleś, A. M.; Parlinski, K.; Krisch, M.; Baumbach, T.; Stankov, S.
2016-05-01
Comprehensive studies of lattice dynamics in the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO have been performed by a combination of inelastic x-ray scattering, nuclear inelastic scattering, and ab initio calculations. A remarkably large broadening of the transverse acoustic phonons was discovered at temperatures above and below the Curie temperature TC=69 K . This result indicates a surprisingly strong momentum-dependent spin-phonon coupling induced by the spin dynamics in EuO.
Coupling Ecology and River Dynamics using a Simplified Interaction Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longjas, A.; Czuba, J. A.; Schwenk, J.; Danesh Yazdi, M.; Hansen, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.
2013-12-01
Quantifying how changes in streamflow and sediment affect riverine life is an important component of river basin management and stream restoration efforts, especially under human and climate-induced changes affecting many basins around the world. In the Midwestern US, drastic changes in mussel populations have been witnessed over the past decade begging quantitative understanding of cause and effect and attribution of these changes to the concurrent changes in streamflow and sediment loads to the rivers. Previous empirical analyses have attempted to explore mussel abundance with habitat associations and bulk hydrologic and geomorphic attributes as predictors but results showed relatively weak relationships and low predictive power. In this work, we developed a process-based model that incorporates water-sediment-mussel interactions using functional relationships and predicts the long-term trends of suspended-sediment, chlorophyll-a and mussel population using a daily streamflow record. We applied the model to the Minnesota River Basin, which has experienced significant changes in precipitation and runoff, increased sediment delivery, and decreasing mussel populations. Our model captures the general dynamics of the system and provides a better predictor of mussel populations than predictions based on geomorphic (e.g. upstream drainage area, slope) and hydraulic variables (e.g. 2-year recurrence interval peak streamflow, depth, width, cross sectional area, velocity, and Froude number) alone. To highlight the utility of our model, we tested possible scenarios that illustrate (1) how climate and land-use change may undermine the resilience of mussel populations and (2) how management efforts can allow mussel populations to recover.
Conduction block and chaotic dynamics in an asymmetrical model of coupled cardiac cells.
Landau, M; Lorente, P
1997-05-01
The initiation and propagation of the cardiac impulse depends on intrinsic properties of cells, geometrical arrangements, and intercellular coupling resistances. To address the issue of the interplay between these factors in a simple way, we have used a system, based on the van Capelle and Dürrer model, including a pacemaker and a non-pacemaker cell linked by an ohmic coupling resistance. The influence of asymmetrical cell sizes and electronic load was investigated by using numerical simulations and continuation-bifurcation techniques. The loading of a small pacemaker cell by a large non-pacemaker one (pacemaker: non-pacemaker size ratio = 0.3) was expressed as a pronounced early repolarization in the pacemaker cell and a quite long latency for the impulse propagation. Using coupling resistance as the continuation parameter, three behavioral zones were detected from low to high coupling resistance values: a zone of total quiescence (0:0), a zone of effective entertainment (1:1), and a zone of total block (1:0 pattern). At the boundary between 1:1 and 1:0 patterns, for relatively high coupling resistance values, a cascade of period doubling bifurcations emerged, corresponding to discrete changes of propagation patterns leading into irregular dynamics. Another route to irregular dynamics was also observed in the parameter space. The high sensitivity of the detected irregular dynamics to initial conditions and the positive value of the maximum Lyapunov exponent allowed us to identify these dynamics as being chaotic. Since neither intermediate block patterns nor irregular dynamics were observed with larger size ratios, we suggest that the interplay between resting membrane conductance of the non-pacemaker cell and intercellular coupling may bring about these rhythmic disturbances. PMID:9176640
Proctor, Elizabeth A.; Kota, Pradeep; Aleksandrov, Andrei A.; He, Lihua; Riordan, John R.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.
2014-01-01
Many cellular functions necessary for life are tightly regulated by protein allosteric conformational change, and correlated dynamics between protein regions has been found to contribute to the function of proteins not previously considered allosteric. The ability to map and control such dynamic coupling would thus create opportunities for the extension of current therapeutic design strategy. Here, we present an approach to determine the networks of residues involved in the transfer of correlated motion across a protein, and apply our approach to rescue disease-causative mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) ion channels, ΔF508 and ΔI507, which together constitute over 90% of cystic fibrosis cases. We show that these mutations perturb dynamic coupling within the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), and uncover a critical residue that mediates trans-domain coupled dynamics. By rationally designing a mutation to this residue, we improve aberrant dynamics of mutant CFTR as well as enhance surface expression and function of both mutants, demonstrating the rescue of a disease mutation by rational correction of aberrant protein dynamics. PMID:25685315
Cosmological dynamics with non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrycyna, Orest; Szydłowski, Marek
2015-11-01
Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate global behaviour of the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model in gravitational theory with a non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function. We show that the system can be reduced to an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system and additionally is equipped with an invariant manifold corresponding to an accelerated expansion of the universe. Using this invariant manifold we find an exact solution of the reduced dynamics. We investigate all solutions for all admissible initial conditions using theory of dynamical systems to obtain a classification of all evolutional paths. The right-hand sides of the dynamical system depend crucially on the value of the non-minimal coupling constant therefore we study bifurcation values of this parameter under which the structure of the phase space changes qualitatively. We found a special bifurcation value of the non-minimal coupling constant which is distinguished by dynamics of the model and may suggest some additional symmetry in matter sector of the theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Qing; Li, Dongxu; Jiang, Jianping
2014-01-01
Control moment gyros (CMGs) are widely used as actuators for attitude control in spacecraft. However, micro-vibrations produced by CMGs will degrade the pointing performance of high-sensitivity instruments on-board the spacecraft. This paper addresses dynamic modelling and performs an analysis on the micro-vibration isolation for a single gimbal CMG (SGCMG) cluster. First, an analytical model was developed to describe both the coupled SGCMG cluster and the multi-axis isolation system that can express the dynamic outputs. This analytical model accurately reflects the mass and inertia properties, the gyroscopic effects and flexible modes of the coupled system, which can be generalized for isolation applications of SGCMG clusters. Second, the analytical model was validated using MSC.NASTRAN software based on the finite element technique. The dynamic characteristics of the coupled system are affected by the mass distribution and the gyroscopic effects of the SGCMGs. The gyroscopic effects produced by the rotary flywheel will stiffen or soften several of the structural modes of the coupled system. In addition, the gyroscopic effect of each SGCMG can interact with or counteract that of others, which induce vibration modes coupled together. Finally, the performance of the passive isolation was analysed. It was demonstrated that the gyroscopic effects should be considered in isolation studies on SGCMG clusters; otherwise, the isolation performance will be underestimated if they are ignored.
Dynamics of Time Delay-Induced Multiple Synchronous Behaviors in Inhibitory Coupled Neurons
Gu, Huaguang; Zhao, Zhiguo
2015-01-01
The inhibitory synapse can induce synchronous behaviors different from the anti-phase synchronous behaviors, which have been reported in recent studies. In the present paper, synchronous behaviors are investigated in the motif model composed of reciprocal inhibitory coupled neurons with endogenous bursting and time delay. When coupling strength is weak, synchronous behavior appears at a single interval of time delay within a bursting period. When coupling strength is strong, multiple synchronous behaviors appear at different intervals of time delay within a bursting period. The different bursting patterns of synchronous behaviors, and time delays and coupling strengths that can induce the synchronous bursting patterns can be well interpreted by the dynamics of the endogenous bursting pattern of isolated neuron, which is acquired by the fast-slow dissection method, combined with the inhibitory coupling current. For an isolated neuron, when a negative impulsive current with suitable strength is applied at different phases of the bursting, multiple different bursting patterns can be induced. For a neuron in the motif, the inhibitory coupling current, of which the application time and strength is modulated by time delay and coupling strength, can cause single or multiple synchronous firing patterns like the negative impulsive current when time delay and coupling strength is suitable. The difference compared to the previously reported multiple synchronous behaviors that appear at time delays wider than a period of the endogenous firing is discussed. The results present novel examples of synchronous behaviors in the neuronal network with inhibitory synapses and provide a reasonable explanation. PMID:26394224
A block iterative LU solver for weakly coupled linear systems. [in fluid dynamics equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooke, C. H.
1977-01-01
A hybrid technique, called the block iterative LU solver, is proposed for solving the linear equations resulting from a finite element numerical analysis of certain fluid dynamics problems where the equations are weakly coupled between distinct sets of variables. Either the block Jacobi iterative method or the block Gauss-Seidel iterative solver is combined with LU decomposition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allison, Colleen J.; Bartholomew, Kim; Mayseless, Ofra; Dutton, Donald G.
2008-01-01
The authors explored the attachment dynamics of heterosexual couples identified for male partner violence. Based on semistructured interviews, participants were assessed for attachment orientations. Based on a thematic analysis of the interviews, two strategies for regulating distance within these relationships were identified: pursuit and…
Investigation on dynamic coupling between stay cable and magneto-rheological fluid (MR) damper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Min; Li, H.; Guan, X. Ch..; Li, J. H.; Ou, J. P.
2009-03-01
In this paper, experimental investigation on vibration control is carried out on a stay cable model incorporated with one small size magnetorheological fluid (MR) damper. The control efficiency of the MR dampers to reduce the cable vibration under sinusoidal excitation using passive control strategy is firstly tested. The dynamic coupling between the cable and MR damper with the passive control strategy is obviously observed. Dynamic coupling models between stay cable and MR damper with constant and fluctuating current input are proposed respectively. The proposed dynamic coupling model corresponding to the MR damper with constant current input is validated by the numerical simulations of the measured experimental data. Furthermore, using the proposed dynamic coupling corresponding to the MR damper with fluctuating current input, experimental investigation on the cable vibration control subjected to sinusoidal excitation using semi-active control strategy is then conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the semi-active MR damper can achieve much better mitigation efficacy than the passive MR dampers with different constant current inputs due to negative stiffness provided by the semi-active MR damper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horikawa, Yo
2013-12-01
Transient patterns in a bistable ring of bidirectionally coupled sigmoidal neurons were studied. When the system had a pair of spatially uniform steady solutions, the instability of unstable spatially nonuniform steady solutions decreased exponentially with the number of neurons because of the symmetry of the system. As a result, transient spatially nonuniform patterns showed dynamical metastability: Their duration increased exponentially with the number of neurons and the duration of randomly generated patterns obeyed a power-law distribution. However, these metastable dynamical patterns were easily stabilized in the presence of small variations in coupling strength. Metastable rotating waves and their pinning in the presence of asymmetry in the direction of coupling and the disappearance of metastable dynamical patterns due to asymmetry in the output function of a neuron were also examined. Further, in a two-dimensional array of neurons with nearest-neighbor coupling, intrinsically one-dimensional patterns were dominant in transients, and self-excitation in these neurons affected the metastable dynamical patterns.
Decoherence dynamics of two charge qubits in vertically coupled quantum dots
Ben Chouikha, W.; Bennaceur, R.; Jaziri, S.
2007-12-15
The decoherence dynamics of two charge qubits in a double quantum dot is investigated theoretically. We consider the quantum dynamics of two interacting electrons in a vertically coupled quantum dot driven by an external electric field. We derive the equations of motion for the density matrix, in which the presence of an electron confined in the double dot represents one qubit. A Markovian approach to the dynamical evolution of the reduced density matrix is adopted. We evaluate the concurrence of two qubits in order to study the effect of acoustic phonons on the entanglement. We also show that the disentanglement effect depends on the double dot parameters and increases with the temperature.
Dimensionality crossover in vortex dynamics of magnetically coupled F-S-F hybrids.
Karapetrov, G.; Belkin, A.; Iavarone, M.; Yefremenko, V.; Pearson, J. E.; Divan, R.; Cambel, V.; Novosad, V.; Slovak Academy of Sciences; Temple Univ.
2011-01-19
We report on the vortex dynamics in magnetically coupled F-S-F trilayers extracted from the analysis of the resistance-current isotherms. The superconducting thin film that is conventionally in the 2D vortex limit exhibits quite different behavior when sandwiched between ferromagnetic layers. The value of the dynamic critical exponent strongly increases in the F-S-F case due to screening of the stray vortex field by the adjacent ferromagnetic layers, leading to an effective dimensional crossover in vortex dynamics. Furthermore, the directional pinning by the magnetic stripe domains induces anisotropy in the vortex glass transition temperature and causes metastable avalanche behavior at strong driving currents.
Hiroyuki Kamano
2012-04-01
We review a global analysis of meson production reactions off the nucleons by a collaboration at Excited Baryon Analysis Center of Jefferson Lab. The analysis is pursued with a dynamical coupled-channels approach, within which the dynamics of multi-channel reaction processes are taken into account in a fully consistent way with the two-body as well as three-body unitarity of the S-matrix. With this approach, new features of nucleon excitations are revealed as resonant particles originating from the non-trivial multi-channel reaction dynamics, which cannot be addressed by static hadron models where the nucleon excitations are treated as stable particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A.; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T.
2015-12-01
We would like to begin this response by recognizing all the insightful and thought-provoking comments to our review "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks" [1]. We find that, with their diverse expertise, all the commentators enrich the discussion on this topic, and also identify important, interesting questions [2-13], indicating how much space there still is for the development of the field. To give the readers a systematic understanding, these opinions and suggestions are roughly divided into two classes: (i) whether the coupled models could be closer to realistic observations, yet simpler [2-5,7-10,13]; and (ii) whether the hypothesis of network models could mimic the empirical networks more accurately [5-8,10-13].
Dynamics in the Kuramoto model with a bi-harmonic coupling function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Di; Cui, Haitao; Tian, Junlong; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Yingxin
2016-09-01
We study a variant of the Kuramoto model with a bi-harmonic coupling function, in which oscillators with positive first harmonic coupling strength are conformists and oscillators with negative first harmonic coupling strength are contrarians. We show that the model displays different synchronous dynamics and different dynamics may be characterized by the phase distributions of oscillators. There exist stationary synchronous states, travelling wave states, π state and, most interestingly, another type of nonstationary state: an oscillating π state. The phase distribution oscillates in a confined region and the phase difference between conformists and contrarians oscillates around π with a constant amplitude and a constant period in oscillating π state. Finally, the bifurcation diagram of the model in the parameter space is presented.
The dynamics of the Schrödinger-Newton system with self-field coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franklin, J.; Guo, Y.; Cole Newton, K.; Schlosshauer, M.
2016-04-01
We probe the dynamics of a modified form of the Schrödinger-Newton (SN) system of gravity coupled to single particle quantum mechanics. At the masses of interest here, the ones associated with the onset of ‘collapse’ (where the gravitational attraction is competitive with the quantum mechanical dissipation), we show that the Schrödinger ground state energies match the Dirac ones with an error of ˜ 10%. At the Planck mass scale, we predict the critical mass at which a potential collapse could occur for the self-coupled gravitational case, m≈ 3.3 Planck mass, and show that gravitational attraction opposes Gaussian spreading at around this value, which is a factor of two higher than the one predicted (and verified) for the SN system. Unlike the SN dynamics, we do not find that the self-coupled case tends to decay towards its ground state; there is no collapse in this case.
Dynamic vibronic coupling in InGaAs quantum dots [Invited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brash, A. J.; Martins, L. M. P. P.; Barth, A. M.; Liu, F.; Quilter, J. H.; Glässl, M.; Axt, V. M.; Ramsay, A. J.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M.
2016-07-01
The electron-phonon coupling in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots is relatively weak at low light intensities, which means that the zero-phonon line in emission is strong compared to the phonon sideband. However, the coupling to acoustic phonons can be dynamically enhanced in the presence of an intense optical pulse tuned within the phonon sideband. Recent experiments have shown that this dynamic vibronic coupling can enable population inversion to be achieved when pumping with a blue-shifted laser and for rapid de-excitation of an inverted state with red detuning. In this paper we con?rm the incoherent nature of the phonon-assisted pumping process and explore the temperature dependence of the mechanism. We also show that a combination of blue- and red-shifted pulses can create and destroy an exciton within a timescale ~20 ps determined by the pulse duration and ultimately limited by the phonon thermalisation time.
Quantum dynamics of a vibronically coupled linear chain using a surrogate Hamiltonian approach.
Lee, Myeong H; Troisi, Alessandro
2016-06-01
Vibronic coupling between the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom has been reported to play an important role in charge and exciton transport in organic photovoltaic materials, molecular aggregates, and light-harvesting complexes. Explicitly accounting for effective vibrational modes rather than treating them as a thermal environment has been shown to be crucial to describe the effect of vibronic coupling. We present a methodology to study dissipative quantum dynamics of vibronically coupled systems based on a surrogate Hamiltonian approach, which is in principle not limited by Markov approximation or weak system-bath interaction, using a vibronic basis. We apply vibronic surrogate Hamiltonian method to a linear chain system and discuss how different types of relaxation process, intramolecular vibrational relaxation and intermolecular vibronic relaxation, influence population dynamics of dissipative vibronic systems. PMID:27276944
Dynamics of quantum Fisher information in a two-level system coupled to multiple bosonic reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guo-You; Guo, You-Neng; Zeng, Ke
2015-11-01
We consider the optimal parameter estimation for a two-level system coupled to multiple bosonic reservoirs. By using quantum Fisher information (QFI), we investigate the effect of the Markovian reservoirs’ number N on QFI in both weak and strong coupling regimes for a two-level system surrounded by N zero-temperature reservoirs of field modes initially in the vacua. The results show that the dynamics of QFI non-monotonically decays to zero with revival oscillations at some time in the weak coupling regime depending on the reservoirs’ parameters. Furthermore, we also present the relations between the QFI flow, the flows of energy and information, and the sign of the decay rate to gain insight into the physical processes characterizing the dynamics. Project supported by the Hunan Provincial Innovation Foundation for Postgraduate, China (Grant No. CX2014B194) and the Scientific Research Foundation of Hunan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 13C039).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Peng; Li, Michael Y.
2014-10-01
The global dynamics of coupled systems of differential equations defined on an interaction network are investigated. Local dynamics at each vertex, when interactions are absent, are assumed to be simple: solutions to each vertex system are assumed to converge to an equilibrium, either on the boundary or in the interior of the feasible region. The interest is to investigate the collective behaviours of the coupled system when interactions among vertex systems are present. It was shown in Li and Shuai (2010) that, if the interaction network is strongly connected, then solutions to the coupled system synchronize at a single equilibrium. We focus on the case when the underlying network is not strongly connected and the coupled system may have mixed equilibria whose coordinates are in the interior at some vertices while on the boundary at others. We show that solutions on a strongly connected component of the network will synchronize. Considering a condensed digraph by collapsing each strongly connected component, we are able to introduce a partial order on the set P of all equilibria, and show that all solutions of the coupled system converge to a unique equilibrium P∗ that is the maximizer in P. We further establish that behaviours of the coupled system at minimal elements of the condensed digraph determine whether the global limit P∗ is a mixed equilibrium. The theory are applied to mathematical models from epidemiology and spatial ecology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
Magnetospheric Constellation Dynamic Response and Coupling Observatory (DRACO) is the Solar Terrestrial Probe (STP) designed to understand the nonlinear dynamics, responses, and connections within the Earth's structured magnetotail, using a constellation of approximately 50 to 100 distributed vector measurement spacecraft. DRACO will reveal magnetotail processes operating within a domain extending 20 Earth radii (R(sub E)) across the tail and 40 R(sub E)down the tail, on spatial and time scales accessible to global circulation models, i.e., approximately 2 R(sub E) and 10 seconds.
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of a Network of Coupled Time-Delay Digital Tanlock Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, Bishwajit; Banerjee, Tanmoy; Sarkar, B. C.
The time-delay digital tanlock loop (TDTLs) is an important class of phase-locked loop that is widely used in electronic communication systems. Although nonlinear dynamics of an isolated TDTL has been studied in the past but the collective behavior of TDTLs in a network is an important topic of research and deserves special attention as in practical communication systems separate entities are rarely isolated. In this paper, we carry out the detailed analysis and numerical simulations to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of a network of a one-dimensional ring of coupled TDTLs with nearest neighbor coupling. The equation representing the network is derived and we carry out analytical calculations using the circulant matrix formalism to obtain the stability criteria. An extensive numerical simulation reveals that with the variation of gain parameter and coupling strength the network shows a variety of spatiotemporal dynamics such as frozen random pattern, pattern selection, spatiotemporal intermittency and fully developed spatiotemporal chaos. We map the distinct dynamical regions of the system in two-parameter space. Finally, we quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics by using quantitative measures like Lyapunov exponent and the average quadratic deviation of the full network.
Deterministic escape dynamics of two-dimensional coupled nonlinear oscillator chains.
Fugmann, S; Hennig, D; Schimansky-Geier, L; Hänggi, P
2008-06-01
We consider the deterministic escape dynamics of a chain of coupled oscillators under microcanonical conditions from a metastable state over a cubic potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and noise free. We introduce a two-dimensional chain model and assume that neighboring units are coupled by Morse springs. It is found that, starting from a homogeneous lattice state, due to the nonlinearity of the external potential the system self-promotes an instability of its initial preparation and initiates complex lattice dynamics leading to the formation of localized large amplitude breathers, evolving in the direction of barrier crossing, accompanied by global oscillations of the chain transverse to the barrier. A few chain units accumulate locally sufficient energy to cross the barrier. Eventually the metastable state is left and either these particles dissociate or pull the remaining chain over the barrier. We show this escape for both linear rodlike and coil-like configurations of the chain in two dimensions. PMID:18643245
Dynamical mass generation in strongly coupled quantum electrodynamics with weak magnetic fields
Ayala, Alejandro; Raya, Alfredo; Rojas, Eduardo; Bashir, Adnan
2006-05-15
We study the dynamical generation of masses for fundamental fermions in quenched quantum electrodynamics in the presence of weak magnetic fields using Schwinger-Dyson equations. Contrary to the case where the magnetic field is strong, in the weak field limit the coupling should exceed certain critical value in order for the generation of masses to take place, just as in the case where no magnetic field is present. The weak field limit is defined as eB<
Mixed quantum-classical versus full quantum dynamics: Coupled quasiparticle-oscillator system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schanz, Holger; Esser, Bernd
1997-05-01
The relation between the dynamical properties of a coupled quasiparticle-oscillator system in the mixed quantum-classical and fully quantized descriptions is investigated. The system is considered as a model for applying a stepwise quantization. Features of the nonlinear dynamics in the mixed description such as the presence of a separatrix structure or regular and chaotic motion are shown to be reflected in the evolu- tion of the quantum state vector of the fully quantized system. In particular, it is demonstrated how wave packets propagate along the separatrix structure of the mixed description, and that chaotic dynamics leads to a strongly entangled quantum state vector. Special emphasis is given to viewing the system from a dyn- amical Born-Oppenheimer approximation defining integrable reference oscillators, and elucidating the role of the nonadiabatic couplings which complement this approximation into a rigorous quantization scheme.
Auer, Benjamin; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2012-07-01
Theoretical approaches for simulating the ultrafast dynamics of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions in solution are developed and applied to a series of model systems. These processes are simulated by propagating nonadiabatic surface hopping trajectories on electron-proton vibronic surfaces that depend on the solute and solvent nuclear coordinates. The PCET system is represented by a four-state empirical valence bond model, and the solvent is treated either as explicit solvent molecules or as a dielectric continuum, in which case the solvent dynamics is described in terms of two collective solvent coordinates corresponding to the energy gaps associated with electron and proton transfer. The explicit solvent simulations reveal two distinct solvent relaxation time scales, where the faster time scale relaxation corresponds to librational motions of solvent molecules in the first solvation shell, and the slower time scale relaxation corresponds to the bulk solvent dielectric response. The charge transfer dynamics is strongly coupled to both the fast and slow time scale solvent dynamics. The dynamical multistate continuum theory is extended to include the effects of two solvent relaxation time scales, and the resulting coupled generalized Langevin equations depend on parameters that can be extracted from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The implicit and explicit solvent approaches lead to qualitatively similar charge transfer and solvent dynamics for model PCET systems, suggesting that the implicit solvent treatment captures the essential elements of the nonequilibrium solvent dynamics for many systems. A combination of implicit and explicit solvent approaches will enable the investigation of photoinduced PCET processes in a variety of condensed phase systems. PMID:22651684
Multiple coupled landscapes and non-adiabatic dynamics with applications to self-activating genes.
Chen, Cong; Zhang, Kun; Feng, Haidong; Sasai, Masaki; Wang, Jin
2015-11-21
Many physical, chemical and biochemical systems (e.g. electronic dynamics and gene regulatory networks) are governed by continuous stochastic processes (e.g. electron dynamics on a particular electronic energy surface and protein (gene product) synthesis) coupled with discrete processes (e.g. hopping among different electronic energy surfaces and on and off switching of genes). One can also think of the underlying dynamics as the continuous motion on a particular landscape and discrete hoppings among different landscapes. The main difference of such systems from the intra-landscape dynamics alone is the emergence of the timescale involved in transitions among different landscapes in addition to the timescale involved in a particular landscape. The adiabatic limit when inter-landscape hoppings are fast compared to continuous intra-landscape dynamics has been studied both analytically and numerically, but the analytical treatment of the non-adiabatic regime where the inter-landscape hoppings are slow or comparable to continuous intra-landscape dynamics remains challenging. In this study, we show that there exists mathematical mapping of the dynamics on 2(N) discretely coupled N continuous dimensional landscapes onto one single landscape in 2N dimensional extended continuous space. On this 2N dimensional landscape, eddy current emerges as a sign of non-equilibrium non-adiabatic dynamics and plays an important role in system evolution. Many interesting physical effects such as the enhancement of fluctuations, irreversibility, dissipation and optimal kinetics emerge due to non-adiabaticity manifested by the eddy current illustrated for an N = 1 self-activator. We further generalize our theory to the N-gene network with multiple binding sites and multiple synthesis rates for discretely coupled non-equilibrium stochastic physical and biological systems. PMID:26455835
Gender Dynamics Predict Changes in Marital Love Among African American Couples
Stanik, Christine E.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
2013-01-01
This study examined the implications of gender attitudes and spouses’ divisions of household labor, time with children, and parental knowledge for their trajectories of love in a sample of 146 African American couples. Multilevel modeling in the context of an accelerated longitudinal design accommodated 3 annual waves of data. The results revealed that traditionality in husbands’ gender attitudes was linked to lower levels of love. Furthermore, divisions of household labor and parental knowledge moderated changes in love such that couples with more egalitarian divisions exhibited higher and more stable patterns of love, whereas more traditional couples exhibited significant declines in love over time. Finally, greater similarity between spouses’ time with their children was linked to higher levels of marital love. The authors highlight the implications of gender dynamics for marital harmony among African American couples and discuss ways that this work may be applied and extended in practice and future research. PMID:23956462
Second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics coupled to classical heat bath
Heatwole, Eric M.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.
2005-06-15
Starting with a quantum Langevin equation describing in the Heisenberg representation a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath, the Markov approximation and, further, the closure approximation are applied to derive a semiclassical Langevin equation for the second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD) coupled to a classical bath. The expectation values of the system operators are decomposed into products of the first and second moments of the position and momentum operators that incorporate zero-point energy and moderate tunneling effects. The random force and friction as well as the system-bath coupling are decomposed to the lowest classical level. The resulting Langevin equation describing QHD-2 coupled to classical bath is analyzed and applied to free particle, harmonic oscillator, and the Morse potential representing the OH stretch of the SPC-flexible water model.
Chaotic dynamics of cardioventilatory coupling in humans: effects of ventilatory modes
Mangin, Laurence; Clerici, Christine; Similowski, Thomas; Poon, Chi-Sang
2009-01-01
Cardioventilatory coupling (CVC), a transient temporal alignment between the heartbeat and inspiratory activity, has been studied in animals and humans mainly during anesthesia. The origin of the coupling remains uncertain, whether or not ventilation is a main determinant in the CVC process and whether the coupling exhibits chaotic behavior. In this frame, we studied sedative-free, mechanically ventilated patients experiencing rapid sequential changes in breathing control during ventilator weaning during a switch from a machine-controlled assistance mode [assist-controlled ventilation (ACV)] to a patient-driven mode [inspiratory pressure support (IPS) and unsupported spontaneous breathing (USB)]. Time series were computed as R to start inspiration (RI) and R to the start of expiration (RE). Chaos was characterized with the noise titration method (noise limit), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and correlation dimension (CD). All the RI and RE time series exhibit chaotic behavior. Specific coupling patterns were displayed in each ventilatory mode, and these patterns exhibited different linear and chaotic dynamics. When switching from ACV to IPS, partial inspiratory loading decreases the noise limit value, the LLE, and the correlation dimension of the RI and RE time series in parallel, whereas decreasing intrathoracic pressure from IPS to USB has the opposite effect. Coupling with expiration exhibits higher complexity than coupling with inspiration during mechanical ventilation either during ACV or IPS, probably due to active expiration. Only 33% of the cardiac time series (RR interval) exhibit complexity either during ACV, IPS, or USB making the contribution of the cardiac signal to the chaotic feature of the coupling minimal. We conclude that 1) CVC in unsedated humans exhibits a complex dynamic that can be chaotic, and 2) ventilatory mode has major effects on the linear and chaotic features of the coupling. Taken together these findings reinforce the role of
A spacetime, balance-law formulation of coupled atomistic and continuum dynamics for solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraczek, Brent
Coupled dynamic atomistic and continuum computational methods for solids have received much interest recently, because many problems are not addressed well by either model alone. In most coupled methods more emphasis has been placed on damping spurious reflections than on balancing momentum and energy. I present a new method for concurrent coupling of dynamic atomistic and continuum simulations of solids that enforces these balance laws on the atom/element level while minimizing spurious reflections. The coupled formulation is composed of the continuum spacetime discontinuous Galerkin (SDG) method and the mathematically consistent, time finite element, atomistic discontinuous Galerkin (ADG) method. On the continuum side I develop a two- and three-field SDG formulations for linearized elastodynamics to illuminate the mathematical structure of the original one-field SDG formulation and to assist in making connections to the atomistic formulation. On the atomistic side I examine connections between the SDG and ADG methods, and then extend this to relationships with the Velocity Verlet integrator. The component SDG and ADG methods are coupled using the same Godunov flux solution as is used by the SDG method, to enforce weakly the jump conditions on momentum balance and kinematic compatibility. To obtain compatible fluxes on the atomistic side of the coupling boundary I define a boundary atomistic trace that can be optimized to minimize boundary reflections. The coupled SDG--ADG formulation preserves the characteristic structure of the hyperbolic problem, guarantees element/atom-wise momentum balance to machine precision and yields energy error that is small, dissipative and controllable. The flux-based coupling can also be used with the Velocity Verlet method in place of the ADG, although the SDG--VV method suffers from uncontrolled energy error for long-time simulations due to the mismatch in the mathematical models. I present the formulations in spacetime, with one
Frisch, E.; Johnson, C.G.
1962-05-15
A detachable coupling arrangement is described which provides for varying the length of the handle of a tool used in relatively narrow channels. The arrangement consists of mating the key and keyhole formations in the cooperating handle sections. (AEC)
Morrison, S; Cortes, N; Newell, K M; Kerr, G
2014-09-19
This study was designed to examine differences in the coupling dynamics between upper limb motion, physiological tremor and whole body postural sway in young healthy adults. Acceleration of the hand and fingers, forearm EMG activity and postural sway data were recorded. Estimation of the degree of bilateral and limb motion-postural sway coupling was determined by cross correlation, coherence and Cross-ApEn analyses. The results revealed that, under postural tremor conditions, there was no significant coupling between limbs, muscles or sway across all metrics of coupling. In contrast, performing a rapid alternating flexion/extension movement about the wrist joint (with one or both limbs) resulted in stronger coupling between limb motion and postural sway. These results support the view that, for physiological tremor responses, the control of postural sway is maintained independent to tremor in the upper limb. However, increasing the level of movement about a distal segment of one arm (or both) leads to increased coupling throughout the body. The basis for this increased coupling would appear to be related to the enhanced neural drive to task-specific muscles within the upper limb. PMID:25067826
Mirroring and beyond: coupled dynamics as a generalized framework for modelling social interactions
Hasson, Uri; Frith, Chris D.
2016-01-01
When people observe one another, behavioural alignment can be detected at many levels, from the physical to the mental. Likewise, when people process the same highly complex stimulus sequences, such as films and stories, alignment is detected in the elicited brain activity. In early sensory areas, shared neural patterns are coupled to the low-level properties of the stimulus (shape, motion, volume, etc.), while in high-order brain areas, shared neural patterns are coupled to high-levels aspects of the stimulus, such as meaning. Successful social interactions require such alignments (both behavioural and neural), as communication cannot occur without shared understanding. However, we need to go beyond simple, symmetric (mirror) alignment once we start interacting. Interactions are dynamic processes, which involve continuous mutual adaptation, development of complementary behaviour and division of labour such as leader–follower roles. Here, we argue that interacting individuals are dynamically coupled rather than simply aligned. This broader framework for understanding interactions can encompass both processes by which behaviour and brain activity mirror each other (neural alignment), and situations in which behaviour and brain activity in one participant are coupled (but not mirrored) to the dynamics in the other participant. To apply these more sophisticated accounts of social interactions to the study of the underlying neural processes we need to develop new experimental paradigms and novel methods of data analysis PMID:27069044
Mirroring and beyond: coupled dynamics as a generalized framework for modelling social interactions.
Hasson, Uri; Frith, Chris D
2016-05-01
When people observe one another, behavioural alignment can be detected at many levels, from the physical to the mental. Likewise, when people process the same highly complex stimulus sequences, such as films and stories, alignment is detected in the elicited brain activity. In early sensory areas, shared neural patterns are coupled to the low-level properties of the stimulus (shape, motion, volume, etc.), while in high-order brain areas, shared neural patterns are coupled to high-levels aspects of the stimulus, such as meaning. Successful social interactions require such alignments (both behavioural and neural), as communication cannot occur without shared understanding. However, we need to go beyond simple, symmetric (mirror) alignment once we start interacting. Interactions are dynamic processes, which involve continuous mutual adaptation, development of complementary behaviour and division of labour such as leader-follower roles. Here, we argue that interacting individuals are dynamically coupled rather than simply aligned. This broader framework for understanding interactions can encompass both processes by which behaviour and brain activity mirror each other (neural alignment), and situations in which behaviour and brain activity in one participant are coupled (but not mirrored) to the dynamics in the other participant. To apply these more sophisticated accounts of social interactions to the study of the underlying neural processes we need to develop new experimental paradigms and novel methods of data analysis. PMID:27069044
Spatiotemporal dynamics of a digital phase-locked loop based coupled map lattice system
Banerjee, Tanmoy Paul, Bishwajit; Sarkar, B. C.
2014-03-15
We explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of a coupled map lattice (CML) system, which is realized with a one dimensional array of locally coupled digital phase-locked loops (DPLLs). DPLL is a nonlinear feedback-controlled system widely used as an important building block of electronic communication systems. We derive the phase-error equation of the spatially extended system of coupled DPLLs, which resembles a form of the equation of a CML system. We carry out stability analysis for the synchronized homogeneous solutions using the circulant matrix formalism. It is shown through extensive numerical simulations that with the variation of nonlinearity parameter and coupling strength the system shows transitions among several generic features of spatiotemporal dynamics, viz., synchronized fixed point solution, frozen random pattern, pattern selection, spatiotemporal intermittency, and fully developed spatiotemporal chaos. We quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics using quantitative measures like average quadratic deviation and spatial correlation function. We emphasize that instead of using an idealized model of CML, which is usually employed to observe the spatiotemporal behaviors, we consider a real world physical system and establish the existence of spatiotemporal chaos and other patterns in this system. We also discuss the importance of the present study in engineering application like removal of clock-skew in parallel processors.
In-situ coupling between kinase activities and protein dynamics within single focal adhesions
Wu, Yiqian; Zhang, Kaiwen; Seong, Jihye; Fan, Jason; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao; Lu, Shaoying
2016-01-01
The dynamic activation of oncogenic kinases and regulation of focal adhesions (FAs) are crucial molecular events modulating cell adhesion in cancer metastasis. However, it remains unclear how these events are temporally coordinated at single FA sites. Therefore, we targeted fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors toward subcellular FAs to report local molecular events during cancer cell adhesion. Employing single FA tracking and cross-correlation analysis, we quantified the dynamic coupling characteristics between biochemical kinase activities and structural FA within single FAs. We show that kinase activations and FA assembly are strongly and sequentially correlated, with the concurrent FA assembly and Src activation leading focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation by 42.6 ± 12.6 sec. Strikingly, the temporal coupling between kinase activation and individual FA assembly reflects the fate of FAs at later stages. The FAs with a tight coupling tend to grow and mature, while the less coupled FAs likely disassemble. During FA disassembly, however, kinase activations lead the disassembly, with FAK being activated earlier than Src. Therefore, by integrating subcellularly targeted FRET biosensors and computational analysis, our study reveals intricate interplays between Src and FAK in regulating the dynamic life of single FAs in cancer cells. PMID:27383747
In-situ coupling between kinase activities and protein dynamics within single focal adhesions.
Wu, Yiqian; Zhang, Kaiwen; Seong, Jihye; Fan, Jason; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao; Lu, Shaoying
2016-01-01
The dynamic activation of oncogenic kinases and regulation of focal adhesions (FAs) are crucial molecular events modulating cell adhesion in cancer metastasis. However, it remains unclear how these events are temporally coordinated at single FA sites. Therefore, we targeted fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors toward subcellular FAs to report local molecular events during cancer cell adhesion. Employing single FA tracking and cross-correlation analysis, we quantified the dynamic coupling characteristics between biochemical kinase activities and structural FA within single FAs. We show that kinase activations and FA assembly are strongly and sequentially correlated, with the concurrent FA assembly and Src activation leading focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation by 42.6 ± 12.6 sec. Strikingly, the temporal coupling between kinase activation and individual FA assembly reflects the fate of FAs at later stages. The FAs with a tight coupling tend to grow and mature, while the less coupled FAs likely disassemble. During FA disassembly, however, kinase activations lead the disassembly, with FAK being activated earlier than Src. Therefore, by integrating subcellularly targeted FRET biosensors and computational analysis, our study reveals intricate interplays between Src and FAK in regulating the dynamic life of single FAs in cancer cells. PMID:27383747
Coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control for an electric sail in a heliocentric transfer mission.
Huo, Mingying; Zhao, Jun; Xie, Shaobiao; Qi, Naiming
2015-01-01
The paper discusses the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control of an electric-sail-based spacecraft in a heliocentric transfer mission. The mathematical model characterizing the propulsive thrust is first described as a function of the orbital radius and the sail angle. Since the solar wind dynamic pressure acceleration is induced by the sail attitude, the orbital and attitude dynamics of electric sails are coupled, and are discussed together. Based on the coupled equations, the flight control is investigated, wherein the orbital control is studied in an optimal framework via a hybrid optimization method and the attitude controller is designed based on feedback linearization control. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, a transfer problem from Earth to Mars is considered. The numerical results show that the proposed strategy can control the coupled system very well, and a small control torque can control both the attitude and orbit. The study in this paper will contribute to the theory study and application of electric sail. PMID:25950179
Coupled Attitude-Orbit Dynamics and Control for an Electric Sail in a Heliocentric Transfer Mission
Huo, Mingying; Zhao, Jun; Xie, Shaobiao; Qi, Naiming
2015-01-01
The paper discusses the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control of an electric-sail-based spacecraft in a heliocentric transfer mission. The mathematical model characterizing the propulsive thrust is first described as a function of the orbital radius and the sail angle. Since the solar wind dynamic pressure acceleration is induced by the sail attitude, the orbital and attitude dynamics of electric sails are coupled, and are discussed together. Based on the coupled equations, the flight control is investigated, wherein the orbital control is studied in an optimal framework via a hybrid optimization method and the attitude controller is designed based on feedback linearization control. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, a transfer problem from Earth to Mars is considered. The numerical results show that the proposed strategy can control the coupled system very well, and a small control torque can control both the attitude and orbit. The study in this paper will contribute to the theory study and application of electric sail. PMID:25950179
Nichols, J.M.; Moniz, L.; Nichols, J.D.; Pecora, L.M.; Cooch, E.
2005-01-01
A number of important questions in ecology involve the possibility of interactions or ?coupling? among potential components of ecological systems. The basic question of whether two components are coupled (exhibit dynamical interdependence) is relevant to investigations of movement of animals over space, population regulation, food webs and trophic interactions, and is also useful in the design of monitoring programs. For example, in spatially extended systems, coupling among populations in different locations implies the existence of redundant information in the system and the possibility of exploiting this redundancy in the development of spatial sampling designs. One approach to the identification of coupling involves study of the purported mechanisms linking system components. Another approach is based on time series of two potential components of the same system and, in previous ecological work, has relied on linear cross-correlation analysis. Here we present two different attractor-based approaches, continuity and mutual prediction, for determining the degree to which two population time series (e.g., at different spatial locations) are coupled. Both approaches are demonstrated on a one-dimensional predator?prey model system exhibiting complex dynamics. Of particular interest is the spatial asymmetry introduced into the model as linearly declining resource for the prey over the domain of the spatial coordinate. Results from these approaches are then compared to the more standard cross-correlation analysis. In contrast to cross-correlation, both continuity and mutual prediction are clearly able to discern the asymmetry in the flow of information through this system.
Self-Diffusion and Non-Markovian Dynamics in Strongly Coupled Ultracold Neutral Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickler, Trevor; Langin, Thomas; McQuillen, Patrick; Killian, Thomas
2015-05-01
Collisional processes in weakly coupled plasmas are well-described by the Landau-Spitzer formalism. Classical plasma theory breaks down, however, in strongly coupled systems because of the non-perturbative nature of particle interactions, and improving our understanding of this regime is an important fundamental challenge. We present experimental measurements of the self-diffusion constant and observation of non-Markovian equilibration for strongly coupled ions in an ultracold neutral plasma (UCNP) created by photoionizing strontium atoms in a magneto-optical trap. Our diagnostic uses optical pumping to create ``spin-tagged'' subpopulations of ions having skewed velocity distributions that then relax back to equilibrium. A Green-Kubo relation is used to extract the self-diffusion constant from the equilibration curves. With improved time resolution (down to 30 ns), we have explored the early time dynamics of these skewed ion distributions within 100 ns after the optical pumping, where molecular dynamics simulations predict non-Markovian deviations from the exponential velocity damping expected for weakly coupled systems. At longer times, we observe oscillations of the average velocity during the relaxation, which indicate coupling of single-particle motion to collective modes. This work was supported by the United States National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy (PHY-0714603), and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-12-1-0267).
Dynamics of coupled and uncoupled two-phase flows in a slab mold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez-Pérez, R.; García-Demedices, L.; Ramos, J. Palafox; Díaz-Cruz, M.; Morales, R. D.
2004-02-01
Two-phase flows in a mold of a slab caster are studied using water modeling, particle-image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid-dynamics techniques. Two-way coupled flows are observed in liquidgas systems, because both phases influence each other’s momentum transfer. In addition to this concept, PIV measurements indicate the existence of structurally coupled flows, where the velocity vectors of both phases observe similar orientations. When the drag forces of the liquid, exerted on the bubbles, exceed a certain value of the inertial forces of the liquid phase, at high mass loads of gas (ratio of mass flow rates of the gas phase and the liquid phase), the flow becomes structurally coupled. These types of flows promote large oscillations of the meniscus level. Two jets, liquid and bubble, were identified; the latter always reported larger angles than the first, independent of the gas load. Thus, a gas-rich jet is located closer to the lower edge of the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) port, and the liquid-rich jet is found above this position. The liquid-jet angle approaches that of the SEN port when the flow becomes structurally coupled. Structurally uncoupled flows report gas jets that follow torrent-type patterns which are well explained using a multiphase fluid-dynamics model. Structurally coupled flows yield gas jets with a continuous pattern.
Applications of time-domain spectroscopy to electron-phonon coupling dynamics at surfaces.
Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu
2014-10-01
Photochemistry is one of the most important branches in chemistry to promote and control chemical reactions. In particular, there has been growing interest in photoinduced processes at solid surfaces and interfaces with liquids such as water for developing efficient solar energy conversion. For example, photoinduced charge transfer between adsorbates and semiconductor substrates at the surfaces of metal oxides induced by photogenerated holes and electrons is a core process in photovoltaics and photocatalysis. In these photoinduced processes, electron-phonon coupling plays a central role. This paper describes how time-domain spectroscopy is applied to elucidate electron-phonon coupling dynamics at metal and semiconductor surfaces. Because nuclear dynamics induced by electronic excitation through electron-phonon coupling take place in the femtosecond time domain, the pump-and-probe method with ultrashort pulses used in time-domain spectroscopy is a natural choice for elucidating the electron-phonon coupling at metal and semiconductor surfaces. Starting with a phenomenological theory of coherent phonons generated by impulsive electronic excitation, this paper describes a couple of illustrative examples of the applications of linear and nonlinear time-domain spectroscopy to a simple adsorption system, alkali metal on Cu(111), and more complex photocatalyst systems. PMID:25139240
Numerical study on air-structure coupling dynamic characteristics of the axial fan blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Q. G.; Xie, B.; Li, F.; Gu, W. G.
2013-12-01
In order to understand the dynamic characteristics of the axial-flow fan blade due to the effect of rotating stress and the action of unsteady aerodynamic forces caused by the airflow, a numerical simulation method for air-structure coupling in an axial-flow fan with fixed rear guide blades was performed. The dynamic characteristics of an axial-flow fan rotating blade were studied by using the two-way air-structure coupling method. Based on the standard k-ε turbulence model, and using weak coupling method, the preceding six orders modal parameters of the rotating blade were obtained, and the distributions of stress and strain on the rotating blade were presented. The results show that the modal frequency from the first to the sixth order is 3Hz higher than the modal frequency without considering air-structure coupling interaction; the maximum stress and the maximum strain are all occurred in the vicinity of root area of the blade no matter the air-structure coupling is considered or not, thus, the blade root is the dangerous location subjected to fatigue break; the position of maximum deformation is at the blade tip, so the vibration of the blade tip is significant. This study can provide theoretical references for the further study on the strength analysis and mechanical optimal design.
Marry, Virginie; Dubois, Emmanuelle; Malikova, Natalie; Durand-Vidal, Serge; Longeville, Stéphane; Breu, Josef
2011-04-01
Within the wider context of water behavior in soils, and with a particular emphasis on clays surrounding underground radioactive waste packages, we present here the translational dynamics of water in clays in low hydrated states as studied by coupling molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments by neutron spin echo (NSE). A natural montmorillonite clay of interest is modeled by a synthetic clay which allows us to understand the determining parameters from MD simulations by comparison with the experimental values. We focus on temperatures between 300 and 350 K, i.e., the range relevant to the highlighted application. The activation energy Ea experimentally determined is 6.6 kJ/mol higher than that for bulk water. Simulations are in good agreement with experiments for the relevant set of conditions, and they give more insight into the origin of the observed dynamics. PMID:21381672
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Jiannan; Song, Paul; Vasyliūnas, Vytenis M.
2011-09-01
Ionosphere/thermosphere heating driven by magnetospheric convection is investigated through a three-fluid inductive (including Faraday's law) approach to describing magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere coupling, for a 1-D stratified ionosphere/thermosphere in this initial study. It is shown that the response of the ionosphere/thermosphere and thus the heating is dynamic and height-dependent. The heating is essentially frictional in nature rather than Joule heating as commonly assumed. The heating rate reaches a quasi-steady state after about 25 Alfvén travel times. During the dynamic period, the heating can be enhanced and displays peaks at multiple times due to wave reflections. The dynamic heating rate can be more than twice greater than the quasi-steady state value. The heating is strongest in the E-layer but the heating rate per unit mass is concentrated around the F-layer peak height. This implies a potential mechanism of driving O+ upflow from O+ rich F-layer. It is shown that the ionosphere/thermosphere heating caused by the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling can be simply evaluated through the relative velocity between the plasma and neutrals without invoking field-aligned currents, ionospheric conductance, and electric field. The present study provides understanding of the dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere coupling from the ionospheric/thermospheric view in addition to magnetospheric perspectives.
The effect of temperature on the coupled slow and fast dynamics of an electrochemical oscillator.
Zülke, Alana A; Varela, Hamilton
2016-01-01
The coupling among disparate time-scales is ubiquitous in many chemical and biological systems. We have recently investigated the effect of fast and, long-term, slow dynamics in surface processes underlying some electrocatalytic reactions. Herein we report on the effect of temperature on the coupled slow and fast dynamics of a model system, namely the electro-oxidation of formic acid on platinum studied at five temperatures between 5 and 45 °C. The main result was a turning point found at 25 °C, which clearly defines two regions for the temperature dependency on the overall kinetics. In addition, the long-term evolution allowed us to compare reaction steps related to fast and slow evolutions. Results were discussed in terms of the key role of PtO species, which chemically couple slow and fast dynamics. In summary we were able to: (a) identify the competition between two reaction steps as responsible for the occurrence of two temperature domains; (b) compare the relative activation energies of these two steps; and (c) suggest the role of a given reaction step on the period-increasing set of reactions involved in the oscillatory dynamics. The introduced methodology could be applied to other systems to uncover the temperature dependence of complex chemical networks. PMID:27079514
Collective dynamics of identical phase oscillators with high-order coupling.
Xu, Can; Xiang, Hairong; Gao, Jian; Zheng, Zhigang
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the collective dynamics in ensembles of globally coupled phase oscillators when higher-order modes dominate the coupling. The spatiotemporal properties of the attractors in various regions of parameter space are analyzed. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the stationary symmetric distribution is only neutrally stable in the marginal regime which stems from the generalized time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the critical parameters of the transition among various regimes are determined analytically by both the Ott-Antonsen method and linear stability analysis, the transient dynamics are further revealed in terms of the characteristic curves method. Finally, for the more general initial condition the symmetric dynamics could be reduced to a rigorous three-dimensional manifold which shows that the neutrally stable chaos could also occur in this model for particular parameters. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the dynamical properties in general systems with higher-order harmonics couplings. PMID:27491401
The effect of quenched disorder on dynamical transitions in systems of coupled cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jinshan; Singh, Rajeev; Garnier, Nicolas B.; Sinha, Sitabhra; Pumir, Alain
2013-09-01
Non-equilibrium systems are characterized by a rich variety of dynamical behaviors, which may sensitively depend on control parameters. Here, we investigate and provide a quantitative analysis of the role of disorder on the transitions between different dynamical regimes in extended heterogeneous systems of excitable and passive cells, induced by varying the strength of the coupling between cells. The random distribution of passive cells provides a quenched disorder in important biological contexts, such as the appearance of contractions in the pregnant uterus. We observe a large variability between different realizations of the disorder (replicas) in a lattice of excitable cells, each cell being coupled to a random number of passive cells. The statistics of these large disorder-induced fluctuations are related to the properties of the coarse-grained distribution of passive cells, in particular, to its extreme values. We show that these fluctuations can be characterized by a simple scaling relation, involving the strength of the coupling between excitable cells, the mean passive cell density and the logarithm of the system size. Our results provide a quantitative understanding of the important effect of a quenched disorder in the transition between dynamical regimes in extended dynamical systems.
Collective dynamics of identical phase oscillators with high-order coupling
Xu, Can; Xiang, Hairong; Gao, Jian; Zheng, Zhigang
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the collective dynamics in ensembles of globally coupled phase oscillators when higher-order modes dominate the coupling. The spatiotemporal properties of the attractors in various regions of parameter space are analyzed. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the stationary symmetric distribution is only neutrally stable in the marginal regime which stems from the generalized time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the critical parameters of the transition among various regimes are determined analytically by both the Ott-Antonsen method and linear stability analysis, the transient dynamics are further revealed in terms of the characteristic curves method. Finally, for the more general initial condition the symmetric dynamics could be reduced to a rigorous three-dimensional manifold which shows that the neutrally stable chaos could also occur in this model for particular parameters. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the dynamical properties in general systems with higher-order harmonics couplings. PMID:27491401
Collective dynamics of identical phase oscillators with high-order coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Can; Xiang, Hairong; Gao, Jian; Zheng, Zhigang
2016-08-01
In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the collective dynamics in ensembles of globally coupled phase oscillators when higher-order modes dominate the coupling. The spatiotemporal properties of the attractors in various regions of parameter space are analyzed. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the stationary symmetric distribution is only neutrally stable in the marginal regime which stems from the generalized time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the critical parameters of the transition among various regimes are determined analytically by both the Ott-Antonsen method and linear stability analysis, the transient dynamics are further revealed in terms of the characteristic curves method. Finally, for the more general initial condition the symmetric dynamics could be reduced to a rigorous three-dimensional manifold which shows that the neutrally stable chaos could also occur in this model for particular parameters. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the dynamical properties in general systems with higher-order harmonics couplings.
Quenching of dynamic nuclear polarization by spin-orbit coupling in GaAs quantum dots.
Nichol, John M; Harvey, Shannon P; Shulman, Michael D; Pal, Arijeet; Umansky, Vladimir; Rashba, Emmanuel I; Halperin, Bertrand I; Yacoby, Amir
2015-01-01
The central-spin problem is a widely studied model of quantum decoherence. Dynamic nuclear polarization occurs in central-spin systems when electronic angular momentum is transferred to nuclear spins and is exploited in quantum information processing for coherent spin manipulation. However, the mechanisms limiting this process remain only partially understood. Here we show that spin-orbit coupling can quench dynamic nuclear polarization in a GaAs quantum dot, because spin conservation is violated in the electron-nuclear system, despite weak spin-orbit coupling in GaAs. Using Landau-Zener sweeps to measure static and dynamic properties of the electron spin-flip probability, we observe that the size of the spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions depends on the magnitude and direction of applied magnetic field. We find that dynamic nuclear polarization is quenched when the spin-orbit contribution exceeds the hyperfine, in agreement with a theoretical model. Our results shed light on the surprisingly strong effect of spin-orbit coupling in central-spin systems. PMID:26184854
The effect of temperature on the coupled slow and fast dynamics of an electrochemical oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zülke, Alana A.; Varela, Hamilton
2016-04-01
The coupling among disparate time-scales is ubiquitous in many chemical and biological systems. We have recently investigated the effect of fast and, long-term, slow dynamics in surface processes underlying some electrocatalytic reactions. Herein we report on the effect of temperature on the coupled slow and fast dynamics of a model system, namely the electro-oxidation of formic acid on platinum studied at five temperatures between 5 and 45 °C. The main result was a turning point found at 25 °C, which clearly defines two regions for the temperature dependency on the overall kinetics. In addition, the long-term evolution allowed us to compare reaction steps related to fast and slow evolutions. Results were discussed in terms of the key role of PtO species, which chemically couple slow and fast dynamics. In summary we were able to: (a) identify the competition between two reaction steps as responsible for the occurrence of two temperature domains; (b) compare the relative activation energies of these two steps; and (c) suggest the role of a given reaction step on the period-increasing set of reactions involved in the oscillatory dynamics. The introduced methodology could be applied to other systems to uncover the temperature dependence of complex chemical networks.
Quenching of dynamic nuclear polarization by spin-orbit coupling in GaAs quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichol, John M.; Harvey, Shannon P.; Shulman, Michael D.; Pal, Arijeet; Umansky, Vladimir; Rashba, Emmanuel I.; Halperin, Bertrand I.; Yacoby, Amir
2015-07-01
The central-spin problem is a widely studied model of quantum decoherence. Dynamic nuclear polarization occurs in central-spin systems when electronic angular momentum is transferred to nuclear spins and is exploited in quantum information processing for coherent spin manipulation. However, the mechanisms limiting this process remain only partially understood. Here we show that spin-orbit coupling can quench dynamic nuclear polarization in a GaAs quantum dot, because spin conservation is violated in the electron-nuclear system, despite weak spin-orbit coupling in GaAs. Using Landau-Zener sweeps to measure static and dynamic properties of the electron spin-flip probability, we observe that the size of the spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions depends on the magnitude and direction of applied magnetic field. We find that dynamic nuclear polarization is quenched when the spin-orbit contribution exceeds the hyperfine, in agreement with a theoretical model. Our results shed light on the surprisingly strong effect of spin-orbit coupling in central-spin systems.
Quenching of dynamic nuclear polarization by spin–orbit coupling in GaAs quantum dots
Nichol, John M.; Harvey, Shannon P.; Shulman, Michael D.; Pal, Arijeet; Umansky, Vladimir; Rashba, Emmanuel I.; Halperin, Bertrand I.; Yacoby, Amir
2015-01-01
The central-spin problem is a widely studied model of quantum decoherence. Dynamic nuclear polarization occurs in central-spin systems when electronic angular momentum is transferred to nuclear spins and is exploited in quantum information processing for coherent spin manipulation. However, the mechanisms limiting this process remain only partially understood. Here we show that spin–orbit coupling can quench dynamic nuclear polarization in a GaAs quantum dot, because spin conservation is violated in the electron–nuclear system, despite weak spin–orbit coupling in GaAs. Using Landau–Zener sweeps to measure static and dynamic properties of the electron spin–flip probability, we observe that the size of the spin–orbit and hyperfine interactions depends on the magnitude and direction of applied magnetic field. We find that dynamic nuclear polarization is quenched when the spin–orbit contribution exceeds the hyperfine, in agreement with a theoretical model. Our results shed light on the surprisingly strong effect of spin–orbit coupling in central-spin systems. PMID:26184854
The effect of temperature on the coupled slow and fast dynamics of an electrochemical oscillator
Zülke, Alana A.; Varela, Hamilton
2016-01-01
The coupling among disparate time-scales is ubiquitous in many chemical and biological systems. We have recently investigated the effect of fast and, long-term, slow dynamics in surface processes underlying some electrocatalytic reactions. Herein we report on the effect of temperature on the coupled slow and fast dynamics of a model system, namely the electro-oxidation of formic acid on platinum studied at five temperatures between 5 and 45 °C. The main result was a turning point found at 25 °C, which clearly defines two regions for the temperature dependency on the overall kinetics. In addition, the long-term evolution allowed us to compare reaction steps related to fast and slow evolutions. Results were discussed in terms of the key role of PtO species, which chemically couple slow and fast dynamics. In summary we were able to: (a) identify the competition between two reaction steps as responsible for the occurrence of two temperature domains; (b) compare the relative activation energies of these two steps; and (c) suggest the role of a given reaction step on the period-increasing set of reactions involved in the oscillatory dynamics. The introduced methodology could be applied to other systems to uncover the temperature dependence of complex chemical networks. PMID:27079514
Quench dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate under synthetic spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Tian-Shu; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-05-01
We study the quench dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate under a Raman-assisted synthetic spin-orbit coupling. To model the dynamical process, we adopt a self-consistent Bogoliubov approach, which is equivalent to applying the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. We investigate the dynamics of the condensate fraction as well as the momentum distribution of the Bose gas following a sudden change of system parameters. Typically, the system evolves into a steady state in the long-time limit, which features an oscillating momentum distribution and a stationary condensate fraction. We investigate how different quench parameters such as the inter- and intraspecies interactions and the spin-orbit-coupling parameters affect the condensate fraction in the steady state. Furthermore, we find that the time average of the oscillatory momentum distribution in the long-time limit can be described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble with two branches of momentum-dependent Gibbs temperatures. Our study is relevant to the experimental investigation of dynamical processes in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate.
Chaos analysis and delayed-feedback control in a discrete dynamic coupled map traffic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Yaling; Shi, Zhongke
2015-03-01
The presence of chaos in traffic flow is studied using a modified discrete dynamic coupled map model which is derived from both the flow-density-speed fundamental diagram and Del Castillo's speed-density model. The modified model employs occupancy as its new variable and introduces a coupling strength with the consideration of effect of the front adjacent vehicle. And we analyze its stability of the control system and provide a procedure to design the decentralized delayed-feedback controllers for the traffic control system. These theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations.
Dynamical polaron Ansatz: A theoretical tool for the ultrastrong-coupling regime of circuit QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz-Camacho, Guillermo; Bermudez, Alejandro; García-Ripoll, Juan José
2016-04-01
In this work we develop a semianalytical variational Ansatz to study the properties of few-photon excitations interacting with a collection of quantum emitters in regimes that go beyond the rotating-wave approximation. This method can be used to approximate both the static and dynamical properties of a superconducting qubit in an open transmission line, including the spontaneous emission spectrum and the resonances in scattering experiments. The approximations are quantitatively accurate for rather strong couplings, as shown by a direct comparison to matrix-product-state numerical methods, and provide also a good qualitative description for stronger couplings well beyond the Markovian regime.
The situated HKB model: how sensorimotor spatial coupling can alter oscillatory brain dynamics
Aguilera, Miguel; Bedia, Manuel G.; Santos, Bruno A.; Barandiaran, Xabier E.
2013-01-01
Despite the increase of both dynamic and embodied/situated approaches in cognitive science, there is still little research on how coordination dynamics under a closed sensorimotor loop might induce qualitatively different patterns of neural oscillations compared to those found in isolated systems. We take as a departure point the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) model, a generic model for dynamic coordination between two oscillatory components, which has proven useful for a vast range of applications in cognitive science and whose dynamical properties are well understood. In order to explore the properties of this model under closed sensorimotor conditions we present what we call the situated HKB model: a robotic model that performs a gradient climbing task and whose “brain” is modeled by the HKB equation. We solve the differential equations that define the agent-environment coupling for increasing values of the agent's sensitivity (sensor gain), finding different behavioral strategies. These results are compared with two different models: a decoupled HKB with no sensory input and a passively-coupled HKB that is also decoupled but receives a structured input generated by a situated agent. We can precisely quantify and qualitatively describe how the properties of the system, when studied in coupled conditions, radically change in a manner that cannot be deduced from the decoupled HKB models alone. We also present the notion of neurodynamic signature as the dynamic pattern that correlates with a specific behavior and we show how only a situated agent can display this signature compared to an agent that simply receives the exact same sensory input. To our knowledge, this is the first analytical solution of the HKB equation in a sensorimotor loop and qualitative and quantitative analytic comparison of spatially coupled vs. decoupled oscillatory controllers. Finally, we discuss the limitations and possible generalization of our model to contemporary neuroscience and
The situated HKB model: how sensorimotor spatial coupling can alter oscillatory brain dynamics.
Aguilera, Miguel; Bedia, Manuel G; Santos, Bruno A; Barandiaran, Xabier E
2013-01-01
Despite the increase of both dynamic and embodied/situated approaches in cognitive science, there is still little research on how coordination dynamics under a closed sensorimotor loop might induce qualitatively different patterns of neural oscillations compared to those found in isolated systems. We take as a departure point the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) model, a generic model for dynamic coordination between two oscillatory components, which has proven useful for a vast range of applications in cognitive science and whose dynamical properties are well understood. In order to explore the properties of this model under closed sensorimotor conditions we present what we call the situated HKB model: a robotic model that performs a gradient climbing task and whose "brain" is modeled by the HKB equation. We solve the differential equations that define the agent-environment coupling for increasing values of the agent's sensitivity (sensor gain), finding different behavioral strategies. These results are compared with two different models: a decoupled HKB with no sensory input and a passively-coupled HKB that is also decoupled but receives a structured input generated by a situated agent. We can precisely quantify and qualitatively describe how the properties of the system, when studied in coupled conditions, radically change in a manner that cannot be deduced from the decoupled HKB models alone. We also present the notion of neurodynamic signature as the dynamic pattern that correlates with a specific behavior and we show how only a situated agent can display this signature compared to an agent that simply receives the exact same sensory input. To our knowledge, this is the first analytical solution of the HKB equation in a sensorimotor loop and qualitative and quantitative analytic comparison of spatially coupled vs. decoupled oscillatory controllers. Finally, we discuss the limitations and possible generalization of our model to contemporary neuroscience and philosophy of
Use of Generalized Mass in the Interpretation of Dynamic Response of BENDING-TORSION Coupled Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ESLIMY-ISFAHANY, S. H. R.; BANERJEE, J. R.
2000-11-01
The interpretation of mode shapes and dynamic response of bending-torsion coupled beams is assessed by using the concept of generalized mass. In the first part of this investigation, the free vibratory motion of bending-torsion coupled beams is studied in detail. The conventional method of interpreting the normal modes of vibration consisting of bending displacements and torsional rotations is shown to be inadequate and replaced by an alternative method which is focussed on the constituent parts of the generalized mass arising from bending and torsional displacements. Basically, the generalized mass in a particular mode is identified and examined in terms of bending, torsion and bending-torsion coupling effects. It is demonstrated that the contribution of individual components in the expression of the generalized mass of a normal mode is a much better indicator in characterizing a coupled mode. It is also shown that the usually adopted criteria of plotting bending displacement and torsional rotations to describe a coupled mode can be deceptive and misleading. In the second part of the investigation, attention is focussed on the dynamic response characteristics of bending-torsion coupled beams when subjected to random bending or torsional loads. A normal mode approach is used to establish the total response. The input random excitation is assumed to be stationary and ergodic so that with the linearity assumption, the output spectrum of the response is obtained by using the frequency response function. The contribution of each normal mode to the overall response is isolated. Particular emphasis is placed on bending-induced torsional response and torsion-induced bending response. A number of case studies involving different types of bending-torsion coupled beams with Cantilever end conditions are presented. The limitations of existing methods of modal interpretation are highlighted, and an insight into the mode selection for response analysis is provided.
Prediction of atomic force microscope probe dynamics through the receptance coupling method
Mehrpouya, M.; Park, S. S.
2011-12-15
The increased growth in the use of tip-based sensing, manipulations, and fabrication of devices in atomic force microscopy (AFM) necessitates the accurate prediction of the dynamic behavior of the AFM probe. The chip holder, to which the micro-sensing device is attached, and the rest of the AFM system can affect the overall dynamics of the probe. In order to consider these boundary effects, we propose a novel receptance coupling method to mathematically combine the dynamics of the AFM setup and probe, based on the equilibrium and compatibility conditions at the joint. Once the frequency response functions of displacement over force at the tool tip are obtained, the dynamic interaction forces between the tip and the sample in nanoscale can be determined by measuring the probe tip displacement.
Dynamical Jahn-Teller effect in spin-orbital coupled system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasu, Joji; Ishihara, Sumio
2012-02-01
Orbital degree of freedom is one of the most attractive themes in strongly correlated electron system. A coupling between the orbital and the lattice vibration is known as a Jahn-Teller effect (JTE). The dynamical aspect of the Jahn-Teller interaction is often neglected in solid, because it is strongly suppressed by the cooperative JTE. Recently, Ba3CuSb2O9 has been reported as a candidate of the spin liquid. A Cu^2+ has the eg orbital degree of freedom and is surrounded by the O^2- octahedron. The octahedra on the neighboring sites do not have the common O ions. This fact implies that the cooperative JTE is weak, and the dynamical JTE is expected to play some key roles on orbital and magnetic properties. The purpose of this research is to study the dynamical JTE in a spin-orbital coupled system. In particular, we focus on the competitive or cooperative phenomena between the superexchange interaction and the dynamical JTE. The superexchange interactions are derived from the d-p model on a honeycomb lattice. We have confirmed this interaction stabilizes the antiferro-spin and ferro-orbital configurations for the realistic parameters. The dynamical JTE described as the orbital-lattice coupling is obtained by extracting the low energy states of the vibronic Hamiltonian. We analyze the model including the two kinds of interactions by using the Bethe approximation. We find that the magnetic order is unstable in wide parameter region and the spin-dimer state with the orbital order is realized. Furthermore the orbital order is strongly suppressed by the dynamical JTE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhenyu; Tan, Jianrong; Duan, Guifang; Fu, Yun
2015-01-01
Most existing force feedback methods are still difficult to meet the requirements of real-time force calculation in virtual assembly and operation with complex objects. In addition, there is often an assumption that the controlled objects are completely free and the target object is only completely fixed or free, thus, the dynamics of the kinematic chain where the controlled objects are located are neglected during the physical simulation of the product manipulation with force feedback interaction. This paper proposes a physical simulation method of product assembly and operation manipulation based on statistically learned contact force prediction model and the coupling of force feedback and dynamics. In the proposed method, based on hidden Markov model (HMM) and local weighting learning (LWL), contact force prediction model is constructed, which can estimate the contact force in real time during interaction. Based on computational load balance model, the computing resources are dynamically assigned and the dynamics integral step is optimized. In addition, smoothing process is performed to the force feedback on the synchronization points. Consequently, we can solve the coupling and synchronization problems of high-frequency feedback force servo, low-frequency dynamics solver servo and scene rendering servo, and realize highly stable and accurate force feedback in the physical simulation of product assembly and operation manipulation. This research proposes a physical simulation method of product assembly and operation manipulation.
Dynamics of Disordered Network of Coupled Hindmarsh-Rose Neuronal Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dtchetgnia Djeundam, S. R.; Yamapi, R.; Filatrella, G.; Kofane, T. C.
We investigate the effects of disorder on the synchronized state of a network of Hindmarsh-Rose neuronal models. Disorder, introduced as a perturbation of the neuronal parameters, destroys the network activity by wrecking the synchronized state. The dynamics of the synchronized state is analyzed through the Kuramoto order parameter, adapted to the neuronal Hindmarsh-Rose model. We find that the coupling deeply alters the dynamics of the single units, thus demonstrating that coupling not only affects the relative motion of the units, but also the dynamical behavior of each neuron; Thus, synchronization results in a structural change of the dynamics. The Kuramoto order parameter allows to clarify the nature of the transition from perfect phase synchronization to the disordered states, supporting the notion of an abrupt, second order-like, dynamical phase transition. We find that the system is resilient up to a certain disorder threshold, after that the network abruptly collapses to a desynchronized state. The loss of perfect synchronization seems to occur even for vanishingly small values of the disorder, but the degree of synchronization (as measured by the Kuramoto order parameter) gently decreases, and the completely disordered state is never reached.
Coupled-Channels Density-Matrix Approach to Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction Dynamics
Diaz-Torres, Alexis
2011-10-28
Atomic nuclei are complex, quantum many-body systems whose structure manifests itself through intrinsic quantum states associated with different excitation modes or degrees of freedom. Collective modes (vibration and/or rotation) dominate at low energy (near the ground-state). The associated states are usually employed, within a truncated model space, as a basis in (coherent) coupled channels approaches to low-energy reaction dynamics. However, excluded states can be essential, and their effects on the open (nuclear) system dynamics are usually treated through complex potentials. Is this a complete description of open system dynamics? Does it include effects of quantum decoherence? Can decoherence be manifested in reaction observables? In this contribution, I discuss these issues and the main ideas of a coupled-channels density-matrix approach that makes it possible to quantify the role and importance of quantum decoherence in low-energy nuclear reaction dynamics. Topical applications, which refer to understanding the astrophysically important collision {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and achieving a unified quantum dynamical description of relevant reaction processes of weakly-bound nuclei, are highlighted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladwin Pradeep, R.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Mohanasubha, R.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2016-07-01
We identify contact transformations which linearize the given equations in the Riccati and Abel chains of nonlinear scalar and coupled ordinary differential equations to the same order. The identified contact transformations are not of Cole-Hopf type and are new to the literature. The linearization of Abel chain of equations is also demonstrated explicitly for the first time. The contact transformations can be utilized to derive dynamical symmetries of the associated nonlinear ODEs. The wider applicability of identifying this type of contact transformations and the method of deriving dynamical symmetries by using them is illustrated through two dimensional generalizations of the Riccati and Abel chains as well.
Kerr-lens-mediated dynamics of two nonlinearly coupled mode-locked laser oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Song; Smith, Sandra L.; Fork, Richard L.
1992-02-01
The dynamics of two nonlinearly coupled femtosecond oscillators are investigated for the case where two distinct nonlinear mechanisms are balanced to determine the temporal relationship and properties of the pulses in the two oscillators. In the time domain the shared bleaching of a common absorber creates an attractive mechanism for the pulses, while interactive Kerr lens deflections create a repulsive mechanism. The interplay of these two mechanisms causes a variety of dynamical behaviors, including pulse synchronization, pulse duration switching, and a latching type of amplitude bistability.
Lattice Dynamics of EuO: Evidence for Giant Spin-Phonon Coupling.
Pradip, R; Piekarz, P; Bosak, A; Merkel, D G; Waller, O; Seiler, A; Chumakov, A I; Rüffer, R; Oleś, A M; Parlinski, K; Krisch, M; Baumbach, T; Stankov, S
2016-05-01
Comprehensive studies of lattice dynamics in the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO have been performed by a combination of inelastic x-ray scattering, nuclear inelastic scattering, and ab initio calculations. A remarkably large broadening of the transverse acoustic phonons was discovered at temperatures above and below the Curie temperature T_{C}=69 K. This result indicates a surprisingly strong momentum-dependent spin-phonon coupling induced by the spin dynamics in EuO. PMID:27203332
Dynamical coupling of pygmy and giant resonances in relativistic Coulomb excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, N. S.; Aumann, T.; Bertulani, C. A.; Thomas, J. O.
2016-06-01
We study the Coulomb excitation of pygmy dipole resonances (PDR) in heavy ion reactions at 100 MeV/nucleon and above. The reactions 68Ni +197Au and 68Ni +208Pb are taken as practical examples. Our goal is to address the question of the influence of giant resonances on the PDR as the dynamics of the collision evolves. We show that the coupling to the giant resonances affects considerably the excitation probabilities of the PDR, a result that indicates the need of an improved theoretical treatment of the reaction dynamics at these bombarding energies.
Coupling Osmolarity Dynamics within Human Tear Film on an Eye-Shaped Domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Driscoll, T. A.; Henshaw, W. D.; Banks, J. W.; King-Smith, P. E.
2013-11-01
The concentration of ions in the tear film (osmolarity) is a key variable in understanding dry eye symptoms and disease. We derived a mathematical model that couples osmolarity (treated as a single solute) and fluid dynamics within the tear film on a 2D eye-shaped domain. The model concerns the physical effects of evaporation, surface tension, viscosity, ocular surface wettability, osmolarity, osmosis and tear fluid supply and drainage. We solved the governing system of coupled nonlinear PDEs using the Overture computational framework developed at LLNL, together with a new hybrid time stepping scheme (using variable step BDF and RKC) that was added to the framework. Results of our numerical simulations show good agreement with existing 1D models (for both tear film and osmolarity dynamics) and provide new insight about the osmolarity distribution over the ocular surface during the interblink.
Inlet-Compressor Analysis Performed Using Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Gary L.; Suresh, Ambady; Townsend, Scott
1999-01-01
A thorough understanding of dynamic interactions between inlets and compressors is extremely important to the design and development of propulsion control systems, particularly for supersonic aircraft such as the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are routinely used to analyze individual propulsion components. By coupling the appropriate CFD component codes, it is possible to investigate inlet-compressor interactions. The objectives of this work were to gain a better understanding of inlet-compressor interaction physics, formulate a more realistic compressor-face boundary condition for time-accurate CFD simulations of inlets, and to take a first step toward the CFD simulation of an entire engine by coupling multidimensional component codes. This work was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center by a team of civil servants and support service contractors as part of the High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP).
Entanglement dynamics of the ultrastrong-coupling three-qubit Dicke model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Lijun; Liu, Yanxia; Zhang, Yunbo
2016-05-01
We give an analytical description of the dynamics of the three-qubit Dicke model using the adiabatic approximation in the parameter regime where the qubit transition frequencies are far off-resonance with the field frequency and the interaction strengths reach the ultrastrong-coupling regimes. Qualitative differences arise upon comparison to single- and two-qubit systems. Simple analytic formulas show that three revival sequences produce a three-frequency beat note in the time evolution of the population. We find an explicit way to estimate the dynamics for qubit-field and qubit-qubit entanglement inside the three-qubit system in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, and the resistance to sudden death proves that the entanglement in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state is more robust than that in the W state.
Switch programming of reflectivity control devices for the coupled dynamics of a solar sail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Tianjian; Gong, Shengping; Mu, Junshan; Li, Junfeng; Wang, Tianshu; Qian, Weiping
2016-03-01
As demonstrated in the Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun (IKAROS), reflectivity control devices (RCDs) are switched on or off independently with each other, which has nevertheless been ignored by many previous researches. This paper emphasizes the discrete property of RCDs, and aims to obtain an appropriate switch law of RCDs for a rigid spinning solar sail. First, the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics is derived from the basic solar force and torque model into an underdetermined linear system with a binary set constraint. Subsequently, the coupled dynamics is reformulated into a constrained quadratic programming and a basic gradient projection method is designed to search for the optimal solution. Finally, a circular sail flying in the Venus rendezvous mission demonstrates the model and method numerically, which illustrates approximately 103 km terminal position error and 0.5 m/s terminal velocity error as 80 independent RCDs are switched on or off appropriately.
Dynamics of compressional Mach cones in a strongly coupled complex plasma
Bandyopadhyay, P. Dey, R.; Sen, Abhijit; Kadyan, Sangeeta
2014-10-15
Using a Generalised-Hydrodynamic (GH) fluid model, we study the influence of strong coupling induced modification of the fluid compressibility on the dynamics of compressional Mach cones in a dusty plasma medium. A significant structural change of lateral wakes for a given Mach number and Epstein drag force is found in the strongly coupled regime. With the increase of fluid compressibility, the peak amplitude of the normalised perturbed dust density first increases and then decreases monotonically after reaching its maximum value. It is also noticed that the opening angle of the cone structure decreases with the increase of the compressibility of the medium and the arm of the Mach cone breaks up into small structures in the velocity vector profile when the coupling between the dust particles increases.
Nonlinear dynamics approach to the predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siqueira, L.; Kirtman, B.
2014-01-01
The predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model is investigated using nonlinear dynamics analysis. Newer theoretical concepts are applied to the coupled model in order to help quantify maximal prediction horizons for finite amplitude perturbations on different scales. Predictability analysis based on the maximum Lyapunov exponent considers infinitesimal perturbations, which are associated with errors in the smallest fastest-evolving scales of motion. However, these errors become irrelevant for the predictability of larger scale motions. In this study we employed finite-size Lyapunov exponent analysis to assess the predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model as a function of scale. We demonstrate the existence of fast and slow timescales, as noted in earlier studies, and the expected enhanced predictability of the anomalies on large scales. The final results and conclusions clarify the applicability of these new methods to seasonal forecasting problems.
Equilibrium dynamics of the Dean-Kawasaki equation: Mode-coupling theory and its extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Bongsoo; Kawasaki, Kyozi; Jacquin, Hugo; van Wijland, Frédéric
2014-01-01
We extend a previously proposed field-theoretic self-consistent perturbation approach for the equilibrium dynamics of the Dean-Kawasaki equation presented in [Kim and Kawasaki, J. Stat. Mech. (2008) P02004, 10.1088/1742-5468/2008/02/P02004]. By taking terms missing in the latter analysis into account we arrive at a set of three new equations for correlation functions of the system. These correlations involve the density and its logarithm as local observables. Our new one-loop equations, which must carefully deal with the noninteracting Brownian gas theory, are more general than the historic mode-coupling one in that a further approximation corresponding to Gaussian density fluctuations leads back to the original mode-coupling equation for the density correlations alone. However, without performing any further approximation step, our set of three equations does not feature any ergodic-nonergodic transition, as opposed to the historical mode-coupling approach.
Dynamical Coupled-Channel Model of Meson Production Reactions in the Nucleon Resonance Region
T.-S. H. Lee; A. Matsuyama; T. Sato
2006-11-15
A dynamical coupled-channel model is presented for investigating the nucleon resonances (N*) in the meson production reactions induced by pions and photons. Our objective is to extract the N* parameters and to investigate the meson production reaction mechanisms for mapping out the quark-gluon substructure of N* from the data. The model is based on an energy-independent Hamiltonian which is derived from a set of Lagrangians by using a unitary transformation method.
Geometry and dynamics of a coupled 4 D-2 D quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolognesi, Stefano; Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Evslin, Jarah; Konishi, Kenichi; Ohashi, Keisuke; Seveso, Luigi
2016-01-01
Geometric and dynamical aspects of a coupled 4 D-2 D interacting quantum field theory — the gauged nonAbelian vortex — are investigated. The fluctuations of the internal 2 D nonAbelian vortex zeromodes excite the massless 4 D Yang-Mills modes and in general give rise to divergent energies. This means that the well-known 2 D C{P}^{N-1} zeromodes associated with a nonAbelian vortex become nonnormalizable.
Three-dimensional molecular theory of solvation coupled with molecular dynamics in Amber
Luchko, Tyler; Gusarov, Sergey; Roe, Daniel R.; Simmerling, Carlos; Case, David A.; Tuszynski, Jack; Kovalenko, Andriy
2010-01-01
We present the three-dimensional molecular theory of solvation (also known as 3D-RISM) coupled with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation by contracting solvent degrees of freedom, accelerated by extrapolating solvent-induced forces and applying them in large multi-time steps (up to 20 fs) to enable simulation of large biomolecules. The method has been implemented in the Amber molecular modeling package, and is illustrated here on alanine dipeptide and protein G. PMID:20440377
Balancing accuracy, robustness, and efficiency in simulations of coupled magma/mantle dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, R. F.
2011-12-01
Magmatism plays a central role in many Earth-science problems, and is particularly important for the chemical evolution of the mantle. The standard theory for coupled magma/mantle dynamics is fundamentally multi-physical, comprising mass and force balance for two phases, plus conservation of energy and composition in a two-component (minimum) thermochemical system. The tight coupling of these various aspects of the physics makes obtaining numerical solutions a significant challenge. Previous authors have advanced by making drastic simplifications, but these have limited applicability. Here I discuss progress, enabled by advanced numerical software libraries, in obtaining numerical solutions to the full system of governing equations. The goals in developing the code are as usual: accuracy of solutions, robustness of the simulation to non-linearities, and efficiency of code execution. I use the cutting-edge example of magma genesis and migration in a heterogeneous mantle to elucidate these issues. I describe the approximations employed and their consequences, as a means to frame the question of where and how to make improvements. I conclude that the capabilities needed to advance multi-physics simulation are, in part, distinct from those of problems with weaker coupling, or fewer coupled equations. Chief among these distinct requirements is the need to dynamically adjust the solution algorithm to maintain robustness in the face of coupled nonlinearities that would otherwise inhibit convergence. This may mean introducing Picard iteration rather than full coupling, switching between semi-implicit and explicit time-stepping, or adaptively increasing the strength of preconditioners. All of these can be accomplished by the user with, for example, PETSc. Formalising this adaptivity should be a goal for future development of software packages that seek to enable multi-physics simulation.
Role of protein dynamics in ion selectivity and allosteric coupling in the NaK channel
Brettmann, Joshua B.; Urusova, Darya; Tonelli, Marco; Silva, Jonathan R.; Henzler-Wildman, Katherine A.
2015-01-01
Flux-dependent inactivation that arises from functional coupling between the inner gate and the selectivity filter is widespread in ion channels. The structural basis of this coupling has only been well characterized in KcsA. Here we present NMR data demonstrating structural and dynamic coupling between the selectivity filter and intracellular constriction point in the bacterial nonselective cation channel, NaK. This transmembrane allosteric communication must be structurally different from KcsA because the NaK selectivity filter does not collapse under low-cation conditions. Comparison of NMR spectra of the nonselective NaK and potassium-selective NaK2K indicates that the number of ion binding sites in the selectivity filter shifts the equilibrium distribution of structural states throughout the channel. This finding was unexpected given the nearly identical crystal structure of NaK and NaK2K outside the immediate vicinity of the selectivity filter. Our results highlight the tight structural and dynamic coupling between the selectivity filter and the channel scaffold, which has significant implications for channel function. NaK offers a distinct model to study the physiologically essential connection between ion conduction and channel gating. PMID:26621745
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Xu; Wang, Tao; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Bo; He, Yu; Tang, Jian
2015-06-01
Ultrafast and low-power dynamically tunable single channel and multichannel slow light based on plasmon induced transparencies (PITs) in disk resonators coupled to a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide system with a nonlinear optical Kerr medium is investigated both numerically and analytically. A coupled-mode theory (CMT) is introduced to analyze this dynamically tunable single channel slow light structure. Multichannel slow light is realized in this plasmonic waveguide structure based on a bright-dark mode coupling mechanism. In order to reduce the pump intensity and obtain ultrafast response time, the traditional nonlinear Kerr material is replaced by monolayer graphene. It is found that the magnitude of the single PIT window can be controlled between 0.08 and 0.48, while the corresponding group index is controlled between 14.5 and 2.0 by dynamically decreasing pump intensity from 11.7 to 4.4 MW cm-2. Moreover, the phase shift multiplication effect is found in this structure. This work paves a new way towards the realization of highly integrated optical circuits and networks, especially for wavelength-selective, all-optical storage and nonlinear devices.
Ganzenmüller, Georg C.; Hiermaier, Stefan; Steinhauser, Martin O.
2012-01-01
We propose a thermodynamically consistent and energy-conserving temperature coupling scheme between the atomistic and the continuum domain. The coupling scheme links the two domains using the DPDE (Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy) thermostat and is designed to handle strong temperature gradients across the atomistic/continuum domain interface. The fundamentally different definitions of temperature in the continuum and atomistic domain – internal energy and heat capacity versus particle velocity – are accounted for in a straightforward and conceptually intuitive way by the DPDE thermostat. We verify the here-proposed scheme using a fluid, which is simultaneously represented as a continuum using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics, and as an atomistically resolved liquid using Molecular Dynamics. In the case of equilibrium contact between both domains, we show that the correct microscopic equilibrium properties of the atomistic fluid are obtained. As an example of a strong non-equilibrium situation, we consider the propagation of a steady shock-wave from the continuum domain into the atomistic domain, and show that the coupling scheme conserves both energy and shock-wave dynamics. To demonstrate the applicability of our scheme to real systems, we consider shock loading of a phospholipid bilayer immersed in water in a multi-scale simulation, an interesting topic of biological relevance. PMID:23300586
The coupling of fluids, dynamics, and controls on advanced architecture computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atwood, Christopher
1995-01-01
This grant provided for the demonstration of coupled controls, body dynamics, and fluids computations in a workstation cluster environment; and an investigation of the impact of peer-peer communication on flow solver performance and robustness. The findings of these investigations were documented in the conference articles.The attached publication, 'Towards Distributed Fluids/Controls Simulations', documents the solution and scaling of the coupled Navier-Stokes, Euler rigid-body dynamics, and state feedback control equations for a two-dimensional canard-wing. The poor scaling shown was due to serialized grid connectivity computation and Ethernet bandwidth limits. The scaling of a peer-to-peer communication flow code on an IBM SP-2 was also shown. The scaling of the code on the switched fabric-linked nodes was good, with a 2.4 percent loss due to communication of intergrid boundary point information. The code performance on 30 worker nodes was 1.7 (mu)s/point/iteration, or a factor of three over a Cray C-90 head. The attached paper, 'Nonlinear Fluid Computations in a Distributed Environment', documents the effect of several computational rate enhancing methods on convergence. For the cases shown, the highest throughput was achieved using boundary updates at each step, with the manager process performing communication tasks only. Constrained domain decomposition of the implicit fluid equations did not degrade the convergence rate or final solution. The scaling of a coupled body/fluid dynamics problem on an Ethernet-linked cluster was also shown.
Low-Dimensional Dynamics of Populations of Pulse-Coupled Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pazó, Diego; Montbrió, Ernest
2014-01-01
Large communities of biological oscillators show a prevalent tendency to self-organize in time. This cooperative phenomenon inspired Winfree to formulate a mathematical model that originated the theory of macroscopic synchronization. Despite its fundamental importance, a complete mathematical analysis of the model proposed by Winfree—consisting of a large population of all-to-all pulse-coupled oscillators—is still missing. Here, we show that the dynamics of the Winfree model evolves into the so-called Ott-Antonsen manifold. This important property allows for an exact description of this high-dimensional system in terms of a few macroscopic variables, and also allows for the full investigation of its dynamics. We find that brief pulses are capable of synchronizing heterogeneous ensembles that fail to synchronize with broad pulses, especially for certain phase-response curves. Finally, to further illustrate the potential of our results, we investigate the possibility of "chimera" states in populations of identical pulse-coupled oscillators. Chimeras are self-organized states in which the symmetry of a population is broken into a synchronous and an asynchronous part. Here, we derive three ordinary differential equations describing two coupled populations and uncover a variety of chimera states, including a new class with chaotic dynamics.
Dynamically Coupled Food-web and Hydrodynamic Modeling with ADH-CASM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piercy, C.; Swannack, T. M.
2012-12-01
Oysters and freshwater mussels are "ecological engineers," modifying the local water quality by filtering zooplankton and other suspended particulate matter from the water column and flow hydraulics by impinging on the near-bed flow environment. The success of sessile, benthic invertebrates such as oysters depends on environmental factors including but not limited to temperature, salinity, and flow regime. Typically food-web and other types of ecological models use flow and water quality data as direct input without regard to the feedback between the ecosystem and the physical environment. The USACE-ERDC has developed a coupled hydrodynamic-ecological modeling approach that dynamically couples a 2-D hydrodynamic and constituent transport model, Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH), with a bioenergetics food-web model, the Comprehensive Aquatics Systems Model (CASM), which captures the dynamic feedback between aquatic ecological systems and the environment. We present modeling results from restored oyster reefs in the Great Wicomico River on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, which quantify ecosystem services such as the influence of the benthic ecosystem on water quality. Preliminary results indicate that while the influence of oyster reefs on bulk flow dynamics is limited due to the localized influence of oyster reefs, large reefs and the associated benthic ecosystem can create measurable changes in the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon in the areas around reefs. We also present a sensitivity analysis to quantify the relative sensitivity of the coupled ADH-CASM model to both hydrodynamic and ecological parameter choice.
Darbes, Lynae A.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Neilands, Torsten B.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
2015-01-01
While the relationship context itself is increasingly being examined to understand sexual risk behavior among gay male couples, few studies have examined relationship dynamics and HIV risk longitudinally. We aimed to investigate relationship dynamics and psychosocial predictors of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with outside partners of serodiscordant or unknown HIV serostatus (UAIOUT) over time as well as UAI with primary partner in serodiscordant couples (UAIPP). We recruited a sample of 566 ethnically diverse, seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples and interviewed them six times over the course of three years. The surveys encompassed relationship dynamics between the partners and sexual behavior with primary and outside partners. We fit generalized linear mixed models for both the UAI outcomes with time and relationship dynamics as predictors while controlling for relationship length. Analyses of the longitudinal data revealed that, in both categories of couples, those with higher levels of positive relationship dynamics (e.g., commitment, satisfaction) were less likely to engage in UAIOUT. Higher investment in sexual agreement and communication were among the factors that significantly predicted less UAI for seroconcordant couples, but not for serodiscordant couples. For serodiscordant couples, greater levels of attachment and intimacy were associated with greater odds of UAIPP while increased HIV-specific social support was associated with lower odds of UAIPP. These results underscore the importance of creating and tailoring interventions for gay couples that help maintain and strengthen positive relationship dynamics as they have the potential to produce significant changes in HIV risk behavior and thereby in HIV transmission. PMID:24233329
Johnston, Jennifer M.
2014-01-01
The majority of biological processes mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) take place on timescales that are not conveniently accessible to standard molecular dynamics (MD) approaches, notwithstanding the current availability of specialized parallel computer architectures, and efficient simulation algorithms. Enhanced MD-based methods have started to assume an important role in the study of the rugged energy landscape of GPCRs by providing mechanistic details of complex receptor processes such as ligand recognition, activation, and oligomerization. We provide here an overview of these methods in their most recent application to the field. PMID:24158803
Impact of Sea Surface Salinity on Coupled Dynamics for the Tropical Indo Pacific
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busalacchi, A. J.; Hackert, E. C.
2014-12-01
In this presentation we assess the impact of in situ and satellite sea surface salinity (SSS) observations on seasonal to interannual variability of tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean dynamics as well as on dynamical ENSO forecasts using a Hybrid Coupled Model (HCM) for 1993-2007 (cf., Hackert et al., 2011) and August 2011 until February 2014 (cf., Hackert et al., 2014). The HCM is composed of a primitive equation ocean model coupled with a SVD-based statistical atmospheric model for the tropical Indo-Pacific region. An Ensemble Reduced Order Kalman Filter (EROKF) is used to assimilate observations to constrain dynamics and thermodynamics for initialization of the HCM. Including SSS generally improves NINO3 sea surface temperature anomaly validation. Assimilating SSS gives significant improvement versus just subsurface temperature for all forecast lead times after 5 months. We find that the positive impact of SSS assimilation is brought about by surface freshening in the western Pacific warm pool that leads to increased barrier layer thickness (BLT) and shallower mixed layer depths. Thus, in the west the net effect of assimilating SSS is to increase stability and reduce mixing, which concentrates the wind impact of ENSO coupling. Specifically, the main benefit of SSS assimilation for 1993-2007 comes from improvement to the Spring Predictability Barrier (SPB) period. In the east, the impact of Aquarius satellite SSS is to induce more cooling in the NINO3 region as a result of being relatively more salty than in situ SSS in the eastern Pacific leading to increased mixing and entrainment. This, in turn, sets up an enhanced west to east SST gradient and intensified Bjerknes coupling. For the 2011-2014 period, consensus coupled model forecasts compiled by the IRI tend to erroneously predict NINO3 warming; SSS assimilation corrects this defect. Finally, we plan to update our analysis and report on the dynamical impact of including Aquarius SSS for the most-recent, ongoing 2014
Ultrafast XUV spectroscopy: Unveiling the nature of electronic couplings in molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timmers, Henry Robert
Molecules are traditionally treated quantum mechanically using the Born-Oppenheimer formalism. In this formalism, different electronic states of the molecule are treated independently. However, most photo-initiated phenomena occurring in nature are driven by the couplings between different electronic states in both isolated molecules and molecular aggregates, and therefore occur beyond the Born-Oppenheimer formalism. These couplings are relevant in reactions relating to the perception of vision in the human eye, the oxidative damage and repair of DNA, the harvesting of light in photosynthesis, and the transfer of charge across large chains of molecules. While these reaction dynamics have traditionally been studied with visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy, attosecond XUV pulses formed through the process of high harmonic generation form a perfect tool for probing coupled electronic dynamics in molecules. In this thesis, I will present our work in using ultrafast, XUV spectroscopy to study these dynamics in molecules of increasing complexity. We begin by probing the relaxation dynamics of superexcited states in diatomic O 2. These states can relax via two types of electronic couplings, either through autoionization or neutral dissociation. We find that our pump-probe scheme can disentangle the two relaxation mechanisms and independently measure their contributing lifetimes. Next, we present our work in observing a coherent electron hole wavepacket initiated by the ionization of polyatomic CO 2 near a conical intersection. The electron-nuclear couplings near the conical intersection drive the electron hole between different orbital configurations. We find that we can not only measure the lifetime of quantum coherence in the electron hole wavepacket, but also control its evolution with a strong, infrared probing field. Finally, we propose an experiment to observe the migration of an electron hole across iodobenzene on the few-femtosecond timescale. We present
A 'Geometric' Downscaling Method for Coupling Dynamical Ice Sheet Models to GEOS-5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, B.; Cullather, R. I.; Nowicki, S.; Suarez, M.
2014-12-01
Plausible projection of future sea level rises requires coupled AOCGMs to include a dynamic ice sheet model (ISM) component. Getting the right forcing on the ice sheet models plays a critical role in the coupling process. The issue is further complicated by the mismatch between the grids used by atmosphere and ice sheet. Typically surface mass balance (SMB) and temperature fields are downscaled from the coarse atmospheric grid to the fine ice grid. We present one technique employed to couple NASA Goddard GEOS5 AGCM to JPL Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). The Greenland ice surface from ISSM is explicitly embedded in the GEOS5 AGCM grid with a 'tile' representation. Atmospheric forcing fields are interpolated and further adjusted to account for elevation differences and fed into a SMB model operating on ice surface tiles. The coupling is done in such a way that mass and energy are conserved. The proposed method is independent of the underlying ice grid and can be used to couple any ISM. Comparison of resultant downscaled SMB fields from a suite of AGCM resolutions will be discussed.
Schüler, D.; Alonso, S.; Bär, M.; Torcini, A.
2014-12-15
Pattern formation often occurs in spatially extended physical, biological, and chemical systems due to an instability of the homogeneous steady state. The type of the instability usually prescribes the resulting spatio-temporal patterns and their characteristic length scales. However, patterns resulting from the simultaneous occurrence of instabilities cannot be expected to be simple superposition of the patterns associated with the considered instabilities. To address this issue, we design two simple models composed by two asymmetrically coupled equations of non-conserved (Swift-Hohenberg equations) or conserved (Cahn-Hilliard equations) order parameters with different characteristic wave lengths. The patterns arising in these systems range from coexisting static patterns of different wavelengths to traveling waves. A linear stability analysis allows to derive a two parameter phase diagram for the studied models, in particular, revealing for the Swift-Hohenberg equations, a co-dimension two bifurcation point of Turing and wave instability and a region of coexistence of stationary and traveling patterns. The nonlinear dynamics of the coupled evolution equations is investigated by performing accurate numerical simulations. These reveal more complex patterns, ranging from traveling waves with embedded Turing patterns domains to spatio-temporal chaos, and a wide hysteretic region, where waves or Turing patterns coexist. For the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equations the presence of a weak coupling is sufficient to arrest the coarsening process and to lead to the emergence of purely periodic patterns. The final states are characterized by domains with a characteristic length, which diverges logarithmically with the coupling amplitude.
A Statistical Approach for the Concurrent Coupling of Molecular Dynamics and Finite Element Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saether, E.; Yamakov, V.; Glaessgen, E.
2007-01-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) methods are opening new opportunities for simulating the fundamental processes of material behavior at the atomistic level. However, increasing the size of the MD domain quickly presents intractable computational demands. A robust approach to surmount this computational limitation has been to unite continuum modeling procedures such as the finite element method (FEM) with MD analyses thereby reducing the region of atomic scale refinement. The challenging problem is to seamlessly connect the two inherently different simulation techniques at their interface. In the present work, a new approach to MD-FEM coupling is developed based on a restatement of the typical boundary value problem used to define a coupled domain. The method uses statistical averaging of the atomistic MD domain to provide displacement interface boundary conditions to the surrounding continuum FEM region, which, in return, generates interface reaction forces applied as piecewise constant traction boundary conditions to the MD domain. The two systems are computationally disconnected and communicate only through a continuous update of their boundary conditions. With the use of statistical averages of the atomistic quantities to couple the two computational schemes, the developed approach is referred to as an embedded statistical coupling method (ESCM) as opposed to a direct coupling method where interface atoms and FEM nodes are individually related. The methodology is inherently applicable to three-dimensional domains, avoids discretization of the continuum model down to atomic scales, and permits arbitrary temperatures to be applied.
Dynamics and predictability of a low-order wind-driven ocean-atmosphere coupled model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vannitsem, Stéphane
2014-04-01
The dynamics of a low-order coupled wind-driven ocean-atmosphere system is investigated with emphasis on its predictability properties. The low-order coupled deterministic system is composed of a baroclinic atmosphere for which 12 dominant dynamical modes are only retained (Charney and Straus in J Atmos Sci 37:1157-1176, 1980) and a wind-driven, quasi-geostrophic and reduced-gravity shallow ocean whose field is truncated to four dominant modes able to reproduce the large scale oceanic gyres (Pierini in J Phys Oceanogr 41:1585-1604, 2011). The two models are coupled through mechanical forcings only. The analysis of its dynamics reveals first that under aperiodic atmospheric forcings only dominant single gyres (clockwise or counterclockwise) appear, while for periodic atmospheric solutions the double gyres emerge. In the present model domain setting context, this feature is related to the level of truncation of the atmospheric fields, as indicated by a preliminary analysis of the impact of higher wavenumber ("synoptic" scale) modes on the development of oceanic gyres. In the latter case, double gyres appear in the presence of a chaotic atmosphere. Second the dynamical quantities characterizing the short-term predictability (Lyapunov exponents, Lyapunov dimension, Kolmogorov-Sinaï (KS) entropy) displays a complex dependence as a function of the key parameters of the system, namely the coupling strength and the external thermal forcing. In particular, the KS-entropy is increasing as a function of the coupling in most of the experiments, implying an increase of the rate of loss of information about the localization of the system on its attractor. Finally the dynamics of the error is explored and indicates, in particular, a rich variety of short term behaviors of the error in the atmosphere depending on the (relative) amplitude of the initial error affecting the ocean, from polynomial ( at 2 + bt 3 + ct 4) up to exponential-like evolutions. These features are explained
Dynamics of atom-field probability amplitudes in a coupled cavity system with Kerr non-linearity
Priyesh, K. V.; Thayyullathil, Ramesh Babu
2014-01-28
We have investigated the dynamics of two cavities coupled together via photon hopping, filled with Kerr non-linear medium and each containing a two level atom in it. The evolution of various atom (field) state probabilities of the coupled cavity system in two excitation sub space are obtained numerically. Detailed analysis has been done by taking different initial conditions of the system, with various coupling strengths and by varying the susceptibility of the medium. The role of susceptibility factor, on the dynamics atom field probability has been examined. In a coupled cavity system with strong photon hopping it is found that the susceptibility factor modifies the behaviour of probability amplitudes.
Adaptive spacetime method using Riemann jump conditions for coupled atomistic-continuum dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraczek, B.; Miller, S. T.; Haber, R. B.; Johnson, D. D.
2010-03-01
We combine the Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin (SDG) method for elastodynamics with the mathematically consistent Atomistic Discontinuous Galerkin (ADG) method in a new scheme that concurrently couples continuum and atomistic models of dynamic response in solids. The formulation couples non-overlapping continuum and atomistic models across sharp interfaces by weakly enforcing jump conditions, for both momentum balance and kinematic compatibility, using Riemann values to preserve the characteristic structure of the underlying hyperbolic system. Momentum balances to within machine-precision accuracy over every element, on each atom, and over the coupled system, with small, controllable energy dissipation in the continuum region that ensures numerical stability. When implemented on suitable unstructured spacetime grids, the continuum SDG model offers linear computational complexity in the number of elements and powerful adaptive analysis capabilities that readily bridge between atomic and continuum scales in both space and time. A special trace operator for the atomic velocities and an associated atomistic traction field enter the jump conditions at the coupling interface. The trace operator depends on parameters that specify, at the scale of the atomic spacing, the position of the coupling interface relative to the atoms. In a key finding, we demonstrate that optimizing these parameters suppresses spurious reflections at the coupling interface without the use of non-physical damping or special boundary conditions. We formulate the implicit SDG-ADG coupling scheme in up to three spatial dimensions, and describe an efficient iterative solution scheme that outperforms common explicit schemes, such as the Velocity Verlet integrator. Numerical examples, in 1d×time and employing both linear and nonlinear potentials, demonstrate the performance of the SDG-ADG method and show how adaptive spacetime meshing reconciles disparate time steps and resolves atomic-scale signals
A New Concurrent Multiscale Methodology for Coupling Molecular Dynamics and Finite Element Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamakov, Vesselin; Saether, Erik; Glaessgen, Edward H/.
2008-01-01
The coupling of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with finite element methods (FEM) yields computationally efficient models that link fundamental material processes at the atomistic level with continuum field responses at higher length scales. The theoretical challenge involves developing a seamless connection along an interface between two inherently different simulation frameworks. Various specialized methods have been developed to solve particular classes of problems. Many of these methods link the kinematics of individual MD atoms with FEM nodes at their common interface, necessarily requiring that the finite element mesh be refined to atomic resolution. Some of these coupling approaches also require simulations to be carried out at 0 K and restrict modeling to two-dimensional material domains due to difficulties in simulating full three-dimensional material processes. In the present work, a new approach to MD-FEM coupling is developed based on a restatement of the standard boundary value problem used to define a coupled domain. The method replaces a direct linkage of individual MD atoms and finite element (FE) nodes with a statistical averaging of atomistic displacements in local atomic volumes associated with each FE node in an interface region. The FEM and MD computational systems are effectively independent and communicate only through an iterative update of their boundary conditions. With the use of statistical averages of the atomistic quantities to couple the two computational schemes, the developed approach is referred to as an embedded statistical coupling method (ESCM). ESCM provides an enhanced coupling methodology that is inherently applicable to three-dimensional domains, avoids discretization of the continuum model to atomic scale resolution, and permits finite temperature states to be applied.
An Embedded Statistical Method for Coupling Molecular Dynamics and Finite Element Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saether, E.; Glaessgen, E.H.; Yamakov, V.
2008-01-01
The coupling of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with finite element methods (FEM) yields computationally efficient models that link fundamental material processes at the atomistic level with continuum field responses at higher length scales. The theoretical challenge involves developing a seamless connection along an interface between two inherently different simulation frameworks. Various specialized methods have been developed to solve particular classes of problems. Many of these methods link the kinematics of individual MD atoms with FEM nodes at their common interface, necessarily requiring that the finite element mesh be refined to atomic resolution. Some of these coupling approaches also require simulations to be carried out at 0 K and restrict modeling to two-dimensional material domains due to difficulties in simulating full three-dimensional material processes. In the present work, a new approach to MD-FEM coupling is developed based on a restatement of the standard boundary value problem used to define a coupled domain. The method replaces a direct linkage of individual MD atoms and finite element (FE) nodes with a statistical averaging of atomistic displacements in local atomic volumes associated with each FE node in an interface region. The FEM and MD computational systems are effectively independent and communicate only through an iterative update of their boundary conditions. With the use of statistical averages of the atomistic quantities to couple the two computational schemes, the developed approach is referred to as an embedded statistical coupling method (ESCM). ESCM provides an enhanced coupling methodology that is inherently applicable to three-dimensional domains, avoids discretization of the continuum model to atomic scale resolution, and permits finite temperature states to be applied.
Coherent dynamic structure factors of strongly coupled plasmas: A generalized hydrodynamic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Di; Zhao, Bin; Hu, GuangYue; Gong, Tao; Xia, YuQing; Zheng, Jian
2016-05-01
A generalized hydrodynamic fluctuation model is proposed to simplify the calculation of the dynamic structure factor S(ω, k) of non-ideal plasmas using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In this model, the kinetic and correlation effects are both included in hydrodynamic coefficients, which are considered as functions of the coupling strength (Γ) and collision parameter (kλei), where λei is the electron-ion mean free path. A particle-particle particle-mesh molecular dynamics simulation code is also developed to simulate the dynamic structure factors, which are used to benchmark the calculation of our model. A good agreement between the two different approaches confirms the reliability of our model.
Physics and Dynamics Coupling Across Scales in the Next Generation CESM. Final Report
Bacmeister, Julio T.
2015-06-12
This project examines physics/dynamics coupling, that is, exchange of meteorological profiles and tendencies between an atmospheric model’s dynamical core and its various physics parameterizations. Most model physics parameterizations seek to represent processes that occur on scales smaller than the smallest scale resolved by the dynamical core. As a consequence a key conceptual aspect of parameterizations is an assumption about the subgrid variability of quantities such as temperature, humidity or vertical wind. Most existing parameterizations of processes such as turbulence, convection, cloud, and gravity wave drag make relatively ad hoc assumptions about this variability and are forced to introduce empirical parameters, i.e., “tuning knobs” to obtain realistic simulations. These knobs make systematic dependences on model grid size difficult to quantify.
Universal transport dynamics in a quenched tunnel-coupled Luttinger liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambetta, F. M.; Cavaliere, F.; Citro, R.; Sassetti, M.
2016-07-01
The transport dynamics of a quenched Luttinger liquid tunnel-coupled to a fermionic reservoir is investigated. In the transient dynamics, we show that for a sudden quench of the electron interaction universal power-law decay in time of the tunneling current occurs, ascribed to the presence of entangled compound excitations created by the quench. In sharp contrast to the usual nonuniversal power-law behavior of a zero-temperature nonquenched Luttinger liquid, the steady-state tunneling current is Ohmic and can be explained in terms of an effective quench-activated heating of the system. Our study unveils an unconventional dynamics for a quenched Luttinger liquid that could be identified in quenched cold Fermi gases.
A new model of long-term, coupled dynamics of carbon and water in northern peatlands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolking, S.; Roulet, N.
2008-12-01
We present a new model that simulates coupled carbon and water dynamics of northern peatlands at an annual time step over time scales of decades to millennia. The Holocene Peatland Model (HPM) simulates peatland carbon and water dynamics as the net consequence of several interacting processes: (1) above- and below-ground vegetation NPP and litter production for bryophytes, woody and herbaceous plants; (2) aerobic and anaerobic litter/peat decomposition down the peat profile; (3) the dependence of peat physical and hydraulic properties on peat composition and degree of humification; and (4) peatland annual water balance, water table depth, and unsaturated zone water content. In this initial analysis, a simulation of long- term peat accumulation is compared against peat core data from a northern peatland in North America. The sensitivity of peatland carbon and water dynamics to climate variability are explored.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shia, Run-Lie; Zhou, Shuntai; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Salstein, David; Cady-Pereira, Karen
1997-01-01
A zonal mean chemistry transport model (2-D CTM) coupled with a semi-spectral dynamical model is used to simulate the distributions of trace gases in the present day atmosphere. The zonal-mean and eddy equations for the velocity and the geopotential height are solved in the semi-spectral dynamical model. The residual mean circulation is derived from these dynamical variables and used to advect the chemical species in the 2- D CTM. Based on a linearized wave transport equation, the eddy diffusion coefficients for chemical tracers are expressed in terms of the amplitude, frequency and growth rate of dynamical waves; local chemical loss rates; and a time constant parameterizing small scale mixing. The contributions to eddy flux are from the time varying wave amplitude (transient eddy), chemical reactions (chemical eddy) and small scale mixing. In spite of the high truncation in the dynamical module (only three longest waves are resolved), the model has simulated many observed characteristics of stratospheric dynamics and distribution of chemical species including ozone. Compared with the values commonly used in 2-D CTMs, the eddy diffusion coefficients for chemical species calculated in this model are smaller, especially in the subtropics. It is also found that the chemical eddy diffusion has only a small effects in determining the distribution of most slow species, including ozone in the stratosphere.
2013-01-01
Background Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods Twelve focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18–49. The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related to family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used. The discussions and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis. Results Four themes emerged during the study. First, “risks and costs” which refer to the side effects of FP methods and the treatment of side -effects as well as the costs inherit in being labeled as an unfaithful spouse. Second, “male involvement” as men showed little interest in participating in family planning issues. However, the same men were mentioned as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Third, “gender relations and communication” as participants indicated that few women participated in decision-making on family planning and the number of children to have. Fourth, “urban–rural differences”, life in rural favoring having more children than urban areas therefore, the value of children depended on the place of residence. Conclusion Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use. PMID:23721196
On the use of a weak-coupling thermostat in replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.
2015-07-01
In a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, various thermostat algorithms, including Langevin dynamics (LD), Nosé-Hoover (NH), and weak-coupling (WC) thermostats, can be used to keep the simulation temperature constant. A canonical ensemble is generated by the use of LD and NH, while the nature of the ensemble produced by WC has not yet been identified. A few years ago, it was shown that when using a WC thermostat with particular values of the temperature coupling time for liquid water at ambient temperature and pressure, the distribution of the potential energy is less wide than the canonical one. This led to an artifact in temperature replica-exchange molecular dynamics (T-REMD) simulations in which the potential energy distributions appear not to be equal to the ones of standard MD simulations. In this paper, we re-investigate this problem. We show that this artifact is probably due to the ensemble generated by WC being incompatible with the T-REMD replica-exchange criterion, which assumes a canonical configurational ensemble. We also show, however, that this artifact can be reduced or even eliminated by particular choices of the temperature coupling time of WC and the replica-exchange time period of T-REMD, i.e., when the temperature coupling time is chosen very close to the MD time step or when the exchange time period is chosen large enough. An attempt to develop a T-REMD replica-exchange criterion which is likely to be more compatible with the WC configurational ensemble is reported. Furthermore, an exchange criterion which is compatible with a microcanonical ensemble is used in total energy REMD simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie
2016-07-01
The strongly perturbed dynamical environment near asteroids has been a great challenge for the mission design. Besides the non-spherical gravity, solar radiation pressure, and solar tide, the orbital motion actually suffers from another perturbation caused by the gravitational orbit-attitude coupling of the spacecraft. This gravitational orbit-attitude coupling perturbation (GOACP) has its origin in the fact that the gravity acting on a non-spherical extended body, the real case of the spacecraft, is actually different from that acting on a point mass, the approximation of the spacecraft in the orbital dynamics. We intend to take into account GOACP besides the non-spherical gravity to improve the previous close-proximity orbital dynamics. GOACP depends on the spacecraft attitude, which is assumed to be controlled ideally with respect to the asteroid in this study. Then, we focus on the orbital motion perturbed by the non-spherical gravity and GOACP with the given attitude. This new orbital model can be called the attitude-restricted orbital dynamics, where restricted means that the orbital motion is studied as a restricted problem at a given attitude. In the present paper, equilibrium points of the attitude-restricted orbital dynamics in the second degree and order gravity field of a uniformly rotating asteroid are investigated. Two kinds of equilibria are obtained: on and off the asteroid equatorial principal axis. These equilibria are different from and more diverse than those in the classical orbital dynamics without GOACP. In the case of a large spacecraft, the off-axis equilibrium points can exist at an arbitrary longitude in the equatorial plane. These results are useful for close-proximity operations, such as the asteroid body-fixed hovering.
Coupled Dynamics and Entropic Contribution to the Allosteric Mechanism of Pin1.
Barman, Arghya; Hamelberg, Donald
2016-08-25
Allosteric communication in proteins regulates a plethora of downstream processes in subcellular signaling pathways. Describing the effects of cooperative ligand binding on the atomic level is a key to understanding many regulatory processes involving biomolecules. Here, we use microsecond-long molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the allosteric mechanism of Pin1, a potential therapeutic target and a phosphorylated-Ser/Thr dependent peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that regulates several subcellular processes and has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer and Alzheimer's. Experimental studies suggest that the catalytic domain and the noncatalytic WW domain are allosterically coupled; however, an atomic level description of the dynamics associated with the interdomain communication is lacking. We show that binding of the substrate to the WW domain is directly coupled to the dynamics of the catalytic domain, causing rearrangement of the residue-residue contact dynamics from the WW domain to the catalytic domain. The binding affinity of the substrate in the catalytic domain is also enhanced upon binding of the substrate to the WW domain. Modulation of the dynamics of the catalytic domain upon binding of the substrate to the WW domain leads to prepayment of the entropic cost of binding the substrate to the catalytic domain. This study shows that Ile 28 at the interfacial region between the catalytic and WW domains is certainly one of the residues responsible for bridging the communication between the two domains. The results complement previous experiments and provide valuable atomistic insights into the role of dynamics and possible entropic contribution to the allosteric mechanism of proteins. PMID:27077947
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gueven, I.; Steeb, H.; Luding, S.
2014-12-01
Electrokinetic waves describe the coupling between seismic and electromagnetic waves that exist in porous media. The coupling between them arise from an electrochemical boundary layer between grain and fluid interface of saturated porous media. Acoustical waves cause a disturbance of the electrical fluid charge within the double layer, which therefore creates an electric streaming current (seismoelectric effect). Inversely, electromagnetic waves can generate mechanical signals (electroseismic effect). Electrokinetic conversion potentially combines high seismic resolution with good electromagnetic hydrocarbon sensitivity. The (stationary and frequency-dependent) streaming potential coefficient is a key property, which gives rise to the coupling between electromagnetic and acoustical waves. It depends strongly on the fluid conductivity, porosity, tortuosity, permeability, pore throat and zeta potential of porous media. We examine experimentally both, the stationary and dynamic permeabilities and coupling coefficients of sintered glass bead systems. For this purpose a multi-purpose measuring cell was developed which allows us to carry out - besides common ultrasound experiments - also to perform stationary and frequency-dependent permeability and coupling coefficient measurements. For the experiments sintered mono- and slightly polydisperse glass bead samples with different glass bead diameters between 0.4 and 8mm and porosities ranging between 21 and 39% were used. The stationary and dynamic permeability and streaming potential measurements are supported by μCT scans which enable us a deeper insight into the porous medium. Based on the μCT scans of the produced sintered glass bead samples essential influence parameters, like tortuosity, porosity, effective particle diameters and pore throats in different regions of the entire scanned region have been analyzed in detail to understand the laboratory experiments, cf. Illustration 1. In addition lattice Boltzmann
Dynamic Jahn-Teller Coupling, Anharmonic Oxygen Vibrations and HIGH-Tc Superconductivity in Oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, K. H.; Clougherty, D. P.; McHenry, M. E.
A universal dynamic Jahn-Teller (DJT) mechanism for superconductivity and its applications to CuO and BaBiO3 high-Tc oxides are reviewed. Dynamical interconversion between the shallow "double-well" potentials of degenerate delocalized oxygen-oxygen "pπ-bonds" at the Fermi energy (EF) induces anharmonic oxygen vibrations, lattice-electron coupling, and Cooper pairing. This mechanism yields high Tc's and small-to-vanishing isotope shifts for cuprates, where O(pπ)-O(pπ) bond overlap at EF is promoted by Cu(dπ*)-O(pπ) hybridization. It yields lower Tc's and larger isotope shifts for BaBiO3's, where O(pπ)-O(pπ) overlap is small. For vanishing bond overlap at EF, DJT coupling reduces to harmonic phonon coupling in BCS theory. Simple formulae for calculating Tc and isotope shifts for any superconductor from the "real-space" chemical bonding at EF are presented, yielding (Tc)max ≈ 230 K.
Experimental mapping of nonlinear dynamics in synchronized coupled semiconductor laser networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argyris, Apostolos; Bourmpos, Michail; Syvridis, Dimitris
2015-05-01
The potential of conventional semiconductor lasers to generate complex and chaotic dynamics at a bandwidth that extends up to tens of GHz turns them into useful components in applications oriented to sensing and security. Specifically, latest theoretical and experimental works have demonstrated the capability of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers to exhibit a joint behaviour under various conditions. In an uncoupled network consisting of N similar SLs - representing autonomous nodes in the network - each node emits an optical signal of various dynamics depending on its biasing conditions and internal properties. These nodes remain unsynchronized unless appropriate coupling and biasing conditions apply. A synchronized behaviour can be in principle observed in sub-groups of lasers or in the overall laser network. In the present work, experimental topologies that employ eight SLs, under diverse biasing and coupling conditions, are built and investigated. The deployed systems incorporate off-the-shelf fiber-optic communications components operating at the 1550nm spectral window. The role of emission wavelength detuning of each participating node in the network - at GHz level - is evaluated.
The Coupling of Subduction Dynamics and Large-scale Continental Tectonics during Tethys Closure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capitanio, F. A.
2015-12-01
The closure of Tethys Ocean and following collision is associated with the most remarkable examples of large-scale continental tectonics of our planet. It is known that this is the result of the coupling between oceanic subduction, where largest tectonic forces are generated, and continents, however why only some segments of the Asian margin display tectonics migration in the interiors remains unknown. Using numerical modeling the dynamics of the subducting and upper plates interactions is probed, emphasizing the role forces such as subducting slabs' buoyancy, viscous mantle drag, ridge push and far-field forces have in plate margins-interiors coupling. The perturbations to the force balance following slab breakoff, continent subduction and trench land-locking during oceanic closure leads to a range of different strain regimes in the upper plate, from large-scale extrusion to thickening along the collisional margin. The models support the combined interpretation of closing plates, subduction histories and continental tectonics, which is relevant to examples of Asian continent, where similar coupled subduction and upper plate tectonics evolutions are found. It is inferred that the subduction dynamics during Tethys closure strongly controlled the emergence of lithospheric faulting and thickening, indentation, extrusion and extension in the Asian continent.
Complex dynamics analysis of impulsively coupled Duffing oscillators with ring structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Li-Ping; Yu, Jian-Jiang
2015-02-01
Impulsively coupled systems are high-dimensional non-smooth systems that can exhibit rich and complex dynamics. This paper studies the complex dynamics of a non-smooth system which is unidirectionally impulsively coupled by three Duffing oscillators in a ring structure. By constructing a proper Poincaré map of the non-smooth system, an analytical expression of the Jacobian matrix of Poincaré map is given. Two-parameter Hopf bifurcation sets are obtained by combining the shooting method and the Runge-Kutta method. When the period is fixed and the coupling strength changes, the system undergoes stable, periodic, quasi-periodic, and hyper-chaotic solutions, etc. Floquet theory is used to study the stability of the periodic solutions of the system and their bifurcations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11402224, 11202180, 61273106, and 11171290), the Qing Lan Project of the Jiangsu Higher Educational Institutions of China, and the Jiangsu Overseas Research and Training Program for University Prominent Young and Middle-aged Teachers and Presidents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexeev, Timur
With the increasing size of wind turbines and the use of flexible and light materials in aerodynamic applications, aeroelastic tailoring for power generation and blade stability has become an important subject in the study of wind turbine dynamics. To this day, coupling of bending and torsion in wind turbine rotor blades has been studied primarily as an elastic mechanism due to a coupling laminate construction. In this report, inertial coupling of bending and torsion, due to offset of axis of elasticity and axis of center of mass, is investigated and numerical simulations are performed to test the validity of the constructed model using an in-house developed aeroelastic numerical tool. A computationally efficient aeroelastic numerical tool, based on Goldstein's helicoidal vortex model with a prescribed wake model and modal coupling of bending and torsion in the blades, is developed for 2-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines and a conceptual study is performed in order to argue the validity of the proposed formulation and numerical construction. The aeroelastic numerical tool, without bending-torsion coupling, was validated (Chattot 2007) using NREL Phase VI wind turbine data, which has become the baseline model in the wind turbine community. Due to novelty of the proposed inertial bending-torsion coupling in the aeroelastic model of the rotor and lack of field data, as well as, other numerical tools available for code to code comparison studies, a thorough numerical investigation of the proposed formulation is performed in order to validate the aeroelastic numerical tool Finally, formulations of geometrically nonlinear beams, elastically nonlinear plates and shells, and a piecewise linear, two degree of freedom, quasi steady, aerodynamic model are presented as an extension for nonlinear wind turbine aeroelastic simulations. Preliminary results of nonlinear beams, plates, shells, and 2 DOF NACA0012 aeroelastic model are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warner, Thomas T.; Sheu, Rong-Shyang; Bowers, James F.; Sykes, R. Ian; Dodd, Gregory C.; Henn, Douglas S.
2002-05-01
Ensemble simulations made using a coupled atmospheric dynamic model and a probabilistic Lagrangian puff dispersion model were employed in a forensic analysis of the transport and dispersion of a toxic gas that may have been released near Al Muthanna, Iraq, during the Gulf War. The ensemble study had two objectives, the first of which was to determine the sensitivity of the calculated dosage fields to the choices that must be made about the configuration of the atmospheric dynamic model. In this test, various choices were used for model physics representations and for the large-scale analyses that were used to construct the model initial and boundary conditions. The second study objective was to examine the dispersion model's ability to use ensemble inputs to predict dosage probability distributions. Here, the dispersion model was used with the ensemble mean fields from the individual atmospheric dynamic model runs, including the variability in the individual wind fields, to generate dosage probabilities. These are compared with the explicit dosage probabilities derived from the individual runs of the coupled modeling system. The results demonstrate that the specific choices made about the dynamic-model configuration and the large-scale analyses can have a large impact on the simulated dosages. For example, the area near the source that is exposed to a selected dosage threshold varies by up to a factor of 4 among members of the ensemble. The agreement between the explicit and ensemble dosage probabilities is relatively good for both low and high dosage levels. Although only one ensemble was considered in this study, the encouraging results suggest that a probabilistic dispersion model may be of value in quantifying the effects of uncertainties in a dynamic-model ensemble on dispersion model predictions of atmospheric transport and dispersion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dialynas, Y. G.; Bastola, S.; Billings, S. A.; Bras, R. L.
2014-12-01
Soil erosion and deposition play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, constituting an important driver of atmospheric CO2. Clarification of the net effect of landscape evolution on the C cycle may be achieved using coupled fully-distributed modelling of hydro-geomorphic and biogeochemical processes. We developed a distributed model of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics within an existing coupled physically-based hydro-geomorphic model (tRIBS - Erosion) to simulate the effects of soil erosion and deposition on C dynamics at basin scale. The SOC mass balance is analytically formulated at each cell using temporally variant, continuous vertical profiles of SOC content and SOC production and oxidation rate constants derived from SOC turnover characteristics. Landscape evolution feedbacks on C dynamics include the redistribution of eroded SOC, and the alteration of the SOC production and oxidation throughout the corresponding vertical profiles due to geomorphic perturbations. At each time step, model outputs include lateral and vertical C fluxes, and SOC content, at each soil column. We applied the model to the Calhoun Experimental Forest in South Carolina, which constitutes a forest recovering from agricultural land degradation prior to the mid-20th century. To test performance we carried out a point comparison against a spreadsheet-based model, SOrCERO (Soil Organic Carbon, Erosion, Replacement, and Oxidation) of SOC dynamics, which estimates effects of SOC erosion and altered SOC production and oxidation on CO2 release at an eroding profile. At a point, time integrated results from the two models were comparable. The proposed model has the additional advantage of being able to quantify C sinks and sources across the landscape in a spatially explicit manner, by systematically accounting for topographic controls on C dynamics. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the alteration of SOC production and oxidation due to landscape evolution and management practices
Dynamic coupling of complex brain networks and dual-task behavior.
Alavash, Mohsen; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten
2016-04-01
Multi-tasking is a familiar situation where behavioral performance is often challenged. To date, fMRI studies investigating the neural underpinning of dual-task interference have mostly relied on local brain activation maps or static brain connectivity networks. Here, based on task fMRI we explored how fluctuations in behavior during concurrent performance of a visuospatial and a speech task relate to alternations in the topology of dynamic brain connectivity networks. We combined a time-resolved functional connectivity and complex network analysis with a sliding window approach applied to the trial by trial behavioral responses to investigate the coupling between dynamic brain networks and dual-task behavior at close temporal proximity. Participants showed fluctuations in their dual-task behavior over time, with the accuracy in the component tasks being statistically independent from one another. On the global level of brain networks we found that dynamic changes of network topology were differentially coupled with the behavior in each component task during the course of dual-tasking. While momentary decrease in the global efficiency of dynamic brain networks correlated with subsequent increase in visuospatial accuracy, better speech performance was preceded by higher global network efficiency and was followed by an increase in between-module connectivity over time. Additionally, dynamic alternations in the modular organization of brain networks at the posterior cingulate cortex were differentially predictive for the visuospatial as compared to the speech accuracy over time. Our results provide the first evidence that, during the course of dual-tasking, each component task is supported by a distinct topological configuration of brain connectivity networks. This finding suggests that the failure of functional brain connectivity networks to adapt to an optimal topology supporting the performance in both component tasks at the same time contributes to the moment to
Coupling field theory with mesoscopic dynamical simulations of multicomponent lipid bilayers.
McWhirter, J Liam; Ayton, Gary; Voth, Gregory A
2004-11-01
A method for simulating a two-component lipid bilayer membrane in the mesoscopic regime is presented. The membrane is modeled as an elastic network of bonded points; the spring constants of these bonds are parameterized by the microscopic bulk modulus estimated from earlier atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations for several bilayer mixtures of DMPC and cholesterol. The modulus depends on the composition of a point in the elastic membrane model. The dynamics of the composition field is governed by the Cahn-Hilliard equation where a free energy functional models the coupling between the composition and curvature fields. The strength of the bonds in the elastic network are then modulated noting local changes in the composition and using a fit to the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation data. Estimates for the magnitude and sign of the coupling parameter in the free energy model are made treating the bending modulus as a function of composition. A procedure for assigning the remaining parameters in the free energy model is also outlined. It is found that the square of the mean curvature averaged over the entire simulation box is enhanced if the strength of the bonds in the elastic network are modulated in response to local changes in the composition field. We suggest that this simulation method could also be used to determine if phase coexistence affects the stress response of the membrane to uniform dilations in area. This response, measured in the mesoscopic regime, is already known to be conditioned or renormalized by thermal undulations. PMID:15347594
Dynamics of a two-level system coupled to a bath of spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Haobin; Shao, Jiushu
2012-12-01
The dynamics of a two-level system coupled to a spin bath is investigated via the numerically exact multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) theory. Consistent with the previous work on linear response approximation [N. Makri, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2823 (1999)], 10.1021/jp9847540, it is demonstrated numerically that this spin-spin-bath model can be mapped onto the well-known spin-boson model if the system-bath coupling strength obeys an appropriate scaling behavior. This linear response mapping, however, may require many bath spin degrees of freedom to represent the practical continuum limit. To clarify the discrepancies resulted from different approximate treatments of this model, the population dynamics of the central two-level system has been investigated near the transition boundary between the coherent and incoherent motions via the ML-MCTDH method. It is found that increasing temperature favors quantum coherence in the nonadiabatic limit of this model, which corroborates the prediction in the previous work [J. Shao and P. Hanggi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5710 (1998)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.5710 based on the non-interacting blip approximation (NIBA). However, the coherent-incoherent boundary obtained by the exact ML-MCTDH simulation is slightly different from the approximate NIBA results. Quantum dynamics in other physical regimes are also discussed.
Coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator: Model and simulations
Nascimento, Melke A.; Nagao, Raphael; Eiswirth, Markus; Varela, Hamilton
2014-12-21
The co-existence of disparate time scales is pervasive in many systems. In particular for surface reactions, it has been shown that the long-term evolution of the core oscillator is decisively influenced by slow surface changes, such as progressing deactivation. Here we present an in-depth numerical investigation of the coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator. The model consists of four nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, investigated over a wide parameter range. Besides the conventional bifurcation analysis, the system was studied by means of high-resolution period and Lyapunov diagrams. It was observed that the bifurcation diagram changes considerably as the irreversible surface poisoning evolves, and the oscillatory region shrinks. The qualitative dynamics changes accordingly and the chaotic oscillations are dramatically suppressed. Nevertheless, periodic cascades are preserved in a confined region of the resistance vs. voltage diagram. Numerical results are compared to experiments published earlier and the latter reinterpreted. Finally, the comprehensive description of the time-evolution in the period and Lyapunov diagrams suggests further experimental studies correlating the evolution of the system's dynamics with changes of the catalyst structure.
Dynamics of dipoles and vortices in nonlinearly coupled three-dimensional field oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Malomed, B. A.; Meier, T.
2016-07-01
The dynamics of a pair of harmonic oscillators represented by three-dimensional fields coupled with a repulsive cubic nonlinearity is investigated through direct simulations of the respective field equations and with the help of the finite-mode Galerkin approximation (GA), which represents the two interacting fields by a superposition of 3 +3 harmonic-oscillator p -wave eigenfunctions with orbital and magnetic quantum numbers l =1 and m =1 , 0, -1 . The system can be implemented in binary Bose-Einstein condensates, demonstrating the potential of the atomic condensates to emulate various complex modes predicted by classical field theories. First, the GA very accurately predicts a broadly degenerate set of the system's ground states in the p -wave manifold, in the form of complexes built of a dipole coaxial with another dipole or vortex, as well as complexes built of mutually orthogonal dipoles. Next, pairs of noncoaxial vortices and/or dipoles, including pairs of mutually perpendicular vortices, develop remarkably stable dynamical regimes, which feature periodic exchange of the angular momentum and periodic switching between dipoles and vortices. For a moderately strong nonlinearity, simulations of the coupled-field equations agree very well with results produced by the GA, demonstrating that the dynamics is accurately spanned by the set of six modes limited to l =1 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syvitski, J. P.; Csdms Scientific; Software Team
2010-12-01
CSDMS is the virtual home for a diverse community who foster and promote the modeling of earth surface processes, with emphasis on the movement of fluids, sediment and solutes through landscapes, seascapes and through their sedimentary basins. CSDMS develops, integrates, disseminates & archives software (> 150 models and 3million+ lines of code) that reflects and predicts earth surface processes over a broad range of time and space scales. CSDMS deals with the Earth's surface—the ever-changing, dynamic interface between lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere. CSDMS employs state-of-the-art architectures, interface standards and frameworks that make it possible to convert stand-alone models into flexible, "plug-and-play" components that can be assembled into larger applications. The CSDMS model-coupling environment offers language interoperability, structured and unstructured grids, and serves as a migration pathway for surface dynamics modelers towards High-Performance Computing (HPC). The CSDMS Modeling Tool is a key product of the overall project, as it allows earth scientists with relatively modest computer coding experience to use the CSDMS modules for earth surface dynamics research and education. The CMT Tool is platform independent. CMT can easily couple models that have followed the CSDMS protocols for model contribution: 1) Open-source license; 2) Available; 3) Vetted; 4) Open-source language; 5) Refactored for componentization; 6) Metadata & test files; 7) Clean and documented using keywords.
Quantum spin dynamics in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; Liu, Xiong-Jun
2016-06-01
Spin-orbit-coupled bosons can exhibit rich equilibrium phases at low temperature and in the presence of particle-particle interactions. In the case with a 1D synthetic spin-orbit interaction, it has been observed that the ground state of a Bose gas can be a normal phase, stripe phase, or magnetized phase in different parameter regimes. The magnetized states are doubly degenerate and consist of a many-particle two-state system. In this work, we investigate the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics by switching on a simple one-dimensional optical lattice potential as external perturbation to induce resonant couplings between the magnetized phases, and predict a quantum spin dynamics which cannot be obtained in the single-particle systems. In particular, due to particle-particle interactions, the transition of the Bose condensate from one magnetized phase to the other is forbidden when the external perturbation strength is less than a critical value, and a full transition can occur only when the perturbation exceeds such critical strength. This phenomenon manifests itself a dynamical phase transition, with the order parameter defined by the time-averaged magnetization over an oscillation period, and the critical point behavior being exactly solvable. The thermal fluctuations are also considered in detail. From numerical simulations and exact analytic studies we show that the predicted many-body effects can be well observed with the current experiments.
Coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator: Model and simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nascimento, Melke A.; Nagao, Raphael; Eiswirth, Markus; Varela, Hamilton
2014-12-01
The co-existence of disparate time scales is pervasive in many systems. In particular for surface reactions, it has been shown that the long-term evolution of the core oscillator is decisively influenced by slow surface changes, such as progressing deactivation. Here we present an in-depth numerical investigation of the coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator. The model consists of four nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, investigated over a wide parameter range. Besides the conventional bifurcation analysis, the system was studied by means of high-resolution period and Lyapunov diagrams. It was observed that the bifurcation diagram changes considerably as the irreversible surface poisoning evolves, and the oscillatory region shrinks. The qualitative dynamics changes accordingly and the chaotic oscillations are dramatically suppressed. Nevertheless, periodic cascades are preserved in a confined region of the resistance vs. voltage diagram. Numerical results are compared to experiments published earlier and the latter reinterpreted. Finally, the comprehensive description of the time-evolution in the period and Lyapunov diagrams suggests further experimental studies correlating the evolution of the system's dynamics with changes of the catalyst structure.
Dynamics of dipoles and vortices in nonlinearly coupled three-dimensional field oscillators.
Driben, R; Konotop, V V; Malomed, B A; Meier, T
2016-07-01
The dynamics of a pair of harmonic oscillators represented by three-dimensional fields coupled with a repulsive cubic nonlinearity is investigated through direct simulations of the respective field equations and with the help of the finite-mode Galerkin approximation (GA), which represents the two interacting fields by a superposition of 3+3 harmonic-oscillator p-wave eigenfunctions with orbital and magnetic quantum numbers l=1 and m=1, 0, -1. The system can be implemented in binary Bose-Einstein condensates, demonstrating the potential of the atomic condensates to emulate various complex modes predicted by classical field theories. First, the GA very accurately predicts a broadly degenerate set of the system's ground states in the p-wave manifold, in the form of complexes built of a dipole coaxial with another dipole or vortex, as well as complexes built of mutually orthogonal dipoles. Next, pairs of noncoaxial vortices and/or dipoles, including pairs of mutually perpendicular vortices, develop remarkably stable dynamical regimes, which feature periodic exchange of the angular momentum and periodic switching between dipoles and vortices. For a moderately strong nonlinearity, simulations of the coupled-field equations agree very well with results produced by the GA, demonstrating that the dynamics is accurately spanned by the set of six modes limited to l=1. PMID:27575123
Direct simulation of proton-coupled electron transfer reaction dynamics and mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kretchmer, Joshua S.; Miller, Thomas F., III
2014-03-01
Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, in which both an electron and an associated proton undergo reactive transfer, play an important role in many chemical and biological systems. Due to the complexity of this class of reactions, a variety of different mechanisms fall under the umbrella of PCET. However, the physical driving forces that determine the preferred mechanism in a given system still remain poorly understood. Towards this end, we extend ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD), a path-integral quantum dynamics method, to enable the direct simulation and characterization of PCET reaction dynamics in both fully atomistic and system-bath models of organometallic catalysts. In addition to providing validation for the simulation method via extensive comparison with existing PCET rate theories, we analyze the RPMD trajectories to investigate the competition between the concerted and sequential reaction mechanisms for PCET, elucidating the large role of the solvent in controlling the preferred mechanism. We further employ RPMD to determine the kinetics and mechanistic features of concerted PCET reactions across different regimes of electronic and vibrational coupling, providing evidence for a new and distinct PCET reaction mechanism.
Coupled within-host and between-host dynamics and evolution of virulence.
Feng, Zhilan; Cen, Xiuli; Zhao, Yulin; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge X
2015-12-01
Mathematical models coupling within- and between-host dynamics can be helpful for deriving trade-off functions between disease transmission and virulence at the population level. Such functions have been used to study the evolution of virulence and to explore the possibility of a conflict between natural selection at individual and population levels for directly transmitted diseases (Gilchrist and Coombs, 2006). In this paper, a new coupled model for environmentally-driven diseases is analyzed to study similar biological questions. It extends the model in Cen et al. (2014) and Feng et al. (2013) by including the disease-induced host mortality. It is shown that the extended model exhibits similar dynamical behaviors including the possible occurrence of a backward bifurcation. It is also shown that the within-host pathogen load and the disease prevalence at the positive stable equilibrium are increasing functions of the within- and between-host reproduction numbers (Rw0 and Rb0), respectively. Optimal parasite strategies will maximize these reproduction numbers at the two levels, and a conflict may exist between the two levels. Our results highlight the role of inter-dependence of variables and parameters in the fast and slow systems for persistence of infections and evolution of pathogens in an environmentally-driven disease. Our results also demonstrate the importance of incorporating explicit links of the within- and between-host dynamics into the computation of threshold conditions for disease control. PMID:25749184
Probing the holographic principle using dynamical gauge effects from open spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jianshi; Price, Craig; Liu, Qi; Gemelke, Nathan
2016-05-01
Dynamical gauge fields result from locally defined symmetries and an effective over-labeling of quantum states. Coupling atoms weakly to a reservoir of laser modes can create an effective dynamical gauge field purely due to the disregard of information in the optical states. Here we report measurements revealing effects of open spin-orbit coupling in a system where an effective model can be formed from a non-abelian SU(2) × U(1) field theory following the Yang-Mills construct. Forming a close analogy to dynamical gauge effects in quantum chromodynamics, we extract a measure of atomic motion which reveals the analog of a closing mass gap for the relevant gauge boson, shedding insight on long standing open problems in gauge-fixing scale anomalies. Using arguments following the holographic principle, we measure scaling relations which can be understood by quantifying information present in the local potential. New prospects using these techniques for developing fractionalization of multi-particle and macroscopic systems using dissipative and non-abelian gauge fields will also be discussed. We acknowledge support from NSF Award No. 1068570, and the Charles E. Kaufman Foundation.
Coupled Contagion Dynamics of Fear and Disease: Mathematical and Computational Explorations
Epstein, Joshua M.; Parker, Jon; Cummings, Derek; Hammond, Ross A.
2008-01-01
Background In classical mathematical epidemiology, individuals do not adapt their contact behavior during epidemics. They do not endogenously engage, for example, in social distancing based on fear. Yet, adaptive behavior is well-documented in true epidemics. We explore the effect of including such behavior in models of epidemic dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings Using both nonlinear dynamical systems and agent-based computation, we model two interacting contagion processes: one of disease and one of fear of the disease. Individuals can “contract” fear through contact with individuals who are infected with the disease (the sick), infected with fear only (the scared), and infected with both fear and disease (the sick and scared). Scared individuals–whether sick or not–may remove themselves from circulation with some probability, which affects the contact dynamic, and thus the disease epidemic proper. If we allow individuals to recover from fear and return to circulation, the coupled dynamics become quite rich, and can include multiple waves of infection. We also study flight as a behavioral response. Conclusions/Significance In a spatially extended setting, even relatively small levels of fear-inspired flight can have a dramatic impact on spatio-temporal epidemic dynamics. Self-isolation and spatial flight are only two of many possible actions that fear-infected individuals may take. Our main point is that behavioral adaptation of some sort must be considered. PMID:19079607
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Meier, T.
2016-03-01
Nonlinearity is the driving force for numerous important effects in nature typically showing transitions between different regimes, regular, chaotic or catastrophic behavior. Localized nonlinear modes have been the focus of intense research in areas such as fluid and gas dynamics, photonics, atomic and solid state physics etc. Due to the richness of the behavior of nonlinear systems and due to the severe numerical demands of accurate three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations presently only little knowledge is available on the dynamics of complex nonlinear modes in 3D. Here, we investigate the dynamics of 3D non-coaxial matter wave vortices that are trapped in a parabolic potential and interact via a repulsive nonlinearity. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of an unexpected and fascinating nonlinear regime that starts immediately when the nonlinearity is switched-on and is characterized by a smooth dynamics representing torque-free precession with nutations. The reported motion is proven to be robust regarding various effects such as the number of particles, dissipation and trap deformations and thus should be observable in suitably designed experiments. Since our theoretical approach, i.e., coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, is quite generic, we expect that the obtained novel dynamical behavior should also exist in other nonlinear systems.
Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Meier, T.
2016-01-01
Nonlinearity is the driving force for numerous important effects in nature typically showing transitions between different regimes, regular, chaotic or catastrophic behavior. Localized nonlinear modes have been the focus of intense research in areas such as fluid and gas dynamics, photonics, atomic and solid state physics etc. Due to the richness of the behavior of nonlinear systems and due to the severe numerical demands of accurate three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations presently only little knowledge is available on the dynamics of complex nonlinear modes in 3D. Here, we investigate the dynamics of 3D non-coaxial matter wave vortices that are trapped in a parabolic potential and interact via a repulsive nonlinearity. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of an unexpected and fascinating nonlinear regime that starts immediately when the nonlinearity is switched-on and is characterized by a smooth dynamics representing torque-free precession with nutations. The reported motion is proven to be robust regarding various effects such as the number of particles, dissipation and trap deformations and thus should be observable in suitably designed experiments. Since our theoretical approach, i.e., coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, is quite generic, we expect that the obtained novel dynamical behavior should also exist in other nonlinear systems. PMID:26964759
Dynamical coupled-channels study of {pi}N {right arrow} {pi pi}N reactions.
Kamano, H.; Julia-Diaz, B.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Matsuyama, A.; Sato, T.; Physics; Jefferson Lab.; Univ. of Barcelona; Shizuoka Univ.; Osaka Univ.
2009-02-24
As a step toward performing a complete coupled-channels analysis of the world data of {pi}N,{gamma}*N {yields} {pi}N,{eta}N,{pi}{pi}N reactions, the {pi}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N reactions are investigated starting with the dynamical coupled-channels model developed in Phys. Rev. C 76, 065201 (2007). The channels included are {pi}N,{eta}N, and {pi}{pi}N which has {pi}{Delta},{rho}N, and {sigma}N resonant components. The nonresonant amplitudes are generated from solving a set of coupled-channels equations with the meson-baryon potentials defined by effective Lagrangians. The resonant amplitudes are generated from 16 bare excited nucleon (N*) states that are dressed by the nonresonant interactions as constrained by the unitarity condition. The data of total cross sections and {pi}N and {pi}{pi} invariant mass distributions of {pi} + p {yields} {pi} + {pi} + n, {pi} + {pi}0p and {pi} - p {yields} {pi} + {pi} - n, {pi} - {pi}0p,{pi}0{pi}0n reactions from threshold to the invariant mass W = 2 GeV can be described to a very large extent. We show the importance of the coupled-channels effects and the strong interference among the contributions from the {pi}{Delta},{sigma}N, and {rho}N channels. The large interference between the resonant and nonresonant amplitudes is also demonstrated. Possible future developments are discussed.
Study of the Ionization Dynamics and Equation of State of a Strongly Coupled Plasma
Shepherd, R; Audebert, P; Geindre, J P; Iglesias, C; Foord, M; Rogers, F; Gauthier, J C; Springer, P
2003-02-06
Preliminary experiments to study the ionization dynamics and equation of state of a strongly coupled plasma have been performed at the LLNL COMET laser facility. In these experiment, a 1.0 J, 500 fs, 532 nm laser was used to create a uniform, warm dense plasma.The primary diagnostic, Fourier Domain Interferometry (FDI), was used to provide information about the position of the critical density of the target and thus the expansion hydrodynamics, laying the ground work for the plasma characterization. The plasmas were determined to be strongly coupled. In addition work was performed characterizing the back-lighter. A von Hamos spectrograph coupled to a 500 fs X-ray streak camera (TREX-VHS) developed at LLNL was used for these measurements. This diagnostic combines high collection efficiency ({approx} 10{sup -4} steradians) with fast temporal response ({approx} 500 fs), allowing resolution of extremely transient spectral variations. The TREX-VHS will be used to determine the time history, intensity, and spectral content of the back-lighter resulting in absorption measurements that provide insight into bound states in strongly coupled conditions.
Coupled dynamics of Earth's geomagnetic westward drift and inner core super-rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pichon, Guillaume; Aubert, Julien; Fournier, Alexandre
2016-03-01
The geomagnetic westward drift and the inner core differential rotation relative to the mantle are two components of the Earth's core rotational dynamics. We present a systematic study of their long-term relationship in convective numerical simulations of the geodynamo. All models comprise gravitational coupling between the inner core and the mantle, in addition to electromagnetic coupling at the inner core and core-mantle boundaries. We show that the strength of these couplings has no influence on the global shear available in the fluid shell, the amount of which is entirely governed by the vigor of convection. This shear is distributed between the long-term westward drift and the long-term differential rotation of the inner core, in proportions controlled by the relative magnitudes of the electromagnetic and gravitational couplings. A present-day estimate of this available shear predicts a magnitude of the westward drift close to that observed on average during the last 400 yrs, which then implies a non-existent long-term inner core differential rotation. Assuming a lower mantle conductance of order 108 S, this in turn sets a constraint on the minimum stiffness of the inner core, the viscosity of which should be larger than 2 ×1017 Pa s for the westward drift to dominate.
Sutter, Kiplangat; Truflandier, Lionel A; Autschbach, Jochen
2011-06-01
Solvent effects on J((195)Pt-(15)N) one-bond nuclear spin-spin coupling constants (J(PtN)) of cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and three cisplatin derivatives are investigated using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) based ab initio molecular dynamics (aiMD) and all-electron relativistic DFT NMR calculations employing the two-component relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA). Good agreement with experiment is obtained when explicit solvent molecules are considered and when the computations are performed with a hybrid functional. Spin-orbit coupling causes only small effects on J(PtN) . Key factors contributing to the magnitude of coupling constants are elucidated, with the most significant being the presence of solvent as well as the quality of the density functional and basis set combination. The solvent effects are of the same magnitude as J(PtN) calculated for gas-phase geometries. However, the trends of J(PtN) among the complexes are already present in the gas phase. Results obtained with a continuum solvent model agree quite well with the aiMD results, provided that the Pt solvent-accessible radius is carefully chosen. The aiMD results support the existence of a partial hydrogen-bond-like inverse-hydration-type interaction affording a weak (1)J(Pt⋅⋅⋅H(w)) coupling between the complexes and the coordinating water molecule. PMID:21381179
Non-Markovian Dynamics and Self-Diffusion in Strongly Coupled Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickler, Trevor; Langin, Thomas; McQuillen, Patrick; Daligault, Jerome; Maksimovich, Nikola; Killian, Thomas
2015-11-01
In weakly coupled plasmas, collisions are dominated by long range, small angle scattering, and each collision is an uncorrelated binary event. In contrast, collisions in strongly coupled plasmas (coupling parameter Γ > 1) are dominated by short range, large angle scattering in which the collisions may be correlated and non-independent in time, i.e., non-Markovian. In this work, we present experimental results indicative of non-Markovian processes in a strongly coupled ultracold neutral plasma (UCNP) created by photoionizing strontium atoms in a magneto-optical trap. We use optical pumping to create spin ``tagged'' subpopulations of ions having non-zero average velocity < v > , and use laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging to measure the relaxation of < v (t) > back to equilibrium. We observe clear non-exponential decay in < v (t) > , which indicates non-Markovian dynamics. We further demonstrate there is a theoretical basis to consider < v (t) > as an approximation to the ion velocity autocorrelation function (VAF). We then calculate diffusion coefficients from our data, demonstrating experimental measurement of self-diffusion coefficients for 0 . 3 < Γ < 3 . 5 . This work was supported by the United States National Science Foundation and Department of Energy Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering (PHY-1102516) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550- 12-1-0267).
Coupling of mechanical dynamics and induced currents in a cantilever beam
Bialek, J.M.; Weissenburger, D.W.
1985-01-01
Electrical eddy currents induced in a conducting structure subjected to a background magnetic field produce forces which may result in significant mechanical reactions and deflections. The dynamics of the conductive structure are modified by additional eddy currents which are induced by the structural motion. Frequently, the observed effects of these secondary eddy currents are referred to as magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness. A coupled system of equations was formulated using finite element techniques for the mechanical aspects and a mesh network method for the electrical aspects of the problem. The eigenvalues of the governing equations are examined using the background magnetic field as a parameter, and the solution of the equations is presented for a sample problem. The expected effects of magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness are observed in the solutions of the coupled equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teodorescu, Razvan
2009-10-01
Systems of oscillators coupled non-linearly (stochastically or not) are ubiquitous in nature and can explain many complex phenomena: coupled Josephson junction arrays, cardiac pacemaker cells, swarms or flocks of insects and birds, etc. They are know to have a non-trivial phase diagram, which includes chaotic, partially synchronized, and fully synchronized phases. A traditional model for this class of problems is the Kuramoto system of oscillators, which has been studied extensively for the last three decades. The model is a canonical example for non-equilibrium, dynamical phase transitions, so little understood in physics. From a stochastic analysis point of view, the transition is described by the large deviations principle, which offers little information on the scaling behavior near the critical point. I will discuss a special case of the model, which allows a rigorous analysis of the critical properties of the model, and reveals a new, anomalous scaling behavior in the vicinity of the critical point.
Spin dynamics under local gauge fields in chiral spin-orbit coupling systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, S. G.; Jalil, M. B. A.; Fujita, T.; Liu, X. J.
2011-02-01
We present a theoretical description of local spin dynamics in magnetic systems with a chiral spin texture and finite spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Spin precession about the relativistic effective magnetic field in a SOC system gives rise to a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field reminiscent of the Yang-Mills field. In addition, the adiabatic relaxation of electron spin along the local spin yields an U(1) ⊗ U(1) topological gauge (Berry) field. We derive the corresponding equation of motion i.e. modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, for the local spin under the influence of these effects. Focusing on the SU(2) gauge, we obtain the spin torque magnitude, and the amplitude and frequency of spin oscillations in this system. Our theoretical estimates indicate significant spin torque and oscillations in systems with large spin-orbit coupling, which may be utilized in technological applications such as current-induced magnetization-switching and tunable microwave oscillators.
Oscillatory dynamics in the hippocampus support dentate gyrus–CA3 coupling
Akam, Thomas; Oren, Iris; Mantoan, Laura; Ferenczi, Emily; Kullmann, Dimitri M
2012-01-01
Gamma oscillations in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal CA3 show variable coherence in vivo, but the mechanisms and relevance for information flow are unknown. We found that carbachol-induced oscillations in rat CA3 have biphasic phase-response curves, consistent with the ability to couple with oscillations in afferent projections. Differences in response to stimulation of either the intrinsic feedback circuit or the dentate gyrus were well described by varying an impulse vector in a two-dimensional dynamical system, representing the relative input to excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Responses to sinusoidally modulated optogenetic stimulation confirmed that the CA3 network oscillation can entrain to periodic inputs, with a steep dependence of entrainment phase on input frequency. CA3 oscillations are therefore suited to coupling with oscillations in the dentate gyrus over a broad range of frequencies. PMID:22466505
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che, Yanqiu; Yang, Tingting; Li, Ruixue; Li, Huiyan; Han, Chunxiao; Wang, Jiang; Wei, Xile
2015-09-01
In this paper, we propose a dynamic delayed feedback control approach or desynchronization of chaotic-bursting synchronous activities in an ensemble of globally coupled neuronal oscillators. We demonstrate that the difference signal between an ensemble's mean field and its time delayed state, filtered and fed back to the ensemble, can suppress the self-synchronization in the ensemble. These individual units are decoupled and stabilized at the desired desynchronized states while the stimulation signal reduces to the noise level. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated by examples of two different populations of globally coupled chaotic-bursting neurons. The proposed method has potential for mild, effective and demand-controlled therapy of neurological diseases characterized by pathological synchronization.
The coupling of mechanical dynamics and induced currents in plates and surfaces
Weissenburger, D.W.; Bialek, J.M.
1986-10-01
Significant mechanical reactions and deflections may be produced when electrical eddy currents induced in a conducting structure by transformer-like electromotive forces interact with background magnetic fields. Additional eddy currents induced by structural motion through the background fields modify both the mechanical and electrical dynamic behavior of the system. The observed effects of these motional eddy currents are sometimes referred to as magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness. This paper addresses the coupled structural deformation and eddy currents in flat plates and simple two-dimensional surfaces in three-space. A coupled system of equations has been formulated using finite element techniques for the mechanical aspects and a mesh network method for the electrical aspects of the problem.
Double and single pion photoproduction within a dynamical coupled-channels model
Hiroyuki Kamano; Julia-Diaz, Bruno; Lee, T. -S. H.; Matsuyama, Akihiko; Sato, Toru
2009-12-16
Within a dynamical coupled-channels model which has already been fixed from analyzing the data of the πN → πN and γN → πN reactions, we present the predicted double pion photoproduction cross sections up to the second resonance region, W < 1.7 GeV. The roles played by the different mechanisms within our model in determining both the single and double pion photoproduction reactions are analyzed, focusing on the effects due to the direct γN → ππN mechanism, the interplay between the resonant and non-resonant amplitudes, and the coupled-channels effects. As a result, the model parameters which can be determined mostmore » effectively in the combined studies of both the single and double pion photoproduction data are identified for future studies.« less
The influence of auditory-motor coupling on fractal dynamics in human gait
Hunt, Nathaniel; McGrath, Denise; Stergiou, Nicholas
2014-01-01
Humans exhibit an innate ability to synchronize their movements to music. The field of gait rehabilitation has sought to capitalize on this phenomenon by invoking patients to walk in time to rhythmic auditory cues with a view to improving pathological gait. However, the temporal structure of the auditory cue, and hence the temporal structure of the target behavior has not been sufficiently explored. This study reveals the plasticity of auditory-motor coupling in human walking in relation to ‘complex' auditory cues. The authors demonstrate that auditory-motor coupling can be driven by different coloured auditory noise signals (e.g. white, brown), shifting the fractal temporal structure of gait dynamics towards the statistical properties of the signals used. This adaptive capability observed in whole-body movement, could potentially be harnessed for targeted neuromuscular rehabilitation in patient groups, depending on the specific treatment goal. PMID:25080936
Decoherence dynamics of interacting qubits coupled to a bath of local optical phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lone, Muzaffar Qadir; Yarlagadda, S.
2016-04-01
We study decoherence in an interacting qubit system described by infinite range Heisenberg model (IRHM) in a situation where the system is coupled to a bath of local optical phonons. Using perturbation theory in polaron frame of reference, we derive an effective Hamiltonian that is valid in the regime of strong spin-phonon coupling under nonadiabatic conditions. It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian commutes with the IRHM upto leading orders of perturbation and thus has the same eigenstates as the IRHM. Using a quantum master equation with Markovian approximation of dynamical evolution, we show that the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix do not decay in the energy eigen basis of IRHM.
Dynamical analysis of modified gravity with nonminimal gravitational coupling to matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Rui; Xu, Xiaodong; Wang, Bin; Gong, Yungui
2016-05-01
We perform a phase space analysis of a generalized modified gravity theory with nonminimally coupling between geometry and matter. We apply the dynamical system approach to this generalized model and find that in the cosmological context, different choices of Lagrangian density will apparently result in different phases of the Universe. By carefully choosing the variables, we prove that there is an attractor solution to describe the late time accelerating universe when the modified gravity is chosen in a simple power-law form of the curvature scalar. We further examine the temperature evolution based on the thermodynamic understanding of the model. Confronting the model with supernova type Ia data sets, we find that the nonminimally coupled theory of gravity is a viable model to describe the late time Universe acceleration.
Fernández-Pacheco, A. Mansell, R.; Petit, D.; Lee, J. H.; Cowburn, R. P.; Ummelen, F. C.; Swagten, H. J. M.
2014-09-01
We have designed a bilayer synthetic antiferromagnet where the order of layer reversal can be selected by varying the sweep rate of the applied magnetic field. The system is formed by two ultra-thin ferromagnetic layers with different proximities to the spin reorientation transition, coupled antiferromagnetically using Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions. The different dynamic magnetic reversal behavior of both layers produces a crossover in their switching fields for field rates in the kOe/s range. This effect is due to the different effective anisotropy of both layers, added to an appropriate asymmetric antiferromagnetic coupling between them. Field-rate controlled selective switching of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy layers as shown here can be exploited in sensing and memory applications.
The influence of auditory-motor coupling on fractal dynamics in human gait.
Hunt, Nathaniel; McGrath, Denise; Stergiou, Nicholas
2014-01-01
Humans exhibit an innate ability to synchronize their movements to music. The field of gait rehabilitation has sought to capitalize on this phenomenon by invoking patients to walk in time to rhythmic auditory cues with a view to improving pathological gait. However, the temporal structure of the auditory cue, and hence the temporal structure of the target behavior has not been sufficiently explored. This study reveals the plasticity of auditory-motor coupling in human walking in relation to 'complex' auditory cues. The authors demonstrate that auditory-motor coupling can be driven by different coloured auditory noise signals (e.g. white, brown), shifting the fractal temporal structure of gait dynamics towards the statistical properties of the signals used. This adaptive capability observed in whole-body movement, could potentially be harnessed for targeted neuromuscular rehabilitation in patient groups, depending on the specific treatment goal. PMID:25080936
Classical strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma. I. Model and molecular dynamics simulations
Gelman, Boris A.; Shuryak, Edward V.; Zahed, Ismail
2006-10-15
We propose a model for the description of strongly interacting quarks and gluon quasiparticles at T=(1-3)T{sub c} as a classical and nonrelativistic colored Coulomb gas. The sign and strength of the interparticle interactions are fixed by the scalar product of their classical color vectors subject to Wong's equations. The model displays a number of phases as the Coulomb coupling is increased ranging from a gas, to a liquid, to a crystal with antiferromagnetic-like color ordering. We analyze the model using molecular dynamics simulations and discuss the density-density correlator in real time. We extract pertinent decorrelation times, diffusion, and viscosity constants for all phases. The classical results when extrapolated to the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma suggest that the phase is liquid-like, with a diffusion constant D{approx_equal}0.1/T and a shear viscosity to entropy density ratio {eta}/s{approx_equal}1/3.
Oscillatory dynamics in the hippocampus support dentate gyrus–CA3 coupling.
Akam, Thomas; Oren, Iris; Mantoan, Laura; Ferenczi, Emily; Kullmann, Dimitri M
2012-05-01
Gamma oscillations in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal CA3 show variable coherence in vivo, but the mechanisms and relevance for information flow are unknown. We found that carbachol-induced oscillations in rat CA3 have biphasic phase-response curves, consistent with the ability to couple with oscillations in afferent projections. Differences in response to stimulation of either the intrinsic feedback circuit or the dentate gyrus were well described by varying an impulse vector in a two-dimensional dynamical system, representing the relative input to excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Responses to sinusoidally modulated optogenetic stimulation confirmed that the CA3 network oscillation can entrain to periodic inputs, with a steep dependence of entrainment phase on input frequency. CA3 oscillations are therefore suited to coupling with oscillations in the dentate gyrus over a broad range of frequencies. PMID:22466505
Thoke, Henrik Seir; Tobiesen, Asger; Brewer, Jonathan; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Stock, Roberto P.; Olsen, Lars F.; Bagatolli, Luis A.
2015-01-01
We detected very strong coupling between the oscillating concentration of ATP and the dynamics of intracellular water during glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results indicate that: i) dipolar relaxation of intracellular water is heterogeneous within the cell and different from dilute conditions, ii) water dipolar relaxation oscillates with glycolysis and in phase with ATP concentration, iii) this phenomenon is scale-invariant from the subcellular to the ensemble of synchronized cells and, iv) the periodicity of both glycolytic oscillations and dipolar relaxation are equally affected by D2O in a dose-dependent manner. These results offer a new insight into the coupling of an emergent intensive physicochemical property of the cell, i.e. cell-wide water dipolar relaxation, and a central metabolite (ATP) produced by a robustly oscillating metabolic process. PMID:25705902
Dynamic coupling of pore-scale and reservoir-scale models for multiphase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Qiang; Thompson, Karsten
2013-09-01
The concept of coupling pore-scale and continuum-scale models for subsurface flow has long been viewed as beneficial, but implementation has been slow. In this paper, we present an algorithm for direct coupling of a dynamic pore-network model for multiphase flow with a traditional continuum-scale simulator. The ability to run the two models concurrently (exchanging parameters and boundary conditions in real numerical time) is made possible by a new dynamic pore-network model that allows simultaneous injection of immiscible fluids under either transient-state or steady-state conditions. Allowing the pore-scale model to evolve to steady state during each time step provides a unique method for reconciling the dramatically different time and length scales across the coupled models. The model is implemented by embedding networks in selected gridblocks in the reservoir model. The network model predicts continuum-scale parameters such as relative permeability or average capillary pressure from first principles, which are used in the continuum model. In turn, the continuum reservoir simulator provides boundary conditions from the current time step back to the network model to complete the coupling process. The model is tested for variable-rate immiscible displacements under conditions in which relative permeability depends on flow rate, thus demonstrating a situation that cannot be modeled using a traditional approach. The paper discusses numerical challenges with this approach, including the fact that there is not a way to explicitly force pore-scale phase saturation to equal the continuum saturation in the host gridblock without an artificial constraint. Hurdles to implementing this type of modeling in practice are also discussed.
An Asymptotic Analysis of a 2-D Model of Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by Bulk Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gou, J.; Ward, M. J.
2016-04-01
A class of coupled cell-bulk ODE-PDE models is formulated and analyzed in a two-dimensional domain, which is relevant to studying quorum-sensing behavior on thin substrates. In this model, spatially segregated dynamically active signaling cells of a common small radius ɛ ≪ 1 are coupled through a passive bulk diffusion field. For this coupled system, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct steady-state solutions and to formulate a spectral problem that characterizes the linear stability properties of the steady-state solutions, with the aim of predicting whether temporal oscillations can be triggered by the cell-bulk coupling. Phase diagrams in parameter space where such collective oscillations can occur, as obtained from our linear stability analysis, are illustrated for two specific choices of the intracellular kinetics. In the limit of very large bulk diffusion, it is shown that solutions to the ODE-PDE cell-bulk system can be approximated by a finite-dimensional dynamical system. This limiting system is studied both analytically, using a linear stability analysis and, globally, using numerical bifurcation software. For one illustrative example of the theory, it is shown that when the number of cells exceeds some critical number, i.e., when a quorum is attained, the passive bulk diffusion field can trigger oscillations through a Hopf bifurcation that would otherwise not occur without the coupling. Moreover, for two specific models for the intracellular dynamics, we show that there are rather wide regions in parameter space where these triggered oscillations are synchronous in nature. Unless the bulk diffusivity is asymptotically large, it is shown that a diffusion-sensing behavior is possible whereby more clustered spatial configurations of cells inside the domain lead to larger regions in parameter space where synchronous collective oscillations between the small cells can occur. Finally, the linear stability analysis for these cell
An Asymptotic Analysis of a 2-D Model of Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by Bulk Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gou, J.; Ward, M. J.
2016-08-01
A class of coupled cell-bulk ODE-PDE models is formulated and analyzed in a two-dimensional domain, which is relevant to studying quorum-sensing behavior on thin substrates. In this model, spatially segregated dynamically active signaling cells of a common small radius ɛ ≪ 1 are coupled through a passive bulk diffusion field. For this coupled system, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct steady-state solutions and to formulate a spectral problem that characterizes the linear stability properties of the steady-state solutions, with the aim of predicting whether temporal oscillations can be triggered by the cell-bulk coupling. Phase diagrams in parameter space where such collective oscillations can occur, as obtained from our linear stability analysis, are illustrated for two specific choices of the intracellular kinetics. In the limit of very large bulk diffusion, it is shown that solutions to the ODE-PDE cell-bulk system can be approximated by a finite-dimensional dynamical system. This limiting system is studied both analytically, using a linear stability analysis and, globally, using numerical bifurcation software. For one illustrative example of the theory, it is shown that when the number of cells exceeds some critical number, i.e., when a quorum is attained, the passive bulk diffusion field can trigger oscillations through a Hopf bifurcation that would otherwise not occur without the coupling. Moreover, for two specific models for the intracellular dynamics, we show that there are rather wide regions in parameter space where these triggered oscillations are synchronous in nature. Unless the bulk diffusivity is asymptotically large, it is shown that a diffusion-sensing behavior is possible whereby more clustered spatial configurations of cells inside the domain lead to larger regions in parameter space where synchronous collective oscillations between the small cells can occur. Finally, the linear stability analysis for these cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A.
2013-07-01
Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D6h Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D2 eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D1, D2 (N+-Phenyl, N-Phenyl+). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled nuclear motion, one observes an
Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J; Robb, Michael A
2013-07-28
Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D6h Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D2 eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D1, D2 (N(+)-Phenyl, N-Phenyl(+)). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled nuclear motion, one observes an
Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A.
2013-07-28
Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D{sub 6h} Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D{sub 2} eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} (N{sup +}-Phenyl, N-Phenyl{sup +}). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled
Quantum critical dynamics of a qubit coupled to an isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick bath
Quan, H. T.; Wang, Z. D.; Sun, C. P.
2007-07-15
We explore a dynamic signature of quantum phase transition (QPT) in an isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model by studying the time evolution of a central qubit coupled to it. We evaluate exactly the time-dependent purity, which can be used to measure quantum coherence, of the central qubit. It is found that distinctly different behaviors of the purity as a function of the parameter reveal clearly the QPT point in the system. It is also clarified that the present model is equivalent to an anti-Jaynes-Cummings model under certain conditions.
Multistability and complex dynamics in coupled semiconductor lasers with time-delayed feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balakin, M.; Kochkurov, L.; Melnikov, L.; Astakhov, V.
2016-04-01
We investigate complex dynamics of two coupled nonidentical Land-Kobayashi oscillators. It is shown that at low values of feedback rate variation of delay only leads to alternation of periodic and stationary regimes. The analysis of characteristic regimes of the system in a wide range of parameters is provided. We demonstrate that the system under study is multistable. With the variation of control parameters sole fixed point repeatedly undergoes supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcations, which leads to an increase in the number of limit cycles co-existing in the phase space. It is shown that multistable states are formed by different combinations of the periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic regimes.
Glass rheology: From mode-coupling theory to a dynamical yield criterion
Brader, Joseph M.; Voigtmann, Thomas; Fuchs, Matthias; Larson, Ronald G.; Cates, Michael E.
2009-01-01
The mode coupling theory (MCT) of glasses, while offering an incomplete description of glass transition physics, represents the only established route to first-principles prediction of rheological behavior in nonergodic materials such as colloidal glasses. However, the constitutive equations derivable from MCT are somewhat intractable, hindering their practical use and also their interpretation. Here, we present a schematic (single-mode) MCT model which incorporates the tensorial structure of the full theory. Using it, we calculate the dynamic yield surface for a large class of flows. PMID:19706475
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salmon, Loïc; Blackledge, Martin
2015-12-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is exquisitely sensitive to protein dynamics. In particular inter-nuclear dipolar couplings, that become measurable in solution when the protein is dissolved in a dilute liquid crystalline solution, report on all conformations sampled up to millisecond timescales. As such they provide the opportunity to describe the Boltzmann distribution present in solution at atomic resolution, and thereby to map the conformational energy landscape in unprecedented detail. The development of analytical methods and approaches based on numerical simulation and their application to numerous biologically important systems is presented.
Effect of asymmetry parameter on the dynamical states of nonlocally coupled nonlinear oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopal, R.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Venkatesan, A.; Lakshmanan, M.
2015-06-01
We show that coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent oscillations can be induced in an ensemble of any identical nonlinear dynamical systems using nonlocal rotational matrix coupling with an asymmetry parameter. Further, a chimera is shown to emerge in a wide range of the asymmetry parameter in contrast to near π/2 values of it employed in earlier works. We have also corroborated our results using the strength of incoherence in the frequency domain (Sω) and in the amplitude domain (S ), thereby distinguishing the frequency and amplitude chimeras. The robust nature of the asymmetry parameter in inducing chimeras in any generic dynamical system is established using ensembles of identical Rössler oscillators, Lorenz systems, and Hindmarsh-Rose neurons in their chaotic regimes.
A coupling model for analyzing dynamical behaviors of an electromagnetic forming system
Bendjima, B.; Srairi, K.; Feliachi, M.
1997-03-01
A coupling model for analyzing dynamical behaviors of an electromagnetic forming system consisting of the expansion of a metallic cylinder by means of an internal solenoidal coil is presented. The two equations governing transient magnetic field and dynamic plastic deformation are solved simultaneously by using finite element and Runge-Kutta methods respectively. The electromotive force due to the deformation is considered. Owing to the fact that the mechanical configuration changes during motion, a suitable technique to avoid introduction of speed term as well as the remesh generation at each time step is proposed. Eddy currents, magnetic force density, radial displacement and velocity of the cylinder are calculated. The numerical results are in good agreement with measurements.
Dynamics of Freely Oscillating and Coupled Hair Cell Bundles under Mechanical Deflection
Fredrickson-Hemsing, Lea; Strimbu, C. Elliott; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Bozovic, Dolores
2012-01-01
In vitro, attachment to the overlying membrane was found to affect the resting position of the hair cell bundles of the bullfrog sacculus. To assess the effects of such a deflection on mechanically decoupled hair bundles, comparable offsets were imposed on decoupled spontaneously oscillating bundles. Strong modulation was observed in their dynamic state under deflection, with qualitative changes in the oscillation profile, amplitude, and characteristic frequency of oscillation seen in response to stimulus. Large offsets were found to arrest spontaneous oscillation, with subsequent recovery upon reversal of the stimulus. The dynamic state of the hair bundle displayed hysteresis and a dependence on the direction of the imposed offset. The coupled system of hair bundles, with the overlying membrane left on top of the preparation, also exhibited a dependence on offset position, with an increase in the linear response function observed under deflections in the inhibitory direction. PMID:22768934
Dynamics of freely oscillating and coupled hair cell bundles under mechanical deflection.
Fredrickson-Hemsing, Lea; Strimbu, C Elliott; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Bozovic, Dolores
2012-04-18
In vitro, attachment to the overlying membrane was found to affect the resting position of the hair cell bundles of the bullfrog sacculus. To assess the effects of such a deflection on mechanically decoupled hair bundles, comparable offsets were imposed on decoupled spontaneously oscillating bundles. Strong modulation was observed in their dynamic state under deflection, with qualitative changes in the oscillation profile, amplitude, and characteristic frequency of oscillation seen in response to stimulus. Large offsets were found to arrest spontaneous oscillation, with subsequent recovery upon reversal of the stimulus. The dynamic state of the hair bundle displayed hysteresis and a dependence on the direction of the imposed offset. The coupled system of hair bundles, with the overlying membrane left on top of the preparation, also exhibited a dependence on offset position, with an increase in the linear response function observed under deflections in the inhibitory direction. PMID:22768934
LASERS: Emission dynamics of coupled Nd3+ : YAG lasers with a shared population inversion source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaptsov, L. N.; Yatskiv, A. M.
1995-08-01
A calculation is made of the frequency spectrum of relaxation oscillations of a cw Nd3+ : YAG laser with several lasing channels intersecting in the same active element. It is shown that the highest frequency of relaxation oscillations of isolated channels is virtually retained when these channels are coupled by population inversion, but the other frequencies are reduced. The results of these calculations are in agreement with measurements carried out on a double-beam laser. Experiments are reported on the transition of such a system to dynamic chaos. As in the case of a solid-state laser which emits multimode (in respect of the longitudinal index) radiation, near the frequencies of relaxation oscillations the transition of the investigated system to dynamic chaos follows the Ruelle—Takens—Newhouse scenario.
Diffusion Dynamics of Charged Dust Particles in Capacitively Coupled RF Discharge System
Chew, W. X.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Tan, K. S.
2011-03-30
Dusty plasma is loosely defined as electron-ion plasma with additional charged components of micron-sized dust particles. In this study, we developed a particle diagnostic technique based on light scattering and particle tracking velocimetry to investigate the dynamics of micron-sized titanium oxide particles in Argon gas capacitively coupled rf-discharge. The particle trajectories are constructed from sequence of image frames and treated as sample paths of charged Brownian motion. At specific sets of plasma parameters, disordered liquid-like dust particle configuration are observed. Mean-square-displacement of the particle trajectories are determined to characterize the transport dynamics. We showed that the dust particles in disordered liquid phase exhibit anomalous diffusion with different scaling exponents for short and large time scales, indicating the presence of slow and fast modes which can be related to caging effect and dispersive transport, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brahimi, Erind
We provide a theoretical model for a design involving a dc voltage biased Josephson Junction (JJ) that strongly drives a high quality factor microwave cavity via the ac Josephson effect. We explore the rich classical dynamics of the resultant nonlinear differential equation that categorizes the system. We contrast this with the quantum dynamics as derived by a model using the so called Rotating Wave Approximation Hamiltonian, and independently a Floquet analysis approach where no approximation is made on the Hamiltonian. We find that for certain parameters there is evidence of quantum activation, a process of over barrier transitions that stems from purely quantum mechanical considerations, and define an effective temperature that is non-zero even when coupled to a zero temperature bath.
Dynamics of positronium formation in positron-hydrogen collisions embedded in weakly coupled plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayek, Sujay; Ghoshal, Arijit
2012-11-01
Dynamics of positronium (Ps) formation in an arbitrary s-state from an arbitrary s-state of the hydrogen atom in weakly coupled plasma has been investigated within the framework of a distorted-wave theory. The interactions among the charged particles in the plasma have been represented by Debye-Huckel potentials. Using simple variational hydrogenic wave functions and arbitrary order derivatives of the general three-denominator Lewis integral partial-wave scattering amplitudes have been obtained in closed forms. These distorted-wave scattering amplitudes have been used to make a detailed study on differential and total cross sections. It has been found that screening of the interaction potentials has significant effect on the scattering dynamics. Some notable features of cross sections have also been revealed.
Dynamics of Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Random Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mardonov, Sh.; Modugno, M.; Sherman, E. Ya.
2015-10-01
Disorder plays a crucial role in spin dynamics in solids and condensed matter systems. We demonstrate that for a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a random potential two mechanisms of spin evolution that can be characterized as "precessional" and "anomalous" are at work simultaneously. The precessional mechanism, typical for solids, is due to the condensate displacement. The unconventional anomalous mechanism is due to the spin-dependent velocity producing the distribution of the condensate spin polarization. The condensate expansion is accompanied by a random displacement and fragmentation, where it becomes sparse, as clearly revealed in the spin dynamics. Thus, different stages of the evolution can be characterized by looking at the condensate spin.
Robust adaptive control of spacecraft proximity maneuvers under dynamic coupling and uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Liang; Huo, Wei
2015-11-01
This paper provides a solution for the position tracking and attitude synchronization problem of the close proximity phase in spacecraft rendezvous and docking. The chaser spacecraft must be driven to a certain fixed position along the docking port direction of the target spacecraft, while the attitude of the two spacecraft must be synchronized for subsequent docking operations. The kinematics and dynamics for relative position and relative attitude are modeled considering dynamic coupling, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. The relative motion model has a new form with a novel definition of the unknown parameters. An original robust adaptive control method is developed for the concerned problem, and a proof of the asymptotic stability is given for the six degrees of freedom closed-loop system. A numerical example is displayed in simulation to verify the theoretical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Genoni, T. C.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Campbell, R. B.
2008-03-01
Particle-based numerical simulations are required to study the dynamics and evolution of inhomogeneous nonequilibrium multispecies strongly coupled plasmas. Molecular dynamics (MD) and particle-in-cell (PIC) techniques and been compared previously [K. Y. Sanbonmatsu, et al., J. Phys. IV (France) 10, Pr5-259 (2000)], with the PIC methodology demonstrating the capability of improved accuracy over the MD simulations at high resolution. However, the PIC simulations were significantly slower, limiting their utility. Here we explore several schemes to improve the computational speed of such calculations including non-iterative, implicit EM field solvers and subgrid models. The simulations are compared directly with the results of Sanbonmatsu, et al., and a new theoretical analysis of the hypernetted chain model where all inter-species correlations are retained [V. Schwarz, et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 47, 324 (2007)].
Dynamics of Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Random Potential.
Mardonov, Sh; Modugno, M; Sherman, E Ya
2015-10-30
Disorder plays a crucial role in spin dynamics in solids and condensed matter systems. We demonstrate that for a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a random potential two mechanisms of spin evolution that can be characterized as "precessional" and "anomalous" are at work simultaneously. The precessional mechanism, typical for solids, is due to the condensate displacement. The unconventional anomalous mechanism is due to the spin-dependent velocity producing the distribution of the condensate spin polarization. The condensate expansion is accompanied by a random displacement and fragmentation, where it becomes sparse, as clearly revealed in the spin dynamics. Thus, different stages of the evolution can be characterized by looking at the condensate spin. PMID:26565441
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fable, E.; Angioni, C.; Ivanov, A. A.; Lackner, K.; Maj, O.; Medvedev, S. Yu; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G. V.; Treutterer, W.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team
2013-07-01
The modelling of tokamak scenarios requires the simultaneous solution of both the time evolution of the plasma kinetic profiles and of the magnetic equilibrium. Their dynamical coupling involves additional complications, which are not present when the two physical problems are solved separately. Difficulties arise in maintaining consistency in the time evolution among quantities which appear in both the transport and the Grad-Shafranov equations, specifically the poloidal and toroidal magnetic fluxes as a function of each other and of the geometry. The required consistency can be obtained by means of iteration cycles, which are performed outside the equilibrium code and which can have different convergence properties depending on the chosen numerical scheme. When these external iterations are performed, the stability of the coupled system becomes a concern. In contrast, if these iterations are not performed, the coupled system is numerically stable, but can become physically inconsistent. By employing a novel scheme (Fable E et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion submitted), which ensures stability and physical consistency among the same quantities that appear in both the transport and magnetic equilibrium equations, a newly developed version of the ASTRA transport code (Pereverzev G V et al 1991 IPP Report 5/42), which is coupled to the SPIDER equilibrium code (Ivanov A A et al 2005 32nd EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics (Tarragona, 27 June-1 July) vol 29C (ECA) P-5.063), in both prescribed- and free-boundary modes is presented here for the first time. The ASTRA-SPIDER coupled system is then applied to the specific study of the modelling of controlled current ramp-up in ASDEX Upgrade discharges.
Naze, Sebastien; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor
2015-01-01
Epileptic seizure dynamics span multiple scales in space and time. Understanding seizure mechanisms requires identifying the relations between seizure components within and across these scales, together with the analysis of their dynamical repertoire. Mathematical models have been developed to reproduce seizure dynamics across scales ranging from the single neuron to the neural population. In this study, we develop a network model of spiking neurons and systematically investigate the conditions, under which the network displays the emergent dynamic behaviors known from the Epileptor, which is a well-investigated abstract model of epileptic neural activity. This approach allows us to study the biophysical parameters and variables leading to epileptiform discharges at cellular and network levels. Our network model is composed of two neuronal populations, characterized by fast excitatory bursting neurons and regular spiking inhibitory neurons, embedded in a common extracellular environment represented by a slow variable. By systematically analyzing the parameter landscape offered by the simulation framework, we reproduce typical sequences of neural activity observed during status epilepticus. We find that exogenous fluctuations from extracellular environment and electro-tonic couplings play a major role in the progression of the seizure, which supports previous studies and further validates our model. We also investigate the influence of chemical synaptic coupling in the generation of spontaneous seizure-like events. Our results argue towards a temporal shift of typical spike waves with fast discharges as synaptic strengths are varied. We demonstrate that spike waves, including interictal spikes, are generated primarily by inhibitory neurons, whereas fast discharges during the wave part are due to excitatory neurons. Simulated traces are compared with in vivo experimental data from rodents at different stages of the disorder. We draw the conclusion that slow
Dynamically coupled fluid body interactions in vorticity-based numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eldredge, Jeff D.
2008-11-01
A novel method is presented for robustly simulating coupled dynamics in fluid-body interactions with vorticity-based flow solvers. In this work, the fluid dynamics are simulated with a viscous vortex particle method. In the first substep of each time increment, the fluid convective and diffusive processes are treated, while a predictor is used to independently advance the body configuration. An iterative corrector is then used to simultaneously remove the spurious slip - via vorticity flux - and compute the end-of-step body configuration. Fluid inertial forces are isolated and combined with body inertial terms to ensure robust treatment of dynamics for bodies of arbitrary mass. The method is demonstrated for dynamics of articulated rigid bodies, including a falling cylinder, flow-induced vibration of a circular cylinder and free swimming of a three-link 'fish'. The error and momentum conservation properties of the method are explored. In the case of the vibrating cylinder, comparison with previous work demonstrates good agreement.
Kibble-Zurek dynamics in an array of coupled binary Bose condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jun; Wu, Shuyuan; Qin, Xizhou; Huang, Jiahao; Ke, Yongguan; Zhong, Honghua; Lee, Chaohong
2016-03-01
Universal dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking is central to understanding the universal behavior of spontaneous defect formation in various systems from the early universe, condensed-matter systems to ultracold atomic systems. We explore the universal real-time dynamics in an array of coupled binary atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices, which undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking from the symmetric Rabi oscillation to the broken-symmetry self-trapping. In addition to Goldstone modes, there exist gapped Higgs modes whose excitation gap vanishes at the critical point. In the slow passage through the critical point, we analytically find that the symmetry-breaking dynamics obeys the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. From the scalings of bifurcation delay and domain formation, we numerically extract two Kibble-Zurek exponents, b1=ν/(1+ν z) and b2=1/(1+ν z) , which give the static correlation-length critical exponent ν and the dynamic critical exponent z. Our approach provides an efficient way for the simultaneous determination of the critical exponents ν and z for a continuous phase transition.
Coupling of caged molecule dynamics to Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation in metallic glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z.; Ngai, K. L.; Wang, W. H.; Capaccioli, S.
2016-01-01
Three recently published papers have discovered a general property of the fast caged dynamics observed in the glassy states of polyalcohols (S. Capaccioli et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 8800 (2015)), amorphous polymers (K. L. Ngai et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 12502 (2015)), and van der Waals molecular glass-formers (K. L. Ngai et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 12519 (2015)). The fast caged dynamics are manifested as nearly constant loss (NCL) in dielectric and mechanical susceptibility. Shown before in these papers is the intensity of the caged dynamics change temperature dependence at a temperature THF nearly coincident with the secondary glass transition temperature Tgβ, at which the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation time τJG reaches ˜103 s. Evidently this finding indicates the coupling of the caged dynamics to the secondary glass transition. The glass-formers considered so far are all soft matters. However, the generality of the phenomenon and its explanation implies that the relation, THF ≈ Tgβ, should be observed in other classes of glass-formers. In this paper, we extend the consideration of the phenomenon and explanation to metallic glasses, which are not soft matter. The experimental data presented show the same phenomenon, supporting its generality and fundamental importance in the physics of glass and glass transition.
Coupling Protein Dynamics with Proton Transport in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II.
Taraphder, Srabani; Maupin, C Mark; Swanson, Jessica M J; Voth, Gregory A
2016-08-25
The role of protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis is one of the most highly debated topics in enzymology. The main controversy centers around what may be defined as functionally significant conformational fluctuations and how, if at all, these fluctuations couple to enzyme catalyzed events. To shed light on this debate, the conformational dynamics along the transition path surmounting the highest free energy barrier have been herein investigated for the rate limiting proton transport event in human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) II. Special attention has been placed on whether the motion of an excess proton is correlated with fluctuations in the surrounding protein and solvent matrix, which may be rare on the picosecond and subpicosecond time scales of molecular motions. It is found that several active site residues, which do not directly participate in the proton transport event, have a significant impact on the dynamics of the excess proton. These secondary participants are shown to strongly influence the active site environment, resulting in the creation of water clusters that are conducive to fast, moderately slow, or slow proton transport events. The identification and characterization of these secondary participants illuminates the role of protein dynamics in the catalytic efficiency of HCA II. PMID:27063577
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alemi Ardakani, H.; Turner, M. R.
2016-06-01
The coupled motion between shallow water sloshing in a moving vessel with baffles and the vessel dynamics is considered. Here the vessel dynamics is restricted to horizontal motion such as in tuned liquid dampers. It was shown by (Turner et al 2013 Phys. Fluids 25 112102) that partitioning a moving vessel into n separate compartments leads to an interesting dynamical behaviour of the system. Also, under particular input parameter values an internal (n+1)-fold 1:\\cdots :1 resonance can be generated, where the frequency of the sloshing fluid in each compartment is equal, and equal to the frequency of the vessel itself. Here the form of the sloshing eigenmodes at this resonance are derived in the shallow-water limit. Using the Lagrangian formulation of the problem, an efficient numerical algorithm is implemented to solve the fully nonlinear system of equations based on the implicit midpoint rule. This algorithm is simple, fast and maintains the energy partition between the vessel and the fluid over long times. In this work numerical results are presented for dynamical vessel/sloshing motion attached to a nonlinear spring.
Dynamic stress analysis of sewage centrifugal pump impeller based on two-way coupling method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, Ji; Yuan, Shouqi; Yuan, Jianping
2014-03-01
Current research on the operational reliability of centrifugal pumps has mainly focused on hydrodynamic instability. However, the interaction between the fluid and structure has not been sufficiently considered; this interaction can cause vibration and dynamic stress, which can affect the reliability. In this study, the dynamic stresses in a single-blade centrifugal pump impeller are analysed under different operating conditions; the two-way coupling method is used to calculate the fluid-structure interaction. Three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the SST k-ω turbulence model for the fluid in the whole flow passage, while transient structure dynamic analysis is used with the finite element method for the structure side. The dynamic stresses in the rotor system are computed according to the fourth strength theory. The stress results show that the highest stress is near the loose bearing and that the equivalent stress increases with the flow rate because the dynamic stresses are closely related to the pressure load. The stress distributions on the blade pressure side, suction side, leading edge, and trailing edge are each analysed for different flow rates; the highest stress distribution is found on the pressure side. On the blade pressure side, a relatively large stress is found near the trailing edge and hub side. Based on these results, a stress distribution prediction method is proposed for centrifugal pumps, which considers the interaction between the fluid and structure. The method can be used to check the dynamic stress at different flow rates when optimising the pump design to increase the pump reliability.
Ultrafast Hydration Dynamics and Coupled Water-Protein Fluctuations in Apomyoglobin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yi; Zhang, Luyuan; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping
2009-06-01
Protein hydration dynamics are of fundamental importance to its structure and function. Here, we characterize the global solvation dynamics and anisotropy dynamics around the apomyoglobin surface in different conformational states (native and molten globule) by measuring the Stokes shift and anisotropy decay of tryptophan with femtosecond-resolved fluorescence upconversion. With site-directed mutagenesis, we designed sixteen mutants with one tryptophan in each, and placed the probe at a desirable position ranging from buried in the protein core to fully solvent-exposed on the protein surface. In all protein sites studied, two distinct solvation relaxations (1-8 ps and 20-200 ps) were observed, reflecting the initial collective water relaxation and subsequent hydrogen-bond network restructuring, respectively, and both are strongly correlated with protein's local structures and chemical properties. The hydration dynamics of the mutants in molten globule state are faster than those observed in native state, indicating that the protein becomes more flexible and less structured when its conformation is converted from fully-folded native state to partially-folded molten globule state. Complementary, fluorescence anisotropy dynamics of all mutants in native state show an increasing trend of wobbling times (40-260 ps) when the location of the probe is changed from a loop, to a lateral helix, and then, to the compact protein core. Such an increase in wobbling times is related to the local protein structural rigidity, which relates the interaction of water with side chains. The ultrafast hydration dynamics and related side-chain motion around the protein surface unravel the coupled water-protein fluctuations on the picosecond time scales and indicate that the local protein motions are slaved by hydrating water fluctuations.
Fujiwara, Satoru; Plazanet, Marie; Oda, Toshiro
2013-02-15
Highlights: ► Quasielastic neutron scattering spectra of F-actin and G-actin were measured. ► Analysis of the samples in D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O provided the spectra of hydration water. ► The first layer hydration water around F-actin is less mobile than around G-actin. ► This difference in hydration water is in concert with the internal dynamics of actin. ► Water outside the first layer behaves bulk-like but influenced by the first layer. -- Abstract: In order to characterize dynamics of water molecules around F-actin and G-actin, quasielastic neutron scattering experiments were performed on powder samples of F-actin and G-actin, hydrated either with D{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O, at hydration ratios of 0.4 and 1.0. By combined analysis of the quasielastic neutron scattering spectra, the parameter values characterizing the dynamics of the water molecules in the first hydration layer and those of the water molecules outside of the first layer were obtained. The translational diffusion coefficients (D{sub T}) of the hydration water in the first layer were found to be 1.2 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s and 1.7 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s for F-actin and G-actin, respectively, while that for bulk water was 2.8 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s. The residence times were 6.6 ps and 5.0 ps for F-actin and G-actin, respectively, while that for bulk water was 0.62 ps. These differences between F-actin and G-actin, indicating that the hydration water around G-actin is more mobile than that around F-actin, are in concert with the results of the internal dynamics of F-actin and G-actin, showing that G-actin fluctuates more rapidly than F-actin. This implies that the dynamics of the hydration water is coupled to the internal dynamics of the actin molecules. The D{sub T} values of the water molecules outside of the first hydration layer were found to be similar to that of bulk water though the residence times are strongly affected by the first hydration layer. This supports the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasan, Md Arif
In this dissertation, we aim to analyze the strongly nonlinear dynamics of coupled ordered granular media and investigate interesting response regimes such as, passive wave redirection / redistribution and targeted energy transfer (TET). These studies are performed using numerical computations, analytical calculations, and experimental tests. In particular, we consider weakly coupled granular chains with or without on-site potentials, as well as two-dimensional granular networks with regularly placed intruders that act as effective coupling elements. Unlike previous studies of weakly coupled oscillatory chains, the dynamical systems considered herein incorporate both non-smooth effects due to possible separations between interacting neighboring beads (granules), as well as strongly nonlinear inter-particle Hertzian interactions. We show that these systems exhibit very rich and complex dynamics that, however, can be completely captured by our analytical approximations. For the case of weakly interacting granular networks, three independent mechanisms of efficient transport of energy from one chain to another are found. The first mechanism is a simple exchange of energy between the weakly interacting granular chains providing equi-partition of Nesterenko solitary waves through the chains. The second mechanism is a complete and recurrent exchange of energy (beating phenomenon) between the propagating breathers through the weakly coupled granular chains laying on a strong elastic foundation. The last mechanism is the most intriguing one and demonstrates targeted (irreversible) energy transfer between coupled granular chains due to appropriate stratification of their elastic foundations, in a macroscopic analogue of the well-known Landau-Zener Quantum effect in space. The aforementioned mechanisms of energy transfer and redirection in highly nonlinear granular chains are conceptually new and were presented for the first time. Analytical and computational studies of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.
2015-08-01
A strong coupling algorithm is presented for simulating the dynamic interactions between incompressible viscous flows and rigid-body systems in both two- and three-dimensional problems. In this work, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. Dynamical equations for arbitrary rigid-body systems are also developed. The proposed coupling method attempts to unify the treatment of constraints in the fluid and structure-the incompressibility of the fluid, the linkages in the rigid-body system, and the conditions at the interface-through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The resulting partitioned system of equations is solved with a simple relaxation scheme, based on an identification of virtual inertia from the fluid. The scheme achieves convergence in only 2 to 5 iterations per time step for a wide variety of mass ratios. The formulation requires that only a subset of the discrete fluid equations be solved in each iteration. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including a falling cylinder, flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of many linked plates in a free stream, and passive pivoting of a finite aspect ratio plate under the influence of gravity in a free stream. The results from the current method are compared with previous experimental and numerical results and good agreement is achieved.
Coupled ice-ocean dynamics in the marginal ice zones Upwelling/downwelling and eddy generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hakkinen, S.
1986-01-01
This study is aimed at modeling mesoscale processes such as upwelling/downwelling and ice edge eddies in the marginal ice zones. A two-dimensional coupled ice-ocean model is used for the study. The ice model is coupled to the reduced gravity ocean model through interfacial stresses. The parameters of the ocean model were chosen so that the dynamics would be nonlinear. The model was tested by studying the dynamics of upwelling. Wings parallel to the ice edge with the ice on the right produce upwelling because the air-ice momentum flux is much greater than air-ocean momentum flux; thus the Ekman transport is greater than the ice than in the open water. The stability of the upwelling and downwelling jets is discussed. The downwelling jet is found to be far more unstable than the upwelling jet because the upwelling jet is stabilized by the divergence. The constant wind field exerted on a varying ice cover will generate vorticity leading to enhanced upwelling/downwelling regions, i.e., wind-forced vortices. Steepening and strengthening of vortices are provided by the nonlinear terms. When forcing is time-varying, the advection terms will also redistribute the vorticity. The wind reversals will separate the vortices from the ice edge, so that the upwelling enhancements are pushed to the open ocean and the downwelling enhancements are pushed underneath the ice.
Strongly Coupled Fluid-Body Dynamics in the Immersed Boundary Projection Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.
2014-11-01
A computational algorithm is developed to simulate dynamically coupled interaction between fluid and rigid bodies. The basic computational framework is built upon a multi-domain immersed boundary method library, whirl, developed in previous work. In this library, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. A solver for the dynamics of rigid-body systems is also included. The fluid and rigid-body solvers are strongly coupled with an iterative approach based on the block Gauss-Seidel method. Interfacial force, with its intimate connection with the Lagrange multipliers used in the fluid solver, is used as the primary iteration variable. Relaxation, developed from a stability analysis of the iterative scheme, is used to achieve convergence in only 2-4 iterations per time step. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of linked plates and three-dimensional propulsion of flexible fluked tail. This work has been supported by AFOSR, under Award FA9550-11-1-0098.
Application of fluid-structure coupling to predict the dynamic behavior of turbine components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hübner, B.; Seidel, U.; Roth, S.
2010-08-01
In hydro turbine design, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) may play an important role. Examples are flow induced inertia and damping effects, vortex induced vibrations in the lock-in vicinity, or hydroelastic instabilities of flows in deforming gaps (e.g. labyrinth seals). In contrast to aeroelasticity, hydroelastic systems require strongly (iteratively) coupled or even monolithic solution procedures, since the fluid mass which is moving with the structure (added-mass effect) is much higher and changes the dynamic behavior of submerged structures considerably. Depending on the mode shape, natural frequencies of a turbine runner in water may be reduced to less than 50% of the corresponding frequencies in air, and flow induced damping effects may become one or two orders of magnitude higher than structural damping. In order to reduce modeling effort and calculation time, the solution strategy has to be adapted precisely to a given application. Hence, depending on the problem to solve, different approximations may apply. Examples are the calculation of natural frequencies and response spectra in water using an acoustic fluid formulation, the determination of flow induced damping effects by means of partitioned FSI including complex turbulent flows, and the identification of hydroelastic instabilities using monolithic coupling of non-linear structural dynamics and water flow.
Intelligent Object-Oriented GIS Engine W/dynamic Coupling to Modeled Objects
Lurie, Gordon; Korp, Peter
1997-02-12
The GEOVIEWER is an intelligent object-oriented Geographic Information System (GIS) engine that provides not only a spatially-optimized object representation, but also direct linkage to the underlying object, its data and behaviors. Tools are incorporated to perform tasks involving typical GIS functionality, data ingestion, linkage to external models, and integration with other application frameworks. The GOEVIEWER module was designed to provide GIS functionality to create, query, view, and manipulate software objects within a selected area under investigation in a simulation system. Many of these objects are not stored in a format conductive to efficient GIS usage. Their dynamic nature, complexity, and the sheer number of possible entity classes preclude effective integration with traditional GIS technologies due to the loosely coupled nature of their data representations. The primary difference between GEOVIEWER and standard GIS packages is that standard GIS packages offer static views of geospatial data while GEOVIEWER can be dynamically coupled to models and/or applications producing data and, therefore, display changes in geometry, attributes or behavior as they occur in the simulation.
Intelligent Object-Oriented GIS Engine W/dynamic Coupling to Modeled Objects
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1997-02-12
The GEOVIEWER is an intelligent object-oriented Geographic Information System (GIS) engine that provides not only a spatially-optimized object representation, but also direct linkage to the underlying object, its data and behaviors. Tools are incorporated to perform tasks involving typical GIS functionality, data ingestion, linkage to external models, and integration with other application frameworks. The GOEVIEWER module was designed to provide GIS functionality to create, query, view, and manipulate software objects within a selected area undermore » investigation in a simulation system. Many of these objects are not stored in a format conductive to efficient GIS usage. Their dynamic nature, complexity, and the sheer number of possible entity classes preclude effective integration with traditional GIS technologies due to the loosely coupled nature of their data representations. The primary difference between GEOVIEWER and standard GIS packages is that standard GIS packages offer static views of geospatial data while GEOVIEWER can be dynamically coupled to models and/or applications producing data and, therefore, display changes in geometry, attributes or behavior as they occur in the simulation.« less
Dynamical decoupling design for identifying weakly coupled nuclear spins in a bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Nan; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Liu, Ren-Bao
2014-09-01
Identifying weakly coupled nuclear spins around single electron spins is a key step toward implementing quantum information processing using coupled electron-nuclei spin systems or sensing like single-spin nuclear magnetic resonance detection using diamond defect spins. Dynamical decoupling control of the center electron spin with periodic pulse sequences [e.g., the Carre-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence] has been successfully used to identify single nuclear spins and to resolve structure of nuclear spin clusters. Here, we design a type of pulse sequence by replacing the repetition unit (a single π pulse) of the CPMG sequence with a group of nonuniformly spaced π pulses. Using the nitrogen-vacancy center system in diamond, we theoretically demonstrate that the designed pulse sequence improves the resolution of nuclear spin noise spectroscopy, and more information about the surrounding nuclear spins is extracted. The principle of dynamical decoupling design proposed in this paper is useful in many systems (e.g., defect spin qubit in solids, trapped ion, and superconducting qubit) for high-resolution noise spectroscopy.
Dynamics and thermodynamics of a nonlocal Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with running coupling
Hell, T.; Roessner, S.; Cristoforetti, M.; Weise, W.
2009-01-01
A nonlocal covariant extension of the two-flavor Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model is constructed, with built-in constraints from the running coupling of QCD at high-momentum and instanton physics at low-momentum scales. Chiral low-energy theorems and basic current algebra relations involving pion properties are shown to be reproduced. The momentum-dependent dynamical quark mass derived from this approach is in agreement with results from Dyson-Schwinger equations and lattice QCD. At finite temperature, inclusion of the Polyakov loop and its gauge invariant coupling to quarks reproduces the dynamical entanglement of the chiral and deconfinement crossover transitions as in the (local) Polyakov-loop-extended Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model, but now without the requirement of introducing an artificial momentum cutoff. Steps beyond the mean-field approximation are made including mesonic correlations through quark-antiquark ring summations. Various quantities of interest (pressure, energy density, speed of sound, etc.) are calculated and discussed in comparison with lattice QCD thermodynamics at zero chemical potential. The extension to finite quark chemical potential and the phase diagram in the (T,{mu})-plane are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröter, M.; Ivanov, S. D.; Schulze, J.; Polyutov, S. P.; Yan, Y.; Pullerits, T.; Kühn, O.
2015-03-01
The influence of exciton-vibrational coupling on the optical and transport properties of molecular aggregates is an old problem that gained renewed interest in recent years. On the experimental side, various nonlinear spectroscopic techniques gave insight into the dynamics of systems as complex as photosynthetic antennae. Striking evidence was gathered that in these protein-pigment complexes quantum coherence is operative even at room temperature conditions. Investigations were triggered to understand the role of vibrational degrees of freedom, beyond that of a heat bath characterized by thermal fluctuations. This development was paralleled by theory, where efficient methods emerged, which could provide the proper frame to perform non-Markovian and non-perturbative simulations of exciton-vibrational dynamics and spectroscopy. This review summarizes the state of affairs of the theory of exciton-vibrational interaction in molecular aggregates and photosynthetic antenna complexes. The focus is put on the discussion of basic effects of exciton-vibrational interaction from the stationary and dynamics points of view. Here, the molecular dimer plays a prominent role as it permits a systematic investigation of absorption and emission spectra by numerical diagonalization of the exciton-vibrational Hamiltonian in a truncated Hilbert space. An extension to larger aggregates, having many coupled nuclear degrees of freedom, becomes possible with the Multi-Layer Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method for wave packet propagation. In fact it will be shown that this method allows one to approach the limit of almost continuous spectral densities, which is usually the realm of density matrix theory. Real system-bath situations are introduced for two models, which differ in the way strongly coupled nuclear coordinates are treated, as a part of the relevant system or the bath. A rather detailed exposition of the Hierarchy Equations Of Motion (HEOM) method will be
Large-Scale Dynamical Fields Associated with Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Matthew; Kiladis, George N.; Webster, Peter J.
2000-03-01
Convectively coupled equatorial waves, as previously detected in studies of wavenumber-frequency spectra of tropical clouds, are studied in more detail. Composite dynamical structures of the waves are obtained using linear regression between selectively filtered satellite-observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data, and various fields from a global reanalysis dataset. The selective filtering of the OLR was designed to isolate the convective variations contributing to spectral peaks that lie along the equatorial wave dispersion curves for equivalent depths in the range of 12-50 m. The waves studied are the Kelvin, n = 1 equatorial Rossby (ER), mixed Rossby-gravity, n = 0 eastward inertio-gravity, n = 1 westward inertio-gravity (WIG), and n = 2 WIG waves.The horizontal structures of the dynamical fields associated with the waves are all generally consistent with those calculated from inviscid equatorial -plane shallow water theory. In the vertical, there are statistically significant structures spanning the depth of the troposphere, and for all but the ER wave there are associated vertically propagating signals extending into the equatorial stratosphere as well. In zonal cross sections, the vertical structure of the temperature anomaly field appears, for all but the ER wave, as a `boomerang'-like shape, with the `elbow' of the boomerang occurring consistently at the 250-hPa level. The tilts of the boomerang imply upward phase propagation throughout most of the troposphere, and downward phase propagation above. The deep convection of the waves occurs in regions of anomalously cold temperatures in the lower troposphere, warm temperatures in the upper troposphere, and cold temperatures at the level of the tropopause. Such a vertical structure appears to indicate that waves of relatively short vertical wavelengths (Lz 10 km) are indeed important for the coupling of large-scale dynamics and convection. The deeper structure of the convectively coupled ER wave, on the
Spin dynamics under local gauge fields in chiral spin-orbit coupling systems
Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Fujita, T.; Liu, X.J.
2011-02-15
Research Highlights: > We derive a modified LLG equation in magnetic systems with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). > Our results are applied to magnetic multilayers, and DMS and magnetic Rashba systems. > SOC mediated magnetization switching is predicted in rare earth metals (large SOC). > The magnetization trajectory and frequency can be modulated by applied voltage. > This facilitates potential application as tunable microwave oscillators. - Abstract: We present a theoretical description of local spin dynamics in magnetic systems with a chiral spin texture and finite spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Spin precession about the relativistic effective magnetic field in a SOC system gives rise to a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field reminiscent of the Yang-Mills field. In addition, the adiabatic relaxation of electron spin along the local spin yields an U(1) x U(1) topological gauge (Berry) field. We derive the corresponding equation of motion i.e. modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, for the local spin under the influence of these effects. Focusing on the SU(2) gauge, we obtain the spin torque magnitude, and the amplitude and frequency of spin oscillations in this system. Our theoretical estimates indicate significant spin torque and oscillations in systems with large spin-orbit coupling, which may be utilized in technological applications such as current-induced magnetization-switching and tunable microwave oscillators.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lake, Renee C.; Izadpanah, Amir P.; Baucom, Robert M.
1993-01-01
The results from a study aimed at improving the dynamic and aerodynamic characteristics of composite rotor blades through the use of extension-twist coupling are presented. A set of extension-twist-coupled composite spars was manufactured with four plies of graphite-epoxy cloth prepreg. These spars were noncircular in cross-section design and were therefore subject to warping deformations. Three different cross-sectional geometries were developed: D-shape, square, and flattened ellipse. Three spars of each type were fabricated to assess the degree of repeatability in the manufacturing process of extension-twist-coupled structures. Results from free-free vibration tests of the spars were compared with results from normal modes and frequency analyses of companion shell-finite-element models. Five global modes were identified within the frequency range from 0 to 2000 Hz for each spar. The experimental results for only one D-shape spar could be determined, however, and agreed within 13.8 percent of the analytical results. Frequencies corresponding to the five global modes for the three square spars agreed within 9.5, 11.6, and 8.5 percent of the respective analytical results and for the three elliptical spars agreed within 4.9, 7.7, and 9.6 percent of the respective analytical results.
Dynamical coupled-channels study of pi N --> pi pi N reactions
Kamano, Hiroyuki; Julia Diaz, Bruno; Lee, Tsung-Shung; Matsuyama, Akihiko; Sato, Toru
2009-01-01
As a step toward performing a complete coupled-channels analysis of the world data of pi N, gamma^* N --> pi N, eta N, pi pi N reactions, the pi N --> pi pi N reactions are investigated starting with the dynamical coupled-channels model developed in Phys. Rev. C76, 065201 (2007). The channels included are pi N, eta N, and pi pi N which has pi Delta, rho N, and sigma N resonant components. The non-resonant amplitudes are generated from solving a set of coupled-channels equations with the meson-baryon potentials defined by effective Lagrangians. The resonant amplitudes are generated from 16 bare excited nucleon (N^*) states which are dressed by the non-resonant interactions as constrained by the unitarity condition. The available total cross section data of pi^+ p --> pi^+ pi^+ n, pi^+ pi^0 and pi^- p --> pi^+ pi^- n, pi^- pi^0 n, pi^0 pi^0 n can be reproduced to a very large extent both in magnitudes and energy-dependence. Possible improvements of the model are investigated, in p
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.
2010-12-01
Climate change, population growth, biofuel production, and a host of other global forces are driving alterations of agricultural production worldwide, with little comprehensive understanding of the impacts these changes will have on water resources. While plot-scale soil-plant-water interactions have been intensively studied and simulated for decades, few tools are available to quantify watershed-to-basin scale impacts of shifting agricultural production systems. A recent class of fully-distributed models that simulate the complete terrestrial hydrologic cycle are well suited for fine-resolution, basin-scale studies. Here we present the first coupling of such a model, the Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model (ILHM), with a dynamic vegetation/crop growth model, the Systems Approach to Land Use Sustainability (SALUS) model. The coupled SALUS-ILHM code was first tested for a series of plots with both intensively monitored agricultural and natural land uses in Michigan. We then simulate a regional watershed in Michigan under current and statistically-downscaled forecast climate to demonstrate the capabilities of the coupled models and validate their performance. Model-predicted leaf area index (LAI) and agricultural yields are compared to remotely-sensed and county-aggregate statistics, respectively. Impacts of explicitly simulating vegetation and root growth on hydrologic model performance are presented. Preliminary climate change forecast scenarios indicate significant alterations to Michigan’s hydrologic and agroecological systems, including longer growing seasons, altered yields for current-generation crops, reduced seasonal snowpacks, and lower summer stream flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez de La Torre, A.; Rios Entenza, A.; Gestal Souto, L.; Miguez Macho, G.
2010-09-01
Here we present a soil-vegetation-hydrology model, LEAFHYDRO coupled with the WRF model. LEAFHYDRO includes a groundwater parameterization with a dynamic water table and river routing and it can be run at a finer resolution than the atmosphere within WRF. Offline multiyear simulations over the Iberian Peninsula at 2.5 km resolution with the LEAFHYDRO model with and without groundwater indicate that introducing the water table parameterization has a significant impact on soil moisture amounts, soil moisture persistence and evapotranspiration fluxes. This is particularly true over the semiarid flat plateaus of the Iberian interior, where the atmospheric source of precipitation is scarce and the water table is naturally shallow due to slow drainage and lateral flow convergence from the surrounding mountains. Climatic simulations with the coupled WRF-HYDRO system suggest that the memory induced in the soil by the water table significantly impact the simulated precipitation, especially in the spring, when the land-surface atmospheric coupling is strong and rainfall amounts have their annual peak inland Iberia.
Lukic, Luka; Santos-Victor, José; Billard, Aude
2014-04-01
We investigate the role of obstacle avoidance in visually guided reaching and grasping movements. We report on a human study in which subjects performed prehensile motion with obstacle avoidance where the position of the obstacle was systematically varied across trials. These experiments suggest that reaching with obstacle avoidance is organized in a sequential manner, where the obstacle acts as an intermediary target. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the notion of workspace travelled by the hand is embedded explicitly in a forward planning scheme, which is actively involved in detecting obstacles on the way when performing reaching. We find that the gaze proactively coordinates the pattern of eye-arm motion during obstacle avoidance. This study provides also a quantitative assessment of the coupling between the eye-arm-hand motion. We show that the coupling follows regular phase dependencies and is unaltered during obstacle avoidance. These observations provide a basis for the design of a computational model. Our controller extends the coupled dynamical systems framework and provides fast and synchronous control of the eyes, the arm and the hand within a single and compact framework, mimicking similar control system found in humans. We validate our model for visuomotor control of a humanoid robot. PMID:24570352
Effect of coupling parasitics and CMOS driver width on transition time for dynamic inputs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Devendra Kumar; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Sharma, R. K.
2014-05-01
This article analyses the effect of coupling parasitics and CMOS gate driver width on transition time delay of coupled interconnects driven by dynamically switching inputs. Propagation delay through an interconnect is dependent not only on the technology/topology but also on many other factors such as input transition time, load characteristic, driving gate dimensions and so on. The delay is affected by rise/fall time of the signal, which in turn is dependent on the driving gate and the load presented to it. The signal transition time is also a strong function of wire parasitics. This article addresses the different issues of signal transition time. The impact of inter-wire parasitics and driver width on signal transition time are presented in this article. Furthermore, the effect of unequal transition time of the inputs to interconnect lines on crosstalk noise and delay is analysed. To demonstrate these effects, two distributed RLC lines coupled capacitively and inductively are taken into consideration. The simulations are run at three different technology nodes, viz. 65 nm, 90 nm and 130 nm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotstein, Horacio G.; Wu, Hui
2012-09-01
We use simulations and dynamical systems tools to investigate the mechanisms of generation of phase-locked and localized oscillatory cluster patterns in a globally coupled Oregonator model where the activator receives global feedback from the inhibitor, mimicking experimental results observed in the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. A homogeneous two-cluster system (two clusters with equal cluster size) displays antiphase patterns. Heterogenous two-cluster systems (two clusters with different sizes) display both phase-locked and localized patterns depending on the parameter values. In a localized pattern the oscillation amplitude of the largest cluster is roughly an order of magnitude smaller than the oscillation amplitude of the smaller cluster, reflecting the effect of self-inhibition exerted by the global feedback term. The transition from phase-locked to localized cluster patterns occurs as the intensity of global feedback increases. Three qualitatively different basic mechanisms, described previously for a globally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo model, are involved in the generation of the observed patterns. The swing-and-release mechanism is related to the canard phenomenon (canard explosion of limit cycles) in relaxation oscillators. The hold-and-release and hold-and-escape mechanisms are related to the release and escape mechanisms in synaptically connected neural models. The methods we use can be extended to the investigation of oscillatory chemical reactions with other types of non-local coupling.
Rotstein, Horacio G; Wu, Hui
2012-09-14
We use simulations and dynamical systems tools to investigate the mechanisms of generation of phase-locked and localized oscillatory cluster patterns in a globally coupled Oregonator model where the activator receives global feedback from the inhibitor, mimicking experimental results observed in the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. A homogeneous two-cluster system (two clusters with equal cluster size) displays antiphase patterns. Heterogenous two-cluster systems (two clusters with different sizes) display both phase-locked and localized patterns depending on the parameter values. In a localized pattern the oscillation amplitude of the largest cluster is roughly an order of magnitude smaller than the oscillation amplitude of the smaller cluster, reflecting the effect of self-inhibition exerted by the global feedback term. The transition from phase-locked to localized cluster patterns occurs as the intensity of global feedback increases. Three qualitatively different basic mechanisms, described previously for a globally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo model, are involved in the generation of the observed patterns. The swing-and-release mechanism is related to the canard phenomenon (canard explosion of limit cycles) in relaxation oscillators. The hold-and-release and hold-and-escape mechanisms are related to the release and escape mechanisms in synaptically connected neural models. The methods we use can be extended to the investigation of oscillatory chemical reactions with other types of non-local coupling. PMID:22979891
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin
2010-04-01
We consider a fiber coupled cavity array. Each cavity is doped with a single two-level atom. By treating the atom-cavity systems as combined polaritonic qubits, we can transform it into a polaritonic qubit-qubit array in the dispersive regime. We show that the four fiber coupled cavity open chain and ring can both generate the four qubit W state and cluster state, and can both transfer one and two qubit arbitrary states. We also discuss the dynamical behaviors of the four fiber coupled cavity array with unequal couplings.
Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto
2013-03-14
The lack of a centre of inversion in a cholesteric liquid crystal allows linear cross couplings between thermodynamic forces and fluxes that are polar vectors and pseudovectors, respectively. This makes it possible for a temperature gradient parallel to the cholesteric axis to induce a torque that rotates the director, a phenomenon known as the Lehmann effect or thermomechanical coupling. The converse is also possible: a torque applied parallel to the cholesteric axis rotates the director and drives a heat flow. In order to study this phenomenon, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation algorithms and Green-Kubo relations evaluated by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation have been used to calculate the Leslie coefficient, i.e. the cross coupling coefficient between the temperature gradient and the director angular velocity, for a model system composed of soft prolate ellipsoids of revolution interacting via the Gay-Berne potential augmented by a chiral interaction potential causing the formation of a cholesteric phase. It is found that the Leslie coefficient is two orders of magnitudes smaller than other transport coefficients such as the heat conductivity and the twist viscosity, so that very long simulations are required to evaluate it. The Leslie coefficient decreases with the pitch but it has not been possible to determine the exact functional dependence of this coefficient on the pitch. Since very long simulations have been performed to evaluate the Leslie coefficient, very accurate values have been obtained for the twist viscosity and the heat conductivity as a by-product and it is found that they are very similar to the values of the corresponding quantities in the achiral nematic phase that arises when the pitch goes to infinity. PMID:23223192
Real-Time In Situ Monitoring of Coupled Dynamics in Ponds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Branco, B.; Torgersen, T.; Bean, J.
2002-05-01
Shallow (< 2 m) ponds represent an important water quality component of the landscape. The bio- and chemodynamics are coupled to physical processes through diel cycles of thermal stratification and destratification as well as aperiodic precipitation events. Thus, a pond's coupled biological, physical and chemical dynamics and it's time scales of reaction and transport are of the order of minutes to days and requires hourly sampling at a minimum. The MyPond project has developed equipment and techniques to examine these dynamics in real-time through an Internet-based monitoring system that delivers streaming data for use in research and education. The MyPond system is currently being used to monitor the coupled dynamics of Mirror Lake (mean depth ~ 1.2 m) at the Storrs campus of the University of Connecticut. The diel stratification/destratification cycle is monitored using a thermistor array extending from the top of the water column to 10 cm into the sediments. An in-house designed pump profiler system allows high frequency (one sample every 5 minutes) automatic sampling of 6 to 8 sequential depths (one profile every ~ 30 minutes). A programmable microprocessor controls the timing and sequence of the sampling. Pond water is measured in a flow cell with a single YSI multi-parameter sonde for temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, ORP, ammonium, turbidity, fluorescence and specific conductivity for each depth interval The datalogger is remotely queried via UCONN's data network. Graphical displays of the data are created automatically and served as images to the MyPond website. Pond water level and weather data are also provided in real-time. Thermal gradients as high as 0.14 deg C/cm are seen during daylight in summer months with daily `turnover' just before dawn. Strong diurnal patterns and top to bottom differences in e.g. photosynthetic oxygen production and carbon dioxide consumption as well as an ammonium flux from the sediment are clearly visible. It is commonly
Conformational dynamics of a class C G protein-coupled receptor
Vafabakhsh, Reza; Levitz, Joshua; Isacoff, Ehud Y.
2015-01-01
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane receptors in eukaryotes. Crystal structures have provided insight into GPCR interaction with ligands and G-proteins1,2, but our understanding of the conformational dynamics of activation is incomplete. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are dimeric class C GPCRs that modulate neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and serve as drug targets for neurological disorders3,4. A “clamshell” ligand-binding domain (LBD), which contains the ligand binding site, is coupled to the transmembrane domain (TMD) via a cysteine rich domain, and LBD closure appears to be the first step in activation5,6. Crystal structures of isolated mGluR LBD dimers led to the suggestion that activation also involves a reorientation of the dimer interface from a “relaxed” to an “active” state7,8, but the relationship between ligand binding, LBD closure and dimer interface rearrangement in activation remains unclear. We used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to probe the activation mechanism of full-length mammalian group II mGluRs. We find that the LBDs interconvert between three conformations: resting, activated and a short-lived intermediate state. Orthosteric agonists induce transitions between these conformational states with efficacy determined by occupancy of the active conformation. Unlike mGluR2, mGluR3 displays basal dynamics, which are Ca2+ dependent and lead to basal protein activation. Our results support a general mechanism for the activation of mGluRs in which agonist binding induces closure of the LBDs followed by dimer interface reorientation. Our experimental strategy should be widely applicable to study conformational dynamics in GPCRs and other membrane proteins. PMID:26258295
Conformational dynamics of a class C G-protein-coupled receptor.
Vafabakhsh, Reza; Levitz, Joshua; Isacoff, Ehud Y
2015-08-27
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane receptors in eukaryotes. Crystal structures have provided insight into GPCR interactions with ligands and G proteins, but our understanding of the conformational dynamics of activation is incomplete. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are dimeric class C GPCRs that modulate neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and serve as drug targets for neurological disorders. A 'clamshell' ligand-binding domain (LBD), which contains the ligand-binding site, is coupled to the transmembrane domain via a cysteine-rich domain, and LBD closure seems to be the first step in activation. Crystal structures of isolated mGluR LBD dimers led to the suggestion that activation also involves a reorientation of the dimer interface from a 'relaxed' to an 'active' state, but the relationship between ligand binding, LBD closure and dimer interface rearrangement in activation remains unclear. Here we use single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer to probe the activation mechanism of full-length mammalian group II mGluRs. We show that the LBDs interconvert between three conformations: resting, activated and a short-lived intermediate state. Orthosteric agonists induce transitions between these conformational states, with efficacy determined by occupancy of the active conformation. Unlike mGluR2, mGluR3 displays basal dynamics, which are Ca(2+)-dependent and lead to basal protein activation. Our results support a general mechanism for the activation of mGluRs in which agonist binding induces closure of the LBDs, followed by dimer interface reorientation. Our experimental strategy should be widely applicable to study conformational dynamics in GPCRs and other membrane proteins. PMID:26258295
A socio-hydrologic model of coupled water-agriculture dynamics with emphasis on farm size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brugger, D. R.; Maneta, M. P.
2015-12-01
Agricultural land cover dynamics in the U.S. are dominated by two trends: 1) total agricultural land is decreasing and 2) average farm size is increasing. These trends have important implications for the future of water resources because 1) growing more food on less land is due in large part to increased groundwater withdrawal and 2) larger farms can better afford both more efficient irrigation and more groundwater access. However, these large-scale trends are due to individual farm operators responding to many factors including climate, economics, and policy. It is therefore difficult to incorporate the trends into watershed-scale hydrologic models. Traditional scenario-based approaches are valuable for many applications, but there is typically no feedback between the hydrologic model and the agricultural dynamics and so limited insight is gained into the how agriculture co-evolves with water resources. We present a socio-hydrologic model that couples simplified hydrologic and agricultural economic dynamics, accounting for many factors that depend on farm size such as irrigation efficiency and returns to scale. We introduce an "economic memory" (EM) state variable that is driven by agricultural revenue and affects whether farms are sold when land market values exceed expected returns from agriculture. The model uses a Generalized Mixture Model of Gaussians to approximate the distribution of farm sizes in a study area, effectively lumping farms into "small," "medium," and "large" groups that have independent parameterizations. We apply the model in a semi-arid watershed in the upper Columbia River Basin, calibrating to data on streamflow, total agricultural land cover, and farm size distribution. The model is used to investigate the sensitivity of the coupled system to various hydrologic and economic scenarios such as increasing market value of land, reduced surface water availability, and increased irrigation efficiency in small farms.
Dynamical coupled-channels study of {pi}N{yields}{pi}{pi}N reactions
Kamano, H.; Julia-Diaz, B.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Matsuyama, A.; Sato, T.
2009-02-15
As a step toward performing a complete coupled-channels analysis of the world data of {pi}N,{gamma}*N{yields}{pi}N,{eta}N,{pi}{pi}N reactions, the {pi}N{yields}{pi}{pi}N reactions are investigated starting with the dynamical coupled-channels model developed in Phys. Rev. C 76, 065201 (2007). The channels included are {pi}N,{eta}N, and {pi}{pi}N which has {pi}{delta},{rho}N, and {sigma}N resonant components. The nonresonant amplitudes are generated from solving a set of coupled-channels equations with the meson-baryon potentials defined by effective Lagrangians. The resonant amplitudes are generated from 16 bare excited nucleon (N*) states that are dressed by the nonresonant interactions as constrained by the unitarity condition. The data of total cross sections and {pi}N and {pi}{pi} invariant mass distributions of {pi}{sup +}p{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}n,{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}p and {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}n,{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}p,{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}n reactions from threshold to the invariant mass W=2 GeV can be described to a very large extent. We show the importance of the coupled-channels effects and the strong interference among the contributions from the {pi}{delta},{sigma}N, and {rho}N channels. The large interference between the resonant and nonresonant amplitudes is also demonstrated. Possible future developments are discussed.
A coupled biogeochemical-Dynamic Energy Budget model as a tool for managing fish production ponds.
Serpa, Dalila; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Caetano, Miguel; Cancela da Fonseca, Luís; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Duarte, Pedro
2013-10-01
The sustainability of semi-intensive aquaculture relies on management practices that simultaneously improve production efficiency and minimize the environmental impacts of this activity. The purpose of the present work was to develop a mathematical model that reproduced the dynamics of a semi-intensive fish earth pond, to simulate different management scenarios for optimizing fish production. The modeling approach consisted of coupling a biogeochemical model that simulated the dynamics of the elements that are more likely to affect fish production and cause undesirable environmental impacts (nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen) to a fish growth model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget approach. The biogeochemical sub-model successfully simulated most water column and sediment variables. A good model fit was also found between predicted and observed white seabream (Diplodus sargus) growth data over a production cycle. In order to optimize fish production, different management scenarios were analysed with the model (e.g. increase stocking densities, decrease/increase water exchange rates, decrease/increase feeding rates, decrease phosphorus content in fish feeds, increase food assimilation efficiency and decrease pellets sinking velocity) to test their effects on the pond environment as well as on fish yields and effluent nutrient discharges. Scenarios were quantitatively evaluated and compared using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) methodology. The best management options that allow the maximization of fish production while maintaining a good pond environment and minimum impacts on the adjacent coastal system were to double standard stocking densities and to improve food assimilation efficiency. PMID:23872182
Seibold, Steve A.; Singh, Badri Nath; Zhang, Chunfen; Kireeva, Maria; Domecq, Céline; Bouchard, Annie; Nazione, Anthony M.; Feig, Michael; Cukier, Robert I.; Coulombe, Benoit; Kashlev, Mikhail; Hampsey, Michael; Burton, Zachary F.
2010-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulation of Thermus thermophilus (Tt) RNA polymerase (RNAP) in a catalytic conformation demonstrates that the active site dNMP-NTP base pair must be substantially dehydrated to support full active site closing and optimum conditions for phosphodiester bond synthesis. In silico mutant β R428A RNAP, which was designed based on substitutions at the homologous position (Rpb2 R512) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) RNAP II, was used as a reference structure to compare to Tt RNAP in simulations. Long range conformational coupling linking a dynamic segment of the bridge α-helix, the extended fork loop, the active site, and the trigger loop-trigger helix is apparent and adversely affected in β R428A RNAP. Furthermore, bridge helix bending is detected in the catalytic structure, indicating that bridge helix dynamics may regulate phosphodiester bond synthesis as well as translocation. An active site “latch” assembly that includes a key trigger helix residue Tt β’ H1242 and highly conserved active site residues β E445 and R557 appears to help regulate active site hydration/dehydration. The potential relevance of these observations in understanding RNAP and DNAP induced fit and fidelity is discussed. PMID:20478425
Modeling the coupled return-spread high frequency dynamics of large tick assets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curato, Gianbiagio; Lillo, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
Large tick assets, i.e. assets where one tick movement is a significant fraction of the price and bid-ask spread is almost always equal to one tick, display a dynamics in which price changes and spread are strongly coupled. We present an approach based on the hidden Markov model, also known in econometrics as the Markov switching model, for the dynamics of price changes, where the latent Markov process is described by the transitions between spreads. We then use a finite Markov mixture of logit regressions on past squared price changes to describe temporal dependencies in the dynamics of price changes. The model can thus be seen as a double chain Markov model. We show that the model describes the shape of the price change distribution at different time scales, volatility clustering, and the anomalous decrease of kurtosis. We calibrate our models based on Nasdaq stocks and we show that this model reproduces remarkably well the statistical properties of real data.
Dynamic response and robust control of coupled maglev vehicle and guideway system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Eunho; Song, Ji-Seok; Kang, Bu-Byoung; Na, Sungsoo
2011-12-01
This study develops a computational model of the dynamic characteristics of the actively controlled, magnetically levitated (maglev) system moving on a flexible guideway. The 5-dof (degree-of-freedom) vehicle model, the modeling of the EMS (electromagnetic suspension ), guideway, and guideway irregularity are described, respectively. In this sense, the dynamic response of a coupled vehicle and guideway system is investigated with different vehicle speeds and masses. Furthermore, the formulation of SMC (sliding mode control) based on the Kalman filter is addressed for the control of the dynamic response of the maglev system for various prescribed running speeds. For numerical simulation, the Runge-Kutta method is used to solve the state-space equation, which includes information about the vehicle, guideway and controller. The results reveal that both the air gap fluctuation and the cabin CG (center of gravity) vertical acceleration are strongly affected by the vehicle speed and guideway irregularity, but only slightly affected by the vehicle mass. Moreover, SMC based on the Kalman filter considerably reduces the air gap fluctuation and cabin CG vertical acceleration responses, and the efficiency of the adopted control methodology is demonstrated even at higher critical speed conditions.
ER sheet persistence is coupled to myosin 1c-regulated dynamic actin filament arrays.
Joensuu, Merja; Belevich, Ilya; Rämö, Olli; Nevzorov, Ilya; Vihinen, Helena; Puhka, Maija; Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin; Vartiainen, Maria K; Jokitalo, Eija
2014-04-01
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) network with diverse structural and functional domains. Proper ER operation requires an intricate balance within and between dynamics, morphology, and functions, but how these processes are coupled in cells has been unclear. Using live-cell imaging and 3D electron microscopy, we identify a specific subset of actin filaments localizing to polygons defined by ER sheets and tubules and describe a role for these actin arrays in ER sheet persistence and, thereby, in maintenance of the characteristic network architecture by showing that actin depolymerization leads to increased sheet fluctuation and transformations and results in small and less abundant sheet remnants and a defective ER network distribution. Furthermore, we identify myosin 1c localizing to the ER-associated actin filament arrays and reveal a novel role for myosin 1c in regulating these actin structures, as myosin 1c manipulations lead to loss of the actin filaments and to similar ER phenotype as observed after actin depolymerization. We propose that ER-associated actin filaments have a role in ER sheet persistence regulation and thus support the maintenance of sheets as a stationary subdomain of the dynamic ER network. PMID:24523293
Improved dynamics and gravitational collapse of tachyon field coupled with a barotropic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marto, João; Tavakoli, Yaser; Moniz, Paulo Vargas
2015-01-01
We consider a spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of a tachyon field with an inverse square potential, which is coupled with a barotropic fluid. By employing an holonomy correction imported from loop quantum cosmology (LQC), we analyze the dynamics of the collapse within a semiclassical description. Using a dynamical system approach, we find that the stable fixed points given by the standard general relativistic setting turn into saddle points in the present context. This provides a new dynamics in contrast to the black hole and naked singularities solutions appearing in the classical model. Our results suggest that classical singularities can be avoided by quantum gravity effects and are replaced by a bounce. By a thorough numerical studies we show that, depending on the barotropic parameter γ, there exists a class of solutions corresponding to either a fluid or a tachyon dominated regimes. Furthermore, for the case γ 1, we find an interesting tracking behavior between the tachyon and the fluid leading to a dust-like collapse. In addition, we show that, there exists a threshold scale which determines when an outward energy flux emerges, as a nonsingular black hole is forming, at the corresponding collapse final stages.
ER sheet persistence is coupled to myosin 1c–regulated dynamic actin filament arrays
Joensuu, Merja; Belevich, Ilya; Rämö, Olli; Nevzorov, Ilya; Vihinen, Helena; Puhka, Maija; Witkos, Tomasz M.; Lowe, Martin; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Jokitalo, Eija
2014-01-01
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) network with diverse structural and functional domains. Proper ER operation requires an intricate balance within and between dynamics, morphology, and functions, but how these processes are coupled in cells has been unclear. Using live-cell imaging and 3D electron microscopy, we identify a specific subset of actin filaments localizing to polygons defined by ER sheets and tubules and describe a role for these actin arrays in ER sheet persistence and, thereby, in maintenance of the characteristic network architecture by showing that actin depolymerization leads to increased sheet fluctuation and transformations and results in small and less abundant sheet remnants and a defective ER network distribution. Furthermore, we identify myosin 1c localizing to the ER-associated actin filament arrays and reveal a novel role for myosin 1c in regulating these actin structures, as myosin 1c manipulations lead to loss of the actin filaments and to similar ER phenotype as observed after actin depolymerization. We propose that ER-associated actin filaments have a role in ER sheet persistence regulation and thus support the maintenance of sheets as a stationary subdomain of the dynamic ER network. PMID:24523293
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cairns, Iver
2012-07-01
As plasma waves grow or damp they extract or deposit energy, respectively, and alter the phase-space gradients of particle distributions, perhaps leading to instability or damping of other waves. In addition, wave electric and magnetic fields can scatter particles in both position and velocity, altering their motion and sometimes energizing them or causing them to escape or enter physical regions of interest. Plasma waves can also be used to diagnose plasma properties (e.g., the density and magnetic field strength) and the presence of nonthermal particles. Nevertheless, even though plasma waves can heat, cool, energize, scatter, reflect, and characterize plasma particles the question remains: Are plasma waves actually dynamically important in space plasmas? Here this question is addressed in the context of solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere coupling by considering multiple regions where plasma waves might be dynamically important. These include: the slowing of the solar wind upstream of the bow shock associated with Fermi acceleration; heating and thermalization at the bow shock; limitation of the electron and ion temperature anisotropies and electron heat flux in the solar wind and magnetosheath; heating, flows, and particle acceleration in magnetic reconnection regions in Earth's magnetotail and magnetopause; precipitation of radiation belt particles into the loss cone and thence the ionosphere; and the development of auroral plasma cavities. In each case existing observations and theory are reviewed and compared, focusing on the importance to the plasma dynamics of plasma waves versus ``static'' macroscopic fields and other effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganesh, Rajaraman; Charan, Harish
2016-07-01
Understanding vortical flows under external forcing in two dimensional (2D) fluids is a fundamental paradigm for structure formation in driven, dissipative systems. Considering Yukawa liquid as a prototype for strongly correlated or strongly coupled plasmas characterized by coupling strength (Γ, the ratio of average potential to kinetic energy per particle) and screening parameter (κ, ratio of mean inter-particle distance to shielding length), we address two important problems: 1. Onset of Rayleigh Benard convection cell (RBCC) in 2D Yukawa liquids subject to gravity and external temperature gradient 2. Onset of von Karman vortices in 2D Yukawa liquid under external pressure head, using large scale, first principles molecular dynamics simulations. For typical values of (Γ,κ), existence of a critical external temperature difference is demonstrated, beyond which RBCC are seen to set in. Beyond this critical external temperature difference, the strength of the maximum convective flow velocity is shown to exhibit a new, hitherto unsuspected linear relationship with external temperature difference and with a slope independent of (Γ,κ). The time taken for the transients to settle down to a steady state RBCC τ_s, is found to be maximum close to the above said critical external temperature difference and is seen to reduce with increasing external temperature difference. For the range of values of (Γ, κ) considered here, τ_s ≃ 10 000-20 000;ω^{-1}_{pd}, where ω_{pd} is dust plasma frequency. As Γ is increased to very high values, due to strong coupling effects, RBC cells are seen to be in a transient state without attaining a steady state for as long as 100 000;ω^{-1}_{pd}, even for a very high external temperature difference. In the second part, we address the existence of universal relation between Strouhal (St) and Rayleigh (Ry) numbers for Yukawa liquid using first principles based classical molecular dynamics. The flow past an obstacle is seen to indeed
Reconstruction of the Greenland ice sheet dynamics in a fully coupled Earth System Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybak, Oleg; Volodin, Evgeny; Huybrechts, Philippe
2016-04-01
Earth system models (ESMs) are undoubtedly effective tools for studying climate dynamics. Incorporation of evolving ice sheets to ESMs is a challenging task because response times of the climate system and of ice sheets differ by several orders of magnitude. Besides, AO GCMs operate on spatial and temporal resolutions substantially differing from those of ice sheet models (ICMs). Therefore elaboration of an effective coupling methodology of an AO GCM and an ICM is the key problem of an ESM construction and utilization. Several downscaling strategies of varying complexity exist now of data exchange between modeled climate system and ice sheets. Application of a particular strategy depends on the research objectives. In our view, the optimum approach for model studying of significant environmental changes (e.g. glacial/interglacial transitions) when ice sheets undergo substantial evolution of geometry and volume would be an asynchronous coupling. The latter allows simulation in the interactive way of growth and decay of ice sheets in the changing climatic conditions. In the focus of the presentation, is the overview of coupling aspects of an AO GCM INMCM32 elaborated in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (Moscow, Russia) to the Greenland ice sheet model (GrISM, Vrije Uninersiteit Brussel, Belgium). To provide interactive coupling of INMCM32 (spatial resolution 5°×4°, 21 vertical layers and temporal resolution 6 min. in the atmospheric block) and GrISM (spatial resolution 20×20 km, 51 vertical layers and 1 yr temporal resolution), we employ a special energy- and water balance model (EWBM-G), which serves as a buffer providing effective data exchange between INMCM32 and GrISM. EWBM-G operates in a rectangle domain including Greenland. Transfer of daily meanings of simulated climatic variables (air surface temperature and specific humidity) is provided on the lateral boundarias of the domain and inside the domain (sea level air pressure, wind speed and total
Reprint of : Dynamics of coupled vibration modes in a quantum non-linear mechanical resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labadze, G.; Dukalski, M.; Blanter, Ya. M.
2016-08-01
We investigate the behaviour of two non-linearly coupled flexural modes of a doubly clamped suspended beam (nanomechanical resonator). One of the modes is externally driven. We demonstrate that classically, the behavior of the non-driven mode is reminiscent of that of a parametrically driven linear oscillator: it exhibits a threshold behavior, with the amplitude of this mode below the threshold being exactly zero. Quantum-mechanically, we were able to access the dynamics of this mode below the classical parametric threshold. We show that whereas the mean displacement of this mode is still zero, the mean squared displacement is finite and at the threshold corresponds to the occupation number of 1/2. This finite displacement of the non-driven mode can serve as an experimentally verifiable quantum signature of quantum motion.
Dynamical system analysis for a nonminimal torsion-matter coupled gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carloni, Sante; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Otalora, Giovanni; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.
2016-01-01
In this work, we perform a detailed dynamical analysis for the cosmological applications of a nonminimal torsion-matter coupled gravity. Two alternative formalisms are proposed, which enable one to choose between the easier approach for a given problem, and furthermore, we analyze six specific models. In general, we extract fixed points corresponding either to dark-matter-dominated, scaling decelerated solutions, or to dark-energy-dominated accelerated solutions. Additionally, we find that there is a small parameter region in which the model can experience the transition from the matter epoch to the dark-energy era. These features are in agreement with the observed evolution of the Universe, and make the theory a successful candidate for the description of nature.
Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez, Eduardo; Alejos, Óscar.
2014-07-01
The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziemys, A.; Kojic, M.; Milosevic, M.; Kojic, N.; Hussain, F.; Ferrari, M.; Grattoni, A.
2011-06-01
We present a successful hierarchical modeling approach which accounts for interface effects on diffusivity, ignored in classical continuum theories. A molecular dynamics derived diffusivity scaling scheme is incorporated into a finite element method to model transport through a nanochannel. In a 5 nm nanochannel, the approach predicts 2.2 times slower mass release than predicted by Fick's law by comparing time spent to release 90% of mass. The scheme was validated by predicting experimental glucose diffusion through a nanofluidic membrane with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. Comparison with experiments through a nanofluidic membrane showed interface effects to be crucial. We show robustness of our discrete continuum model in addressing complex diffusion phenomena in biomedical and engineering applications by providing flexible hierarchical coupling of molecular scale effects and preserving computational finite element method speed.
Dynamic Polarizabilities of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons Using Coupled-Cluster Linear Response Theory
Hammond, Jeffrey R.; Kowalski, Karol; De Jong, Wibe A.
2007-10-14
Coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD) is applied to the calculation of optical properties of large polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Dipole polarizabilities are reported for benzene, pyrene, and the oligoacenes sequence n=2-6. Dynamic polarizabilities were calculated on polyacences as large asa pentacene for a single frequency and for benzene and pyrene at many frequencies. The basis set effect was studied for benzene using a variety of basis sets in the Pople and Dunning families up to aug-cc-pVQZ and the Sadlej p VTZ basis, which was used exclusively for the largest molecules. Optimized geometries were evaluated for some of the compounds using HF, B3LYP, PBE0, MP2 and CCSD to understand the role of bond-length-alteration (BLA). Finally, the polarizability results ere compared to four common density-functionals (B3LYP, BLYP, PBE0, PBE).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Howard; Willacy, Karen; Allen, Mark
2012-01-01
KINETICS is a coupled dynamics and chemistry atmosphere model that is data intensive and computationally demanding. The potential performance gain from using a supercomputer motivates the adaptation from a serial version to a parallelized one. Although the initial parallelization had been done, bottlenecks caused by an abundance of communication calls between processors led to an unfavorable drop in performance. Before starting on the parallel optimization process, a partial overhaul was required because a large emphasis was placed on streamlining the code for user convenience and revising the program to accommodate the new supercomputers at Caltech and JPL. After the first round of optimizations, the partial runtime was reduced by a factor of 23; however, performance gains are dependent on the size of the data, the number of processors requested, and the computer used.
Study of dynamic fluid-structure coupling with application to human phonation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saurabh, Shakti; Faber, Justin; Bodony, Daniel
2013-11-01
Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of a compressible, viscous fluid interacting with a non-linear, viscoelastic solid are used to study the generation of the human voice. The vocal fold (VF) tissues are modeled using a finite-strain fractional derivative constitutive model implemented in a quadratic finite element code and coupled to a high-order compressible Navier-Stokes solver through a boundary-fitted fluid-solid interface. The viscoelastic solver is validated through in-house experiments using Agarose Gel, a human tissue simulant, undergoing static and harmonic deformation measured with load cell and optical diagnostics. The phonation simulations highlight the role tissue nonlinearity and viscosity play in the glottal jet dynamics and in the radiated sound. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CAREER award number 1150439).
Nonparametric identification of a class of nonlinear close-coupled dynamic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Udwadia, F. E.; Kuo, C. P.
1981-01-01
A nonparametric identification technique for the identification of close coupled dynamic systems with arbitrary memoryless nonlinearities is presented. The method utilizes noisy recorded data (acceleration, velocity and displacement) to identify the restoring forces in the system. The masses in the system are assumed to be known (or fairly well estimated from the design drawings). The restoring forces are expanded in a series of orthogonal polnomials and the coefficients of these polynomial expansions are obtained by using least square fit method. A particularly simple and computationally efficient method is proposed for dealing with separable restoring forces. The identified results are found to be relatively insensitive to measurement noise. An analysis of the effects of measurement noise on the quality of the estimates is given. The computations are shown to be relatively quick (when compared say to the Wiener identification method) and the core storage required relatively small, making the method suitable for onboard identification of large space structures.
Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect
Martínez, Eduardo
2014-07-14
The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.
A dynamically coupled allosteric network underlies binding cooperativity in Src kinase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foda, Zachariah H.; Shan, Yibing; Kim, Eric T.; Shaw, David E.; Seeliger, Markus A.
2015-01-01
Protein tyrosine kinases are attractive drug targets because many human diseases are associated with the deregulation of kinase activity. However, how the catalytic kinase domain integrates different signals and switches from an active to an inactive conformation remains incompletely understood. Here we identify an allosteric network of dynamically coupled amino acids in Src kinase that connects regulatory sites to the ATP- and substrate-binding sites. Surprisingly, reactants (ATP and peptide substrates) bind with negative cooperativity to Src kinase while products (ADP and phosphopeptide) bind with positive cooperativity. We confirm the molecular details of the signal relay through the allosteric network by biochemical studies. Experiments on two additional protein tyrosine kinases indicate that the allosteric network may be largely conserved among these enzymes. Our work provides new insights into the regulation of protein tyrosine kinases and establishes a potential conduit by which resistance mutations to ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors can affect their activity.
Huneau, Clément; Benali, Habib; Chabriat, Hugues
2015-01-01
The mechanisms that link a transient neural activity to the corresponding increase of cerebral blood flow (CBF) are termed neurovascular coupling (NVC). They are possibly impaired at early stages of small vessel or neurodegenerative diseases. Investigation of NVC in humans has been made possible with the development of various neuroimaging techniques based on variations of local hemodynamics during neural activity. Specific dynamic models are currently used for interpreting these data that can include biophysical parameters related to NVC. After a brief review of the current knowledge about possible mechanisms acting in NVC we selected seven models with explicit integration of NVC found in the literature. All these models were described using the same procedure. We compared their physiological assumptions, mathematical formalism, and validation. In particular, we pointed out their strong differences in terms of complexity. Finally, we discussed their validity and their potential applications. These models may provide key information to investigate various aspects of NVC in human pathology. PMID:26733782
Dynamics of a Many-Body-Localized System Coupled to a Bath.
Fischer, Mark H; Maksymenko, Mykola; Altman, Ehud
2016-04-22
Coupling a many-body-localized system to a dissipative bath necessarily leads to delocalization. Here, we investigate the nature of the ensuing relaxation dynamics and the information it holds on the many-body-localized state. We formulate the relevant Lindblad equation in terms of the local integrals of motion of the underlying localized Hamiltonian. This allows us to map the quantum evolution deep in the localized state to tractable classical rate equations. We consider two different types of dissipation relevant to systems of ultracold atoms: dephasing due to inelastic scattering on the lattice lasers and particle loss. Our approach allows us to characterize their different effects in the limiting cases of weak and strong interactions. PMID:27152775
Dynamics of a Many-Body-Localized System Coupled to a Bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Mark H.; Maksymenko, Mykola; Altman, Ehud
2016-04-01
Coupling a many-body-localized system to a dissipative bath necessarily leads to delocalization. Here, we investigate the nature of the ensuing relaxation dynamics and the information it holds on the many-body-localized state. We formulate the relevant Lindblad equation in terms of the local integrals of motion of the underlying localized Hamiltonian. This allows us to map the quantum evolution deep in the localized state to tractable classical rate equations. We consider two different types of dissipation relevant to systems of ultracold atoms: dephasing due to inelastic scattering on the lattice lasers and particle loss. Our approach allows us to characterize their different effects in the limiting cases of weak and strong interactions.
Dynamical behavior of quantum correlations between two qubits coupled to an external environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Jin-Long; Li, Xing-Li; Zhang, Xi-Zheng; Guo, Jin-Liang
2016-06-01
We investigate the dynamics of quantum correlations of a two-qubit system coupled to an external environment. We have considered both cases: a spin environment and a bosonic environment. In all cases, we have chosen the Bell-diagonal state as the initial state and computed the evolution of quantum correlations in terms of entanglement, quantum discord and trace distance geometric quantum discord. Special attention is paid to the singular quantum phenomena, such as entanglement sudden death, sudden transition and double sudden transitions from classical to quantum decoherence, which all depend on the initial state and the parameters related to the system and the environment. We find the trace distance geometric quantum discord has a good robustness in resisting the spin and bosonic environmental noise.
Gu, Y. T.; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.
2010-05-21
This paper presents a multiscale study using the coupled Meshless technique/Molecular Dynamics (M{sup 2}) for exploring the deformation mechanism of mono-crystalline metal (focus on copper) under uniaxial tension. In M{sup 2}, an advanced transition algorithm using transition particles is employed to ensure the compatibility of both displacements and their gradients, and an effective local quasi-continuum approach is also applied to obtain the equivalent continuum strain energy density based on the atomistic potentials and Cauchy-Born rule. The key parameters used in M{sup 2} are firstly investigated using a benchmark problem. Then, M{sup 2} is applied to the multiscale simulation for a mono-crystalline copper bar. It has found that the mono-crystalline copper has very good elongation property, and the ultimate strength and Young's modulus are much higher than those obtained in macro-scale.
Isospin decomposition of γ N →N* transitions within a dynamical coupled-channels model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamano, H.; Nakamura, S. X.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Sato, T.
2016-07-01
By extending the dynamical coupled-channels analysis performed in our previous work [Phys. Rev. C 88, 035209 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.035209 to include the available data of photoproduction of π mesons off neutrons, the transition amplitudes for the photoexcitation of the neutron-to-nucleon resonances, γ n →N* , at the resonance pole positions are determined. The combined fits to the data for both the proton- and neutron-target reactions also revise our results for the resonance pole positions and the γ p →N* transition amplitudes. Our results allow an isospin decomposition of the γ N →N* transition amplitudes for the isospin I =1/2 N* resonances, which is necessary for testing hadron structure models and gives crucial inputs for constructing models of neutrino-induced reactions in the nucleon resonance region.
A dynamically coupled allosteric network underlies binding cooperativity in Src kinase
Foda, Zachariah H.; Shan, Yibing; Kim, Eric T.; Shaw, David E.; Seeliger, Markus A.
2015-01-01
Protein tyrosine kinases are attractive drug targets because many human diseases are associated with the deregulation of kinase activity. However, how the catalytic kinase domain integrates different signals and switches from an active to an inactive conformation remains incompletely understood. Here we identify an allosteric network of dynamically coupled amino acids in Src kinase that connects regulatory sites to the ATP- and substrate-binding sites. Surprisingly, reactants (ATP and peptide substrates) bind with negative cooperativity to Src kinase while products (ADP and phosphopeptide) bind with positive cooperativity. We confirm the molecular details of the signal relay through the allosteric network by biochemical studies. Experiments on two additional protein tyrosine kinases indicate that the allosteric network may be largely conserved among these enzymes. Our work provides new insights into the regulation of protein tyrosine kinases and establishes a potential conduit by which resistance mutations to ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors can affect their activity. PMID:25600932
A dynamically coupled allosteric network underlies binding cooperativity in Src kinase.
Foda, Zachariah H; Shan, Yibing; Kim, Eric T; Shaw, David E; Seeliger, Markus A
2015-01-01
Protein tyrosine kinases are attractive drug targets because many human diseases are associated with the deregulation of kinase activity. However, how the catalytic kinase domain integrates different signals and switches from an active to an inactive conformation remains incompletely understood. Here we identify an allosteric network of dynamically coupled amino acids in Src kinase that connects regulatory sites to the ATP- and substrate-binding sites. Surprisingly, reactants (ATP and peptide substrates) bind with negative cooperativity to Src kinase while products (ADP and phosphopeptide) bind with positive cooperativity. We confirm the molecular details of the signal relay through the allosteric network by biochemical studies. Experiments on two additional protein tyrosine kinases indicate that the allosteric network may be largely conserved among these enzymes. Our work provides new insights into the regulation of protein tyrosine kinases and establishes a potential conduit by which resistance mutations to ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors can affect their activity. PMID:25600932
Strain coupling, microstructure dynamics, and acoustic mode softening in germanium telluride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, D.; Chatterji, T.; Schiemer, J. A.; Carpenter, M. A.
2016-04-01
GeTe is a material of intense topical interest due to its potential in the context of phase-change and nanowire memory devices, as a base for thermoelectric materials, and as a ferroelectric. The combination of a soft optic mode and a Peierls distortion contributes large strains at the cubic-rhombohedral phase transition near 625 K and the role of these has been investigated through their influence on elastic and anelastic properties by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The underlying physics is revealed by softening of the elastic constants by ˜30%-45%, due to strong coupling of shear and volume strains with the driving order parameter and consistent with an improper ferroelastic transition which is weakly first order. The magnitude of the softening is permissive of the transition mechanism involving a significant order/disorder component. A Debye loss peak in the vicinity of 180 K is attributed to freezing of the motion of ferroelastic twin walls and the activation energy of ˜0.07 eV is attributed to control by switching of the configuration of long and short Ge-Te bonds in the first coordination sphere around Ge. Precursor softening as the transition is approached from above can be described with a Vogel-Fulcher expression with a similar activation energy, which is attributed to coupling of acoustic modes with an unseen central mode that arises from dynamical clusters with local ordering of the Peierls distortion. The strain relaxation and ferroelastic behavior of GeTe depend on both displacive and order/disorder effects but the dynamics of switching will be determined by changes in the configuration of distorted GeT e6 octahedra, with a rather small activation energy barrier.
Spatiotemporal chaos and the dynamics of coupled Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves in plasmas.
Banerjee, S; Misra, A P; Shukla, P K; Rondoni, L
2010-04-01
A simulation study is performed to investigate the dynamics of coupled Langmuir waves (LWs) and ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) in an unmagnetized plasma. The effects of dispersion due to charge separation and the density nonlinearity associated with the IAWs are considered to modify the properties of Langmuir solitons, as well as to model the dynamics of relatively large amplitude wave envelopes. It is found that the Langmuir wave electric field, indeed, increases by the effect of ion-wave nonlinearity (IWN). Use of a low-dimensional model, based on three Fourier modes, shows that a transition to temporal chaos is possible, when the length scale of the linearly excited modes is larger than that of the most unstable ones. The chaotic behaviors of the unstable modes are identified by the analysis of Lyapunov exponent spectra. The space-time evolution of the coupled LWs and IAWs shows that the IWN can cause the excitation of many unstable harmonic modes and can lead to strong IAW emission. This occurs when the initial wave field is relatively large or the length scale of IAWs is larger than the soliton characteristic size. Numerical simulation also reveals that many solitary patterns can be excited and generated through the modulational instability of unstable harmonic modes. As time goes on, these solitons are seen to appear in the spatially partial coherence state due to the free ion-acoustic radiation as well as in the state of spatiotemporal chaos due to collision and fusion in the stochastic motion. The latter results in the redistribution of initial wave energy into a few modes with small length scales, which may lead to the onset of Langmuir turbulence in laboratory as well as space plasmas. PMID:20481845
Activation and conformational dynamics of a class B G-protein-coupled glucagon receptor.
Li, Yang; Sun, Jixue; Li, Dongmei; Lin, Jianping
2016-05-14
The human glucagon receptor (GCGR) is a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The GCGR can be activated by glucagon and regulates the release of glucose. The GCGR has been proposed to be an important drug target for type 2 diabetes. Based on the structural model of a full-length glucagon-bound GCGR (glu-GCGR), we performed accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations, potential of mean force (PMF) calculations, cross-correlation analysis and community network analysis to study the activation mechanism and the conformational dynamics during the activation process. The PMF map depicts three different conformational states of the GCGR: the inactive, intermediate and active states. The activation of the GCGR is characterized by the outward movement of the intracellular side of helix VI. In the active state of the GCGR, the Arg173(2.46)-Ser350(6.41) and Glu245(3.50)-Thr351(6.42) hydrogen bonds break, and the χ1 rotamer of Phe322(5.54) changes from perpendicular to parallel to helix VI. The binding of the agonist glucagon decreases the correlated motions of the extracellular loops (ELCs) and the helices around the glucagon-binding site. During the activation of the GCGR, the connections between the intracellular sides of helices become weaker, and the connections between glucagon and ECLs and the extracellular sides of helices become stronger. These facilitate G-protein coupling on the intracellular side and glucagon binding on the extracellular side, and stabilize the GCGR in the active state. We expect that this study can provide useful information on the activation mechanism of the GCGR and facilitate the future design of GCGR inhibitors. PMID:27094704
Duval, Jérôme F L
2016-04-14
A mechanistic understanding of the processes governing metal toxicity to microorganisms (bacteria, algae) calls for an adequate formulation of metal partitioning at biointerfaces during cell exposure. This includes the account of metal transport dynamics from bulk solution to biomembrane and the kinetics of metal internalisation, both potentially controlling the intracellular and surface metal fractions that originate cell growth inhibition. A theoretical rationale is developed here for such coupled toxicodynamics and interfacial metal partitioning dynamics under non-complexing medium conditions with integration of the defining cell electrostatic properties. The formalism explicitly considers intertwined metal adsorption at the biointerface, intracellular metal excretion, cell growth and metal depletion from bulk solution. The theory is derived under relevant steady-state metal transport conditions on the basis of coupled Nernst-Planck equation and continuous logistic equation modified to include metal-induced cell growth inhibition and cell size changes. Computational examples are discussed to identify limitations of the classical Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) in evaluating metal toxicity over time. In particular, BLM is shown to severely underestimate metal toxicity depending on cell exposure time, metal internalisation kinetics, cell surface electrostatics and initial cell density. Analytical expressions are provided for the interfacial metal concentration profiles in the limit where cell-growth is completely inhibited. A rigorous relationship between time-dependent cell density and metal concentrations at the biosurface and in bulk solution is further provided, which unifies previous equations formulated by Best and Duval under constant cell density and cell size conditions. The theory is sufficiently flexible to adapt to toxicity scenarios with involved cell survival-death processes. PMID:26980542
Drivers of coupled model ENSO error dynamics and the spring predictability barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, Sarah M.; Kirtman, Ben P.
2016-07-01
Despite recent improvements in ENSO simulations, ENSO predictions ultimately remain limited by error growth and model inadequacies. Determining the accompanying dynamical processes that drive the growth of certain types of errors may help the community better recognize which error sources provide an intrinsic limit to predictability. This study applies a dynamical analysis to previously developed CCSM4 error ensemble experiments that have been used to model noise-driven error growth. Analysis reveals that ENSO-independent error growth is instigated via a coupled instability mechanism. Daily error fields indicate that persistent stochastic zonal wind stress perturbations (τx^' } ) near the equatorial dateline activate the coupled instability, first driving local SST and anomalous zonal current changes that then induce upwelling anomalies and a clear thermocline response. In particular, March presents a window of opportunity for stochastic τx^' } to impose a lasting influence on the evolution of eastern Pacific SST through December, suggesting that stochastic τx^' } is an important contributor to the spring predictability barrier. Stochastic winds occurring in other months only temporarily affect eastern Pacific SST for 2-3 months. Comparison of a control simulation with an ENSO cycle and the ENSO-independent error ensemble experiments reveals that once the instability is initiated, the subsequent error growth is modulated via an ENSO-like mechanism, namely the seasonal strength of the Bjerknes feedback. Furthermore, unlike ENSO events that exhibit growth through the fall, the growth of ENSO-independent SST errors terminates once the seasonal strength of the Bjerknes feedback weakens in fall. Results imply that the heat content supplied by the subsurface precursor preceding the onset of an ENSO event is paramount to maintaining the growth of the instability (or event) through fall.
Non-adiabatic dynamics around a conical intersection with surface-hopping coupled coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humeniuk, Alexander; Mitrić, Roland
2016-06-01
A surface-hopping extension of the coupled coherent states-method [D. Shalashilin and M. Child, Chem. Phys. 304, 103-120 (2004)] for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics with quantum effects of the nuclei is put forward. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the motion of the nuclei is solved in a moving basis set. The basis set is guided by classical trajectories, which can hop stochastically between different electronic potential energy surfaces. The non-adiabatic transitions are modelled by a modified version of Tully's fewest switches algorithm. The trajectories consist of Gaussians in the phase space of the nuclei (coherent states) combined with amplitudes for an electronic wave function. The time-dependent matrix elements between different coherent states determine the amplitude of each trajectory in the total multistate wave function; the diagonal matrix elements determine the hopping probabilities and gradients. In this way, both interference effects and non-adiabatic transitions can be described in a very compact fashion, leading to the exact solution if convergence with respect to the number of trajectories is achieved and the potential energy surfaces are known globally. The method is tested on a 2D model for a conical intersection [A. Ferretti, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5517 (1996)], where a nuclear wavepacket encircles the point of degeneracy between two potential energy surfaces and interferes with itself. These interference effects are absent in classical trajectory-based molecular dynamics but can be fully incorpo rated if trajectories are replaced by surface hopping coupled coherent states.
Non-adiabatic dynamics around a conical intersection with surface-hopping coupled coherent states.
Humeniuk, Alexander; Mitrić, Roland
2016-06-21
A surface-hopping extension of the coupled coherent states-method [D. Shalashilin and M. Child, Chem. Phys. 304, 103-120 (2004)] for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics with quantum effects of the nuclei is put forward. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the motion of the nuclei is solved in a moving basis set. The basis set is guided by classical trajectories, which can hop stochastically between different electronic potential energy surfaces. The non-adiabatic transitions are modelled by a modified version of Tully's fewest switches algorithm. The trajectories consist of Gaussians in the phase space of the nuclei (coherent states) combined with amplitudes for an electronic wave function. The time-dependent matrix elements between different coherent states determine the amplitude of each trajectory in the total multistate wave function; the diagonal matrix elements determine the hopping probabilities and gradients. In this way, both interference effects and non-adiabatic transitions can be described in a very compact fashion, leading to the exact solution if convergence with respect to the number of trajectories is achieved and the potential energy surfaces are known globally. The method is tested on a 2D model for a conical intersection [A. Ferretti, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5517 (1996)], where a nuclear wavepacket encircles the point of degeneracy between two potential energy surfaces and interferes with itself. These interference effects are absent in classical trajectory-based molecular dynamics but can be fully incorpo rated if trajectories are replaced by surface hopping coupled coherent states. PMID:27334155
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Bras, R. L.
2005-12-01
Landscape morphology has an important control on the spatial and temporal organization of basin hydrologic response to climate forcing, affecting soil moisture redistribution as well as vegetation function. On the other hand, erosion, driven by hydrology and modulated by vegetation, produces landforms over geologic time scales that reflect characteristic signatures of the dominant land forming process. Responding to extreme climate events or anthropogenic disturbances of the land surface, infrequent but rapid forms of erosion (e.g., arroyo development, landsliding) can modify topography such that basin hydrology is significantly influenced. Despite significant advances in both hydrologic and geomorphic modeling over the past two decades, the dynamic interactions between basin hydrology, geomorphology and terrestrial ecology are not adequately captured in current model frameworks. In order to investigate hydrologic-geomorphic-ecologic interactions at the basin scale we present initial efforts in integrating the CHILD landscape evolution model (Tucker et al. 2001) with the tRIBS hydrology model (Ivanov et al. 2004), both developed in a common software environment. In this talk, we present preliminary results of the numerical modeling of the coupled evolution of basin hydro-geomorphic response and resulting landscape morphology in two sets of examples. First, we discuss the long-term evolution of both the hydrologic response and the resulting basin morphology from an initially uplifted plateau. In the second set of modeling experiments, we implement changes in climate and land-use to an existing topography and compare basin hydrologic response to the model results when landscape form is fixed (e.g. no coupling between hydrology and geomorphology). Model results stress the importance of internal basin dynamics, including runoff generation mechanisms and hydrologic states, in shaping hydrologic response as well as the importance of employing comprehensive
Malekian, M; Trieu, D; Owoc, J S; Park, S S; Hunter, C J
2010-04-01
Identification of intervertebral disc (IVD) dynamics is important in understanding the spine mechanism and behavior. This paper experimentally identifies the dynamics of the bovine caudal IVD using experimental modal analysis and the inverse receptance coupling method. Experimental modal analysis was performed on free-free mounted bovine caudal vertebrae joined by an IVD and a fused IVD joint. Shear, rotational, and axial dynamics of the joints are identified by curve fitting of the frequency response functions, and identifying the damping ratio, stiffness, and modal frequency in each axis. The identified dynamics are compared with the IVD joints with and without fusion. Results provide important insight into IVD dynamics and fused IVD dynamics. This method can be extended to identify human IVD joint dynamics. PMID:20387967
Sun, Ke-Wei; Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito; Zhao, Yang
2016-05-28
A master equation approach based on an optimized polaron transformation is adopted for dynamics simulation with simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal spin-boson coupling. Two types of bath spectral density functions are considered, the Ohmic and the sub-Ohmic. The off-diagonal coupling leads asymptotically to a thermal equilibrium with a nonzero population difference Pz(t → ∞) ≠ 0, which implies localization of the system, and it also plays a role in restraining coherent dynamics for the sub-Ohmic case. Since the new method can extend to the stronger coupling regime, we can investigate the coherent-incoherent transition in the sub-Ohmic environment. Relevant phase diagrams are obtained for different temperatures. It is found that the sub-Ohmic environment allows coherent dynamics at a higher temperature than the Ohmic environment. PMID:27250278
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Ke-Wei; Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito; Zhao, Yang
2016-05-01
A master equation approach based on an optimized polaron transformation is adopted for dynamics simulation with simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal spin-boson coupling. Two types of bath spectral density functions are considered, the Ohmic and the sub-Ohmic. The off-diagonal coupling leads asymptotically to a thermal equilibrium with a nonzero population difference Pz(t → ∞) ≠ 0, which implies localization of the system, and it also plays a role in restraining coherent dynamics for the sub-Ohmic case. Since the new method can extend to the stronger coupling regime, we can investigate the coherent-incoherent transition in the sub-Ohmic environment. Relevant phase diagrams are obtained for different temperatures. It is found that the sub-Ohmic environment allows coherent dynamics at a higher temperature than the Ohmic environment.
Structural dynamic characterization of a vehicle seat coupled with human occupant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Leon; Fard, Mohammad; Subic, Aleksandar; Jazar, Reza
2013-02-01
Predicting the responses of the combined human body-seat structure to vibration excitation is still a challenging task. This is mainly due to the complex dynamics behaviour of the seated human body in response to vibration. It is however essential to characterize and predict the critical frequencies and the corresponding vibration patterns of the seat when it is coupled with a human occupant. This study provides important knowledge to predict the structural resonant frequencies and corresponding vibration mode shapes of the vehicle seat coupled with occupant from the seat alone or seat bare-frame (seat without foam cushion). An experiment is designed to measure the frequency responses, resonant frequencies, and corresponding mode shapes of the three different selected vehicle seats when mounted on the test rig. Six volunteers have participated in the experiments. The experiment data for each of the seats were collected for the seat bare-frames, seat alone (seat with foam cushion), and seat with human occupant. The results indicate that the vehicle seat bare-frame, seat alone, and seat with occupant have similar main seatback lateral, seatback fore-aft, and seat twisting structural resonant frequencies below 80 Hz. The coupling of the seated human body with the seat shows that the human occupant is not adding any new structural resonant frequency or mode shape to the seat below 80 Hz. It is therefore possible to characterize and predict the key vibration attributes such as occupied seat structural resonant frequencies and mode shapes from their corresponding unoccupied seat or bare frame characteristics. This alleviates the need for complex modelling or detailed analysis of the human body structure itself.
Energy coupling and plume dynamics during high power laser heating of metals
Jeong, S. |
1997-05-01
High power laser heating of metals was studied utilizing experimental and numerical methods with an emphasis on the laser energy coupling with a target and on the dynamics of the laser generated vapor flow. Rigorous theoretical modeling of the heating, melting, and evaporation of metals due to laser radiation with a power density below the plasma shielding threshold was carried out. Experimentally, the probe beam deflection technique was utilized to measure the propagation of a laser induced shock wave. The effects of a cylindrical cavity in a metal surface on the laser energy coupling with a solid were investigated utilizing photothermal deflection measurements. A numerical calculation of target temperature and photothermal deflection was performed to compare with the measured results. Reflection of the heating laser beam inside the cavity was found to increase the photothermal deflection amplitude significantly and to enhance the overall energy coupling between a heating laser beam and a solid. Next, unsteady vaporization of metals due to nanosecond pulsed laser heating with an ambient gas at finite pressure was analyzed with a one dimensional thermal evaporation model for target heating and one dimensional compressible flow equations for inviscid fluid for the vapor flow. Lastly, the propagation of a shock wave during excimer laser heating of aluminum was measured with the probe beam deflection technique. The transit time of the shock wave was measured at the elevation of the probe beam above the target surface; these results were compared with the predicted behavior using ideal blast wave theory. The propagation of a gaseous material plume was also observed from the deflection of the probe beam at later times.
Modeling the Dynamical Coupling of Solar Convection with the Radiative Interior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brun, Allan Sacha; Miesch, Mark S.; Toomre, Juri
2011-12-01
The global dynamics of a rotating star like the Sun involves the coupling of a highly turbulent convective envelope overlying a seemingly benign radiative interior. We use the anelastic spherical harmonic code to develop a new class of three-dimensional models that nonlinearly couple the convective envelope to a deep stable radiative interior. The numerical simulation assumes a realistic solar stratification from r = 0.07 up to 0.97R (with R the solar radius), thus encompassing part of the nuclear core up through most of the convection zone. We find that a tachocline naturally establishes itself between the differentially rotating convective envelope and the solid body rotation of the interior, with a slow spreading that is here diffusively controlled. The rapid angular momentum redistribution in the convective envelope leads to a fast equator and slow poles, with a conical differential rotation achieved at mid-latitudes, much as has been deduced by helioseismology. The convective motions are able to overshoot downward about 0.04R into the radiative interior. However, the convective meridional circulation there is confined to a smaller penetration depth and is directed mostly equatorward at the base of the convection zone. Thermal wind balance is established in the lower convection zone and tachocline but departures are evident in the upper convection zone. Internal gravity waves are excited by the convective overshooting, yielding a complex wave field throughout the radiative interior.
Fully coupled, dynamic model of a magnetostrictive amorphous ribbon and its validation
Bergmair, Bernhard Huber, Thomas; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Fuger, Markus; Suess, Dieter
2014-01-14
Magnetostrictive amorphous ribbons are widely used in electronic article surveillance as well as for magnetoelastic sensors. Both applications utilize the fact that the ribbons' resonant frequency can be read out remotely by applying external magnetic AC fields. This paper proposes a magnetomechanical model to simulate the dynamics of such ribbons. The goal was to only use general material properties as input parameters, which are usually denoted in the data sheet of amorphous metals. Thus, only the magnetization curve at zero stress has to be gained via measurement. The magnetization under stress is calculated thereof. The equation of motion for a longitudinally oscillating ribbon is derived and coupled to Maxwell's equations for magnetostatics. The fully coupled initial value problem is solved simultaneously by a finite difference approach. The model is validated by comparing calculated and measured resonant frequencies of various amorphous ribbons, which turned out to be in good agreement. When slightly adapting single material properties from the data sheet, the match is almost perfect. The model is then used to calculate the local magnetic and mechanical properties inside static and vibrating ribbons. These local distributions can be directly linked to the field dependence of the resonant frequency and its higher harmonics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Po, Giacomo; Ghoniem, Nasr
2014-05-01
We present a formulation of the discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) method based on Onsager's variational principle. The motion of discrete dislocations is treated as a generalized irreversible flux associated with conjugate thermodynamic forces causing internal production of entropy. Intrinsic in the variational principle is the role of physical constraints that limit the choice of generalized fluxes. We leverage the concept of constrained maximization to introduce the requirement that dislocation climb must be sustained by the flux of vacancies into the dislocation core. The constrained variational approach results naturally in the coupling between plastic deformation induced by discrete dislocations, vacancy diffusion, and heat propagation in solid crystals. In particular, this coupling requires that dislocation velocity and chemical potential of vacancies at the dislocation core be found simultaneously. A new numerical formulation of DD that accounts for generalized constraints imposed on dislocations is presented, based on a network discretization of the dislocation configuration. Applications illustrate the significance of constrained motion of dislocations confined in channels and pillars, and the attainment of heterogeneous dislocation structures.
Optomechanical Rydberg-atom excitation via dynamic Casimir-Polder coupling.
Antezza, Mauro; Braggio, Caterina; Carugno, Giovanni; Noto, Antonio; Passante, Roberto; Rizzuto, Lucia; Ruoso, Giuseppe; Spagnolo, Salvatore
2014-07-11
We study the optomechanical coupling of a oscillating effective mirror with a Rydberg atomic gas, mediated by the dynamical atom-mirror Casimir-Polder force. This coupling may produce a near-field resonant atomic excitation whose probability scales as ∝(d(2)an(4)t)(2)/z(0)(8), where z(0) is the average atom-surface distance, d the atomic dipole moment, a the mirror's effective oscillation amplitude, n the initial principal quantum number, and t the time. We propose an experimental configuration to realize this system with a cold atom gas trapped at a distance ∼2×10 μm from a semiconductor substrate whose dielectric constant is periodically driven by an external laser pulse, hence realizing an effective mechanical mirror motion due to the periodic change of the substrate from transparent to reflecting. For a parabolic gas shape, this effect is predicted to excite about ∼10(2) atoms of a dilute gas of 10(3) trapped Rydberg atoms with n=75 after about 0.5 μs, which is high enough to be detected in typical Rydberg gas experimental conditions. PMID:25062178
Optomechanical Rydberg-Atom Excitation via Dynamic Casimir-Polder Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antezza, Mauro; Braggio, Caterina; Carugno, Giovanni; Noto, Antonio; Passante, Roberto; Rizzuto, Lucia; Ruoso, Giuseppe; Spagnolo, Salvatore
2014-07-01
We study the optomechanical coupling of a oscillating effective mirror with a Rydberg atomic gas, mediated by the dynamical atom-mirror Casimir-Polder force. This coupling may produce a near-field resonant atomic excitation whose probability scales as ∝(d2an4t)2/z08, where z0 is the average atom-surface distance, d the atomic dipole moment, a the mirror's effective oscillation amplitude, n the initial principal quantum number, and t the time. We propose an experimental configuration to realize this system with a cold atom gas trapped at a distance ˜2×10 μm from a semiconductor substrate whose dielectric constant is periodically driven by an external laser pulse, hence realizing an effective mechanical mirror motion due to the periodic change of the substrate from transparent to reflecting. For a parabolic gas shape, this effect is predicted to excite about ˜102 atoms of a dilute gas of 103 trapped Rydberg atoms with n =75 after about 0.5 μs, which is high enough to be detected in typical Rydberg gas experimental conditions.
Dynamic testing and analysis of extension-twist-coupled composite tubular spars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lake, Renee C.; Izapanah, Amir P.; Baucon, Robert M.
The results from a study aimed at improving the dynamic and aerodynamic characteristics of composite rotor blades through the use of extension-twist elastic coupling are presented. A set of extension-twist-coupled composite tubular spars, representative of the primary load carrying structure within a helicopter rotor blade, was manufactured using four plies of woven graphite/epoxy cloth 'prepreg.' These spars were non-circular in cross section design and were therefore subject to warping deformations. Three cross-sectional geometries were developed: square, D-shape, and flattened ellipse. Results from free-free vibration tests of the spars were compared with results from normal modes and frequency analyses of companion shell-finite-element models developed in MSC/NASTRAN. Five global or 'non-shell' modes were identified within the 0-2000 Hz range for each spar. The frequencies and associated mode shapes for the D-shape spar were correlated with analytical results, showing agreement within 13.8 percent. Frequencies corresponding to the five global mode shapes for the square spar agreed within 9.5 percent of the analytical results. Five global modes were similarly identified for the elliptical spar and agreed within 4.9 percent of the respective analytical results.
Dynamic testing and analysis of extension-twist-coupled composite tubular spars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lake, Renee C.; Izapanah, Amir P.; Baucon, Robert M.
1992-01-01
The results from a study aimed at improving the dynamic and aerodynamic characteristics of composite rotor blades through the use of extension-twist elastic coupling are presented. A set of extension-twist-coupled composite tubular spars, representative of the primary load carrying structure within a helicopter rotor blade, was manufactured using four plies of woven graphite/epoxy cloth 'prepreg.' These spars were non-circular in cross section design and were therefore subject to warping deformations. Three cross-sectional geometries were developed: square, D-shape, and flattened ellipse. Results from free-free vibration tests of the spars were compared with results from normal modes and frequency analyses of companion shell-finite-element models developed in MSC/NASTRAN. Five global or 'non-shell' modes were identified within the 0-2000 Hz range for each spar. The frequencies and associated mode shapes for the D-shape spar were correlated with analytical results, showing agreement within 13.8 percent. Frequencies corresponding to the five global mode shapes for the square spar agreed within 9.5 percent of the analytical results. Five global modes were similarly identified for the elliptical spar and agreed within 4.9 percent of the respective analytical results.
Lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling calculations using nondiagonal supercells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lloyd-Williams, Jonathan H.; Monserrat, Bartomeu
2015-11-01
We study the direct calculation of total energy derivatives for lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling calculations using supercell matrices with nonzero off-diagonal elements. We show that it is possible to determine the response of a periodic system to a perturbation characterized by a wave vector with reduced fractional coordinates (m1/n1,m2/n2,m3/n3) using a supercell containing a number of primitive cells equal to the least common multiple of n1,n2, and n3. If only diagonal supercell matrices are used, a supercell containing n1n2n3 primitive cells is required. We demonstrate that the use of nondiagonal supercells significantly reduces the computational cost of obtaining converged zero-point energies and phonon dispersions for diamond and graphite. We also perform electron-phonon coupling calculations using the direct method to sample the vibrational Brillouin zone with grids of unprecedented size, which enables us to investigate the convergence of the zero-point renormalization to the thermal and optical band gaps of diamond.
Mesoscale dynamic coupling of finite- and discrete-element methods for fluid-particle interactions.
Srivastava, S; Yazdchi, K; Luding, S
2014-08-01
A new method for two-way fluid-particle coupling on an unstructured mesoscopically coarse mesh is presented. In this approach, we combine a (higher order) finite-element method (FEM) on the moving mesh for the fluid with a soft sphere discrete-element method for the particles. The novel feature of the proposed scheme is that the FEM mesh is a dynamic Delaunay triangulation based on the positions of the moving particles. Thus, the mesh can be multi-purpose: it provides (i) a framework for the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations, (ii) a simple tool for detecting contacts between moving particles, (iii) a basis for coarse-graining or upscaling, and (iv) coupling with other physical fields (temperature, electromagnetic, etc.). This approach is suitable for a wide range of dilute and dense particulate flows, because the mesh resolution adapts with particle density in a given region. Two-way momentum exchange is implemented using semi-empirical drag laws akin to other popular approaches; for example, the discrete particle method, where a finite-volume solver on a coarser, fixed grid is used. We validate the methodology with several basic test cases, including single- and double-particle settling with analytical and empirical expectations, and flow through ordered and random porous media, when compared against finely resolved FEM simulations of flow through fixed arrays of particles. PMID:24982251
Impact of asymptomatic infection on coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hai-Feng; Xie, Jia-Rong; Chen, Han-Shuang; Liu, Can; Small, Michael
2016-05-01
Studies on how to model the interplay between diseases and behavioral responses (so-called coupled disease-behavior interaction) have attracted increasing attention. Owing to the lack of obvious clinical evidence of diseases, or the incomplete information related to the disease, the risks of infection cannot be perceived and may lead to inappropriate behavioral responses. Therefore, how to quantitatively analyze the impacts of asymptomatic infection on the interplay between diseases and behavioral responses is of particular importance. In this letter, under the complex network framework, we study the coupled disease-behavior interaction model by dividing infectious individuals into two states: U-state (without evident clinical symptoms, labelled as U) and I-state (with evident clinical symptoms, labelled as I). A susceptible individual can be infected by U- or I-nodes, however, since the U-nodes cannot be easily observed, susceptible individuals take behavioral responses only when they contact I-nodes. The mechanism is considered in the improved Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model and the improved Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model, respectively. Then, one of the most concerned problems in spreading dynamics: the epidemic thresholds for the two models are given by two methods. The analytic results quantitatively describe the influence of different factors, such as asymptomatic infection, the awareness rate, the network structure, and so forth, on the epidemic thresholds. Moreover, because of the irreversible process of the SIR model, the suppression effect of the improved SIR model is weaker than the improved SIS model.
Chaotic dynamics of Yang-Mills field as source of particle couplings and masses
Goldfain, E.
1995-04-01
Dynamics of classical uniform Yang-Mills fields is explored from the viewpoint of universal route to chaos in nonlinear systems. The author shows how the path to nonintegrable behavior of the field is equivalent to the period doubling bifurcation of the logistic map. Universal scalings of the growth parameter yield the full set of Standard Model couplings. Hamiltonian formulation in action-angle variables leads to the physics of phase transitions in classical lattice models. The ground state phase diagram of the system with {open_quotes}antiferromagnetic{close_quotes} interaction is known to exhibit a devil`s staircase form. Linking the staircase attributes to the asymptotic freedom of the gauge coupling yields an universal mass equation. Critical exponent is found to depend on the number of field flavors. Further solving the model for various stability plateaus renders the spectrum of particle masses in the low energy framework. Agreement between theory and experimental results is confirmed for the photon/graviton pair, weak bosons, leptons and quarks. The approach offers an intriguing explanation of the dymanical origin of the physical mass and on the internal hierarchy of particle families.
Judging rolling wheels: Dynamic and kinematic aspects of rotation-translation coupling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hecht, Heiko
1993-01-01
Four experiments were carried out to investigate observers' abilities to judge rolling motions. The experiments were designed to assess whether two important aspects of such motions are appreciated: the kinematic coupling of rotation and translation, and the dynamic effects of gravity. Different motion contexts of rolling wheels were created using computer-generated displays. The first experiment involved wheels rolling down an inclined plane. Observers spontaneously appreciated the anomaly of wheels that failed to accelerate, but they were not able to differentiate between different acceleration functions. Moreover, their judgements were almost exclusively based on the translation component of the rolling motion, neglecting the rotation component. In a second experiment it was found that observers could accurately estimate the perimeter of various objects. Thus, their inability to consider rotation information is not attributable to misperceptions of the geometry of wheels. In a third experiment the finding that rolling wheels appear to overrotate was replicated; however, findings from this experiment also showed, together with those from a fourth experiment, that observers are able to make very accurate judgments about translation-rotation coupling in rolling wheels when information is provided about the orientation of the wheel and the texture of the surface on which it rolls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marinozzi, V.; Sorbi, M.; Manfreda, G.; Bellina, F.; Bajas, H.; Chlachidze, G.
2015-03-01
We present electromagnetic models aiming to calculate the variation of the inductance in a magnet due to dynamic effects such as the variation of magnetization or the coupling with eddy currents. The models are studied with special regard to the calculation of the inductance in superconducting magnets which are affected by interfilament coupling currents. The developed models have been compared with experimental data coming from tests of prototype Nb3Sn magnets designed for the new generation of accelerators. This work is relevant for the quench protection study of superconducting magnets: quench is an unwanted event, when part of the magnet becomes resistive; in these cases, the current should be discharged as fast as possible, in order to maintain the resistive zone temperature under a safe limit. The magnet inductance is therefore a relevant term for the description of the current discharge, especially for the high-field new generation superconducting magnets for accelerators, and this work shows how to calculate the correct value during rapid current changes, providing a mean for simulations of the reached temperature.
Dynamic regulation of spine-dendrite coupling in cultured hippocampal neurons.
Korkotian, Eduard; Holcman, David; Segal, Menahem
2004-11-01
We investigated the role of dendritic spine morphology in spine-dendrite calcium communication using novel experimental and theoretical approaches. A transient rise in [Ca2+]i was produced in individual spine heads of Fluo-4-loaded cultured hippocampal neurons by flash photolysis of caged calcium. Following flash photolysis in the spine head, a delayed [Ca2+]i transient was detected in the parent dendrites of only short, but not long, spines. Delayed elevated fluorescence in the dendrite of the short spines was also seen with a membrane-bound fluorophore and fluorescence recovery from bleaching of a calcium-bound fluorophore had a much slower kinetics, indicating that the dendritic fluorescence change reflects a genuine diffusion of free [Ca2+]i from the spine head to the parent dendrite. Calcium diffusion between spine head and the parent dendrite was regulated by calcium stores as well as by a Na-Ca exchanger. Spine length varied with the recent history of the [Ca2+]i variations in the spine, such that small numbers of calcium transients resulted in elongation of spines whereas large numbers of calcium transients caused shrinkage of the spines. Consequently, spine elongation resulted in a complete isolation of the spine from the dendrite, while shrinkage caused an enhanced coupling with the parent dendrite. These studies highlight a dynamically regulated coupling between a dendritic spine head and its parent dendrite. PMID:15548208
MODELING THE DYNAMICAL COUPLING OF SOLAR CONVECTION WITH THE RADIATIVE INTERIOR
Brun, Allan Sacha; Toomre, Juri
2011-12-01
The global dynamics of a rotating star like the Sun involves the coupling of a highly turbulent convective envelope overlying a seemingly benign radiative interior. We use the anelastic spherical harmonic code to develop a new class of three-dimensional models that nonlinearly couple the convective envelope to a deep stable radiative interior. The numerical simulation assumes a realistic solar stratification from r = 0.07 up to 0.97R (with R the solar radius), thus encompassing part of the nuclear core up through most of the convection zone. We find that a tachocline naturally establishes itself between the differentially rotating convective envelope and the solid body rotation of the interior, with a slow spreading that is here diffusively controlled. The rapid angular momentum redistribution in the convective envelope leads to a fast equator and slow poles, with a conical differential rotation achieved at mid-latitudes, much as has been deduced by helioseismology. The convective motions are able to overshoot downward about 0.04R into the radiative interior. However, the convective meridional circulation there is confined to a smaller penetration depth and is directed mostly equatorward at the base of the convection zone. Thermal wind balance is established in the lower convection zone and tachocline but departures are evident in the upper convection zone. Internal gravity waves are excited by the convective overshooting, yielding a complex wave field throughout the radiative interior.
Astakhov, Sergey; Gulai, Artem; Fujiwara, Naoya; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-02-01
A system of two asymmetrically coupled van der Pol oscillators has been studied. We show that the introduction of a small asymmetry in coupling leads to the appearance of a "wideband synchronization channel" in the bifurcational structure of the parameter space. An increase of asymmetry and transition to repulsive interaction leads to the formation of multistability. As the result, the tip of the Arnold's tongue widens due to the formation of folds defined by saddle-node bifurcation curves for the limit cycles on the torus. PMID:26931583
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astakhov, Sergey; Gulai, Artem; Fujiwara, Naoya; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-02-01
A system of two asymmetrically coupled van der Pol oscillators has been studied. We show that the introduction of a small asymmetry in coupling leads to the appearance of a "wideband synchronization channel" in the bifurcational structure of the parameter space. An increase of asymmetry and transition to repulsive interaction leads to the formation of multistability. As the result, the tip of the Arnold's tongue widens due to the formation of folds defined by saddle-node bifurcation curves for the limit cycles on the torus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helldén, U.
2009-12-01
Drylands comprise one-third of the Earth’s land area. They pose research, management, and policy challenges impacting the livelihoods of 2.5 billion people. Desertification is said to affect some 10-20% of the drylands and is assumed to expand with climate change and population growth. Recent paradigms stress the importance of understanding linkages between human-ecological (H-E) systems in order to achieve sustainable management policies. Understanding coupled H-E systems is difficult at local levels. It represents an even greater challenge at regional scales to guide priorities and policy decisions at national and international levels. System dynamic modelling may help facilitating the probblem. Desertification and land degradation are often modelled and mathematically defined in terms of soil erosion. The soil erosion process is usually described as a function of vegetation ground cover, rainfall characteristics, topography, soil characteristics and land management. On-going research based on system dynamic modelling, focussing on elucidating the inherent complexity of H-E systems across multiple scales, enables an assessment of the relative roles that climate, policy, management, land condition, vulnerability and human adaptation may play in desertification and dryland development. An early approach (1995) to study desertification through an H-E coupled model considered desertification to be stress beyond resilience, i.e. irreversible, using a predator-prey system approach. As most predator-prey models, it was based on two linked differential equations describing the evolution of both a human population (predator) and natural resources (prey) in terms of gains, losses and interaction. A recent effort used a model approach to assess desertification risk through system stability condition analysis. It is based on the assumption that soil erosion and the soil sub-system play an overriding final role in the desertification processes. It is stressing the role and
Coupled AXIAL-LATERAL-TORSIONAL Dynamics of a ROTOR-BEARING System Geared by Spur Bevel Gears
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LI, M.; HU, H. Y.; JIANG, P. L.; YU, L.
2002-07-01
The coupled lateral-torsional dynamics of parallel rotor-bearing systems has been intensively investigated. However, little attention has been paid to the analysis of coupled vibrations of angled rotor-bearing systems so that the torsional and the lateral vibrations of those systems are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, the coupled axial-lateral-torsional dynamics of a rotor-bearing system geared by bevel gears is studied. The meshing of two spur bevel gears is analyzed on the basis of a pair of virtual cylindrical gears, and thereafter the constraint condition describing the relationship between the generalized displacements of bevel gears is derived under some assumptions. The coupled dynamic model is established by using Lagrange's equation under this constraint condition. The numerical results of a number of case studies show that the critical speeds of the coupled model are different from those of the uncoupled model both in values and modes, and the threshold speed of stability is fairly less than that of the uncoupled model. The effects of system parameters, such as the pitch cone angles, on the coupling behavior are also discussed.
Dou, Wenjie; Subotnik, Joseph E
2016-01-14
A broadened classical master equation (BCME) is proposed for modeling nonadiabatic dynamics for molecules near metal surfaces over a wide range of parameter values and with arbitrary initial conditions. Compared with a standard classical master equation-which is valid in the limit of weak molecule-metal couplings-this BCME should be valid for both weak and strong molecule-metal couplings. (The BCME can be mapped to a Fokker-Planck equation that captures level broadening correctly.) Finally, our BCME can be solved with a simple surface hopping algorithm; numerical tests of equilibrium and dynamical observables look very promising. PMID:26772563
Exciton dynamics in a site-controlled quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal cavity
Jarlov, C. Lyasota, A.; Ferrier, L.; Gallo, P.; Dwir, B.; Rudra, A.; Kapon, E.
2015-11-09
Exciton and cavity mode (CM) dynamics in site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots (QDs), integrated with linear photonic crystal membrane cavities, are investigated for a range of temperatures and photo-excitation power levels. The absence of spurious multi-excitonic effects, normally observed in similar structures based on self-assembled QDs, permits the observation of effects intrinsic to two-level systems embedded in a solid state matrix and interacting with optical cavity modes. The coupled exciton and CM dynamics follow the same trend, indicating that the CM is fed only by the exciton transition. The Purcell reduction of the QD and CM decay times is reproduced well by a theoretical model that includes exciton linewidth broadening and temperature dependent non-radiative processes, from which we extract a Purcell factor of 17 ± 5. For excitation powers above QD saturation, we show the influence of quantum wire barrier states at short delay time, and demonstrate the absence of multiexcitonic background emission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Arvind Kumar
2016-03-01
Motivated by the recent experimental observations on clustering of motor proteins on microtubule filament, we study an open system of two parallel totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes under asymmetric coupling conditions, which incorporates the mutual interaction with the surrounding environment through Langmuir Kinetics (LK) in both the lanes. In the modified LK, the attachment and detachment rates depends on the configuration of nearest neighboring sites. We analyse the model within the framework of continuum mean-field theory and the phase diagrams along with density profiles are obtained using boundary layer analysis. The effect of mutual interactions on the phase diagram for two different situations of attachment and detachment (LK) rates is discussed. Under the symmetric LK dynamics, the topological structure of the phase diagram remains similar to the one in without mutual interaction; while for the antisymmetric case, after a certain critical value of attractive/repulsive mutual attraction, significant changes are found in the qualitative nature of phase diagram. Moreover, it is shown that the type of mutual interaction affects the dynamic properties of motor proteins. The theoretical findings are examined by extensive Monte-Carlo simulations.
Water dynamics in the rhizosphere - a new model of coupled water uptake and mucilage exudation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroener, E.
2015-12-01
The flow of water from soil to plant roots is affected by the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the so called rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is influenced by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by roots that alters the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere. Here we present a model that accounts for: (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve caused by the water holding capacity of mucilage, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at same water content due to the higher viscosity of mucilage and (c) the swelling and shrinking dynamics by decoupling water content and water potential and introducing a non-equilibrium water retention curve. The model has been tested for mixtures of soil and mucilage and we applied it to simulate observations of previous experiments with real plants growing in soil that show evidences of altered hydraulic dynamics in the rhizosphere. Furthermore we presen results about how the parameters of the model depend on soil texture and root age. Finally we couple our hydraulic model to a diffusion model of mucilage into the soil. Opposed to classical solute transport experiments the water flow in the rhizosphere is affected by the concentration distribution of mucilage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Y.; Tang, J.
2010-04-01
In this paper, we integrate piezoelectric transducers and coupled circuitry, which themselves form an electrical periodic system, onto a mechanical structure to form an electro-mechanical periodic system. The overall dynamics of the electro-mechanical system can thus be altered by tuning the electrical parameters. A transfer-matrix-based modeling technique is adopted in the dynamic analysis, where each element is represented by two state vectors at its both ends with a transfer matrix relating them. As the transfer matrix has the advantage on describing harmonic motions within the element, the global analysis can be facilitated given the repetitive nature of periodic systems. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the characteristics of wave propagation and attenuation in terms of propagation constants. Effects of each tunable parameter are also discussed through detailed parametric analysis. The proposed system can be tailored to various engineering needs. One example is adaptive vibration isolation with tunable effective frequency range. Another example is vibration energy harvesting through the piezoelectric transducers and circuitry.
Rojas, Eduardo; Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Raya, Alfredo
2008-05-01
We study the dynamical generation of masses for fundamental fermions in quenched quantum electrodynamics, in the presence of magnetics fields of arbitrary strength, by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion self-energy in the rainbow approximation. We employ the Ritus eigenfunction formalism which provides a neat solution to the technical problem of summing over all Landau levels. It is well known that magnetic fields catalyze the generation of fermion mass m for arbitrarily small values of electromagnetic coupling {alpha}. For intense fields it is also well known that m{proportional_to}{radical}(eB). Our approach allows us to span all regimes of parameters {alpha} and eB. We find that m{proportional_to}{radical}(eB) provided {alpha} is small. However, when {alpha} increases beyond the critical value {alpha}{sub c} which marks the onslaught of dynamical fermion masses in vacuum, we find m{proportional_to}{lambda}, the cutoff required to regularize the ultraviolet divergences. Our method permits us to verify the results available in literature for the limiting cases of eB and {alpha}. We also point out the relevance of our work for possible physical applications.
HdeB chaperone activity is coupled to its intrinsic dynamic properties
Ding, Jienv; Yang, Chengfeng; Niu, Xiaogang; Hu, Yunfei; Jin, Changwen
2015-01-01
Enteric bacteria encounter extreme acidity when passing through hosts’ stomach. Since the bacterial periplasmic space quickly equilibrates with outer environment, an efficient acid resistance mechanism is essential in preventing irreversible protein denaturation/aggregation and maintaining bacteria viability. HdeB, along with its homolog HdeA, was identified as a periplasmic acid-resistant chaperone. Both proteins exist as homodimers and share similar monomeric structures under neutral pH, while showing different dimeric packing interfaces. Previous investigations show that HdeA functions through an acid-induced dimer-to-monomer transition and partial unfolding at low pH (pH 2–3), resulting in exposure of hydrophobic surfaces that bind substrate proteins. In contrast, HdeB appears to have a much higher optimal activation pH (pH 4–5), under which condition the protein maintains a well-folded dimer and the mechanism for its chaperone activity remains elusive. Herein, we present an NMR study of HdeB to investigate its dynamic properties. Our results reveal that HdeB undergoes significant micro- to milli-second timescale conformational exchanges at neutral to near-neutral pH, under the later condition it exhibits optimal activity. The current study indicates that HdeB activation is coupled to its intrinsic dynamics instead of structural changes, and therefore its functional mechanism is apparently different from HdeA. PMID:26593705
Coupled dynamics of soil formation and erosion in natural and agricultural ecosystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelak, N. F.; Manzoni, S.; Wang, J.; Bras, R. L.; Porporato, A. M.
2013-12-01
Soil development by weathering is counterbalanced by losses through erosion. This balance may be disturbed by extreme natural events and human activities, resulting in reduced soil depths, deteriorated soil hydraulic properties, and loss of biogeochemical function. The presence of vegetation, while accelerating soil development is also necessary to maintain soil stability by reducing erosion. Plants require in turn a hydrologically and biogeochemically suitable soil environment to thrive. It is thus conceivable that disturbed soil states may allow lower vegetation carrying capacity, leading to increased erosion and further decline in vegetation and ecosystem function. Such disturbed systems may recover slowly or not at all. We explore these positive feedbacks by employing a minimal model of coupled nonlinear differential equation for the dynamics of soil development, vegetation, and surface hydrology. The model describes a plant compartment, soil carbon, soil depth, and soil moisture, and includes key feedbacks such as plant-driven inhibition of erosion, dynamic changes in rooting depth and soil textural properties as erosion progresses, and vegetation water stress. Results suggest that ecosystem functioning may deteriorate under various climate scenarios that could cause both longer droughts and higher erosion rates. Impact of anthropogenic disturbances such as removal of vegetation and tillage on the mass and energy balances of the soil-plant system and the stability of the systems are also investigated using this modeling framework, with special attention to land use changes in the Southeastern US and soil degradation problems at the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).
Water dynamics in the rhizosphere - a new model of coupled water uptake and mucilage exudation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Ahmed, Mutez; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Bittelli, Marco; Carminati, Andrea
2016-04-01
The flow of water from soil to plant roots is affected by the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the so-called rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is influenced by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by roots that alters the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere. Here we present a model that accounts for: (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve caused by the water holding capacity of mucilage, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at a given water content due to the higher viscosity of mucilage and (c) the swelling and shrinking dynamics by decoupling water content and water potential and introducing a non-equilibrium water retention curve. The model has been tested for mixtures of soil and mucilage and we applied it to simulate observations of previous experiments with real plants growing in soil that show evidences of altered hydraulic dynamics in the rhizosphere. Furthermore we present results about how the parameters of the model depend on soil texture and root age. Finally we couple our hydraulic model to a diffusion model of mucilage into the soil. Opposed to classical solute transport models here the water flow in the rhizosphere is affected by the concentration distribution of mucilage.
Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.
Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo
2010-06-01
A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads. PMID:20462180
Applicability of mode-coupling theory to polyisobutylene: A molecular dynamics simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khairy, Y.; Alvarez, F.; Arbe, A.; Colmenero, J.
2013-10-01
The applicability of Mode Coupling Theory (MCT) to the glass-forming polymer polyisobutylene (PIB) has been explored by using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. MCT predictions for the so-called asymptotic regime have been successfully tested on the dynamic structure factor and the self-correlation function of PIB main-chain carbons calculated from the simulated cell. The factorization theorem and the time-temperature superposition principle are satisfied. A consistent fitting procedure of the simulation data to the MCT asymptotic power-laws predicted for the α-relaxation regime has delivered the dynamic exponents of the theory—in particular, the exponent parameter λ—the critical non-ergodicity parameters, and the critical temperature Tc. The obtained values of λ and Tc agree, within the uncertainties involved in both studies, with those deduced from depolarized light scattering experiments [A. Kisliuk , J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys.JPBPEM0887-626610.1002/1099-0488(20001101)38:21<2785::AID-POLB70>3.0.CO;2-S 38, 2785 (2000)]. Both, λ and Tc/Tg values found for PIB are unusually large with respect to those commonly obtained in low molecular weight systems. Moreover, the high Tc/Tg value is compatible with a certain correlation of this parameter with the fragility in Angell's classification. Conversely, the value of λ is close to that reported for real polymers, simulated “realistic” polymers and simple polymer models with intramolecular barriers. In the framework of the MCT, such finding should be the signature of two different mechanisms for the glass-transition in real polymers: intermolecular packing and intramolecular barriers combined with chain connectivity.