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Sample records for dynamic renal study

  1. [Development of automatic analysis for dynamic renal function study using computed tomographic (CT) images].

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Ryuuji; Kawata, Hidemichi; Kawamura, Seiji; Miura, Hisao; Miyagawa, Teruo; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2007-12-20

    Determination of the region of interest (ROI) for dynamic renal function has been highly discordant among operators because of the dependence on factors such as the rate of injection of radioactive medicines, constitution, and renal function. To simplify this problem, we developed a computer algorithm that provides automatic analysis for both localization of the kidney and automatic determination of ROIs using computed tomographic (CT) images. The bilateral kidneys were extracted from enhanced CT images, and the CT pixel size was adjusted to dynamic renal function images. The template-matching technique was used for these images, and the kidney renal location was analyzed on additional functional images constructed by dynamic renal function images. As a result, we were able to obtain time-activity curves of both renal function and quantified glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In conclusion, the computer algorithm we developed was considered to provide reliable results, apart from the variability among operators, because of its good reproducibility. PMID:18310998

  2. Semiautomated ROI analysis in dynamic MR studies. Part II: Application to renal function examination.

    PubMed

    von Schulthess, G K; Kuoni, W; Gerig, G; Wüthrich, R; Duewell, S; Krestin, G

    1991-01-01

    Fast MR techniques and the application of water-soluble contrast agents allow the simultaneous examination of renal morphology and the functional aspects of glomerular filtration using bolus injections of Gd-DTPA. Spatial resolution is sufficient to resolve individual renal pyramids, but the quantitative examination of regions of interest (ROIs) is severely impeded by organ movements due to variations of the end-inspiratory position. A new image-processing scheme has been used and tested in 23 normal volunteers and patients. This scheme replaces a tedious frame-by-frame ROI analysis by positional correction of renal regions of all frames of the sequence such that the definition of the regions has to be performed only once. The signal intensities (SIs) of the local regions in each frame are used to compute statistics and to generate curves representing local temporal SI changes due to contrast agent excretion. The success rate of the procedure depends largely on the image quality and on the adherence to a proved acquisition protocol. The present article shows that the combination of MR and robust and reliable image-processing methods can be important for the highly automated analysis of a large number of images acquired as dynamic studies. PMID:1885790

  3. The renal quantitative scintillation camera study for determination of renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, I.M. Jr.; Boineau, F.G.; Evans, B.B.; Schlegel, J.U.

    1983-03-01

    The renal quantitative scintillation camera study assesses glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow based upon renal uptake of 99mtechnetium-iron ascorbate and 131iodine-hippuran, respectively. The method was compared to inulin, para-aminohippuric acid and creatinine clearance studies in 7 normal subjects and 9 patients with various degrees of reduced renal function. The reproducibility of the technique was determined in 15 randomly selected pediatric patients. The values of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow were not significantly different from those of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. The reproducibility of the technique was comparable to that of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. Patient acceptance of the technique is excellent and the cost is minimal. Renal morphology and excretory dynamics also are demonstrated. The technique is advocated as a clinical measure of renal function.

  4. Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Renal Clearable Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Goel, Shreya; Hernandez, Reinier; Graves, Stephen A; Shi, Sixiang; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo

    2016-05-01

    Optical imaging has been the primary imaging modality for nearly all of the renal clearable nanoparticles since 2007. Due to the tissue depth penetration limitation, providing accurate organ kinetics non-invasively has long been a huge challenge. Although a more quantitative imaging technique has been developed by labeling nanoparticles with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) isotopes, the low temporal resolution of SPECT still limits its potential for visualizing the rapid dynamic process of renal clearable nanoparticles in vivo. The dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of renal clearable gold (Au) nanoparticles by labeling them with copper-64 ((64) Cu) to form (64) Cu-NOTA-Au-GSH is reported. Systematic nanoparticle synthesis and characterizations are performed to demonstrate the efficient renal clearance of as-prepared nanoparticles. A rapid renal clearance of (64) Cu-NOTA-Au-GSH is observed (>75%ID at 24 h post-injection) with its elimination half-life calculated to be less than 6 min, over 130 times shorter than previously reported similar nanoparticles. Dynamic PET imaging not only addresses the current challenges in accurately and non-invasively acquiring the organ kinetics, but also potentially provides a highly useful tool for studying renal clearance mechanism of other ultra-small nanoparticles, as well as the diagnosis of kidney diseases in the near future. PMID:27062146

  5. Quantitative renal scintillation camera studies in renal transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Frentz, G.D.; Schlegel, J.U.; Hussey, J.L.; Prima, R.

    1981-12-01

    Renal transplant recipients and donors were studied serially with quantitative renal scintillation camera studies utilizing 131I-Hippuran and 99mTc-Iron ascorbate. This study allows for determination of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), filtration fraction (FF), and predicted return in ten minutes. A drop in FF occurred with, or preceded clinical rejection; whereas, an increase in FF occurred with acute tubular necorsis (ATN) caused by preservation injury, aminoglycosides, and following acute rejection. Combined with the other parameters of renal function determined by this technique, FF alterations proved useful in the differentiation of ATN from rejection and in predicting the prognosis of renal homografts.

  6. Renal cyst puncture studies.

    PubMed

    Lang, E K

    1987-02-01

    The edict to contain costs and meet goals imposed by DRG remuneration policies mandates the work-up of asymptomatic renal mass lesions on an outpatient basis. This proved feasible in 98 per cent of patients. The vast majority of such mass lesions (82 to 90 per cent) is diagnosed with acceptable confidence by computed tomography and sonography alone. For a shrinking group of such patients, yet still 16 to 18 per cent, guided percutaneous aspiration biopsy is necessary to affirm the diagnosis. However, this technique has been refined during recent years to incorporate the use of thin needle equipment and can now be performed on an outpatient basis without significant risk of morbidity. For diagnosing hyperdense inflammatory and infected renal cysts, guided percutaneous aspiration is recommended as the most effective method. This procedure should take precedence over surgical exploration because it can diagnose and provide pertinent bacteriologic information that may determine the course of therapy. In many instances inflammatory cysts or even silent renal abscesses are diagnosed by a percutaneous aspiration technique that is then expanded to serve therapeutic purposes such as percutaneous drainage. Even these procedures can be performed safely on an outpatient basis provided the patient is followed closely. Because complications of percutaneous aspiration procedures are extremely rare, the procedure can be used safely on an outpatient basis. The impact of magnetic resonance imaging on the diagnosis of asymptomatic space-occupying lesions of the kidney is as yet not fully determined; however, this method appears promising for diagnosing some of the refractory lesions such as hemorrhagic cysts, aneurysms, or arteriovenous malformations. PMID:3101262

  7. A biphasic parameter estimation method for quantitative analysis of dynamic renal scintigraphic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, T. S.; Zhang, Jeff L.; Ong, C. K.; Shuter, B.

    2006-06-01

    Dynamic renal scintigraphy is an established method in nuclear medicine, commonly used for the assessment of renal function. In this paper, a biphasic model fitting method is proposed for simultaneous estimation of both vascular and parenchymal parameters from renal scintigraphic data. These parameters include the renal plasma flow, vascular and parenchymal mean transit times, and the glomerular extraction rate. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the stability and confidence of the parameter estimates obtained by the proposed biphasic method, before applying the method on actual patient study cases to compare with the conventional fitting approach and other established renal indices. The various parameter estimates obtained using the proposed method were found to be consistent with the respective pathologies of the study cases. The renal plasma flow and extraction rate estimated by the proposed method were in good agreement with those previously obtained using dynamic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. The International Atomic Energy Agency software package for the analysis of scintigraphic renal dynamic studies: a tool for the clinician, teacher, and researcher.

    PubMed

    Zaknun, John J; Rajabi, Hossein; Piepsz, Amy; Roca, Isabel; Dondi, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, a new-generation, platform-independent, and x86-compatible software package was developed for the analysis of scintigraphic renal dynamic imaging studies. It provides nuclear medicine professionals cost-free access to the most recent developments in the field. The software package is a step forward towards harmonization and standardization. Embedded functionalities render it a suitable tool for education, research, and for receiving distant expert's opinions. Another objective of this effort is to allow introducing clinically useful parameters of drainage, including normalized residual activity and outflow efficiency. Furthermore, it provides an effective teaching tool for young professionals who are being introduced to dynamic kidney studies by selected teaching case studies. The software facilitates a better understanding through practically approaching different variables and settings and their effect on the numerical results. An effort was made to introduce instruments of quality assurance at the various levels of the program's execution, including visual inspection and automatic detection and correction of patient's motion, automatic placement of regions of interest around the kidneys, cortical regions, and placement of reproducible background region on both primary dynamic and on postmicturition studies. The user can calculate the differential renal function through 2 independent methods, the integral or the Rutland-Patlak approaches. Standardized digital reports, storage and retrieval of regions of interest, and built-in database operations allow the generation and tracing of full image reports and of numerical outputs. The software package is undergoing quality assurance procedures to verify the accuracy and the interuser reproducibility with the final aim of launching the program for use by professionals and teaching institutions worldwide. PMID:21111861

  9. Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Artery Function in Humans: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Doltra, Adelina; Hartmann, Arthur; Stawowy, Philipp; Goubergrits, Leonid; Kuehne, Titus; Wellnhofer, Ernst; Gebker, Rolf; Schneeweis, Christopher; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Esler, Murray; Fleck, Eckart; Kelle, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Aim To study the effects of RD on renal artery wall function non-invasively using magnetic resonance. Methods and Results 32 patients undergoing RD were included. A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance of the renal arteries was performed before RD and after 6-month. We quantified the vessel sharpness of both renal arteries using a quantitative analysis tool (Soap-Bubble®). In 17 patients we assessed the maximal and minimal cross-sectional area of both arteries, peak velocity, mean flow, and renal artery distensibility. In a subset of patients wall shear stress was assessed with computational flow dynamics. Neither renal artery sharpness nor renal artery distensibility differed significantly. A significant increase in minimal and maximal areas (by 25.3%, p = 0.008, and 24.6%, p = 0.007, respectively), peak velocity (by 16.9%, p = 0.021), and mean flow (by 22.4%, p = 0.007) was observed after RD. Wall shear stress significantly decreased (by 25%, p = 0.029). These effects were observed in blood pressure responders and non-responders. Conclusions RD is not associated with adverse effects at renal artery level, and leads to an increase in cross-sectional areas, velocity and flow and a decrease in wall shear stress. PMID:27003912

  10. Dynamics of Urinary Calprotectin after Renal Ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ebbing, Jan; Seibert, Felix S.; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Bauer, Frederic; Miller, Kurt; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Günzel, Karsten; Bachmann, Alexander; Seifert, Hans H.; Rentsch, Cyrill A.; Ardelt, Peter; Wetterauer, Christian; Amico, Patrizia; Babel, Nina; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary calprotectin has been identified as a promising biomarker for acute kidney injury. To date, however, the time-dependent changes of this parameter during acute kidney injury remain elusive. The aim of the present work was to define the time-course of urinary calprotectin secretion after ischaemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury in comparison to neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin, thereby monitoring the extent of tubular damage in nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. Methods: The study population consisted of 42 patients. Thirty-two patients underwent either open or endoscopic nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. During the surgery, the renal arterial pedicle was clamped with a median ischaemic time of 13 minutes (interquartile range, 4.5–20.3 minutes) in 26 patients. Ten retro-peritoneoscopic living donor nephrectomy patients and 6 nephron sparing surgery patients in whom the renal artery was not clamped served as controls. Urinary calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin concentrations were repeatedly measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed according to renal function parameters. Results: Urinary concentrations of calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin increased significantly after ischaemia/reperfusion injury, whereas concentrations remained unchanged after nephron sparing surgery without ischaemia/reperfusion injury and after kidney donation. Calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin levels were significantly increased 2 and 8 hours, respectively, post-ischaemia. Both proteins reached maximal concentrations after 48 hours, followed by a subsequent persistent decrease. Maximal neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin and calprotectin concentrations were 9-fold and 69-fold higher than their respective baseline values. The glomerular filtration rate was only transiently impaired at the first post-operative day after ischaemia/reperfusion injury (p = 0.049). Conclusion: Calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin can be used to monitor clinical and sub-clinical tubular damage after nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. Urinary calprotectin concentrations start rising within 2 hours after ischaemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury. PMID:26745147

  11. Mitochondrial dynamics: regulatory mechanisms and emerging role in renal pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ming; Brooks, Craig; Liu, Fuyou; Sun, Lin; Dong, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are a class of dynamic organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dynamics is governed by a complex molecular machinery and finely tuned by regulatory proteins. During cell injury or stress, the dynamics is shifted to fission, resulting in mitochondrial fragmentation, which contributes to mitochondrial damage and consequent cell injury and death. Emerging evidence has suggested a role of mitochondrial fragmentation in the pathogenesis of renal diseases including acute kidney injury and diabetic nephropathy. A better understanding of the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and its pathogenic changes may unveil novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23325082

  12. Renal Venous Doppler Study in Obstructive Uropathy

    PubMed Central

    Vadana, Bala Murali Krishna; Penumalli, Neelima; Bellapa, Narayan Chander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive uropathy is very common cause of pain abdomen. Recognition of the cause of the pain and level of obstruction is the goal. Ultrasound is the primary modality used for detection and characterization of obstructive uropathy along with conventional radiographs. Obstructive uropathy in early stages can be difficult to diagnose using standard B-mode USG or arterial sensitive index. Aim The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of renal venous doppler ultrasound in diagnosing acute obstructive uropathy either alone or in addition to arterial doppler study of inter lobar arteries. As there is limited literature available till date on Indian population regarding renal venous doppler in obstructive uropathy, this study can be useful. Materials and Methods Fifty patients presenting with features suggestive of obstructive uropathy were studied and compared with non-obstructed kidney of the same patient. Fifty normal individuals were studied and taken as controls. Results The mean venous impedance index on the obstructed side (0.26 ± 0.07) was less than the mean venous impedance index on the unobstructed side (0.41 ± 0.08) and was statistically highly significant. There was no statistically significant difference in mean arterial Resistivity Index (RI). Conclusion Thus renal venous doppler study is a reliable tool in diagnosing cases of acute obstructive uropathy. Though its use as single parameter to identify obstruction still needs further studies, it can be used in conjugation with b mode ultrasound and arterial Doppler to identify obstruction. PMID:26675709

  13. Computer-assisted static/dynamic renal imaging: a screening test for renovascular hypertension?

    PubMed

    Keim, H J; Johnson, P M; Vaughan, E D; Beg, K; Follett, D A; Freeman, L M; Laragh, J H

    1979-01-01

    Computer-assisted static/dynamic renal imaging with [197Hg] chlormerodrin and [99mTc]pertechnetate was evaluated prospectively as a screening test for renovascular hypertension. Results are reported for 51 patients: 33 with benign essential hypertension and 18 with renovascular hypertension, and for 21 normal controls. All patients underwent renal arteriography. Patients with significant obesity, renal insufficiency, or renoparenchymal disease were excluded from this study. Independent visual analyses of renal gamma images and time-activity transit curves identified 17 of the 18 patients with renovascular hypertension; one study was equivocal. There were five equivocal and three false-positive results in the essential hypertension and normal controls groups. The sensitivity of the method was 94% and the specificity 85%. Since the prevalence of the renovascular subset of hypertension is approximately 5%, the predictive value is only 25%. Inclusion of computer-generated data did not improve this result. Accordingly, this method is not recommended as a primary screening test for renovascular hypertension. PMID:430172

  14. Horseshoe kidney mimicking cross-fused ectopia on 99mTc-EC renal dynamic scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Karunanithi, Sellam; Jain, Sachin; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    The ‘horseshoe kidney’ is the most common renal fusion anomaly. In this disorder, two developed kidneys are connected to each other at the lower part and grow together. We report a case of horseshoe kidney mimicking cross-fused ectopia in 99mTc-EC renal dynamic scintigraphy. PMID:24761069

  15. Renal nerves dynamically regulate renal blood flow in conscious, healthy rabbits.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter R; Zucker, Irving H

    2016-01-15

    Despite significant clinical interest in renal denervation as a therapy, the role of the renal nerves in the physiological regulation of renal blood flow (RBF) remains debated. We hypothesized that the renal nerves physiologically regulate beat-to-beat RBF variability (RBFV). This was tested in chronically instrumented, healthy rabbits that underwent either bilateral surgical renal denervation (DDNx) or a sham denervation procedure (INV). Artifact-free segments of RBF and arterial pressure (AP) from calmly resting, conscious rabbits were used to extract RBFV and AP variability for time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear analysis. Whereas steady-state measures of RBF, AP, and heart rate did not statistically differ between groups, DDNx rabbits had greater RBFV than INV rabbits. AP-RBF transfer function analysis showed greater admittance gain in DDNx rabbits than in INV rabbits, particularly in the low-frequency (LF) range where systemic sympathetic vasomotion gives rise to AP oscillations. In the LF range, INV rabbits exhibited a negative AP-RBF phase shift and low coherence, consistent with the presence of an active control system. Neither of these features were present in the LF range of DDNx rabbits, which showed no phase shift and high coherence, consistent with a passive, Ohm's law pressure-flow relationship. Renal denervation did not significantly affect nonlinear RBFV measures of chaos, self-affinity, or complexity, nor did it significantly affect glomerular filtration rate or extracellular fluid volume. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the renal nerves mediate LF renal sympathetic vasomotion, which buffers RBF from LF AP oscillations in conscious, healthy rabbits. PMID:26538235

  16. Histomorphology of renal dysplasia--an autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Nandita; Menon, Santosh; Radotra, B D

    2006-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of pediatric autopsies in the past 18 years was done with the aim of studying the histomorphology of renal dysplasia. Renal dysplasia comprised 150 (3.66%) of the 4,099 pediatric autopsies from 20 weeks of gestation to 1 year of life. Primitive ducts with the fibromuscular collar, the sine qua non of renal dysplasia, was seen in all cases. Lobar disorganization and cysts were seen in all cases except for the 7 cases of hypodysplasia. Other elements were seen in varying proportions: cartilage in 33.7%, bone in 1.08%, thickening of basement membrane of the primitive ducts in 64.13%, extramedullary hematopoiesis in 98.9%, nerve twigs in 72.8%, and nodular renal blastema in 2.17% cases. In unilateral multicystic dysplasia/renal agenesis, the contralateral kidney showed abnormalities in 44.45% and 47.37% of cases, respectively. PMID:16908457

  17. Dynamic relationship between sympathetic nerve activity and renal blood flow: a frequency domain approach.

    PubMed

    Guild, S J; Austin, P C; Navakatikyan, M; Ringwood, J V; Malpas, S C

    2001-07-01

    Blood pressure displays an oscillation at 0.1 Hz in humans that is well established to be due to oscillations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). However, the mechanisms that control the strength or frequency of this oscillation are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to define the dynamic relationship between SNA and the vasculature. The sympathetic nerves to the kidney were electrically stimulated in six pentobarbital-sodium anesthetized rabbits, and the renal blood flow response was recorded. A pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) was applied to the renal nerves, which contains equal spectral power at frequencies in the range of interest (<1 Hz). Transfer function analysis revealed a complex system composed of low-pass filter characteristics but also with regions of constant gain. A model was developed that accounted for this relationship composed of a 2 zero/4 pole transfer function. Although the position of the poles and zeros varied among animals, the model structure was consistent. We also found the time delay between the stimulus and the RBF responses to be consistent among animals (mean 672 +/- 22 ms). We propose that the identification of the precise relationship between SNA and renal blood flow (RBF) is a fundamental and necessary step toward understanding the interaction between SNA and other physiological mediators of RBF. PMID:11404295

  18. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative susceptibility mapping with ultrashort echo time MRI for evaluating renal function.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luke; Layton, Anita T; Wang, Nian; Larson, Peder E Z; Zhang, Jeff L; Lee, Vivian S; Liu, Chunlei; Johnson, G Allan

    2016-01-15

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can provide key insight into renal function. DCE MRI is typically achieved through an injection of a gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent, which has desirable T1 quenching and tracer kinetics. However, significant T2* blooming effects and signal voids can arise when Gd becomes very concentrated, especially in the renal medulla and pelvis. One MRI sequence designed to alleviate T2* effects is the ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence. In the present study, we observed T2* blooming in the inner medulla of the mouse kidney, despite using UTE at an echo time of 20 microseconds and a low dose of 0.03 mmol/kg Gd. We applied quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and resolved the signal void into a positive susceptibility signal. The susceptibility values [in parts per million (ppm)] were converted into molar concentrations of Gd using a calibration curve. We determined the concentrating mechanism (referred to as the concentrating index) as a ratio of maximum Gd concentration in the inner medulla to the renal artery. The concentrating index was assessed longitudinally over a 17-wk course (3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 17 wk of age). We conclude that the UTE-based DCE method is limited in resolving extreme T2* content caused by the kidney's strong concentrating mechanism. QSM was able to resolve and confirm the source of the blooming effect to be the large positive susceptibility of concentrated Gd. UTE with QSM can complement traditional magnitude UTE and offer a powerful tool to study renal pathophysiology. PMID:26447222

  20. RENAL CANCER STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may under or over represent the actual biological response. A rodent model of hereditary renal cancer (Eker rat) was used to evaluate the carcinogenicity of a mixture of DBPs...

  1. Angio-computed tomography and dynamic computed tomography in staging of renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, E.K.

    1984-04-01

    Dynamic computed tomography and angio-tomography combine criteria generated by CT with those of angiography and are advocated by the author to improve staging of renal cell carcinoma. Dynamic CT was performed in 29 patients and angio-CT in 12 patients in this group. Rapid acquisition of data permits generation of a CT section in intervals of 1 to 6 seconds, which in turn reflects arterial capillary, and venous transit of contrast medium through tissue. The propensity for dense enhancement of renal cell carcinoma makes possible positive identification of tumor elements. This feature proved accurate for the assessment of local extension of renal neoplasms in all 29 patients, involvement of the renal vein by tumor in 9/10, involvement of the inferior vena cava by tumor in 6/6, and involvement of regional nodes by tumor in 6/8.

  2. Renal blood flow transit time in the study of renal transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Ihmeidan, I.; Kyriakides, G.; Martinez, B.; Hourani, M.; Miller, J.; Serafini, A.

    1985-05-01

    Radio-hippurate scintigraphy has been used to study renal transplant function because of its unique advantages over other noninvasive methods. Despite a great sensitivity in diagnosing the existence of a functional problem the test lacks in specificity. In an effort to differentiate between acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and graft rejection (RJ) the authors preceded hippurate scintigraphy by measurements of renal flow transit time (TT). After an intravenous injection of 8 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid flow curves from the kidney and the abdominal aorta in 1 sec intervals for 1 min were obtained. Renal transit time was mathematically calculated and corrected for bolus and circulatory differences by dividing it with the corresponding Aortic TT (corrected Renal TT(cRTT). Radiohippuran (O-I-131-Hippurate), 150 ..mu..Ci was injected subsequently and of the different computer generated parameters the 30 min net cortical residual (% of the peak) activity (Hippuran Residual Activity, HRA) was found more sensitive and reproducible for comparisons. Results of documented cases showed a statistically significant difference. Uncomplicated cases (usually on antirejection therapy) showed a tendency to increasing the cRTTs with time (not significantly) but their HRAs were significantly lower than in ATN and RJ (p< 0.001).

  3. Labeled lectin studies of renal tubular dysgenesis and renal tubular atrophy of postnatal renal ischemia and end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Landing, B H; Ang, S M; Herta, N; Larson, E F; Turner, M

    1994-01-01

    Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD), with hypoplasia especially of renal proximal convoluted tubules and clinical neonatal anuria or oliguria, has been reported as a congenital familial (autosomal recessive) disease, variably with features of oligohydramnios, Potter syndrome, or pulmonary hypoplasia. A similar tubular lesion due to antenatal tubular atrophy has been reported for conjoined twins with twin-twin transfusion syndrome or acardia and in infants of mothers given antihypertensive agents, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, during pregnancy, and it has been seen as a unilateral lesion in young infants with renal artery stenosis due to arteritis or medial arterial calcinosis. The renal tubular changes in RTD are very like those of the "endocrine kidney" in experimental animals and resemble those of the renal tubular atrophy of end-stage kidney diseases such as glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial kidney disease, obstructive uropathy/pyelonephritis, graft rejection of transplanted kidneys, or the renal parenchymal changes seen with protracted dialysis therapy. Labeled lectins that differentially mark proximal convoluted, distal convoluted and connecting, and collecting tubules showed no distinctive differences in staining patterns of the hypoplastic renal tubules of infants and children with RTD, postnatal renal artery obstruction, or the various types of end-stage renal disease with the lectins used (PNA, GSLI, UEA, and LTA). The findings suggest that the renal tubular changes in some if not all the conditions studied are the result of renal ischemia. The reported familial RTD with hypernephronic nephromegaly may be a specific disorder, but other forms could reflect renal ischemia acquired in utero or in early or later postnatal life. PMID:8159624

  4. Variations in renal morphometry: A hospital-based Indian study

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Ranjeet S.; Mehta, Nisarg; Pillai, Biju S.; Sam, Mohan P.; Upendran, Binu; Krishnamoorthy, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The currently available standard renal nomograms for comparison of renal dimensions in India are based on the measurements made in the Western population. The objectives of our study were to identify variations in renal morphometric parameters in subjects with no known renal disease in a hospital-based Indian population and to find out any correlation between renal volumes with split renal functions and body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-one subjects undergoing contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan for various purposes, including donor nephrectomy, from June 2012 to August 2014 were included in the study. The renal and ureteral dimensions were assessed from the contrast-enhanced CT scan images of these patients. Results: The mean length, width, thickness and volume of the left kidney were 11.02 ± 1.13 cm, 5.21 ± 0.75 cm, 4.65 ± 0.84 cm and 138.22 ± 29.81 mL, respectively, and those for the right kidney were 10.86 ± 1.12 cm, 5.13 ± 0.77 cm, 4.73 ± 0.95 cm and 137.54 ± 34.48 mL, respectively. The mean length of the left ureter was 23.51 ± 1.48 cm and that of the right ureter was 23.24 ± 1.93 cm. The mean volume of the kidneys in males and females was also different. The volume of the kidney did not statically correlate with the split glomerular filtration rate ((P = 0.12) and BMI (P = 0.52)). Conclusions: Our study revealed that there exist differences in various morphometric parameters of the kidney and ureter in different subsets of the Indian population attending our hospital as compared with the standard values quoted in the world literature. PMID:26941497

  5. New tides: using zebrafish to study renal regeneration.

    PubMed

    McCampbell, Kristen K; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-02-01

    Over the past several decades, the zebrafish has become one of the major vertebrate model organisms used in biomedical research. In this arena, the zebrafish has emerged as an applicable system for the study of kidney diseases and renal regeneration. The relevance of the zebrafish model for nephrology research has been increasingly appreciated as the understanding of zebrafish kidney structure, ontogeny, and the response to damage has steadily expanded. Recent studies have documented the amazing regenerative characteristics of the zebrafish kidney, which include the ability to replace epithelial populations after acute injury and to grow new renal functional units, termed nephrons. Here we discuss how nephron composition is conserved between zebrafish and mammals, and highlight how recent findings from zebrafish studies utilizing transgenic technologies and chemical genetics can complement traditional murine approaches in the effort to dissect how the kidney responds to acute damage and identify therapeutics that enhance human renal regeneration. PMID:24183931

  6. 3 R study: renal outcome in renal ischemia: revascularisation or medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Zuccalà, A; Zucchelli, P; Campieri, C; Esposti, E D; Losito, A; Timio, M; Boero, R

    2000-01-01

    Ischemic nephropathy refers to the kidney damage following stenosis or an obstructive lesion in the main kidney arteries. This disorder has been overlooked in the past and a more rational and specific use of clinical criteria, and the development of not very invasive techniques with a good diagnostic accuracy such as spiral CT angiography, NMR angiography and echo-colour-Doppler have improved our ability to identify these patients. It is therefore likely that, in the next few years, we will find ourselves treating an increasing number of patients with renovascular ischemic disorders. Transluminal angioplasty and, more recently, the use of endovascular stents, have led to a marked improvement in the treatment of stenoses and, together with vascular surgery, allow to treat almost all patients with this disorder. There is, however, a lack of prospective and controlled studies, which demonstrate the long term benefit of revascularization treatment, as compared with optimum conservative treatment in reducing cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular events and preserving renal function. The Ischemic Nephropathy Study Group of the Italian Society of Nephrology has organized a prospective, controlled study over a period of three years, aimed at comparing the effect of revascularization versus medical therapy in 300 patients with renal artery stenosis, ranging between 50 and 90 per cent, who will be randomly assigned to the two treatments. End point will be cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and need for renal replacement therapy. PMID:10858971

  7. Dynamic noninvasive monitoring of renal function in vivo by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goiffon, Reece J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Lee, Hyeran; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-03-01

    Kidneys normally filter the blood of excess salts and metabolic products, such as urea, while retaining plasma proteins. In diseases such as multiple myeloma and diabetes mellitus, the renal function is compromised and protein escapes into the urine. In this study, we present the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) to image excess serum protein in urine (proteinuria). The near-infrared fluorescent dye LS-288 has distinct lifetimes when bound to protein versus free in solution, providing contrast between the protein-rich viscera and the mostly protein-free bladder. FLI with LS-288 in mice revealed that fluorescence lifetime (FLT) differences in the bladder relative to surrounding tissues was due to the fractional contributions of the bound and unbound dye molecules. The FLT of LS-288 decreased in the case of proteinuria while fluorescence intensity was unchanged. The results show that FLI can be useful for the dynamic imaging of protein-losing nephropathy due to diabetes mellitus and other renal diseases and suggest the potential use of the FLI to distinguish tumors from fluid-filled cysts in the body.

  8. Non-diabetic renal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Study of renal - retinal relationship

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Gupta, T.; Prakash, S.; Bhushan, P.; Usha; Sivasankar, M.; Singh, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD), is known to occur in diabetic patients. The renal and retinal relationship in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with nephropathy is not uniform. This study was carried to study the histological spectrum of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria and its relationship with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Total 31 (males - 26; females - 5) proteinuric type 2 diabetic patients were studied. Average age of patients was 50.7 years. Nephrotic syndrome was noted in 21 (67.7%) patients. Overall, isolated DN, NDRD and NDRD superimposed on DN (mixed lesion) were observed in 12 (38.7%), 13 (41.9%) and 6 (19.4%) cases, respectively. DR was absent in 21/31 (67.7%) cases. The spectrum of nephropathy in patients without DR included: DN in 6 (28.57%), NDRD in 12 (57.14%) and mixed lesion in 3 (14.29%). Kidney histology in patients with DR (n-10) revealed DN in 6 (60%), NDRD in 1 (10%) and mixed lesion in 3 (30%) patients. Thus, absence of DR favors NDRD but does not exclude DN because isolated DN was noted in 28.57% cases in absence of DR. Similarly biopsy proven NDRD (pure NDRD; 10% and mixed lesion; 30%) was noted in 40% of cases in presence of DR. In summary, patients with T2DM had higher incidence of NDRD. DR is less frequent (32.3%) in type 2 diabetes and is a poor predictor of type of nephropathy. Hence, renal biopsy is essential for precise diagnosis of nephropathy in patients with T2DM. PMID:26199473

  9. Atrial natriuretic factor in oliguric acute renal failure. Anaritide Acute Renal Failure Study Group.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J; Salem, M M; Chertow, G M; Weisberg, L S; McGrew, F; Marbury, T C; Allgren, R L

    2000-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an endogenous hormone synthesized by the cardiac atria, has been shown to improve renal function in multiple animal models of acute renal failure. In a recent multicenter clinical trial of 504 patients with acute tubular necrosis (oliguric and nonoliguric), ANP decreased the need for dialysis only in the oliguric patients. In the present study, 222 patients with oliguric acute renal failure were enrolled into a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to assess prospectively the safety and efficacy of ANP compared with placebo. Subjects were randomized to treatment with a 24-hour infusion of ANP (anaritide, 0.2 microgram/kg/min; synthetic form of human ANP) or placebo. Dialysis and mortality status were followed up for 60 days. The primary efficacy end point was dialysis-free survival through day 21. Dialysis-free survival rates were 21% in the ANP group and 15% in the placebo group (P = 0.22). By day 14 of the study, 64% and 77% of the ANP and placebo groups had undergone dialysis, respectively (P = 0.054), and 9 additional patients (7 patients, ANP group; 2 patients, placebo group) needed dialysis but did not receive it. Although a trend was present, there was no statistically significant beneficial effect of ANP in dialysis-free survival or reduction in dialysis in these subjects with oliguric acute renal failure. Mortality rates through day 60 were 60% versus 56% in the ANP and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.541). One hundred two of 108 (95%) versus 63 of 114 (55%) patients in the ANP and placebo groups had systolic blood pressures less than 90 mm Hg during the study-drug infusion (P < 0.001). The maximal absolute decrease in systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the anaritide group than placebo group (33.6 versus 23.9 mm Hg; P < 0.001). This well-characterized population with oliguric acute renal failure had an overall high morbidity and mortality. PMID:11007679

  10. Synchronized Renal Blood Flow Dynamics Mapped with Wavelet Analysis of Laser Speckle Flowmetry Data

    PubMed Central

    Brazhe, Alexey R.; Marsh, Donald J.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Full-field laser speckle microscopy provides real-time imaging of superficial blood flow rate. Here we apply continuous wavelet transform to time series of speckle-estimated blood flow from each pixel of the images to map synchronous patterns in instantaneous frequency and phase on the surface of rat kidneys. The regulatory mechanism in the renal microcirculation generates oscillations in arterial blood flow at several characteristic frequencies. Our approach to laser speckle image processing allows detection of frequency and phase entrainments, visualization of their patterns, and estimation of the extent of synchronization in renal cortex dynamics. PMID:25216274

  11. Fluid dynamic modelling of renal pelvic pressure during endoscopic stone removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oratis, Alexandros; Subasic, John; Bird, James; Eisner, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Endoscopic kidney stone removal procedures are known to increase internal pressure in the renal pelvis, the kidney's urinary collecting system. High renal pelvic pressure incites systemic absorption of irrigation fluid, which can increase the risk of postoperative fever and sepsis or the unwanted absorption of electrolytes. Urologists choose the appropriate surgical procedure based on patient history and kidney stone size. However, no study has been conducted to compare the pressure profiles of each procedure, nor is there a precise sense of how the renal pelvic pressure scales with various operational parameters. Here we develop physical models for the flow rates and renal pelvic pressure for various procedures. We show that the results of our models are consistent with existing urological data on each procedure and that the models can predict pressure profiles where data is unavailable.

  12. A comparative study of renal scintigraphy and clearance with technetium-99m-MAG3 and iodine-123-hippurate in patients with renal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Suur, R.B.; Bois-Svensson, I.; Mesko, L. )

    1990-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare kit prepared technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) with our routine radiopharmaceutical, iodine-123-hippurate our routine radiopharmaceutical, iodine-123-hippurate ((123I)OIH) for renal dynamic scintigraphy. Seventeen patients with different nephrologic disorders or hypertension were first studied with OIH and then reinvestigated with MAG3 2-8 days later. Renal MAG3 gamma camera images were almost identical with those of OIH except for higher (p less than 0.01) liver-to-background ratios at 20 min postinjection, irrespective of kidney function. Urinary peristalsis was visible longer and more clearly in the MAG3 studies. MAG3 and OIH renograms showed identical relative kidney uptake (r = 0.99), but elimination of MAG3 from the kidneys was slower (p less than 0.01). The plasma clearance of MAG3 was lower than that of OIH, but correlated (r = 0.92) significantly. The plasma distribution volume and content in blood cells was lower (p less than 0.01), but the binding of MAG3 to plasma proteins was higher, 90%, as compared with 74% for OIH, p less than 0.01. Urinary excretion expressed as a percent of the given dose 60 min after injection was the same for the two substances. Thus, there are some significant differences in the renal handling, plasma distribution, and cell penetration between MAG3 and (123I)OIH. MAG3, however, seems to have particular qualifications as a radionuclide for dynamic renal scintigraphy, especially in patients who require acute investigations or in those with low renal function.

  13. [Radiorenoangiography in the study of renal blood circulation in children].

    PubMed

    Dmitrienkov, B N; Kovarskiĭ, S L; Misochko, I V; Kolgin, A P; Andronov, S V

    1983-05-01

    The renal blood circulation was studied in 17 children aged 3 to 14 using a method of adaptive simulation of the organ blood flow. The main condition for radiorenoangiography is to place correctly a gamma-chamber of the heart, lungs and kidneys in the field of vision of the crystal. It is a requisite condition for the calculation of absolute and relative renal perfusion depending on the cardiac ejection. If a patient's body size does not make it possible to have the heart and kidneys in the field of vision of the collimator at a time, one can choose the spleen as the "model" organ. The analysis of angiographic results has shown that the share of the cardiac ejection which is responsible for the renal circulation and organ function respectively, is quite a stable value that is not associated with a patient's age and body mass. Irrespective of the state of the central hemodynamics and a patient's age, the most objective information on renal perfusion proceeds from an analysis of relative indices (or perfusion indices) that are calculated on the basis of the cardiac ejection expressed in percentage (or another model organ). PMID:6343752

  14. Hyaluronan and rat renal fibroblasts: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Pedagogos, E; Hewitson, T D; Nicholls, K M; Becker, G J

    2001-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a ubiquitous component of extracellular matrix. After tissue injury, HA appears in greater abundance during the inflammatory response and the phase of clearance of cell and matrix debris, before collagen production and matrix degradation. The aim of this study was to examine whether normal rat renal fibroblasts were capable of HA synthesis and to determine the effect of HA on in vitro collagen production in a series of normal rat cortical fibroblast cultures. Fibroblast cultures from both renal cortex and medulla were established from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. HA synthesis was measured by radioimmunoassay, and incorporation of (3)H-proline into collagen was used to determine collagen synthesis. Fibroblasts were defined on the basis of morphology and alpha smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry. HA synthesis was measured in both renal cortical and medullary fibroblasts at passage 3 for both 24 and 48 h in 5 animals and expressed as a fraction of protein content. HA was synthesized by both cortical and medullary fibroblasts; however, cortical fibroblasts produced less HA than medullary fibroblasts at both 24 h (p = 0.05) and 48 h (p = 0.02). In normal cortical fibroblasts, exogenous HA suppressed overall total (cell and media) collagen production after a 22-hour labelling period (p = 0.002 compared to controls). Decreased collagen production was also found individually in cell (p = 0.02) and media fractions (p = 0.01). Both cortical and medullary fibroblasts are capable of synthesizing HA in vitro. Furthermore, the findings in this study suggest that HA may be an important mediator in reducing renal cortical fibroblast collagen production and may play an important role in limiting renal interstitial scarring. PMID:11474230

  15. A direct anatomical study of additional renal arteries in a Colombian mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, B; Pérez, A F; Ballesteros, L E

    2008-05-01

    Traditional anatomy describes each kidney as receiving irrigation from a single renal artery. However, current literature reports great variability in renal blood supply, the number of renal arteries mentioned being the most frequently found variation. Such variation has great implications when surgery is indicated, such as in renal transplants, uroradiological procedures, renovascular hypertension, renal trauma and hydronephrosis. This article pretends to determine the frequency of additional renal arteries and their morphological expression in Colombian population in a cross-sectional study. A total of 196 of renal blocks were analysed from autopsies carried out in the Bucaramanga Institute of Forensic Medicine, Colombia; these renal blocks were processed by the injection- corrosion technique. The average age of the people being studied was 33.8 +/- 15.6 years; 85.4% of them were male and the rest female. An additional renal artery was found in 22.3% of the whole population and two additional ones were found in 2.6% of the same sample. The additional renal artery was most frequently found on the left side. The additional artery arose from the aorta's lateral aspect (52.4%); these additional arteries usually entered the renal parenchyma through the hilum. No difference was established according to gender. Nearly a third of the Colombian population presents one additional renal artery and about 3% of the same population presents two additional renal arteries. Most of them reached the kidney through its hilar region. PMID:18521812

  16. Calcium dynamics underlying the myogenic response of the renal afferent arteriole

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Aurlie

    2013-01-01

    The renal afferent arteriole reacts to an elevation in blood pressure with an increase in muscle tone and a decrease in luminal diameter. This effect, known as the myogenic response, is believed to stabilize glomerular filtration and to protect the glomerulus from systolic blood pressure increases, especially in hypertension. To study the mechanisms underlying the myogenic response, we developed a mathematical model of intracellular Ca2+ signaling in an afferent arteriole smooth muscle cell. The model represents detailed transmembrane ionic transport, intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, the kinetics of myosin light chain phosphorylation, and the mechanical behavior of the cell. It assumes that the myogenic response is initiated by pressure-induced changes in the activity of nonselective cation channels. Our model predicts spontaneous vasomotion at physiological luminal pressures and KCl- and diltiazem-induced diameter changes comparable to experimental findings. The time-periodic oscillations stem from the dynamic exchange of Ca2+ between the cytosol and the sarcoplasmic reticulum, coupled to the stimulation of Ca2+-activated potassium (KCa) and chloride (ClCa) channels, and the modulation of voltage-activated L-type channels; blocking sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pumps, ryanodine receptors (RyR), KCa, ClCa, or L-type channels abolishes these oscillations. Our results indicate that the profile of the myogenic response is also strongly dependent on the conductance of ClCa and L-type channels, as well as the activity of plasmalemmal Ca2+ pumps. Furthermore, inhibition of KCa is not necessary to induce myogenic contraction. Lastly, our model suggests that the kinetic behavior of L-type channels results in myogenic kinetics that are substantially faster during constriction than during dilation, consistent with in vitro observations (Loutzenhiser R, Bidani A, Chilton L. Circ. Res. 90: 13161324, 2002). PMID:24173354

  17. Tumor perfusion assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI correlates to the grading of renal cell carcinoma: initial results.

    PubMed

    Palmowski, Moritz; Schifferdecker, Isabel; Zwick, Stefan; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Laue, Hendrik; Haferkamp, Axel; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Kiessling, Fabian; Hallscheidt, Peter

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we investigated whether assessment of the tumor perfusion by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) enables to estimate the morphologic grading of renal cell carcinomas. A total of 21 patients with suspected renal cell cancer were examined using a Gadobutrol-enhanced, dynamic saturation-recovery, turbo-fast, low-angle shot sequence. Tumor perfusion and the tissue-blood ratio within the entire tumor and the most highly vascularized part of the tumor were calculated according to the model of Miles. Immediately after examination, patients underwent surgery, and the results from imaging were compared with the morphological analysis of the histologic grading. Fourteen patients had G2 tumors, and seven patients had G3 tumors. Significantly higher perfusion values (p<0.05) were obtained in G3 tumors than in G2 tumors when the entire tumor area was considered (1.59+/-0.44(ml/g/min) vs. 1.08+/-0.38(ml/g/min)) or its most highly vascularized part (2.14+/-0.89(ml/g/min) vs. 1.40+/-0.49(ml/g/min)). By contrast, the tissue-blood ratios did not differ significantly between the two groups. In conclusion, unlike tissue-blood ratio, surrogate parameters of the tumor perfusion determined by DCE MRI seem to allow an estimation of the grading of renal cell carcinoma. However, further studies with high case numbers and including patients with G1 tumors are required to evaluate the full potential and clinical impact. PMID:19540690

  18. A Pilot Study to Evaluate Renal Hemodynamics in Cirrhosis by Simultaneous Glomerular Filtration Rate, Renal Plasma Flow, Renal Resistive Indices and Biomarkers Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Dowling, Thomas C.; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J.; Christenson, Robert H.; Magder, Laurence S.; Hutson, William R.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Weir, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal hemodynamic measurements are complicated to perform in patients with cirrhosis; yet they provide the best measure of risk to predict hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Currently, there are no established biomarkers of altered renal hemodynamics in cirrhosis validated by measured renal hemodynamics. Methods In this pilot study, simultaneous measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), renal resistive indices and biomarkers were performed to evaluate renal hemodynamic alterations in 10 patients with cirrhosis (3 patients without ascites, 5 with diuretic sensitive and 2 diuretic refractory ascites). Results Patients with diuretic refractory ascites had the lowest mean GFR (36.5 ml/min/1.73m2) and RPF (133.6 ml/min/1.73m2) when compared to those without ascites (GFR=82.9 ml/min/1.73m2, RPF=229.9 ml/min/1.73m2) and with diuretic-sensitive ascites (GFR=82.3 ml/min/1.73m2, RPF=344.1 ml/min/1.73m2). A higher mean filtration fraction (FF= GFR/RPF=0.36) was noted among those without ascites compared to those with ascites. Higher FF in patients without ascites is most likely secondary to the vasoconstriction in the efferent glomerular arterioles (normal FF≃0.20). In general, renal resistive indices were inversely related to FF. While patients with ascites had lower FF and higher right kidney main and arcuate artery resistive indices, those without ascites had higher FF and lower right kidney main and arcuate artery resistive indices. While cystatin C and beta-2 microglobulin performed better compared to Cr in estimating RPF; beta-trace protein, beta-2 microglobulin, SDMA, and (SDMA+ADMA) performed better in estimating right kidney arcuate artery resistive index. Conclusion The results of this pilot study showed that identification of non-invasive biomarkers of reduced RPF and increased renal resistive indices can identify cirrhotics at risk for HRS at a stage more amenable to therapeutic intervention, and reduce mortality from kidney failure in cirrhosis. PMID:24943131

  19. Dynamic EKG Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    The use of the dynamic EKG study as a part of periodic health examination is considered to be a valuable complement to other forms of stress testing with its ability to detect abnormal heart responses to stress stimuli. It is believed that statistical correlations of dynamic EKG findings with physical examination results contribute greatly to the understanding of cardiac abnormalities.

  20. sup 31 Phosphorus NMR studies of renal membrane phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    A research program was undertaken in order to study the effects of toxin-induced acute renal failure and streptozotozin-induced diabetes mellitus on the organization and motion of phospholipids in kidney membranes. The method of study included {sup 31}P NMR and computer simulated lineshape analyses and apparent lipid diffusion rate measurements. These were performed with selected tissue samples and disease models, and the results were compared with those of healthy renal tissues in order to identify changes associated with the diseased state. A new selective-excitation NMR pulse sequence was developed in which a portion of the lipid molecules were excited with a series of short equally-spaced RF pulses. As the position of the molecules changed on the membrane by lateral diffusion, the shape of the hole was seen to change. Experimental spectra were compared with calculated lineshapes in order to obtain estimates of useful molecular parameters including relation times and lateral lipid diffusion rates. The lineshape calculations were based on a solution to the Bloch equations for complex magnetization components with exchange terms added for diffusion.

  1. Retrospective morphometric study of the suitability of renal arteries for renal denervation according to the Symplicity HTN2 trial criteria

    PubMed Central

    Schönherr, Elisabeth; Rehwald, Rafael; Nasseri, Parinaz; Luger, Anna K; Grams, Astrid E; Kerschbaum, Julia; Rehder, Peter; Petersen, Johannes; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the renal arteries of humans in vivo, as precisely as possible, and to formulate an expected value for the exclusion of renal denervation due to the anatomical situation based on the criteria of the Symplicity HTN trials. Design and setting In a retrospective cohort study, the renal arteries of 126 patients (57 women, 69 men, mean age 60±17.2 years (CI 57.7 to 63.6)) were segmented semiautomatically from high-contrast CT angiographies. Results Among the 300 renal arteries, there were three arteries with fibromuscular dysplasia and one with ostial renal artery stenosis. The first left renal artery was shorter than the right (34±11.4 mm (CI 32 to 36) vs 45.9±15 mm (CI 43.2 to 48.6); p<0.0001), but had a slightly larger diameter (5.2±1.4 mm (CI 4.9 to 5.4) vs 4.9±1.2 mm (CI 4.6 to 5.1); p>0.05). The first left renal arteries were 1.1±0.4 mm (CI 0.9 to 1.3), and the first right renal arteries were 0.3±0.6 mm (CI 0.1 to 0.5) thinner in women than in men (p<0.05). Ostial funnels were up to 14 mm long. The cross-sections were elliptical, more pronounced on the right side (p<0.05). In 23 cases (18.3%), the main artery was shorter than 2 cm; in 43 cases (34.1%), the diameter was not >4 mm. Some 46% of the patients, or 58.7% when variants and diseases were taken into consideration, were theoretically not suitable for denervation. Conclusions Based on these precise measurements, the anatomical situation as a reason for ruling out denervation appears to be significantly more common than previously suspected. Since this can be the cause of the failure of treatment in some cases, further development of catheters or direct percutaneous approaches may improve success rates. PMID:26729385

  2. Development of new renal scars: a collaborative study.

    PubMed Central

    Smellie, J M; Ransley, P G; Normand, I C; Prescod, N; Edwards, D

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the factors surrounding the development of renal scars clinical data and serial radiographs were analysed in 74 infants and children (66 girls and eight boys) without duplex kidney or obstruction. The development of new scars was seen radiologically in 87 kidneys (74 previously normal and 13 previously scarred). New scarring was extensive in 16 kidneys. Thirty four children were aged 5 or over when scarring occurred. Urinary infection occurred in all the children. Diagnosis and effective treatment were delayed in 45 of them; 58 suffered further urinary infections between the baseline intravenous urogram and the first showing new scarring. Vesicoureteric reflux was seen in 67 of the children. Investigation and treatment varied widely, and few children received long term prophylaxis. Social problems interfered with the management of 22 children. Early diagnosis, prompt effective treatment, investigation, and long term supervision of children with urinary infection are essential if renal scarring is to be reduced; those over the age of 5 are still vulnerable. PMID:3924325

  3. Myxoid renal cell carcinoma: histological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Birch, H A; Glass, J M; Vale, J; Walker, M M

    1996-12-01

    Renal cell carcinomas show a variety of histological features. A case of a renal tumour arising in a 44 year old African man is reported. The tumour was composed of a cobweb-like pattern of narrow anastomising tubules lined by cuboidal cells separated by a hypocellular myxoid stroma. Immunohistochemical stains were consistent with a renal cell origin. The differential diagnosis in these cases includes sarcoma. PMID:9038743

  4. Study of atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnider, Richard T.; Christy, John R.; Cox, Gregory N.

    1993-01-01

    In order to better understand the dynamics of the global atmosphere, a data set of precision temperature measurements was developed using the NASA built Microwave Sounding Unit. Modeling research was carried out to validate global model outputs using various satellite data. Idealized flows in a rotating annulus were studied and applied to the general circulation of the atmosphere. Dynamic stratospheric ozone fluctuations were investigated. An extensive bibliography and several reprints are appended.

  5. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON RENAL AGING: A CHRONIC CADMIUM FEEDING STUDY IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to accumulate preferentially in the renal proximal tubules. Animal and human autopsy studies have shown that damage to the renal proximal tubular cells is associated with toxicity from chronic Cd exposure. The present study was undertaken to determine if Cd ...

  6. Renal leiomyoma: a contemporary multi-institution study of an infrequent and frequently misclassified neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pallavi A; McKenney, Jesse K; Trpkov, Kiril; Hes, Ondrej; Montironi, Rodolfo; Scarpelli, Marina; Nesi, Gabriella; Aron, Manju; Sangoi, Ankur R; Gattuso, Paolo; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Renal leiomyoma is an exceptionally rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the kidney predominantly arising in proximity of the renal capsule or pelvis. Its rarity and nonspecific clinical and imaging features may lead to radical or partial nephrectomy on the basis of preoperative suspicion of renal cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of renal leiomyoma is challenging because of the histologic overlap with lipid-poor angiomyolipoma (AML). We conducted a multi-institution study to characterize renal leiomyoma in greater detail. We collected and reviewed 24 cases diagnosed initially as renal leiomyoma in 10 institutions from North America, Canada, and Europe. Immunohistochemical expression of desmin, HMB-45, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and cathepsin K was evaluated. Upon central review, 9 tumors were classified as renal leiomyoma, whereas the remaining were reclassified as AML (n=13), myolipoma (n=1), and medullary fibroma (n=1). All renal leiomyomas were solitary and occurred in female patients (mean age 63 y; range, 44 to 74 y). Tumor size ranged from 0.6 to 7.0 cm (mean 2.9 cm); 7 originated from the renal capsule or the subcapsular area and 1 from a large vessel in the renal sinus. All leiomyomas were diffusely positive for desmin and negative for HMB-45 and cathepsin K; 6/9 (67%) showed diffuse ER and PR expression, and 1 case showed focal ER positivity only. Renal leiomyoma should be included in the histologic differential diagnosis of solid renal masses, particularly in perimenopausal women. The main differential diagnosis is with lipid-poor AML, and cathepsin K plays a key role in distinguishing these 2 lesions. PMID:25517956

  7. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratorial profile of renal amyloidosis: a 12-year retrospective study of 37 cases

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Elissa Oliveira; Filho, Porphirio Jose Soares; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; Caldas, Maria Lucia Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal amyloidosis is one of the main differential diagnoses in the investigation of nephrotic proteinuria in adults, especially elderly patients. Objectives: The aim of this article is to contribute to international research with epidemiologic data of renal amyloidosis, given the lack of uniformity described in the literature. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 37 cases of renal amyloidosis diagnosed by kidney biopsy, between 2000 and 2011, considering epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data. Results: Subjects aged between 32 and 80 years. Of the 37 cases, 21 (56.8%) were diagnosed as non-light chain (non-AL) renal amyloidosis and 16 (43.2%) as light chain amyloidosis (AL). There was seen an increase in number of both AL and non-AL cases, with a slight predominance in non-AL. The mean 24-hour proteinuria was 5839.0 mg/day. Hematuria was present in 75% of patients. Hypertension was reported in 34% of patients. Acute renal failure, occurred in about 10% of patients, and chronic loss of renal function was present in about 5% at diagnosis. Conclusions: Renal amyloidosis is a disease of increasing incidence. The forms of clinical presentation proved to be variable, but the presence of proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome in elderly patients should always prompt the suspicion of renal amyloidosis and is a formal indication of renal biopsy. PMID:25657979

  8. A study of xanthopterin in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Bakir, A A; Shaykh, M; Williams, R H; Ahmed, S; Dunea, G

    1992-01-01

    Xanthopterin, a metabolic end product of the nonconjugated pterins dihydrobiopterin and tetrahydrobiopterin, is present in many organs and is known to inhibit the proliferation and growth of conconavalin-stimulated lymphocytes. We have developed a simple fluorometric method to measure xanthopterin in the blood and have validated the method by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum levels were 14 +/- 7 nmol/l in normal subjects and 141 +/- 51 nmol/l in hemodialysis patients (p < 0.02). Intermediate levels from patients with renal insufficiency not on dialysis correlated with serum creatinine levels (p < 0.001). Xanthopterin (MW 179) was cleared by hemodialysis at a slightly lower rate than creatinine. It is bound to protein, but the binding, 90 +/- 5% in normal subjects, is decreased in uremia to 60 +/- 15%, p < 0.01. Red cell levels of xanthopterin were five times higher than those of plasma in normal subjects (69 +/- 15 vs. 14 +/- 7 nmol/l, p < 0.001), but uremic patients had lower levels in red cells than in plasma (101 +/- 24 vs. 141 +/- 51 nmol/l, p < 0.05). Slight or moderate hemolysis induced by mechanical stress increased plasma xanthopterin levels by 35%, the effect being more pronounced when hemolysis was severe. We conclude that xanthopterin is increased and its binding to protein is decreased in chronic renal failure. The altered ratio of red cell/plasma xanthopterin levels may reflect an abnormality of the red cell membrane in uremia. We are conducting further studies to amplify our preliminary findings that xanthopterin inhibits cellular growth in vitro. PMID:1481869

  9. RADAR – A randomised, multi-centre, prospective study comparing best medical treatment versus best medical treatment plus renal artery stenting in patients with haemodynamically relevant atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzwälder, Uwe; Hauk, Michael; Zeller, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Prospective, international, multi-centre, randomised (1:1) trial to evaluate the clinical impact of percutaneous transluminal renal artery stenting (PTRAS) on the impaired renal function measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with haemodynamically significant atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Methods Patients will be randomised to receive either PTRAS using the Dynamic Renal Stent system plus best medical treatment or best medical treatment. Renal stenting will be performed under angiographic imaging. For patients randomised to best medical treatment the degree of stenosis measured by renal duplex sonography (RDS) will be confirmed by MR angio or multi-slice CT where possible. Best medical treatment will be initiated at randomisation or post procedure (for PTRAS arm only), and adjusted as needed at all visits. Best medical treatment is defined as optimal drug therapy for control of the major risk factors (blood pressure ≤ 125/80 mmHg, LDL cholesterol ≤ 100 mg/dL, HbA1c ≤ 6.5%). Data recordings include serum creatinine values, eGFR, brain natriuretic peptide, patients' medical history and concomitant medication, clinical events, quality of life questionnaire (SF-12v2™), 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement, renal artery duplex ultrasound and echocardiography. Follow-up intervals are at 2, 6, 12 and 36 months following randomisation. The primary endpoint is the difference between treatments in change of eGFR over 12 months. Major secondary endpoints are technical success, change of renal function based on the eGFR slope change between pre-treatment and post-treatment (i.e. improvement, stabilisation, failure), clinical events overall such as renal or cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction, hospitalisation for congestive heart failure, progressive renal insufficiency (i.e. need for dialysis), need of target vessel revascularisation or target lesion revascularisation, change in average systolic and diastolic blood pressure, change in left ventricular mass index calculated from echocardiography, difference in the size of kidney (pole to pole length) measured by renal duplex sonography, total number, drug name, drug class, daily dose, regimen and Defined Daily Dose (DDD), of anti-hypertensive drugs, and change in New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. Approximately 30 centres in Europe and South America will enrol patients. Duration of enrolment is expected to be 12 months resulting in study duration of 48 months. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT00640406 PMID:19635148

  10. [Feasibility study of the Doppler exploration of the renal artery].

    PubMed

    Milon, P; Clavier, E; Genevois, A; Benozio, M

    1990-03-01

    Using arteriography as a reference, the authors investigate the feasibility of pulsed doppler exploration of the normal or pathological renal arteries in 46 successive patients. The poor sensitivity of pulsed doppler, mainly due to the considerable anatomical variations of the renal pedicle, does not currently allow using this technique for the detection of renal arterial stenosis. When combined with angiography, pulsed doppler becomes a definite asset in therapeutic radiology to help in the choice of a treatment and in follow-up. PMID:2191123

  11. The Diagnosis of Yo-Yo Reflux with Dynamic Renal Scintigraphy in a Patient with Incomplete Ureteral Duplication

    PubMed Central

    zdo?an, zhan; Ate?, O?uz; Kart, Yeliz; Aras, Feray; Olguner, Mustafa; Akgr, Feza; Durak, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of yo-yo reflux in patients with incomplete upper collecting system duplications is difficult. We report a case with recurrent urinary tract infections and ultrasonographically detected duplication in the left collecting system in which the presence of yo-yo reflux is demonstrated with dynamic renal scintigraphy. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23486254

  12. Impact on creatinine renal clearance by the interplay of multiple renal transporters: a case study with INCB039110.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Warren, Mark S; Zhang, Xuexiang; Diamond, Sharon; Williams, Bill; Punwani, Naresh; Huang, Jane; Huang, Yong; Yeleswaram, Swamy

    2015-04-01

    Serum creatinine is commonly used as a marker of renal function, but increases in serum creatinine might not represent changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). INCB039110 (2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-day]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(1-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile) is an inhibitor of the Janus kinases (JAKs) with selectivity for JAK1. In a phase 1 study, a modest and reversible increase in serum creatinine was observed after treatment with INCB039110. However, a dedicated renal function study with INCB039110, assessed by iohexol plasma clearance, conducted in healthy volunteers indicated no change in GFR. In vitro studies were therefore conducted to investigate the interaction of INCB039110 with five transporters that are likely involved in the renal clearance of creatinine. Cell systems expressing individual or multiple transporters were used, including a novel quintuple-transporter model OAT2/OCT2/OCT3/MATE1/MATE2-K. INCB039110 potently inhibited OCT2-mediated uptake of creatinine as well as MATE1-/MATE2-K-mediated efflux of creatinine. Given the interactions of INCB039110 with multiple transporters affecting creatinine uptake and efflux, an integrated system expressing all five transporters was sought; in that system, INCB039110 caused a dose-dependent decrease in transcellular transport of creatinine with weaker net inhibition compared with the effects on individual transporters. In summary, a molecular mechanism for the increase in serum creatinine by INCB039110 has been established. These studies also underline the limitations of using serum creatinine as a marker of renal function. PMID:25605813

  13. A Comparative Study of Sonographic Grading of Renal Parenchymal Changes and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) using Modified Diet in Renal Disease Formula

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Pai, B.H. Santhosh; Acharya, Koteshwara Devadasa; Gopalakrishnan, Ravichandra; Srikanth, Vivek; Reddy, Vishwanath; Haris, Arafat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The sonographic findings are of help in evaluating the nephrological diseases. Glomerular filtration rate is another parameter for assessing the reserved renal function and an indicator of prognosis. In clinical practice GFR estimation (eGFR) is done by using a mathematical formula. In our study, we compared the sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes with eGFR calculated using Modified Diet in Renal Diseases formula based on serum creatinine, age, gender and ethnicity. Aim To evaluate the relevance of sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes in assessing the severity of the renal disease and comparing it to the eGFR calculated using MDRD formula based on the age, gender and serum creatinine value of the patient. Materials and Methods The adult patients with suspected kidney disease referred for sonography of abdomen were our study participants. As per our study design following strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients were selected as study participants and for each of the patient’s renal parenchymal status, serum creatinine, age, gender and ethnicity were documented. Results A total of 70 patients were our study participants, out of which 67.1% were males and 32.9% were females. Our study showed a linear correlation between sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes with eGFR. Conclusion We conclude that by evaluating the kidneys with sonography and calculating eGFR using MDRD formula the renal status will be more accurately interpreted. PMID:27042555

  14. Renal Interstitial Arteriosclerotic Lesions in Lupus Nephritis Patients: A Cohort Study from China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Dan-dan; Wu, Li-hua; Song, Yan; Yu, Feng; Wang, Su-xia; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Ming-hui

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate renal arteriosclerotic lesions in patients with lupus nephritis and investigate their associations with clinical and pathological characteristics, especially cardio-vascular features. Design A retrospective cohort study. Participants Seventy-nine patients with renal biopsy-proven lupus nephritis, diagnosed between January 2000 and June 2008 from Peking University First Hospital. Results In clinico-pathological data, patients with arteriosclerosis had higher ratio of hypertension and more severe renal injury indices compared with patients with no renal vascular lesions. More importantly, patients with renal arteriosclerosis had worse cardiac structure and function under transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Patients with renal arteriosclerosis tend to have higher ratios of combined endpoints compared with those of no renal vascular lesions, although the difference didn’t reach statistical meanings (P = 0.104). Conclusion Renal arteriosclerotic lesion was common and associated with vascular immune complex deposits in lupus nephritis. It might have a certain degree of association with poor outcomes and cardiovascular events, which needs further explorations. PMID:26544865

  15. Underestimation of chronic renal dysfunction after liver transplantation: ICEBERG study

    PubMed Central

    Varo, Evaristo; Bañares, Rafael; Guilera, Magda

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare prevalence of chronic renal dysfunction (CRD) according to serum creatinine (sCr) vs estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among maintenance liver transplant patients. METHODS: The ICEBERG study was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, and multicenter study. Consecutive adult patients (aged 18 years or older) with liver transplantation (LT) performed at least two years previously were recruited. Multi-organ transplant recipients were excluded. Chronic renal dysfunction was defined according to sCr based criteria in routine clinical practice (≥ 2 mg/dL) and eGFR using MDRD-4 equation (< 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2). Agreement between sCr definition and eGFR assessment was evaluated using the Kappa index. Cox regression analysis was applied to identify predictive factors for developing CRD after LT. RESULTS: A total of 402 patients were analyzed (71.6% males). Mean ± SD age at transplant was 52.4 ± 9.8 years. Alcoholic cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma was the most common reason for LT (32.8%). Mean time since LT was 6.9 ± 3.9 years. Based on sCr assessment, 35.3% of patients (95%CI: 30.6-40.0) had CRD; 50.2% (95%CI: 45.3-55.1) according to eGFR. In 32.2% of cases, sCr assessment had underestimated CRD. Multivariate analysis showed the following factors associated with developing CRD: eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 at three months post-transplant [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.76; 95%CI: 2.78-8.33; P < 0.0001]; calcineurin inhibitor use (HR = 2.31; 95%CI: 1.05-5.07; P = 0.0371); male gender (HR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.09-3.60; P = 0.0260); and ≥ 10 years post-transplantation (HR = 1.95; 95%CI: 1.08-3.54; P = 0.0279). CONCLUSION: Seven years after LT, CRD affected half our patients, which was underestimated by sCr. An eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 three months post-LT was predictive of subsequent CRD. PMID:25815269

  16. [Renal digital angiography in the study of hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Luria, X; Lora, F; Rams, A; Roca-Cusachs, A; Alexander, C

    1990-05-01

    50 patients, 31 male and 19 female with mean age of 45.1 +/- 9.4 years afflicted with blood hypertension (BH) were studied. RDA was performed on all of them as part of the etiological study. The variables evaluated were: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), therapy index (TI), evolution time of its BH and type of BH (refractory BH, severe BH, mild-moderate BH). The organ affliction was also evaluated (renal function, ECG, presence of cardiomyopathy, vascular disease, and retinopathy. RDA alteration appeared in 16 cases, 1 (10%) in refractory BH group, 8 (28.6%) in severe BH group, and 7 (58.3%) in mild-moderate BH group. A shorter BH evolution period having been observed in patients with altered RDA than in those with normal RDA (3.49 +/- 3.96 years vs 6.93 +/- 4.68 years p = 0.01). We conclude that only this variable is a feature for suspicion of renovascular BH, without an apparent difference between the results of RDA and those of I.V. urography, obtained during the diagnosis screening. The significant differences observed between the mild-moderate BH and the other groups suggests that the clinical suspicion, and not the severity of the BH, is the point which should determine the patients to be renovascularly explored. PMID:2102718

  17. Ganciclovir pharmacokinetics and cytokine dynamics in renal transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Tornatore, K M; Garey, K W; Saigal, N; Reed, K; Murray, B; Ingalls, E; DiFrancesco, R; Forrest, A; Morse, G; Venuto, R

    2001-10-01

    Ganciclovir is considered to be the first-line treatment for cytomegalovirus (CMV) in renal transplant recipients. This infection is also associated with elevations of specific plasma cytokines post-transplantation. To investigate daily cytokine response to therapy and ganciclovir pharmacokinetics, 4 transplant recipients (3 males, 1 female) with stable renal allograft function diagnosed with CMV infection were enrolled less than 4 months post-transplant. A creatinine clearance (ClCr) was generated by the Cockroft-Gault (C-G) equation (range: 42.3-68.5 mL/min) to determine ganciclovir dosing. Blood samples were collected for ganciclovir and cytokine [including interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, and interferon (IFN)-gamma analyses after 7 d of intravenous (i.v.) ganciclovir (dosage range: 165-400 mg daily) therapy and again after 7 d of oral (p.o.) ganciclovir (dosage range: 1000 mg, 2-3 times daily) therapy. Pharmacokinetic ganciclovir was described with a two-compartment model. Total clearance of ganciclovir was consistently greater than ClCr, suggesting tubular secretion. Peak concentrations for i.v. ganciclovir averaged 8.39+/-1.87 microg/mL with minimum concentrations of 0.48+/-0.35 microg/mL. Plasma concentrations were lower but more sustained during a p.o. dosing interval (max=2.12+/-0.58 microg/mL, min=1.15+/-0.34 microg/mL). IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were detectable at multiple times during the study periods while the remainder of the cytokines were only intermittently detectable. Average concentrations (i.v. versus p.o. study period) for TNF-alpha were 40.1+/-17.5 versus 22.1+/-11.2 pg/mL, for IL-8 were 17.1+/-15.6 versus 4.12+/-2.59 pg/mL, and for IL-10 were 7.39+/-5.54 versus 2.64+/-1.06 pg/mL. Concentrations were similar for IL-6 during both studies (9.39+/-5.42 versus 14.7+/-14.8 pg/mL). TNF-alpha, IL-8, and IFN-gamma appeared to correlate with CMV antigenemia. Further investigation of ganciclovir disposition and changes in plasma cytokines in renal transplant recipients during CMV infection may provide insight into variable antiviral responses in renal transplant recipients. PMID:11678955

  18. Design of the VA/NIH Acute Renal Failure Trial Network (ATN) study: intensive versus conventional renal support in acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Palevsky, Paul M; O’Connor, Theresa; Zhang, Jane Hongyuan; Star, Robert A; Smith, Mark W

    2006-01-01

    The optimal management of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in acute renal failure (ARF) is uncertain. The VA/NIH Acute Renal Failure Trail Network Study (ATN Study) tests the hypothesis that a strategy of intensive RRT will decrease 60-day all-cause mortality in critically ill patients with ARF. Dose separation between the two treatment arms is achieved by increasing the frequency of intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) and sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) treatments from three times per week to six times per week, and by increasing continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) effluent volume from 20 mL/kg/hr to 35 mL/kg/hr. In both treatment arms, subjects convert between IHD and CVVHDF or SLED as hemodynamic status changes over time. This strategy attempts to replicate the conversion between modalities of RRT that occurs in clinical practice. However, in order to implement this strategy, flexible criteria needed to be developed to provide a balance between the need for uniformity of treatment between groups and practitioner discretion regarding modality of RRT to maintain patient safety. In order to address safety and ethical issues similar to those raised by the Office of Human Research Protections in its review of the ARDS Network studies, a survey of practitioner practices was performed and observational data on the management of RRT in comparable critically ill patients with ARF managed outside of the research context is being collected prospectively. These data will help inform the study’s DSMB and site IRB’s of the relationship between the study’s treatment arms and concurrent clinical practice. PMID:16317811

  19. Histochemical Study of the Progenetic Trematode Alloglossidium renale

    PubMed Central

    Schimmer, Craig A.; Landers, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    A histochemical study of the progenetic trematode Alloglossidium renale has demonstrated the absence of any secreted material between the adult worm and the host (freshwater shrimp) antennal gland tubules. Host tissue is affected only by the compression, abrasion, and ingestion by the parasite, and host tubule cells near the worm have the same staining patterns as those distant from the parasite. The trematode sometimes dies within the host, leaving a necrotic mass whose histochemical staining differs significantly from the living organism. In the necrotic mass, the only recognizable features were the ova and the vitellarium, which atrophied and resulted in tyrosine-positive staining within the mass. A melanin reaction was not observed in the host using a specialized ferro-ferricyanide stain. The only apparent host response to infection was a layer of damaged squamous host cells adhering to the necrotic worm. The results confirm benign host-parasite effects and a highly evolved relationship between the host and parasite, perhaps bordering on commensalism. PMID:25295179

  20. Synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma and multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasia of low malignant potential: A clinico-pathologic and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Castiglione, Francesca; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    We report a rare case of synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma and multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasia of low malignant potential in the same kidney. The tumors were seen incidentally in a 45-year-old man. Pathologic study revealed that the former tumor was nucleolar grade 2, and the multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasia of low malignant potential was nucleolar grade 1. At immunohistochemistry, the clear cells in both tumors were positive for CD10 and CA IX. Interestingly, these uncommon synchronous tumors showed a different KRAS/NRAS mutation analysis that was characterized by KRAS mutation at codon p.G12C in the clear cell renal cell carcinoma, while this mutation was not present in the case of multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasia of low malignant potential. NRAS mutation was not seen in any of the tumors. PMID:26874573

  1. Cystic Renal Oncocytoma and Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Skenderi, Faruk; Ulamec, Monika; Vranic, Semir; Bilalovic, Nurija; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Trpkov, Kiril; Vesela, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Kalusova, Kristyna; Sperga, Maris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Alvarado Cabrero, Isabel; Bulimbasic, Stela; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-02-01

    Renal oncocytoma (RO) may present with a tubulocystic growth in 3% to 7% of cases, and in such cases its morphology may significantly overlap with tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC). We compared the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these tumors, aiming to clarify the differential diagnostic criteria, which facilitate the discrimination of RO from TCRCC. Twenty-four cystic ROs and 15 TCRCCs were selected and analyzed for: architectural growth patterns, stromal features, cytomorphology, ISUP nucleolar grade, necrosis, and mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical panel included various cytokeratins (AE1-AE3, OSCAR, CAM5.2, CK7), vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CA-IX, antimitochondrial antigen (MIA), EMA, and Ki-67. The presence of at least focal solid growth and islands of tumor cells interspersed with loose stroma, lower ISUP nucleolar grade, absence of necrosis, and absence of mitotic figures were strongly suggestive of a cystic RO. In contrast, the absence of solid and island growth patterns and presence of more compact, fibrous stroma, accompanied by higher ISUP nucleolar grade, focal necrosis, and mitotic figures were all associated with TCRCC. TCRCC marked more frequently for vimentin, CD10, AMACR, and CK7 and had a higher proliferative index by Ki-67 (>15%). CD117 was negative in 14/15 cases. One case was weakly CD117 reactive with cytoplasmic positivity. All cystic RO cases were strongly positive for CD117. The remaining markers (AE1-AE3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, CA-IX, MIA, EMA) were of limited utility. Presence of tumor cell islands and solid growth areas and the type of stroma may be major morphologic criteria in differentiating cystic RO from TCRCC. In difficult cases, or when a limited tissue precludes full morphologic assessment, immunohistochemical pattern of vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CK7, and Ki-67 could help in establishing the correct diagnosis. PMID:26180933

  2. Atypical Renal Cysts: A Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Study.

    PubMed

    Matoso, Andres; Chen, Ying-Bei; Rao, Vishal; Wang, Lu; Cheng, Liang; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-02-01

    There is a lack of standardized nomenclature for renal cysts lined by multiple cell layers or with short papillary projections but without nests of epithelial cells within the stroma. We retrieved 29 cases (15 nephrectomies, 14 partial nephrectomies) from the surgical pathology files of Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1993 to 2014 and performed immunohistochemistry for CK7, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), CAIX, and CD10 and fluorescence in situ hybridization for trisomy 7 and 17 and 3p deletion. The mean age at excision was 58 years (range, 29 to 80 y) with 16 men and 13 women. Mean size was 2.9 cm (range, 0.3 to 10 cm). The cysts were grouped by their morphology into (1) clear cell, (2) eosinophilic stratified, and (3) eosinophilic papillary. By immunohistochemistry, 7/9 (78%) of the clear cell cases were diffusely positive for both CK7 and CAIX resembling the pattern seen in clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma. The majority of eosinophilic stratified (4/6; 67%) and eosinophilic papillary (12/14; 86%) cases were positive for CK7 and had variable staining for AMACR, CD10, or CAIX, suggesting a differentiation more aligned with papillary renal cell carcinoma. The most common molecular alterations detected were trisomy 17 (n=6) and trisomy 7 (n=4). One case showed deletion of chromosome 3p. Clinical follow-up information was available in 23 patients; 20 were alive with no evidence of disease after a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 3 to 120 mo), 1 patient was dead due to metastatic lung cancer, 1 of sepsis, and 1 of unknown reason. Atypical renal cysts present as complex radiologic lesions, as secondary lesions in patients with a renal mass, or in a background of chronic renal disease. These atypical cysts appear heterogenous, and some follow in their morphology and immunoprofile with well-established renal tumors. The presence of 3p deletion and trisomy 7/17 suggests that in some cases they may be precursors of renal cell carcinoma. Longer follow-up with more cases is needed, but on the basis of our data, these lesions should not be diagnosed as carcinoma. PMID:26574846

  3. Assessment of Semiquantitative Parameters of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion MR Imaging in Differentiation of Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Mousa, Amani; Farouk, Ahmed; Nabil, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To assess semiquantitative parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DCE) in differentiation of subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Material/Methods Prospective study conducted upon 34 patients (27 M, 7 F, aged 25–72 ys: mean 45 ys) with RCC. Abdominal dynamic contrast-enhanced gradient-recalled echo MR sequence after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine was obtained. The time signal intensity curve (TIC) of the lesion was created with calculation of enhancement ratio (ER), and washout ratio (WR). Results The subtypes of RCC were as follows: clear cell carcinomas (n=23), papillary carcinomas (n=6), and chromophobe carcinomas (n=5). The mean ER of clear cell, papillary and chromophobe RCC were 188±49.7, 35±8.9, and 120±41.6 respectively. The mean WR of clear cell, papillary and chromophobe RCCs were 28.6±6.8, 47.6±5.7 and 42.7±10, respectively. There was a significant difference in ER (P=0.001) and WR (P=0.001) between clear cell RCC and other subtypes of RCC. The threshold values of ER and WR used for differentiating clear cell RCC from other subtypes of RCC were 142 and 38 with areas under the curve of 0.937 and 0.895, respectively. Conclusions We concluded that ER and WR are semiquantitative perfusion parameters useful in differentiation of clear cell RCC from chromophobe and papillary RCCs. PMID:27026793

  4. Radionuclide renal function study in various surgical treatments of upper urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Chen, K K; Chen, M T; Yeh, S H; Chang, L S

    1992-05-01

    We conducted a radionuclide renal function study using 131I-hippuran in 188 patients with upper urinary stones before and every 3 months to the maximum of 12 months after various surgical treatments. Of 28 patients with renal staghorn stone, 24 underwent anatrophic nephrolithotomy and 4 percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Of 36 patients with renal pelvic stone, 15 received open pyelolithotomy, 16 received PCNL and 5 received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Of 71 patients with renal calyceal stone, 48 underwent PCNL and 23 ESWL. Of 53 patients with ureteral stone, 41 received ureterolithotomy, 8 PCNL and 4 ureteroscopic extraction. The renal function study determined individual and total renal function in terms of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) at unilateral and bilateral kidneys. The mean total ERPF decreased 3-6 months after anatrophic nephrolithotomy (377.4 +/- 121.8 vs. 308.8 +/- 105.4 ml/min) or PCNL (447.4 +/- 152.3 vs. 386.8 +/- 140.8 ml/min) for staghorn stone. The mean ERPF of the kidney on the operative side decreased significantly to an extent of 29.4% up to 6 months after anatrophic nephrolithotomy. The mean ERPF on operative side increased significantly to an extent of 18.3% up to 6 months after ureterolithotomy. In conclusion, among the upper urinary stones, the unilateral (operative side) and total bilateral renal function decreased 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, after anatrophic nephrolithotomy. On the contrary, the renal function increased significantly on the operative side up to 6 months after open ureterolithotomy. There was no significant change of mean ERPF at the kidney on operative or non-operative side in other kinds of upper urinary stones and surgical treatment. PMID:1320991

  5. Reproducibility of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyi; Su, Zihua; Ye, Huiyi; Xu, Xiao; Sun, Zhipeng; Li, Lu; Duan, Feixue; Song, Yuanyuan; Lambrou, Tryphon; Ma, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the intra- and interobserver as well as scan–rescan reproducibility of quantitative parameters of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). A total of 21 patients with clear cell RCCs (17 men, 4 woman; age 37–69 years, mean age 54.6 years, mean size, 5.0 ± 2.2 cm) were prospectively recruited from September 2012 to November 2012. Patients underwent paired DCE-MRI studies on a 3.0 T MR system with an interval of 48 to 72 hours. The extended-Tofts model and population-based arterial input function were used to calculate kinetic parameters. Three observers defined the 2-dimensional whole-tumor region of interest at the slice with the maximum diameter of the RCC. Intraobserver and scan–rescan differences were assessed using paired t tests, whereas interobserver differences using two-way analysis of variance. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility and scan–rescan reproducibility were evaluated using within-subject coefficient of variation (wCoV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). There were no significant intra-, interobserver, or scan–rescan differences in parameters (all P > 0.05). All ICCs for intra- and interobserver agreements were >0.75 (P < 0.05), whereas the scan–rescan agreement was moderate to good; Ve (0.764, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.378–0.925) and Kep (0.906, 95% CI: 0.710–0.972) had higher ICC than Ktrans (0.686; 95% CI: 0.212–0.898) and Vp (0.657; 95% CI: 0.164–0.888). In intra- and interobserver variability analyses, all parameters except Vp had low wCoV values. Ktrans and Ve had slightly lower intraobserver wCoV (1.2% and 0.9%) compared with Kep (3.7%), whereas all 3 of these parameters had similar interobserver wCoV values (2.5%, 3.1%, and 2.9%, respectively). Regarding scan–rescan variability, Ktrans and Kep showed slightly higher variation (15.6% and 15.4%) than Ve (10.1%). Vp had the largest wCoV in all variability analyses (all >30%). DCE-MRI demonstrated good intra- and interobserver reproducibility and moderate to good scan–rescan performance in the assessment of RCC using Ktrans, Kep, and Ve as parameters under noncontinuous scanning mode. Vp showed poor reproducibility, and thus may not be suitable for this scanning protocol. PMID:26376399

  6. Gd-enhanced 3D phase-contrast MR angiography and dynamic perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Schick, F; Duda, S H; Nägele, T; Hahn, U; Teufl, F; Müller-Schimpfle, M; Erley, C M; Albes, J M; Claussen, C D

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of contrast enhancement using a three-dimensional (3D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance (MR) sequence (3D PC-MRA) and to assess the value of a dynamic MR perfusion study of the kidneys to determine the hemodynamic relevance of unilateral renal artery stenosis (RAS). Seventeen patients with unilateral RAS were examined on a standard 1.0 T imaging system using a phase shift and magnitude sensitive 3D PC sequence (TR=160 ms, TE=9 ms, venc. 30 cm/s). Following the initial pre-contrast 3D PC-MRA a dynamic first pass perfusion study was performed using a Turbo-FLASH 2D sequence (TR=4.5 ms, TE=2.2 ms, TI=400 ms) after bolus injection of 0.15 mmol gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)/kg body weight. The 3D PC-MRA was then repeated during infusion of 0.15 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg body weight. Evaluation by three independent readers was based on maximum intensity projection images. Source images were rendered on request. Signal intensity (SI) over time curves of the renal cortex were obtained from the dynamic perfusion study and analyzed for maximum signal enhancement as well as temporal relationship to the aortic SI curve. Results from 3D PC-MRA revealed a sensitivity (pre-/post-contrast) of 100%/89%, specificity of 76%/63%, positive predictive value of 80%/69 %, negative predictive value of 90%/78%, and accuracy of 85%/75% (p=0.07). Interobserver agreement was kappa=0.61/kappa=0.47 (pre/post Gd-DTPA), respectively. Increased signal-to-noise was present in all segments of the renal arteries post contrast (p=0.0003). This came along with image degradation due to aliasing and elevated SI of venous flow that partially obscured the renal arteries. Dynamic SI curves showed a significantly decreased maximum SI in RAS (p=0.01-0.001). A temporal delay of cortical signal intensity enhancement could not be confirmed in this setting. Gd-enhanced 3D PC-MRA did not yield a superior diagnostic value in the diagnosis of RAS compared to pre-contrast measurements. Dynamic perfusion imaging of the kidneys, in combination with 3D PC-MRA, can contribute additional information in suspected unilateral RAS. PMID:9839984

  7. Case-control study of renal cell carcinoma in relation to occupation, smoking, and alcohol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, R.C.

    1988-05-01

    A case-control study based on data from a cancer registry was conducted to evaluate the effects of smoking, alcohol use, and occupation on renal cell cancer risk. Information was obtained for 326 male and female cases and 978 age- and sex-matched controls. Elevated risks were identified for cigarette smokers and for men employed as truck drivers. No relationship between alcohol consumption and renal cancer was observed.

  8. Physicians attitudes toward living non-related renal transplantation (LNRRT). The Living non-Related Renal Transplant Study Group.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    Renal transplantation is considered now the definitive treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Unfortunately, the worldwide shortage of kidneys remains the most important obstacle to transplantation. In developing countries, including those of the Middle East, the shortage is even more dramatic. Despite great efforts to establish and maintain successful transplant centers, the number of kidneys that have been transplanted in the last few years has actually declined. The lack of a dependable kidney source played well into the hands of unscrupulous entrepreneurs who started brokerage of organs for profit. In this practice, patients with ESRD travel to India and other countries to purchase kidneys from living genetically non-related poor donors. Patient care was therefore relegated to the laws of the marketplace and both patients and donors were exploited to maximize profit. Additionally, reported results of this type of transplantation were inferior to those of other types of transplantation. Not unexpectedly, these issues have created intense controversy among transplant physicians and the general public in which moral, ethical and medical issues were debated. To investigate these issues, we conducted a large multicenter study in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Egypt. In the first phase of this study, we surveyed 50 institutions regarding their attitude toward LNRRT, of which 22 responded. The results of our survey clearly show that patients with ESRD take the initiative in seeking LNRRT despite physician discouragement and significant financial burden.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10148846

  9. Prevalence of and relationship between pulp and renal stones: A radiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of and the relationship between pulp and renal in affected patients and in healthy adults. Materials and methods A total of 240 patients participated in the study. Group A consisted of 120 patients who had renal calculi and Group B had 120 randomly selected controls for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The radiographs were also evaluated to determine the presence or absence of pulp stones. The results were compared and analyzed using the Chi-square test (p < 0.001). Results A total of 164 patients had pulp narrowing and 112 patients had pulp stones, which included 55 controls and 57 renal calculi patients. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and renal stones (p > 0.001) and also between pulp stones and renal stones (p > 0.001). Conclusion However, there was no significant correlation between the presence of pulp stones and renal stones, and the incidental findings of pulp stones on periapical radiographs can provide useful information in the early diagnosis of the systemic calcifications. PMID:26605145

  10. Association between cadmium exposure and renal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju kun; Luo, Hong; Yin, Xin hai; Huang, Guang lei; Luo, Si yang; Lin, Du ren; Yuan, Dong Bo; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jian guo

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant and has been a recognized carcinogen for several decades. Many observational studies reported Cd exposure might be one cause of renal cancer. However, these findings are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between cadmium exposure and renal cancer risk. A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search was conducted to retrieve observational studies meeting our meta-analysis criteria. A combined odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the association between Cd exposure and renal cancer risk. The meta-analysis showed that a high Cd exposure significantly increased renal cancer 1.47 times (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.27 to 1.71, for highest versus lowest category of cadmium categories). The significant association remained consistent when stratified by geographic region and gender, however mixed results were produced when stratified by sample size, study design, NOS score, adjustment for covariates, effects measure, and exposure type. Our results indicated that a high Cd exposure was associated with increased renal cancer risk and the association was higher for occupational exposure compared with non-occupational exposure. This meta-analysis suggests that a high Cd exposure may be a risk factor for renal cancer in occupational population. PMID:26656678

  11. Short-Term Effects of Ankaferd Hemostat for Renal Artery Embolization: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ozbek, Orhan; Acar, Kadir; Koc, Osman; Saritas, Kadir; Toy, Hatice; Solak, Yalcin; Ozbek, Seda; Kucukapan, Ahmet; Guler, Ibrahim; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celaleddin

    2013-04-15

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that is utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We used Ankaferd for RAE in a sheep model. Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective renal arteriogram using 5-F diagnostic catheter was performed to make sure that each kidney was fed by a single renal artery and the animal had normal renal vasculature. Coaxial 2.7-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal main renal artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 2 mL of Ankaferd mixed with 2 mL of nonionic iodinated contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration of flow and stagnation. Control renal angiograms were performed just after embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for 1 day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. The technical success was observed in seven of the seven animals.. After embolization procedure, none of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event. On macroscopic examination of the embolized kidneys, thrombus at the level of main renal artery formed after Ankaferd embolization was more compact compared with the thrombi that was not Ankaferd-associated, which was observed elsewhere. Microscopically, majority of the renal tubular cells (80-90 %) were necrotic, and there was epithelial cell damage in a small portion of the cells (10-20 %). RAE was safe and effective in the short-term with Ankaferd in studied animals. Further studies should be conducted to better delineate the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent.

  12. Thermal dynamic modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojalvo, I. U.

    1972-01-01

    Some thermal dynamic requirements associated with the space shuttle vehicle are reviewed. Pertinent scaling laws are discussed and recommendations are offered regarding the need for conducting reduced-scale dynamic tests of major components at elevated temperatures. Items considered are the development and interpretation of thermal dynamic structural scaling laws, the identification of major related problem areas and a presentation of viable model fabrication, instrumentation, and test procedures.

  13. A retrospective study of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Etiological diagnosis is an important part of the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Hantavirus infection is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, which is easy to ignore. There is a need to analyze clinical features of acute pancreatitis caused by Hantavirus. Methods This is a retrospective study conducted from May 1, 2006 to May 31, 2012 on patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome at our hospital. We reviewed these patients medical records, laboratory results and radiologic examinations to determine the prevalence and summarize clinical features of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Results A total of 218 patients were diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome during the 6-year study period. Only 2.8% (6/218) of the total hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome patients were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The first symptom for all six of the patients with acute pancreatitis was fever. All six patients experienced hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia during the disease course, which was different from general acute pancreatitis. In addition, we presented two misdiagnosed clinical cases. Conclusions Acute pancreatitis is not a frequent complication in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome when acute pancreatitis patients with epidemiological data have high fever before abdominal pain. PMID:24345089

  14. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. Methods From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. Results The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent calcification by hydroxyapatite (HAP), with calculus morphology and the amount of HAP in the concave zone dependent on the location of the calcified injury. Most of these HAP deposits grew, eroding the epithelium covering the renal papillae, coming into contact with urine and starting the development of COM calculi. Subepithelial HAP plaques may alter the epithelium covering the papillae, resulting in the deposit of COM crystals directly onto the epithelium. Tissue calcification depends on a pre-existing injury, the continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or crystallization inhibitors deficiency. Conclusions Since calculus morphology and the amount of detected HAP are dependent on the location and widespread of calcified injury, all types of papillary COM calculi can be found in the same patient. All patients had subepithelial calcifications, with fewer papillary calculi, demonstrating that some subepithelial calcifications did not further evolve and were reabsorbed. A high number of subepithelial calcifications increases the likelihood that some will be transformed into COM papillary calculi. PMID:23497010

  15. Mineral Metabolism in European Children Living with a Renal Transplant: A European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; Busutti, Marco; Jager, Kitty J.; Baiko, Sergey; Bakkaloğlu, Sevcan; Battelino, Nina; Gaydarova, Maria; Gianoglio, Bruno; Parvex, Paloma; Gomes, Clara; Heaf, James G.; Podracka, Ludmila; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Molchanova, Maria S.; Pankratenko, Tatiana E.; Papachristou, Fotios; Reusz, György; Sanahuja, Maria José; Shroff, Rukshana; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Schaefer, Franz; Verrina, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Data on mineral metabolism in pediatric renal transplant recipients largely arise from small single-center studies. In adult patients, abnormal mineral levels are related to a higher risk of graft failure. This study used data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry to study the prevalence and potential determinants of mineral abnormalities, as well as the predictive value of a disturbed mineral level on graft survival in a large cohort of European pediatric renal transplant recipients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 1237 children (0–17 years) from 10 European countries, who had serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone measurements from 2000 onward. Abnormalities of mineral metabolism were defined according to European guidelines on prevention and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in children on chronic renal failure. Results Abnormal serum phosphorus levels were observed in 25% (14% hypophosphatemia and 11% hyperphosphatemia), altered serum calcium in 30% (19% hypocalcemia, 11% hypercalcemia), and hyperparathyroidism in 41% of the patients. A longer time since transplantation was associated with a lower risk of having mineral levels above target range. Serum phosphorus levels were inversely associated with eGFR, and levels above the recommended targets were associated with a higher risk of graft failure independently of eGFR. Conclusions Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are common after pediatric renal transplantation in Europe and are associated with graft dysfunction. PMID:25710805

  16. Acute pyelonephritis resulting in intense vascular blush during dynamic renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Deshpande, Sushil; Kulkarni, Mukta; Shetkar, Shubhangi

    2016-01-01

    A thirty-year-old male underwent Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scintigraphy for evaluation of gross hydronephrosis of left kidney. The perfusion phase revealed an intense vascular blush in left renal fossa. The uptake phase of scintigraphy revealed the absence of tracer uptake in left kidney. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) was performed for evaluating the cause of vascular blush. CECT demonstrated features suggestive of acute pyelonephritis (APN) involving lower pole of the hydronephrotic left kidney, corresponding to the site of vascular blush seen on renal scintigraphy. The postnephrectomy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of APN suggested on CECT. PMID:26917903

  17. Acute pyelonephritis resulting in intense vascular blush during dynamic renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Deshpande, Sushil; Kulkarni, Mukta; Shetkar, Shubhangi

    2016-01-01

    A thirty-year-old male underwent Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scintigraphy for evaluation of gross hydronephrosis of left kidney. The perfusion phase revealed an intense vascular blush in left renal fossa. The uptake phase of scintigraphy revealed the absence of tracer uptake in left kidney. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) was performed for evaluating the cause of vascular blush. CECT demonstrated features suggestive of acute pyelonephritis (APN) involving lower pole of the hydronephrotic left kidney, corresponding to the site of vascular blush seen on renal scintigraphy. The postnephrectomy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of APN suggested on CECT. PMID:26917903

  18. Clinical and Renal Biopsy Findings Predicting Outcome in Renal Thrombotic Microangiopathy: A Large Cohort Study from a Single Institute in China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Di; Wang, Su-Xia; Song, Yan; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The current study aimed to investigate the spectrum of etiologies and associated disorders of renal biopsy-proven thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) patients. Methods. The clinical, laboratory, and renal histopathological data of patients with renal TMA from 2000 to 2012 in our institute were collected and reviewed. Results. One hundred and nine TMA patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 34.0 ± 11.1 years. Seventy patients (64.2%) were male and thirty-nine patients (35.8%) were female. There were eight patients (7.3%) with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Sixty-one patients (56.0%) were secondary to malignant hypertension. Fourteen patients (12.8%) were pregnancy-associated TMA. Other associated disorders included 17 patients with connective tissue disorders, 2 patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 4 patients with Castleman's disease, 1 patient with cryoglobulinemia, and 2 patients with glomerulopathy. During followup, 8 patients died due to severe infection, 17 patients had doubling of serum creatinine, and 44 had end-stage renal disease. In multivariate analysis, male, elevated serum creatinine, and decreased hemoglobin were independently associated with poor renal outcomes. Conclusions. Renal TMA changes consisted of different disorders with various etiologies. aHUS, pregnancy-associated TMA, and malignant hypertension accounted for the majority of patients in our cohort. PMID:25184151

  19. The Renal Effects of Vanadate Exposure: Potential Biomarkers and Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism of Functional Renal Disorders—Preliminary Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ścibior, Agnieszka; Gołębiowska, Dorota; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Niedźwiecka, Irmina; Fornal, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The alterations in the levels/activities of selected biomarkers for detecting kidney toxicity and in the levels of some oxidative stress (OS) markers and elements were studied in male rats to evaluate biochemically the degree of kidney damage, investigate the role of OS in the mechanism of functional renal disorders, reveal potential biomarkers of renal function, and assess the renal mineral changes in the conditions of a 12-week sodium metavanadate (SMV, 0.125 mg V/mL) exposure. The results showed that OS is involved in the mechanism underlying the development of SMV-induced functional renal disturbances. They also suggest that the urinary cystatin C (CysCu) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1u) could be the most appropriate to evaluate renal function at the conditions of SMV intoxication when the fluid intake, excreted urinary volume (EUV), body weight (BW), and the urinary creatinine excretion (Creu) decreased. The use of such tests as the urinary lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (LDHu, ALPu, GGTPu, and NAGu) seems not to be valid given their reduced activities. The use of only traditional biomarkers of renal function in these conditions may, in turn, be insufficient because their alterations are greatly influenced by the changes in the fluid intake and/or BW. PMID:24605335

  20. Continuous renal replacement therapy outcomes in acute kidney injury and end-stage renal disease: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a widely used but resource-intensive treatment. Despite its broad adoption in intensive care units (ICUs), it remains challenging to identify patients who would be most likely to achieve positive outcomes with this therapy and to provide realistic prognostic information to patients and families. Methods We analyzed a prospective cohort of all 863 ICU patients initiated on CRRT at an academic medical center from 2008 to 2011 with either new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) or pre-admission end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We examined in-hospital and post-discharge mortality (for all patients), as well as renal recovery (for AKI patients). We identified prognostic factors for both in-hospital and post-discharge mortality separately in patients with AKI or ESRD. Results In-hospital mortality was 61% for AKI and 54% for ESRD. In patients with AKI (n = 725), independent risk factors for mortality included age over 60 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3, 2.7), serum lactate over 4 mmol/L (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5, 3.1), serum creatinine over 3 mg/dL at time of CRRT initiation (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43, 0.92) and comorbid liver disease (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.1, 2.9). Among patients with ESRD (n = 138), liver disease was associated with increased mortality (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1, 11.1) as was admission to a medical (vs surgical) ICU (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.7). Following discharge, advanced age became a predictor of mortality in both groups (AKI: HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0; ESRD: HR 4.1, 95% CI 1.5, 10.9). At the end of the study period, only 25% (n = 183) of patients with AKI achieved dialysis-free survival. Conclusions Among patients initiating CRRT, risk factors for mortality differ between patients with underlying ESRD or newly acquired AKI. Long-term dialysis-free survival in AKI is low. Providers should consider these factors when assessing prognosis or appropriateness of CRRT. PMID:23782899

  1. Analysis of Renal Artery Stenosis in Patients with Heart Failure: A RASHEF Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bin; Ma, Qin; Zheng, Li-Hong; Yong, Qiang; He, Yi-Hua; Liu, Jing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous data are controversial about the association of renal artery stenosis (RAS) with clinical outcome in patients with heart failure. Definition of RAS in previous studies might not be appropriate. By definition of RAS with renal duplex sonography, we investigated the association of RAS with clinical outcome in patients with heart failure. Methods: In this retrospective study, we identified 164 patients with heart failure (New York Heart Association classification ≥II; left ventricular ejection fraction <50%) who had received renal duplex sonography during hospital stay. RAS was defined as renal-aortic ratio ≥3.5 or a peak systolic velocity ≥200 cm/s (or both), or occlusion of the renal artery. Categorical data of patients were compared using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling technique was used to investigate the prognostic significance of possible predictors. Results: Finally, 143 patients were enrolled. Median follow-up time was 32 months (1–53 months). Twenty-two patients were diagnosed as RAS by renal duplex sonography, including 13 unilateral RAS (3 left RAS, 10 right RAS) and 9 bilateral RAS. There were more all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death in patients with RAS than patients without RAS. By multivariate analysis, RAS was a significant predictor for all-cause death and cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.155, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.546–11.164, P = 0.005; and HR = 3.483, 95% CI: 1.200–10.104, P = 0.022, respectively). As for composite endpoint events, including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage, rehospitalization for cardiac failure, and renal replacement therapy, only angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker was significant predictor. RAS was not a significant predictor for composite endpoint events. Conclusions: Our data suggested that RAS is associated with a poorer clinical outcome in patients with heart failure. PMID:26481745

  2. Structural dynamics verification facility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiraly, L. J.; Hirchbein, M. S.; Mcaleese, J. M.; Fleming, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a structural dynamics verification facility to support structures programs was studied. Most of the industry operated facilities are used for highly focused research, component development, and problem solving, and are not used for the generic understanding of the coupled dynamic response of major engine subsystems. Capabilities for the proposed facility include: the ability to both excite and measure coupled structural dynamic response of elastic blades on elastic shafting, the mechanical simulation of various dynamical loadings representative of those seen in operating engines, and the measurement of engine dynamic deflections and interface forces caused by alternative engine mounting configurations and compliances.

  3. A population approach to renal replacement therapy epidemiology: lessons from the EVEREST study.

    PubMed

    Caskey, Fergus J; Jager, Kitty J

    2014-08-01

    The marked variation that exists in renal replacement therapy (RRT) epidemiology between countries and within countries requires careful systematic examination if the root causes are to be understood. While individual patient-level studies are undoubtedly important, there is a complementary role for more population-level, area-based studies--an aetiological approach. The EVEREST Study adopted such an approach, bringing RRT incidence rates, survival and modality mix together with macroeconomic factors, general population factors and renal service organizational factors for up to 46 countries. This review considers the background to EVEREST, its key results and then the main methodological lessons and their potential application to ongoing work. PMID:24166464

  4. Extrarenal abnormalities in Tc-99m-DTPA renal blood flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors observed extrarenal abnormalities during renal flow scintigraphy and retrospectively reviewed 90 patient studies to determine the types and frequencies of such abnormal findings. For each routine Tc-99m-DTPA renal flow study, they obtained nine 2-second sequential images, which included the heart, abdominal aorta, spleen and kidneys. Eighty abnormalities, observed in 62 patients, were divided into three categories: aortic, 37 cases; splenic, 40 cases; and miscellaneous, 3 cases. Other correlative studies including Tc-99m sulfur colloid-spleen scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), CT, aortography, and surgical and/or autopsy findings were available for corroboration in 56 of 80 lesions.

  5. The correlation between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with renal scintigraphy 99mTc-DTPA study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasari, D.; Nazir, F.; Toresano, L. O. H. Z.; Pawiro, S. A.; Soejoko, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal diseases in Indonesia has an increasing annual trend, because it is frequently unrecognized and often co-exists with other disease. GFR and ERPF are parameters currently utilized to estimate renal function at routine renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. This study used 99m-Tc DTPA to measure GFR and ERPF. The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between ERPF and GFR, for ERPF analysis with Schlegel's method, and GFR analysis with Gate's method, as well as to find correction factor between both variables. Analysis of renal scintigraphy has been performed at Department of Nuclear Medicine Pertamina Center Hospital to thirty patient images acquired from 2014 to 2015 which were analyzed retrospectively data, using gamma camera dual head with counting method from renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. The calculation was executed by means of both display and manual calculation. Pearson's statistical analysis resulted on Positive Correlation for all data, with ERPF and GFR (display) showing Strongly Positive Correlation (r = 0.82; p- value < 0.05). Standard deviation was found to be 27.58 and 107.64 for GFR and ERPF (display), respectively. Our result indicated that the use of 99mTc-DTPA measure ERPF was not recommended.

  6. Selective vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria. Renal biopsy study.

    PubMed

    Collan, Y; Lähdevirta, J; Jokinen, E J

    1979-01-01

    Percutaneous renal biopsy were performed on 5 patients with selective vitamin B12 malabsorption of whom 3 had proteinuria. Light microscopy showed slight prominence of the mesangial areas but otherwise the findings were normal. Electron microscopy showed increased mesangial matrix, thickening of the basement membrane at the mesangial areas and dark mesangial deposit. Light flocculent subendothelial material, moon craters, membranous convoluted structures, extracellular round particles and occasional intracellular microtubular inclusions were also seen in the glomeruli. The tubular basement membrane appeared thickened around a few tubules, showing membranous vesicular debris and convoluted structures. The capsular membrane also showed vesicular debris. On immunohistochemical examination the glomerular deposits contained immunoglobulins but not complement - an argument against their immunological nature. Deposits were seen only in patients who had been on inadequate treatment for years before the biopsy. Adequate treatment after correct diagnosis decreased the amount of deposits. Proteinuria did not apparently depend on the presence of glomerular deposits. PMID:384282

  7. High-grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma With Focal Squamous Metaplasia of Renal Pelvis Associated With Renal Calculus: Study of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Sun, Xiang-Zhou; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shi-Cong; Deng, Chun-Hua; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-01-01

    Mixed neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine type of tumor in renal pelvis is rare and presents a high-grade malignancy. We present a case report that a 57-year-old man had no history of small cell cancer but presented a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with focal squamous metaplasia and multiple stones simultaneously in the right renal pelvis. The patient underwent nephroureterocystectomy 9 months before this presentation, with evidence of multiple metastatic tumors in various parts of the body. The case of mixed neuroendocrine tumor with stones in the renal pelvis carries a poor prognosis and poses a therapeutic challenge to urologists. PMID:26952913

  8. High-grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma With Focal Squamous Metaplasia of Renal Pelvis Associated With Renal Calculus: Study of a Case.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Sun, Xiang-Zhou; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shi-Cong; Deng, Chun-Hua; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-05-01

    Mixed neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine type of tumor in renal pelvis is rare and presents a high-grade malignancy. We present a case report that a 57-year-old man had no history of small cell cancer but presented a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with focal squamous metaplasia and multiple stones simultaneously in the right renal pelvis. The patient underwent nephroureterocystectomy 9 months before this presentation, with evidence of multiple metastatic tumors in various parts of the body. The case of mixed neuroendocrine tumor with stones in the renal pelvis carries a poor prognosis and poses a therapeutic challenge to urologists. PMID:26952913

  9. Renal excretory sectors.

    PubMed

    Burykh, M P

    2002-01-01

    One thousand and ninety-four normal human kidneys and 18 abnormal (with duplication of the ureter) were studied by the corrosion method and pyelography followed by topometric and mathematics analyses. It was found that the renal pelvis is a calicopelvic complex built up of renal calices, urine ducts and renal pelvis. Before opening into the renal pelvis, renal calices join together forming urine ducts (superior and inferior; or superior, middle and inferior; or superior, middle anterior, middle posterior and inferior) which transport urine to the container, the renal pelvis. It can be seen that groups of renal calices with pyramids and their surrounding cortical substance form the renal excretory sectors of the kidneys where the processes of uropoiesis and transportation of urine through elements of the nephron and calicopelvic complex take place. These are two (superior and inferior), three (superior, middle and inferior) or four (superior, middle anterior, middle posterior and inferior) renal excretory sectors. The existence of renal excretory sectors is proved by congenital anomalies of the calicopelvic complex such as duplication of the ureter, where urine ducts of the superior and inferior renal excretory sectors do not form a renal pelvis but run separately to the urinary bladder. On the basis of anatomical data obtained, renal excretory sectors may be distinguished, analogous to bronchopulmonary segments in lungs. These data about renal excretory sectors will contribute to further improvement in the operative technique of renal partial resections as well as to anatomical nomenclature. PMID:12375073

  10. Effects of exercise and excitement on mesenteric and renal dynamics in conscious, unrestrained baboons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatner, S. F.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to measure arterial pressure and mesenteric and renal blood flows from nine unrestrained, conscious baboons during periods of rest, moderate exercise, and extreme excitement. A description of the experiments hardware is presented, including artificial depressants phenylcyclidine hydrochloride, 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, and pentobarbital sodium, 15 mg/kg, and an ultrasonic telemetry flow meter. Results showed rising heart rate and arterial pressure coupled with a reduction of mesenteric and renal flows as the level of exercise was increased. These findings are compared with mesenteric and renal flows somewhat above control level, but relatively stable heart rate and arterial pressure, postprandially. Attention is given to a quantitative analysis of the experimental results.

  11. Smoking and renal function in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Legarth, Rebecca; Kronborg, Gitte; Pedersen, Court; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a main risk factor for morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), but its potential association with renal impairment remains to be established. Methods We did a nationwide population-based cohort study in Danish PLHIV to evaluate the association between smoking status and 1) overall renal function and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), 2) risk of any renal replacement therapy (aRRT), and 3) mortality following aRRT. We calculated estimated creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft–Gault equation (CG-CrCl), and evaluated renal function graphically. We calculated cumulative incidence of CKD (defined as two consecutive CG-CrCls of ≤60 mL/min, ≥3 months apart) and aRRT and used Cox regression models to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for risk of CKD, aRRT, and mortality rate ratios (MRRs) following aRRT. Results From the Danish HIV Cohort Study, we identified 1,475 never smokers, 768 previous smokers, and 2,272 current smokers. During study period, we observed no association of smoking status with overall renal function. Previous and current smoking was not associated with increased risk of CKD (adjusted IRR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7–1.7; adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.8) or aRRT (adjusted IRR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.7; adjusted IRR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5–1.7). Mortality following aRRT was high in PLHIV and increased in smokers vs never smokers (adjusted MRR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.3–11.2). Conclusion In Danish PLHIV, we observed no strong association between smoking status and renal function, risk of CKD, or risk of aRRT, but mortality was increased in smokers following aRRT. PMID:26357490

  12. Three new renal simulators for use in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullius, Marcos; Fonseca, Mateus; Botelho, Marcelo; Cunha, Clêdison; Souza, Divanízia

    2014-03-01

    Renal scintigraphy is useful to provide both functional and anatomic information of renal flow of cortical functions and evaluation of pathological collecting system. The objective of this study was develop and evaluate the performance of three renal phantoms: Two anthropomorphic static and another dynamic. The static images of the anthropomorphic phantoms were used for comparison with static renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA in different concentrations. These static phantoms were manufactured in two ways: one was made of acrylic using as mold a human kidney preserved in formaldehyde and the second was built with ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) in a 3D printer. The dynamic renal phantom was constructed of acrylic to simulate renal dynamics in scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA. These phantoms were scanned with static and dynamic protocols and compared with clinical data. Using these phantoms it is possible to acquire similar renal images as in the clinical scintigraphy. Therefore, these new renal phantoms can be very effective for use in the quality control of renal scintigraphy, and image processing systems.

  13. Renal radiopharmaceuticals--an update.

    PubMed

    Chervu, L R; Blaufox, M D

    1982-07-01

    Noninvasive radionuclide procedures in the evaluation of renal disease have been accepted increasingly as effective and valuable alternatives to older clinical methods. The development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals labeled with high photon intensity radionuclides and with 99mTc in particular has stimulated this modality during the last few years. Currently several nearly ideal agents are available for anatomical and functional studies of kidney imparting very low absorbed radiation doses. These include 99mTc-GHA and 99mTc-DMSA for renal morphology and differential function evaluation, 99mTc-DTPA for GFR and 123I orthoiodohippurate for ERPF measurements. A suitable agent as a replacement for the latter labeled with 99mTc is actively being sought. Computer-assisted processing of dynamic renal function studies enables the observer to obtain a wealth of information related to the renal extraction, uptake, parenchymal transit and pelvic transit parameters of the agent administered into the bloodstream. Each of these parameters either globally or differentially contributes to a detailed evaluation of renal disease states. Several of these procedures have been validated against classical techniques clinically but more detailed information is being sought with the recently introduced radiopharmaceuticals. With the detailed validation and increasing recognition of the clinical utility of several of the radionuclidic procedures at many centers, it is hoped that radionuclide assessment of renal disorders ultimately will be made available routinely at all medical facilities. PMID:6289454

  14. Evolution of renal segmental atrophy (Ask-Upmark kidney) in children with vesicoureteric reflux: radiographic and morphologic studies.

    PubMed

    Shindo, S; Bernstein, J; Arant, B S

    1983-06-01

    A radiographic and morphologic study of nine patients with renal segmental "hypoplasia," whose kidneys were radiographically normal when first examined, showed the lesion to be a form of localized, progressive renal atrophy. The renal abnormality bears a strong relationship to vesicoureteric reflux, which could be demonstrated in every patient. No evidence of renal scarring or atrophy was observed in initial roentgenographic examinations at a mean age of 2.9 years (range 0.1 to 10 years); however, serial studies during five to 14 years after discovery of vesicoureteral reflux demonstrated both a lack of renal growth and a progressive loss of substance irrespective of infection. Radiographic lengths of scarred kidneys, as measures of renal growth, correlated poorly with the radiographic surface areas of the renal parenchymal outlines. The mean time from discovery of vesicoureteric reflux to appearance of a renal scar was 6.1 years, and to onset of hypertension in six patients was 7.8 years. The renal abnormality consisted of lobar atrophy with variable tubular atrophy and glomerular sclerosis and with parenchymal destruction that in some specimens had proceeded to a complete loss of nephronic elements. The occasional presence of relatively well-preserved glomeruli and tubules and of focal segmental sclerosis within persisting glomeruli was taken as evidence of a progressive renal abnormality, as opposed to a static developmental hypoplasia. These observations indicate that renal scarring, the injury presumably having been initiated by vesicoureteric reflux, can progress despite correction of the reflux and despite prevention of urinary tract infection. PMID:6854447

  15. Detection of Superior Vena Cava Obstruction on Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA Renal Transplant Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Pirayesh, Elahe; Hashemifard, Hamidreza; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    We present an asymptomatic patient with a history of prolonged hemodialysis through a right internal jugular vein catheter who was diagnosed with superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction on 99mTechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal transplant scintigraphy. During the angiographic phase, an unusual vascular filling pattern was detected on the anterior view of the abdomen. Angioscintigraphic imaging of the chest wall was suggestive of SVC obstruction. The SVC obstruction in our patient was related to the long-term use of an indwelling catheter in the central venous system, which is a well-known complication of such a procedure. There is also evidence of a hypercoagulable state in dialyzed uremic cases; therefore, our patient may have been more susceptible to an SVC thrombosis. Acquired compensatory dilatation of the azygos vein is rather a rare finding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing an asymptomatic patient with SVC obstruction who was diagnosed by renal scintigraphy.

  16. Current Safety of Renal Allograft Biopsy With Indication in Adult Recipients: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Yu, Tung-Min; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Huang, Shih-Ting; Tsai, Jun-Li; Wu, Ming-Ju

    2016-02-01

    Renal biopsy remains the golden standard diagnosis of renal function deterioration. The safety in native kidney biopsy is well defined. However, it is a different story in allograft kidney biopsy. We conduct this retrospective study to clarify the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication.All variables were grouped by the year of biopsy and they were compared by Mann-Whitney U test (for continuous variables) or Chi-square test (for categorical variables). We collected possible factors associated with complications, including age, gender, body weight, renal function, cause of uremia, status of coagulation, hepatitis, size of needle, and immunosuppressants.We recruited all renal transplant recipients undergoing allograft biopsy between January of 2009 and December of 2014. This is the largest database for allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Of all the 269 biopsies, there was no difference in occurrence among the total 14 complications (5.2%) over these 6 years. There were only 3 cases of hematomas (1.11%), 6 gross hematuria (2.23%), 1 hydronephrosis (0.37%), and 2 hemoglobin decline (0.74%). The outcome of this cohort is the best compared to all other studies, and it is even better than the allograft protocol kidney biopsy. Among all possible factors, patients with pathological report containing "medullary tissue only" were susceptible to complications (P < 0.001, 1.8 of relative risk).In modern era, this study demonstrates the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Identifying the renal capsule before biopsy to avoid puncture into medulla is the most important element to prevent complications. PMID:26871853

  17. Prevalence and predictors of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in hypertensive patients undergoing simultaneous coronary and renal artery angiography; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Payami, Babak; Jafarizade, Mehrian; Beladi Mousavi, Seyed Seifollah; Sattari, Shahab-Aldin; Nokhostin, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: According to the non-specific presentation of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), this disease is usually an under-diagnosed in clinical conditions. Objectives: The aim of the presence study was to evaluate the prevalence of renal artery stenosis (RAS) and its related risk factors in hypertensive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, between March 2009 and October 2010, all of hypertensive patients candidate for diagnostic cardiac catheterization, underwent nonselective renal angiography before completion of their coronary angiography procedure. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect demographics, cardiac history, indications for cardiac catheterization and angiographic data. The degree of ARAS was estimated visually by skilled cardiologist. Narrowing greater than 50% of the arterial lumen considered as arterial stenosis. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 19, and by chi-square test and logistic regression model. Results: In overall 274 patients with mean age of 60.75 ± 10.92 years 108 (39.4%) were male and 166 (60.61%) were female. The prevalence of ARAS calculated 18.2%. According to the present study, heart failure and smoking were predictors of ARAS. However, old age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and family history of cardiovascular disease were not clinical predictors of significant ARAS in hypertensive patients, candidate for coronary angiography. Conclusion: According to present data, we suggest to consider renal artery angiography in combination with coronary artery angiography especially in hypertensive patients who are smoker or individuals who have heart failure. PMID:27069966

  18. /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance study of renal allograft rejection in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, J.I.; Haug, C.E.; Shanley, P.F.; Weil, R. III; Chan, L.

    1988-01-01

    Phosphorus (/sup 31/P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to serially evaluate heterotopic renal allograft rejection in the rat. Renal allografts transplanted to the groin of recipient animals were studied using a 1.89 Tesla horizontal bore magnet. The relative intracellular concentrations of phosphorus metabolites such as adenosine triphosphate and inorganic phosphate as well as intracellular pH were determined by /sup 31/P NMR on days 4, 7, 10, and 14 following transplantation across a major histocompatibility mismatch. Recipient rats chosen to be rejectors received no immunosuppression while animals chosen to be nonrejectors received cyclosporine during the first 7 days following transplantation. By day 7, all rejector rats could be distinguished from nonrejector rats by their higher relative concentration of inorganic phosphate and their lower relative concentration of adenosine triphosphate. These NMR findings correlated with histologic findings of renal infarction probably related to vascular rejection in the allografts. /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy may have application as a noninvasive tool in the differential diagnosis of posttransplantation renal insufficiency.

  19. Follow up study of 70 patients with renal artery stenosis treated by percutaneous transluminal dilatation.

    PubMed Central

    Geyskes, G G; Puylaert, C B; Oei, H Y; Mees, E J

    1983-01-01

    Between April 1978 and April 1981, 70 patients with hypertension and renal artery stenosis were treated by percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation. Selection of the patients was based solely on arteriographic criteria. Arteriography after dilatation showed considerable widening of the stenosed area in all patients. In 65 patients the effect of treatment on the blood pressure was assessed during follow up periods of one to four years. In 14 of these patients the hypertension was cured, in 29 it was improved, and in 22 there was no change. Patients with fibromuscular lesions benefited distinctly more than did those with atheromatous stenosis, only one of the 21 patients with fibromuscular lesions showing no change as compared with 21 of the 44 patients with atheromatous lesions. The only serious complication encountered was microcholesterol emboli, which developed in two patients with severe atheromatous lesions of the aorta. In the atheromatous group age and overall renal function had no influence on the blood pressure response. In the subgroup of patients with a unilateral lesion the renal vein renin ratios and asymmetrical curves obtained by renography had only a very limited predictive value. In experienced hands percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation is relatively safe, and this study suggests that it should be attempted in all patients with renal artery stenosis. Only in patients with severe atheromatosis of the aorta should the risk associated with the catheterisation be weighed against the 50% or so chance of benefit from the procedure. PMID:6223685

  20. Exercise induced renal dysfunction demonstrated both in hypertensives and normotensive controls studies by Tc-99m-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuiri, S.; Hayashi, I.; Ohara, T.; Hirata, K.; Sasaki, Y.

    1985-05-01

    It was previously reported that the hippurate transport disturbance after exercise is a specific phenomenon to patients with hypertension. The authors' study with Tc-99m-DTPA revealed exercise induced renal dysfunction not only in hypertensives (H) but also in normotensive controls (N). The details of the investigation is presented. Tc-99m-DTPA was intravenously injected at rest and during bicycle ergometric stress to 14 H and 14 N in sitting position. Serial dynamic renal images were taken, of which data were simultaneously stored in a data processor for later analysis. The renogram was drawn setting ROI on each kidney. Peak counts (PC) of vascular phase, peak time (PT) of secretory phase and radioisotope retention rate (RR) at 10 minutes were the parameters being compared between at rest and at exercise. GFR of each kidney was determined. Blood samples were obtained at rest and at the end of exercise for the measurement of aldosterone (ALD), plasma renin activity (PRA) and catecholamines (A, NA). Exercise caused significant lowering of PC, prolongation of PT and increase in RR (10 min. counts/peak counts) both in H and N. GFR (miota/min.) during exercise was significantly lower than at rest in both H (80 +- 22 vs 93.8 +- 16.9, p<0.02) and N (84 +- 17 vs 102 +- 15, p<0.01). ALD, PRA, A and NA are all elevated during exercise both in H and N. None of the rest-exercise differences significantly differed between H and N. The data indicate the exercise induced renal dysfunction demonstrated by Tc-99m-DTPA renograms is not specified to H but can also be observed in N, which may be resulted from the common changes in H and N of GFR and humoral factors.

  1. Long-term Prognosis of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Negative Renal Vasculitis: Cohort Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Woo; Yu, Mi-Yeon; Baek, Seon Ha; Ahn, Shin-Young; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Chin, Ho Jun

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have reported on the long-term prognosis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-negative renal vasculitis. Between April 2003 and December 2013, 48 patients were diagnosed with renal vasculitis. Their ANCA status was tested using indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. During a median (interquartile range) follow-up duration of 933.5 (257.5-2,079.0) days, 41.7% of patients progressed to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and 43.8% died from any cause. Of 48 patients, 6 and 42 were ANCA-negative and positive, respectively. The rate of ESRD within 3 months was higher in ANCA-negative patients than in ANCA-positive patients (P = 0.038). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, ANCA-negative patients showed shorter renal survival than did ANCA-positive patients (log-rank P = 0.033). In univariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis, ANCA-negative patients showed increased risk of ESRD, with a hazard ratio 3.190 (95% confidence interval, 1.028-9.895, P = 0.045). However, the effect of ANCA status on renal survival was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Finally, ANCA status did not significantly affect patient survival. In conclusion, long-term patient and renal survival of ANCA-negative renal vasculitis patients did not differ from those of ANCA-positive renal vasculitis patients. Therefore, different treatment strategy depending on ANCA status might be unnecessary. PMID:27051237

  2. Reference values and factors associated with renal resistive index in a family-based population study.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Belén; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Eisenberger, Ute; Guessous, Idris; Rousson, Valentin; Mohaupt, Markus G; Alwan, Heba; Ehret, Georg; Pechere-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred; Staessen, Jan A; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Bochud, Murielle

    2014-01-01

    Increased renal resistive index (RRI) has been recently associated with target organ damage and cardiovascular or renal outcomes in patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. However, reference values in the general population and information on familial aggregation are largely lacking. We determined the distribution of RRI, associated factors, and heritability in a population-based study. Families of European ancestry were randomly selected in 3 Swiss cities. Anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. A renal Doppler ultrasound was performed, and RRI was measured in 3 segmental arteries of both kidneys. We used multilevel linear regression analysis to explore the factors associated with RRI, adjusting for center and family relationships. Sex-specific reference values for RRI were generated according to age. Heritability was estimated by variance components using the ASSOC program (SAGE software). Four hundred women (mean age±SD, 44.9±16.7 years) and 326 men (42.1±16.8 years) with normal renal ultrasound had mean RRI of 0.64±0.05 and 0.62±0.05, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, RRI was positively associated with female sex, age, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. We observed an inverse correlation with diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Age had a nonlinear association with RRI. We found no independent association of RRI with diabetes mellitus, hypertension treatment, smoking, cholesterol levels, or estimated glomerular filtration rate. The adjusted heritability estimate was 42±8% (P<0.001). In a population-based sample with normal renal ultrasound, RRI normal values depend on sex, age, blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index. The significant heritability of RRI suggests that genes influence this phenotype. PMID:24126174

  3. Incidence of Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma in Low-Grade Renal Cell Carcinoma Cases: A 12-Year Retrospective Clinicopathologic Study From a Single Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simpal; Kauffman, Eric C; Kandel, Sirisa; George, Saby; Schwaab, Thomas; Xu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognized subtype of renal cell carcinoma entity after 2004 World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. CCPRCC has unique histomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. The distinction of CCPRCC from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with clear cell morphology is crucial because the former is considered to have a favorable clinical outcome. CCPRCC may be interpreted in the past as other renal cell carcinomas, particularly low-grade clear cell RCC. In this study, the frequency of CCPRCC in previously diagnosed low-grade RCC and its clinicopathologic features were examined. A total of 126 cases of stage T1a with low nuclear grade RCC were identified from 625 consecutive RCCs removed by radical/partial nephrectomy over 12-year period (2000-2011). Archival tissue sections were retrospectively reviewed along with patient medical charts. Eight cases (1.3% of all RCC, 6.3% of pT1a low grade RCC) with characteristic histologic features of CCPRCC were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Seven cases were previously diagnosed as clear cell RCC and one as multilocular cystic RCC. Radiographically, CCPRCC favored a mid-pole location in the kidneys. At a median follow-up period of 52 months (range 20-114.5 months), there were no cases of local or distant recurrence. In conclusion, CCPRCC is not uncommon among small low-grade RCC tumors. CCPRCC can be correctly recognized by its unique histomorphological features and confirmed by immunohistochemistry studies, which is important due to the excellent clinical outcome following resection. PMID:26510859

  4. Galectin-3, Renal Function, and Clinical Outcomes: Results from the LURIC and 4D Studies.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Christiane; Delgado, Graciela; Wanner, Christoph; Blouin, Katja; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Kleber, Marcus E; Dressel, Alexander; Willmes, Christoph; Krane, Vera; Krämer, Bernhard K; März, Winfried; Ritz, Eberhard; van Gilst, Wiek H; van der Harst, Pim; de Boer, Rudolf A

    2015-09-01

    Galectin-3 has been linked to incident renal disease, experimental renal fibrosis, and nephropathy. However, the association among galectin-3, renal function, and adverse outcomes has not been described. We studied this association in two large cohorts of patients over a broad range of renal function. We measured galectin-3 concentrations in baseline samples from the German Diabetes mellitus Dialysis (4D) study (1168 dialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus) and the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study (2579 patients with coronary angiograms). Patients were stratified into three groups: eGFR of ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). We correlated galectin-3 concentrations with demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters. The association of galectin-3 with clinical end points was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression within 10 years (LURIC) or 4 years (4D) of follow-up. Mean±SD galectin-3 concentrations were 12.8±4.0 ng/ml (eGFR≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 15.6±5.4 ng/ml (eGFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 23.1±9.9 ng/ml (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and 54.1±19.6 ng/ml (dialysis patients of the 4D study). Galectin-3 concentration was significantly associated with clinical end points in participants with impaired kidney function, but not in participants with normal kidney function. Per SD increase in log-transformed galectin-3 concentration, the risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and fatal infection increased significantly. In dialysis patients, galectin-3 was associated with the combined end point of cardiovascular events. In conclusion, galectin-3 concentrations increased with progressive renal impairment and independently associated with cardiovascular end points, infections, and all-cause death in patients with impaired renal function. PMID:25568176

  5. Carbon-11-acetate PET imaging in renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Shreve, P.; Chiao, Ping-Chun; Humes, H.D.; Schwaiger, M.; Gross, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of [1-{sup 11}C]acetate as a metabolic tracer for renal imaging in human subjects. Eighteen patients underwent dynamic PET imaging of the kidneys after intravenous bolus injection of 10-20 mCi [1-{sup 11}C]acetate. Time-activity curves of renal parenchyma tracer activity were fitted to a two-compartment model using direct arterial blood sampling for the arterial input function. Renal uptake of [1-{sup 11}C]acetate is prompt and high target-to-background ratios are achieved even in the presence of markedly reduced renal function. Carbon-11-acetate is cleared from the renal parenchyma without any urinary excretion and the rate of clearance is comparable to myocardial clearance rates. Among normal subjects, K{sub 1} ranged from 0.653 to 1.37 ml/min-g, and was reduced to as low as 0.363 ml/min-g in severe renal disease (serum creatinine greater than 5 mg/dl), while k{sub 2} ranged from 0.114 to 0.166 min{sup {minus}1} among normal subjects and was reduced to as low as 0.053 min{sup {minus}1} in severe renal disease. Kinetic parameters K{sub 1} and k{sub 2} were both reduced in the presence of intrinsic renal disease or significant renal artery stenosis. Renal cell carcinoma demonstrated similar uptake of [1-{sup 11}C]acetate, but substantially reduced the rate of clearance compared to normal and diseased non-neoplastic renal tissue, allowing for ready differentiation of renal cell carcinoma from non-neoplastic renal tissue on images acquired beyond 10 min of tracer administration. Carbon-11-acetate is a promising physiologic tracer for the study of renal disease. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. In vivo swine kidney viscoelasticity during acute gradual decrease in renal blood flow: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew; Kinnick, Randall; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Elasticity imaging methods have been used to study kidney mechanical properties and have demonstrated that the kidney elastic modulus increases with disease state. However, studies in swine suggests that kidney elastic modulus is also affected by hemodynamic variables. A newly emerging method called Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) offers a tool to determine renal elasticity and viscosity in vivo. The purpose of this study is directed toward evaluating the feasibility of SDUV for in vivo measurements of healthy swine kidney during acute gradual decease of renal blood flow. In this study in vivo SDUV measurements were made on a group of 5 normal swine kidneys at baseline renal blood flow (RBF) and 25, 50, 75 and 100% decrease in RBF. The shear elastic modulus at full baseline was 7.04 ± 0.92 kPa and 3.48 ± 0.20 kPa at 100% decrease in RBF. The viscosity did not change between baseline (2.23 ± 0.33 Pa·s) and 100% decrease in RBF (2.03 ± 0.32 Pa·s). The data from this study indicates that other variables such as local blood flow, pressure and volume as well as method accuracy need to be measured to illustrate the relationship between shear elasticity and viscosity associated with acute kidney processes. PMID:24533039

  7. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renal studies for acute tubular necrosis: specificity of dissociation between perfusion and clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, W.S.M.; Klingensmith, W.C. III; Weil, R. III

    1981-02-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of radionuclide renal studies in differentiating acute tubular necrosis from causes of decreased renal clearance (e.g., rejection) in renal transplant patients, we assumed that acute tubular necrosis would be common during the first 4 days after cadaveric transplantation (group 1) and uncommon 3 weeks or longer after transplantation (group 2). There were 38 renal studies in 34 patients in group 1 and 62 studies in 27 patients in group 2. Each renal study consisted of both a technetium-99m-DTPA and an iodine-131 hippuran study. Perfusion, clearance, and transit time in the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study, and clearance and transit time in the /sup 131/I-hippuran study were visually graded on a 5 point scale without knowledge of the time of study of clinical diagnosis. There were 19 studies in group 1 and 25 studies in group 2 with clearance decreased two or more gradations. Eleven /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA studies had perfusion 2 or more gradations better than clearance; all 11 were in group 1 (p < 0.01). Other dissociations within the /sup 99m/TcDTPA and /sup 131/I-hippuran studies, or between them, did not distinguish the two groups. Data support the hypothesis that decreased clearance with relatively well preserved perfusion in /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA studies is common in acute tubular necrosis and uncommon in other causes of decreased renal clearance.

  8. The complexon-renal stone interaction: solubility and electronic microscopy studies.

    PubMed

    Kustov, Andrey V; Berezin, Boris D; Trostin, Vyacheslav N

    2009-07-16

    We have studied how complex formation between calcium and ethylenediaminetetraacetate or citrate ions influences the surface texture and the size of passed oxalate-phosphate renal stones. The four hour concrement treatment by sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetate aqueous solutions strongly affects the stone texture and provides a mass loss of 6-15%. We have found a significant decrease of the calcium and phosphor content on a concrement surface and formation of appreciable cracks. Our results do indicate that the Ca-complexon interaction can be effectively applied for disrupting some types of renal stones and, especially, residual concrements, which frequently occurs after a surgical operation or an extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. This study provides an additional quantitative physicochemical basis for this slightly invasive therapy. PMID:19537693

  9. Renal Neoplasms With Overlapping Features of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma and Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic Study of 37 Cases From a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Hari P; McKenney, Jesse K; Khor, Li Yan; Reynolds, Jordan P; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Przybycin, Christopher G

    2016-02-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) was recently included in the International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia as a subtype of RCC that is morphologically, immunohistochemically, and genetically distinct from both clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. In our clinical practice we have observed tumors with overlapping histologic features of CCPRCC and CCRCC; therefore, our aim was to describe the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical characteristics of these tumors. We examined a large series of consecutive nephrectomies diagnosed as CCRCC and found 37 tumors with morphologic overlap between CCRCC and CCPRCC, identifying 2 patterns. Pattern 1 tumors (N=19) had areas diagnosable as CCRCC admixed with foci having a prominent linear arrangement of nuclei away from the basement membrane imparting a resemblance to CCPRCC; however, other morphologic features commonly seen in CCPRCC (such as branching acini and cystic spaces with papillary tufts) were not typical and, when present, were focal or poorly developed. Pattern 2 (N=18) tumors had 2 discrete areas, one area with an appearance strongly resembling CCPRCC and the other with higher grade nuclei and features diagnosable as CCRCC, sometimes including rhabdoid differentiation, sarcomatoid differentiation, necrosis, and high-stage disease. Four (21%) of the pattern 1 tumors had grade 3 nuclei in the CCRCC-like areas, and 4 were high stage (pT3a). Of the 16 immunostained pattern 1 tumors, all expressed cytokeratin 7 (CK7) at least focally in the CCPRCC-like areas, strongly and diffusely in 9 (56%) cases; 12 (75%) showed negative to focal and/or weak CK7 expression in the CCRCC-like areas. CD10, α-methylacyl-CoA-racemase, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin, and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) had no significant differential expression between these foci. No cup-like staining pattern was seen with CA IX. Two (11%) patients with pattern 1 tumors developed metastases, and 1 (5%) subsequently died of disease. Eleven (61%) pattern 2 cases had the International Society of Urological Pathology grade 3 nuclei in the CCRCC-like areas, and 7 (39%) were grade 4 (4 of these cases had rhabdoid features; 1 was also sarcomatoid). Of the 16 immunostained pattern 2 tumors, 8 (50%) showed strong diffuse CK7 expression in the CCPRCC-like areas, and 9 (56%) showed complete lack of CK7 expression in the CCRCC-like areas. CD10, α-methylacyl-CoA-racemase, and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin did not have significant differential expression. Membranous expression of CA IX, typically strong and diffuse, was identified in both the CCPRCC-like and CCRCC-like areas in all cases tested (with a cup-like pattern at least focally in the CCPRCC-like areas of 10 [63%] pattern 2 cases). Five (28%) patients with pattern 2 tumors had distant metastases, 3 (17%) of whom subsequently died of disease. Renal cell carcinomas with areas resembling both CCRCC and CCPRCC occur. Some can have high-grade and high-stage foci, and aggressive clinical outcomes are seen. Given this malignant potential, we would presently diagnose such cases as CCRCC. These 2 patterns of renal neoplasia underscore the need for caution in diagnosing CCPRCC on limited sampling, reserving the diagnosis for those tumors that strictly fulfill both morphologic and immunohistochemical criteria. PMID:26752401

  10. Dynamic reprogramming of DNA methylation in SETD2-deregulated renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann, Rochelle L; Hlady, Ryan A; Hanavan, Paul D; Lake, Douglas F; Tibes, Raoul; Lee, Jeong-Heon; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ho, Thai H; Robertson, Keith D

    2016-01-12

    Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) harbor frequent mutations in epigenetic modifiers including SETD2, the H3K36me3 writer. We profiled DNA methylation (5mC) across the genome in cell line-based models of SETD2 inactivation and SETD2 mutant primary tumors because 5mC has been linked to H3K36me3 and is therapeutically targetable. SETD2 depleted cell line models (long-term and acute) exhibited a DNA hypermethylation phenotype coinciding with ectopic gains in H3K36me3 centered across intergenic regions adjacent to low expressing genes, which became upregulated upon dysregulation of the epigenome. Poised enhancers of developmental genes were prominent hypermethylation targets. SETD2 mutant primary ccRCCs, papillary renal cell carcinomas, and lung adenocarcinomas all demonstrated a DNA hypermethylation phenotype that segregated tumors by SETD2 genotype and advanced grade. These findings collectively demonstrate that SETD2 mutations drive tumorigenesis by coordinated disruption of the epigenome and transcriptome,and they have important implications for future therapeutic strategies targeting chromatin regulator mutant tumors. PMID:26646321

  11. Dynamic reprogramming of DNA methylation in SETD2-deregulated renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tiedemann, Rochelle L.; Hlady, Ryan A.; Hanavan, Paul D.; Lake, Douglas F.; Tibes, Raoul; Lee, Jeong-Heon; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ho, Thai H.; Robertson, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) harbor frequent mutations in epigenetic modifiers including SETD2, the H3K36me3 writer. We profiled DNA methylation (5mC) across the genome in cell line-based models of SETD2 inactivation and SETD2 mutant primary tumors because 5mC has been linked to H3K36me3 and is therapeutically targetable. SETD2 depleted cell line models (long-term and acute) exhibited a DNA hypermethylation phenotype coinciding with ectopic gains in H3K36me3 centered across intergenic regions adjacent to low expressing genes, which became upregulated upon dysregulation of the epigenome. Poised enhancers of developmental genes were prominent hypermethylation targets. SETD2 mutant primary ccRCCs, papillary renal cell carcinomas, and lung adenocarcinomas all demonstrated a DNA hypermethylation phenotype that segregated tumors by SETD2 genotype and advanced grade. These findings collectively demonstrate that SETD2 mutations drive tumorigenesis by coordinated disruption of the epigenome and transcriptome,and they have important implications for future therapeutic strategies targeting chromatin regulator mutant tumors. PMID:26646321

  12. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  13. Preliminary Study on Tubuloglomerular Dysfunction and Evidence of Renal Inflammation in Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Michelle J. C.; Silva Junior, Geraldo B.; Sampaio, Aline M.; Montenegro, Bárbara L.; Alves, Marília P.; Henn, Guilherme A. L.; Rocha, Hermano A. L.; Meneses, Gdayllon C.; Martins, Alice M. C.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a re-emerging zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and malondialdehyde (MDA) are inflammation biomarkers that have never been investigated in VL. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between renal abnormalities and inflammation biomarkers in VL. This study is a preliminary prospective study with 16 VL adult patients evaluated before treatment compared with a group of 13 healthy volunteers and 5 VL patients evaluated after treatment. Urinary concentration and acidification tests were performed. MCP-1 and MDA were quantified in urine. Urinary concentration deficit was found in all VL patients before (100%) and four VL patients after (80%) treatment. Urinary acidification deficit was found in nine cases before (56.2%) and two cases after (40%) treatment. Urinary MCP-1 (374 ± 359 versus 42 ± 29 pg/mg creatinine, P = 0.002) as well as urinary MDA (5.4 ± 2.6 versus 2.0 ± 0.8 μmol/mL) showed significant differences between VL patients and controls. These data show that VL patients present urinary concentration and acidification deficit, which can persist even after specific treatment. Urinary MCP-1 and MDA are elevated in patients with VL, which suggests renal inflammation and incipient renal damage. PMID:25114011

  14. Mineralocorticoid specificity of renal type I receptors: in vivo binding studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, K.; Funder, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    The authors have injected rats with (TH)aldosterone or (TH) corticosterone, plus 100-fold excess of the highly specific glucocorticoid RU 28362, with or without excess unlabeled aldosterone or corticosterone and compared type I receptor occupancy in kidney and hippocampus. Thirty minutes after subcutaneous injection (TH)aldosterone was well retained in renal papilla-inner medulla, renal cortex-outer medulla, and hippocampus; in contrast, (TH)corticosterone was well retained only in hippocampus. Competition studies for (TH)aldosterone binding sites showed corticosterone to be a poor competitor in the kidney compared with hippocampus. Time-course studies, with rats killed 10-180 min after tracer administration, showed very low uptake/retention of (TH)corticosterone by kidney; in hippocampus (TH)corticosterone retention was similar to that of (TH)aldosterone in kidney, and retention of (TH)aldosterone by hippocampus was much more prolonged than of either tracer in any other tissue. Studies in 10-day-old rats, with very low levels of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), showed a high degree of aldosterone selectivity in both zones of the kidney, whereas 9TH)aldosterone and (TH)corticosterone were equivalently bound in hippocampus. They interpret these data as evidenced for a mechanism unrelated to extravascular CBG conferring mineralocorticoid specificity on renal type I receptors and propose two models derived from their findings consistent with such differential selectivity.

  15. Nanoscale Study of Polymer Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Masoumeh; Engelkamp, Hans; Xu, Jialiang; Braeken, Els; Otten, Matthijs B J; Uji-I, Hiroshi; Schwartz, Erik; Koepf, Matthieu; Vananroye, Anja; Vermant, Jan; Nolte, Roeland J M; De Schryver, Frans; Maan, Jan C; Hofkens, Johan; Christianen, Peter C M; Rowan, Alan E

    2016-01-26

    The thermal motion of polymer chains in a crowded environment is anisotropic and highly confined. Whereas theoretical and experimental progress has been made, typically only indirect evidence of polymer dynamics is obtained either from scattering or mechanical response. Toward a complete understanding of the complicated polymer dynamics in crowded media such as biological cells, it is of great importance to unravel the role of heterogeneity and molecular individualism. In the present work, we investigate the dynamics of synthetic polymers and the tube-like motion of individual chains using time-resolved fluorescence microscopy. A single fluorescently labeled polymer molecule is observed in a sea of unlabeled polymers, giving access to not only the dynamics of the probe chain itself but also to that of the surrounding network. We demonstrate that it is possible to extract the characteristic time constants and length scales in one experiment, providing a detailed understanding of polymer dynamics at the single chain level. The quantitative agreement with bulk rheology measurements is promising for using local probes to study heterogeneity in complex, crowded systems. PMID:26688072

  16. Nutritional status and clinical outcome of children on continuous renal replacement therapy: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background No studies on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) have analyzed nutritional status in children. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mortality and nutritional status of children receiving CRRT. Methods Prospective observational study to analyze the nutritional status of children receiving CRRT and its association with mortality. The variables recorded were age, weight, sex, diagnosis, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, severity of illness scores, CRRT-related complications, duration of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, and mortality. Results The sample comprised 174 critically ill children on CRRT. The median weight of the patients was 10 kg, 35% were under percentile (P) 3, and 56% had a weight/P50 ratio of less than 0.85. Only two patients were above P95. The mean age for patients under P3 was significantly lower than that of the other patients (p = 0.03). The incidence of weight under P3 was greater in younger children (p = 0.007) and in cardiac patients and in those who had previous chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.047). The mortality analysis did not include patients with pre-existing renal disease. Mortality was 38.9%. Mortality for patients with weight < P3 was greater than that of children with weight > P3 (51% vs 33%; p = 0.037). In the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the only factor associated with mortality was protein-energy wasting (malnutrition) (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.067-4.173; p = 0.032). Conclusions The frequency of protein-energy wasting in children who require CRRT is high, and the frequency of obesity is low. Protein-energy wasting is more frequent in children with previous end-stage renal disease and heart disease. Underweight children present a higher mortality rate than patients with normal body weight. PMID:23016957

  17. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Measurement in Renal Transplantation: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study With Protocol Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhan; Oh, Young Taik; Joo, Dong Jin; Ma, Bo Gyoung; Lee, A-lan; Lee, Jae Geun; Song, Seung Hwan; Kim, Seung Up; Jung, Dae Chul; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Yu Seun

    2015-09-01

    Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is a common cause of kidney allograft loss. Several noninvasive techniques developed to assess tissue fibrosis are widely used to examine the liver. However, relatively few studies have investigated the use of elastographic methods to assess transplanted kidneys. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical implications of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique in renal transplant patients. A total of 91 patients who underwent living donor renal transplantation between September 2010 and January 2013 were included in this prospective study. Shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI at baseline and predetermined time points (1 week and 6 and 12 months after transplantation). Protocol biopsies were performed at 12 months. Instead of reflecting IF/TA, SWVs were found to be related to time elapsed after transplantation. Mean SWV increased continuously during the first postoperative year (P < 0.001). In addition, mixed model analysis showed no correlation existed between SWV and serum creatinine (r = -0.2426, P = 0.0771). There was also no evidence of a relationship between IF/TA and serum creatinine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.220, P = 0.7648). Furthermore, SWV temporal patterns were dependent on the kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW). In patients with a KW/BW < 3.5 g/kg, mean SWV continuously increased for 12 months, whereas it decreased after 6 months in those with a KW/BW ≥ 3.5 g/kg.No significant correlation was observed between SWV and IF/TA or renal dysfunction. However, SWV was found to be related to the time after transplantation. Renal hemodynamics influenced by KW/BW might impact SWV values. PMID:26426636

  18. Metformin initiation and renal impairment: a cohort study in Denmark and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Ehrenstein, Vera; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Skovbo, Stine; Nørrelund, Helene; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Li, Lin; Jick, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate prevalence of renal impairment, rate of decline in kidney function and changes in metformin use after decline in kidney function, in metformin initiators. Design, setting and participants We conducted this 2-country cohort study using routine data from northern Denmark and the UK during 2000–2011. We included metformin initiators among patients aged ≥30 years with medically treated diabetes. Main outcome measures We described patients’ demographics, comorbidity, co-medications and their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). Furthermore, we described the patients’ characteristics according to eGFR level. Finally, we examined the rate of any decline in eGFR and changes in metformin use within 90 days after first decline in eGFR during follow-up. Results We included 124 720 metformin initiators in the 2 countries. Prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 among metformin initiators was 9.0% in Denmark and 25.2% in the UK. In contrast, prevalence of eGFR values <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 among metformin initiators was 0.3% in Denmark and 0.4% in the UK. Patients with renal impairment were older and more likely to have received cardiovascular drugs. Incidence rate of decline in renal function was 4.92 per 100 person-years (95% CI 4.76 to 5.09) in Denmark and 7.48 per 100 person-years (95% CI 7.39 to 7.57) in the UK. The proportion of patients continuing metformin use, even after a first decline brought the eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, was 44% in Denmark and 62% in the UK. There was no clinically significant dose reduction with decreasing baseline eGFR level discernible from the data. Conclusions Mild to moderate renal impairment was common among metformin initiators, while severe renal impairment was uncommon. Patients with severe renal impairment frequently continued receiving/redeeming metformin prescriptions even 90 days after eGFR decline. PMID:26338686

  19. Contribution of Large Pig for Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion and Transplantation Studies: The Preclinical Model

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, S.; Favreau, F.; Chatauret, N.; Thuillier, R.; Maiga, S.; Hauet, T.

    2011-01-01

    Animal experimentation is necessary to characterize human diseases and design adequate therapeutic interventions. In renal transplantation research, the limited number of in vitro models involves a crucial role for in vivo models and particularly for the porcine model. Pig and human kidneys are anatomically similar (characterized by multilobular structure in contrast to rodent and dog kidneys unilobular). The human proximity of porcine physiology and immune systems provides a basic knowledge of graft recovery and inflammatory physiopathology through in vivo studies. In addition, pig large body size allows surgical procedures similar to humans, repeated collections of peripheral blood or renal biopsies making pigs ideal for medical training and for the assessment of preclinical technologies. However, its size is also its main drawback implying expensive housing. Nevertheless, pig models are relevant alternatives to primate models, offering promising perspectives with developments of transgenic modulation and marginal donor models facilitating data extrapolation to human conditions. PMID:21403881

  20. Clonal trisomy 4 cells detected in the ossifying renal tumor of infancy: study of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinglan; Guzman, Miguel A; Pawel, Bruce R; Pezanowski, Donna M; Patel, Dilipkumar M; Roth, Jonathan A; Halligan, Gregory E; de Chadarévian, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The ossifying renal tumor of infancy is a rare neoplasm diagnosed in the first 2 years of life, predominantly in boys. The neoplasm is primarily characterized by the presence of a large ossifying component. Its most common mode of presentation is hematuria, and it has a uniformly benign behavior. The karyotypic makeup of the process has not been reported. Thus, a study was undertaken and it allowed demonstration of clonal trisomy 4, which was confirmed by the fluorescent in-situ hybridization-probing of two additional archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-imbedded similar tumors. On the basis of the findings in these three cases, it seems that clonal trisomy 4 may be considered as a characteristic of the tumor, which makes it distinct from any other infantile renal tumor. PMID:22976287

  1. Prognostic factors of overall survival in renal cancer patients single oncological center study

    PubMed Central

    Sandheim, Marek; Jakubowski, Jacek; Juszczak, Kajetan; Stelmach, Andrzej Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The clinical course of renal cancer remains difficult to predict. Attempts to appoint new independent prognostic factors (IPFs) and comparisons of already identified ones among populations are inevitable to develop more effective prognostic instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate IPFs of overall survival in a given population of patients with renal cancer. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis of 148 patients with renal cancer treated at the Oncological Institute in Cracow from 2000 to 2007 was performed. Mean followup was 51 months. Using the lograng test, a group of clinicopathological and biochemical features was analyzed in respect to their influence on overall survival. Results were presented as KaplanMeier curves. Final identification of IPFs was made by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results Overall survival rate at 1, 2, and 5year followup was 58.8%, 38.2%, and 21.4%, respectively. The set of identified IPFs consisted of performance status, smoking history, hemoglobin concentration, anatomical staging, tumor grade, and the presence of microvascular invasion. It was confirmed that only nephrectomy increases significantly overall survival. Conclusions Apart from smoking history, the role of all other IPFs identified in our study is well documented in the literature. Smoking history seems to be a new IPF with strong negative impact on survival in patients with RCC. PMID:24707365

  2. Proteinuria as a Noninvasive Marker for Renal Allograft Histology and Failure: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Naesens, Maarten; Lerut, Evelyne; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Herelixka, Albert; Evenepoel, Pieter; Claes, Kathleen; Bammens, Bert; Sprangers, Ben; Meijers, Björn; Jochmans, Ina; Monbaliu, Diethard; Pirenne, Jacques; Kuypers, Dirk R J

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is routinely measured to assess renal allograft status, but the diagnostic and prognostic values of this measurement for renal transplant pathology and outcome remain unclear. We included 1518 renal allograft recipients in this prospective, observational cohort study. All renal allograft biopsy samples with concomitant data on 24-hour proteinuria were included in the analyses (n=2274). Patients were followed for ≥7 years post-transplantation. Compared with proteinuria <0.3 g/24 h, the hazard ratios for graft failure were 1.14 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.81 to 1.60; P=0.50), for proteinuria 0.3-1.0 g/24 h, 2.17 (95% CI, 1.49 to 3.18; P<0.001), for proteinuria 1.0-3.0 g/24 h, and 3.01 (95% CI, 1.75 to 5.18; P<0.001), for proteinuria >3.0 g/24 h, independent of GFR and allograft histology. The predictive performance of proteinuria for graft failure was lower at 3 months after transplant (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.64, P<0.001) than at 1, 2, and 5 years after transplant (AUC 0.73, 0.71, and 0.77, respectively, all P<0.001). Independent determinants of proteinuria were repeat transplantation, mean arterial pressure, transplant glomerulopathy, microcirculation inflammation, and de novo/recurrent glomerular disease. The discriminatory power of proteinuria for these intragraft injury processes was better in biopsy samples obtained >3 months after transplant (AUC 0.73, P<0.001) than in those obtained earlier (AUC 0.56, P<0.01), with 85% specificity but lower sensitivity (47.8%) for proteinuria >1.0 g/24 h. These data support current clinical guidelines to routinely measure proteinuria after transplant, but illustrate the need for more sensitive biomarkers of allograft injury and prognosis. PMID:26152270

  3. Is renal tissue oxygen desaturation during severe hypoxia underestimated? An observational study in term newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Gerhard; Cheung, Po-Yin; Tze-Fun, Lee; Li, Elliott S; Schmlzer, Georg M

    2015-02-01

    The kidney is an organ highly susceptible to injury by regional tissue oxygen desaturation during hypoxic episodes. Transcutaneous monitoring of renal tissue oxygen saturation is therefore of increasing interest. The aim of the present study was to compare renal tissue oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during acute hypoxia in neonates directly on the kidney and transcutaneously. We hypothesized that transcutaneous renal tissue oxygen saturation measurements would be influenced by superficial tissue. Five term newborn piglets were anesthetized, instrumented and exposed to normocapnic hypoxia at an inspired oxygen concentration of 0.14. Regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO?) was simultaneously measured for comparison with the sensor of NIRS (Invos 5100, Somanetics Corp., Troy, MI, USA) applied directly on the left kidney (renaldirect rSO?) and on the skin of right flank above the right kidney (renalskin rSO?). Cerebral regional tissue oxygenation (cerebralskin rSO?), arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were also monitored. NIRS parameters were analyzed in 5?s intervals during first 2?min of hypoxia. Hypoxia was achieved with an arterial oxygen desaturation from median (range) 95.3% (86.8-98.0) to 23.5% (13.0-41.0) after 2?min. HR and MAP did not change significantly during hypoxia. There were pronounced and lower renaldirect rSO? readings when compared with those of renalskin rSO? with significant differences from 25 to 55?s after initiation of hypoxia. Changes of cerebralskin rSO? and renalskin rSO? were similar. Transcutaneous monitoring of renal tissue oxygen saturation may underestimate acute oxygen desaturation of the kidney during hypoxia in neonates. PMID:25619650

  4. Progress in gene targeting: using mutant mice to study renal function and disease.

    PubMed

    Kohan, Donald E

    2008-08-01

    Genetic engineering in mice has provided much information about gene function in renal health and disease. This knowledge has largely come from conventional transgenic approaches. Recently, methods have been developed to control the cell type, timing and reversibility of target gene expression. Advances in identifying promoters conferring renal cell-specific gene regulation in vivo have greatly facilitated interpretation of gene targeting studies. Site-specific recombinases have permitted cell-specific knockout of genes; Cre is the preeminent recombinase, but recent progress with other recombinases, include Flp and PhiC31, will likely increase the usefulness of this class of enzymes. Temporally regulated gene expression, particularly using doxycycline- and tamoxifen-inducible systems, holds great promise for avoiding developmental effects of gene mutations as well as facilitating comparison of the same animal's phenotype before and after gene modification. RNA interference is undergoing tremendous growth and has great potential for achieving gene knockdown quickly and reversibly. To date, however, the utility of these systems in modifying renal function in transgenic mice remains unproven. Finally, new gene targeting tools are in development that may substantially simplify generation of transgenic animals. This review discusses the state-of-the-art in gene targeting in the kidney, reviewing function, indications and limitations of the molecular biologic tools. PMID:18418351

  5. A prospective randomized study to evaluate the renal impact of surgical revascularization strategy in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Modine, Thomas; Zannis, Costas; Salleron, Julia; Provot, François; Gourlay, Terence; Duhamel, Alain; Koussa, Mohamad; Fayad, Georges

    2010-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major postoperative complication following cardiac surgery. Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of nephropathy and end-stage renal failure. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of adverse renal outcomes, in diabetic patients, between on-pump (CPB) and off-pump (OPCAB) coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Seventy-one diabetic patients (36 and 35 patients in the CPB and OPCAB groups, respectively) were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Renal tubular and glomerular functions, were monitored preoperatively and over five consecutive days. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, New York Heart Association class, Canadian Cardiovascular Society functional classification of angina grade and number of CABG. Intensive care unit stay, duration of intubation, hospital stay and bleeding were significantly higher in the CPB group. No significant differences in plasmatic creatinine, urinary creatinine, creatinine clearance, proteinuria or osmolality were detected. A significant rise in urinary albumine excretion occurred in both groups peaking on the operative day; for the on-pump CABG group (10±5 vs. 48±57; P=0.015) and for the OPCAB group (11±6 vs. 37±59; P=0.04). Values were less important in the OPCAB group and return to the baseline was faster than in the CPB group. OPCAB attenuates sub-clinical AKI, in diabetic patients. PMID:20591890

  6. Pharmacokinetics of serelaxin in patients with severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis: A single-dose, open-label, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Marion; Halabi, Atef; Canadi, Jasna; Tsubouchi, Chiaki; Machineni, Surendra; Pang, Yinuo

    2016-04-01

    Serelaxin, a recombinant human relaxin-2 hormone, is in clinical development for treating acute heart failure. This open-label, parallel-group study investigated serelaxin pharmacokinetics (PK) after a single 4-hour intravenous infusion (10 µg/kg) in patients with severe renal impairment (n = 6) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis (PK on the day of dialysis [n = 6] or during dialysis-free interval [n = 6]), compared with matched healthy subjects (n = 18). In all participants, serum serelaxin concentration peaked at the end of infusion and subsequently declined with mean terminal elimination half-life of 6.5-8.8 hours. Compared with healthy subjects, a moderate decrease in serelaxin systemic clearance (37%-52%) and increase in its exposure (30%-115%) were observed in all patients. During the 4-hour hemodialysis in ESRD patients, 30% serelaxin was removed, with hemodialysis clearance constituting approximately 52% of total systemic clearance. Serelaxin was well tolerated with no deaths, serious adverse events (AE), or AE-related discontinuations. Antiserelaxin antibodies were not detected in any participant. Given the shallow dose-response relationship observed with serelaxin in clinical studies and its wide therapeutic window, the observed PK differences in patients with severe renal impairment compared with healthy subjects are unlikely to pose a safety risk and do not warrant a predefined dosage adjustment in such patients. PMID:26239266

  7. Lower Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease but Suboptimal Pre-Dialysis Renal Care in Schizophrenia: A 14-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yueh-Han; Cheng, Jur-Shan; Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Lin, Chen-Li; Huang, Chi-Ting; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is closely associated with cardiovascular risk factors which are consequently attributable to the development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, no study has been conducted to examine ESRD-related epidemiology and quality of care before starting dialysis for patients with schizophrenia. By using nationwide health insurance databases, we identified 54,361 ESRD-free patients with schizophrenia and their age-/gender-matched subjects without schizophrenia for this retrospective cohort study (the schizophrenia cohort). We also identified a cohort of 1,244 adult dialysis patients with and without schizophrenia (1:3) to compare quality of renal care before dialysis and outcomes (the dialysis cohort). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for dialysis and death. Odds ratio (OR) derived from logistic regression models were used to delineate quality of pre-dialysis renal care. Compared to general population, patients with schizophrenia were less likely to develop ESRD (HR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.8), but had a higher risk for death (HR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3). Patients with schizophrenia at the pre-ESRD stage received suboptimal pre-dialysis renal care; for example, they were less likely to visit nephrologists (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) and received fewer erythropoietin prescriptions (OR = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9). But they had a higher risk of hospitalization in the first year after starting dialysis (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8, P < .05). Patients with schizophrenia undertaking dialysis had higher risk for mortality than the general ESRD patients. A closer collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists or internists to minimize the gaps in quality of general care is recommended. PMID:26469976

  8. Lower Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease but Suboptimal Pre-Dialysis Renal Care in Schizophrenia: A 14-Year Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Lin, Chen-Li; Huang, Chi-Ting; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is closely associated with cardiovascular risk factors which are consequently attributable to the development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, no study has been conducted to examine ESRD-related epidemiology and quality of care before starting dialysis for patients with schizophrenia. By using nationwide health insurance databases, we identified 54,361 ESRD-free patients with schizophrenia and their age-/gender-matched subjects without schizophrenia for this retrospective cohort study (the schizophrenia cohort). We also identified a cohort of 1,244 adult dialysis patients with and without schizophrenia (1:3) to compare quality of renal care before dialysis and outcomes (the dialysis cohort). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for dialysis and death. Odds ratio (OR) derived from logistic regression models were used to delineate quality of pre-dialysis renal care. Compared to general population, patients with schizophrenia were less likely to develop ESRD (HR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4–0.8), but had a higher risk for death (HR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1–1.3). Patients with schizophrenia at the pre-ESRD stage received suboptimal pre-dialysis renal care; for example, they were less likely to visit nephrologists (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.8) and received fewer erythropoietin prescriptions (OR = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6–0.9). But they had a higher risk of hospitalization in the first year after starting dialysis (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–1.8, P < .05). Patients with schizophrenia undertaking dialysis had higher risk for mortality than the general ESRD patients. A closer collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists or internists to minimize the gaps in quality of general care is recommended. PMID:26469976

  9. Renal abnormalities among HIV-infected, antiretroviral naive children, Harare, Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of renal and urine abnormalities among HIV-infected children in Sub-Saharan Africa are limited. We set out to determine the prevalence of proteinuria; low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary tract infection and associated factors among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive children, aged 2–12 years, attending the paediatric HIV clinic at a tertiary hospital in Harare. Methods Consecutive ART naive children attending the clinic between June and October 2009 were recruited. Detailed medical history was obtained and a complete physical examination was performed. Children were screened for urinary tract infection and for significant persistent proteinuria. Serum creatinine was used to estimate GFR using the modified Counahan-Barratt formula. The Student’s t-test was used to analyse continuous variables and the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used to analyse categorical data. Logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between study factors and urine abnormalities, persistent proteinuria and the eGFR. Results Two hundred and twenty children were enrolled into the study. The median age was 90 months (Q1=65.5; Q3=116.5). The prevalence of urinary tract infection was 9.5%. Escherichia coli was the predominant organism. There was uniform resistance to cotrimoxazole. Persistent proteinuria (urine protein to creatinine ratio greater than 0.2, a week apart) was found in 5% of the children. Seventy-five children (34.6%) had mild to moderate renal impairment shown by a low eGFR (30 to <90ml/min/1.73m2). Persistent proteinuria was more likely to be found in children who were wasted, weight-for-height (WHZ) z-score <−2 (p=0.0005). Children with WHO clinical stage 4 were more likely to have a low eGFR than children with less advanced stages (OR 2.68; CI 1.24-5.80). Urine abnormalities were more likely to be observed in children with WHO clinical stages 3 and 4 (OR 2.20; CI 1.06-4.60). Conclusion There is significant renal impairment among HIV-infected, ART naive children aged 2–12 years attending the outpatient paediatric HIV clinic at Harare Central Hospital. The abnormalities are more likely to occur in children with advanced HIV/AIDS. Screening for renal impairment and urinary tract infections in HIV-infected children before initiation of ART and regularly thereafter would be helpful in their management. Keywords: HIV, renal disease, persistent proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, urinary tract infection PMID:23663553

  10. Podocyte Detachment Is Associated with Renal Prognosis in ANCA-Associated Glomerulonephritis: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zou, Rong; Wang, Su-Xia; Liu, Gang; Yu, Feng; Chen, Min; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2016-04-01

    The prognosis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN) is unfavorable despite immunosuppressive therapy. It has been suggested that the loss of podocytes is a hallmark of progressive kidney disease. However, it is unclear about podocyte injuries and their predictive values on the prognosis in ANCA-GN. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the podocyte injury in renal histopathology and its association with renal prognosis of patients with ANCA-GN.A total of 170 patients with ANCA-GN were recruited in this study. Morphometric investigation of podocytes by electron microscopy including foot process width (FPW), podocyte density per glomerulus (Nv), and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) width were measured and calculated in ANCA-GN patients. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the association between podocyte injuries and prognosis of patients with ANCA-GN.Foot processes broadening, podocyte detachment, and GBM thickening could be observed in electron micrographs in the specimens of 158/170 (92.9%), 142/170 (83.5%), and 150/170 (88.2%) patients, respectively. Compared with normal controls, FPW and GBM width in ANCA-GN patients was significantly higher (1269.39 ± 680.19 vs 585.81 ± 77.16, P = 0.004; 668.23 ± 208.73 vs 354.23 ± 52.70, P = 0.000, respectively), while the podocyte density was significantly lower (55.90 ± 36.32 vs 255.23 ± 47.29, P = 0.000). The podocyte density was independently associated with the recovery of renal function in logistic regression analysis (OR, 1.083; 95% CI, 1.025-1.440; P = 0.005). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that podocyte density was an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (model A: HR, 0.950; 95% CI, 0.919-1.982; P = 0.002; model B: HR, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.922-0.985; P = 0.004).Podocyte structural damage and detachment occurred frequently in patients with ANCA-GN. Moreover, podocyte detachment was an independent predictor of renal outcomes. PMID:27082569

  11. Intakes of coffee, tea, milk, soda and juice and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Eun; Hunter, David J; Spiegelman, Donna; Adami, Hans-Olov; Bernstein, Leslie; van den Brandt, Piet A; Buring, Julie E; Cho, Eunyoung; English, Dallas; Folsom, Aaron R; Freudenheim, Jo L; Gile, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Leitzmann, Michael; Marshall, James R; Mnnist, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L; Miller, Anthony B; Parker, Alexander S; Pietinen, Pirjo; Rodriguez, Carmen; Rohan, Thomas E; Schatzkin, Arthur; Schouten, Leo J; Willett, Walter C; Wolk, Alicja; Zhang, Shumin M; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A

    2007-11-15

    Specific beverage intake may be associated with the risk of renal cell cancer through a diluting effect of carcinogens, alterations of hormone levels, or other changes in the renal tubular environment, but few prospective studies have examined these associations. We evaluated the associations between coffee, tea, milk, soda and fruit and vegetable juice intakes and renal cell cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies (530,469 women and 244,483 men). Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data, the study-specific relative risks (RRs) were calculated and then pooled using a random effects model. A total of 1,478 incident renal cell cancer cases were identified during a follow-up of 7-20 years across studies. Coffee consumption was associated with a modestly lower risk of renal cell cancer (pooled multivariate RR for 3 or more 8 oz (237 ml) cups/day versus less than one 8 oz (237 ml) cup/day = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.67-1.05; p value, test for trend = 0.22). Tea consumption was also inversely associated with renal cell cancer risk (pooled multivariate RR for 1 or more 8 oz (237 ml) cups/day versus nondrinkers = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.71-1.02; pvalue, test for trend = 0.04). No clear associations were observed for milk, soda or juice. Our findings provide strong evidence that neither coffee nor tea consumption increases renal cell cancer risk. Instead, greater consumption of coffee and tea may be associated with a lower risk of renal cell cancer. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:17583573

  12. SPONTANEOUS OCCURRENCE OF A DISTINCTIVE RENAL TUBULE TUMOR PHENOTYPE IN RAT CARCINOGENICITY STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM (NTP)

    PubMed Central

    Hard, Gordon C; Seely, John Curtis; Kissling, Grace E; Betz, Laura J

    2010-01-01

    The Toxicology Data Management System (TDMS) of the National Toxicology Program, NIEHS, NIH, was surveyed for occurrence and distribution of a distinctive renal tubule tumor type in rats. The hallmark features of this tumor included eosinophilic/amphophilic staining, large finely granular cells, and numerous vacuoles and/or minilumens. It is referred to here as the amphophilic-vacuolar (AV) variant of renal tubule tumor. Of 154 studies in which renal tubule tumors had been recorded in the standard single sections of kidney in the TDMS, there were collectively 1012 rats with renal adenomas, carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, and of these, 100 displayed the distinctive AV morphology, representing 74 studies involving mostly the F344 rat, but also the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar strains. The AV tumors (mainly adenomas but also some carcinomas) occurred usually as solitary lesions in the affected animals. However, they were multiple and bilateral in a few cases. They were equally distributed between the sexes, did not metastasize (at least to the lung), and were not associated with chronic progressive nephropathy. The distribution of this renal tumor type was random across studies and dose groups, underscoring the likelihood that it was of spontaneous origin and not chemically induced. Accordingly, it is suggested that this distinctive renal tumor phenotype be recorded as a separate category from conventional RTT when assessing the carcinogenic potential of a test compound. PMID:18441261

  13. Renal function improvement in liver transplant recipients after early everolimus conversion: A clinical practice cohort study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Itxarone; Salcedo, Magdalena; Gómez, Miguel Angel; Jimenez, Carlos; Castroagudín, Javier; Fabregat, Joan; Almohalla, Carolina; Herrero, Ignacio; Cuervas-Mons, Valentín; Otero, Alejandra; Rubín, Angel; Miras, Manuel; Rodrigo, Juan; Serrano, Trinidad; Crespo, Gonzalo; De la Mata, Manuel; Bustamante, Javier; Gonzalez-Dieguez, M Luisa; Moreno, Antonia; Narvaez, Isidoro; Guilera, Magda

    2015-08-01

    A national, multicenter, retrospective study was conducted to assess the results obtained for liver transplant recipients with conversion to everolimus in daily practice. The study included 477 recipients (481 transplantations). Indications for conversion to everolimus were renal dysfunction (32.6% of cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; 30.2%; prophylactic treatment for 68.9%), and de novo malignancy (29.7%). The median time from transplantation to conversion to everolimus was 68.7 months for de novo malignancy, 23.8 months for renal dysfunction, and 7.1 months for HCC and other indications. During the first year of treatment, mean everolimus trough levels were 5.4 (standard deviation [SD], 2.7) ng/mL and doses remained stable (1.5 mg/day) from the first month after conversion. An everolimus monotherapy regimen was followed by 28.5% of patients at 12 months. Patients with renal dysfunction showed a glomerular filtration rate (4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) increase of 10.9 mL (baseline mean, 45.8 [SD, 25.3] versus 57.6 [SD, 27.6] mL/minute/1.73 m(2) ) at 3 months after everolimus initiation (P < 0.001), and 6.8 mL at 12 months. Improvement in renal function was higher in patients with early conversion (<1 year). Adverse events were the primary reason for discontinuation in 11.2% of cases. The probability of survival at 3 years after conversion to everolimus was 83.0%, 71.1%, and 59.5% for the renal dysfunction, de novo malignancy, and HCC groups, respectively. Everolimus is a viable option for the treatment of renal dysfunction, and earlier conversion is associated with better recovery of renal function. Prospective studies are needed to confirm advantages in patients with malignancy. PMID:25990257

  14. pH-responsive, gluconeogenic renal epithelial LLC-PK1-FBPase+cells: a versatile in vitro model to study renal proximal tubule metabolism and function

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Norman P.

    2014-01-01

    Ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis are prominent metabolic features of the renal proximal convoluted tubule that contribute to maintenance of systemic acid-base homeostasis. Molecular analysis of the mechanisms that mediate the coordinate regulation of the two pathways required development of a cell line that recapitulates these features in vitro. By adapting porcine renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells to essentially glucose-free medium, a gluconeogenic subline, termed LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells, was isolated. LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells grow in the absence of hexoses and pentoses and exhibit enhanced oxidative metabolism and increased levels of phosphate-dependent glutaminase. The cells also express significant levels of the key gluconeogenic enzymes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Thus the altered phenotype of LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells is pleiotropic. Most importantly, when transferred to medium that mimics a pronounced metabolic acidosis (9 mM HCO3−, pH 6.9), the LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells exhibit a gradual increase in NH4+ ion production, accompanied by increases in glutaminase and cytosolic PEPCK mRNA levels and proteins. Therefore, the LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells retained in culture many of the metabolic pathways and pH-responsive adaptations characteristic of renal proximal tubules. The molecular mechanisms that mediate enhanced expression of the glutaminase and PEPCK in LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells have been extensively reviewed. The present review describes novel properties of this unique cell line and summarizes the molecular mechanisms that have been defined more recently using LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells to model the renal proximal tubule. It also identifies future studies that could be performed using these cells. PMID:24808535

  15. Retinopathy and Chronic Kidney Disease in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study (CRIC)

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Juan E.; Alexander, Judith; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker, Candace; McWilliams, Kathleen; Lo, Joan C.; Go, Alan; Townsend, Raymond; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Lash, James P.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W.; Xie, Dawei; Jaar, Bernard G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Retinal vascular and anatomic abnormalities caused by diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions can be observed directly in the ocular fundus and may reflect severity of chronic renal insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between retinopathy and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, 2605 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a multi-center study of CKD, were offered participation. Non-mydriatic fundus photographs of the disc and macula in both eyes were obtained in 1936 of these subjects. Photographs were reviewed in a masked fashion at a central photograph reading center using standard protocols. Presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed by trained graders and a retinal specialist using protocols developed for large epidemiologic studies. Kidney function measurements and information on traditional and non-traditional risk factors for decreased kidney function were obtained from the CRIC study. Results Greater severity of retinopathy was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after adjustment for traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with lower eGFR. We found no strong direct relationship between eGFR and average arteriolar or venular calibers. Conclusions Our findings show a strong association between severity of retinopathy and its features and level of kidney function after adjustment for traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CKD, suggesting that retinovascular pathology reflects renal disease. PMID:22965589

  16. Biodistribution and radioimmunoscintigraphy studies of renal cell carcinoma using tumor-preferential monoclonal antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, R.K. )

    1989-12-01

    The in vivo localization of renal cell carcinoma-preferential monoclonal antibodies A6H, D5D, and C5H was evaluated and the biodistribution of F(ab')2 antibody fragments of A6H and the intact Mab were compared in over 100 nude mice. A6H localized well to most renal cell carcinoma xenografts studied; the median tumor to blood ratios ranged from 6.4 to 11.5 for various xenografts. C5H also localized well to most renal cell carcinoma xenografts tested. However, D5D did not localize well to renal cell carcinoma xenografts in vivo despite its highly restrictive in vitro reactivity. The F(ab')2 fragments of A6H produced higher tumor to blood ratios, which probably resulted from fast clearance of the fragments from the circulation. Preliminary results showed that indium-111 labeling may further improve imaging.

  17. Waist Circumference, Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Renal Function Decline in Korean Population: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyunju; Quan, Shan Ai; Jeong, Jin-Young; Jang, Soong-Nang; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective investigation of obesity and renal function decline in Asia is sparse. We examined the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with renal function decline in a prospective study of Korean population. Methods A total of 454 participants who had baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels of more than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in Hallym Aging Study (HAS) were included and followed for 6 years. Renal function decline was defined as follows: (1) an eGFR decline ?3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n?=?82 cases); (2) an eGFR decrease of 20% or greater (n?=?87 cases) at follow-up; (3) an eGFR decrease of 20% greater at follow-up or eGFR decline ?3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n?=?91 cases); and (4) an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up (n?=?54 cases). eGFR was determined based on the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between obesity and renal function decline. Results We found that central obesity was associated with faster renal function decline. Comparing WC of >95 cm in men or >90 cm in women with ?90 cm in men or ?85 cm in women, ORs (95% CIs) ranged from 2.31 (1.144.69) to 2.78 (1.196.50) for the 4 definitions of renal function decline (all p-values for trend <0.05). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) also was associated with renal function decline. There was no significant association of BMI with renal function decline. Conclusions Central obesity, but not BMI, is associated with faster renal function decline in Korean population. Our results provide important evidence that simple measurement of central fat deposition rather than BMI could predict decline in renal function in Korean population. PMID:23536858

  18. Aquatic models for the study of renal transport function and pollutant toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Studies of renal cell transport mechanisms and their impairment by xenobiotics are often limited by technical difficulties related to renal tubule complexity. Problems include the juxtaposition of multiple tubule segments with different transport functions and severely limited access to the tubular lumen. Some limitations can be overcome by the careful selection of an appropriate aquatic experimental system. Two aquatic models for the vertebrate proximal segment are discussed here. The first is the kidney from certain marine flounder, which offers the following advantages: long-term viability, little tissue of nonproximal origin, and easy tubule isolation. Data are presented to demonstrate how studies with flounder kidney can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms whereby different classes of toxic pollutants may interact. Results from these experiments indicate that the excretion of certain anionic xenobiotics can be delayed (1) by other anionic xenobiotics that compete for secretory transport sites and (2) by compounds that disrupt cellular ion gradients and energy metabolism needed to drive transport. The second system is the crustacean urinary bladder, a simple, flatsheet epithelium. Bladder morphology and transport physiology closely resemble those of vertebrate proximal segment. Electron micrographs show a brush border membrane at the luminal surface, numerous mitochondria, and an infolded serosal membrane, while in vivo and in vitro transport studies show reabsorption of NaCl, nutrients and water and secretion of organic cations; organic anions are secreted in bladders from some species and reabsorbed in others. Moreover, since bladders can be mounted as flat sheets in flux chambers, studies with this tissue avoid the problems of complex renal tubule geometry and tissue heterogeneity and tissue heterogeneity that limit transport studies in proximal tubule.

  19. Long-term Prognosis of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Negative Renal Vasculitis: Cohort Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mi-Yeon; Baek, Seon Ha; Ahn, Shin-Young; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have reported on the long-term prognosis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-negative renal vasculitis. Between April 2003 and December 2013, 48 patients were diagnosed with renal vasculitis. Their ANCA status was tested using indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. During a median (interquartile range) follow-up duration of 933.5 (257.5–2,079.0) days, 41.7% of patients progressed to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and 43.8% died from any cause. Of 48 patients, 6 and 42 were ANCA-negative and positive, respectively. The rate of ESRD within 3 months was higher in ANCA-negative patients than in ANCA-positive patients (P = 0.038). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, ANCA-negative patients showed shorter renal survival than did ANCA-positive patients (log-rank P = 0.033). In univariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis, ANCA-negative patients showed increased risk of ESRD, with a hazard ratio 3.190 (95% confidence interval, 1.028–9.895, P = 0.045). However, the effect of ANCA status on renal survival was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Finally, ANCA status did not significantly affect patient survival. In conclusion, long-term patient and renal survival of ANCA-negative renal vasculitis patients did not differ from those of ANCA-positive renal vasculitis patients. Therefore, different treatment strategy depending on ANCA status might be unnecessary. PMID:27051237

  20. Active video gaming in patients with renal transplant: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with renal transplant are at higher risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. Physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of CVD mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, barriers such as the harsh Canadian climate prevent patients from engaging in and harvesting the health benefits of physical activity. This pilot study explored active video gaming (AVG) as a way for patients with renal transplant to obtain physical activity and examined its effect on their functional status and quality of life (QOL). Main text We recruited nine patients for an 8-week prospective pilot study. All patients received a Microsoft Xbox 360™ video gaming console, a Microsoft Kinect™ sensor, and the video game Your Shape Fitness Evolved 2012. Assessment of each participant before and after the intervention included blood pressure measures, a 6-minute walk test, and the Godin Leisure Time Questionnaire (GLTQ). We analyzed all nine patients at the end of the 8-week study period, and found no changes in blood pressure or GLTQ scores. However, there was a significant increase in the 6-minute walk distance (P = 0.022), which represented a consistent increase for most patients (correlation = 0.977). In addition, participants over the age of 45 years (n = 4) were more likely to use the AVG system (P = 0.042). Conclusion AVG has the potential to improve the functional status in patients with renal transplant. Further research is required to corroborate the full health benefits of AVG in this patient population. PMID:25114788

  1. Meat intake, 'mate' drinking and renal cell cancer in Uruguay: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    De Stefani, E.; Fierro, L.; Mendilaharsu, M.; Ronco, A.; Larrinaga, M. T.; Balbi, J. C.; Alonso, S.; Deneo-Pellegrini, H.

    1998-01-01

    In the period January 1988-December 1995, a case-control study of diet and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk involving 121 cases and 243 hospitalized controls was carried out in Montevideo, Uruguay. After adjusting for major covariates, red meat intake was associated with a 3.4 increase in risk for the highest category of intake, with a significant dose-response pattern. Also, barbecued meat, protein and heterocyclic amine intakes were associated with significant increases in risk of RCC. The consumption of the beverage known as 'mate' (a ocal tea derived from the herb Ilex paraguariensis) was associated with an increased risk of 3.0 for heavy drinkers. PMID:9820187

  2. Multicenter comparative study of aztreonam and gentamicin in the treatment of renal and urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, A; Bonadio, M; Fusaroli, M; Lotti, T; Miano, L; Salvia, G; Sasdelli, M; Villa, G; Zucchelli, P; Ventriglia, L

    1989-01-01

    A multicenter comparative study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of aztreonam and gentamicin in 186 patients with symptomatic renal or urinary tract infections. Patients were divided randomly into two groups: 94 patients received aztreonam 1 g/day intramuscularly and 92 patients received gentamicin 80 mg i.m. twice daily. The clinical and microbiologic results found a single daily dose of aztreonam to be more effective than gentamicin b.i.d. Furthermore, no evidence of side effects was seen with aztreonam. Such results are generally thought to ensure better compliance in outpatients. PMID:2659293

  3. Functional MRI of the kidney: tools for translational studies of pathophysiology of renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Pottumarthi V.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides exquisite anatomic detail of various organs and is capable of providing additional functional information. This combination allows for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of pathologies such as ischemic renal disease. Noninvasive MRI techniques could facilitate translation of many studies performed in controlled animal models using technologies that are invasive to humans. Such a translation is being recognized as essential because many proposed interventions and drugs that prove efficacious in animal models fail to do so in humans. In this article, we review the state-of-the-art functional MRI technique as applied to the kidneys. PMID:16601297

  4. Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study of Renal Failure in Patients Treated with Colistin versus Polymyxin B.

    PubMed

    Rigatto, Maria Helena; Oliveira, Maura S; Perdigão-Neto, Lauro V; Levin, Anna S; Carrilho, Claudia M; Tanita, Marcos Toshiyuki; Tuon, Felipe F; Cardoso, Douglas E; Lopes, Natane T; Falci, Diego R; Zavascki, Alexandre P

    2016-04-01

    Nephrotoxicity is the main adverse effect of colistin and polymyxin B (PMB). It is not clear whether these two antibiotics are associated with different nephrotoxicity rates. We compared the incidences of renal failure (RF) in patients treated with colistimethate sodium (CMS) or PMB for ≥48 h. A multicenter prospective cohort study was performed that included patients aged ≥18 years. The primary outcome was renal failure (RF) according to Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) criteria. Multivariate analysis with a Cox regression model was performed. A total of 491 patients were included: 81 in the CMS group and 410 in the PMB group. The mean daily doses in milligrams per kilogram of body weight were 4.2 ± 1.3 and 2.4 ± 0.73 of colistin base activity and PMB, respectively. The overall incidence of RF was 16.9% (83 patients): 38.3% and 12.7% in the CMS and PMB groups, respectively (P< 0.001). In multivariate analysis, CMS therapy was an independent risk factor for RF (hazard ratio, 3.35; 95% confidence interval, 2.05 to 5.48;P< 0.001) along with intensive care unit admission, higher weight, older age, and bloodstream and intraabdominal infections. CMS was also independently associated with a higher risk of RF in various subgroup analyses. The incidence of RF was higher in the CMS group regardless of the patient baseline creatinine clearance. The development of RF during therapy was not associated with 30-day mortality in multivariate analysis. CMS was associated with significantly higher rates of RF than those of PMB. Further studies are required to confirm our findings in other patient populations. PMID:26856846

  5. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Massy, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. Methods A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60–90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. Conclusions The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and the performances of the healthcare system in this field. PMID:24064325

  6. Renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, Umberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-02-27

    The diagnosis and management of renal cell carcinoma have changed remarkably rapidly. Although the incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been increasing, survival has improved substantially. As incidental diagnosis of small indolent cancers has become more frequent, active surveillance, robot-assisted nephron-sparing surgical techniques, and minimally invasive procedures, such as thermal ablation, have gained popularity. Despite progression in cancer control and survival, locally advanced disease and distant metastases are still diagnosed in a notable proportion of patients. An integrated management strategy that includes surgical debulking and systemic treatment with well established targeted biological drugs has improved the care of patients. Nevertheless, uncertainties, controversies, and research questions remain. Further advances are expected from translational and clinical studies. PMID:26318520

  7. Relation of aortic valve calcium to chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Guerraty, Marie A; Chai, Boyang; Hsu, Jesse Y; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Gao, Yanlin; Yang, Wei; Keane, Martin G; Budoff, Matthew J; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-05-01

    Although subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, the relation between CKD and aortic valve calcification has not been fully elucidated. Also, few data are available on the relation of aortic valve calcification and earlier stages of CKD. We sought to assess the relation of aortic valve calcium (AVC) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of bone metabolism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. All patients who underwent aortic valve scanning in the CRIC study were included. The relation between AVC and eGFR, traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of calcium metabolism were analyzed using both unadjusted and adjusted regression models. A total of 1,964 CRIC participants underwent computed tomography for AVC quantification. Decreased renal function was independently associated with increased levels of AVC (eGFR 47.11, 44.17, and 39 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively, p<0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for traditional, but not novel, AVC risk factors. Adjusted regression models identified several traditional and novel risk factors for AVC in patients with CKD. There was a difference in AVC risk factors between black and nonblack patients. In conclusion, our study shows that eGFR is associated in a dose-dependent manner with AVC in patients with CKD, and this association is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25791240

  8. The course and outcome of renal failure due to human leptospirosis referred to a hospital in North of Iran; A follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Roya; Shokri, Mehran; Makhlough, Atieh; Suraki-Azad, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal complication of leptospirosis is common and its clinical manifestations vary from urinary sediment changes to acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to determine the final outcome of renal involvement in leptospirosis. Methods: This longitudinal prospective study included all serologically confirmed cases of leptospirosis with evidence of renal failure. All patients were followed for three months while all patients with renal failure were followed-up for one year. Results: Fifty-one patients, 53.5±14.8 years (82.4% males) with acute renal failure were studied. Over the hospitalization period, 28 patients recovered, and seven (13.72%) patients died of multiple organ failure. At the time of discharge, 16 patients had mild renal failure. Over the follow-up period, all patients recovered but in two patients renal failure persisted at creatinine level of 1.5 mg/dl. Conclusion: Development of renal failure in leptospirosis is not rare. Recovery of renal function may last several months. However, most patients recover completely at least after one year. PMID:26958326

  9. Young aboriginals are less likely to receive a renal transplant: a Canadian national study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated Aboriginals are less likely to receive a renal transplant in comparison to Caucasians however whether this applies to the entire population or specific subsets remains unclear. We examined the effect of age on renal transplantation in Aboriginals. Methods Data on 30,688 dialysis (Aboriginal 2,361, Caucasian 28, 327) patients obtained between Jan. 2000 and Dec. 2009 were included in the final analysis. Racial status was self-reported. Cox proportional hazards, the Fine and Grey sub-distribution method and Poisson regression were used to determine the association between race, age and transplantation. Results In comparison to Caucasians, Aboriginals were less likely to receive a renal transplant (Adjusted HR 0.66 95% CI 0.57-0.77, P < 0.0001) however after stratification by age and treating death as a competing outcome, the effect was more predominant in younger Aboriginals (Age 18–40: 20.6% aboriginals vs. 48.3% Caucasians transplanted; aHR 0.50(0.39-0.61), p < 0.0001, Age 41–50: 10.2% aboriginals vs. 33.9% Caucasians transplanted; aHR 0.46(0.32-0.64), p = 0.005, Age 51–60: 8.2% aboriginals vs. 19.5% Caucasians transplanted; aHR0.65(0.49-0.88), p = 0.01, Age >60: 2.7% aboriginals vs. 2.6% Caucasians transplanted; aHR 1.21(0.76-1.91), P = 0.4, Age X race interaction p < 0.0001). Both living and deceased donor transplants were lower in Aboriginals under the age of 60 compared to Caucasians. Conclusion Younger Aboriginals are less likely to receive a renal transplant compared to their Caucasian counterparts, even after adjustment for comorbidity. Determination of the reasons behind these discrepancies and interventions specifically targeting the Aboriginal population are warranted. PMID:23317294

  10. Hyperhomocysteinemia predicts renal function decline: a prospective study in hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Di; Yuan, Yan; Guo, Jiangnan; Yang, Shenglin; Xu, Xin; Wang, Qin; Li, Youbao; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Huo, Yong; Deng, Guangpu; Wu, Shengjie; Wang, Binyan; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Xiaobin; Fang, Pu; Wang, Hong; Xu, Xiping; Hou, Fanfan

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with microalbuminuria and glomerular injury in general and diabetic populations. However, HHcy’s role in hypertensive patients was not studied. We investigated whether HHcy is an independent risk factor for renal function decline and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hypertensive men and women. This was a community-based prospective cohort study of 2,387 hypertensive adults without CKD at baseline, with a mean follow-up of 4.4 years. Baseline and follow-up levels of plasma Hcy, folate, vitamin B12, blood pressure and other pertinent covariables were obtained. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/per 1.73 m2 and an eGFR decline rate >1 ml/min/per 1.73 m2/year. There was a graded association between Hcy tertiles and eGFR decline. Subjects in the 3rd tertile of Hcy levels had an accelerated rate of eGFR decline and an increased risk of incident CKD, as compared with those in the 1st tertile, after adjusting for age, gender, baseline diabetes, SBP, BMI, smoking, dyslipidemia, eGFR, folate and vitamin B12 levels. In conclusion, in this prospective cohort of Chinese hypertensive adults, elevated baseline plasma Hcy can serve as an independent biomarker to predict renal function decline and incident CKD. PMID:26553372

  11. A cohort study of reproductive and hormonal factors and renal cell cancer risk in women

    PubMed Central

    Kabat, G C; Silvera, S A Navarro; Miller, A B; Rohan, T E

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association of reproductive and hormonal factors with renal cell cancer risk in a cohort study of 89 835 Canadian women. Compared with nulliparous women, parous women were at increased risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–3.09), and there was a significant gradient of risk with increasing levels of parity: relative to nulliparous women, women who had ⩾5 pregnancies lasting 4 months or more had a 2.4-fold risk (HR=2.41, 95% CI=1.27–4.59, P for trend 0.01). Ever use of oral contraceptives was associated with a modest reduction in risk. No associations were observed for age at first live birth or use of hormone replacement therapy. The present study provides evidence that high parity may be associated with increased risk of renal cell cancer, and that oral contraceptive use may be associated with reduced risk. PMID:17311018

  12. Renal angiomyolipoma. DNA content and immunohistochemical study of classic and multicentric variants.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, M; Bui, H X; del Rosario, A D; Wolf, B C; Ross, J S

    1994-07-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are polymorphic renal tumors that are composed of mature tissues and frequently associated with tuberous sclerosis; AMLs have long been considered hamartomatous in nature. We report the routine histologic and immunohistochemical features and DNA content analysis of two fatal cases of renal giant multicentric AML with distant organ involvement, and we contrast the findings with those of four similarly studied cases of classic solitary AML. Severe nuclear pleomorphism, significant mitotic activity, and necrosis, which are all characteristics of multicentric AML, were not seen in the cases of classic AML. Quantitation of DNA by image analysis of Feulgen-stained slides from paraffin-embedded blocks revealed an aneuploid pattern in the two cases of multicentric AML and an aneuploid pattern in one of the four cases of classic AML. Tumors in the liver, spleen, and lungs in one of the cases of multicentric AML were diploid. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive staining reaction of vascular and adipose tissue components with HMB-45 antibody in three of the six cases of AML. We conclude that AMLs may occur in a sarcomatous, infiltrating multicentric form involving multiple organs, that aneuploidy may be seen in lesions of both the multicentric AML and classic AML variants, that AMLs may feature DNA ploidy heterogeneity in multiple-organ sites, that HMB-45 immunoreactivity may be encountered in AMLs without evidence of nevomelanocytic differentiation, and that continued study of AMLs is needed to clarify further the histogenesis, lineage, clonality, and malignant potential of these tumors. PMID:8024411

  13. Renal Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Yendt, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    The pathogenesis of renal calculi is reviewed in general terms followed by the results of investigation of 439 patients with renal calculi studied by the author at Toronto General Hospital over a 13-year period. Abnormalities of probable pathogenetic significance were encountered in 76% of patients. Idiopathic hypercalciuria was encountered in 42% of patients, primary hyperparathyroidism in 11%, urinary infection in 8% and miscellaneous disorders in 8%. The incidence of uric acid stones and cystinuria was 5% and 2% respectively. In the remaining 24% of patients in whom no definite abnormalities were encountered the mean urinary magnesium excretion was less than normal. Of 180 patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria, only 24 were females. In the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism, the importance of detecting minimal degrees of hypercalcemia is stressed; attention is also drawn to the new observation that the upper limit of normal for serum calcium is slightly lower in females than in males. The efficacy of various measures advocated for the prevention of renal calculi is also reviewed. In the author's experience the administration of thiazides has been particularly effective in the prevention of calcium stones. Thiazides cause a sustained reduction in urinary calcium excretion and increase in urinary magnesium excretion. These agents also appear to affect the skeleton by diminishing bone resorption and slowing down bone turnover. PMID:5438766

  14. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma arising in acquired cystic disease of the kidney: an immunohistochemical and genetic study.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Shiotsu, Tomoyuki; Kawada, Chiaki; Shuin, Taro; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Ohe, Chisato; Mikami, Shuji; Pan, Chin-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a recently established disease entity. However, there are few reports on genetic study of this entity. We report such a case with focus on genetic study. A 57-year-old Japanese man was found to have 3 renal tumors. Histologically, two tumors showed findings of clear cell RCC; and the other tumor showed findings of clear cell papillary RCC that was characterized by papillary growth pattern of neoplastic cells in cystic space with purely clear cell cytology. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells of clear cell papillary RCC were diffusely positive for PAX2 and cytokeratin 7, but negative for CD10, RCC Ma, and AMACR. In fluorescence in situ hybridization study for one clear cell papillary RCC, we detected polysomy for chromosome 7 and monosomy for chromosomes 17, 16, and 20. In addition, we detected mutation of VHL gene in clear cell RCC, but found no VHL gene mutation in clear cell papillary RCC. Finally, our results provide further evidence that clear cell papillary RCC may be both morphologically and genetically distinct entity from clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. PMID:20952286

  15. Preventing renal and cardiovascular risk by renal function assessment: insights from a cross-sectional study in low-income countries and the USA

    PubMed Central

    Cravedi, Paolo; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Bravo, Rodolfo Flores; Islam, Nazmul; Tchokhonelidze, Irma; Ghimire, Madhav; Pahari, Bishnu; Thapa, Sanjeev; Basnet, Anil; Tataradze, Avtandil; Tinatin, Davitaia; Beglarishvili, Lela; Fwu, Chyng-Wen; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Eggers, Paul; Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Carminati, Sergio; Perna, Annalisa; Chianca, Antonietta; Couser, William G; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Perico, Norberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of microalbuminuria and kidney dysfunction in low-income countries and in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study of screening programmes in five countries. Setting Screening programmes in Nepal, Bolivia, the USA (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008) Bangladesh and Georgia. Participants General population in Nepal (n=20 811), Bolivia (n=3436) and in the USA (n=4299) and high-risk subjects in Bangladesh (n=1518) and Georgia (n=1549). Primary and secondary outcome measures Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60ml/min/1.73 m2 and microalbuminuria (defined as urinary albumin creatinine ratio values of 30–300 mg/g) were the main outcome measures. The cardiovascular (CV) risk was also evaluated on the basis of demographic, clinical and blood data. Results The prevalence of eGFR<60ml/min/1.73 m2 was 19%, 3.2% and 7% in Nepal, Bolivia and the USA, respectively. In Nepal, 7% of subjects were microalbuminuric compared to 8.6% in the USA. The prevalence of participants with predicted 10-year CV disease (CVD) risk ≥10% was 16.9%, 9.4% and 17% in Nepal, Bolivia and in the USA, respectively. In Bangladesh and Georgia, subjects with eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were 8.6% and 4.9%, whereas those with microalbuminuria were 45.4% and 56.5%, respectively. Predicted 10-year CVD risk ≥10% was 25.4% and 25% in Bangladesh and Georgia, respectively. Conclusions Renal abnormalities are common among low-income countries and in the USA. Prevention programmes, particularly focused on those with renal abnormalities, should be established worldwide to prevent CVD and progression to end-stage renal disease. PMID:23002161

  16. Causes of death in renal transplant recipients: a study of 102 autopsies from 1968 to 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Reis, M A; Costa, R S; Ferraz, A S

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted on 102 patients submitted to renal transplant who died and were autopsied at the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, from 1968 to 1991. The cause of death, based on a review of medical records and autopsy reports, was assigned to one of the following categories: infectious (69.6%); cardiovascular (12.7%); gastrointestinal (7.8%); graft rejection (6.9%); tumoral (2.0%); and undetermined (1.0%). Among the 71 cases of death caused by infection, 28 (39.4%) showed disseminated agents involving two or more organs. Isolated pneumonia involved 17 patients (23.9%), followed by acute pyelonephritis in the transplanted kidney in 10 patients (14.1%). The most frequent agents were: bacteria (58.0%), divided into 'non-classified' (83.0%), Nocardia (10.6%) and Mycobacterium (6.4%); fungi (27.5%) represented by Cryptococcus (22.7%), Aspergillus, Candida and Pneumocystis carinii (18.1% each), Histoplasma (13.6%), Mucor and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (4.5% each); viruses (6.2%) represented by Herpes simplex (60.0%); metazoa (5.0%, S. stercoralis), and protozoa (2.5%, T. cruzi). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was identified in the lungs of 12 patients and was not directly correlated with death but was associated with other agents. In conclusion, immunodepressed patients such as renal transplant recipients should be carefully monitored for infection due to the high mortality rate. PMID:7884765

  17. NMR studies of renal phosphate metabolites in vivo: Effects of hydration and dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, S.D.; Eng, C.; Balaban, R.S. )

    1988-10-01

    The present study characterizes the {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of rabbit kidneys in vivo and evaluates the effect of hydration on phosphorous metabolites including the organic solute glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC). Cortical phosphorylethanolamine is the predominant component of the phosphomonoester region of the {sup 31}P spectrum. The contribution of blood to the spectrum is mainly from 2,3 diphosphoglycerate, which comprises {approximately}30% of the inorganic phosphate region. Acute infusion of 0.9% saline decreases the sodium content of the inner medulla by >50% in 15 min as shown by {sup 23}Na imaging. Despite this medullary Na dilution, no change in renal GPC content was observed for >1 h even with the addition of furosemide or furosemide and antidiuretic hormone. However, 20 h of chronic dehydration with 0.45% saline did result in a 30% decrease in renal GPC content when compared with dehydrated animals. These findings are consistent with GPC not playing a role in the short-term regulation of the medullary intracellular milieu in response to acute reductions in medullary Na content.

  18. Polyuria and proteinuria in cystinosis have no impact on renal transplantation. A report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study.

    PubMed

    Langlois, V; Geary, D; Murray, L; Champoux, S; Hébert, D; Goodyer, P

    2000-11-01

    Because cystinotic patients are polyuric and may have severe proteinuria, each of which is a potential risk factor for graft thrombosis, preemptive transplantation for them is questionable. The objectives of this study were to characterize the changes in urine volume and protein excretion at various stages of cystinosis, determine whether there is serologic evidence of hypercoagulability, and review the clinical experience in renal transplantation in cystinotic children. The records of cystinotic patients followed at the Montreal Children's Hospital between 1992 and 1998 were reviewed. Urinary volume, protein excretion, and coagulation markers were collected to determine the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >50 ml/min/1.73 m2, <20 ml/min/1.73 m2, before and after starting dialysis. In addition, graft failure and graft thrombosis rates were obtained from the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS) database. Urinary volume and protein excretion remained elevated throughout different phases of the disease. Coagulation factors were within normal limits for all patients. In the NAPRTCS database there were four thromboses among the 114 patients transplanted cystinotic patients. All these occurred in cadaveric grafts and only one occurred after preemptive transplantation. Despite polyuria and severe proteinuria, children with cystinosis do not appear to be at an increased risk of graft failure or graft thrombosis. PMID:11095001

  19. International Study of Health Care Organization and Financing of renal services in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tricia; Roderick, Paul

    2007-12-01

    In England and Wales, the quantity and quality of renal services have improved significantly in the last decade. While acceptance rates for renal replacement therapy appear low by international standards, they are now commensurate with many other northern European countries. The major growth in renal services has been in hemodialysis, especially at satellite units. Health care is predominantly publicly funded through a tax-based National Health Service, and such funding has increased in the last 10 years. Improvements in health outcomes in England and Wales are expected to continue due to the recent implementation of standards, initiatives, and monitoring mechanisms for renal transplantation, vascular access, and patient transport. PMID:17653861

  20. A study of the role of renal nerves in the renal responses to 60° head-up tilt in the anaesthetized dog

    PubMed Central

    DiBona, G. F.; Johns, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    1. Renal responses to 10 min of 60° head-up tilt were measured in anaesthetized dogs in which renal perfusion pressure was maintained at a relatively constant value. 2. Tilting was associated with a fall in systemic blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate remained constant while there was a significant decrease in both absolute and fractional excretion of sodium. 3. Animals which had undergone acute renal denervation were tilted. The cardiovascular responses were similar to intact animals. A fall in renal blood flow was observed but the glomerular filtration rate was maintained at a steady value during tilting. The decreased renal tubular excretion of sodium measured in intact animals was abolished. 4. Alpha-adrenergic blockade of the kidney was achieved by infusion of phentolamine into the renal artery. Tilting of these animals caused cardiovascular changes similar to those observed in control animals but renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and sodium handling remained unchanged. 5. Animals in which both carotid sinuses had been acutely denervated were tilted. Systemic blood pressure fell as in intact animals, but the rise in heart rate was significantly less. Renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and the rate of sodium excretion were unchanged. 6. A 10 min period of 60° head-up tilt in anaesthetized dogs resulted in an unchanged renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate which was associated with a decrease in both fractional excretion of sodium and sodium excretion. The renal sympathetic nerves were shown to be responsible for these changes in tubular sodium handling which appeared to exert their action via renal tubular α-adrenergic receptors. This activation of the renal nerves appeared to be mediated by the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex. PMID:7381761

  1. A clinical comparative study of the management of chronic renal failure with Punarnavadi compound

    PubMed Central

    Prashanth, G. S.; Baghel, M. S.; Ravishankar, B.; Gupta, S. N.; Mehta, Miten P.

    2010-01-01

    India like any other country is facing a silent epidemic of chronic renal failure (CRF)- a facet of the health transition associated with industrialization partly fuelled by increase in sedentary lifestyle, low birth weight and malnutrition. Increasing figures by many folds seen is posing a difficult situation to overcome with respect to economy and health of the working and earning population of the nation. There is an urgent need to explore, highlight new interventions and modify modifiable risk factors as a basis for treatment strategies to prevent the development and progression of CRF. The present study was taken up to evaluate the role of trial formulation tab. Punarnavadi compound in the management of chronic renal failure. This was an open clinical comparative study in controlled circumstances wherein 67 patients were studied for two months in three groups- Group A (allopathic control), Group B (ayurvedic control) and Group C (ayurvedic test). It was a multi-centric study; patients were registered from Anandababa charitable dialysis centre, Jamnagar, Kayachikitsa O.P.D. of I.P.G.T. and R.A. Jamnagar and P. D. Patel Ayurveda hospital, Nadiad. Results were assessed on 15 parameters using Students (paired) ‘t’ test. Group A patients showed comparatively better results in eight parameters- weight, platelet count, serum urea, serum uric acid, serum sodium, potassium, chloride and total proteins. Parameter Hemoglobin% showed better results in Group B patients and in Group C patients comparatively better results in six parameters viz.- quality of life (breathlessness, weakness, general functional capacity), total count, serum creatinine and serum calcium - were observed. Throughout the study, trial drug tab. Punarnavadi compound did not show any adverse drug reaction. The results of this study will help in developing a cheap and safe treatment for the management of CRF. PMID:22131708

  2. A dynamic paracellular pathway serves diuresis in mosquito Malpighian (renal) tubules

    PubMed Central

    Beyenbach, Klaus W.

    2012-01-01

    Female mosquitoes gorge on vertebrate blood, a rich nutrient source for developing eggs. But gorging meals increase the risk of predation. Mosquitoes are quick to reduce the flight payload with a potent diuresis. Diuretic peptides of the insect kinin family induce a tenfold-reduction in the paracellular resistance of Malpighian tubules and increase the paracellular permeation of Cl−, the counterion of the transepithelial secretion of Na+ and K+. As a result, the transepithelial secretion of NaCl and KCl and water increases. Insect kinins signal to the opening of the paracellular pathway via G protein-coupled receptors and the elevation of intracellular [Ca2+], which leads to the reorganization of the cytoskeleton associated with the septate junction. The reorganization may affect the septate junctional proteins that control the barrier and permselectivity properties of the paracellular pathway. The proteins involved in the embryonic formation of the septate junction and in epithelial polarization are largely known for ectodermal epithelia, but the proteins that form and mediate the dynamic functions of the septate junction in Malpighian tubules remain to be determined. PMID:22731730

  3. Acquired cystic disease-associated renal cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Yamashita, Motoki; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Acquired cystic disease (ACD)-associated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been recently identified. However, there are only a few genetic studies to date. In this article, we performed an immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study for six cases including one case with sarcomatoid change. As a result, we observed frequent immunohistochemical expression of AMACR. FISH of chromosome 3 showed trisomy for three cases, monosomy for two cases, and disomy for one case. Additionally, FISH of chromosome 16 showed trisomy for three cases, monosomy for two cases, and both trisomy and monosomy for one case. Furthermore, both the carcinomatous area and the sarcomatoid area of one ACD-associated RCC with sarcomatoid change revealed monosomy of chromosomes 3, 9, and 16 but showed disomy of chromosome 14. In conclusion, the numerical abnormalities of chromosomes 3 and 16, irrespective of gain or loss, may be characteristic of ACD-associated RCC. PMID:22179186

  4. Grandma's TUM-my Trouble: A Case Study in Renal Physiology and Acid-Base Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    This case study involves the role of the kidneys in regulating blood pH and electrolytes. The case was used near the end of a two-semester Human Anatomy and Physiology course sequence, during the time when renal physiology was under study. Groups of two to three students were given the case and associated information (lab values, etc.). Students…

  5. Grandma's TUM-my Trouble: A Case Study in Renal Physiology and Acid-Base Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    This case study involves the role of the kidneys in regulating blood pH and electrolytes. The case was used near the end of a two-semester Human Anatomy and Physiology course sequence, during the time when renal physiology was under study. Groups of two to three students were given the case and associated information (lab values, etc.). Students

  6. Relationship of Estimated GFR and Coronary Artery Calcification in the (CRIC) Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Budoff, Matthew J; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P.; Mohler, Emile R.; Lash, Jim; Yang, Wei; Rosen, Leigh; Glenn, Melanie; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with increased mortality risk in the general population. Although individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased mortality risk, the incidence, prevalence, and prognosis of CAC in CKD is not well-understood. Study Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting and Participants Analysis of 1,908 participants who underwent coronary calcium scanning as part of the multi-ethnic CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Predictor Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) computed using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation, stratified by race, sex and diabetic status. eGFR was treated as a continous variable and a categorical variable compared to the reference range of >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 Measurements CAC detected using CT scans using either an Imatron C-300 electron beam computed tomography scanner or multi-detector CT scanner. CAC was computed using the Agatston score, as a categorical variable. Analyses were performed using ordinal logistic regression. Results We found a strong and graded relationship between lower eGFR and increasing CAC. In unadjusted models, ORs increased from 1.68 (95% CI, 1.23–2.31) for eGFR from 50–59 to 2.82 (95% CI, 2.06–3.85) for eGFR of <30. Multivariable adjustment only partially attenuated the results (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.07–2.20) for eGFR<30. Limitations Use of eGFR rather than measured GFR. Conclusions We demonstrated a graded relationship between severity of CKD and CAC, independent of traditional risk factors. These findings supports recent guidelines that state that if vascular calcification is present, it should be considered as a complementary component to be included in the decision making required for individualizing treatment of CKD. PMID:21783289

  7. Studies in Chaotic adiabatic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarzynski, C.

    1994-01-01

    Chaotic adiabatic dynamics refers to the study of systems exhibiting chaotic evolution under slowly time-dependent equations of motion. In this dissertation the author restricts his attention to Hamiltonian chaotic adiabatic systems. The results presented are organized around a central theme, namely, that the energies of such systems evolve diffusively. He begins with a general analysis, in which he motivates and derives a Fokker-Planck equation governing this process of energy diffusion. He applies this equation to study the {open_quotes}goodness{close_quotes} of an adiabatic invariant associated with chaotic motion. This formalism is then applied to two specific examples. The first is that of a gas of noninteracting point particles inside a hard container that deforms slowly with time. Both the two- and three-dimensional cases are considered. The results are discussed in the context of the Wall Formula for one-body dissipation in nuclear physics, and it is shown that such a gas approaches, asymptotically with time, an exponential velocity distribution. The second example involves the Fermi mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays. Explicit evolution equations are obtained for the distribution of cosmic ray energies within this model, and the steady-state energy distribution that arises when this equation is modified to account for the injection and removal of cosmic rays is discussed. Finally, the author re-examines the multiple-time-scale approach as applied to the study of phase space evolution under a chaotic adiabatic Hamiltonian. This leads to a more rigorous derivation of the above-mentioned Fokker-Planck equation, and also to a new term which has relevance to the problem of chaotic adiabatic reaction forces (the forces acting on slow, heavy degrees of freedom due to their coupling to light, fast chaotic degrees).

  8. Renal oncocytosis: a clinicopathological and cytogenetic study of 42 tumours occurring in 11 patients.

    PubMed

    Giunchi, Francesca; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Vagnoni, Valerio; Capizzi, Elisa; Bertolo, Riccardo; Porpiglia, Francesco; Vatrano, Simona; Tamberi, Stefano; Schiavina, Riccardo; Papotti, Mauro; Bollito, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Renal oncocytosis is a rare pathological condition characterised by the presence of multiple oncocytic tumours with a spectrum of histological features ranging from renal oncocytoma, hybrid oncocytic tumour and rarely chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, sometimes overlapping. Here we retrospectively analysed histological, immunohistochemical (IHC), and cytogenetic features of 42 lesions in 11 patients with renal oncocytosis, not associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. The histology of all the lesions was blindly reviewed by three dedicated genitourinary pathologists. IHC for cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for copy number variation of chromosomes 1, 6, 7 and 17 were performed in all 42 nodules. Among the 42 lesions 36 (85.7%) were histologically renal oncocytomas, two (4.76%) 'hybrid oncocytic tumours' (HOT), one (2.4%) clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), one (2.4%) papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC), one typical angiomyolipoma (2.4%), and one mixed epithelial/stromal tumour of the kidney (2.4%). FISH analysis confirmed the histological diagnosis of all the lesions. We show that most patients with renal oncocytosis harbour benign or low malignant potential tumours that can be treated conservatively. PMID:27020208

  9. Arterial stenosis complicating renal allotransplantation in man: a study of 38 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Lacombe, M

    1975-01-01

    Of 306 renal transplantations, stenosis of the artery supplying the grafted kidney was found in 38 patients three months to two years after they had undergone renal transplantation. The diagnosis was made by arteriography done because of refractory hypertension with or without impaired renal function in 36 patients and as a routine investigation in two normotensive patients. The stenosis was corrected surgically in 14 patients, with resultant lasting relief of hypertension in ten patients and improvement of renal function in five out of six patients with impaired renal function. Different types of stenosis were recognized: stenosis of the recipient artery, stenosis of the suture line, stenosis of the donor renal artery (segmental or diffuse) and multiple forms. The most frequent site of stenosis was the donor artery. There seems to be no single cause of stenosis: atheroma of the recipient vessels, faulty suture technique, hemodynamic disturbances, trauma to donor or recipient arteries account for some cases, whereas in other cases the evidence points to an immune mechanism. This complication of renal transplantation may be more frequent than is thought at present; therefore, routine renal arteriography should be performed at repeated intervals in all transplanted patients. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1093485

  10. Association Between the Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Risk of ESRD in Renal Diseases: A Population-Based, Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yen-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Chang, Chi-Sen; Wu, Yu-Lin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use may be associated with nephritis and acute renal injury. The risk of PPIs and deterioration of renal function, in patients with renal diseases, needs to be investigated.A case-control study was conducted in a nation-wide data setting from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). This case-control study used data extracted from NHIRD between the years 2006 and 2011. We used propensity scores to match 3808 patients suffering from renal diseases (ICD-9-CM codes 580-589), with patients (aged ≥20 years) who had had a recent diagnosis of end-stage renal diseases (ESRDs) and had undertaken renal replacement therapy during the period of 2006 to 2011. The 3808 control subjects were selected from people who had a history of renal diseases, but no ESRD. The risk of ESRD in patients with renal diseases and PPIs use was estimated by using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).The use of a PPIs was associated with a significantly higher risk of ESRD (adjusted OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.71-2.06) in renal disease patients. Of all the types of PPI combined, the adjusted OR was 1.92 (95% CI = 1.74-2.13) for those on <100 cumulative DDD and was 1.74-fold (95% CI = 1.52-2.00) for those on ≥100 cumulative DDD.PPIs use is associated with the risk of ESRD in patients with renal diseases. It is necessary that appropriate prescription of PPIs coordinated with the close monitoring renal function of patients diagnosed with renal disease. PMID:27082596

  11. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide to enhance MRA of the renal and coronary arteries: Studies in human patients

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, A.E.; Wilke, N.; Li, D.; Haacke, E.M.; McLachlan, S.

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of using an intravascular MR contrast agent to improve 3D MRA. Three-dimensional TOF MRA was performed in nine patients both prior to and following the administration of an ultrasmall particle superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent (AMI 227). The lengths of both renal arteries were measured from the maximum intensity projection (MIP) images as well as the individual partitions. Seven of these patients also were studied by a 3D coronary artery MRA sequence. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements of the right coronary artery were determined both prior to and following the administration of AMI 227. Statistical analysis of both renal artery lengths and right coronary SNR and CNR was performed using a one tailed paired t test comparing pre- and postcontrast images. The renal artery lengths significantly increased (right renal artery: 30%, p = 0.001; left renal artery: 25%, p < 0.008) when measured from the individual axial slice partitions. No significant increase in length was observed on the MIP images following contrast. In the right coronary artery, the SNR increased by an average of 80% (p = 0.008) and CNR increased by an average of 109% (p = 0.007). Increased background signal and superimposed venous structures reduced the measurable lengths of the renal arteries from the MIP images. These studies support the hypothesis that 3D MRA in the body will benefit from the use of intravascular contrast agents. Nevertheless, conventional MIP processing is unable to reveal the full advantage of the contrast improvement. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A retrospective study of end-stage renal disease in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, Elise E B; Davis, Barbara; Tseng, Flo

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study summarizes 11 cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from eight zoologic institutions across the United States and Canada. Ten bears were female, one was male, and the mean age at the time of death was 24 yr old. The most common clinical signs were lethargy, inappetence, and polyuria-polydipsia. Biochemical findings included azotemia, anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. Histologic examination commonly showed glomerulonephropathies and interstitial fibrosis. Based on submissions to a private diagnostic institution over a 16-yr period, ESRD was the most commonly diagnosed cause of death or euthanasia in captive polar bears in the United States, with an estimated prevalence of over 20%. Further research is needed to discern the etiology of this apparently common disease of captive polar bears. PMID:24712164

  13. Study of molecule variations in renal tumor based on confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Zhengfei; Li, Ning; Guo, Zhouyi; Zhu, Meifang; Xiong, Ke; Chen, Sijin

    2013-03-01

    Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy-a valuable analytical tool in biological and medical field of research-allows probing molecular vibrations of samples without external labels or extensive preparation. We employ confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy to characterize renal tumors and normal tissue. Results show that Raman peaks of the renal tumor at 788 and 1087 cm-1, which belong to νs and νas stretching, respectively, have an obvious increase. At the same time, the ratio of I855/I831 in renal tumor tissue is 1.39±0.08, while that in normal renal tissue is 2.44±0.05 (p<0.01). This means that more tyrosine conformation transform from "buried" to "exposed" in the presence of cancer. Principal component analysis is used to classify the Raman spectra of renal tumor tissue and normal tissue.

  14. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological and whole-genome exon sequencing study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kunpeng; Ren, Yuan; Pang, Lijuan; Qi, Yan; Jia, Wei; Tao, Lin; Hu, Zhengyan; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Li; Yue, Haifeng; Han, Juan; Liang, Weihua; Hu, Jianming; Zou, Hong; Yuan, Xianglin; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) represents the second most common histological subtype of RCC, and comprises 2 subtypes. Prognosis for type 1 PRCC is relatively good, whereas type 2 PRCC is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinicopathological and mutations characteristics of PRCC. Hence, we reported on 13 cases of PRCC analyzed using whole-exome sequencing. Histologically, type 2 PRCC showed a higher nuclear grade and lymphovascular invasion rate versus type 1 PRCC (P < 0.05). Immunostaining revealed type 1 PRCC had higher CK7 and lower Top IIα expression rates (P < 0.05). Whole-exome sequencing data analysis revealed that the mutational statuses of 373 genes (287 missense, 69 silent, 6 nonsense, and 11 synonymous mutations) differed significantly between PRCC and normal renal tissues (P < 0.05). Functional enrichment analysis was used to classify the 287 missense-mutated genes into 11 biological process clusters (comprised of 61 biological processes) and 5 pathways, involved in cell adhesion, microtubule-based movement, the cell cycle, polysaccharide biosynthesis, muscle cell development and differentiation, cell death, and negative regulation. Associated pathways included the ATP-binding cassette transporter, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, lysosome, complement and coagulation cascades, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism pathways. The missense mutation status of 19 genes differed significantly between the groups (P < 0.05), and alterations in the EEF1D, RFNG, GPR142, and RAB37 genes were located in different chromosomal regions in type 1 and 2 PRCC. These mutations may contribute to future studies on pathogenic mechanisms and targeted therapy of PRCC. PMID:26339402

  15. Hijama improves overall quality of life in chronic renal failure patients: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Danial, Khurram

    2015-09-01

    Present study assesses the therapeutic effectiveness of Hijama (blood letting) inpatients of chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis for past several years with almost no urinary output.24 patients from Sindh Government Qatar Hospital Karachi were selected randomly under going dialysis 2-3 times/week for an average of 3 years under supervision of Dr. Khurram Danial, in-charge nephrologist at dialysis Centre Sindh Government Qatar Hospital Karachi after the written consent from patients. Each patient was subjected to Hijama session once a week after dialysis for a period of one year in a nearby hospital Aligarh Shifa with the consent of the ethical committee of the hospital. Serum urea, creatinine, complete blood count and electrolytes were determined prior to Hijama as baseline values and were again recorded on monthly basis for twelve months of Hijama sessions. The patient's feedback regarding quality of life after each Hijama session shows that almost all the patients reported a significant recovery from severe fatigue which they used to face during the interval between the dialysis sessions. There was significant recovery in all patients from anorexia and insomnia with the improvement in quality of life as compared to patients not undergoing Hijama. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were shifted towards normal in almost all patients after Hijama. Serum Creatinine level was declined significantly, while electrolyte and hematological parameters were also improved significantly. The hemoglobin of all patients undergoing Hijama was maintained near normal without any blood transfusion, which was frequently needed in patients not undergoing Hijama sessions. There was insignificant improvement in Urinary output in 2 out of 24 patients. Results of the present study suggest that Hijama may be performed safely in patients of chronic renal failure on dialysis with overall improvement in quality of life, since there was reduction in fatigue, improvement in appetite, quality of sleep and platelet count. PMID:26408893

  16. Study of ambulatory blood pressure in diabetic children: prediction of early renal insult

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Nehad Mohamed; Shalaby, Naglaa M

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Elevated blood pressure (BP) promotes the development and progression of microvascular complications, eg, nephropathy and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to identify and detect early BP changes in diabetic children and adolescents, aiming for the early prediction of future renal and cardiovascular disease risk during childhood. Methods and materials Ambulatory BP monitoring was undertaken for 40 normotensive type 1 diabetic children with mean age of 11.56±2.82 years, and 24 healthy children as control group with matched age and sex. Albumin/creatinine ratio and glycated hemoglobin were tested. BP indices and standard deviation scores were calculated using reference standards. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20 using mean and standard deviations for descriptive data. Correlation and regression analysis tests were used to study relations between BP indices and diabetic parameters. Results All parameters of BP z-scores were highly significantly increased in diabetic patients compared with controlled group (P<0.0001). The frequency of non-dipping was greater and highly significant in microalbuminuric diabetic patients (P<0.0001). Regression analysis revealed that BP parameters were significantly related to albumin/creatinine ratio, glycated hemoglobin, insulin dose, and body mass index. Conclusion Our observation revealed a clear link between the nocturnal BP and microalbuminuria which mandates BP follow-up via ambulatory BP monitoring with therapeutic intervention to prevent renal and cardiovascular diabetic complications in adulthood. PMID:26491340

  17. Polar solvation dynamics of lysozyme from molecular dynamics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2012-05-01

    The solvation dynamics of a protein are believed to be sensitive to its secondary structures. We have explored such sensitivity in this article by performing room temperature molecular dynamics simulation of an aqueous solution of lysozyme. Nonuniform long-time relaxation patterns of the solvation time correlation function for different segments of the protein have been observed. It is found that relatively slower long-time solvation components of the α-helices and β-sheets of the protein are correlated with lower exposure of their polar probe residues to bulk solvent and hence stronger interactions with the dynamically restricted surface water molecules. These findings can be verified by appropriate experimental studies.

  18. Radiology of renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers most aspects of imaging studies in patients with renal failure. The initial chapter provides basic information on contrast agents, intravenous urography, and imaging findings in the urinary tract disorders responsible for renal failure and in patients who have undergone transplantation. It illustrates common gastro-intestinal abnormalities seen on barium studies in patients with renal failure. It illustrates the cardiopulmonary complications of renal failure and offers advice for radiologic differentiation. It details different aspects of skeletal changes in renal failure, including a basic description of the pathophysiology of the changes; many excellent illustrations of classic bone changes, arthritis, avascular necrosis, and soft-tissue calcifications; and details of bone mineral analysis.

  19. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study (CRIC): Overview and Summary of Selected Findings.

    PubMed

    Denker, Matthew; Boyle, Suzanne; Anderson, Amanda H; Appel, Lawrence J; Chen, Jing; Fink, Jeffrey C; Flack, John; Go, Alan S; Horwitz, Edward; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Kusek, John W; Lash, James P; Navaneethan, Sankar; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Townsend, Raymond R; Feldman, Harold I

    2015-11-01

    The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study is a United States multicenter, prospective study of racially and ethnically diverse patients with CKD. Although the original aims of the study were to identify novel predictors of CKD progression and to elucidate the risk and manifestations of cardiovascular disease among nearly 4000 individuals with CKD, the CRIC Study has evolved into a national resource for investigation of a broad spectrum of CKD-related topics. The study has produced >90 published scientific articles, promoted many young investigative careers in nephrology, and fostered international collaborations focused on understanding the global burden of CKD. The third phase of the CRIC Study will complete enrollment of 1500 additional study participants in 2015 and is designed to answer questions regarding morbidity and mortality in mild-to-moderate CKD and to assess the burden of CKD in older persons. This review highlights some of the salient findings of the CRIC Study in the areas of race and ethnicity, CKD progression, CKD and cognition, and cardiovascular disease outcomes; it also outlines the ongoing and forthcoming opportunities for the global nephrology community to enhance its understanding of CKD and related complications through the study. PMID:26265715

  20. Is There Hope for Renal Growth on Imaging Studies Following Ureteral Reimplant for Boys With Fetal Hydronephrosis and Urinary Reflux?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Reflux nephropathy is thought to be the etiology for renal maldevelopment. We present two boys with fetal hydronephrosis and sterile vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). There was lack of renal growth of the refluxing renal units on surveillance renal ultrasound. Parents elected to undergo open ureteral reimplants. Post-surgical ultrasounds demonstrated improved renal growth. PMID:26793522

  1. Renal hemodynamics in space.

    PubMed

    Kramer, H J; Heer, M; Cirillo, M; De Santo, N G

    2001-09-01

    Renal excretory function and hemodynamics are determined by the effective circulating plasma volume as well as by the interplay of systemic and local vasoconstrictors and vasodilators. Microgravity results in a headward shift of body fluid. Because the control conditions of astronauts were poorly defined in many studies, controversial results have been obtained regarding diuresis and natriuresis as well as renal hemodynamic changes in response to increased central blood volume, especially during the initial phase of space flight. Renal excretory function and renal hemodynamics in microgravity are affected in a complex fashion, because during the initial phase of space flight, variable mechanisms become operative to modulate the effects of increased central blood volume. They include interactions between vasodilators (dopamine, atrial natriuretic peptide, and prostaglandins) and vasoconstrictors (sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system). The available data suggest a moderate rise in glomerular filtration rate during the first 2 days after launch without a significant increase in effective renal plasma flow. In contrast, too few data regarding the effects of space flight on renal function during the first 12 hours after launch are available and are, in addition, partly contradictory. Thus, detailed and well-controlled studies are required to shed more light on the role of the various factors besides microgravity that determine systemic and renal hemodynamics and renal excretory function during the different stages of space flight. PMID:11532705

  2. Utility of radioisotopic filtration markers in chronic renal insufficiency: Simultaneous comparison of sup 125 I-iothalamate, sup 169 Yb-DTPA, sup 99m Tc-DTPA, and inulin. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study

    SciTech Connect

    Perrone, R.D.; Steinman, T.I.; Beck, G.J.; Skibinski, C.I.; Royal, H.D.; Lawlor, M.; Hunsicker, L.G. )

    1990-09-01

    Assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with inulin is cumbersome and time-consuming. Radioisotopic filtration markers have been studied as filtration markers because they can be used without continuous intravenous (IV) infusion and because analysis is relatively simple. Although the clearances of 99mTc-DTPA, 169Yb-DTPA, and 125I-iothalamate have each been compared with inulin, rarely has the comparability of radioisotopic filtration markers been directly evaluated in the same subject. To this purpose, we determined the renal clearance of inulin administered by continuous infusion and the above radioisotopic filtration markers administered as bolus injections, simultaneously in four subjects with normal renal function and 16 subjects with renal insufficiency. Subjects were studied twice in order to assess within-study and between-study variability. Unlabeled iothalamate was infused during the second half of each study to assess its effect on clearances. We found that renal clearance of 125I-iothalamate and 169Yb-DTPA significantly exceeded clearance of inulin in patients with renal insufficiency, but only by several mL.min-1.1.73m-2. Overestimation of inulin clearance by radioisotopic filtration markers was found in all normal subjects. No differences between markers were found in the coefficient of variation of clearances either between periods on a given study day (within-day variability) or between the two study days (between-day variability). The true test variability between days did not correlate with within-test variability. We conclude that the renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA, 169Yb-DTPA, or 125I-iothalamate administered as a single IV or subcutaneous injection can be used to accurately measure GFR in subjects with renal insufficiency; use of the single injection technique may overestimate GFR in normal subjects.

  3. Papillary renal cell carcinoma revisited: a comprehensive histomorphologic study with outcome correlations.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Joshua I; Tsodikov, Alex; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Morgan, Todd M; Alva, Ajjai; Tomlins, Scott; Wu, Angela; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Hafez, Khaled S; Wolf, J Stuart; Weizer, Alon Z; Mehra, Rohit

    2014-06-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (P-RCC) is the second most common type of malignant renal epithelial tumor and can be subclassified into type 1, which demonstrates simple cuboidal low-grade epithelium and type 2, which demonstrates pseudostratified high-grade epithelium with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Despite this clinically useful subclassification, P-RCCs exhibit considerable histomorphologic diversity, with many cases having features differing from classically described type 1 and type 2 tumors. To our knowledge, there has been no recent study that has methodically evaluated the histomorphologic features of a series of P-RCCs. To address this, we evaluated a cohort of P-RCCs diagnosed between 1997 and 2004 with long-term clinical follow-up data (n = 56). Histomorphologic features previously described in the spectrum of type 1 and type 2 P-RCCs were recorded for each tumor, including nuclear grade, complete tumor capsule, and cytoplasmic eosinophilia as well as several other features. The current TNM staging (American Joint Committee on Cancer, seventh edition) was assigned to all cases. Histomorphologic features were diverse, demonstrating classic type 1 P-RCC and classic type 2 P-RCC morphology and several tumors with nonclassic features. Four patients in this cohort had distant metastasis. The primary tumor was equally divided between type 1 (2 cases) and type 2 (2 cases) morphology in the cases with metastasis. All P-RCC cases with metastases demonstrated presence of high nuclear grade and high tumor stage in the primary tumor. Cluster analysis using staging parameters and histomorphologic features divided tumors into 2 primary clusters. All primary tumors associated with metastasis were in the same cluster. PMID:24767860

  4. Unclassified renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological, comparative genomic hybridization, and whole-genome exon sequencing study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhen-Yan; Pang, Li-Juan; Qi, Yan; Kang, Xue-Ling; Hu, Jian-Ming; Wang, Lianghai; Liu, Kun-Peng; Ren, Yuan; Cui, Mei; Song, Li-Li; Li, Hong-An; Zou, Hong; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Unclassified renal cell carcinoma (URCC) is a rare variant of RCC, accounting for only 3-5% of all cases. Studies on the molecular genetics of URCC are limited, and hence, we report on 2 cases of URCC analyzed using comparative genome hybridization (CGH) and the genome-wide human exon GeneChip technique to identify the genomic alterations of URCC. Both URCC patients (mean age, 72 years) presented at an advanced stage and died within 30 months post-surgery. Histologically, the URCCs were composed of undifferentiated, multinucleated, giant cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunostaining revealed that both URCC cases had strong p53 protein expression and partial expression of cluster of differentiation-10 and cytokeratin. The CGH profiles showed chromosomal imbalances in both URCC cases: gains were observed in chromosomes 1p11-12, 1q12-13, 2q20-23, 3q22-23, 8p12, and 16q11-15, whereas losses were detected on chromosomes 1q22-23, 3p12-22, 5p30-ter, 6p, 11q, 16q18-22, 17p12-14, and 20p. Compared with 18 normal renal tissues, 40 mutated genes were detected in the URCC tissues, including 32 missense and 8 silent mutations. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the missense mutation genes were involved in 11 different biological processes and pathways, including cell cycle regulation, lipid localization and transport, neuropeptide signaling, organic ether metabolism, and ATP-binding cassette transporter signaling. Our findings indicate that URCC may be a highly aggressive cancer, and the genetic alterations identified herein may provide clues regarding the tumorigenesis of URCC and serve as a basis for the development of targeted therapies against URCC in the future. PMID:25120763

  5. Effect of vitamin C on endothelial function of children with chronic renal failure: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Mohammad Reza; Tavana, Esfandiar Najafi; Ahmadi, Alireza; Gheissari, Alaleh

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is well established that improvement of endothelial dysfunction (ED) could prevent or delay the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its related morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study we investigated whether administration of vitamin C could be effective by improving brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and intima media thickness (IMT), two surrogate markers of ED, in children with CKD or chronic renal failure (CRF). Materials and Methods: In this analytic-experimental study children aged 3-18 years with a diagnosis of CRF and a group of healthy children were enrolled. Vitamin C (250 mg/day) administrated for the two studied groups for 1 month. Endothelial function was evaluated by FMD and IMT measurement using vascular Doppler ultrasonography, before and after trial. Results: In this study 18 patients with CRF and 19 normal children as the control group were studied. At baseline mean of IMT and FMD was not different in the two studied groups (P > 0.05). After vitamin C administration IMT decreased significantly in the two studied groups (P < 0.05). FMD increased in the two studied groups but the difference was significant in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this interventional trial have demonstrated that vitamin C could have protective effect on ED of patients with CRF possibly in those with severe form of the disease but for obtaining more conclusive results larger sample size is needed. PMID:26918242

  6. USE OF THE SPONTANEOUS TSC2 KNOCKOUT (EKER) RAT MODEL OF HEREDITARY RENAL CELL CARCINOMA FOR THE STUDY OF RENAL CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The kidney is a frequent site for chemically induced cancers in rodents and among the ten most frequent sites for cancer in human patients. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent upper urinary tract cancer in humans and accounts for 80-85% of malignant renal tumors. He...

  7. Oxidative stress influence on renal dysfunction in patients with obstructive jaundice: A case and control prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cecilia, David; Reyes-Díaz, María; Ruiz-Rabelo, Juan; Gomez-Alvarez, Manuel; Villanueva, Carmen Muñoz; Álamo, José; Muntané, Jordi; Padillo, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive Jaundice (OJ) is associated with a significant risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF). The involvement of oxidative stress in the development of cholestasis has been demonstrated in different experimental models. However, its role in the morbidity of human cholestasis is far to be elucidated. The aim of the study was the evaluation of oxidative stress markers in blood from patients with OJ and its relation to complications and benign/malignant evolution of cholestasis. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of 105 patients with OJ and 34 control subjects were included. Several markers of liver function and oxidative stress, such as lipoperoxides (LPO), as well as reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were assessed. Results: The patients with OJ showed a marked increase in plasma levels of LPO, SOD and GSH, while GSH-Px levels were decreased. The increase in lipid peroxidation products and the depletion of SOD activity in blood were also related to renal dysfunction. The highest level of LPO was associated with malignant etiology of the disease. The logistic regression analysis showed that the age of the patient and the levels of LPO in blood were predictors of renal dysfunction in OJ patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a correlation between oxidative stress and renal dysfunction patients with OJ. PMID:26774750

  8. Design and feasibility of “PREMATurity as predictor of children's Cardiovascular–renal Health” (PREMATCH): A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Petit, Thibault; Gu, Yumei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fangfei; Cools, Bjorn; Jacobs, Lotte; Thijs, Lutgarde; Thewissen, Liesbeth; Levtchenko, Elena; Staessen, Jan A.; Allegaert, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The microvasculature and macrovasculature undergo extensive, organ-specific perinatal maturation. Multiple studies show associations between low birth weight and subsequent cardiovascular dysfunction in adulthood, suggesting that extreme preterm birth interferes with this maturation process. Therefore, we designed PREMATCH (PREMATurity as predictor of Cardiovascular–renal Health) to phenotype the microcirculation and macrocirculation during childhood in former preterm infants. A well-characterized cohort of former extreme preterm birth survivors and gender- and age-matched controls (aged 8–13 years) will be investigated for microvascular and macrovascular structure and function. In addition to cognitive performance and anthropometrics, we will investigate (i) the microvascular structure and function by endothelial function (photoplethysmography), sublingual capillary glycocalyx function (sidestream dark field imaging) and retinal structure (diameters of arterioles and venules); and (ii) the macrovascular phenotype by cardiac and renal ultrasound, repeated blood pressure measurements and arterial pulse-wave recordings. The PREMATCH study is unique in its design, and ongoing recruitment demonstrates excellent feasibility. The expectation is that the results of this study will identify risk factors during childhood for subsequent cardiovascular–renal disease in the adult life of former preterm infants, while further analysis on mediators in neonatal life of this cardiovascular–renal outcome may provide new information on perinatal risk factors. PMID:26107770

  9. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-01-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics. PMID:25210282

  10. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-07-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics. PMID:25210282

  11. The Erasme Study: A Multicenter Study on the Safety and Technical Results of the Palmaz Stent Used for the Treatment of Atherosclerotic Ostial Renal Artery Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, Jeannette; Goffette, Pierre P.; Henry, Michel; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Melki, Jean-Pierre; Moss, Jon G.; Rabbia, Claudio; Therasse, Eric; Thomson, Kenneth R.; Thurnher, Siegfried; Vignali, Claudio

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To assess, in a multicenter setting, safety, technical results, and restenosis rate of the Palmaz stent for treatment of atherosclerotic ostial renal artery stenosis. Methods: Ten centers enrolled 106 patients (120 treated renal artery stenoses) in the study. Patient selection was based on unsuccessful percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (residual stenosis {>=} 20%) performed for treatment of ostial stenosis {>=} 50%, in patients with hypertension and/or impaired renal function. Safety was assessed by means of the complication rate, and technical results by the number of successful stent placements and occurrence of restenosis (>50%) at intraarterial angiographic follow-up. Results: Stent placement was successful (n = 112) or partially successful (n = 5) in 117 (98%) arteries. Complications occurred in 19 procedures; seven were of serious clinical significance. Angiographic follow-up was performed in 89 of 117 (76%) cases, at a mean of 8 months (range 2.5-18 months). Fifteen stents (16.9%) showed restenosis (at a mean of 8.5 months), of which 10 were successfully redilated. Conclusion: Renal artery stenting has a high technical success rate, a complication rate comparable to percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty, and a low rate of restenosis at 8 months angiographic follow-up.

  12. Autofluorescence dynamics during reperfusion following long-term renal ischemia in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Rajesh N.; Pivetti, Christopher D.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Troppmann, Christoph; Demos, Stavros G.

    2008-02-01

    Optical properties of near-surface kidney tissue were monitored in order to assess response during reperfusion to long (20 minutes) versus prolonged (150 minutes) ischemia in an in vivo rat model. Specifically, autofluorescence images of the exposed surfaces of both the normal and the ischemic kidneys were acquired during both injury and reperfusion alternately under 355 nm and 266 nm excitations. The temporal profile of the emission of the injured kidney during the reperfusion phase under 355 nm excitation was normalized to that under 266 nm as a means to account for changes in tissue optical properties independent of ischemia as well as changes in the illumination/collection geometrical parameters in future clinical implementation of this technique using a hand-held probe. The scattered excitation light signal was also evaluated as a reference signal and found to be inadequate. Characteristic time constants were extracted using a fit to a relaxation model and found to have larger mean values following 150 minutes of injury. The mean values were then compared with the outcome of a chronic survival study where the control kidney had been removed. Rat kidneys exhibiting longer time constants were much more likely to fail. This may lead to a method to assess kidney viability and predict its ability to recover in the initial period following transplantation or resuscitation.

  13. Autofluorescence dynamics during reperfusion following long-term renal ischemia in a rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R N; Pivetti, C D; Matthews, D L; Troppmann, C; Demos, S G

    2008-02-08

    Optical properties of near-surface kidney tissue were monitored in order to assess response during reperfusion to long (20 minutes) versus prolonged (150 minutes) ischemia in an in vivo rat model. Specifically, autofluorescence images of the exposed surfaces of both the normal and the ischemic kidneys were acquired during both injury and reperfusion alternately under 355 nm and 266 nm excitations. The temporal profile of the emission of the injured kidney during the reperfusion phase under 355 nm excitation was normalized to that under 266 nm as a means to account for changes in tissue optical properties independent of ischemia as well as changes in the illumination/collection geometrical parameters in future clinical implementation of this technique using a hand-held probe. The scattered excitation light signal was also evaluated as a reference signal and found to be inadequate. Characteristic time constants were extracted using fit to a relaxation model and found to have larger mean values following 150 minutes of injury. The mean values were then compared with the outcome of a chronic survival study where the control kidney had been removed. Rat kidneys exhibiting longer time constants were much more likely to fail. This may lead to a method to assess kidney viability and predict its ability to recover in the initial period following transplantation or resuscitation.

  14. Renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation during cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Evans, Roger G; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, Julian A; Fry, Brendan C; Layton, Anita T

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury, a prevalent complication of cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), is thought to be driven partly by hypoxic damage in the renal medulla. To determine the causes of medullary hypoxia during CPB, we modeled its impact on renal hemodynamics and function, and thus oxygen delivery and consumption in the renal medulla. The model incorporates autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the utilization of oxygen for tubular transport. The model predicts that renal medullary oxygen delivery and consumption are reduced by a similar magnitude during the hypothermic (down to 28°C) phase of CPB. Thus, the fractional extraction of oxygen in the medulla, an index of hypoxia, is increased only by 58% from baseline. However, during the rewarming phase (up to 37°C), oxygen consumption by the medullary thick ascending limb increases 2.3-fold but medullary oxygen delivery increases only by 33%. Consequently, the fractional extraction of oxygen in the medulla is increased 2.7-fold from baseline. Thus, the renal medulla is particularly susceptible to hypoxia during the rewarming phase of CPB. Furthermore, autoregulation of both renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate is blunted during CPB by the combined effects of hemodilution and nonpulsatile blood flow. Thus, renal hypoxia can be markedly exacerbated if arterial pressure falls below its target level of 50 mmHg. Our findings suggest that tight control of arterial pressure, and thus renal oxygen delivery, may be critical in the prevention of acute kidney injury associated with cardiac surgery performed on CPB. PMID:25602016

  15. Renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation during cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass: a modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Evans, Roger G.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, Julian A.; Fry, Brendan C.; Layton, Anita T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury, a prevalent complication of cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), is thought to be driven partly by hypoxic damage in the renal medulla. To determine the causes of medullary hypoxia during CPB, we modeled its impact on renal hemodynamics and function, and thus oxygen delivery and consumption in the renal medulla. The model incorporates autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the utilization of oxygen for tubular transport. The model predicts that renal medullary oxygen delivery and consumption are reduced by a similar magnitude during the hypothermic (down to 28C) phase of CPB. Thus, the fractional extraction of oxygen in the medulla, an index of hypoxia, is increased only by 58% from baseline. However, during the rewarming phase (up to 37C), oxygen consumption by the medullary thick ascending limb increases 2.3?fold but medullary oxygen delivery increases only by 33%. Consequently, the fractional extraction of oxygen in the medulla is increased 2.7?fold from baseline. Thus, the renal medulla is particularly susceptible to hypoxia during the rewarming phase of CPB. Furthermore, autoregulation of both renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate is blunted during CPB by the combined effects of hemodilution and nonpulsatile blood flow. Thus, renal hypoxia can be markedly exacerbated if arterial pressure falls below its target level of 50 mmHg. Our findings suggest that tight control of arterial pressure, and thus renal oxygen delivery, may be critical in the prevention of acute kidney injury associated with cardiac surgery performed on CPB. PMID:25602016

  16. Renal Involvement in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: A Clinicopathologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Maripuri, Saugar; Grande, Joseph P.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Fervenza, Fernando C.; Matteson, Eric L.; Donadio, James V.

    2009-01-01

    Background & objectives: Renal pathology and clinical outcomes in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) who underwent kidney biopsy (KB) because of renal impairment are reported. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Twenty-four of 7276 patients with pSS underwent KB over 40 years. Patient cases were reviewed by a renal pathologist, nephrologist, and rheumatologist. Presentation, laboratory findings, renal pathology, initial treatment, and therapeutic response were noted. Results: Seventeen patients (17 of 24; 71%) had acute or chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) as the primary lesion, with chronic TIN (11 of 17; 65%) the most common presentation. Two had cryoglobulinemic GN. Two had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Twenty patients (83%) were initially treated with corticosteroids. In addition, three received rituximab during follow-up. Sixteen were followed after biopsy for more than 12 mo (median 76 mo; range 17 to 192), and 14 of 16 maintained or improved renal function through follow-up. Of the seven patients presenting in stage IV chronic kidney disease, none progressed to stage V with treatment. Conclusions: This case series supports chronic TIN as the predominant KB finding in patients with renal involvement from pSS and illustrates diverse glomerular lesions. KB should be considered in the clinical evaluation of kidney dysfunction in pSS. Treatment with glucocorticoids or other immunosuppressive agents appears to slow progression of renal disease. Screening for renal involvement in pSS should include urinalysis, serum creatinine, and KB where indicated. KB with characteristic findings (TIN) should be considered as an additional supportive criterion to the classification criteria for pSS because it may affect management and renal outcome. PMID:19679669

  17. Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Urrunaga, Nathalie H.; Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Rockey, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Renal dysfunction causes significant morbidity in cirrhotic patients. Diagnosis is challenging because it is based on serum creatinine, which is used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate, which itself is not an ideal measure of renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Finding the exact cause of renal injury in patients with cirrhosis remains problematic due to the limitations of the current diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies used to diagnose renal dysfunction in patients with renal dysfunction and review current treatments. Recent findings New diagnostic criteria and classification of renal dysfunction, especially for acute kidney injury (AKI), have been proposed in hopes of optimizing treatment and improving outcomes. New biomarkers that help to differentiate structural from functional AKI in cirrhotic patients have been developed, but require further investigation. Vasoconstrictors are the most commonly recommended treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given the high mortality in patients with type 1 HRS, all patients with HRS should be evaluated for liver transplantation. When renal dysfunction is considered irreversible, combined liver–kidney transplantation is advised. Summary Development of new biomarkers to differentiate the different types of AKI in cirrhosis holds promise. Early intervention in cirrhotic patients with renal dysfunction offers the best hope of improving outcomes. PMID:25763790

  18. Follow-up (99m)Tc EC renal dynamic scintigraphy and DMSA-III SPECT/CT in unmasking a masqueraded case of Horseshoe kidney.

    PubMed

    Jain, T K; Basher, R K; Mittal, B R; Bhatia, A; Rao, K L N

    2015-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common finding in urinary tract outflow obstruction. Chronically obstructed hydronephrotic system may be associated with parenchymal changes. Ultrasound, intravenous urography, micturating cysto-urethrogram and scintigraphy are commonly performed to evaluate the cause of obstruction. In childhood, pelviureteric junction obstruction is a common cause of the hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis can also be present in horseshoe kidneys due to poor drainage. However, a large sized hydronephrotic cavity may obscure the finding of horseshoe kidney. A case was reported, and it was diagnosed as horseshoe kidney on follow-up renal dynamic scan and confirmed with the help of dimercaptosuccinic acid SPECT/CT. PMID:26139030

  19. Validation of the Korean coefficient for the modification of diet in renal disease study equation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yun Jung; Cha, Ran-hui; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yu, Kyung Sang; Kim, Satbyul Estella; Kim, Ho; Kim, Yon Su

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Race and ethnicity are important determinants when estimatingglomerular filtration rate (GFR). The Korean coefficients for the isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equations were developed in 2010. However, the coefficients have not been validated. The aim of this study was to validate the performance of the Korean coefficients for the IDMS MDRD Study equations. Methods: Equation development and validation were performed in separate groups (development group, n = 147 from 2008 to 2009; validation group, n = 125 from 2010 to 2012). We compared the performance of the original IDMS MDRD equations and modified equations with Korean coefficients. Performance was assessed by comparing correlation coefficients, bias, and accuracy between estimated GFR and measured GFR, with systemic inulin clearance using a single injection method. Results: The Korean coefficients for the IDMS MDRD equations developed previously showed good performance in the validation group. The new Korean coefficients for the four- and six-variable IDMS MDRD equations using both the development and validation cohorts were 1.02046 and 0.97300, respectively. No significant difference was detected for the new Korean coefficients, in terms of estimating GFR, between the original and modified IDMS MDRD Study equations. Conclusions: The modified equations with Korean coefficients for the IDMS MDRD Study equations were not superior to the original equations for estimating GFR. Therefore, we recommend using the original IDMS MDRD Study equation without ethnic adjustment in the Korean population. PMID:26759158

  20. Renal Hemodynamics and Ammoniagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Guy; Vinay, Patrick; Cartier, Pierre

    1974-01-01

    Renal production of ammonia by the left kidney was studied in 31 acidotic dogs (NH4Cl) after acute constriction of the renal artery. Renal ammoniagenesis fell in direct proportion with the reduction in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. The renal extraction of glutamine by the experimental kidney fell in direct proportion with the reduction in renal hemodynamics. Extracted glutamine remained greater than filtered glutamine indicating that both the luminal and antiluminal transport sites were operative. The relationship between renal extraction of glutamine and ammoniagenesis observed during control was maintained after renal artery constriction (1.7 μmol NH3 produced for each μmol of glutamine extracted). Systemic venous or renal intra-arterial infusion of glutamine during arterial constriction increased renal production of ammonia to or above control values. These observations indicate that the mechanisms responsible for glutamine extraction and ammonia production were operating normally despite reduced hemodynamics. When measured immediately after arterial clamping, the renal venous pNH3 was found to rise significantly decreasing progressively thereafter towards control values. The extracted fraction of total glutamine delivered to the kidney (31%) did not change after acute reduction of the glutamine load. Thus, the antiluminal extraction site was incapable of lowering renal venous plasma glutamine concentration below 0.33 μM/ml. In a second series of experiments, the properties of the antiluminal site of transport for glutamine were studied after complete occlusion of the left ureter in acidotic and nonacidotic animals. Under these circumstances, it was demonstrated that the antiluminal site is capable of extracting sufficient glutamine to maintain total ammonia production at 60% or more of control. In acidotic animals, changes in cellular pNH3 appeared to play a key role on the antiluminal extraction of glutamine since the significant rise in renal blood flow often observed after ureteral occlusion prevented the rise in pNH3 noted when blood flow remained constant. Thus, when renal blood flow rose glutamine extraction and ammonia production were maintained at control values. In these acidotic animals, glutamine infusion failed to influence ammonia production until luminal transport was restored by release of ureteral clamp and resumption of glomerular filtration. The latter observation establishes that reabsorbed glutamine is utilized at least in part for ammonia production. PMID:4812445

  1. An ontogenic study of renal tissue kallikrein in Okamoto spontaneously hypertensive rats: comparisons with human hypertensive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, C D; Bhoola, K D; MacIver, A G; Mackenzie, J C

    1992-01-01

    Urinary excretion of tissue kallikrein is reduced in essential hypertension. Although a similar finding has been reported in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), only a few studies have been concerned with the amount of enzyme within the kidney both at the time of onset and during progression of the hypertension. We have performed an ontogenic study on the renal parenchymal values and immunoreactivity of tissue kallikrein in Okamoto SHR aged 4-78 weeks. Additionally, these two parameters were analysed in human biopsies taken from patients with hypertensive nephropathy. The enzymatic activity of renal tissue kallikrein (active and total; specifically antagonized by anti-tissue kallikrein antibodies), increased from 4 to 52 weeks in SHR when compared to normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats; this increase was associated with a significant increase in blood pressure. In contrast, 78 weeks SHR and human biopsy tissue showed a substantial reduction in tissue kallikrein values. Also, both renal tissues showed a reduction in immunoreactivity in the cells of the connecting tubules that specifically store the enzyme. In advanced hypertension the observed reduction in tissue kallikrein was probably secondary to a loss of distal tubular mass, as a result of tubular atrophy and fibrosis. The greater values for renal tissue kallikrein in the kidney and reported reduced urinary excretion during the early phases of spontaneous hypertension may be explained by a primary defect in the mechanisms that regulate release of tissue kallikrein from the connecting tubule cells. PMID:1320231

  2. Risks of Decreased Renal Function and Increased Albuminuria for Glycemic Status and Metabolic Syndrome Components: Taichung Community Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lai, Ming-May; Lee, Yih-Dar; Yang, Chuan-Wei; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to assess the association of glycemic status and decreased renal function as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in an adult Taiwanese metropolitan population. Methods. We did a cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 2,350 Taiwanese adults aged 40 years and over living in a metropolitan city in Taiwan from 2004 to 2005. Glycemic status was classified as normal glycemia, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Renal function was assessed with eGFR using modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for Chinese. Albuminuria was determined by the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. Decreased renal function was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria as the albumin-creatinine ratio >30 mg g−1 creatinine. Results. 593 (25.23%) had hyperglycemia and 287 (12.21%) had T2D. As glycemia level increased, the prevalence of albuminuria and decreased eGFR increased. After adjustment, T2D was associated with an OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 2.11–4.07) for albuminuria, and an OR of 2.05 (95% CI: 1.18–3.58) for decreased eGFR. Conclusions. In a representative sample from a metropolitan city in Taiwan, T2D was associated with albuminuria and decreased eGFR. PMID:24900991

  3. Factors influencing the renal arterial Doppler waveform: a simulation study using an electrical circuit model (secondary publication)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular compliance, resistance, and pulse rate on the resistive index (RI) by using an electrical circuit model to simulate renal blood flow. Methods: In order to analyze the renal arterial Doppler waveform, we modeled the renal blood-flow circuit with an equivalent simple electrical circuit containing resistance, inductance, and capacitance. The relationships among the impedance, resistance, and compliance of the circuit were derived from well-known equations, including Kirchhoffs current law for alternating current circuits. Simulated velocity-time profiles for pulsatile flow were generated using Mathematica (Wolfram Research) and the influence of resistance, compliance, and pulse rate on waveforms and the RI was evaluated. Results: Resistance and compliance were found to alter the waveforms independently. The impedance of the circuit increased with increasing proximal compliance, proximal resistance, and distal resistance. The impedance decreased with increasing distal compliance. The RI of the circuit decreased with increasing proximal compliance and resistance. The RI increased with increasing distal compliance and resistance. No positive correlation between impedance and the RI was found. Pulse rate was found to be an extrinsic factor that also influenced the RI. Conclusion: This simulation study using an electrical circuit model led to a better understanding of the renal arterial Doppler waveform and the RI, which may be useful for interpreting Doppler findings in various clinical settings. PMID:26732576

  4. Shape-based motion correction in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for quantitative assessment of renal function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenyang; Sung, Kyunghyun; Ruan, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To incorporate a newly developed shape-based motion estimation scheme into magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and verify its efficacy in facilitating quantitative functional analysis. Methods: The authors propose a motion compensation scheme in MRU that consists of three sequential modules: MRU image acquisition, motion compensation, and quantitative functional analysis. They designed two sets of complementary experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. In the first experiment, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MR images were acquired from three sedated subjects, from which clinically valid estimates were derived and served as the “ground truth.” Physiologically sound motion was then simulated to synthesize image sequences influenced by respiratory motion. Quantitative assessment and comparison were performed on functional estimates of Patlak number, glomerular filtration rate, and Patlak differential renal function without and with motion compensation against the ground truth. In the second experiment, the authors acquired a temporal series of noncontrast MR images under free breathing from a healthy adult subject. The performance of the proposed method on compensating real motion was evaluated by comparing the standard deviation of the obtained temporal intensity curves before and after motion compensation. Results: On DCE-MR images with simulated motion, the generated relative enhancement curves exhibited large perturbations and the Patlak numbers of the left and right kidney were significantly underestimated up to 35% and 34%, respectively, compared with the ground truth. After motion compensation, the relative enhancement curves exhibited much less perturbations and Patlak estimation errors reduced within 3% and 4% for the left and right kidneys, respectively. On clinical free-breathing MR images, the temporal intensity curves exhibited significantly reduced variations after motion compensation, with standard deviation decreased from 30.3 and 38.2 to 8.3 and 11.7 within two manually selected regions of interest, respectively. Conclusions: The developed motion compensation method has demonstrated its ability to facilitate quantitative MRU functional analysis, with improved accuracy of pharmacokinetic modeling and quantitative parameter estimations. Future work will consider performing more intensive clinical verifications with sophisticated pharmacokinetic models and generalizing the proposed method to other quantitative DCE analysis, such as on liver or prostate function. PMID:25471978

  5. A study exploring critical pathways in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZENG, ZISAN; QUE, TENGCHENG; ZHANG, JIANGE; HU, YANLING

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal type of cancer in the urinary system and often presents as a metastatic disease. Furthermore, there are no effective treatments for the disease. Several studies based on gene expression profiling have been performed with the aim of gaining insights into the pathogenesis of RCC; however, few studies have investigated RCC at the pathway level to search for the possible pathways involved in clear cell RCC (CCRCC). In this study, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted on microarray datasets from CCRCC tissue. DAVID functional enrichment analysis was performed based on the dysregulated genes that were identified in a meta-analysis performed on the microarray datasets from CCRCC tissue. In GSEA, 17 down- and 12 upregulated pathways coexisted in six datasets. The majority of the upregulated pathways were associated with the immune system. In addition, 32 dysregulated pathways were obtained from DAVID functional enrichment analysis, based on the abnormal genes identified by meta-analysis. This study demonstrated that cross-GSEA is a useful method for exploring the critical pathways involved CCRCC; however, an individual dataset with a small sample may introduce bias. A cross-GSEA based on certain well-designed datasets may be required to further the progress made in this study, following the analysis of its results. PMID:24348776

  6. Association of blood manganese level with diabetes and renal dysfunction: a cross-sectional study of the Korean general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between blood manganese levels and the prevalence of chronic diseases in the Korean population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNAHNES). The study included 3996 participants 20 years of age or older whose blood manganese levels had been measured. The participants were also evaluated for the presence of five chronic diseases: diabetes, renal dysfunction, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. Results Blood manganese levels were significantly lower in the diabetes group compared with the non-diabetes group (1.26 ± 0.02 vs. 1.35 ± 0.01 μg/dL; p = 0.001) and the renal dysfunction group compared with those with normal renal function (1.28 ± 0.03 vs. 1.35 ± 0.01 μg/dL; p = 0.04). There was no significant association between blood manganese levels and the presence of ischemic heart disease or stroke. A multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index was performed; the odds ratio was 0.652 (95% CI: 0.46–0.92) for diabetes and 0.589 (95% CI: 0.39–0.88) for renal dysfunction when comparing the higher quartiles (Q2-4) with the lowest quartile (Q1) of blood manganese level. The prevalence of diabetes was 7.6% in Q1 and 5.3% in Q2-4 (p = 0.02). Similarly, the prevalence of renal dysfunction was 6.8% in Q1, compared with 4.6% in Q2-4 (p = 0.02). Conclusion The prevalence of diabetes and renal dysfunction increased in participants with low blood manganese levels, suggesting that blood manganese may play a role in glucose homeostasis and renal function. PMID:24606630

  7. A Study of Varlilumab (Anti-CD27) and Sunitinib in Patients With Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-21

    Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Kidney Diseases; Kidney Neoplasms; Urogenital Neoplasms; Urologic Diseases; Urologic Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Clear-cell Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

  8. Clinicoepidemiological study of skin manifestations in patients of chronic renal failure on hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Supriya P.; Sharma, Yugal K.; Dash, Kedarnath; Chaudhari, Nitin C.; Deo, Kirti S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with a variety of cutaneous manifestations as a result of underlying etiology as well as the various treatment modalities. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of various dermatoses in patients with CRF on hemodialysis and to study the effect of hemodialysis on the intensity of pruritus. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 patients of CRF on hemodialysis having at least one cutaneous manifestation were included in the study. Results: Twenty-four (68.71%) cases in our study belonged to the age group of 50-69 years, out of which 16 cases were in the sixth decade. Xerosis and pruritus occurred in 80% and 65.71% of cases, respectively. Other common findings included pallor (68.57%), dyspigmentation (34.29%), cutaneous infections (34.39%), acquired perforating dermatosis (17.4%), and nail changes (60%). Hemodialysis failed to improve pruritus in 17 (73.9%) of our patients. Twenty-six patients (74.28%) suffered from hypertension, 13 of them also were known cases of type II diabetes mellitus. Five patients suffered exclusively from type II diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: In our small study, xerosis was the commonest finding and pruritus, the commonest symptom. The intensity of pruritus was largely unaffected by hemodialysis. PMID:23439945

  9. Cadmium and renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G. . E-mail: gschwart@wfubmc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine.

  10. Spectrum of pediatric developmental and genetic renal lesions and associated congenital malformations--an autopsy study from north India.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Nandita; Menon, Santosh; Radotra, B D

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric developmental and genetic renal lesions are a known cause of mortality in the perinatal/neonatal period. These lesions are associated with a wide range of extrarenal congenital malformations that influence the outcome of the patients. In this autopsy study, we have analyzed the spectrum of pediatric developmental and genetic renal lesions and their associated congenital malformations. A total of 4,099 autopsies (20 weeks of gestation to 1 year of life) were reviewed, of which 158 cases (3.85%) of pediatric developmental (143 cases) and genetic renal lesions (15 cases) were found. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was the commonest genetic lesion. Primitive ducts with cuffing of immature mesenchyme--the sine qua non of renal dysplasia--was found in all cases of dysplasia. Associated congenital malformations were seen in all cases and thus a thorough search for them is mandatory. Ductal plate malformation was found in all cases of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and in 1 case of bilateral multicystic dysplasia. PMID:16754487

  11. Organometallic Titanocene–Gold Compounds as Potential Chemotherapeutics in Renal Cancer. Study of their Protein Kinase Inhibitory Properties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Early–late transition metal TiAu2 compounds [(η-C5H5)2Ti{OC(O)CH2PPh2AuCl}2] (3) and new [(η-C5H5)2Ti{OC(O)-4-C6H4PPh2AuCl}2] (5) were evaluated as potential anticancer agents in vitro against renal and prostate cancer cell lines. The compounds were significantly more effective than monometallic titanocene dichloride and gold(I) [{HOC(O)RPPh2}AuCl] (R = −CH2– 6, −4-C6H4– 7) derivatives in renal cancer cell lines, indicating a synergistic effect of the resulting heterometallic species. The activity on renal cancer cell lines (for 5 in the nanomolar range) was considerably higher than that of cisplatin and highly active titanocene Y. Initial mechanistic studies in Caki-1 cells in vitro coupled with studies of their inhibitory properties on a panel of 35 kinases of oncological interest indicate that these compounds inhibit protein kinases of the AKT and MAPKAPK families with a higher selectivity toward MAPKAPK3 (IC503 = 91 nM, IC505 = 117 nM). The selectivity of the compounds in vitro against renal cancer cell lines when compared to a nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293T) and the favorable preliminary toxicity profile on C57black6 mice indicate that these compounds (especially 5) are excellent candidates for further development as potential renal cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:25435644

  12. Retrospective case-control study of the effects of long-term dosing with meloxicam on renal function in aged cats with degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed

    Gowan, Richard A; Lingard, Amy E; Johnston, Laura; Stansen, Wibke; Brown, Scott A; Malik, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Medical records (2005-2009) of a feline-only practice were searched for cats with degenerative joint disease (DJD) treated using meloxicam. DJD was diagnosed by the presence of at least two of the following: (i) altered mobility (observed by the owner), (ii) abnormal physical findings, (iii) characteristic radiographic changes. The primary study cohort consisted of cats older than 7 years that had received meloxicam for variable intervals in excess of 6 months, and for which complete records were available. These cats were subdivided according to whether detectable chronic kidney disease (CKD) was present ('renal group'), or not ('non-renal group'), and, for the 'renal group', according to the cat's IRIS category. Serum biochemistry, urinalysis (including urine specific gravity [USG]), body mass and condition score were monitored regularly. Progression of CKD in the 'renal group' and 'non-renal group' of cats was compared to two groups of age- and IRIS-matched control cats not receiving meloxicam (from the same clinic, over the same time period). The study was thus a case-control design, with two study groups. Thirty-eight cats with DJD receiving long-term meloxicam therapy met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 22 cats had stable CKD at the start of treatment (stage 1, eight cats; stage 2, 13 cats; stage 3, one cat). No cats initially had an elevated urinary protein to creatinine ratio. The remaining 16 cats initially had normal renal analytes and adequately concentrated urine. The median age of the 'renal' and 'non-renal' meloxicam groups was 15.5 and 13.4 years, respectively. The median treatment duration was 467 days in the 'renal group' and 327 days in the 'non-renal group'. After titration (to the lowest effective dose), the median maintenance dose was 0.02 mg/kg/day in both groups (range 0.015-0.033 mg/kg/day). There was no difference in sequential serum creatinine concentration or USG measurements between the 'non-renal group' treated with meloxicam compared to control cats not treated with meloxicam. There was less progression of renal disease in the 'renal group' treated with meloxicam compared to the age- and IRIS-matched cats with CKD not given meloxicam. These results suggest that a long-term maintenance dose of 0.02 mg/kg of meloxicam can be safely administered to cats older than 7 years even if they have CKD, provided their overall clinical status is stable. Long-term meloxicam therapy may slow the progression of renal disease in some cats suffering from both CKD and DJD. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:21906984

  13. Preliminary shuttle structural dynamics modeling design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of a structural dynamics model of the space shuttle are discussed. The model provides for early study of structural dynamics problems, permits evaluation of the accuracy of the structural and hydroelastic analysis methods used on test vehicles, and provides for efficiently evaluating potential cost savings in structural dynamic testing techniques. The discussion is developed around the modes in which major input forces and responses occur and the significant structural details in these modes.

  14. Renal oncocytoma: new observations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, M.J.; Hartman, D.S.; Friedman, A.C.; Sherman, J.L.; Lautin, E.M.; Pyatt, R.S.; Ho, C.K.; Csere, R.; Fromowitz, F.B.

    1984-10-01

    Renal oncocytomas are uncommon, benign tumors that can be treated by local incision or heminephrectomy; their preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, treated by radical nephrectomy, would be invaluable. A particularly important finding, a central scar, not stressed in previous reports, is frequently demonstrated by CT examination. The authors evaluated radiographic studies of 18 pathologically confirmed cases of oncocytoma and compared findings with results of CT, sonography, and angiogrpahy studies of 18 renal cell carcinoma cases. Oncocytomas can be suggested if a stellate scar is identified within an otherwise homogeneous tumor on ultrasound (US) and CT; if the mass appears homogeneous but no scar is present, angiography should be performed.

  15. Irreversible Electroporation of Renal Cell Carcinoma: A First-in-Man Phase I Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pech, Maciej; Janitzky, Andreas; Wendler, Johann Jacob; Strang, Christof; Blaschke, Simon; Dudeck, Oliver; Ricke, Jens; Liehr, Uwe-Bernd

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a newly developed nonthermal tissue-ablation technique in which high-voltage electrical pulses of microsecond duration are applied to induce irreversible permeabilisation of the cell membrane, presumably through nanoscale defects in the lipid bilayer, leading to apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of ablating renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissue by IRE. Methods: Six patients scheduled for curative resection of RCC were included. IRE was performed during anaesthesia immediately before the resection with electrographic synchronisation. Central haemodynamics were recorded before and 5 min after electroporation. Five-channel electrocardiography (ECG) was used for detailed analysis of ST waveforms. Blood sampling and 12-lead ECG were performed before, during, and at scheduled intervals after the intervention. Results: Analysis of ST waveforms and axis deviations showed no relevant changes during the entire study period. No changes in central haemodynamics were seen 5 min after IRE. Similarly, haematological, serum biochemical, and ECG variables showed no relevant differences during the investigation period. No changes in cardiac function after IRE therapy were found. One case of supraventricular extrasystole was encountered. Initial histopathologic examination showed no immediate adverse effects of IRE (observation of delayed effects will require a different study design). Conclusion: IRE seems to offer a feasible and safe technique by which to treat patients with kidney tumours and could offer some potential advantages over current thermal ablative techniques.

  16. Cervicovaginal HPV infection in female renal transplant recipients: an observational, self-sampling based, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Meeuwis, K A P; Hilbrands, L B; IntHout, J; Slangen, B F M; Hendriks, I M P; Hinten, F; Christiaans, M H L; Quint, W G V; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Massuger, L F A G; Hoitsma, A J; van Rossum, M M; Melchers, W J G; de Hullu, J A

    2015-03-01

    Immunosuppressive treatment of organ transplant recipients is associated with an increase in the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) related anogenital (pre)malignancies. This cohort study investigated the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV infections in a large cohort of female renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Participants self-collected a cervicovaginal sample for detection and genotyping of HPV. Besides, they completed a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic variables, medical data and sexual behavior. Anogenital screening was offered to all HPV-positive participants. A total number of 218 female RTRs was included. The prevalence of mucosal HPV infections was 27.1% and 17.4% for high risk HPV in particular. The studied cohort showed a broad range of HPV genotypes and multiple HPV genotypes were found in 27.1% of HPV-positive patients. Seven participants were identified with occult premalignant anogenital lesions. In conclusion, this study shows a high point-prevalence of HPV in female RTRs (age-matched West-European general population: 9-10%) with a shift in the distribution of genotypes as compared with the general population. Moreover, a substantial number of patients with occult premalignancies was identified. The introduction of self-sampling for HPV positivity can help in early detection of (pre)malignant anogenital lesions in this vulnerable population. PMID:25675976

  17. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawash, Yousry A.; Dorgham, Laila Sh.; Amir, El-Amir M.; Sharaf, Osama F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls), followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls). Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05). Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study's population, particularly those with CRF. PMID:26491455

  18. Pharmacodynamic study of low molecular weight dermatan sulphate (Desmin) after a single subcutaneous administration in patients with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Saivin, S; Boneu, B; Ducret, F; Pourrat, J; Palazzini, E; Zamboni, W; Duchne, P; Houin, G

    2000-09-01

    The pharmacodynamic pattern of low molecular weight dermatan sulphate (CAS 24967-94-0, Desmin-LMWDS) was studied in patients presenting chronic renal insufficiency. Three groups of six patients were defined according to their creatinine clearance: group 1, more than 50 ml/min, group 2 between 10 and 50 ml/min and group 3 lower than 10 ml/min (haemodialized patients). Desmin-LMWDS concentrations were determined with the Heptest assay and the chromogenic specific heparin cofactor II dependent anti IIa assay. In patients of group 1 affected by moderate renal insufficiency, the pharmacodynamic profiles were roughly comparable to those obtained in normal subjects. In the two other groups, the profiles were markedly modified by the renal insufficiency. The maximal concentrations were doubled and the areas under the time-activity curve were 4-fold higher in haemodialyzed (group 3) and severe renal insufficient patients (group 2) than in patients of group 1. The clearance of the anti IIa activity were 13.98 +/- 6.25 l/h; 4.12 +/- 2.64 l/h and 2.94 +/- 1.53 l/h and the half-lives were 2.79 +/- 2.60 h, 6.15 +/- 4.02 h and 11.51 +/- 6.54 h in groups 1 to 3, respectively (p < 0.05). The Desmin-LMWDS clearance was directly correlated to the creatinine clearance (r = 0.8244, n = 18, p < 0.001). Thus, as for low molecular weight heparin, renal function plays a major role in the elimination of low molecular weight dermatan sulphate. PMID:11050699

  19. Chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes: lessons from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, G; Solini, A; Bonora, E; Fondelli, C; Orsi, E; Nicolucci, A; Penno, G

    2014-08-01

    The Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study is an ongoing observational survey that examines the role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as an independent predictor of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in 15,773 Italian subjects with type 2 diabetes. The analysis of data collected at the enrollment visit provided a picture of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its association with other complications, risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and treatments in a large contemporary cohort. Main results of this analysis were that (a) non-albuminuric renal impairment is the predominant clinical phenotype in patients, particularly women, with reduced eGFR; (b) concordance between CKD and diabetic retinopathy is low, with only a minority of patients with renal dysfunction presenting with any or advanced retinal lesions; (c) the non-albuminuric form is associated with a significant prevalence of CVD, especially at the level of the coronary vascular bed; (d) CKD is associated with hemoglobin (Hb) A1c variability more than with average HbA1c, whereas retinopathy and CVD are not; (e) in elderly individuals with moderate-to-severe eGFR reduction, use of agents which are not recommended, such as sulphonylureas and metformin, is still frequent; and (f) though complications are generally more prevalent in men (except non-albuminuric renal impairment) women show a less favorable CVD risk profile and achieve therapeutic targets to a lesser extent than men, despite the fact that treatment intensity is not lower. These data update existing information on the natural history of CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24780515

  20. Pregnancy and renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ba?aran, O; Emiro?lu, R; Seme, S; Moray, G; Haberal, M

    2004-01-01

    Ovarian dysfunction, anovulatory vaginal bleeding, amenorrhea, high prolactin levels, and loss of libido are the causes of infertility in women with chronic renal failure. After renal transplantation, endocrine function generally improves after recovery of renal function. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the prepregnancy and postdelivery renal function, outcome of gestation, as well as maternal and fetal complications for eight pregnancies in eight renal transplant recipients between November 1975 and March 2003 of 1095 among 1425. Eight planned pregnancies occurred at a mean of 3.6 years posttransplant. Spontaneous abortion occured in the first trimester in one case. One intrauterine growth retardation was observed with a full-term pregnancy; one intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery; one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and urinary tract infection; and one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and oligohydramnios. The mean gestation period was 35.5 +/- 3.0 weeks (31.2 to 38.0). Pregnancy had no negative impact on renal function during a 2-year follow-up. No significant proteinuria or acute rejection episodes were observed. Among the seven deliveries, no congenital anomaly was documented and no postpartum problems for the child and the mother were observed. Our study suggests that successful pregnancy is possible in renal transplant recipients. In cases with good graft function and absence of severe proteinuria or hypertension, pregnancy does not affect graft function or patient survival; however, fetal problems are encountered such as intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. PMID:15013320

  1. A randomized study of the efficacy of adjuvant local graft irradiation following renal transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrisi, J.R.; Dritschilo, A.; Harter, K.W.; Helfrich, B.; Berg, C.D.; Whitfield, G.; Stablein, D.; Alijani, M. )

    1990-05-01

    A prospective randomized study investigating the effectiveness of adjuvant local graft irradiation (LGI) following renal transplantation was performed at Georgetown University Hospital from 1983 until 1988. One hundred and thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study with 117 patients receiving cadaver kidney transplantations and 21 patients receiving living related kidney transplantations. Seventy-one patients were randomized to receive adjuvant local graft irradiation consisting of 600 cGy in four fractions with chemical immunosuppression whereas the remaining 67 patients received chemical immunosuppression only (control group). The two groups were comparable at entry with respect to potentially important prognostic variables. Median follow-up for all patients was 30 months. The 3-year actuarial allograft success rate was 75% and 68% for the local graft irradiation and control groups, respectively. A nonsignificant trend favoring the irradiated group was noted. Subgroup analysis of the 21 recipients of kidneys from living related donors suggested an improvement in allograft survival for the local graft irradiation arm. Cadaver allograft survival was not significantly different between the two treatment arms. There was no apparent benefit in kidney function or time to the first rejection episode in the group receiving local graft irradiation.

  2. The Choice of Renal Replacement Therapy (CORETH) project: study design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Robinski, Maxi; Mau, Wilfried; Lamprecht, Juliane; Krauth, Christian; Girndt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, research has neglected the patient's psychosocial and cognitive conditions as contributing factors to dialysis modality decision-making. Hence, the Choice of Renal Replacement Therapy (CORETH) study aims to examine these conditions with regard to their impact on the choice. Here we describe the design of the multicentre study, which is supported by a grant from the German Ministry for Education and Research. Methods Two groups of patients will be compared after having chosen peritoneal or haemodialysis as permanent treatment. About 1200 participants from 50 dialysis centres all over Germany will be questioned. The questionnaire addresses social, psychological and shared decision-making aspects. Furthermore, cognitive functioning will be tested. For an economic evaluation direct and indirect costs of treatment will be calculated. Changes will be examined through a one-year follow-up. Conclusions The results will enlighten the treatment choice under the German healthcare system. They will provide further insight regarding the discussion on patient autonomy. From the patients' perspective, the results will help to strengthen their participation in the individual process of health-related decision-making. PMID:25859375

  3. A study of proliferative activity, angiogenesis and nuclear grading in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, N K; Chatterjee, U; Sarkar, S; Kundu, A K

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the role of proliferative marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and microvessel density (MVD) as prognostic markers in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to see their relationship with the clinical stage and nuclear grades, we studied 30 cases of RCC for nuclear grading (Fuhrman's nuclear grade), MVD (using anti CD-34 antibody), and PCNA labeling index (using anti-PCNA antibody) over a period of 2.5 years. Staging was assessed by peroperative and radiologic findings. The area of highest MVD within the tumor was selected for microvessel count (MVC) per high-power field (0.1885 mm 2 area). PCNA labeling index was determined by counting percentage of positively stained tumor cell nuclei. PCNA labeling index above 60% was taken as high PCNA index and up to 60% was considered low. There was significant positive correlation between PCNA labeling index with both nuclear grade and clinical stage using Spearman's correlation coefficient. No association was noted between MVC with PCNA, nuclear grade, and clinical stages. Evaluation of proliferative status of RCC is a useful adjunct as a prognostic parameter as it is seen to correlate well with both clinical stage and nuclear grade. In our study, MVD was not seen to correlate with either of these. PMID:18417843

  4. The incidence of end-stage renal disease in India: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Modi, G K; Jha, V

    2006-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are emerging public health problems in developing countries, and need changes in health-care policy. ESRD incidence data are not available from large parts of the developing world including South Asia. We report the ESRD incidence in a large urban population in India. ESRD incidence was estimated for four consecutive calendar years (2002-2005) among 572 029 subjects residing in 36 of the 56 wards of the city of Bhopal. These subjects are beneficiaries of free health care in a hospital established after the 1984 Union Carbide Industrial Accident. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. A total of 346 new ESRD patients were diagnosed during the study period; 86 in 2002, 82 in 2003, 85 in 2004, and 93 in 2005. Average crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were 151 and 232 per million population, respectively. The mean age was 47 years, and 58% were males. Diabetic nephropathy was the commonest (44%) cause of ESRD. This study provides the first population-based ESRD incidence data from India and reveals it to be higher than previously estimated. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of ESRD. Changes are required in health-care policy for optimal care of CKD patients and efficient resource utilization for management of those with ESRD. PMID:17063176

  5. Re-evaluation of histological type by immunohistochemical and genetic study of transcription factors (TFE3 and TFEB) of VHL gene mutation-negative clear cell renal cell carcinoma and other special types of renal tumor.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Kawada, Chiaki; Tamura, Kenji; Hiroi, Makoto; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Wada, Yukari; Inoue, Kaori; Ohara, Masahiko; Mizuno, Keiko; Shuin, Taro; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2011-03-01

    Translocation-type renal carcinoma has been recently discovered, and it is possible that this tumor may have been previously diagnosed as other types of renal tumor. We have subjected 41 renal tumors, including VHL gene mutation-negative clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC, to immunohistochemistry of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) and TFEB. All tumors were histologically evaluated by additional immunohistochemical study. As a result, 5 tumors showed a positive reaction for TFE3 with a range from 1+ to 2+ in intensity. No tumors were positive for TFEB. In 5 tumors immunohistochemically positive for TFE3, chimeric transcripts including ASPL-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, CLTCTFE3, PSF-TFE3, or Nono-TFE3 were not detected. The diagnosis of 6 tumors was changed by reevaluation through retrospective histological and immunohistochemical study. In 4 of 6 tumors, the diagnosis of clear cell RCC was changed to chromophobe RCC. In 1 tumor, oncocytoma was detectable, and RCC with rhabdoid features and sarcomatoid changes was detected in 1 tumor. Finally, the cutoff value of TFE3 immunohistochemistry should be more than 2+ with a wide range. The translocation-type renal carcinoma seems to be quite rare. PMID:21424937

  6. Stratifying Risk for Renal Insufficiency Among Lithium-Treated Patients: An Electronic Health Record Study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Victor M; Roberson, Ashlee M; McCoy, Thomas H; Wiste, Anna; Cagan, Andrew; Smoller, Jordan W; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Ostacher, Michael; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-03-01

    Although lithium preparations remain first-line treatment for bipolar disorder, risk for development of renal insufficiency may discourage their use. Estimating such risk could allow more informed decisions and facilitate development of prevention strategies. We utilized electronic health records from a large New England health-care system between 2006 and 2013 to identify patients aged 18 years or older with a lithium prescription. Renal insufficiency was identified using the presence of renal failure by ICD9 code or laboratory-confirmed glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml/min. Logistic regression was used to build a predictive model in a random two-thirds of the cohort, which was tested in the remaining one-third. Risks associated with aspects of pharmacotherapy were also examined in the full cohort. We identified 1445 adult lithium-treated patients with renal insufficiency, matched by risk set sampling 1 : 3 with 4306 lithium-exposed patients without renal insufficiency. In regression models, features associated with risk included older age, female sex, history of smoking, history of hypertension, overall burden of medical comorbidity, and diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (p<0.01 for all contrasts). The model yielded an area under the ROC curve exceeding 0.81 in an independent testing set, with 74% of renal insufficiency cases among the top two risk quintiles. Use of lithium more than once daily, lithium levels greater than 0.6 mEq/l, and use of first-generation antipsychotics were independently associated with risk. These results suggest the possibility of stratifying risk for renal failure among lithium-treated patients. Once-daily lithium dosing and maintaining lower lithium levels where possible may represent strategies for reducing risk. PMID:26294109

  7. The predictive value of kidney biopsy in renal vasculitis: a multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Crespo, Francisco; Villacorta, Javier; Acevedo, Mercedes; Cavero, Teresa; Guerrero, Carmen; García Díaz, Eugenio; Orradre, Juan Luis; Martinez, Miguel Angel; Praga, Manuel; Fernandez-Juarez, Gema

    2016-06-01

    The histopathologic classification of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis has been demonstrated to have prognostic value in small cohorts of patients with pauci-immune extracapillary glomerulonephritis. We aimed to validate this histologic subgrouping system in a large cohort of patients with renal vasculitis from 3 Spanish centers. The additional value of several histologic parameters for predicting renal outcome was investigated. A total of 151 biopsies of patients with renal vasculitis were reviewed and classified as follows: 41% crescentic, 24% mixed, 21% focal, and 14% sclerotic. The cumulative proportions of renal survival at 5 years were 83.2%, 81.2%, 60.5%, and 50.7% for the focal, mixed, crescentic, and sclerotic categories, respectively (P < .05). In the crescentic category, patients with less than 75% of glomeruli showing crescents had better survival at 1 and 5 years compared with those having greater than or equal to 75% of crescents (77.9% and 70.6% versus 51.3% and 45.6%; P = .02). When adjusted by renal function and other histologic parameters, the percentage of extracapillary proliferation and glomerulosclerosis remained as significant predictors for renal survival (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.05; P = .001, and hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.05; P = .002, respectively). In conclusion, patients with pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis experienced different outcomes depending on the percentage of crescents observed, so that extensive extracapillary proliferation was associated with the poorest renal survival. These findings validate the prognostic utility of the histologic classification scheme in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive and negative patients and suggest a subdivision of crescentic category (<75% and ≥75% of crescents) based on the different survival rates observed among these subgroups. PMID:26980047

  8. Mortality in chronic kidney disease and renal replacement therapy: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Neovius, Martin; Jacobson, Stefan H; Eriksson, Jonas K; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf; Hylander, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4 and 5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2), peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis and transplanted patients. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Swedish national healthcare system. Participants Swedish adult patients with CKD stages 4 and 5 (n=3040; mean age 66 years), peritoneal dialysis (n=725; 60 years), haemodialysis (n=1791; 62 years) and renal transplantation (n=606; 48 years) were identified in Stockholm County clinical quality registers for renal disease between 1999 and 2010. Five general population controls were matched to each patient by age, sex and index year. Exposure CKD status (stage 4 or 5/peritoneal dialysis/haemodialysis/transplanted). Primary outcome All-cause mortality was ascertained from the Swedish Causes of Death Register. Mortality HRs were estimated using Cox regression conditioned on age, sex, diabetes status, education level and index year. Results During 6553 person-years, 766 patients with CKD stages 4 and 5 died (deaths/100 person-years 12, 95% CI 11 to 13) compared with 186 deaths during 1113 person-years in peritoneal dialysis (17, 95% CI 15 to 19), 924 deaths during 3680 person-years in haemodialysis (25, 95% CI 23 to 27) and 53 deaths during 2935 person-years in transplanted patients (1.8, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.4). Against matched general population controls, the mortality HR was 3.6 (95% CI 3.2 to 4.0) for CKD, 5.6 (95% CI 3.5 to 8.9) for transplanted patients, 9.2 (95% CI 6.6 to 12.7) for peritoneal dialysis and 12.6 (95% CI 10.8 to 14.6) for haemodialysis. In direct comparison versus CKD, the mortality HR was 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.1) for peritoneal dialysis, 2.6 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.9) for haemodialysis and 0.5 (95% CI 0.3 to 0.7) for transplanted patients. Conclusions We did not find support for mortality in CKD to be similar to dialysis mortality. The patients with CKD stages 4 and 5 had considerably lower mortality risk than dialysis patients, and considerably higher risk than transplanted patients and matched general population controls. PMID:24549162

  9. Predictive performance study of two digoxin assays in subjects with various degrees of renal function.

    PubMed

    Spinler, S A; Al-Jazairi, A S; Cheng, J W; Kapoor, S; Kobrin, S; Shaw, L

    2000-12-01

    This prospective study was conducted to compare the predictive performance of fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA, Abbott TDx Digoxin II) and radioimmunoassay (RIA, Kallestad Labs) with combined low-pressure liquid chromatography/RIA (LPLC/RIA) digoxin assay in measuring 15-17 serum digoxin concentrations (SDC) obtained after a single 10 microg/kg intravenous digoxin dose in patients with various degrees of renal function and at different SDC ranges. Eighteen men and women were stratified into 3 age- and gender-matched groups based upon renal function [N = 6 in each, group I (Cl(cr) < 10 mL/min), group II (Cl(cr) = 10-50 mL/min), and group III (Cl(cr) > 50 mL/min)]. Serum digoxin concentrations were measured at time zero; at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours; and at 2, 3, 4, and 5-7 days after the digoxin dose, using the three different digoxin assays. TDx Digoxin II was unbiased [mean error -0.09 (95% CI -0.19, 0.01)] and RIA biased [mean error -0.29 (95% CI -0.36, -0.21)] to over-predict SDC by 14.2%. In group I patients, the analysis revealed a bias to over-predict SDC by 6.0% for TDx Digoxin II [mean error -0.16 (95% CI -0.29, -0.07)] and an unbiased performance by RIA. In groups II and III, both TDx Digoxin II and RIA showed biased performance, the mean magnitude of bias was low (< 20%). For intermediate SDC range (> 0.5 ng/mL and < or = 3.0 ng/mL), TDx Digoxin II was unbiased in predicting SDC, whereas RIA was biased to under-predict SDC [mean error 0.13 (95% CI 0.10, 0.16)] by 9.9%. The magnitude of bias observed in all cases was less than 20%. Both assays, TDx Digoxin II and RIA, imprecisely measured SDC for all samples combined, different groups and SDC ranges. In all time-paired samples, TDx Digoxin II (FPIA) performed better than the RIA. In conclusion, the magnitude of bias observed with either assay at different groups and SDC ranges was not likely to be clinically relevant. Therefore, either assay may be used to measure SDC in clinical practice. PMID:11128242

  10. Patient experiences with self-monitoring renal function after renal transplantation: results from a single-center prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    van Lint, Céline L; van der Boog, Paul JM; Wang, Wenxin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Rövekamp, Ton JM; Neerincx, Mark A; Rabelink, Ton J; van Dijk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background After a kidney transplantation, patients have to visit the hospital often to monitor for early signs of graft rejection. Self-monitoring of creatinine in addition to blood pressure at home could alleviate the burden of frequent outpatient visits, but only if patients are willing to self-monitor and if they adhere to the self-monitoring measurement regimen. A prospective pilot study was conducted to assess patients’ experiences and satisfaction. Materials and methods For 3 months after transplantation, 30 patients registered self-measured creatinine and blood pressure values in an online record to which their physician had access to. Patients completed a questionnaire at baseline and follow-up to assess satisfaction, attitude, self-efficacy regarding self-monitoring, worries, and physician support. Adherence was studied by comparing the number of registered with the number of requested measurements. Results Patients were highly motivated to self-monitor kidney function, and reported high levels of general satisfaction. Level of satisfaction was positively related to perceived support from physicians (P<0.01), level of self-efficacy (P<0.01), and amount of trust in the accuracy of the creatinine meter (P<0.01). The use of both the creatinine and blood pressure meter was considered pleasant and useful, despite the level of trust in the accuracy of the creatinine device being relatively low. Trust in the accuracy of the creatinine device appeared to be related to level of variation in subsequent measurement results, with more variation being related to lower levels of trust. Protocol adherence was generally very high, although the range of adherence levels was large and increased over time. Conclusion Patients’ high levels of satisfaction suggest that at-home monitoring of creatinine and blood pressure after transplantation offers a promising strategy. Important prerequisites for safe implementation in transplant care seem to be support from physicians and patients’ confidence in both their own self-monitoring skills and the accuracy of the devices used. PMID:26673985

  11. Spiral CT Quantification of Aorto-Renal Calcification and Its Use in the Detection of Atheromatous Renal Artery Stenosis: A Study in 42 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Gayard, Pierre; Garcier, Jean-Marc; Boire, Jean-Yves; Ravel, Anne; Perez, Nessim; Privat, Christian; Lucien, Pascal; Viallet, Jean-Francois; Boyer, Louis

    2000-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether a correlation exists between aortic and renal arterial calcifications detected with spiral CT and significant angiographic renal artery stenosis (RAS).Methods: Forty-two patients (mean age 67 years, range 37-84 years), of whom 24 were hypertensive, prospectively underwent abdominal helical CT and aortic and renal arteriography. The 3-mm thickness CT scans (pitch = 1) were reconstructed each millimeter. A manual outline of the renal artery including its ostial portion was produced. Calcific hyperdensities were defined as areas of density more than 130 HU. CT data were compared with the presence or absence of RAS on angiography (24 cases); hypertension and age were taken into account (Mann-Whitney U-test).Results: CT detection and quantification appeared to be reliable and reproductible. We did not find any correlation between aortic and renal arterial calcifications and RAS, even for the patients above 65 years, with or without hypertension. There was no correlation either between calcifications and hypertension in patients without RAS. Conclusion: In this population, aortic and renal arterial calcifications have no predictive value for RAS.

  12. Renal granulomatoses: a retrospective study of 40 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Javaud, Nicolas; Belenfant, Xavier; Stirnemann, Jérôme; Laederich, Joëlle; Ziol, Marianne; Callard, Patrice; Ronco, Pierre; Rondeau, Eric; Fain, Olivier

    2007-05-01

    Renal granulomatoses represent 0.5%-0.9% of nephropathies examined by renal biopsies. Granulomas can be isolated to the kidney or associated with other tissue involvement. We describe 40 consecutive patients with renal granulomatoses, associated with pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis in 2 patients and with vasculitis in another, seen in northeastern Paris hospitals between January 1991 and February 2004. The criterion for inclusion was the presence of 1 or more epithelioid granulomas in the renal interstitium. Our population of 25 men and 15 women had a median age of 53 years. All patients suffered from renal insufficiency with median creatininemia of 236.8 micromol/L (range, 124-805 micromol/L), associated with hypertension (25%), median proteinuria of 0.6 g/24 h (range, 0.08-3.00 g/24 h), microscopic hematuria (15%) and leukocyturia (22.5%). Histologic examination of extrarenal specimens detected granulomas in 82.4% of the bronchial biopsies taken, and in 100% of the 2 skin biopsies, the 2 lymph-node biopsies, and the liver and colon biopsies. The following etiologies were retained: sarcoidosis for 20 (50%) patients, drug-induced for 7 (17.5%), tuberculosis for 3 (7.5%), Wegener granulomatosis for 2 (5%), and leprosy, Mycobacterium avium infection, and Crohn disease for 1 (2.5%) patient each. No etiology could be identified for 5 (12.5%) patients. Treatment must be adapted to the etiology of each case. The renal outcome after treatment was generally favorable, with the estimated median creatinine clearance increasing from 26 mL/min (range, 5.4-80.0 mL/min) to 46.5 mL/min (range, 0-118 mL/min) after a median follow-up of 35.5 months (range, 3-158 mo). Nonetheless, 32 patients had persistent renal insufficiency; 1 required hemodialysis and another underwent renal transplantation. Sarcoidosis and medications are the most common causes of renal granulomatosis. Idiopathic and drug-induced forms do not relapse after treatment discontinuation, and remission persists at long-term follow-up. PMID:17505256

  13. MR-guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection for Renal Sympathetic Denervation: A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Streitparth, F. Walter, A.; Stolzenburg, N.; Heckmann, L.; Breinl, J.; Rinnenthal, J. L.; Beck, A.; De Bucourt, M.; Schnorr, J.; Bernhardt, U.; Gebauer, B.; Hamm, B.; Guenther, R. W.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of image-guided periarterial ethanol injection as an alternative to transluminal radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Unilateral renal periarterial ethanol injection was performed under general anesthesia in 6 pigs with the contralateral kidney serving as control. All interventions were performed in an open 1.0 T MRI system under real-time multiplanar guidance. The injected volume was 5 ml (95 % ethanol labelled marked MR contrast medium) in 2 pigs and 10 ml in 4 pigs. Four weeks after treatment, the pigs underwent MRI including MRA and were killed. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma served as a surrogate parameter to analyze the efficacy of sympathetic denervation. In addition, the renal artery and sympathetic nerves were examined histologically to identify evidence of vascular and neural injury. Results. In pigs treated with 10 ml ethanol, treatment resulted in neural degeneration. We found a significant reduction of NE concentration in the kidney parenchyma of 53 % (p < 0.02) compared with the untreated contralateral kidney. In pigs treated with 5 ml ethanol, no significant changes in histology or NE were observed. There was no evidence of renal arterial stenosis in MRI, macroscopy or histology in any pig. Conclusion. MR-guided periarterial ethanol injection was feasible and efficient for renal sympathetic denervation in a swine model. This technique may be a promising alternative to the catheter-based approach in the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.

  14. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  15. NTP technical report on renal toxicity studies of selected halogenated ethanes administered by gavage to f344/n rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, J.R.

    1996-02-01

    The National Cancer Institute and National Toxicology Program have performed 2-year toxicology and carcinogenesis studies with a number of ethanes substituted with chloride or bromine. A review of the results of studies with these halogenated ethanes has revealed several consistencies between the pattern of halogen substitution and neoplastic responses in some affected organs. One of these consistencies was the finding of a modest increase in the incidence of renal tubule cell neoplasms in male rats administered penta- or hexachloroethane. Certain aspects of the nephrophathy also noted in these studies resembled what is now recognized as a distinct hyaline droplet nephropathy typically associatd with the accumulation of alpha-globulin in renal tubule cells. In an attempt to determine some of the structure activity relationships involved in the induction of hyaline droplet nephropathy by halogenated ethanes, a series of commercially available ethanes substituted with three or more chlorines, four or more bromines, or a combination of chlorines and fluorines was studied in a short-term renal toxicity assessment in male F344/N rats.

  16. A case-control study of occupational sunlight exposure and renal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Karami, Sara; Colt, Joanne S; Stewart, Patricia A; Schwartz, Kendra; Davis, Faith G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wacholder, Sholom; Graubard, Barry I; Purdue, Mark P; Moore, Lee E

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence of a relationship between vitamin D and kidney cancer risk has been inconsistent despite experimental data indicating that vitamin D and its metabolites may inhibit carcinogenesis. Previously we reported an inverse association between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and occupational ultraviolet (UV) exposure among European men. In this study, we examined the association between occupational UV exposure and RCC risk among US residents and investigated whether this association varied by race and sex. Lifetime occupational data for 1,217 RCC cases and 1,235 controls in a population-based case-control study, conducted from 2002 to 2007, were assessed for occupational UV exposure. We evaluated exposure metrics in quartiles based on control exposure levels and calculated associations between RCC risk and occupational UV exposure using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for sex, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, center, education, family history of cancer and dietary vitamin D intake. A general pattern of decreasing RCC risk with increasing UV exposure was observed. Cases had significantly lower cumulative occupational UV exposure than controls (fourth quartile vs. first: odds ratio = 0.74 [95% confidence interval = 0.56-0.99], p-trend = 0.03). Similar results were observed for other UV exposure metrics. The association with occupational UV exposure was stronger for women than for men, but did not differ by race. Our findings suggest an inverse association between occupational UV exposure and RCC, particularly among women. Given the sex finding discrepancies in this study versus our previous study, additional research is need to clarify whether the protective effects of occupational UV exposure and RCC risk are real. PMID:26505275

  17. Estimating GFR Among Participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Yang, Wei; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Joffe, Marshall M.; Leonard, Mary B.; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Jing; Greene, Tom; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kao, Patricia; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Lash, James P.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measure of kidney function, but repeated assessment is not feasible in most research studies. Study Design Cross-sectional study of 1,433 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (i.e., the GFR subcohort) to derive an internal GFR estimating equation using a split sample approach. Setting & Participants Adults from 7 US metropolitan areas with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease; 48% had diabetes and 37% were black. Index Test CRIC GFR estimating equation Reference Test or Outcome Urinary 125I-iothalamate clearance testing (measured GFR) Other Measurements Laboratory measures including serum creatinine and cystatin C, and anthropometrics Results In the validation dataset, the model that included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, age, gender, and race was the most parsimonious and similarly predictive of mGFR compared to a model additionally including bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle, CRIC clinical center, and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. Specifically, the root mean square errors for the separate model were 0.207 vs. 0.202, respectively. The performance of the CRIC GFR estimating equation was most accurate among the subgroups of younger participants, men, non-blacks, non-Hispanics, those without diabetes, those with body mass index <30 kg/m2, those with higher 24-hour urine creatinine excretion, those with lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and those with higher mGFR. Limitations Urinary clearance of 125I-iothalamate is an imperfect measure of true GFR; cystatin C is not standardized to certified reference material; lack of external validation; small sample sizes limit analyses of subgroup-specific predictors. Conclusions The CRIC GFR estimating equation predicts measured GFR accurately in the CRIC cohort using serum creatinine and cystatin C, age, gender, and race. Its performance was best among younger and healthier participants. PMID:22658574

  18. Renal erythropoietin-producing cells in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Souma, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Norio; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is an indispensable erythropoietic hormone primarily produced from renal Epo-producing cells (REPs). Epo production in REPs is tightly regulated in a hypoxia-inducible manner to maintain tissue oxygen homeostasis. Insufficient Epo production by REPs causes renal anemia and anemia associated with chronic disorders. Recent studies have broadened our understanding of REPs from prototypic hypoxia-responsive cells to dynamic fibrogenic cells. In chronic kidney disease, REPs are the major source of scar-forming myofibroblasts and actively produce fibrogenic molecules, including inflammatory cytokines. Notably, myofibroblast-transformed REPs (MF-REPs) recover their original physiological properties after resolution of the disease insults, suggesting that renal anemia and fibrosis could be reversible to some extent. Therefore, understanding the plasticity of REPs will lead to the development of novel targeted therapeutics for both renal fibrosis and anemia. This review summarizes the regulatory mechanisms how hypoxia-inducible Epo gene expression is attained in health and disease conditions. PMID:26089800

  19. Renal excretion of pseudoephedrine.

    PubMed

    Brater, D C; Kaojarern, S; Benet, L Z; Lin, E T; Lockwood, T; Morris, R C; McSherry, E J; Melmon, K L

    1980-11-01

    A patient with renal acidosis developed unanticipated toxicity after ordinary doses of pseudoephedrine, prompting us to study renal determinants of its elimination. We presumed that our patient accumulated the drug because of her persistently alkaline urine, which would favor tubular resorption of this weak base (pKa = 9.4). We studied normal adults and children and one adult and one child with renal tubular acidosis. Increasing urine pH increased the serum elimination half-life from 1.9 to 21 hr. While urinary pH remained alkaline, renal excretion of pseudoephedrine and its metabolite, norpseudoephedrine, was directly correlated with the flow rate of urine in each subject. Both urine pH and flow are important determinants of the elimination of pseudoephedrine in man and could be critical determinants of unanticipated toxicity. PMID:7438686

  20. Influence of the renal endothelin system on the autoregulation of renal blood flow in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Braun, C; Lang, C; Hocher, B; Gretz, N; van der Woude, F J; Rohmeiss, P

    1997-01-01

    The renal endothelin (ET) system has been claimed to play an important role in the regulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and sodium excretion in primary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the endogenous ET system in the autoregulation of total RBF, cortical blood flow (CBF), pressure-dependent plasma renin activity (PRA) and pressure natriuresis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by means of the combined (A/B) ET-receptor antagonist, bosentan. In anesthetized rats, RBF was measured by transit-time flow probes and CBF by laser flow probes. During the experiments, the rats received an intrarenal infusion of either bosentan (1 mg/kg/h) or vehicle. Renal perfusion pressure (RPP) was lowered in pressure steps of 5 mm Hg with a servo-controlled electropneumatic device via an inflatable suprarenal cuff. Bosentan had no effect on resting RPP, CBF, PRA and renal sodium excretion, whereas RBF was lowered by 30% (p < 0.05). Furthermore after bosentan the rats revealed a complete loss of RBF autoregulation. In contrast no changes in autoregulation of CBF, pressure-dependent PRA and pressure natriuresis were observed. Our findings demonstrate a significant impairment in total RBF autoregulatory ability during renal ET-receptor blockade which is not confined to the cortical vessels. These data suggest that the renal ET system plays an important role in the dynamic regulation of renal blood flow in SHR. PMID:9192904

  1. Renal flow studies after abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy and axillo-bifemoral bypass graft: case report

    SciTech Connect

    LaManna, M.M.; Yussen, P.S.

    1988-03-01

    Vascular disorders affecting the kidneys are either acquired or congenital. Included in this category are common multiplicity of renal arteries, the rare arteriovenous malformation, stresses due to fibromuscular disease or atherosclerosis including abdominal aortic aneurysms, arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis, and infarction. In contrast to the group of cystic and neoplastic kidneys where scintigraphic or pathologic are not diagnostic, scintigraphic or pathologic anatomy in vascular disease is often diagnostic by nuclear medicine techniques. The authors present an interesting case of evaluation of acute renal failure in a patient abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy and axillo-bifemoral bypass graft.

  2. A Parametric Study of Spur Gear Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Liou, Chuen-Huei

    1998-01-01

    A parametric study of a spur gear system was performed through a numerical analysis approach. This study used the gear dynamic program DANST, a computer simulator, to determine the dynamic behavior of a spur gear system. The analytical results have taken the deflection of shafts and bearings into consideration for static analysis, and the influence of these deflections on gear dynamics was investigated. Damping in the gear system usually is an unknown quantity, but it has an important effect in resonance vibration. Typical values as reported in the literature were used in the present analysis. The dynamic response due to different damping factors was evaluated and compared. The effect of the contact ratio on spur gear dynamic load and dynamic stress was investigated through a parameter study. The contact ratio was varied over the range of 1.26 to 2.46 by adjusting the tooth addendum. Gears with contact ratio near 2.0 were found to have the most favorable dynamic performance.

  3. Dynamical studies of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Porco, Carolyn C.

    1987-01-01

    Several investigations of Saturn's rings employing data from three Voyager experiments are discussed. These investigations concentrated on the regularily organized C ring. A search for eccentric or inclined features, a photometric study of regions of different optical depth, an analysis of wavelike structures at three locations, and a study of the size distribution of meter-sized particles are dicussed.

  4. A genome-wide association study of renal cell carcinoma among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Purdue, Mark P; Ye, Yuanqing; Wang, Zhaoming; Colt, Joanne S; Schwartz, Kendra L; Davis, Faith G; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wu, Xifeng; Chanock, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in populations of European ancestry have identified four susceptibility loci. No GWAS has been conducted among African Americans (AA), who experience a higher incidence of RCC. We conducted a GWAS in which we analyzed 1,136,723 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) among 255 cases and 375 controls of African ancestry, and further investigated 16 SNPs in a replication set (140 cases and 543 controls). The 12p11.23 variant rs10771279, located 77 kb from the European-ancestry RCC marker rs718314, was associated with RCC risk in the GWAS (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)) but did not replicate (P = 0.99). Consistent with European-ancestry findings, the A allele of rs7105934 on 11q13.3 was associated with decreased risk [OR, 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.91; P = 0.0022]. The frequency of this allele was higher than that observed in the European-ancestry GWAS (0.56 and 0.07, respectively, among controls). The rs7105934 association was stronger for clear cell RCC (ccRCC: OR, 0.56; P = 7.4 × 10(-7)) and absent for cases of other or unknown histology (OR, 1.02; P = 0.86). Analyses of rs7105934 by subtype among European-ancestry participants from these studies yielded similar findings (ORs 0.69 and 0.92, respectively). This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that rs7105934 is an RCC susceptibility locus among AAs. Our finding that the association with this SNP may be specific to clear-cell RCC is novel and requires additional investigation. Additional investigation of rs10771279 and other suggestive GWAS findings is also needed. PMID:24220910

  5. Occupation as a risk factor for renal cell cancer: a nationwide, prospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Mariusdottir, Elin; Ingimarsson, Johann P; Jonsson, Eirikur; Einarsson, Gudmundur V; Aspelund, Thor; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    Objective Using centralized registries in Iceland, the aim of this study was to prospectively investigate multiple risk factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), including occupational history. Materials and methods From the Reykjavik study database, 18,840 men and women born in the period 1907-1935 were linked with a population-based registry containing all RCCs diagnosed in Iceland from 1971 to 2005 (n = 910). From this cross-reference, altogether 225 cases were identified. A prospective analysis of the risk factors for RCC was performed using Cox regression analysis, from the time of entry into the Reykjavik study to the diagnosis of RCC, death or end of follow-up, with a median follow-up time of 25 years. The hazard ratio (HR) was then calculated for multiple risk factors including occupational history. Results Male gender [HR 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.38], body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m² (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06-1.88) and age (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.07) increased the risk of RCC, as did severe hypertension (>160/100 mmHg) (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.03) and history of kidney disease (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.16); however, smoking and type 2 diabetes were not significantly associated with the disease. The risk of RCC was significantly increased in painters (HR 2.97, 95% CI 1.31-6.74), aircraft mechanics (HR 4.51, 95% CI 1.11-18.28) and shipbuilders (HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.06-3.84). Conclusions Together with male gender, advanced age, hypertension, BMI over 25 kg/m² and history of kidney disease, the risk of RCC was significantly increased in painters, aircraft mechanics and shipbuilders, suggesting a link to occupational exposure. PMID:26999634

  6. [Adverse effects of low dose exposures to cadmium below renal damage level should be emphasized for human health effect studies].

    PubMed

    Yang, X F; Wu, Y N

    2016-04-01

    Currently, the pollution of heavy metal, including lead, cadmium (Cd) and mercury, was one of the major environmental problems in China. Cd could cause adverse effects on kidney, bone, lung and reproductive system. Most of the past researches focused on renal damage effect, and some evidences suggestedadverse effects on bone, tumor, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and mineral elements, etc, which was occurred at low dose exposures to Cd below renal damage level. An important content of human health effect Studies on exposures to Cd is to follow up the development and consequences of adverse effects after long-term exposure to environmental Cd and then reduction or cessation of its exposure among this population. In this paper, the progress and development trend of long-term environmental exposure to Cd and its health damage effect were reviewed. PMID:27029357

  7. Effect of beta-D-xyloside on the renal glomerular cells. II. Morphological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kanwar, Y.S.; Rosenzweig, L.J.; Jakubowski, M.L.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside on the renal glomerulus was studied. Rat kidneys were labeled with (35S)sulfate in the presence or absence of beta-xyloside by using an isolated organ perfusion system and were processed subsequently for morphological studies. By using electron microscopy, preferential intracytoplasmic vesiculation of the visceral epithelium was observed in the beta-xyloside-treated kidneys. The vesicles were distributed throughout the cytoplasm, particularly in the vicinity of Golgi apparatus. They were acid-phosphatase negative, devoid of clathrin-coat, and contained osmium-impregnated reaction products. The visceral epithelial foot processes remained firmly attached to the glomerular basement membrane. No loss of cell-surface associated sialoglycoproteins, as evidenced by colloidal iron staining, was observed. No significant change in the morphological features of glomerular endothelial or mesangial cells was noted. By using electron microscopy autoradiography, a significant increase in the number of silver grains over the epithelium, and a decrease in the number over the extracellular matrices was observed. The majority of the grains were either associated with intracytoplasmic vesicles or Golgi apparatus. The mean grain densities (concentration of radiation) increased by 3.6-fold for the epithelium, and decreased by 2.4- and 1.6-fold for the basement membrane and mesangial matrix, respectively. The grain densities over the endothelial and mesangial cells were similar in control and experimental groups. These data indicate that xyloside induces selective alterations in Golgi apparatus of the visceral epithelium and a dramatic imbalance in the de novo synthesized sulfated macromolecules of cellular and extracellular compartments.

  8. Incidence and risk factors of renal hematoma: a prospective study of 1,300 SWL treatments.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, M J; Gierth, M; Chaussy, C G; Dötzer, K; Burger, M; Fritsche, H M

    2014-06-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is the gold standard for the treatment of upper urinary tract stones. Despite being relatively non-invasive, SWL can cause renal hematoma (RHT). The aim of this study was to determine incidence and risk factors for RHT following SWL. 857 patients were included in a prospectively maintained database. The observation period spans from 2007 to 2012. 1,324 procedures were performed due to kidney stones. Treatment protocol included power ramping and shock wave frequency of 60-90 per minute as well as an ultrasound check within 3 days of SWL for all patients. Patients with RHT were analyzed, and treatment characteristics were compared with the complete population in a non-statistical manner due to the low event count. RHTs after SWL, sized between 2.6 × 0.6 cm and 17 × 15 cm, were verified in seven patients (0.53%). In four patients, the RHT was asymptomatic. Three patients developed pain after SWL treatment due to a RHT. In one patient surgical intervention was necessary due to a symptomatic RHT, the kidney was preserved. The risk of RHT following SWL treatment of kidney stones is about 0.5%. Clinically relevant or symptomatic RHTs occur in 0.23%, RHTs requiring surgical intervention are extremely rare. Older age and vascular comorbidities appear to be risk factors for the development of RHT. The technical characteristics of SWL treatment and intake of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid due to an imperative cardiologic indication do not appear to influence the risk. Prospective studies are warranted. PMID:24419328

  9. Food groups and renal cell carcinoma: a case-control study from Italy.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Francesca; Bosetti, Cristina; Scotti, Lorenza; Talamini, Renato; Montella, Maurizio; Ramazzotti, Valerio; Negri, Eva; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2007-02-01

    Although nutrition and diet have been related to renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the role of specific foods or nutrients on this cancer is still controversial. We evaluated the relation between a wide range of foods and the risk of RCC in an Italian case-control study including 767 patients (494 men and 273 women) younger than 79 years with incident, histologically confirmed RCC, and 1,534 controls (988 men and 546 women) admitted to the same hospitals as cases for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic conditions, not related to long term diet modifications. A validated and reproducible food frequency questionnaire, including 78 foods and beverages, plus a separate section on alcohol drinking, was used to assess patients' dietary habits 2 years before diagnosis or hospital admission. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) were obtained after allowance for energy intake and other major confounding factors. A significant direct trend in risk was found for bread (OR = 1.94 for the highest versus the lowest intake quintile), and a modest excess of risk was observed for pasta and rice (OR = 1.29), and milk and yoghurt (OR = 1.27). Poultry (OR = 0.74), processed meat (OR = 0.64) and vegetables (OR = 0.65) were inversely associated with RCC risk. No relation was found for coffee and tea, soups, eggs, red meat, fish, cheese, pulses, potatoes, fruits, desserts and sugars. The results of this study provide further indications on dietary correlates of RCC, and in particular indicate that a diet rich in refined cereals and poor in vegetables may have an unfavorable role on RCC. PMID:17058282

  10. Clinicohistological characteristics of renal cell carcinoma in children: A multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Seo, Seong Il; Song, Cheryn; Chung, Jinsoo; Kwak, Cheol; Hong, Sung-Hoo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this retrospective multicentre study, we compared the clinicohistological characteristics of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) between pediatric and adult patients. Methods: Data for patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy for RCC between 1988 and 2014 at multiple institutions were collected. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to age at diagnosis: pediatric patients (age ≤18 years) and adult patients (age ≥40 years). The groups were compared for clinical and pathologic variables, and survival analysis was performed. Results: The median follow-up period was 64 (range: 30–91) months for pediatric patients versus 44 (range: 19–59) months for adult patients (p = 0.026). Pediatric patients were mostly female (p = 0.003), had symptoms at presentation (p < 0.001), and had a high-stage tumour (p = 0.014) than adult patients. Among the symptomatic patients, gross hematuria was the most common symptom. The median tumour size was not different between groups. Regarding histologic types, pediatric patients had more papillary tumours (p < 0.001), more unclassified tumours (p < 0.001), and fewer clear cell carcinomas (p < 0.001). Five-year cancer-specific survival rates were 85% and 87.4% in pediatric and adult patients, respectively (log rank p = 0.901). Recurrence-free survival was better in adult patients, although this did not reach statistical significance (log rank p = 0.272). This study has several limitations, including its retrospective nature and the relatively small number of pediatric RCC cases. Conclusion: RCC in children is rare and is characterized by features that differ from those in adult RCC. Prognosis did not differ between groups. PMID:26664504

  11. Continuous low dose Thalidomide: a phase II study in advanced melanoma, renal cell, ovarian and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, T; Boshoff, C; Mak, I; Sapunar, F; Vaughan, M M; Pyle, L; Johnston, S R D; Ahern, R; Smith, I E; Gore, M E

    2000-01-01

    To grow and metastasize, solid tumours must develop their own blood supply by neo-angiogenesis. Thalidomide inhibits the processing of mRNA encoding peptide molecules including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This study investigated the use of continuous low dose Thalidomide in patients with a variety of advanced malignancies. Sixty-six patients (37 women and 29 men; median age, 48 years; range 33–62 years) with advanced measurable cancer (19 ovarian, 18 renal, 17 melanoma, 12 breast cancer) received Thalidomide 100 mg orally every night until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity was encountered. Three of 18 patients with renal cancer showed partial responses and a further three patients experienced stabilization of their disease for up to 6 months. Although no objective responses were seen in the other tumour types, there were significant improvements in patients' sleeping (P< 0.05) and maintained appetite (P< 0.05). Serum and urine concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), TNF-α and VEGF were measured during treatment and higher levels were associated with progressive disease. Thalidomide was well tolerated: Two patients developed WHO Grade 2 peripheral neuropathy and eight patients developed WHO grade 2 lethargy. No patients developed WHO grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Further studies evaluating the use of Thalidomide at higher doses as a single agent for advanced renal cancer and in combination with biochemotherapy regimens are warranted. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10732751

  12. The Effects of Resveratrol in Rats with Simultaneous Type 2 Diabetes and Renal Hypertension: a Study of Antihypertensive Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mozafari, Masoud; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; Panjeshahin, Mohammad Reza; Zare, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background Resveratrol has beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. This study aimed at examining antidiabetic and antihypertensive effects of resveratrol in rats with simultaneous type 2 diabetes and renal hypertension. Methods Eight groups (8-10 each) of male Spargue-Dawley rats, including a control, a diabetic (induced by streptozotocin and nicotinamide), a renal hypertensive (induced by placing plexiglas clips on the left renal arteries), a sham, a simultaneously hypertensive-diabetic receiving vehicle, and 3 simultaneous hypertensive-diabetic receiving resveratrol at 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg/day were used. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, renal hypertension was induced and animals were given vehicle or resveratrol for the next four weeks. Afterwards, blood pressure and glucose, serum markers of oxidative stress were measured and animal’s aortic rings were used for isolated studies. Results Serum malondialdehyde, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, fasting blood glucose, maximal response and effective concentration 50 of phenylephrine, and inhibitory concentration 50 of acetylcholine of hypertensive-diabetic group receiving vehicle were significantly higher than those of the control group, and treatment with resveratrol caused significant reduction of these variables. Moreover, serum superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and maximal response to acetylcholine of hypertensive-diabetic group receiving vehicle were significantly lower than those of the control group, and treatment with resveratrol caused significant increase of these variables. Conclusion The findings indicate that resveratrol has antidiabetic and antihypertensive effects, which may be partly due to antioxidant mechanism. They also show that antihypertensive effect of resveratrol may be additionally mediated by improving the release of nitric oxide and sympathoplegic activities. PMID:25821295

  13. Blood, urine and faecal metabolite profiles in the study of adult renal disease.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Clara; Spector, Tim D; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health burden and to date traditional biomarkers of renal function (such as serum creatinine and cystatin C) are unable to identify at-risk individuals before the disease process is well under way. To help preventive strategies and maximize the potential for effective interventions, it is important to characterise the molecular changes that take place in the development of renal damage. Metabolomics is a promising tool to identify markers of renal disease since the kidneys are involved in the handling of major biochemical classes of metabolites. These metabolite levels capture a snap-shot of the metabolic profile of the individual, allowing for the potential identification of early biomarkers, and the monitoring of real-time kidney function. In this review, we describe the current status of the identification of blood/urine/faecal metabolic biomarkers in different entities of kidney diseases including: acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal transplant, diabetic nephropathy and other disorders. PMID:26476344

  14. Urea recycling from the renal pelvis in sheep: A study with ( sup 14 C)urea

    SciTech Connect

    Cirio, A.; Boivin, R. )

    1990-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that urea can be recycled from the renal pelvis, (14C)urea diluted in native urine (1 microCi/ml) was perfused (0.5 ml/min) into one of the pelvises of sheep fed either normal (NP) or low (LP)-protein diets. Blood samples were obtained from the ipsilateral renal vein and from the carotid artery throughout the perfusions. 14C activity determinations in urine and plasma demonstrated a flux of (14C)urea from the pelvis to renal vein blood (40,000 in NP and 130,000 disintegrations/min in LP sheep, P less than 0.01). The corresponding flux of native urea was only 1.5 times higher in NP than in LP sheep (6.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.9 mumol/min, not significant) despite their 8 times higher urinary concentration of urea. The fraction of filtered urea that was reabsorbed in the pelvis was larger in LP sheep (7.5 +/- 3.7 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7% in NP sheep, P less than 0.05). A fraction of urea is thus actually recycled from the renal pelvis in sheep, and this pelvic retention is enhanced in LP animals. The importance of this phenomenon in the nitrogen economy is discussed.

  15. Oxidative stress during erythropoietin hyporesponsiveness anemia at end stage renal disease: Molecular and biochemical studies

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Samar K.M.; Amer, H.A.; El Behairy, Adel M.; Warda, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are two faces of one coin in end stage renal disease patients (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis. Their interconnection induces anemia complicated with erythropoietin hyporesponsiveness. The biochemical bases behind the resistance to erythropoietin therapy with frequent hemoglobinemia, oxidative stress and iron status have not been fully understood. Here two equal groups (40 patients each) of responders and non-responders to recombinant human erythropoietin therapy (higher than 300 IU/kg/wk of epoetin) were investigated. Hematological and biochemical analyses of collected blood and serum samples were performed along with serum electrophoretic protein footprinting. The leukocytic DNA fragmentation was used to evaluate the degree of oxidative insult. The good responders showed lower erythrocyte malondialdehyde (E-MDA) level and less DNA fragmentation of circulating leukocytes than poor responders with elevated hemoglobin, albumin, A/G ratio, total iron, and ferritin levels. Contrariwise, lower erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD) and catalase activities in EPO poor responder group were noticed. Neither other serum constituents nor electrophoretic protein pattern showed any difference between the two groups. There were higher levels of inflammatory markers, interleukin-6 (IL6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in EPO poor responder than good responder. The negative correlations between Hb and both IL6 and CRP levels in the present data remotely indicate a positive correlation between inflammatory markers and severity of anemia. A direct correlation between Hb and antioxidant enzymes (E-SOD and catalase) was noticed, while inverse correlation with E-MDA was recorded. The study proved that oral supplementation of vitamin C to ESRD patients might mitigate the previously elevated serum MDA level in these patients. PMID:27222740

  16. Cardiovascular Disease Among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Ana C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Lora, Claudia M.; Budoff, Matthew; Keane, Martin G.; Kusek, John W.; Martinez, Monica; Nessel, Lisa; Stamos, Thomas; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Yang, Wei; Feldman, Harold I.; Go, Alan S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States. The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about its prevalence among Hispanics with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted cross-sectional analyses of prevalent self-reported clinical and subclinical measures of CVD among 497 Hispanics, 1638 non-Hispanic Caucasians, and 1650 non-Hispanic African Americans, aged 21 to 74 years, with mild-to-moderate CKD at enrollment in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic CRIC (HCRIC) studies. Measures of subclinical CVD included left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and ankle-brachial index. Results Self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) was lower in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (18% versus 23%, P = 0.02). Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians, Hispanics had a lower prevalence of CAC >100 (41% versus 34%, P = 0.03) and CAC >400 (26% versus 19%, P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, these differences were no longer significant. In adjusted analyses, Hispanics had a higher odds of LVH compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 3.17, P = 0.005), and a higher odds of CAC >400 compared with non-Hispanic African Americans (odds ratio, 2.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.58, P = 0.03). Hispanic ethnicity was not independently associated with any other CVD measures. Conclusions Prevalent LVH was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic Caucasians, and elevated CAC score was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic African Americans. Understanding reasons for these racial/ethnic differences and their association with long-term clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:21896829

  17. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Baseline Characteristics and Associations with Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Go, Alan S.; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Cifelli, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Hamm, L. Lee; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Narva, Andrew; Robinson, Nancy; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants. Results: A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58.2 ± 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 ± 7.9 kg/m2, and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP. Conclusions: Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes. PMID:19541818

  18. Recombinant interleukin-21 plus sorafenib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a phase 1/2 study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the positive impact of targeted therapies on metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), durable responses are infrequent and an unmet need exists for novel therapies with distinct mechanisms of action. We investigated the combination of recombinant Interleukin 21 (IL-21), a cytokine with unique immunostimulatory properties, plus sorafenib, a VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Methods In this phase 1/2 study, 52 mRCC patients received outpatient treatment with oral sorafenib 400 mg twice daily plus intravenous IL-21 (10–50 mcg/kg) on days 1–5 and 15–19 of each 7-week treatment course. The safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of the combination were evaluated. Results In phase 1 (n = 19), the maximum tolerated dose for IL-21 with the standard dose of sorafenib was determined to be 30 mcg/kg/day; grade 3 skin rash was the only dose-limiting toxicity. In phase 2, 33 previously-treated patients tolerated the combination therapy well with appropriate dose reductions; toxicities were mostly grade 1 or 2. The objective response rate was 21% and disease control rate was 82%. Two patients have durable responses that are ongoing, despite cessation of both IL-21 and sorafenib, at 41+ and 30+ months, respectively. The median progression-free survival in phase 2 was 5.6 months. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of IL-21 appeared to be preserved in the presence of sorafenib. Conclusion IL-21 plus sorafenib has antitumor activity and acceptable safety in previously treated mRCC patients. IL-21 may represent a suitable immunotherapy in further exploration of combination strategies in mRCC. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00389285 PMID:24829759

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Renal Mass Biopsy: An Ex Vivo Study of 100 Nephrectomy Specimens.

    PubMed

    von Rundstedt, Friedrich-Carl; Mata, Douglas Alexander; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Roth, Stephan; Degener, Stephan; Dreger, Nici Markus; Goedde, Daniel; Assaid, Ahmed; Kamper, Lars; Haage, Patrick; Stoerkel, Stephan; Lazica, David A

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of renal mass biopsy in an ex vivo model, as well as compared the agreement of the preoperative radiological diagnosis with the final pathologic diagnosis. Two 18-gauge needle-core and 2 vacuum-needle biopsies were performed ex vivo from the tumors of 100 consecutive patients undergoing radical nephrectomy between 2006 and 2010. The median tumor size was 5.5 cm. There was no significant difference with regard to cylinder length or tissue quality between the sampling methods. At least 1 of 4 needle cores contained diagnostic tissue in 88% of patients. Biopsy specimens identified clear cell (54%), papillary (13%), or chromophobe (5%) renal cell carcinoma; urothelial carcinoma (6%); oncocytoma (5%); liposarcoma (1%); metastatic colorectal carcinoma (1%); squamous cell carcinoma (1%); unclassified renal cell neoplasm (1%); and no tumor sampled (12%). The sensitivity of the biopsy for accurately determining the diagnosis was 88% (95% CI: 79% to 93%). The specificity was 100% (95% CI: 17% to 100%). Biopsy grade correlated strongly with final pathology (83.5% agreement). There was no difference in average tumor size in cases with the same versus higher grade on final pathology (5.87 vs 5.97; P = .87). Appraisal of tumor histology by radiology agreed with the pathologic diagnosis in 68% of cases. Provided that the biopsy samples the tumor tissue in a renal mass, pathologic analysis is of great diagnostic value in respect of grade and tumor type and correlates well with excisional pathology. This constitutes strong ground for increasingly used renal mass biopsy in patients considering active surveillance or ablation therapy. PMID:26811388

  20. Dynamical Studies of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, P. D.; Porco, C.

    1985-01-01

    The data returned by the Voyager on the Saturnian system has revealed the structure of Saturn's ring system to be dominated by many abrupt transitions in optical depth, narrow well-defined ringlets and gaps, and spiral density and bending waves. A handful of these features were attributed with reasonable certainty to the resonant influence of external satellites, but the vast majority of the structure remains unexplained. The entire C ring was studied with particular emphasis on the search for unrecognized eccentric or inclined features, and the role, if any, played by satellite resonances in controlling C ring structure.

  1. Impairment of renal function with increasing blood lead concentrations in the general population. The Cadmibel Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Staessen, J.A.; Lauwerys, R.R.; Buchet, J.P.; Bulpitt, C.J.; Rondia, D.; Vanrenterghem, Y.; Amery, A. )

    1992-07-16

    Nephropathy is known to occur in persons with heavy exposure to lead. Whether exposure to lead in the general population leads to impaired renal function is not known. We studied renal function and indexes of lead exposure in a random population sample of 965 men and 1016 women (age range, 20 to 88 years). In all the subjects we measured creatinine clearance and blood concentrations of lead and zinc protoporphyrin (an indirect measure of blood lead level). The mean (+/- SD) creatinine clearance rate was 99 +/- 30 ml per minute in the men and 80 +/- 25 ml per minute in the women. In the men the geometric mean blood lead concentration was 114 micrograms per liter (0.55 mumol per liter) (range, 23 to 725 micrograms per liter (0.11 to 3.5 mumol per liter)), and in the women 75 micrograms per liter (0.36 mumol per liter) (range, 17 to 603 micrograms per liter (0.08 to 2.9 mumol per liter)); the zinc protoporphyrin values in blood averaged 1.0 and 1.1 micrograms per gram of hemoglobin, respectively. The creatinine clearance rate was inversely correlated with blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin values in the men and the women both before and after adjustments for age, bodymass index, and diuretic treatment. A 10-fold increase in blood lead concentration was associated with a reduction of 10 to 13 ml per minute in creatinine clearance. We also found a positive correlation between serum beta 2-microglobulin (which is inversely related to the glomerular filtration rate) and blood lead in men, between serum beta 2-microglobulin and zinc protoporphyrin in both sexes, and between serum creatinine and zinc protoporphyrin in men. Exposure to lead may impair renal function in the general population. The alternative hypothesis that renal impairment may lead to an increase in the blood lead concentration cannot be excluded, however.

  2. Precision-cut kidney slices (PCKS) to study development of renal fibrosis and efficacy of drug targeting ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Poosti, Fariba; Pham, Bao Tung; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Poelstra, Klaas; van Goor, Harry; Olinga, Peter; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Renal fibrosis is a serious clinical problem resulting in the greatest need for renal replacement therapy. No adequate preventive or curative therapy is available that could be clinically used to target renal fibrosis specifically. The search for new efficacious treatment strategies is therefore warranted. Although in vitro models using homogeneous cell populations have contributed to the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in renal fibrosis, these models poorly mimic the complex in vivo milieu. Therefore, we here evaluated a precision-cut kidney slice (PCKS) model as a new, multicellular ex vivo model to study the development of fibrosis and its prevention using anti-fibrotic compounds. Precision-cut slices (200-300??m thickness) were prepared from healthy C57BL/6 mouse kidneys using a Krumdieck tissue slicer. To induce changes mimicking the fibrotic process, slices were incubated with TGF?1 (5?ng/ml) for 48?h in the presence or absence of the anti-fibrotic cytokine IFN? (1?g/ml) or an IFN? conjugate targeted to PDGFR? (PPB-PEG-IFN?). Following culture, tissue viability (ATP-content) and expression of ?-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I and collagen III were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Slices remained viable up to 72?h of incubation, and no significant effects of TGF?1 and IFN? on viability were observed. TGF?1 markedly increased ?-SMA, fibronectin and collagen I mRNA and protein expression levels. IFN? and PPB-PEG-IFN? significantly reduced TGF?1-induced fibronectin, collagen I and collagen III mRNA expression, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The PKCS model is a novel tool to test the pathophysiology of fibrosis and to screen the efficacy of anti-fibrotic drugs ex vivo in a multicellular and pro-fibrotic milieu. A major advantage of the slice model is that it can be used not only for animal but also for (fibrotic) human kidney tissue. PMID:26112172

  3. Multimegawatt dynamic NEP PMAD study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC) is developing a FORTRAN-based model of a complete nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle to be used for piloted or cargo missions to the Moon or Mars. The proposed vehicle will use either a Brayton or K-Rankine power conversion cycle, and either ion or magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. In support of this effort, Rocketdyne evaluated various power management and distribution (PMAD) approaches and selected a low-frequency design that is based on the direct use of the alternator voltage and frequency for power transmission. This approach was compared with dc and high-frequency ac designs, and selected on the basis of mass, efficiency, and qualitative assessment of power quality, reliability and development costs. This low-frequency architecture will be used as the reference in future NEP PMAD studies and for the subsequent FORTRAN model development.

  4. Multimegawatt dynamic NEP PMAD study

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, K.J.

    1992-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC) is developing a FORTRAN-based model of a complete nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle to be used for piloted or cargo missions to the Moon or Mars. The proposed vehicle will use either a Brayton or K-Rankine power conversion cycle, and either ion or magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. In support of this effort, Rocketdyne evaluated various power management and distribution (PMAD) approaches and selected a low-frequency design that is based on the direct use of the alternator voltage and frequency for power transmission. This approach was compared with dc and high-frequency ac designs, and selected on the basis of mass, efficiency, and qualitative assessment of power quality, reliability and development costs. This low-frequency architecture will be used as the reference in future NEP PMAD studies and for the subsequent FORTRAN model development.

  5. Multimegawatt dynamic NEP PMAD study

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, K.J. )

    1993-01-20

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC) is developing a Fortran--based model of a complete nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle to be used for piloted or cargo missions to the Moon or Mars. The proposed vehicle will use either a Brayton or K-Rankine power conversion cycle, and either ion or magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. In support of this effort, Rocketdyne evaluated various power management and distribution (PMAD) approaches and selected a low-frequency design that is based on the direct use of the alternator voltage and frequency for power transmission. This approach was compared with dc and high-frequency ac designs, and selected on the basis of mass, efficiency, and qualitative assessments of power quality, reliability and development costs. This low-frequency architecture will be used as the reference in future NEP PMAD studies and for the subsequent Fortran model development.

  6. Renal Scintigraphy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, , also ... renal imaging can last from 30 minutes to 2 hours. top of page What will I experience ...

  7. Atheroembolic renal disease

    MedlinePlus

    Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...

  8. Use of doripenem and risk of seizure and renal impairment in US hospitalized patients: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chavers, Scott; Magee, Glenn; Baumer, Dorothy; Pai, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A large retrospective database study was conducted to assess the incidence rate of treatment-emergent renal impairment/failure, seizure, and hemolytic anemia in doripenem and imipenem intravenous (IV)-exposed patients treated for complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) in US hospitals. Methods: Using the Premier Perspective™ Database (PPD), which maintains hospital discharge records for over 309 million patients, the incidence rate of treatment-emergent renal impairment/failure, seizure, and hemolytic anemia in the doripenem-treated compared with imipenem IV-treated population was examined. Results: The unadjusted doripenem rate ratio (RR) for renal impairment/failure relative to imipenem IV was 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–1.21; p < 0.0001]. The unadjusted doripenem rate ratio for seizure relative to imipenem IV was 0.74 (95% CI 0.52–1.05; p = 0.07). In the comparative safety analysis, adjusted incidence rates of renal impairment/failure between doripenem-exposed patients and a propensity score-matched comparator cohort of imipenem IV-exposed patients showed no statistically significant difference in cUTI [RR = 1.02; 95% CI 0.93–1.12; p = 0.71] or cIAI (RR = 1.17; 95% CI 1.00–1.36; p = 0.05). Likewise, there was no statistically significant difference in adjusted incidence rates for seizures in doripenem-treated versus matched imipenem-treated patients for cUTI (RR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.41–1.14; p = 0.15) or cIAI (RR = 0.45; 95% CI 0.15–1.41; p = 0.17). No hemolytic anemia events were observed in this study. Conclusions: In this large retrospective cohort study of US hospitalized patients, no statistically significant differences in the adjusted relative rates of renal impairment/failure and seizure were observed between doripenem and a propensity score-matched comparator cohort of imipenem IV patients in the treatment of cUTI and cIAI. PMID:27034773

  9. [Determination of factors conditioning adherence and accomplishment of renal protection diet in patients with chronic renal failure: pilot study for the elaboration of a dietary guideline].

    PubMed

    Orzáez Villanueva, M T; Rodríguez Cisneros, A; Morales Ruiz, E; Martinéz Rincón, C

    2006-01-01

    There are seldom studies on dietary behavior of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). The aim of this study has been to know, by means of a previously validated questionnaire, which are the psycho-sociocultural factors that affect, and to what extent, assumption and adherence the dietary therapy while determining the degree of disease perception and several factors related with it. The study population is comprised by 81 patients from the nephrology clinic of the "12 de Octubre" Hospital of Madrid, with CRF in a pre-dialysis status. Seventy-seven point seventy-four percent answered "well" or "very well" to questions relating to disease knowledge and perception. Emotional and auto-management factors have little relevance according to 69.87% of patients. Fifty-nine point twenty-six percent feel a high level of familial support, and 35.77% alters dietary behavior when environmental conditions change. Most of the interviewees (87.65%) do not have difficulties finding the prescribed foods, and 70.37% considers their cost is not excessive. For almost half of the patients (48.76%), renal protection diet represents a variation in their dietary habits, a similar percentage expresses difficulty with elaboration. Food palatability is not a problem in 67.90% of the cases. Fifty-one point twenty-four percent does not perceive difficulty with cooking procedures. Seventy point ninety-nine percent feels support in one way or the other, by health care staff, although just 56.79% reports that the diet has not been explained to them. Only 18.51% questions the diet effectiveness as regards to their disease course. As for the gender variable, there were significant differences (p < 0.05), with a higher influence on men, in sections relating to disease knowledge, and influence of apathy and family support, the women those having the highest scores for food management, diet transgression at family meetings, and less information received about the prescribed diet. As for family support, there are significant differences only by age groups, patients aged more than 65 years being those feeling more this psychological support. The group of patients with a creatinine clearance less than 25 mL/min is the one expressing less categorically their appreciation on diet effectiveness. There are factors in which significant difficulty percentages are observed and that may induce diet transgression, in some cases without the patient being completely aware of, such as environmental changes, change in traditional habits, the degree of diet explanation, the organoleptic characteristics, and the lack of knowledge of appropriate cooking procedures. All these indicators confirm the need for enhancing nutritional education of these patients and their family environment, also showing the need for a nutritional intervention that completely supports patients in the process of adaptation and maintenance of their new dietary habit. PMID:16734066

  10. Increasing Use of Vitamin D Supplementation in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Laura H.; White, Matthew T.; Shults, Justine; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Feldman, Harold I.; Wolf, Myles; Reese, Peter P.; Denburg, Michelle R.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Lo, Joan C.; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlow, Dean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Leonard, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined rates and determinants of vitamin D supplementation among Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) participants and determined the association between dose and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level. The 2010 Institute of Medicine Report noted a significant increase in vitamin D supplementation in the general population, but use in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Methods CRIC is a multicenter prospective observational cohort study of 3,939 participants with a median baseline age of 60 and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 42.1 mL/minute per 1.73 m2. Of the cohort, 54.9% was male, 42.1% were Black, and 48.4% were diabetic. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equations were used to examine determinants of supplementation use assessed annually between 2003 and 2011. Cross-sectional linear regression models, based on a subset of 1,155 participants, assessed associations between supplement dose and 25(OH)D level, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Results The proportion of participants reporting supplement use increased (P < .0001), from 10% at baseline to 44% at 7-year follow-up visits. This was largely due to initiation of products containing only ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol. The odds of supplementation were greater in older, female, non-Black, married participants with greater education and lower body mass index. Among participants taking supplementation, dose was positively associated with 25(OH)D level, adjusted for race, season, diabetes, dietary intake, eGFR, and proteinuria. Only 3.8% of non-Black and 16.5% of Black participants taking a supplement were deficient (<20 ng/mL), whereas 22.7% of non-Black and 62.4% of Black participants not reporting supplement use were deficient. Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation rates rose significantly among CRIC participants over 7 years of follow-up and were associated with greater serum 25(OH)D levels. Studies of vitamin D levels on clinical outcomes in CKD and future vitamin D interventional studies should consider these changes in supplementation practices. PMID:24613295

  11. Can Tc 99m DTPA be Used in Adult Patients in Evaluation of Relative Renal Function Measurement as the Reference Tc 99m DMSA Method?

    PubMed Central

    Yalçın, Hülya; Özen, Aynur; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özaslan, İnci Aliç; Özer, Cahit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In the literature, there are many reports comparing relative renal function calculated with Tc 99m DTPA and Tc 99m DMSA in adults and children. However, there is no consensus about the results. As there is indeterminacy in the reliability of Tc 99m DTPA for the calculation of the relative renal functions, we retrospectively designed a study to compare the relative renal functions measured with Tc 99m DMSA and Tc 99m DTPA in adult patients with renal diseases Material and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 144 patients who applied to Nuclear Medicine Department of three hospitals between 2009 and 2010 and who had both dynamic and static renal imaging. Renal dynamic scintigraphies were compared to the relative function measured using Tc 99m DMSA static scintigraphy. Comparison of relative renal function measurements using dynamic and static renal scintigraphies was performed using Pearson correlation test. The comparison results were expressed with Bland-Altman analysis. Results: The study was conducted with 144 patients and 288 kidneys. Fifty six of patients were male. Mean age was 39.9±15.2 years. Thirty four patients had hydronephrosis, 28 pyelonephritis, 53 renal calculi, 3 chronic renal failure, 2 acute renal failure, 1 benign renal neoplasia, 15 renal atrophy, 8 ureteropelvic junction stenosis. Relative renal function was calculated in Tc 99m DMSA and 99m Tc-DTPA studies. The mean relative renal functions measured with Tc 99m DTPA was 52.54±23.09% and 47.25±23.09, with Tc 99m DMSA 52.85±21.80% and 47.07±21.77% for right and left kidneys, respectively. In bivariate correlation analysis (Pearson) a significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions calculated with Tc 99m DTPA and Tc 99m DMSA (r =0.937, p< 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.3 and the correlation limits were between 16.2 to -15.5. Conclusion: As a result, we concluded that Tc 99m DTPA is also a good method for the relative renal function evaluation when compared to Tc 99m DMSA scan. Although Tc 99m DMSA is the most reliable method for the calculation of relative renal function, Tc 99m DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23486843

  12. Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  13. A case–control study of occupation/industry and renal cell carcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of occupation in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is unclear. Here, we investigated associations between employment in specific occupations and industries and RCC, and its most common histologic subtype, clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Methods Between 2002 and 2007, a population-based case–control study of Caucasians and African Americans (1,217 cases; 1,235 controls) was conducted within the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas to investigate risk factors for RCC. As part of this study, occupational histories were ascertained through in-person interviews. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating occupation and industry to RCC risk using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. Results Employment in the agricultural crop production industry for five years or more was associated with RCC (OR = 3.3 [95% CI = 1.0-11.5]) and ccRCC in particular (OR = 6.3 [95% CI = 1.7-23.3], P for trend with duration of employment = 0.0050). Similarly, RCC risk was elevated for employment of five years or longer in non-managerial agricultural and related occupations (ORRCC = 2.1 [95% CI = 1.0-4.5]; ORccRCC = 3.1 [95% CI = 1.4-6.8]). Employment in the dry-cleaning industry was also associated with elevated risk (ORRCC = 2.0 [95% CI = 0.9-4.4], P for trend = 0.093; ORccRCC = 3.0 [95% CI = 1.2-7.4], P for trend = 0.031). Suggestive elevated associations were observed for police/public safety workers, health care workers and technicians, and employment in the electronics, auto repair, and cleaning/janitorial services industries; protective associations were suggested for many white-collar jobs including computer science and administrative occupations as well employment in the business, legislative, and education industries. Conclusions Our findings provide support for an elevated risk of RCC in the agricultural and dry-cleaning industries and suggest that these associations may be stronger for the ccRCC subtype. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:22873580

  14. Dynamism in gene expression across multiple studies

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Alexander A.; Dudley, Joel T.; Deshpande, Tarangini

    2010-01-01

    In this study we develop methods of examining gene expression dynamics, how and when genes change expression, and demonstrate their application in a meta-analysis involving over 29,000 microarrays. By defining measures across many experimental conditions, we have a new way of characterizing dynamics, complementary to measures looking at changes in absolute variation or breadth of tissues showing expression. We show conservation in overall patterns of dynamism across three species (human, mouse, and rat) and show associations with known disease-related genes. We discuss the enriched functional properties of the sets of genes showing different patterns of dynamics and show that the differences in expression dynamics is associated with the variety of different transcription factor regulatory sites. These results can influence thinking about the selection of genes for microarray design and the analysis of measurements of mRNA expression variation in a global context of expression dynamics across many conditions, as genes that are rarely differentially expressed between experimental conditions may be the subject of increased scrutiny when they significantly vary in expression between experimental subsets. PMID:19920211

  15. VUV studies of molecular photofragmentation dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.G.

    1993-12-01

    State-resolved, photoion and photoelectron methods are used to study the neutral fragmentation and ionization dynamics of small molecules relevant to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. Photodissociation and ionization are initiated by coherent VUV radiation and the fragmentation dynamics are extracted from measurements of product rovibronic state distributions, kinetic energies and angular distributions. The general aim of these studies is to investigate the multichannel interactions between the electronic and nuclear motions which determine the evolution of the photoexcited {open_quotes}complex{close_quotes} into the observed asymptotic channels.

  16. Parametric Imaging Of Digital Subtraction Angiography Studies For Renal Transplant Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Joe H.; Meaney, Thomas F.; Flechner, Stuart M.; Novick, Andrew C.; Buonocore, Edward

    1981-11-01

    A noninvasive method for diagnosing acute tubular necrosis and rejection would be an important tool for the management of renal transplant patients. From a sequence of digital subtraction angiographic images acquired after an intravenous injection of radiographic contrast material, the parametric images of the maximum contrast, the time when the maximum contrast is reached, and two times the time at which one half of the maximum contrast is reached are computed. The parametric images of the time when the maximum is reached clearly distinguish normal from abnormal renal function. However, it is the parametric image of two times the time when one half of the maximum is reached which provides some assistance in differentiating acute tubular necrosis from rejection.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the ovary or fallopian tube: a clinicopathological study of 9 cases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Huang, He; Dadhania, Vipulkumar; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common type of kidney cancer in adult, rarely metastasizes to the ovary or fallopian tube, and most cases published in the literature were case reports. Herein, we describe the clinicopathological features of 9 cases of RCC metastatic to the ovary (n = 8) or the fallopian tube (n = 1). The patients' age at the onset of primary renal tumor was available in 8 patients, ranging from 37 to 73 years (mean, 51 years; median, 50 years). Ovarian metastasis was detected prior to or concurrently with the primary renal tumors in 3 patients, and after the diagnosis of renal tumors in 6 patients. The histotypes of the RCCs were clear cell (n = 7), chromophobe (n = 1), and unclassified (n = 1). Immunohistochemical stainings were performed on the sections containing metastatic tumors in 4 cases. Interestingly, pagetoid intraepithelial spread in the tubal mucosa was observed in the case of RCC metastatic to the fallopian tube. Among the 8 patients with follow-up data, 5 died of disease and 3 were alive with disease, with a follow-up period ranging from 3.7 months to 17 years (mean, 77 months; median, 53 months) after the diagnosis of primary kidney tumors. Diagnostically, metastatic RCC may mimic primary ovarian tumors clinically, morphologically, or immunophenotypically. Pathologists should also keep in mind that both ovarian and kidney tumors express PAX8 and PAX2, the markers commonly used to diagnose metastatic RCC. In addition, chromophobe RCC only rarely metastasizes, but it can be a diagnostic challenge when it metastasizes to the ovary. PMID:27067787

  18. A study of renal blood flow regulation using the discrete wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Alexey N.; Pavlova, Olga N.; Mosekilde, Erik; Sosnovtseva, Olga V.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we provide a way to distinguish features of renal blood flow autoregulation mechanisms in normotensive and hypertensive rats based on the discrete wavelet transform. Using the variability of the wavelet coefficients we show distinctions that occur between the normal and pathological states. A reduction of this variability in hypertension is observed on the microscopic level of the blood flow in efferent arteriole of single nephrons. This reduction is probably associated with higher flexibility of healthy cardiovascular system.

  19. Follow up study of renal tubular dysfunction and mortality in residents of an area polluted with cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, K; Saito, H; Moriyama, M; Nakano, A

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between cadmium induced renal tubular dysfunction and mortality. A total of 230 subjects aged 40 or older and living in a cadmium polluted area in Kosaka Town, Akita Prefecture, Japan, were studied at least once between 1975 and 1977 and again in 1990. Urinary beta 2-microglobulin and total amino nitrogen concentrations were significantly related to mortality from all causes in women. The finding supports the idea that cadmium induced kidney damage is a factor associated with mortality in a general population exposed to environmental cadmium. PMID:1419864

  20. Diffuse FDG renal uptake in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Navalkissoor, Shaunak; Szyszko, Teresa; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Nunan, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    In patients presenting with acute renal failure and known/suspected lymphoma, the diagnosis of diffuse renal involvement is important, as there is potential for rapid resolution with chemotherapy. Although FDG is excreted through the kidneys and focal renal disease may be difficult to identify, diffuse renal FDG is more easily recognized and is always abnormal. We report a patient presenting with acute renal failure and suspected lymphoma. F-18 FDG PET/CT study demonstrated diffuse increased FDG uptake in bilaterally enlarged kidneys. Following 1 cycle of chemotherapy, the renal function normalized. An interim F-18 FDG PET/CT demonstrated normal size and FDG uptake within both kidneys. PMID:20838296

  1. The scintigraphic pattern of renal angiomyolipoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jaikishen, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Atkins, H.L. )

    1990-03-01

    The patterns of renal and gallium scintigraphy in a patient with renal angiomyolipoma are presented. Renal study with Tc-99m DTPA demonstrated a photopenic area in the flow and delayed images. Ga-67 citrate imaging did not show any evidence of increased activity. Although this pattern is also seen in renal cysts, scintigraphy seems to be valuable in the evaluation of angiomyolipoma. It helps differentiate it from renal carcinoma or renal abscess (which may be gallium avid), especially when the tumor is characterized by a paucity of adipose tissue and complicated by hemorrhage, in which case CT and ultrasonographic patterns are not diagnostic.

  2. A planning study investigating dual-gated volumetric arc stereotactic treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, Thomas; Pham, Daniel; Kron, Tomas; Foroudi, Farshad; Supple, Jeremy; Siva, Shankar

    2015-04-01

    This is a planning study investigating the dosimetric advantages of gated volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the end-exhale and end-inhale breathing phases for patients undergoing stereotactic treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma. VMAT plans were developed from the end-inhale (VMATinh) and the end-exhale (VMATexh) phases of the breathing cycle as well as a VMAT plan and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy plan based on an internal target volume (ITV) (VMATitv). An additional VMAT plan was created by giving the respective gated VMAT plan a 50% weighting and summing the inhale and exhale plans together to create a summed gated plan. Dose to organs at risk (OARs) as well as comparison of intermediate and low-dose conformity was evaluated. There was no difference in the volume of healthy tissue receiving the prescribed dose for the planned target volume (PTV) (CI100%) for all the VMAT plans; however, the mean volume of healthy tissue receiving 50% of the prescribed dose for the PTV (CI50%) values were 4.7 (± 0.2), 4.6 (± 0.2), and 4.7 (± 0.6) for the VMATitv, VMATinh, and VMATexh plans, respectively. The VMAT plans based on the exhale and inhale breathing phases showed a 4.8% and 2.4% reduction in dose to 30 cm{sup 3} of the small bowel, respectively, compared with that of the ITV-based VMAT plan. The summed gated VMAT plans showed a 6.2% reduction in dose to 30 cm{sup 3} of the small bowel compared with that of the VMAT plans based on the ITV. Additionally, when compared with the inhale and the exhale VMAT plans, a 4% and 1.5%, respectively, reduction was observed. Gating VMAT was able to reduce the amount of prescribed, intermediate, and integral dose to healthy tissue when compared with VMAT plans based on an ITV. When summing the inhale and exhale plans together, dose to healthy tissue and OARs was optimized. However, gating VMAT plans would take longer to treat and is a factor that needs to be considered.

  3. New insights into the dynamic regulation of water and acid-base balance by renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bouley, Richard; Pǎunescu, Teodor G.; Breton, Sylvie; Lu, Hua A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining tight control over body fluid and acid-base homeostasis is essential for human health and is a major function of the kidney. The collecting duct is a mosaic of two cell populations that are highly specialized to perform these two distinct processes. The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) and its receptor, the V2R, play a central role in regulating the urinary concentrating mechanism by stimulating accumulation of the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel in the apical membrane of collecting duct principal cells. This increases epithelial water permeability and allows osmotic water reabsorption to occur. An understanding of the basic cell biology/physiology of AQP2 regulation and trafficking has informed the development of new potential treatments for diseases such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, in which the VP/V2R/AQP2 signaling axis is defective. Tubule acidification due to the activation of intercalated cells is also critical to organ function, and defects lead to several pathological conditions in humans. Therefore, it is important to understand how these “professional” proton-secreting cells respond to environmental and cellular cues. Using epididymal proton-secreting cells as a model system, we identified the soluble adenylate cyclase (sAC) as a sensor that detects luminal bicarbonate and activates the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) via cAMP to regulate tubular pH. Renal intercalated cells also express sAC and respond to cAMP by increasing proton secretion, supporting the hypothesis that sAC could function as a luminal sensor in renal tubules to regulate acid-base balance. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of these fundamental processes. PMID:22460710

  4. Lunar libration point flight dynamics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Two satellite concepts, Halo and Hummingbird, for a lunar libration point satellite to be used as a tracking and communications link with the far side of the moon were evaluated. Study areas included flight dynamics, communications, attitude control, propulsion, and system integration. Both concepts were proved feasible, but Halo was shown to be the better concept.

  5. Role of Adding Spironolactone and Renal Denervation in True Resistant Hypertension: One-Year Outcomes of Randomized PRAGUE-15 Study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ján; Widimský, Petr; Waldauf, Petr; Lambert, Lukáš; Zelinka, Tomáš; Táborský, Miloš; Branny, Marian; Toušek, Petr; Petrák, Ondřej; Čurila, Karol; Bednář, František; Holaj, Robert; Štrauch, Branislav; Václavík, Jan; Nykl, Igor; Krátká, Zuzana; Kociánová, Eva; Jiravský, Otakar; Rappová, Gabriela; Indra, Tomáš; Widimský, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    This randomized, multicenter study compared the relative efficacy of renal denervation (RDN) versus pharmacotherapy alone in patients with true resistant hypertension and assessed the effect of spironolactone addition. We present here the 12-month data. A total of 106 patients with true resistant hypertension were enrolled in this study: 52 patients were randomized to RDN and 54 patients to the spironolactone addition, with baseline systolic blood pressure of 159±17 and 155±17 mm Hg and average number of drugs 5.1 and 5.4, respectively. Twelve-month results are available in 101 patients. The intention-to-treat analysis found a comparable mean 24-hour systolic blood pressure decline of 6.4 mm Hg, P=0.001 in RDN versus 8.2 mm Hg, P=0.002 in the pharmacotherapy group. Per-protocol analysis revealed a significant difference of 24-hour systolic blood pressure decline between complete RDN (6.3 mm Hg, P=0.004) and the subgroup where spironolactone was added, and this continued within the 12 months (15 mm Hg, P= 0.003). Renal artery computed tomography angiograms before and after 1 year post-RDN did not reveal any relevant changes. This study shows that over a period of 12 months, RDN is safe, with no serious side effects and no major changes in the renal arteries. RDN in the settings of true resistant hypertension with confirmed compliance is not superior to intensified pharmacological treatment. Spironolactone addition (if tolerated) seems to be more effective in blood pressure reduction. PMID:26693818

  6. Hepatitis E seroprevalence in recipients of renal transplants or haemodialysis in southwest England: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alex; Scobie, Linda; Crossan, Claire; Parry, Rob; Johnston, Paul; Stratton, Jon; Dickinson, Steve; Ellis, Vic; Hunter, Jeremy G; Prescott, Oliver R; Madden, Richie; Lin, Nan X; Henley, William E; Bendall, Richard P; Dalton, Harry R

    2013-02-01

    Locally acquired HEV infection is increasingly recognized in developed countries. Anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence has been shown to be high in haemodialysis patients in a number of previous studies, employing assays of uncertain sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in recipients of haemodialysis and renal transplants compared to a control group using a validated, highly sensitive assay. Eighty-eight patients with functioning renal transplants and 76 receiving chronic haemodialysis were tested for HEV RNA and anti-HEV IgG and IgM. Six hundred seventy controls were tested for anti-HEV IgG. Anti-HEV IgG was positive in 28/76 (36.8%) of haemodialysis and 16/88 (18.2%) of transplant patients. HEV RNA was not found in any patient. 126/670 (18.8%) of control subjects were anti-HEV IgG positive. After adjusting for age and sex, there was a significantly higher anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence amongst haemodialysis patients compared to controls (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.16-3.31, P = 0.01) or transplant recipients (OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.18-6.07, P = 0.02). Patients with a functioning transplant showed no difference in anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence compared to controls. The duration of haemodialysis or receipt of blood products were not significant risk factors for HEV IgG positivity. Patients receiving haemodialysis have a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG than both age- and sex-matched controls and a cohort of renal transplant patients. None of the haemodialysis patients had evidence of chronic infection. The reason haemodialysis patients have a high seroprevalence remains uncertain and merits further study. PMID:23169048

  7. Spiral blood flow in aorta-renal bifurcation models.

    PubMed

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Simmons, Anne; Barber, Tracie

    2016-07-01

    The presence of a spiral arterial blood flow pattern in humans has been widely accepted. It is believed that this spiral component of the blood flow alters arterial haemodynamics in both positive and negative ways. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spiral flow on haemodynamic changes in aorta-renal bifurcations. In this regard, a computational fluid dynamics analysis of pulsatile blood flow was performed in two idealised models of aorta-renal bifurcations with and without flow diverter. The results show that the spirality effect causes a substantial variation in blood velocity distribution, while causing only slight changes in fluid shear stress patterns. The dominant observed effect of spiral flow is on turbulent kinetic energy and flow recirculation zones. As spiral flow intensity increases, the rate of turbulent kinetic energy production decreases, reducing the region of potential damage to red blood cells and endothelial cells. Furthermore, the recirculation zones which form on the cranial sides of the aorta and renal artery shrink in size in the presence of spirality effect; this may lower the rate of atherosclerosis development and progression in the aorta-renal bifurcation. These results indicate that the spiral nature of blood flow has atheroprotective effects in renal arteries and should be taken into consideration in analyses of the aorta and renal arteries. PMID:26414530

  8. A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992.

  9. Recruitment of Hispanics into an observational study of chronic kidney disease: the Hispanic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study experience.

    PubMed

    Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Fischer, Michael J; Rosman, Robert T; Carmona, Eunice; Lopez, Amada; Balaram, Manjunath; Nessel, Lisa; Tao, Kaixiang Kelvin; Xie, Dawei; Kusek, John W; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P

    2012-11-01

    Despite the large burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics, this population has been underrepresented in research studies. We describe the recruitment strategies employed by the Hispanic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study, which led to the successful enrollment of a large population of Hispanic adults with CKD into a prospective observational cohort study. Recruitment efforts by bilingual staff focused on community clinics with Hispanic providers in high-density Hispanic neighborhoods in Chicago, academic medical centers, and private nephrology practices. Methods of publicizing the study included church meetings, local Hispanic print media, Spanish television and radio stations, and local health fairs. From October 2005 to July 2008, we recruited 327 Hispanics aged 21-74 years with mild-to-moderate CKD as determined by age-specific estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of 716 individuals completing a screening visit, 49% did not meet eGFR inclusion criteria and 46% completed a baseline visit. The mean age at enrollment was 57.1 and 67.1% of participants were male. Approximately 75% of enrolled individuals were Mexican American, 15% Puerto Rican, and 10% had other Latin American ancestry. Eighty two percent of participants were Spanish-speakers. Community-based and academic primary care clinics yielded the highest percentage of participants screened (45.9% and 22.4%) and enrolled (38.2% and 24.5%). However, academic and community-based specialty clinics achieved the highest enrollment yield from individuals screened (61.9% to 71.4%). A strategy focused on primary care and nephrology clinics and the use of bilingual recruiters allowed us to overcome barriers to the recruitment of Hispanics with CKD. PMID:22841929

  10. A four-drug combination therapy consisting of low-dose tacrolimus, low-dose mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, and mizoribine in living donor renal transplantation: A randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tian-zhong; Wu, Xiao-qiang; Rong, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We compared a three-drug combination therapy (control group) consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids in living donor renal transplantation with a four-drug combination therapy (study group), in which the doses of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were halved and the immunosuppressive drug mizoribine was added, in order to determine whether the incidence rates of acute rejection after transplantation between the study group and the control group are similar, whether the study group regimen prevents the occurrence of calcineurin inhibitor–induced renal damage, and whether the study group regimen prevents adverse effects such as diarrhea caused by mycophenolate mofetil. Methods: We investigated the incidence of acute rejection, serum creatinine levels, and estimated glomerular filtration rate and the incidence of adverse effects such as diarrhea. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of acute rejection. Renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine) was maintained in the control group whereas in the study group renal function gradually improved, with a statistical difference observed at 12 months. The incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea was significantly higher in the control group than in the study group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of cytomegalovirus infection and other adverse effects. Conclusion: These results suggest the study group therapy is an effective regimen in preventing acute rejection and the deterioration of renal function. These results also show this therapy can reduce the incidence of adverse effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:27231549

  11. 3D element imaging using NSECT for the detection of renal cancer: a simulation study in MCNP.

    PubMed

    Viana, R S; Agasthya, G A; Yoriyaz, H; Kapadia, A J

    2013-09-01

    This work describes a simulation study investigating the application of neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) for noninvasive 3D imaging of renal cancer in vivo. Using MCNP5 simulations, we describe a method of diagnosing renal cancer in the body by mapping the 3D distribution of elements present in tumors using the NSECT technique. A human phantom containing the kidneys and other major organs was modeled in MCNP5. The element composition of each organ was based on values reported in literature. The two kidneys were modeled to contain elements reported in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and healthy kidney tissue. Simulated NSECT scans were executed to determine the 3D element distribution of the phantom body. Elements specific to RCC and healthy kidney tissue were then analyzed to identify the locations of the diseased and healthy kidneys and generate tomographic images of the tumor. The extent of the RCC lesion inside the kidney was determined using 3D volume rendering. A similar procedure was used to generate images of each individual organ in the body. Six isotopes were studied in this work - (32)S, (12)C, (23)Na, (14)N, (31)P and (39)K. The results demonstrated that through a single NSECT scan performed in vivo, it is possible to identify the location of the kidneys and other organs within the body, determine the extent of the tumor within the organ, and to quantify the differences between cancer and healthy tissue-related isotopes with p ≤ 0.05. All of the images demonstrated appropriate concentration changes between the organs, with some discrepancy observed in (31)P, (39)K and (23)Na. The discrepancies were likely due to the low concentration of the elements in the tissue that were below the current detection sensitivity of the NSECT technique. PMID:23920157

  12. 3D element imaging using NSECT for the detection of renal cancer: a simulation study in MCNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, R. S.; Agasthya, G. A.; Yoriyaz, H.; Kapadia, A. J.

    2013-09-01

    This work describes a simulation study investigating the application of neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) for noninvasive 3D imaging of renal cancer in vivo. Using MCNP5 simulations, we describe a method of diagnosing renal cancer in the body by mapping the 3D distribution of elements present in tumors using the NSECT technique. A human phantom containing the kidneys and other major organs was modeled in MCNP5. The element composition of each organ was based on values reported in literature. The two kidneys were modeled to contain elements reported in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and healthy kidney tissue. Simulated NSECT scans were executed to determine the 3D element distribution of the phantom body. Elements specific to RCC and healthy kidney tissue were then analyzed to identify the locations of the diseased and healthy kidneys and generate tomographic images of the tumor. The extent of the RCC lesion inside the kidney was determined using 3D volume rendering. A similar procedure was used to generate images of each individual organ in the body. Six isotopes were studied in this work—32S, 12C, 23Na, 14N, 31P and 39K. The results demonstrated that through a single NSECT scan performed in vivo, it is possible to identify the location of the kidneys and other organs within the body, determine the extent of the tumor within the organ, and to quantify the differences between cancer and healthy tissue-related isotopes with p ≤ 0.05. All of the images demonstrated appropriate concentration changes between the organs, with some discrepancy observed in 31P, 39K and 23Na. The discrepancies were likely due to the low concentration of the elements in the tissue that were below the current detection sensitivity of the NSECT technique.

  13. Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

  14. Randomly and Non-Randomly Missing Renal Function Data in the Strong Heart Study: A Comparison of Imputation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shara, Nawar; Yassin, Sayf A.; Valaitis, Eduardas; Wang, Hong; Howard, Barbara V.; Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa T.; Umans, Jason G.

    2015-01-01

    Kidney and cardiovascular disease are widespread among populations with high prevalence of diabetes, such as American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Studying these conditions simultaneously in longitudinal studies is challenging, because the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases result in missing data, and these data are likely not missing at random. When such data are merely excluded, study findings may be compromised. In this article, a subset of 2264 participants with complete renal function data from Strong Heart Exams 1 (1989–1991), 2 (1993–1995), and 3 (1998–1999) was used to examine the performance of five methods used to impute missing data: listwise deletion, mean of serial measures, adjacent value, multiple imputation, and pattern-mixture. Three missing at random models and one non-missing at random model were used to compare the performance of the imputation techniques on randomly and non-randomly missing data. The pattern-mixture method was found to perform best for imputing renal function data that were not missing at random. Determining whether data are missing at random or not can help in choosing the imputation method that will provide the most accurate results. PMID:26414328

  15. Retinopathy and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study).

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Juan E; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker-Ostroff, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Lo, Joan C; Townsend, Raymond R; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W; Xie, Dawei

    2015-11-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience other diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess whether retinopathy predicts future CVD events in a subgroup of the participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. In this ancillary investigation, 2,605 participants of the CRIC study were invited to participate, and nonmydriatic fundus photographs were obtained in 1,936 subjects. Using standard protocols, presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive, or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed at a central photograph reading center by trained graders masked to study participant's information. Patients with a self-reported history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. Incident CVD events were adjudicated using medical records. Kidney function measurements, traditional and nontraditional risk factors, for CVD were obtained. Presence and severity of retinopathy were associated with increased risk of development of any CVD in this population of CKD patients, and these associations persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors for CVD. We also found a direct relation between increased venular diameter and risk of development of CVD; however, the relation was not statistically significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors. In conclusion, the presence of retinopathy was associated with future CVD events, suggesting that retinovascular pathology may be indicative of macrovascular disease even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. Assessment of retinal morphology may be valuable in assessing risk of CVD in patients with CKD, both clinically and in research settings. PMID:26409637

  16. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1985-05-01

    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts.

  17. Comparative imaging study in ultrasound, MRI, CT, and DSA using a multimodality renal artery phantom

    SciTech Connect

    King, Deirdre M.; Fagan, Andrew J.; Moran, Carmel M.; Browne, Jacinta E.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: A range of anatomically realistic multimodality renal artery phantoms consisting of vessels with varying degrees of stenosis was developed and evaluated using four imaging techniques currently used to detect renal artery stenosis (RAS). The spatial resolution required to visualize vascular geometry and the velocity detection performance required to adequately characterize blood flow in patients suffering from RAS are currently ill-defined, with the result that no one imaging modality has emerged as a gold standard technique for screening for this disease. Methods: The phantoms, which contained a range of stenosis values (0%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 85%), were designed for use with ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, x-ray computed tomography, and x-ray digital subtraction angiography. The construction materials used were optimized with respect to their ultrasonic speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, MR relaxometry (T{sub 1},T{sub 2}) properties, and Hounsfield number/x-ray attenuation coefficient, with a design capable of tolerating high-pressure pulsatile flow. Fiducial targets, incorporated into the phantoms to allow for registration of images among modalities, were chosen to minimize geometric distortions. Results: High quality distortion-free images of the phantoms with good contrast between vessel lumen, fiducial markers, and background tissue to visualize all stenoses were obtained with each modality. Quantitative assessments of the grade of stenosis revealed significant discrepancies between modalities, with each underestimating the stenosis severity for the higher-stenosed phantoms (70% and 85%) by up to 14%, with the greatest discrepancy attributable to DSA. Conclusions: The design and construction of a range of anatomically realistic renal artery phantoms containing varying degrees of stenosis is described. Images obtained using the main four diagnostic techniques used to detect RAS were free from artifacts and exhibited adequate contrast to allow for quantitative measurements of the degree of stenosis in each phantom. Such multimodality phantoms may prove useful in evaluating current and emerging US, MRI, CT, and DSA technology.

  18. Renal and perinephric abscesses in West China Hospital: 10-year retrospective-descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Yan-Bin; Liu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the clinical, radiological and laboratory profiles of renal abscess (RA) and perinephric abscess (PNA), along with related treatment and outcome. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients diagnosed with RA or PNA using the primary discharge diagnoses identified from the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Tenth Edition (ICD-10) codes (RA: N15.101, PNA: N15.102) between September 2004 and December 2014 in West China Hospital were selected. Medical records including patients’ characteristics, symptoms and signs, high-risk factors, radiological features, causative microorganisms and antibiotic-resistance profiles, treatment approaches, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 46.49 years with a male to female ratio of 41:57. Lumbar pain (76.5%) and fever (53.1%) were the most common symptoms. Other symptoms and signs included chills (28.6%), anorexia and vomiting (25.5%), lethargy (10.2%), abdominal pain (11.2%), flank mass (12.2%), flank fistula (2.0%), gross hematuria (7.1%), frequency (14.3%), dysuria (9.2%), pyuria (5.1%) and weight loss (1.0%). Painful percussion of the costovertebral angle (87.8%) was the most common physical finding. The main predisposing factors were lithiasis (48.0%), diabetes mellitus (33.7%) followed by history of urological surgery (16.3%), urinary tract infections (14.3%), renal function impairment (13.3%), liver cirrhosis (2.0%), neurogenic bladder (1.0%), renal cyst (1.0%), hydronephrosis (1.0%), chronic hepatitis B (1.0%), post-discectomy (1.0%) and post-colectomy (1.0%). Ultrasound (US) and computed tomography were the most valuable diagnostic tools and US was recommended as the initial diagnostic imaging choice. Escherichia coli (51.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.0%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.6%) were the main causative microorganisms. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was necessary while intervention including surgical and nonsurgical approaches were reserved for larger abscesses, multiple abscesses, PNAs and non-responders. CONCLUSION: Heightened alertness, prompt diagnosis, and especially proper antibiotics in conjunction with interventional approaches allow a promising clinical outcome of renal and perinephric abscesses. PMID:26788470

  19. Effects of salt rich diet in the obese Zucker rats: studies on renal function during isotonic volume expansion.

    PubMed

    Pamidimukkala, Jaya; Jandhyala, Bhagavan S

    2004-01-01

    Obese Zucker rats (OZR) are hyperinsulenemic, hyperglycemic and dyslipidemic and develop salt dependent hypertension. Since salt sensitivity is considered to be due to impaired handling of renal sodium excretion, these studies were conducted in the obese and lean Zucker rats (LZR) anesthetized with Inactin to evaluate renal function under basal conditions and during acute isotonic fluid volume expansion (VE). Mean Arterial blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), renal blood flow(RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were not significantly different between the lean Zucker rats fed normal diet or that fed salt rich diet(8% NaCI). However, basal UV and UNaV were significantly greater in the LZR fed high salt. During VE essentially identical increases occurred in GFR, UV and UNaV in both the lean groups. In the OZR fed salt rich diet also, there were no significant changes in the heart rate, RBF and GFR. However, arterial blood pressure of the OZR fed salt rich diet was significantly greater than that of the OZR on the normal diet as well as that of both the lean groups. Also, as in the LZR, basal UV and UNaV were significantly greater in the salt fed obese rats. During volume expansion there were no impairments in the ability of the obese groups fed normal or salt rich diet to eliminate sodium and water during volume load. In fact, the net sodium and water excretions during and 60 min after VE in both the obese groups were significantly greater than that of corresponding lean groups. Furthermore, these values in the OZR fed salt rich diet were significantly greater than that of the obese rats on normal salt diet perhaps due to the contribution of pressure natriuretic mechanisms'. These data demonstrate that although OZR are salt sensitive, the renal mechanisms that would collectively respond to acute isotonic VE were fully functional. An unexpected and a novel finding in these studies is that the salt rich diet, in addition to increasing arterial blood pressure also significantly lowered plasma of insulin levels and enhanced glucose and cholesterol levels in the obese Zucker rats. PMID:15000297

  20. High incidence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans infection in patients with cerebral infarction and diabetic renal failure: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent epidemiological studies suggest that periodontitis is a major risk factor for renal failure and cerebral infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among periodontitis, renal failure, and cerebral infarction, focusing on microbiological and immunological features. Methods Twenty-one patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) were enrolled in this study. They were 8 with diabetic nephropathy and 13 with non-diabetic nephropathy. Blood examination, periodontal examination, brain magnetic resonance image (MRI), and dental radiography were performed on all patients. Subgingival plaque, saliva, and blood samples were analyzed for the periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), and Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results We found that the patients with diabetic nephropathy had more A. actinomycetemcomitans compared with non-diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.038) in dental plaque. Furthermore, the patients with diabetic nephropathy showed a significantly higher incidence of cerebral infarction compared with those with non-diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.029). Clinical oral and radiographic scores tended to be higher among patients in the diabetic nephropathy group than in the non-diabetic nephropathy group. Conclusions Periodontal pathogens, particularly A. actinomycetemcomitans, may play a role, at least a part, in the development of cerebral infarction in Japanese HD patients with diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24267704

  1. A Retrospective Occupational Cohort Study of End-Stage Renal Disease in Aircraft Workers Exposed to Trichloroethylene and Other Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Radican, Larry; Wartenberg, Daniel; Rhoads, George G.; Schneider, Dona; Wedeen, Richard; Stewart, Patricia; Blair, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Objective Case–control studies suggest hydrocarbons increase end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk. No cohort studies have been conducted. Methods An occupational database was matched to the U.S. Renal Data System, and the outcome of all-cause ESRD was examined using multivariable Cox regression. Sixteen individual hydrocarbons were studied, although exposures were not mutually exclusive. Results For the 1973–2000 period, there was an approximate twofold increased risk of ESRD among workers exposed to trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and JP4 gasoline compared with unexposed subjects (all P < 0.05). Relative risk was greater than unity (P > 0.05) for several other hydrocarbons. Associations attenuated (all P > 0.05) when 2001–2002 data were included in the analyses. Conclusions Certain hydrocarbons may increase all-cause ESRD risk. Uncertainty regarding the mechanism for increased risk and the observed attenuation in risk in 2001–2002, as well as the overlap of exposures, complicates interpretation. Additional research is needed. PMID:16404204

  2. Association of tibia lead and blood lead with end-stage renal disease: A pilot study of African-Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Muntner, Paul . E-mail: pmuntner@tulane.edu; Menke, Andy; Batuman, Vecihi; Rabito, Felicia A.; He Jiang; Todd, Andrew C.

    2007-07-15

    The association between body lead burden and kidney disease remains controversial. Fifty-five African-American end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases and 53 age- and sex-matched African-American controls without known renal disease were recruited from Tulane University-affiliated dialysis clinics and out-patient clinics, respectively. Blood lead was measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry and tibia lead (a measure of body lead) was measured via {sup 109}Cd-based K shell X-ray fluorescence. Median blood lead levels were significantly higher among ESRD cases (6 {mu}g/dL) compared to their control counterparts (3 {mu}g/dL; P<0.001). Although no participants had overt lead poisoning (blood lead {>=}25 {mu}g/dL), seven cases but no controls had blood lead levels above 10 {mu}g/dL (P=0.006). The median tibia lead level was 17 micrograms of lead per gram of bone mineral ({mu}g/g) and 13 {mu}g/g among ESRD cases and their control counterparts, respectively (P=0.134). Four ESRD cases (7%), but no controls, had a tibia lead level above 40 {mu}g/g (P=0.115) while a similar proportion of cases and controls had tibia lead between 20 and 39 {mu}g/g (33% and 32%, respectively; P=0.726). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios of ESRD associated with a tibia lead {>=}20 {mu}g/g and each four-fold higher tibia lead (e.g., 5-20 {mu}g/g) were 1.55 (95% CI: 0.55, 4.41) and 1.88 (95% CI: 0.53, 6.68), respectively. These findings support the need for prospective cohort studies of body lead burden and renal disease progression.

  3. Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease in the Turkish-Cypriot Population of Northern Cyprus: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Thomas M. F.; Oygar, D. Deren; Gale, Daniel P.; Steenkamp, Retha; Nitsch, Dorothea; Neild, Guy H.; Maxwell, Patrick H.

    2013-01-01

    Background This is the first report of the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of the Turkish-Cypriot population in Northern Cyprus. Methods Data were collected over eight consecutive years (2004–2011) from all those starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) in this population. Crude and age-standardised incidence at 90 days was calculated and comparisons made with other national registries. We collected DNA from the entire prevalent population. As an initial experiment we looked for two genetic causes of ESRD that have been reported in Greek Cypriots. Results Crude and age-standardised incidence at 90 days was 234 and 327 per million population (pmp) per year, respectively. The mean age was 63, and 62% were male. The age-adjusted prevalence of RRT in Turkish-Cypriots was 1543 pmp on 01/01/2011. The incidence of RRT is higher than other countries reporting to the European Renal Association – European Dialysis and Transplant Association, with the exception of Turkey. Diabetes is a major cause of ESRD in those under 65, accounting for 36% of incident cases followed by 30% with uncertain aetiology. 18% of the incident population had a family history of ESRD. We identified two families with thin basement membrane nephropathy caused by a mutation in COL4A3, but no new cases of CFHR5 nephropathy. Conclusions This study provides the first estimate of RRT incidence in the Turkish-Cypriot population, describes the contribution of different underlying diagnoses to ESRD, and provides a basis for healthcare policy planning. PMID:23349874

  4. Importance and Repercussions of Renal and Cardiovascular Pathology on Stroke in Young Adults: An Anatomopathologic Study of 52 Clinical Necropsies

    PubMed Central

    Arismendi-Morillo, Gabriel; Fernández-Abreu, Mary; Cardozo-Duran, José; Vilchez-Barrios, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Stroke in young adults has seldom been studied in a necropsy series. The objective of the present clinical necropsy-based investigation was to analyze stroke and its relationship with cardiovascular and renal pathology in young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS The protocols of 52 clinical necropsies with diagnoses of stroke in patients aged 18 – 49 years, performed between the years 1990–2006, were reviewed. RESULTS Hemorrhagic stroke was diagnosed in 36 patients (69.3%), whereas the remaining 16 (30.7%) had ischemic stroke. Hypertensive cardiopathy was evident in 88.4% of the cases. Chronic renal pathology, directly or indirectly related to hypertension, was observed in 55.7% of the patients. Ischemic stroke as a result of occlusive atherosclerotic disease was seen in 50% of cases. Cardiogenic emboli were found in 25% of the cadavers. Hemorrhagic stroke was associated with hypertension in 43% of the cases, with ruptured vascular malformations in 29%, and coagulopathies in 17% of the cases. Hypertensive cardiopathy was present in patients with either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (81.2% and 91.6%, respectively). The most frequently observed renal ailments were chronic pyelonephritis (23%) and nephrosclerosis (21.1%). These were associated with ischemic stroke in 43.7%, and 12.5% of the cases, respectively, and with 13.8% and 25% of the hemorrhagic stroke cases. DISCUSSION Hypertensive cardiopathy, occlusive atherosclerotic disease, chronic pyelonephritis and nephrosclerosis are among the pathophysiologycal mechanisms that apparently and eventually interact to induce a significant number of cases of stroke in young adults. A chronic systemic inflammatory state appears to be an important related condition because it possibly constitutes an accelerant of the pathophysiologycal process. PMID:18297202

  5. Continuous game dynamics: an experimental study.

    SciTech Connect

    Patelli, P.; Sato, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study an experiment with human agents strategically interacting in a game characterized by continuous time and continuous strategy space. The research is focused in studying the agents interaction dynamic under different experimental settings. The agents play a two person game that is an extension of the classic Cournot duopoly. Having agents making decision continuously allows us to track the temporal structure of strategy evolution very precisely. We can follow the agents continuous behavior evolution avoiding the data under-sampling. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to approach experimentally the continuous time decision making. We also emphasize that the focus of our work is not the Cournot model but rather the more general problem of studying the agents strategic interaction dynamic in continuous space time. Flaming the problem as the well studied Cournot Duopoly would be a good starting point. In economics dynamics studies the oligopoly model literature in both discrete and continuous time is one of the richest. There is also a vast literature in experimental economics about repeated games in general and more specifically in duopoly/oligopoly models. Cox and Walker studied whether subjects can learn to play the Cournot Duopoly strategies comparing the experimental results with the theoretical prediction of learning models. The Cox Walker experiment differs from our settings because it is in discrete time and is an evolutionary dynamics framework through a random matching mechanism of the experimental subjects. From the theoretical perspective many works have been focused in studying the Cournot model in a dynamical settings. Okuguchi and Szidarovsky formulated a continuous time version of the Cournot Oligopoly with multiproduct firms. They analyzed the stability of the equilibrium and proved that it is stable, under certain conditions, independently from the value of the adjustments. Chiarella and Khomin extended this analysis to unstable dynamics in Cournot duopoly. They used analytical and numerical tools to study the relevance of time lags and nonlinearities in relation with the convergence of quantities and prices to some stable attractors. Lately, Chiarella and Szidarovsky analyzed the case with continuously distributed time lags and without full information: firms experiences time lag in obtaining and implementing information in the price and the outputs. They showed that without time-lag a steady state is always asymptotically stable. Vice versa in presence of time lags local instability can occur. Other studies, like in Kopel, discussed the effect on non-monotonic reaction curves on the system dynamical properties. We can have non monotonic reaction function if, for example, quantity demanded is reciprocal to price and firms are facing constant unit costs or vice versa with linear demand function and cubic marginal costs function. The non-monotonic reaction function assumption causes chaotic dynamic in pricing.

  6. Kinks of the Transplant Renal Artery Without Accompanying Intraarterial Pressure Gradient Do Not Require Correction: Five-Year Outcome Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Gim Chuah; Snowden, Sue; Patel, Uday

    2004-11-15

    Significant transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) results in an intraarterial pressure gradient and increasing graft dysfunction correctable by endovascular therapy. Kinks of the transplant artery cause velocity gradients on Doppler ultrasound, but some will have no intraarterial pressure gradient across the kink. It is not known whether these nonflow limiting kinks progress further to threaten graft function and should undergo endovascular correction. This is a longitudinal study of conservatively managed arterial kinks to define their natural history. Fourteen patients who had undergone angiography over a 5-year period for suspected TRAS had kinks of the renal artery. True intraarterial pressures were measured in all cases by slow withdrawal of an end-hole catheter after intraarterial injection of a vasodilator. Those with a significant pressure change ({>=}10% change in peak systolic pressure across the area of suspicion) underwent endovascular treatment. The rest were managed conservatively, with maximal antihypertensive therapy. Outcome of all 14 cases was determined by follow-up of creatinine levels, blood pressure (BP) control and graft outcome over a 3-5-year period (median 4 years). Of the 14 patients with kinks, 10 were male and 4 female; age range 23-67 years (mean 47 years). Eleven had received cadaveric transplants and 3 were allografts; 12 had end-to-side and 2 end-to-end anastomosis, 11/14 cases had an intraarterial pressure ratio of <10% and at median 4 years follow-up on conservative treatment, the serum creatinine of these 11 patients did not differ significantly from those who underwent successful endovascular treatment (mean 118 {mu}mol/l versus 149 {mu}mol/l; p = 0.30, Mann Whitney test). Mean blood pressure was 137/82 mmHg, with a range of 124-155/56-95 mmHg. Only one patient has required an unexplainable increase in antihypertensive medication. Grafts (2/11) were lost and both had chronic rejection on histology. There were no unexplained graft failures. Kinks of the renal transplant artery with normal intraarterial pressures do not appear to progress and threaten renal graft function. Satisfactory graft outcome was seen on 5-year follow-up with conservative therapy alone.

  7. Precision-cut kidney slices (PCKS) to study development of renal fibrosis and efficacy of drug targeting ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Poosti, Fariba; Pham, Bao Tung; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Poelstra, Klaas; van Goor, Harry; Olinga, Peter; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2015-10-01

    Renal fibrosis is a serious clinical problem resulting in the greatest need for renal replacement therapy. No adequate preventive or curative therapy is available that could be clinically used to target renal fibrosis specifically. The search for new efficacious treatment strategies is therefore warranted. Although in vitro models using homogeneous cell populations have contributed to the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in renal fibrosis, these models poorly mimic the complex in vivo milieu. Therefore, we here evaluated a precision-cut kidney slice (PCKS) model as a new, multicellular ex vivo model to study the development of fibrosis and its prevention using anti-fibrotic compounds. Precision-cut slices (200-300 μm thickness) were prepared from healthy C57BL/6 mouse kidneys using a Krumdieck tissue slicer. To induce changes mimicking the fibrotic process, slices were incubated with TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) for 48 h in the presence or absence of the anti-fibrotic cytokine IFNγ (1 µg/ml) or an IFNγ conjugate targeted to PDGFRβ (PPB-PEG-IFNγ). Following culture, tissue viability (ATP-content) and expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I and collagen III were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Slices remained viable up to 72 h of incubation, and no significant effects of TGFβ1 and IFNγ on viability were observed. TGFβ1 markedly increased α-SMA, fibronectin and collagen I mRNA and protein expression levels. IFNγ and PPB-PEG-IFNγ significantly reduced TGFβ1-induced fibronectin, collagen I and collagen III mRNA expression, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The PKCS model is a novel tool to test the pathophysiology of fibrosis and to screen the efficacy of anti-fibrotic drugs ex vivo in a multicellular and pro-fibrotic milieu. A major advantage of the slice model is that it can be used not only for animal but also for (fibrotic) human kidney tissue. PMID:26112172

  8. Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation as preparative immunosuppression in high risk renal transplantation: clinical and immunological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Najarian, J.S.; Ferguson, R.M.; Sutherland, D.E.; Slavin, S.; Kim, T.; Kersey, J.; Simmons, R.S.

    1982-10-01

    Twenty-two patients at high risk to reject renal allografts have been treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (FTLI) prior to transplantation of primary (2), secondary (16) or teritary (4) renal allografts. All patients undergoing retransplantation had rapidly rejected previous grafts. At 24 months following transplantation, 72% of grafts were functioning in the TLI group compared with a 38% graft function in an historical control group of recipients receiving secondary or tertiary grafts and treated with conventional immunosuppression. Important variables in determining success of transplantation following fractionated TLI include the dose of TLI, the interval from radiation to transplantation, and maintenance, post-transplant immunosuppressive therapy. Optimal results were achieved with 2500 rads delivered in 100 rad fractions followed by transplantation within two weeks, and a tapering prednisone schedule and maintenance azathioprine post-transplantation. Seventeen patients had significant complications of the radiation treatment and there was one death, prior to transplantation, associated with pneumonitis. In vitro assessment of immune function demonstrated marked peripheral T cell depletion and loss of in vitro responsiveness to mitogen and allogeneic stimulation following FTLI. The administration of donor bone marrow at the time of transplantation did not produce chimerism. The results suggest that when properly utilized FTLI can produce effective adjunctive immunosuppression for clinical transplantation.

  9. A feasibility study of roquinimex (Linomide) and alpha interferon in patients with advanced malignant melanoma or renal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mackean, M. J.; Kerr, D.; Lesko, M.; Svedberg, A.; Hansson, F.; Jodrell, D.; Cassidy, J.

    1998-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with advanced renal carcinoma or malignant melanoma were treated in the first feasibility study of alpha-interferon (Roferon) and the new oral immunomodulating agent, Linomide. Linomide 5 mg or 10 mg p.o. daily was given for 2 weeks; alpha-interferon was then added at 3 MU s.c. three times weekly, escalating in each patient by 3 MU per week, if tolerable, up to 12 MJ. The combination was poorly tolerated with nausea, vomiting, somnolence and myalgia commonly reported. Adverse events accounted for treatment withdrawal in ten patients and contributed to withdrawal in four other patients. Treatment with Linomide alone in the first 2 weeks led to a significant increase in white blood cells, neutrophils and platelets. When alpha-interferon was added, the platelet count decreased significantly over the following 6 weeks. Nineteen patients had white cell phenotype and function measured. After 2 weeks of 5 mg Linomide, a transient but significant decrease in the absolute number of activated T-helper cells (CD4+DR+) was observed. No changes in natural killer (NK) cell number or activity were observed. Twenty-two patients were evaluable for response. One with metastatic renal cell carcinoma had a complete response and six had stable disease. This study does not support the use of the combination because significant toxicity was seen without the anticipated immunological benefits. PMID:9862573

  10. Immunocytochemical studies of the distribution of alpha and pi isoforms of glutathione S-transferase in cystic renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Hiley, C G; Otter, M; Bell, J; Strange, R C; Keeling, J W

    1994-01-01

    We describe immunohistochemical studies of the expression of alpha and pi class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in normal fetal kidneys. These define, in greater detail, changes in expression of alpha isoforms in the proximal tubule. At about 36 weeks of gestation expression of alpha isoforms was down-regulated in the distal tubules and collecting ducts while pi was expressed throughout the nephron. Tubular expression of alpha isoforms was restricted to the part adjacent to the glomerulus; cells farthest from the glomerulus were negative. After 40 weeks of gestation, alpha isoforms were expressed along the entire proximal tubule, while pi was restricted to the distal tubule and collecting ducts. GST expression was also studied in multicystic renal dysplasia, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to determine whether the patterns of expression of alpha and pi isoforms allow identification of the origin of the cysts that characterize these diseases. Cysts were lined by epithelia that were strongly positive for alpha and pi isoforms. The epithelia of noncystic nephrons in renal cystic dysplasia demonstrated delayed maturity, suggesting that GST expression was dependent on the stage of development and not length of gestation. PMID:8066005

  11. Molecular dynamics studies of polyurethane nanocomposite hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strankowska, J.; Piszczyk, Ł.; Strankowski, M.; Danowska, M.; Szutkowski, K.; Jurga, S.; Kwela, J.

    2013-10-01

    Polyurethane PEO-based hydrogels have a broad range of biomedical applicability. They are attractive for drug-controlled delivery systems, surgical implants and wound healing dressings. In this study, a PEO based polyurethane hydrogels containing Cloisite® 30B, an organically modified clay mineral, was synthesized. Structure of nanocomposite hydrogels was determined using XRD technique. Its molecular dynamics was studied by means of NMR spectroscopy, DMA and DSC analysis. The mechanical properties and thermal stability of the systems were improved by incorporation of clay and controlled by varying the clay content in polymeric matrix. Molecular dynamics of polymer chains depends on interaction of Cloisite® 30B nanoparticles with soft segments of polyurethanes. The characteristic nanosize effect is observed.

  12. Dynamic study and applications of metamaterial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xun-Ya; Liu, Zheng; Liang, Zi-Xian; Yao, Pei-Jun; Lin, Xu-Lin

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic characteristics of metamaterial systems, such as the temporal coherence gain of the superlens, the causality limitation on the ideal cloaking systems, the relaxation process and essential elements in the dispersive cloaking systems, and the extending of the working frequency range of cloaking systems. The key point of our study is the physical dispersive properties of metamaterials, which are well-known to be intrinsically strongly dispersive. With physical dispersion, new physical pictures can be obtained for the waves propagating inside metamaterial, such as the "group retarded time" for waves inside the superlens and cloak, the causality limitation on real metamaterial systems, and the essential elements for design optimization. Therefore, we believe the dynamic study of metamaterials will be an important direction for further research. All theoretical derivations and conclusions are demonstrated by powerful finite-difference time-domain simulations.

  13. Theoretical studies of chemical reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, G.C.

    1993-12-01

    This collaborative program with the Theoretical Chemistry Group at Argonne involves theoretical studies of gas phase chemical reactions and related energy transfer and photodissociation processes. Many of the reactions studied are of direct relevance to combustion; others are selected they provide important examples of special dynamical processes, or are of relevance to experimental measurements. Both classical trajectory and quantum reactive scattering methods are used for these studies, and the types of information determined range from thermal rate constants to state to state differential cross sections.

  14. Assessment of renal transplantation using a gamma camera computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Critchley, M.

    1981-04-01

    Five hundred eleven isotope studies were performed following renal transplantation in 130 patients, using a standard technique and a gamma camera computer system in a nuclear medicine department situated half a mile away from the renal transplant unit. A comprehensive picture of renal function is obtained from perfusion studies, renography, effective renal plasma flow, I-131-Hippuran uptake, and excretion measurements.

  15. Osmosis : a molecular dynamics computer simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, Thomas

    Osmosis is a phenomenon of critical importance in a variety of processes ranging from the transport of ions across cell membranes and the regulation of blood salt levels by the kidneys to the desalination of water and the production of clean energy using potential osmotic power plants. However, despite its importance and over one hundred years of study, there is an ongoing confusion concerning the nature of the microscopic dynamics of the solvent particles in their transfer across the membrane. In this thesis the microscopic dynamical processes underlying osmotic pressure and concentration gradients are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. I first present a new derivation for the local pressure that can be used for determining osmotic pressure gradients. Using this result, the steady-state osmotic pressure is studied in a minimal model for an osmotic system and the steady-state density gradients are explained using a simple mechanistic hopping model for the solvent particles. The simulation setup is then modified, allowing us to explore the timescales involved in the relaxation dynamics of the system in the period preceding the steady state. Further consideration is also given to the relative roles of diffusive and non-diffusive solvent transport in this period. Finally, in a novel modification to the classic osmosis experiment, the solute particles are driven out-of-equilibrium by the input of energy. The effect of this modification on the osmotic pressure and the osmotic ow is studied and we find that active solute particles can cause reverse osmosis to occur. The possibility of defining a new "osmotic effective temperature" is also considered and compared to the results of diffusive and kinetic temperatures..

  16. The cell biology of renal filtration

    PubMed Central

    Quaggin, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the kidney, filtering blood and concentrating metabolic waste into urine, takes place in an intricate and functionally elegant structure called the renal glomerulus. Normal glomerular function retains circulating cells and valuable macromolecular components of plasma in blood, resulting in urine with just trace amounts of proteins. Endothelial cells of glomerular capillaries, the podocytes wrapped around them, and the fused extracellular matrix these cells form altogether comprise the glomerular filtration barrier, a dynamic and highly selective filter that sieves on the basis of molecular size and electrical charge. Current understanding of the structural organization and the cellular and molecular basis of renal filtration draws from studies of human glomerular diseases and animal models of glomerular dysfunction. PMID:25918223

  17. The Influence of HIV and Schistosomiasis on Renal Function: A Cross-sectional Study among Children at a Hospital in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kayange, Neema M.; Smart, Luke R.; Downs, Jennifer A.; Maskini, Mwanaisha; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Peck, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and HIV are both associated with kidney disease. Prevalence and factors associated with abnormal renal function among HIV-infected children in Africa compared to uninfected controls have not been well described in a schistosomiasis endemic area. Methodology/Principal Findings This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sekou Toure Regional Hospital HIV clinic in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 122 HIV-infected children and 122 HIV-uninfected siblings were consecutively enrolled. Fresh urine was obtained for measurement of albuminuria and Schistosoma circulating cathodic antigen. Blood was collected for measurement of serum creatinine. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified Schwartz equation. Renal dysfunction was defined operationally as eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m2 and/or albuminuria>20mg/L in a single sample. Among 122 HIV-infected children, 61/122 (50.0%) met our criteria for renal dysfunction: 54/122 (44.3%) had albuminuria>20mg/L and 9/122 (7.4%) had eGFR<60. Among 122 HIV-uninfected children, 51/122 (41.8%) met our criteria for renal dysfunction: 48/122 (39.3%) had albuminuria>20mg/L and 6/122 (4.9%) had eGFR<60. Schistosomiasis was the only factor significantly associated with renal dysfunction by multivariable logistic regression (OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.46–4.31, p = 0.001). Conclusions/Significance A high prevalence of renal dysfunction exists among both HIV-infected Tanzanian children and their HIV-uninfected siblings. Schistosomiasis was strongly associated with renal dysfunction. PMID:25612312

  18. Occupational and other exposures associated with male end-stage renal disease: A case/control study

    SciTech Connect

    Steenland, N.K.; Thun, M.J.; Ferguson, C.W.; Port, F.K. )

    1990-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 325 men ages 30-69 who were diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1976 and 1984, and resided in four urban areas of Michigan in 1984. Cases were selected from the Michigan Kidney Registry and excluded men with diabetic, congenital, and obstructive nephropathies. Controls were selected by random-digit dialing and were pair-matched to cases for age, race, and area of residence. Telephone interviews were conducted with 69 percent of eligible cases and 79 percent of eligible controls. Risk of ESRD was significantly related to phenacetin or acetaminophen consumption (odds ratio(OR) = 2.66), moonshine consumption (OR = 2.43), a family history of renal disease (OR = 9.30); and regular occupational exposures to solvents (OR = 1.51) or silica (OR = 1.67). Particular occupational exposures with elevated risk were solvents used as cleaning agents and degreasers (OR = 2.50) silica exposure in foundries or brick factories (OR = 1.92), and silica exposure during sandblasting (OR = 3.83). Little or no trend of increased risk with duration of exposure was found for these occupational exposures, with the exception of silica in sandblasting. Limitations of these data include representativeness of cases, possible overreporting by cases, and misclassification of exposures inherent in self-reports.

  19. Occupational and other exposures associated with male end-stage renal disease: a case/control study.

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, N K; Thun, M J; Ferguson, C W; Port, F K

    1990-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 325 men ages 30-69 who were diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1976 and 1984, and resided in four urban areas of Michigan in 1984. Cases were selected from the Michigan Kidney Registry and excluded men with diabetic, congenital, and obstructive nephropathies. Controls were selected by random-digit dialing and were pair-matched to cases for age, race, and area of residence. Telephone interviews were conducted with 69 percent of eligible cases and 79 percent of eligible controls. Risk of ESRD was significantly related to phenacetin or acetaminophen consumption (odds ratio(OR) = 2.66), moonshine consumption (OR = 2.43), a family history of renal disease (OR = 9.30); and regular occupational exposures to solvents (OR = 1.51) or silica (OR = 1.67). Particular occupational exposures with elevated risk were solvents used as cleaning agents and degreasers (OR = 2.50) silica exposure in foundries or brick factories (OR = 1.92), and silica exposure during sandblasting (OR = 3.83). Little or no trend of increased risk with duration of exposure was found for these occupational exposures, with the exception of silica in sandblasting. Limitations of these data include representativeness of cases, possible overreporting by cases, and misclassification of exposures inherent in self-reports. PMID:2153349

  20. Beneficial effects of quercetin on renal injury and oxidative stress caused by ciprofloxacin in rats: A histological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Elbe, H; Dogan, Z; Taslidere, E; Cetin, A; Turkoz, Y

    2016-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum quinolone antibiotic commonly used in clinical practice. Quercetin is an antioxidant belongs to flavonoid group. It inhibits the production of superoxide anion. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of quercetin on renal injury and oxidative stress caused by ciprofloxacin. Twenty-eight female Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, quercetin (20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) gavage for 21 days), ciprofloxacin (20 mg kg(-1) twice a day intraperitoneally for 10 days), and ciprofloxacin + quercetin. Samples were processed for histological and biochemical evaluations. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in kidney tissue. The ciprofloxacin group showed histopathological changes such as infiltration, dilatation in tubules, tubular atrophy, reduction of Bowman's space, congestion, hemorrhage, and necrosis. In the ciprofloxacin + quercetin group, these histopathological changes markedly reduced. MDA levels increased in the ciprofloxacin group and decreased in the ciptofloxacin + quercetin group. SOD and CAT activities and GSH levels significantly decreased in the ciprofloxacin group. On the other hand, in the ciprofloxacin + quercetin group, SOD and CAT activities and GSH levels significantly increased with regard to the ciprofloxacin group. We concluded that quercetin has antioxidative and therapeutic effects on renal injury and oxidative stress caused by ciprofloxacin in rats. PMID:25929518

  1. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  2. Flip-flop phenomenon in radiohippuran renal imaging. A sign of obstructive nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.

    1986-10-01

    In the dynamic radionuclide brain study, decreased flow in one cerebral hemisphere during the arterial phase followed by relatively increased radioactivity as compared with the contralateral hemisphere has been termed the flip-flop phenomenon, and reflects the development of collateral circulation to the affected side. In I-131 Hippuran renal imaging, relatively decreased activity in one kidney frequently is observed during the initial phase of the study, and is followed by a gradual increase of radioactivity in the late images when compared with the contralateral kidney. To evaluate the significance of this renal flip-flop phenomenon, the studies from 23 patients with these findings were retrospectively compared with the clinical data and findings from other diagnostic studies (CT, ultrasound, intravenous pyelogram, autopsy). Partial obstruction of the renal collecting system was found in all 23 patients. The causes were various malignant tumors in nine patients (colonic carcinoma, three patients; transitional cell carcinoma, three patients; prostatic carcinoma, two patients; seminoma, one patient), ureteropelvic obstruction in three patients, papillary necrosis in one patient, and ureteral fibrosis in one patient. The flip-flop phenomenon reflects asymmetric renal tubular function with decrease (prolonged parenchymal transit time) in the affected kidney as a result of ipsilateral obstruction of the collecting system, while contralateral renal function remains normal or relatively normal. The presence of the flip-flop phenomenon in an I-131 Hippuran renal study suggests the existence of some degree of collecting system obstruction that has persisted long enough to result in renal parenchymal damage.

  3. Pilot study of non-contrast-enhanced MRI vs. ultrasound in renal transplant recipients with acquired cystic kidney disease: a prospective intra-individual comparison.

    PubMed

    Mühlfeld, Anja S; Lange, Christian; Kroll, Gisela; Floege, Jürgen; Krombach, Gabriele A; Kuhl, Christiane; Eitner, Frank; Schrading, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after kidney transplantation is 15-fold increased. Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) is one of the known risk factors. We performed a small pilot study to assess the role of non-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for intensified screening in renal transplant recipients with ACKD. Renal ultrasound was used to assess the native kidneys of 215 renal transplant recipients. Thirty patients with 54 kidneys, fulfilling the criteria of ACKD, underwent non-enhanced MRI at 1.5T using T2- and T1-weighed as well as diffusion-weighted sequences with a high spatial resolution. Among the 54 kidneys assessed by both methods, three RCCs were identified (6%). Of those, one RCC was detected by both imaging methods (33%), while two RCCs were diagnosed by MRI alone (67%). MRI identified an additional four proteinaceous or hemorrhagic cysts that did not fulfill the criteria for RCC but were classified as suspicious. All of these lesions were stable in size and appearance in follow-up studies. In conclusion, non-enhanced MRI was more sensitive than ultrasound in identifying RCCs and lesions suspicious for RCC and thus appears to be a useful secondary screening tool in patients with ACKD after renal transplantation. PMID:24118352

  4. Fluorescence Techniques to Study Lipid Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sezgin, Erdinc; Schwille, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Biological research has always tremendously benefited from the development of key methodology. In fact, it was the advent of microscopy that shaped our understanding of cells as the fundamental units of life. Microscopic techniques are still central to the elucidation of biological units and processes, but equally important are methods that allow access to the dimension of time, to investigate the dynamics of molecular functions and interactions. Here, fluorescence spectroscopy with its sensitivity to access the single-molecule level, and its large temporal resolution, has been opening up fully new perspectives for cell biology. Here we summarize the key fluorescent techniques used to study cellular dynamics, with the focus on lipid and membrane systems. PMID:21669985

  5. [Side effects of nalidixic acid in a patient with severe renal failure. Clinical study and proposal of a pharmacokinetic model].

    PubMed

    Mobbs, J P; Balant, L; Revillard, C; Favre, H

    1977-03-01

    Side effects due to ingestion of nalidixic acid in a 46 year old patient with phenacetine-induced interstitial nephritis and severe renal failure are reported. This observation underlines the point that, besides the direct neurotoxic effect of nalidixic acid, disturbance of the acid-basic equilibrium could be seen in patients with renal failure in particular. A hypothetical pharmacokinetic model suggests that two metabolites of nalidixic acid could provide enough hydrogen ion to induce acidosis in cases of renal failure. PMID:847456

  6. Longitudinal study of living kidney donor glomerular dynamics after nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lenihan, Colin R.; Busque, Stephan; Derby, Geraldine; Blouch, Kristina; Myers, Bryan D.; Tan, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Over 5,000 living kidney donor nephrectomies are performed annually in the US. While the physiological changes that occur early after nephrectomy are well documented, less is known about the long-term glomerular dynamics in living donors. METHODS. We enrolled 21 adult living kidney donors to undergo detailed long-term clinical, physiological, and radiological evaluation pre-, early post- (median, 0.8 years), and late post- (median, 6.3 years) donation. A morphometric analysis of glomeruli obtained during nephrectomy was performed in 19 subjects. RESULTS. Donors showed parallel increases in single-kidney renal plasma flow (RPF), renocortical volume, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) early after the procedure, and these changes were sustained through to the late post-donation period. We used mathematical modeling to estimate the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf), which also increased early and then remained constant through the late post-donation study. Assuming that the filtration surface area (and hence, Kf) increased in proportion to renocortical volume after donation, we calculated that the 40% elevation in the single-kidney GFR observed after donation could be attributed exclusively to an increase in the Kf. The prevalence of hypertension in donors increased from 14% in the early post-donation period to 57% in the late post-donation period. No subjects exhibited elevated levels of albuminuria. CONCLUSIONS. Adaptive hyperfiltration after donor nephrectomy is attributable to hyperperfusion and hypertrophy of the remaining glomeruli. Our findings point away from the development of glomerular hypertension following kidney donation. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Not applicable. FUNDING. NIH (R01DK064697 and K23DK087937); Astellas Pharma US; the John M. Sobrato Foundation; the Satellite Extramural Grant Foundation; and the American Society of Nephrology. PMID:25689253

  7. Al18F-NODA-butyric acid: biological evaluation of a new PET renal radiotracer

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Shetty, Dinesh; Nye, Jonathon A.; Shim, Hyunsuk; Taylor, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Renal scintigraphy is an important imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of a variety of renal diseases including obstruction and renovascular hypertension as well as the evaluation of absolute and relative kidney function. The goal of this work was to evaluate Al18F-NODA-butyric acid (Al18F-1) as a potential PET tracer to image the kidneys and monitor renal function by comparing its pharmacokinetic properties with those of 131I-o-iodohippurate (131I-OIH), the radioactive standard for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow. Methods Al18F-1 was prepared in aqueous conditions using a one-pot Al18F-radiofluorination method and its radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC. Biodistribution studies, using 131I-OIH as an internal control, were performed in normal rats and in rats with renal pedicle ligation. In vitro stability and metabolism of Al18F-1 were analyzed by HPLC. Dynamic microPET/CT studies were conducted in normal rats. Results Al18F-1 showed excellent stability in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in normal rats and in rats with simulated renal failure confirmed that Al18F-1 was exclusively cleared through the renal-urinary pathway and that the hepatic/gastrointestinal activity was less for Al18F-1 than for 131I-OIH both at 10 and 60 min. Dynamic PET showed a rapid transit of Al18F-1 through the kidneys into the bladder. Conclusion These results suggest that the easily labeled Al18F-based compounds provide a highly promising approach for the development of a PET renal radiotracer that combines superior imaging qualities with a reliable measure of effective renal plasma flow. PMID:24533986

  8. Ultrasonography in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Buturovi?-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Visnar-Perovic, Alenka

    2003-05-01

    Many chronic renal diseases lead to the final common state of decrease in renal size, parenchymal atrophy, sclerosis and fibrosis. The ultrasound image show a smaller kidney, thinning of the parenchyma and its hyperechogenicity (reflecting sclerosis and fibrosis). The frequency of renal cysts increases with the progression of the disease. Ultrasound generally does not allow for the exact diagnosis of an underlying chronic disease (renal biopsy is usually required), but it can help to determine an irreversible disease, assess prognosis and avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The main exception in which the ultrasound image does not show a smaller kidney with parenchymal atrophy is diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of chronic and end-stage renal failure in developed countries in recent years. In this case, both renal size and parenchymal thickness are preserved until end-stage renal failure. Doppler study of intrarenal vessels can provide additional information about microvascular and parenchymal lesions, which is helpful in deciding for or against therapeutic intervention and timely planning for optimal renal replacement therapy option. PMID:12714227

  9. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Consigny, Paul M. Davalian, Dariush; Donn, Rosy Hu, Jie; Rieser, Matthew Stolarik, DeAnne

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  10. [Bilateral renal agenesis or Potter's sequence. A case of recurrent bilateral renal agenesis].

    PubMed

    Néophytou, O

    1994-01-01

    Bilateral renal agenesis (Potter's sequence) is usually a sporadic occurrence. Recurrence in the same family is rare. A family study of bilateral and unilateral renal agenesis was undertaken in three cases of renal agenesis in the same family. The grand-father and the father have a unilateral renal agenesis and his two stillborn infants had a Potter's syndrome. The author considered the familial nature of congenital absence of the kidneys and the relationship between hereditary bilateral renal agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis. PMID:8157895

  11. Validating single-cell genomics for the study of renal development.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjay; Noordam, Michiel J; Hoshi, Masato; Vallania, Francesco L; Conrad, Donald F

    2014-11-01

    Single-cell genomics will enable studies of the earliest events in kidney development, although it is unclear if existing technologies are mature enough to generate accurate and reproducible data on kidney progenitors. Here we designed a pilot study to validate a high-throughput assay to measure the expression levels of key regulators of kidney development in single cells isolated from embryonic mice. Our experiment produced 4608 expression measurements of 22 genes, made in small cell pools, and 28 single cells purified from the RET-positive ureteric bud. There were remarkable levels of concordance with expression data generated by traditional microarray analysis on bulk ureteric bud tissue with the correlation between our average single-cell measurements and GUDMAP measurements for each gene of 0.82-0.85. Nonetheless, a major motivation for single-cell technology is to uncover dynamic biology hidden in population means. There was evidence for extensive and surprising variation in expression of Wnt11 and Etv5, both downstream targets of activated RET. The variation for all genes in the study was strongly consistent with burst-like promoter kinetics. Thus, our results can inform the design of future single-cell experiments, which are poised to provide important insights into kidney development and disease. PMID:24759149

  12. Prospective study on late renal toxicity following postoperative chemoradiotherapy in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Edwin; Boot, Henk; Cats, Annemieke

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Postoperative chemoradiotherapy in gastric cancer improves locoregional control and survival. Reports on late toxicity, however, have been scarce thus far. Because renal toxicity is one of the most serious late complications in upper abdominal radiotherapy, we prospectively analyzed kidney function in patients who underwent postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer. Patients and Methods: In 44 patients, Tc{sup 99m}-thiatide renography was performed before and at regular intervals after postoperative chemoradiotherapy. The left-to-right (L/R) ratio was used as an index of the relative kidney function. Mean L/R values were calculated for four follow-up time intervals. For all patients, kidney V{sub 20} (percentage of the volume of the kidney that received more than 20 Gy) and mean dose of both kidneys were retrieved from the three-dimensional dose-volume histograms. Results: We observed a progressive decrease in left renal function of 11% (p = 0.012) after 6 months, up to 52% (p < 0.001) after >18 months. The V{sub 20} (left kidney) and mean left kidney dose were identified as parameters associated with decreased kidney function. Mean serum creatinine was increased from 74.6 {mu}mol/L before treatment to 86.1 {mu}mol/L at 1 year after chemoradiotherapy (p < 0.001). In patients with a follow-up of 18-28 months, one case of severe renovascular hypertension was observed. Conclusion: A progressive relative functional impairment of the left kidney in patients after postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer is demonstrated. To optimize the survival benefit that can be established with adjuvant regimens, strategies to minimize the dose to the kidneys and other critical organs should be explored.

  13. On methods for studying stochastic disease dynamics.

    PubMed

    Keeling, M J; Ross, J V

    2008-02-01

    Models that deal with the individual level of populations have shown the importance of stochasticity in ecology, epidemiology and evolution. An increasingly common approach to studying these models is through stochastic (event-driven) simulation. One striking disadvantage of this approach is the need for a large number of replicates to determine the range of expected behaviour. Here, for a class of stochastic models called Markov processes, we present results that overcome this difficulty and provide valuable insights, but which have been largely ignored by applied researchers. For these models, the so-called Kolmogorov forward equation (also called the ensemble or master equation) allows one to simultaneously consider the probability of each possible state occurring. Irrespective of the complexities and nonlinearities of population dynamics, this equation is linear and has a natural matrix formulation that provides many analytical insights into the behaviour of stochastic populations and allows rapid evaluation of process dynamics. Here, using epidemiological models as a template, these ensemble equations are explored and results are compared with traditional stochastic simulations. In addition, we describe further advantages of the matrix formulation of dynamics, providing simple exact methods for evaluating expected eradication (extinction) times of diseases, for comparing expected total costs of possible control programmes and for estimation of disease parameters. PMID:17638650

  14. In vitro studies on mangiferin protection against cadmium-induced human renal endothelial damage and cell death via the MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Palaniswami, Rajendran; Nishigaki, Ikuo

    2016-02-01

    The therapeutic effects of the natural antioxidant mangiferin (a xanthonoid and potent oxygen free radical scavenger), which is widely distributed in mango fruit, against CdCl2-induced toxicity in human renal glomerulus endothelial cells (HRGEC) were investigated. The viability of HREGCs that were treated with CdCl2 (25 µ mol) and co-treated with mangiferin (75 µ mol) for 24 h was measured by crystal violet dye. The exposure of human glomerulus renal endothelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal proinflammatory cytokines known to play a significant role in renal inflammation. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human renal glomerulus endothelial cells could be the result of cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion via an NF-κB-dependent pathway. However, IL-8 secretion involves the phosphor-JNK phospho-p38 signaling pathway. The results of the current study reveal that mangiferin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human glomerulus endothelial cells and be used to prevent renal inflammation. PMID:25798666

  15. Renal hemodynamics: the influence of the renal artery ostium flow diverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmann, Jenn Stroud; Albert, Scott; Balaban, Robert

    2013-11-01

    The recently identified renal artery ostium flow diverter may preferentially direct blood flow to the renal arteries, and may also influence flow patterns and recirculation known to be involved in atherogenesis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of steady and pulsatile blood flow are performed to investigate the influence of diverter size and position, and vascular geometry, on the flow patterns and fluid mechanical forces in the neighborhood of the diverter. CFD results show that the flow diverter does affect the blood distribution: depending on the diverter's position, the flow to the renal arteries may be increased or reduced. The results of simulations also show the diverter's effect on the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) distribution, and suggest that the diverter contributes to an atherogenic environment in the abdominal aorta, while being atheroprotective in the renal arteries themselves. These results support previous clinical findings, and suggest directions for further clinical study. The results of this work have direct implications in understanding the physiological significance of the diverter, and its potential role in the pathophysiological development of atherosclerosis.

  16. Renal glucose release during hypoglycemia is partly controlled by sympathetic nerves - a study in pigs with unilateral surgically denervated kidneys.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Sabine J; Schmidt, Martin; Lehmann, Thomas; Schwab, Matthias; Matziolis, Georg; Saemann, Alexander; Schiffner, René

    2015-11-01

    Catecholamines are known to increase renal glucose release during hypoglycemia. The specific extent of the contribution of different sources of catecholamines, endocrine delivery via circulation or release from autonomous sympathetic renal nerves, though, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic renal innervation plays a major role in the regulation of renal gluconeogenesis. For this purpose, instrumented adolescent pigs had one kidney surgically denervated while the other kidney served as a control. A hypoglycemic clamp with arterial blood glucose below 2 mmol/L was maintained for 75 min. Arteriovenous blood glucose difference, inulin clearance, p-aminohippurate clearance, and sodium excretion were measured in intervals of 15 min separately for both kidneys. Blood glucose was lowered to 0.84 ± 0.33 mmol/L for 75 min. The side-dependent renal net glucose release (SGN) decreased significantly after the unilateral ablation of renal nerves. In the linear mixed model, renal denervation had a significant inhibitory effect on renal net glucose release (P = 0.036). The SGN of the ablated kidney decreased by 0.02 mmol/min and was equivalent to 43.3 ± 23.2% of the control (nonablated) kidney in the pigs. This allows the conclusion that renal glucose release is partly controlled by sympathetic nerves. This may be relevant in humans as well, and could explain the increased risk of severe hypoglycemia of patients with diabetes mellitus and autonomous neuropathy. The effects of denervation on renal glucose metabolism should be critically taken into account when considering renal denervation as a therapy in diabetic patients. PMID:26564063

  17. Molecular analysis of glomerular diseases in renal biopsies: initial results of a collaborative international study. The International Study Group for Molecular Study of Kidney Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Esposito, C; Striker, L J; Patel, A; Peten, E; Liu, Z H; Sakai, H; Striker, G E

    1996-05-01

    An accurate assessment of which patient with glomerular disease will progress to end-stage renal failure would be an important addition to establishing prognosis and evaluating therapeutic strategies. We previously found the development of glomerular scarring in animal models was preceded by an increase in glomerular type IV collagen mRNAs and that the level of scarring predicted the rate of progression. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these findings apply to human glomerular diseases using microdissected glomeruli and assessment of mRNA by competitive PCR. After showing that the levels of type IV collagen mRNAs were elevated in sclerotic glomeruli isolated from nephrectomies, we undertook this preliminary cross-sectional study of type IV collagen subchain mRNAs in renal biopsies in two of the leading causes of glomerulosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy, and membranous glomerulopathy. We found that glomerular type IV collagen mRNA levels were altered in disease-specific ways. The relative levels of the individual alpha-chains of type IV collagen depended on the anatomic site of the glomerular lesions. The alpha 2 type IV/alpha 3 type IV collagen mRNA ratio was high in diabetes mellitus, but not in membranous glomerulopathy. These data, coupled with those obtained from experimental animals, suggest that a dysregulation of basement collagen synthesis underlies progressive glomerular scarring. If these conclusions are verified in prospective studies it will be feasible to assess the risk of developing progressive glomerulosclerosis in the individual patient and to quantitatively assess therapeutic responses in a timely manner. PMID:8774054

  18. [THE DYNAMICS OF THE MORBIDITY RATE OF HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME IN THE POPULATION OF THE CITY OF NABEREZHNYE CHELNY].

    PubMed

    Leont'ev, V V

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are considered the environmental and biological prerequisites for the dynamics of hemorrnagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) morbidity rate in the population of the city of Naberezhnye Chelny and the municipal districts located in the north-eastern part of the Republic of Tatarstan, a subdivision of Russian Federation. The territory of the Republic of Tatarstan is included into the body of Volga Federal District of the Russian Federation and is located within the boundaries in coniferous taiga and temperate forests, forest-steppe and steppe geographical areas. The endowment of large forests as well as weather and climatic conditions play an important role in the activity and rhythmicity of this natural focal viral infection, the virus carriers of which are mouse-like rodents. The virus belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and is a representative of the genus Hantavirus. On the base of the epidemiological and clinical data of State Autonomous Healthcare Institution "Naberezhno-Chelninskaya Infectious Diseases Hospital" there was performed the analysis of seasonal and the long-term HFRS morbidity rate from 2008 to 2012 with consideration of age and gender cohorts during the period from 2008 to 2012. There were shown both the seasonal character of the development of infectious disease and its unstable rhythmicity in the long-term dynamics. The most number of cases was observed in the summer-autumn period. 84,32% out of all disease cases were occurred in the male population, adults' morbidity rate was averagely 28 times more than the children's morbidity rate, which was due to the more frequent stay in the foci of the virus circulation. In the long-term dynamics the fever development is indirectly related with the weather and climate conditions of the whole region that influence on biology and the dynamics of rodents' population. So 2010 was differed by anomalously hot summer that led to a significant reduction in the number of the disease cases among the human population of the area. PMID:26302552

  19. SERUM ALDOSTERONE AND DEATH, END STAGE RENAL DISEASE AND CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS IN BLACKS AND WHITES: FINDINGS FROM THE CRIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Rajat; Yang, Wei; Khan, Abigail M.; Bansal, Nisha; Zhang, Xiaoming; Leonard, Mary B.; Keane, Martin G.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond R.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that elevated aldosterone concentrations are an independent risk factor for death in patients with cardiovascular disease. Limited studies, however, have evaluated systematically the association between serum aldosterone and adverse events in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the association between serum aldosterone and death and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 3,866 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. We also evaluated the association between aldosterone and incident congestive heart failure (CHF) and atherosclerotic events in participants without baseline cardiovascular disease. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate independent associations between elevated aldosterone concentrations and each outcome. Interactions were hypothesized and explored between aldosterone and sex, race, and the use of loop diuretics and RAAS inhibitors. Over a median follow-up period of 5.4 years, 587 participants died, 743 developed ESRD, 187 developed CHF, and 177 experienced an atherosclerotic event. Aldosterone concentrations (per standard deviation of the log transformed aldosterone) were not an independent risk factor for death (adjusted HR 1.00, 95% CI [0.93–1.12]), ESRD (adjusted HR 1.07, 95% CI [0.99–1.17]), or atherosclerotic events (adjusted HR 1.04, 95% CI [0.85–1.18]). Aldosterone was associated with CHF (adjusted HR 1.21, 95% CI [1.02–1.35]). Among participants with CKD, higher aldosterone concentrations were independently associated with the development of CHF, but not for death, ESRD, or atherosclerotic events. Further studies should evaluate whether mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may reduce adverse events in individuals with CKD since elevated cortisol levels may activate the mineralocorticoid receptor. PMID:24752431

  20. Vitamin K Dependent Protection of Renal Function in Multi-ethnic Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Drummen, Nadja E.A.; Schutte, Aletta E.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jacobs, Lotte; Petit, Thibaut; Yang, Wen-Yi; Smith, Wayne; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Verhamme, Peter; Allegaert, Karel; Schutte, Rudolph; Lerut, Evelyne; Evenepoel, Pieter; Vermeer, Cees; Staessen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following activation by vitamin K (VK), matrix Gla protein (MGP) inhibits arterial calcification, but its role in preserving renal function remains unknown. Methods In 1166 white Flemish (mean age, 38.2 years) and 714 South Africans (49.2% black; 40.6 years), we correlated estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR [CKD-EPI formula]) and stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD [KDOQI stages 2–3]) with inactive desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), using multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Among Flemish and white and black Africans, between-group differences in eGFR (90, 100 and 122 mL/min/1.73 m2), dp-ucMGP (3.7, 6.5 and 3.2 μg/L), and CKD prevalence (53.5, 28.7 and 10.5%) were significant, but associations of eGFR with dp-ucMGP did not differ among ethnicities (P ≥ 0.075). For a doubling of dp-ucMGP, eGFR decreased by 1.5 (P = 0.023), 1.0 (P = 0.56), 2.8 (P = 0.0012) and 2.1 (P < 0.0001) mL/min/1.73 m2 in Flemish, white Africans, black Africans and all participants combined; the odds ratios for moving up one CKD stage were 1.17 (P = 0.033), 1.03 (P = 0.87), 1.29 (P = 0.12) and 1.17 (P = 0.011), respectively. Interpretation In the general population, eGFR decreases and CKD risk increases with higher dp-ucMGP, a marker of VK deficiency. These findings highlight the possibility that VK supplementation might promote renal health. PMID:26981580

  1. Stability studies of Solar Optical Telescope dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullapalli, Sarma N.; Pal, Parimal K.; Ruthven, Gregory P.

    1987-01-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) is designed to operate as an attached payload mounted on the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) in the cargo bay of the Shuttle Orbiter. Pointing and control of SOT is accomplished by an active Articulated Primary Mirror (APM), an active Tertiary Mirror (TM), an elaborate set of optical sensors, electromechanical actuators and programmable controllers. The structural interactions of this complex control system are significant factors in the stability of the SOT. The preliminary stability study results of the SOT dynamical system are presented. Structural transfer functions obtained from the NASTRAN model of the structure were used. These studies apply to a single degree of freedom (elevation). Fully integrated model studies will be conducted in the future.

  2. End-stage renal disease and low level exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury; a population-based, prospective nested case-referent study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) cause toxicological renal effects, but the clinical relevance at low-level exposures in general populations is unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the risk of developing end-stage renal disease in relation to Cd, Pb, and Hg exposure. Methods A total of 118 cases who later in life developed end-stage renal disease, and 378 matched (sex, age, area, and time of blood sampling) referents were identified among participants in two population-based prospective cohorts (130,000 individuals). Cd, Pb, and Hg concentrations were determined in prospectively collected samples. Results Erythrocyte lead was associated with an increased risk of developing end-stage renal disease (mean in cases 76 ?g/L; odds ratio (OR) 1.54 for an interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.00), while erythrocyte mercury was negatively associated (2.4 ?g/L; OR 0.75 for an interquartile range increase, CI 0.56-0.99). For erythrocyte cadmium, the OR of developing end-stage renal disease was 1.15 for an interquartile range increase (CI 0.99-1.34; mean Ery-Cd among cases: 1.3 ?g/L). The associations for erythrocyte lead and erythrocyte mercury, but not for erythrocyte cadmium, remained after adjusting for the other two metals, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and hypertension. Gender-specific analyses showed that men carried almost all of the erythrocyte lead and erythrocyte cadmium associated risks. Conclusions Erythrocyte lead is associated with end-stage renal disease but further studies are needed to evaluate causality. Gender-specific analyses suggest potential differences in susceptibility or in exposure biomarker reliability. PMID:23343055

  3. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA ... excreting it into the urine. Distal renal tubular acidosis (Type I RTA) is caused by a defect ...

  4. Magnetoencephalography in the study of brain dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pizzella, Vittorio; Marzetti, Laura; Penna, Stefania Della; de Pasquale, Francesco; Zappasodi, Filippo; Romani, Gian Luca

    2014-01-01

    Summary To progress toward understanding of the mechanisms underlying the functional organization of the human brain, either a bottom-up or a top-down approach may be adopted. The former starts from the study of the detailed functioning of a small number of neuronal assemblies, while the latter tries to decode brain functioning by considering the brain as a whole. This review discusses the top-down approach and the use of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to describe global brain properties. The main idea behind this approach is that the concurrence of several areas is required for the brain to instantiate a specific behavior/functioning. A central issue is therefore the study of brain functional connectivity and the concept of brain networks as ensembles of distant brain areas that preferentially exchange information. Importantly, the human brain is a dynamic device, and MEG is ideally suited to investigate phenomena on behaviorally relevant timescales, also offering the possibility of capturing behaviorally-related brain connectivity dynamics. PMID:25764254

  5. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell mediated response to the presence of E. clarkei oocysts and endogenous stages was seen in 83.3% of infected adult geese, but only 20% of immature geese showed a macrophage response to the infective stages of this parasite. A massive E. clarkei infection caused the death of one goose collected at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Amidostomiasis, epomidiostomiasis, and renal coccidiosis were important pathogenic diseases in the Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese but did not directly cause significant mortality in the population.

  6. Serologic and virologic profiles of hepatitis C infection in renal transplant candidates. New England Organ Bank Hepatitis C Study Group.

    PubMed

    Natov, S N; Lau, J Y; Bouthot, B A; Murthy, B V; Ruthazer, R; Schmid, C H; Levey, A S; Pereira, B J

    1998-06-01

    The development of policies to prevent nosocomial transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in hemodialysis units is critically dependent on the understanding of the relationship between tests for anti-HCV, HCV RNA, and HCV genotype and the patients' clinical characteristics. We tested sera from all patients on the renal transplant waiting list at the New England Organ Bank between November 1986 and June 1990 for anti-HCV by a third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA3) and a third-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA3). All ELISA3-positive sera were tested for HCV RNA by reverse transcriptase "nested" polymerase chain reaction, and the genotype was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sera were available in 1,544 of 3,243 (48%) patients on the waiting list, of whom 287 (19%) tested positive for anti-HCV by ELISA3. Two hundred eighty-six randomly selected, anti-HCV-negative patients served as controls. Compared with anti-HCV-negative controls, anti-HCV-positive patients had a longer duration since initiation of renal replacement therapy, higher number of previous kidney transplants and blood transfusions, higher proportion of patients with anti-HBc, history of liver disease, history of non-A, non-B hepatitis, and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, and lower serum albumin concentrations. Of the 287 anti-HCV-positive sera, 261 (91%) were reactive by RIBA3, 21 (7%) were indeterminate, and five (2%) were nonreactive. HCV RNA was detected in 224 of 275 (81%) ELISA3-positive patients, in whom additional sera were available. There were no significant differences in clinical or laboratory characteristics between ELISA3-positive patients with and without HCV RNA. Genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, and 4 were present in 53%, 23%, 8%, 10%, 4%, and 2% of patients, respectively. Infection with one, two, or three different HCV genotypes was present in 92%, 7%, and 1%, respectively. There was no significant association between the type or number of HCV genotypes and RIBA3 reactivity. There were no major differences in clinical or laboratory characteristics between genotypes or between single and mixed infection. In summary, this study provides detailed information regarding the relationship between tests for anti-HCV, HCV RNA, and HCV genotypes and the clinical and laboratory characteristics of a large, well-characterized cohort of patients referred for renal transplant. PMID:9631834

  7. Should We Still Focus That Much on Cardiovascular Mortality in End Stage Renal Disease Patients? The CONvective TRAnsport STudy

    PubMed Central

    den Hoedt, Claire H.; Bots, Michiel L.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.; Mazairac, Albert H. A.; Penne, E. Lars; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Nubé, Menso J.; Levesque, Renée; Blankestijn, Peter J.; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.

    2013-01-01

    Background We studied the distribution of causes of death in the CONTRAST cohort and compared the proportion of cardiovascular deaths with other populations to answer the question whether cardiovascular mortality is still the principal cause of death in end stage renal disease. In addition, we compared patients who died from the three most common death causes. Finally, we aimed to study factors related to dialysis withdrawal. Methods We used data from CONTRAST, a randomized controlled trial in 714 chronic hemodialysis patients comparing the effects of online hemodiafiltration versus low-flux hemodialysis. Causes of death were adjudicated. The distribution of causes of death was compared to that of the Dutch dialysis registry and of the Dutch general population. Results In CONTRAST, 231 patients died on treatment. 32% died from cardiovascular disease, 22% due to infection and 23% because of dialysis withdrawal. These proportions were similar to those in the Dutch dialysis registry and the proportional cardiovascular mortality was similar to that of the Dutch general population. cardiovascular death was more common in patients <60 years. Patients who withdrew were older, had more co-morbidity and a lower mental quality of life at baseline. Patients who withdrew had much co-morbidity. 46% died within 5 days after the last dialysis session. Conclusions Although the absolute risk of death is much higher, the proportion of cardiovascular deaths in a prevalent end stage renal disease population is similar to that of the general population. In older hemodialysis patients cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death risk are equally important. Particularly the registration of dialysis withdrawal deserves attention. These findings may be partly limited to the Dutch population. PMID:23620729

  8. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery. PMID:19772621

  9. Total Parathyroidectomy with Presternal Intramuscular Autotransplantation in Renal Patients: A Prospective Study of 66 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Santos, R. O.; Ohe, M. N; Carvalho, A. B.; Neves, M. C.; Kunii, I.; Lazaretti-Castro, M.; Abrahão, M.; Cervantes, O.; Vieira, J. G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Surgical treatment of secondary (SHPT) and tertiary hyperparathyroidism (THPT) may involve various surgical approaches. The aim of this paper was to evaluate presternal intramuscular autotransplantation of parathyroid tissue as a surgical option in SHPT and THPT treatment. 66 patients with renal chronic disease underwent surgery from April 2000 to April 2005 at Universidade Federal São Paulo, Brazil. There were 38 SHPT patients (24 women/14 men), mean age of 39.yrs (range: 14–58), and 28 THPT patients (14 women/14 men), mean age of 43.4 yrs (range: 24–62). Postoperative average followup was 42.9 months (range: 12–96). Postoperative intact PTH increased throughout followup from 73.5 pg/mL to 133 pg/mL on average from 1st to the 5th year, respectively, in SHPT and from 54.9 pg/mL to 94.7 pg/mL on average from 1st to 5th year, respectively, in THPT group. Definitive hypoparathyroidism was observed in 4 (6.06%) patients and graft-dependent recurrence in 6 (9.09%). Presternal intramuscular autotransplantation of parathyroid tissue is a feasible and safe surgical option in SHPT and THPT treatment. PMID:22496985

  10. Vortex dynamics studies in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergine, Fabrizio

    This dissertation covers the study of selected vortex interaction scenarios both in cold and high enthalpy reacting flows. Specifically, the experimental results and the analysis of the flowfields resulting from two selected supersonic vortex interaction modes in a Mach 2.5 cold flow are presented. Additionally, the experiment design, based on vortex dynamics concepts, and the reacting plume survey of two pylon injectors in a Mach 2.4 high enthalpy flow are shown. All the cold flow experiments were conducted in the supersonic wind tunnel of the Aerodynamics Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington. A strut injector equipped with specified ramp configurations was designed and used to produce the flowfields of interest. The reacting flow experiments were conducted in the the Expansion Tube Facility located in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory of Stanford University. A detailed description of the supersonic wind tunnel, the instrumentation, the strut injector and the supersonic wake flow downstream is shown as part of the characterization of the facility. As Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry was the principal flow measurement technique used in this work to probe the streamwise vortices shed from ramps mounted on the strut, this dissertation provides a deep overview of the challenges and the application of the aforementioned technique to the survey of vortical flows. Moreover, the dissertation provides the comprehensive analysis of the mean and fluctuating velocity flowfields associated with two distinct vortex dynamics scenarios, as chosen by means of the outcomes of the simulations of a reduced order model developed in the research group. Specifically, the same streamwise vortices (strength, size and Reynolds number) were used experimentally to investigate both a case in which the resulting dynamics evolve in a vortex merging scenario and a case where the merging process is voluntarily avoided in order to focus the analysis on the fundamental differences associated with the amalgamation processes alone. The results from the mean flow highlight major differences between the two cases and will justify the use of the inviscid reduced order model used to predict the main flow physics. The analysis of the turbulence quantities based on concepts borrowed from incompressible turbulence theory explains interesting features of the fluctuating flowfields, suggesting that turbulence associated with the inspected flow conditions is essentially incompressible. Once the interactions among the vortical structures in cold flow were assessed, these vortex dynamics concepts were probed in a reacting environment. The dissertation describes the design phase of two pylon injectors based on the prediction capabilities of the aforementioned model. Then, the results of a set of combustion experiments conducted utilizing hydrogen fuel injected into Mach 2.4, high-enthalpy (2.8˜MJ/kg) air flow are discussed. The results show that, for the heat release levels considered in this study, the morphology of the plume and its evolution is very similar to the results produced by the code, enabling an interpretation of the phenomena based on vortex dynamics considerations. The persistence of the streamwise vortical structures created by the selected ramp configurations is shown together with the effectiveness of the coherent structures in successfully anchoring the flame very close to the injection point. The work shows the possibility of a new approach in the design of injection strategies (i.e., not limited to injection devices) suitable for adoption in scramjet combustors based on the ability to predict, with basic vortex dynamics concepts and a highly reduced computational cost, the main features of flows of technological interest.

  11. Vicarious liver visualization in solitary functioning kidney with technetium-99m ethylenedicysteine renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Phulsunga, Rohit Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of 3-year-old boy who was incidentally diagnosed to have single left kidney on ultrasonography. Dynamic technetium-99m ethylenedicysteine renal scintigraphy was acquired for assessing the existing kidney function showed the tracer localization in bilateral renal fossae during the entire study. The single-photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography study revealed activity in the right renal fossa to be in the enlarged right lobe of the liver, which was mimicking as impaired functioning right kidney in planar images. The hybrid imaging helped in accurate delineation of tracer uptake by confirming it to be the false appearance of the right kidney in planar imaging. This case report also highlights the possible mechanism of renal tracer uptake in the liver parenchyma. PMID:26170576

  12. Randomized comparison of renal denervation versus intensified pharmacotherapy including spironolactone in true-resistant hypertension: six-month results from the Prague-15 study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Jn; Widimsk, Petr; Touek, Petr; Petrk, Ond?ej; ?urila, Karol; Waldauf, Petr; Bedn?, Frantiek; Zelinka, Tom; Holaj, Robert; trauch, Branislav; omlov, Zuzana; Tborsk, Milo; Vclavk, Jan; Kocinov, Eva; Branny, Marian; Nykl, Igor; Jiravsk, Otakar; Widimsk, Ji?

    2015-02-01

    This prospective, randomized, open-label multicenter trial evaluated the efficacy of catheter-based renal denervation (Symplicity, Medtronic) versus intensified pharmacological treatment including spironolactone (if tolerated) in patients with true-resistant hypertension. This was confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring after excluding secondary hypertension and confirmation of adherence to therapy by measurement of plasma antihypertensive drug levels before enrollment. One-hundred six patients were randomized to renal denervation (n=52), or intensified pharmacological treatment (n=54) with baseline systolic blood pressure of 15917 and 15517 mm Hg and average number of drugs 5.1 and 5.4, respectively. A significant reduction in 24-hour average systolic blood pressure after 6 months (-8.6 [95% cofidence interval: -11.8, -5.3] mm Hg; P<0.001 in renal denervation versus -8.1 [95% cofidence interval: -12.7, -3.4] mm Hg; P=0.001 in pharmacological group) was observed, which was comparable in both groups. Similarly, a significant reduction in systolic office blood pressure (-12.4 [95% cofidence interval: -17.0, -7.8] mm Hg; P<0.001 in renal denervation versus -14.3 [95% cofidence interval: -19.7, -8.9] mm Hg; P<0.001 in pharmacological group) was present. Between-group differences in change were not significant. The average number of antihypertensive drugs used after 6 months was significantly higher in the pharmacological group (+0.3 drugs; P<0.001). A significant increase in serum creatinine and a parallel decrease of creatinine clearance were observed in the pharmacological group; between-group difference were borderline significant. The 6-month results of this study confirmed the safety of renal denervation. In conclusion, renal denervation achieved reduction of blood pressure comparable with intensified pharmacotherapy. PMID:25421981

  13. Renal imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, K; Hierholzer, J

    1997-01-01

    The ancient approach to obtain an image of the kidneys (and other internal organs) was 'section-inspection-imaging' by drawing, painting, sculpturing, and modelling. The present study follows chronologically the development and use of sectioning techniques from ancient (often forbidden) methods to modern microdissection and maceration of silicone-rubber-injected tubules. Inspection evolved from the use of the naked eye to magnifying lenses, microscopes and finally electron microscopy. Pertinent examples such as the description of the kidneys as the site of urine formation, the visualization of loop structures in the renal medulla and the imaging of tight junction strands are discussed. Inspection or visualization of renal structure and function has been revolutionized by modern noninvasive techniques, such as X-ray imaging, imaging by radioisotopes, ultrasound, computer tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Pertinent examples are given demonstrating the potency of the various techniques. The contribution of computerized data evaluation is discussed. The development of micropuncture and microperfusion techniques has opened the field for direct imaging not only of renal (sub)structural details but also of functional parameters such as transtubular reabsorption rates, single glomerular capillary filtration and conductance of the paracellular pathway. We focus particularly on techniques specifically designed to visualize renal hemodynamic and transport parameters. PMID:9189257

  14. Tools for the study of dynamical spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan

    This thesis covers a range of topics in numerical and analytical relativity, centered around introducing tools and methodologies for the study of dynamical spacetimes. The scope of the studies is limited to classical (as opposed to quantum) vacuum spacetimes described by Einstein's general theory of relativity. The numerical works presented here are carried out within the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) infrastructure, while analytical calculations extensively utilize Wolfram's Mathematica program. We begin by examining highly dynamical spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers, which can be investigated using numerical simulations. However, there are difficulties in interpreting the output of such simulations. One difficulty stems from the lack of a canonical coordinate system (henceforth referred to as gauge freedom) and tetrad, against which quantities such as Newman-Penrose Psi4 (usually interpreted as the gravitational wave part of curvature) should be measured. We tackle this problem in Chapter 2 by introducing a set of geometrically motivated coordinates that are independent of the simulation gauge choice, as well as a quasi-Kinnersley tetrad, also invariant under gauge changes in addition to being optimally suited to the task of gravitational wave extraction. Another difficulty arises from the need to condense the overwhelming amount of data generated by the numerical simulations. In order to extract physical information in a succinct and transparent manner, one may define a version of gravitational field lines and field strength using spatial projections of the Weyl curvature tensor. Introduction, investigation and utilization of these quantities will constitute the main content in Chapters 3 through 6. For the last two chapters, we turn to the analytical study of a simpler dynamical spacetime, namely a perturbed Kerr black hole. We will introduce in Chapter 7 a new analytical approximation to the quasi-normal mode (QNM) frequencies, and relate various properties of these modes to wave packets traveling on unstable photon orbits around the black hole. In Chapter 8, we study a bifurcation in the QNM spectrum as the spin of the black hole approaches extremality.

  15. Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Persu, Alexandre; Renkin, Jean; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    The term “ultima ratio” has multiple, though related, meanings. The motto “ultima ratio regum,” cast on the cannons of the French army of King Louis XIV, meant that war is the last argument of kings, that is, the one to be used after all diplomatic arguments have failed. Along similar lines, we propose that, given the current evidence, renal denervation should be used as a last resort, after state-of-the-art drug treatment optimized at expert centers failed to control blood pressure. PMID:22851728

  16. Renal amyloidosis. Evaluation by gallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Skinner, M.; Cohen, A.S.; Ngai, S.; Peng, T.T.

    1986-09-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the efficacy of gallium imaging in the detection of renal amyloidosis. Ten of the 11 patients who had biopsy-proven renal amyloidosis demonstrated marked uptake in both kidneys. One patient revealed moderate gallium uptake in his kidneys. None of the patients had underlying renal or extrarenal pathology other than amyloidosis, which could account for renal gallium uptake (renal infection, neoplasm, hepatic failure or frequent blood transfusions). Four patients also had extrarenal foci of abnormal gallium uptake, suggesting other sites of amyloid deposits. Our data strongly suggest that gallium imaging has a high sensitivity for detection of renal amyloidosis. Its specificity is enhanced significantly by careful review of the clinical history to exclude other known causes of renal gallium uptake. Potentially, gallium imaging may be used to monitor the progress of patients under experimental therapy.

  17. [Prostaglandin F2 alpha and renal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Milanov, S; Belovezhdov, N; Milkov, V; Gurev, I; Kiperova, B

    1981-01-01

    The values of PGf2 alpha were studied in 20 renal patients with renal hypertension, with and without chronic renal insufficiency via a radioimmunologic method. A control group of 10 healthy volunteers wer used without data from arterial hypertension. Values (672.0 +/- 99.5 pg/ml), being, with statistically significant difference, increased as compared with the healthy volunteers (347.13 +/- 49.9 pg/ml) were found in renal patients with chronic renal insufficiency. With the advancement of CRI in patients with renal hypertension, PG concentration was also increased (505.5 +/- 77.6 pg/ml) but it was not significant as in the patients without CRI. The elevated values of PGF2+ alpha suggest their participation in the pathogenesis of renal hypertension. PMID:6950590

  18. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1991-03-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation.

  19. Ultrasonic Study of Dislocation Dynamics in Lithium -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Myeong-Deok

    1987-09-01

    Experimental studies of dislocation dynamics in LiF single crystals, using ultrasonic techniques combined with dynamic loading, were performed to investigate the time evolution of the plastic deformation process under a short stress pulse at room temperature, and the temperature dependence of the dislocation damping mechanism in the temperature range 25 - 300(DEGREES)K. From the former, the time dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation was understood as resulting from dislocation multiplication followed by the evolution of mobile dislocations to immobile ones under large stress. From the latter, the temperature dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation was interpreted as due to the motion of the dislocation loops overcoming the periodic Peierls potential barrier in a manner analogous to the motion of a thermalized sine-Gordon chain under a small stress. The Peierls stress obtained from the experimental results by application of Seeger's relaxation model with exponential dislocation length distribution was 4.26MPa, which is consistent with the lowest stress for the linear relation between the dislocation velocity and stress observed by Flinn and Tinder.

  20. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.T.

    1990-03-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation. 34 refs.

  1. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.T.

    1993-12-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation.

  2. Isolated Spontaneous Renal Artery Dissection Presented with Flank Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Shruti P.; Patel, Kajal; Pal, Bipin C.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous renal artery dissection is a rare but important cause of flank pain. We report a case of isolated spontaneous renal artery dissection in 56-year-old man complicated by renal infarction presented with flank pain. Doppler study pointed towards vascular pathology. Computed tomography (CT) angiography was used to make final diagnosis which demonstrated intimal flap in main renal artery with renal infarction. PMID:26090259

  3. Renal actions of calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sterzel, R B

    1987-01-01

    Calcium antagonists (CAs) interfere with the calcium entry of many cells and therefore affect various cells and properties of the kidney. At present, most information on the renal actions of CAs concerns their relaxing effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. Renal vasodilation and decreased renal vascular resistance are most prominent when CAs are used in hypertensive laboratory animals or patients. This results in an increase of renal blood flow and, at times, in an even greater rise of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The augmenting effect on GFR is at present incompletely understood. It has been considered that it is due to the rise of the glomerular capillary pressure and/or due to increase of the glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient. Unlike other vasodilators, CAs do not cause fluid retention, but rather induce diuresis and natriuresis. Initial studies on the renal effects of CAs in states of hypertension and/or impaired kidney function have demonstrated that CAs may play a role in maintaining GFR in otherwise progressive kidney disease. It remains to be seen whether these effects are related not only to the improvement of renal hemodynamics but also to protection against the action of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and platelets. While CAs have gained an established role in the treatment of hypertension showing beneficial short-term action on the kidneys, their long-term effects on renal structures and function require further elucidation. PMID:2455125

  4. Melatonin and renal protection: novel perspectives from animal experiments and human studies (review).

    PubMed

    Hrenak, Jaroslav; Paulis, Ludovit; Repova, Kristina; Aziriova, Silvia; Nagtegaal, Elsbeth J; Reiter, Russel J; Simko, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious public health problem. Current therapies are designed to slow down progression of the disease and avoid the necessity of dialysis or kidney transplantation. CKD is characterized by chronic inflammation and progressive cell death resulting in fibrotic rebuilding of renal tissue. Melatonin, the primary product of the pineal gland, has been shown to have pluripotent protective effects in many organs and tissues. It exerts anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiremodelling actions. A principal mechanism of these numerous melatonin benefits resides in its extraordinary high efficacy as an antioxidant and scavenger protecting cells both extracellularly and in all subcellular structures. In addition to these receptor-independent actions, the effects of melatonin via specific MT-receptors may be beneficial. In several animal models of CKD, involving experimental hypertension, diabetes mellitus and various models of nephrotoxicity, melatonin reduced the oxidative burden, attenuated the chronic inflammation and limited apoptosis. These effects were associated with the reduction of proteinuria, damage of parenchymal cells and fibrosis. In humans, melatonin's chronobiological action attenuates sleep disturbances in hemodialyzed patients suffering from a relative melatonin deficiency. Moreover, melatonin reduces the oxidative burden and improves iron metabolism in hemodialyzed patients. In conclusion, the pleiotropic physiological actions of melatonin induce beneficial effects at numerous pathophysiological levels related to CKD both under experimental and clinical conditions. It is hoped that this review will prompt a large clinical trial to determine the efficacy of this nontoxic indoleamine as a potential treatment for this debilitating disease. PMID:25269563

  5. Erythropoietin ameliorates genetamicin-induced renal toxicity: A biochemical and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Nasri, Hamid; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Baradaran, Azar; Gheissari, Alaleh; Rouhi, Hamid; Ahmadi Soleimani, Seyed Mohammad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Ghaed-Amini, Fatemeh; Ardalan, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigations have attempted to modify the outcome of tubular injury by either ameliorating renal tubular damage or promoting tubular regeneration in the case of acute tubular necrosis. Objectives We investigated the protective effect of Eprex an erythropoietin analogue on tubular injury induced by gentamicin (GM). Materials and Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. In group 1,rats were served as a sham group. In group 2, rats were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg of GM for 10 consecutive days (positive control group) and then were sacrificed. In group 3, rats received GM for 10 days then Eprex 100U/kg was injected intraperitoneally for the next 10 days and then they were sacrificed at the day 20th. In group 4 rats were injected a combination of GM (80 mg/kg) and Eprex 100U/kg intraperitoneally for 10 days and then were sacrificed. Results The results indicated that, Eprex prevented the increase in serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The effect of Eprex on damage score, showed that co-administration of GM and Eprex (group 3 and 4) reduced the kidney tissue damage compared to positive control group (P<0.05). This result indicat that Eprex potentially can reduce or prevent the kidney tissue damage. Conclusions Ameliorative effect of Eprex when the drug was given in combination with GM and also when the drug was applied after GM–induced tubular damage, revealed the renoprotective potency of Eprex. Eprex is a promising drug to prevent or attenuate tubular damage induced by GM or other nephrotoxic agents which act through the same mechanisms as gentamicin. PMID:24475398

  6. An open-label study to estimate the effect of steady-state erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of a single dose of rivaroxaban in subjects with renal impairment and normal renal function

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kenneth T; Vaidyanathan, Seema; Natarajan, Jaya; Ariyawansa, Jay; Haskell, Lloyd; Turner, Kenneth C

    2014-01-01

    Two previously conducted rivaroxaban studies showed that, separately, renal impairment (RI) and concomitant administration of erythromycin (P-glycoprotein and moderate cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] inhibitor) can result in increases in rivaroxaban exposure. However, these studies did not assess the potential for combined drug–drug–disease interactions, which—in theory—could lead to additive or synergistic increases in exposure. This study investigated rivaroxaban pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics when co-administered with steady-state (SS) erythromycin in subjects with either mild or moderate RI. Similar to previous studies, rivaroxaban administered alone in RI subjects, or when co-administered with SS erythromycin in normal renal function (NRF) subjects, increased rivaroxaban exposure. When combined, the co-administration of rivaroxaban 10 mg with SS erythromycin in subjects with mild or moderate RI produced mean increases in rivaroxaban AUC∞ and Cmax of approximately 76% and 56%, and 99% and 64%, respectively, relative to NRF subjects, with PD changes displaying a similar trend. No serious adverse events occurred and no persistent adverse events were reported at the end of study. Although these increases were slightly more than additive, rivaroxaban should not be used in patients with RI receiving concomitant combined P-glycoprotein and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk. PMID:24964176

  7. Home blood pressure level and decline in renal function among treated hypertensive patients: the J-HOME-Morning Study.

    PubMed

    Ishikura, Kazuki; Obara, Taku; Kikuya, Masahiro; Satoh, Michihiro; Hosaka, Miki; Metoki, Hirohito; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Mano, Nariyasu; Nakayama, Masaaki; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association between home and office blood pressure (BP) levels and further decline in renal function among treated hypertensive patients with and without renal dysfunction. We calculated annual decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) in 1535 treated hypertensive patients with home and office BP measurements. We defined ΔeGFR <0 as decline in renal function, and ΔeGFR ⩾0 as non-decline in renal function based on 1.5 years of follow-up. For 520 patients with low eGFR at baseline, morning home, evening home and office systolic BP (SBP) levels and morning home diastolic BP (DBP) levels were positively associated with the risk of decline in renal function (trend P=0.003, 0.002, 0.003 and 0.004). Compared to patients with home SBP <125 mm Hg, the risk of decline in renal function was higher in those with home SBPs ⩾135 mm Hg and between 130-135 mm Hg, while the risk was similar in those with home SBP of 125-130 mm Hg. For 1015 patients with normal eGFR at baseline, only morning home SBP level was positively associated with the risk of decline in renal function (trend P=0.004). Morning home BP might be useful for risk evaluation of decline in renal function even among treated hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Target levels of home BP control among treated hypertensive patients need to be further investigated. PMID:26510785

  8. Dynamic speckle study of microbial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincitorio, F. M.; Mulone, C.; Marcuzzi, P. A.; Budini, N.; Freyre, C.; Lopez, A. J.; Ramil, A.

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present a characterization of yeast dynamic speckle activity during growth in an isolated agar culture medium. We found that it is possible to detect the growth of the microorganisms even before they turn out to be visible. By observing the time evolution of the speckle activity at different regions of the culture medium we could extract a map of the growth process, which served to analyze how the yeast develops and spreads over the agar's medium. An interesting point of this study concerns with the influence of the laser light on the yeast growth rate. We have found that yeast finds hard to develop at regions with higher laser light illumination, although we used a synchronous system to capture the speckle pattern. The results obtained in this work would serve us as a starting point to fabricate a detector of growing microorganism colonies, with obvious interesting applications in diverse areas.

  9. NMR Methods to Study Dynamic Allostery

    PubMed Central

    Grutsch, Sarina; Brüschweiler, Sven; Tollinger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy provides a unique toolbox of experimental probes for studying dynamic processes on a wide range of timescales, ranging from picoseconds to milliseconds and beyond. Along with NMR hardware developments, recent methodological advancements have enabled the characterization of allosteric proteins at unprecedented detail, revealing intriguing aspects of allosteric mechanisms and increasing the proportion of the conformational ensemble that can be observed by experiment. Here, we present an overview of NMR spectroscopic methods for characterizing equilibrium fluctuations in free and bound states of allosteric proteins that have been most influential in the field. By combining NMR experimental approaches with molecular simulations, atomistic-level descriptions of the mechanisms by which allosteric phenomena take place are now within reach. PMID:26964042

  10. Non Linear Beam Dynamics Studies at SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Terebilo, A.; Pellegrini, C.; Cornacchia, M.; Corbett, J.; Martin, D.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12

    The frequency map analysis of a Hamiltonian system recently introduced to accelerators physics in combination with turn-by-turn phase space measurements opens new experimental opportunities for studying non linear dynamic in storage rings. In this paper we report on the experimental program at SPEAR having the goal of measuring the frequency map of the machine. In this paper we discuss the accuracy of the instantaneous tune extraction from experimental data and demonstrate the possibility of the frequency map measurement. The instantaneous tune extraction technique can be applied to experimental tracking data with reasonable accuracy. Frequency map can be experimentally determined using the existing turn-by-turn phase space measurement techniques and NAFF instantaneous tune extraction.

  11. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and ?-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and ?-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and ?-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  12. End-stage renal disease risk in live kidney donors: what have we learned from two recent studies?

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Ngan N.; Lentine, Krista L.; Garg, Amit X.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Living kidney donation improves the lives of those with kidney failure, but there are potential risks to the donor. We review two recent publications that describe the long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in living kidney donors. Recent findings One study reported that the long-term risk (median follow-up 15.1 years) of ESRD was, in relative terms, 11-fold higher in living kidney donors compared to healthy nondonors, and suggested a hereditary association since all affected donors were biologically related to their recipients and the causes were predominantly immunological diseases. In a second study, we estimated that the long-term risk (median follow-up 7.6 years) of ESRD was, in relative terms, eight-fold higher in living kidney donors compared to healthy matched nondonors. In both studies, the absolute increase in the 15-year incidence of ESRD from donation was below 0.5%. There are limitations in these studies, which have raised questions about the accuracy of the estimates of risk. Summary The results of these studies should be discussed with potential living kidney donors with an emphasis on the low 15-year incidence of ESRD following donation. The lifetime incidence of ESRD for donors of different age, race, and other characteristics requires further study. PMID:25160076

  13. Stereophotogrammetry in studies of riparian vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortobagyi, Borbala; Vautier, Franck; Corenblit, Dov; Steiger, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Riparian vegetation responds to hydrogeomorphic disturbances and also controls sediment deposition and erosion. Spatio-temporal riparian vegetation dynamics within fluvial corridors have been quantified in many studies using aerial photographs and GIS. However, this approach does not allow the consideration of woody vegetation growth rates (i.e. vertical dimension) which are fundamental when studying feedbacks between the processes of fluvial landform construction and vegetation establishment and succession. We built 3D photogrammetric models of vegetation height based on aerial argentic and digital photographs from sites of the Allier and Garonne Rivers (France). The models were realized at two different spatial scales and with two different methods. The "large" scale corresponds to the reach of the river corridor on the Allier river (photograph taken in 2009) and the "small" scale to river bars of the Allier (photographs taken in 2002, 2009) and Garonne Rivers (photographs taken in 2000, 2002, 2006 and 2010). At the corridor scale, we generated vegetation height models using an automatic procedure. This method is fast but can only be used with digital photographs. At the bar scale, we constructed the models manually using a 3D visualization on the screen. This technique showed good results for digital and also argentic photographs but is very time-consuming. A diachronic study was performed in order to investigate vegetation succession by distinguishing three different classes according to the vegetation height: herbs (<1 m), shrubs (1-4 m) or trees (>4 m). Both methods, i.e. automatic and manual, were employed to study the evolution of the three vegetation classes and the recruitment of new vegetation patches. A comparison was conducted between the vegetation height given by models (automatic and manual) and the vegetation height measured in the field. The manually produced models (small scale) were of a precision of 0.5-1 m, allowing the quantification of woody vegetation growth rates. Thus, our results show that the manual method we developed is accurate to quantify vegetation growth rates at small scales, whereas the less accurate automatic method is appropriate to study vegetation succession at the corridor scale. Both methods are complementary and will contribute to a further exploration of the mutual relationships between hydrogeomorphic processes, topography and vegetation dynamics within alluvial systems, adding the quantification of the vertical dimension of riparian vegetation to their spatio-temporal characteristics.

  14. A two-yr prospective study of bone health in children after renal transplantation employing two imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Christoforidis, Athanasios; Printza, Nikoleta; Gkogka, Chrysa; Kazantzidou, Eirini; Papachristou, Fotios

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively and longitudinally evaluate bone properties with the use of two bone imaging techniques (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA], and quantitative ultraSonography [QUS]) in pediatric renal transplant recipients. Fourteen patients (eight boys and six girls) with a mean age of 12.25 3.11 yr (range: 8-17.5 yr) completed a two-yr follow-up. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA at lumbar spine and hip and speed of sound (SOS) by QUS at radius and tibia were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. A significant improvement in mean Z-score of SOS values measured at tibia (1.01 1.31 vs. -0.46 1.14, p = 0.005) was observed. On the contrary, mean Z-score of BMD values measured at femoral neck was significantly reduced (-1.95 2.15 vs. -0.33 1.13, p = 0.041). Finally, multivariate stepwise regression analyses showed that glomerular filtration rate at the beginning of the study was the best predictor of the difference in BMD Z-scores measured at lumbar spine. Additionally, values of intact parathormone (iPTH) at the beginning of the study and the change in iPTH throughout the study predicted the 72.3% of the difference in Z-score of SOS measured at radius with an inverse relationship. PMID:24033832

  15. Periodic Peritoneal Dialysis in End Stage Renal Disease: Is it Still Relevant? A Single Center Study from India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, K; Prasad, D; Malhotra, V; Agrawal, D; Beniwal, P; Mathur, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: High cost of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in India has made renal replacement therapy out of reach of many patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Repeated puncture PD although inferior to HD biochemically, is easily and freely available across Rajasthan, India, and is simple to perform, and does not require sophisticated machines, thus making it an attractive option for dialysis for ESRD. Aim: To analyze the outcomes of periodic PD in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis support. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study analyzing the data of patients who underwent PD between August 2010 and January 2013 in Sawai Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur, India was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time period between first and second session of PD. Detailed demographic and clinical data during the study period were collected along with PD related complications. The main outcome studied was technique survival 1 year post initiation of PD. Results: 234 patients received an initial session of PD, of which 174 had a good response and were included in the study. 19 patients received the second PD within 7 days of first (Group 1), 45 patients within 8–14 days (Group 2) and 110 patients within 15–21 days (Group 3). The overall 1 year technique survival was 68.4% (91/133), with a rate of 50% (5/10), 56.8% (21/37), and 75.6% (65/86) for Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. The time duration between first and second PD proved to be reliable indicator of the subsequent response, with a technique survival rate significantly lower in Group 1 patients compared to Groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.04). Median dialysis free days were 11, 16 and 21 days in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Peritonitis rate observed was 2.1% (49/2261) during the study period. Conclusion: Periodic PD is a simple, safe and cheap procedure, which can be considered as used as a palliative measure in terminal uremia in underprivileged areas. PMID:27057374

  16. Persistent High Serum Bicarbonate and the Risk of Heart Failure in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Pan, Qiang; Appel, Lawrence; Bellovich, Keith; Chen, Jing; Feldman, Harold; Fischer, Michael J.; Ham, L. L.; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Scialla, Julia J.; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum bicarbonate varies over time in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this variability may portend poor cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a time‐updated longitudinal analysis to evaluate the association of serum bicarbonate with long‐term clinical outcomes: heart failure, atherosclerotic events, renal events (halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or end‐stage renal disease), and mortality. Methods and Results Serum bicarbonate was measured annually, in 3586 participants with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Marginal structural models were created to allow for integration of all available bicarbonate measurements and proper adjustment for time‐dependent confounding. During the 6 years follow‐up, 512 participants developed congestive heart failure (26/1000 person‐years) and 749 developed renal events (37/1000 person‐years). The risk of heart failure and death was significantly higher for participants who maintained serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L for the entire duration of follow‐up (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.23, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, respectively) compared with participants who kept their bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L, after adjusting for demographics, co‐morbidities, medications including diuretics, eGFR, and proteinuria. Participants who maintained serum bicarbonate <22 mmol/L had almost a 2‐fold increased risk of renal disease progression (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.57) compared with participants with bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L. Conclusion In this large CKD cohort, persistent serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of heart failure events and mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal range of serum bicarbonate in CKD to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:25896890

  17. Specificity of brachyury in the distinction of chordoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and germ cell tumors: a study of 305 cases.

    PubMed

    Sangoi, Ankur R; Karamchandani, Jason; Lane, Brooke; Higgins, John P; Rouse, Robert V; Brooks, James D; McKenney, Jesse K

    2011-03-01

    Brachyury is recognized as a specific marker for notochord-derived tissues and neoplasms, and has become a defining immunohistochemical feature of chordoma. The main differential diagnostic consideration for chordoma is chondrosarcoma, which is known to lack brachyury expression. However, within the spectrum of genitourinary neoplasia, metastatic germ cell tumors and clear cell renal cell carcinoma may also be close morphological mimics of chordoma, particularly given the increasing prevalence of small tissue samples from image-guided biopsies. Although immunoreactivity for brachyury has been reported in a few germ cell tumors, a thorough characterization of staining by specific subtype has not been performed in a large series. Additionally, brachyury expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma has not been well studied. In this study, immunohistochemical expression with the brachyury antibody was evaluated in 111 germ cell tumors, 30 non-neoplastic and neoplastic (non-germ cell) testicular tissues, and 184 metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas using tissue microarray technology. In addition, immunoreactivity for PAX-8 and SALL-4 was evaluated in 12 chordomas on whole section. No nuclear brachyury expression was identified in any of the 101 germ cell tumors within the tissue microarray (including choriocarcinoma (1), embryonal carcinoma (20), intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (2), seminoma (64), spermatocytic seminoma (1), teratoma (5) and yolk sac tumor (8)), in any of the 30 non-neoplastic and neoplastic (non-germ cell) testicular tissues, or in any of the 10 whole-section seminomas. All 184 metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas were also non-reactive for brachyury. All 12 chordomas showed strong nuclear immunoreactivity for brachyury, but no expression of SALL-4. In all, 1 of 12 chordoma cases showed patchy, 1+ nuclear immunoreactivity for PAX-8. This study confirms the specificity of brachyury for chordoma in the differential diagnostic distinction from the potential genitourinary mimics, germ cell tumors and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. PMID:21102418

  18. Impact of High-Cut-Off Dialysis on Renal Recovery in Dialysis-Dependent Multiple Myeloma Patients: Results from a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Görlich, Dennis; Thölking, Gerold; Kropff, Martin; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Brand, Marcus; Kümpers, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Background High-cut-off hemodialysis (HCO-HD) can effectively reduce high concentrations of circulating serum free light chains (sFLC) in patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) due to multiple myeloma (MM). Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze renal recovery in a retrospective single-center cohort of dialysis-dependent MM patients treated with either conventional HD (conv. HD) or HCO-HD. Methods and Results The final cohort consisted of 59 patients treated with HCO-HD (n = 42) or conv. HD (n = 17). A sustained sFLC response was detected in a significantly higher proportion of HCO-HD patients (83.3%) compared with conv. HD patients (29.4%; p = 0.007). The median duration of sFLC required to reach values <1000 mg/l was 14.5 days in the HCO-HD group and 36 days in the conv. HD group. The corresponding rates of renal recovery were 64.3% and 29.4%, respectively (chi-squared test, p = 0.014). Multivariate regression and decision tree analysis (recursive partitioning) revealed HCO-HD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 6.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–24.5], p = 0.011) and low initial uric acid values (adjusted OR 1.3 [95%CI 1.0–1.7], p = 0.045) as independent and paramount variables associated with a favorable renal outcome. Conclusions In summary, the results from this retrospective case-control study suggest in addition to novel agent-based chemotherapy a benefit of HCO-HD in sFLC removal and renal outcome in dialysis-dependent AKI secondary to MM. This finding was especially pertinent in patients with low initial uric acid values, resulting in a promising renal recovery rate of 71.9%. Further prospective studies are warranted. PMID:27152520

  19. Dynamic Structure Studies on Polymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, R.; Kanaya, T.; Nishida, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Tsukushi, I.; Shibata, K.

    2006-05-05

    We have studied thermal expansion and contraction of polystyrene thin film supported on silicon substrate using X-ray reflectivity and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. In annealing experiments, we found fast and very slow contraction processes in the thin films above the glass transition temperature. The fast one was attributed to normal relaxation (annealing) process observed in bulk and responsible partly for the reported apparent negative expansivity. In addition, we found extremely slow re-expansion process in the glassy state. The ultra-slow contraction and re-expansion have been assigned to the lateral expansion and contraction of the film, respectively. Using well-annealed films, we have evaluated thermal expansivity as a function of film thickness, and found that it decreases with film thickness in a thickness range below twice of radius of gyration of a polymer chain 2Rg in the glassy state. The decrease has been attributed to hardening of harmonic force constant due to confinement in a thin film. In order to confirm this idea we have performed inelastic neutron scattering on the thin films in meV region and found the harmonic force constant decreased with the film thickness. We also evaluated the mean square displacement with an energy resolution of 25 {mu}eV to find that the glass transition temperature Tg increases with decreasing the film thickness, which contradicts the results of the XR. This has been tentatively assigned to a wide distribution of relaxation time in the thin films. In addition, we have investigated the dynamic anisotropy as well as the dynamic heterogeneity in the glassy state.

  20. Metoclopramide and renal vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Manara, A R; Bolsin, S; Monk, C R; Hartnell, G; Harris, R A

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the effect of i.v. metoclopramide on renal vascular resistance in nine healthy volunteers. Peak systolic and end-diastolic frequencies were measured using duplex Doppler ultrasound of a renal interlobar artery, before and after the administration of i.v. metoclopramide 10 mg, and the resistance index derived. There was no significant change in mean arterial pressure or resistance index following metoclopramide. PMID:1997046

  1. Metabonomics study of the acute graft rejection in rat renal transplantation using reversed-phase liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jihong; Wen, Hao; Liu, Jian; Yu, Che; Zhao, Xinjie; Shi, Xianzhe; Xu, Guowang

    2012-03-01

    Acute graft rejection is one of the most common and serious post complications in renal transplantation, noninvasive diagnosis of acute graft rejection is essential for reducing risk of surgery and timely treatment. In this study, a non-targeted metabonomics approach based on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) is used to investigate the effect of acute graft rejection in rat renal transplantation on metabolism. To collect more metabolite information both hydrophilic interaction chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography were used. Using the partial least squares-discriminant analysis, we found that the change of metabonome in a sham-operated group and a non-graft rejection group had a similar trend, while that of the acute graft rejection group was clearly different. Several discriminating metabolites of the acute graft rejection were identified, including creatinine, phosphatidyl-cholines, lyso-phosphatidylcholines, carnitine C16:0, free fatty acids and indoxyl sulfate etc. These discriminating metabolites suggested that acute graft rejection in renal transplantation can lead to the accumulation of creatinine in the body, and also the abnormal metabolism of phospholipids. These findings are useful to understand the mechanisms of the rejection, it also means that a UPLC-MS metabonomic approach is a suitable tool to investigate the metabolic abnormality in the acute graft rejection in renal transplantation. PMID:22237823

  2. A Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying the Role of the Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein System in Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Ricardo J.; Ortega, Arantxa; Izquierdo, Adriana; Arribas, Ignacio; Bover, Jordi; Esbrit, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone- (PTH-) related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor, the PTH1 receptor (PTH1R), are widely expressed in the kidney, where PTHrP exerts a modulatory action on renal function. PTHrP is known to be upregulated in several experimental nephropathies such as acute renal failure (ARF), obstructive nephropathy (ON) as well as diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this paper, we will discuss the functional consequences of chronic PTHrP overexpression in the damaged kidney using a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing PTHrP in the renal proximal tubule. In both ARF and ON, PTHrP displays proinflammatory and profibrogenic actions including the induction of epithelia to mesenquima transition. Moreover, PTHrP participates in the mechanisms of renal hypertrophy as well as proteinuria in experimental DN. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a critical factor in the progression of renal injury, appears to be, at least in part, responsible for endogenous PTHrP upregulation in these pathophysiological settings. These findings provide novel insights into the well-known protective effects of Ang II antagonists in renal diseases, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21052497

  3. Animal Models to Study Links between Cardiovascular Disease and Renal Failure and Their Relevance to Human Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hewitson, Tim D.; Holt, Stephen G.; Smith, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    The close association between cardiovascular pathology and renal dysfunction is well documented and significant. Patients with conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease like diabetes and hypertension also suffer renal dysfunction. This is unsurprising if the kidney is simply regarded as a “modified blood vessel” and thus, traditional risk factors will affect both systems. Consistent with this, it is relatively easy to comprehend how patients with either sudden or gradual cardiac and or vascular compromise have changes in both renal hemodynamic and regulatory systems. However, patients with pure or primary renal dysfunction also have metabolic changes (e.g., oxidant stress, inflammation, nitric oxide, or endocrine changes) that affect the cardiovascular system. Thus, cardiovascular and renal systems are intimately, bidirectionally and inextricably linked. Whilst we understand several of these links, some of the mechanisms for these connections remain incompletely explained. Animal models of cardiovascular and renal disease allow us to explore such mechanisms, and more importantly, potential therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review various experimental models used, and examine critically how representative they are of the human condition. PMID:26441970

  4. Systems-Dynamic Analysis for Neighborhood Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systems-dynamic analysis (or system dynamics (SD)) helps planners identify interrelated impacts of transportation and land-use policies on neighborhood-scale economic outcomes for households and businesses, among other applications. This form of analysis can show benefits and tr...

  5. Studying Atomic Dynamics with Designer Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold, C.O.; Burgdorfer, J.; Frey, M.T.; Dunning, F.B.

    1997-09-01

    We present a brief review of recent experimental and theoretical progress on the dynamics of Rydberg atoms using short half cycle pulses. We discuss new possibilities in coherent control and non-linear dynamics of atoms which have lately become possible using various superpositions of such pulses.

  6. Generation of Catalytic Antibodies Is an Intrinsic Property of an Individual's Immune System: A Study on a Large Cohort of Renal Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Mahendra, Ankit; Peyron, Ivan; Thaunat, Olivier; Dollinger, Cécile; Gilardin, Laurent; Sharma, Meenu; Wootla, Bharath; Rao, Desirazu N; Padiolleau-Lefevre, Séverine; Boquet, Didier; More, Abhijit; Varadarajan, Navin; Kaveri, Srini V; Legendre, Christophe; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien

    2016-05-15

    Renal transplant is the treatment of choice for patients with terminal end-stage renal disease. We have previously identified low levels of catalytic IgG as a potential prognosis marker for chronic allograft rejection. The origin and physiopathological relevance of catalytic Abs is not well understood, owing to the fact that catalytic Abs have been studied in relatively small cohorts of patients with rare diseases and/or without systematic follow-up. In the current study, we have followed the evolution of the levels of catalytic IgG in a large cohort of renal transplant patients over a 2-y period. Our results demonstrate that, prior to transplant, patients with renal failure present with heterogeneous levels of IgG hydrolyzing the generic proline-phenylalanine-arginine-methylcoumarinamide (PFR-MCA) substrate. PFR-MCA hydrolysis was greater for patients' IgG than for a therapeutic preparation of pooled IgG from healthy donors. Renal transplant was marked by a drastic decrease in levels of catalytic IgG over 3 mo followed by a steady increase during the next 21 mo. Patients who displayed high levels of catalytic IgG pretransplant recovered high levels of catalytic Abs 2 y posttransplant. Interestingly, IgG-mediated hydrolysis of a model protein substrate, procoagulant factor VIII, did not correlate with that of PFR-MCA prior transplantation, whereas it did 12 mo posttransplant. Taken together, our results suggest that the level of circulating catalytic IgG under pathological conditions is an intrinsic property of each individual's immune system and that recovery of pretransplant levels of catalytic IgG is accompanied by changes in the repertoire of target Ags. PMID:27067006

  7. Calorie intake and patient outcomes in severe acute kidney injury: findings from The Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level of Replacement Therapy (RENAL) study trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Current practice in the delivery of caloric intake (DCI) in patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) is unknown. We aimed to describe calorie administration in patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level of Replacement Therapy (RENAL) study and to assess the association between DCI and clinical outcomes. Methods We performed a secondary analysis in 1456 patients from the RENAL trial. We measured the dose and evolution of DCI during treatment and analyzed its association with major clinical outcomes using multivariable logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards models, and time adjusted models. Results Overall, mean DCI during treatment in ICU was low at only 10.9 ± 9 Kcal/kg/day for non-survivors and 11 ± 9 Kcal/kg/day for survivors. Among patients with a lower DCI (below the median) 334 of 729 (45.8%) had died at 90-days after randomization compared with 316 of 727 (43.3%) patients with a higher DCI (above the median) (P = 0.34). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, mean DCI carried an odds ratio of 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-1.00; P = 0.06) per 100 Kcal increase for 90-day mortality. DCI was not associated with significant differences in renal replacement (RRT) free days, mechanical ventilation free days, ICU free days and hospital free days. These findings remained essentially unaltered after time adjusted analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling. Conclusions In the RENAL study, mean DCI was low. Within the limits of such low caloric intake, greater DCI was not associated with improved clinical outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00221013 PMID:24629036

  8. A molecular dynamics study of dielectric friction

    SciTech Connect

    Kurnikova, M.G.; Waldeck, D.H.; Coalson, R.D.

    1996-07-01

    A molecular dynamics study of the friction experienced by the dye molecule resorufamine rotating in a polar solvent is performed. The validity of simple continuum theories of dielectric friction is tested. It is found that the Alavi{endash}Waldeck theory gives reasonable results for the zero frequency dielectric friction coefficient while the Nee{endash}Zwanzig theory requires an unphysically small cavity radius. A procedure for evaluating the time dependent friction kernel from torques and angular velocities, which enables the contributions to the friction from the van der Waals and Coulomb forces to be evaluated separately, is suggested. This study of a realistic system shows that electrostatic interactions can enhance friction by at least two physical mechanisms. First is a contribution to the friction which arises solely from retardation of the solvent reaction field. Second is a contribution arising from local structural changes of the solvent which are driven by the electrostatic field, i.e., a change in the local viscosity. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Molecular dynamics studies on nanoscale gas transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barisik, Murat

    Three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanoscale gas flows are studied to reveal surface effects. A smart wall model that drastically reduces the memory requirements of MD simulations for gas flows is introduced. The smart wall molecular dynamics (SWMD) represents three-dimensional FCC walls using only 74 wall Molecules. This structure is kept in the memory and utilized for each gas molecule surface collision. Using SWMD, fluid behavior within nano-scale confinements is studied for argon in dilute gas, dense gas, and liquid states. Equilibrium MD method is employed to resolve the density and stress variations within the static fluid. Normal stress calculations are based on the Irving-Kirkwood method, which divides the stress tensor into its kinetic and virial parts. The kinetic component recovers pressure based on the ideal gas law. The particle-particle virial increases with increased density, while the surface-particle virial develops due to the surface force field effects. Normal stresses within nano-scale confinements show anisotropy induced primarily by the surface force-field and local variations in the fluid density near the surfaces. For dilute and dense gas cases, surface-force field that extends typically 1nm from each wall induces anisotropic normal stress. For liquid case, this effect is further amplified by the density fluctuations that extend beyond the three field penetration region. Outside the wall force-field penetration and density fluctuation regions the normal stress becomes isotropic and recovers the thermodynamic pressure, provided that sufficiently large force cut-off distances are utilized in the computations. Next, non-equilibrium SWMD is utilized to investigate the surface-gas interaction effects on nanoscale shear-driven gas flows in the transition and free molecular flow regimes. For the specified surface properties and gas-surface pair interactions, density and stress profiles exhibit a universal behavior inside the wall force penetration region at different flow conditions. Shear stress results are utilized to calculate the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC) between argon gas and FCC walls. The TMAC value is shown to he independent of the now properties and Knudsen number in all simulations. Velocity profiles show distinct deviations from the kinetic theory based solutions inside the wall force penetration depth, while they match the linearized Boltzmann equation solution outside these zones. Afterwards, surface effects are studied as a function of the surface-gas potential strength ratio (epsilon wf/epsilonff) for the shear driven argon gas flows in the early transition and tree molecular flow regimes. Results show that increased epsilonwf/epsilon ff results in increased gas density, leading towards monolayer adsorption on surfaces. The near wall velocity profile shows reduced gas slip, and eventually velocity stick with increased epsilonwf/epsilon ff. Similarly, using MD predicted shear stress values and kinetic theory, TMAC are calculated as a function of epsilonwf/epsilon ff and TMAC values are shown to be independent of the Knudsen number. Results indicate emergence of the wall force field penetration depth as an additional length scale for gas flows in nano-channels, breaking the dynamic similarity between rarefied and nano-scale gas flows solely based on the Knudsen and Mach numbers.

  10. Renal Mitochondrial Lipid Peroxidation during Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, P; Parajuli, N; Mayeux, PR; MacMillan-Crow, LA

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis can provoke kidney injury, which increases mortality. Human and animal studies have documented increased renal oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage during sepsis. However, few studies have attempted to dissect specific renal targets and/or types of oxidative injury using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) murine model of sepsis. The purpose of this short communication is to examine the extent of lipid peroxidation within renal mitochondria using CLP and blue native gel electrophoresis which separates intact mitochondrial respiratory complexes. Our results show that CLP induced increased 4-hydroxy-nonenal protein adduction (marker of lipid peroxidation) in renal homogenates and mitochondrial fractions. Blue native gel electrophoresis revealed that respiratory complex III was selectively targeted within mitochondrial fractions. This supports our prior report showing renal complex III inactivation following CLP. Future studies will identify specific renal proteins within complex III that are modified during sepsis to provide mechanistic insight on how mitochondrial respiration is inhibited during sepsis. PMID:27104220

  11. Molecular dynamics studies of nanofluidics and nanomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Ho

    Developing a membrane that can successfully filter molecules such as hydrocarbons, oxygen, and carbon dioxide from gaseous mixtures is an important issue for the environmental and economic industries. This potential selectivity can be predicted from atomistic simulations of the diffusion and adsorption of gases into and within carbon nanotubes. The computational nanofluidics of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and carbon dioxide have been studied with molecular dynamics simulations in the work reported here. The interactions in the system are modeled by a classical reactive empirical bond-order potential coupled to Lennard-Jones and Coulombic potentials. The transport of gas molecules for long time periods is characterized by initial non-equilibrium states followed by equilibrium states. The non-equilibrium state is induced by the diffusive motion of gas molecules from one end of the nanotubes into the vacuum or low-pressure region at the other end of the nanotubes, and lasts until the gases are evenly distributed in the nanotubes. During the non-equilibrium state, the gas molecules move back and forth through the nanotubes. It is found that this behavior, the time needed for the attainment of equilibrium, and the molecular motions at the openings of the nanotubes are affected by the density (or pressure) of gas molecules both inside and outside of the carbon nanotubes. When the gas molecules reach the end of the nanotubes, the attractive force between the tube end and the gas molecules prevents the molecules from exiting. The mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes have extended the potential applications of nanoelectromechanical systems (HEMS) such as nano-switches, nanosensors, nano-actuators, and nano-tweezers. In this study, the bending motion from externally incident Ar atom impacts on nanotubes with one firmly-fixed end is examined with classical molecular dynamics simulations. The deformation of the carbon nanotubes in the direction perpendicular to their axis is analyzed according to the relation between the amount of impact on the nanotubes and the strain on the molecular bonds. The mechanical response and recovery of the nanotubes after release are compared for various nanotube configurations, including single- and multi-walled nanotubes.

  12. Renal opiate receptor mediation of renin secretion to renal nerve stimulation in the dog.

    PubMed

    Koyama, S; Hosomi, H

    1986-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate renal opiate receptor mediation of the renin secretion response to electrical stimulation of the renal nerves in the pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized dog by use of the opiate agonist leucine-enkephalin (Leu-enk) and the opiate antagonist naloxone. In all animals studied, left kidneys were pump perfused at a constant renal blood flow. Renal perfusion pressure (RPP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were unaltered at a stimulation frequency of 1.0 Hz; however, renin secretion rate (RSR) increased significantly in the nontreated group. High-frequency renal nerve stimulation (10 Hz) increased RPP and decreased GFR. RSR at the high-frequency stimulation was significantly augmented in the nontreated group. Renal arterial infusion of either Leu-enk (25 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) or naloxone (7 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) did not alter base-line levels of renal hemodynamics and RSR and did not produce significant changes in these variables even when renal nerves were stimulated at the low frequency; however, Leu-enk inhibited RPP and RSR responses to the high-frequency stimulation, and naloxone augmented these responses. Phentolamine (13 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) prevented renal hemodynamic responses to the renal nerve stimulation, whereas RSR responses to the stimulation were unaffected. Propranolol (8 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) resulted in decreases in RSR at the renal nerve stimulation despite the presence of changes in renal hemodynamics similar to the other groups. The results indicate that intrarenal opiate receptors may participate in inhibiting renal secretion of renin mediated by the renal nerves when renal vasoconstriction and reduction of GFR occurred at the high-frequency stimulation. PMID:3013030

  13. Plantar Fascia Thickness is Longitudinally Associated with Retinopathy and Renal Dysfunction: A Prospective Study from Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Benitez-Aguirre, Paul Z.; Craig, Maria E.; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Gallego, Patricia H.; Cusumano, Janine; Duffin, Anthony C.; Hing, Stephen; Donaghue, Kim C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim was to study the longitudinal relationship between plantar fascia thickness (PFT) as a measure of tissue glycation and microvascular (MV) complications in young persons with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Methods We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 152 (69 male) adolescents with T1DM who underwent repeated MV complications assessments and ultrasound measurements of PFT from baseline (1997–2002) until 2008. Retinopathy was assessed by 7-field stereoscopic fundal photography and nephropathy by albumin excretion rate (AER) from three timed overnight urine specimens. Longitudinal analysis was performed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results Median (interquartile range) age at baseline was 15.1 (13.4–16.8) years, and median follow-up was 8.3 (7.0–9.5) years, with 4 (3–6) visits per patient. Glycemic control improved from baseline to final visit [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.5% to 8.0%, respectively; p = .004]. Prevalence of retinopathy increased from 20% to 51% (p < .001) and early elevation of AER (>7.5 µg/min) increased from 26% to 29% (p = .2). A greater increase in PFT (mm/year) was associated with retinopathy at the final assessment (ΔPFT 1st vs. 2nd–4th quartiles, χ2 = 9.87, p = .02). In multivariate GEE, greater PFT was longitudinally associated with retinopathy [odds ratio (OR) 4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–10.3] and early renal dysfunction (OR 3.2, CI 1.3–8.0) after adjusting for gender, blood pressure standard deviation scores, HbA1c, and total cholesterol. Conclusions In young people with T1DM, PFT was longitudinally associated with retinopathy and early renal dysfunction, highlighting the importance of early glycemic control and supporting the role of metabolic memory in MV complications. Measurement of PFT by ultrasound offers a noninvasive estimate of glycemic burden and tissue glycation. PMID:22538146

  14. Serum urate gene associations with incident gout, measured in the Framingham Heart Study, are modified by renal disease and not by body mass index.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Richard J; Vazquez, Ana I; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Klimentidis, Yann C; Bridges, S Louis; Allison, David B; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that serum urate-associated SNPs, individually or collectively, interact with BMI and renal disease to contribute to risk of incident gout. We measured the incidence of gout and associated comorbidities using the original and offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study. We used direct and imputed genotypes for eight validated serum urate loci. We fit binomial regression models of gout incidence as a function of the covariates, age, type 2 diabetes, sex, and all main and interaction effects of the eight serum urate SNPs with BMI and renal disease. Models were also fit with a genetic risk score for serum urate levels which corresponds to the sum of risk alleles at the eight SNPs. Model covariates, age (P = 5.95E-06), sex (P = 2.46E-39), diabetes (P = 2.34E-07), BMI (P = 1.14E-11) and the SNPs, rs1967017 (P = 9.54E-03), rs13129697 (P = 4.34E-07), rs2199936 (P = 7.28E-03) and rs675209 (P = 4.84E-02) were all associated with incident gout. No BMI by SNP or BMI by serum urate genetic risk score interactions were statistically significant, but renal disease by rs1106766 was statistically significant (P = 6.12E-03). We demonstrated that minor alleles of rs1106766 (intergenic, INHBC) were negatively associated with the risk of incident gout in subjects without renal disease, but not for individuals with renal disease. These analyses demonstrate that a significant component of the risk of gout may involve complex interplay between genes and environment. PMID:26427508

  15. Comparative Studies of the Proteome, Glycoproteome, and N-Glycome of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Plasma before and after Curative Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most prevalent of all reported kidney cancer cases, and currently there are no markers for early diagnosis. This has stimulated great research interest recently because early detection of the disease can significantly improve the low survival rate. Combining the proteome, glycoproteome, and N-glycome data from clear cell renal cell carcinoma plasma has the potential of identifying candidate markers for early diagnosis and prognosis and/or to monitor disease recurrence. Here, we report on the utilization of a multi-dimensional fractionation approach (12P-M-LAC) and LC–MS/MS to comprehensively investigate clear cell renal cell carcinoma plasma collected before (disease) and after (non-disease) curative nephrectomy (n = 40). Proteins detected in the subproteomes were investigated via label-free quantification. Protein abundance analysis revealed a number of low-level proteins with significant differential expression levels in disease samples, including HSPG2, CD146, ECM1, SELL, SYNE1, and VCAM1. Importantly, we observed a strong correlation between differentially expressed proteins and clinical status of the patient. Investigation of the glycoproteome returned 13 candidate glycoproteins with significant differential M-LAC column binding. Qualitative analysis indicated that 62% of selected candidate glycoproteins showed higher levels (upregulation) in M-LAC bound fraction of disease samples. This observation was further confirmed by released N-glycans data in which 53% of identified N-glycans were present at different levels in plasma in the disease vs non-disease samples. This striking result demonstrates the potential for significant protein glycosylation alterations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma cancer plasma. With future validation in a larger cohort, information derived from this study may lead to the development of clear cell renal cell carcinoma candidate biomarkers. PMID:25184692

  16. Relationship of dietary phosphate intake with risk of end-stage renal disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5: The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Selamet, Umut; Tighiouart, Hocine; Sarnak, Mark J; Beck, Gerald; Levey, Andrew S; Block, Geoffrey; Ix, Joachim H

    2016-01-01

    KDIGO guidelines recommend dietary phosphate restriction to lower serum phosphate levels in CKD stages 3-5. Recent studies suggest that dietary phosphate intake is only weakly linked to its serum concentration, and the relationship of phosphate intake with adverse outcomes is uncertain. To evaluate this, we used Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations of baseline 24-h urine phosphate excretion with risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), all-cause mortality, and mortality subtypes (cardiovascular disease [CVD] and non-CVD) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease data. Models were adjusted for demographics, CVD risk factors, iothalamate GFR, and urine protein and nitrogen excretion. Phosphate excretion was modestly inversely correlated with serum phosphate concentrations. There was no association of 24-h urinary phosphate excretion with risk of ESRD, CVD, non-CVD, or all-cause mortality. For comparison, higher serum phosphate concentrations were associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per 0.7 mg/dl higher, 1.15 [95% CI 1.01, 1.30]). Thus, phosphate intake is not tightly linked with serum phosphate concentrations in CKD stages 3-5, and there was no evidence that greater phosphate intake, assessed by 24-h phosphate excretion, is associated with ESRD, CVD, non-CVD, or all-cause mortality in CKD stages 3-5. Hence, factors other than dietary intake may be key determinants of serum phosphate concentrations and require additional investigation. PMID:26422502

  17. Sample Preheating Capability for Dynamic Material Studies*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, J.; Dalton, D.; Hickman, R.; Kaufman, M.; Leffler, S.; Jones, M.; Lynch, J.; Bowers, A.

    2013-06-01

    Coordinated analysis, design, software development, hardware fabrication, and testing activities have yielded a new control system and experimental load design for dynamic material studies on specimens heated to temperatures exceeding 650°C prior to high-rate compression on a pulsed-power (e.g., Z machine) or gun platform. A proportional integral derivative controller supplies power for up to 16 resistive cartridge heaters mounted in a load assembly containing one or more test samples. The electrical output from this LabVIEW-based controller to each heater is continuously adjusted using feedback from thermocouples embedded in the load and in each heater. Experiments confirm steady temperature regulation to within +/-2°C of the selected set point, as well as adequate surge protection from built-in electromagnetic pulse isolation circuitry. ANSYS thermomechanical simulations have guided the refinement of load design to minimize sample temperature gradients and thermal distortion. Improved thin-film coatings for the sample/window interface are being developed to ensure the viability of velocity interferometry measurements on preheated samples. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000;

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies of DNA dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Scalettar, B.A.

    1987-04-01

    Random solvent induced motions of DNA are manifest as nanosecond torsional oscillations of the helix backbone, nanosecond through millisecond bending deformations and overall rotational and translational diffusion of the polymer. Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to study this spectrum of DNA motions while ethidium monoazide was covalently bounded. The steady state fluorescence depolarization data indicate that the covalent monoazide/DNA complex exhibits internal motions characterized by an average angular amplitude of 26 degrees confirming reports of fast torsional oscillations in noncovalent ethidium bromide/DNA systems. Data obtained by use of a new polarized photobleaching recovery technique (FPR) reflect both the rotational dynamics of the polymer and the reversible photochemistry of the dye. To isolate the reorientational motion of the DNA, the FPR experiments were ran in two modes that differ only in the polarization of the bleaching light. A quotient function constructed from the data obtained in these two modes monitors only the rotational component of the FPR recovery. In specific applications those bending deformations of long DNA molecules that have characteristic relaxation times on the order of 100 microseconds have been resolved. A fluorescence correlation technique that relates fluctuations in particle number to center-of-mass motion was used to measure translational diffusion on coefficients of the plasmid PBR322 and a short oligomeric DNA. A theory that describes angular correlation in systems exhibiting cyclic, biologically directed reorientation and random Brownian rotation is developed.

  19. Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk; Johansson, Anders; Al-Abideen, Habib Zein

    2007-04-01

    Many observations of the dynamics of pedestrian crowds, including various self-organization phenomena, have been successfully described by simple many-particle models. For ethical reasons, however, there is a serious lack of experimental data regarding crowd panic. Therefore, we have analyzed video recordings of the crowd disaster in Mina/Makkah during the Hajj in 1426H on 12 January 2006. They reveal two subsequent, sudden transitions from laminar to stop-and-go and “turbulent” flows, which question many previous simulation models. While the transition from laminar to stop-and-go flows supports a recent model of bottleneck flows [D. Helbing , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168001 (2006)], the subsequent transition to turbulent flow is not yet well understood. It is responsible for sudden eruptions of pressure release comparable to earthquakes, which cause sudden displacements and the falling and trampling of people. The insights of this study into the reasons for critical crowd conditions are important for the organization of safer mass events. In particular, they allow one to understand where and when crowd accidents tend to occur. They have also led to organizational changes, which have ensured a safe Hajj in 1427H.

  20. Looking skyward to study ecosystem carbon dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dye, Dennis G.

    2012-01-01

    Between May and October 2011 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, conducted a field campaign at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in north central Oklahoma to evaluate a new instrument for quantitative image-based monitoring of sky conditions and solar radiation. The High Dynamic Range All-Sky Imaging System (HDR-ASIS) was developed by USGS to support studies of cloud- and aerosol-induced variability in the geometric properties of solar radiation (the sky radiance distribution) and its effects on photosynthesis and uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by terrestrial ecosystems. Under a clean, cloudless atmosphere when the Sun is above the horizon, most of the solar radiation reaching an area of the Earth's surface is concentrated in a beam coming directly from the Sun; a relatively small proportion arrives as diffuse radiation from the rest of the sky. Clouds and atmospheric aerosols cause increased scattering of the beam radiation, which increases the proportion of diffuse radiation at the surface.

  1. Renal Clearance of Mineral Metabolism Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Rhee, Eugene P; Elmariah, Sammy; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    CKD leads to disturbances in multiple interrelated hormones that regulate bone and mineral metabolism. The renal handling of mineral metabolism hormones in humans is incompletely understood. We determined the single-pass renal clearance of parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, vitamin D metabolites, and phosphate from paired blood samples collected from the abdominal aorta and renal vein in 17 participants undergoing simultaneous right and left heart catheterization and estimated associations of eGFR with the renal elimination of metabolites. The mean age ±SD of the study population was 71.4±10.0 years and 11 participants (65%) were male. We found a relatively large mean±SD single-pass renal extraction of parathyroid hormone (44.2%±10.3%) that exceeded the extraction of creatinine (22.1%±7.9%). The proportionate renal extraction of parathyroid hormone correlated with eGFR. The renal extraction of fibroblast growth factor 23 was, on average, lower than that of parathyroid hormone with greater variability across individuals (17.1%±19.5%). There were no differences in the mean concentrations of vitamin D metabolites across the renal vein and artery. In summary, we demonstrate substantial single-pass renal extraction of parathyroid hormone at a rate that exceeds glomerular filtration. Impaired renal clearance of parathyroid hormone may contribute to secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD. PMID:26047790

  2. Focus on renal congestion in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure. PMID:26798459

  3. STUDIES ON EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTENSION : IX. THE EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE OF CONSTRICTION OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA ABOVE AND BELOW THE SITE OF ORIGIN OF BOTH MAIN RENAL ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, H; Kahn, J R; Hanzal, R F

    1939-04-30

    Constriction of the aorta just above the origin of both main renal arteries invariably resulted in elevation of the carotid systolic and carotid mean pressure. The hypertension was not immediate, but developed in about the same time as after constriction of the main renal arteries (3). Constriction of the aorta just below the origin of both main renal arteries had no significant effect on the carotid systolic or carotid mean pressure. Since these results were first reported (1), Rytand (88, 89) has shown by an indirect method, namely, the demonstration of the development of cardiac hypertrophy, that hypertension in the upper part of the body can be produced in the rat by constriction of the aorta just above the origin of both main renal arteries. The immediate effect of constriction of the aorta either below or above the main renal arteries is a fall of blood pressure (femoral mean pressure) below the site of the clamp, the extent of the fall being directly dependent upon the degree of constriction of the aorta. Of particular interest is the eventual elevation of the femoral mean pressure above the normal in some animals with the aorta constricted or even occluded above the origin of the main renal arteries. This was most pronounced and persistent in those animals in which, in addition, the aorta below the origin of the renal arteries, and, in some animals, the main renal arteries, also were constricted. The most important factors which determined this elevation of blood pressure in the lower part of the body were probably increased flow of blood into the vascular bed below the clamp and peripheral vasoconstriction of renal and humoral origin, as in the case of the hypertension produced by constriction of the main renal arteries alone (2-86). Although elevation of the carotid systolic or carotid mean pressure occurred invariably within 24 to 48 hours after the constriction of the aorta above the site of origin of both main renal arteries, yet there was a tendency, after a variable period, for the elevated blood pressure to become lower or even to drop to the original level. Increased constriction, and finally occlusion of the aorta, above the origin of the main renal arteries, and even constriction or occlusion of the aorta below the renal arteries, in addition, failed to induce hypertension that persisted for a long time at a high level. In order to produce this effect, it was necessary to constrict the main renal arteries as well. The possible explanation of the failure of the hypertension to persist for a long time after constriction of the aorta alone, is that the initial ischemia of the kidneys disappeared due to the improvement of the blood flow through the kidneys as a result of (a) the increase of the natural accessory circulation to the kidneys; (b) the increased blood pressure above the site of the clamp and consequent increased flow of blood into the part of the aorta below the clamp; (c) increased pressure below the site of the clamp due, in great part, to peripheral vasoconstriction, and in part to the increased inflow of blood into the lower part of the body through the aorta and collateral channels. For the dog, this method is not necessary for the production of persistent hypertension. Constriction of the main renal arteries is easily performed and is effective for the production of generalized hypertension (2-11). However, constriction of the aorta in addition to constriction of the renal arteries results in greatly elevated persistent hypertension. Constriction of the aorta alone above the origin of the main renal arteries would be useful in the dog only for the production of relatively short periods of hypertension in the upper part of the body. For small animals it may be a more effective and useful method. In the dog, the only technical difficulty encountered was the erosion of the wall of the aorta by the clamp. This may not occur in small animals. In previous studies (2-11) that have dealt with the constriction of the main renal arteries, this accident rarely occurred. When the constriction of the aorta above the origin of the main renal arteries was of moderate degree, or was gradually made very great, the resultant hypertension was not accompanied by impairment of renal excretory function, as determined by urea clearance or by the quantity of urea, creatinine or non-protein nitrogen in the blood, the benign phase of hypertension (3). When the constriction of the aorta was suddenly made very great, impairment of the renal excretory function usually followed, and the animal developed fatal convulsive uremia and characteristic vascular lesions, the malignant phase of hypertension (9). These facts, are all indicative of the renal origin of the hypertension which results from the constriction of the aorta just above the origin of both main renal arteries. Hypertension did not persist for a sufficiently long time to permit any conclusive comparison between the effect of the high and low pressures on the structure of the vascular system, above and below the site of the clamp, respectively. During the period of survival of these animals, no significant differences were observed between the appearance of the vascular system of the upper part of the body and that of the lower part of the body, and significant cardiac hypertrophy did not develop. In the aorta and large arteries, intimal arteriosclerosis was not observed. In the aorta of one old animal several small plaques of calcification were found in the media, but these were present in the portion of the aorta below, as well as above the clamp, and they were no larger or more abundant than were observed in some old dogs with normal blood pressure. Dogs 3-50 and 3-83, that are still alive, with very high blood pressure above the site of the aortic clamps, and relatively low pressure (though greater than normal) below the site of the aortic clamps, will be valuable for the determination of possible differences between the effects of the two levels of blood pressure in the large and small blood vessels. In these dogs also, it will be possible to determine the effect of the persistently high blood pressure on the myocardium. The possible application of the results of this study to the problem of the pathogenesis of human eclampsia is mentioned here for consideration. Since this condition occurs in pregnancy only at a time when the uterus is greatly enlarged, it is at least possible that the mass may press on the aorta or both main renal arteries sufficiently to produce renal ischemia. The suddenness with which the uremic convulsive phase of eclampsia develops is in keeping with this idea. In the dog, an aggravating effect of pregnancy on an already established hypertension has not been noted. As a matter of fact, most of the hypertensive dogs that have become pregnant, have shown a slight or moderate fall, rather than an increased rise of pressure. Since the dog stands with the body in a horizontal position, and does not lie on its back, pressure of the pregnant uterus on the aorta and blood vessels is less than in human beings who stand erect and frequently lie on their backs. The soundness of this suggestion could be tested by placing pregnant women, in the early stage of eclampsia, in a position which could relieve possible pressure on the aorta and main renal arteries. A possible explanation of the fall of pressure in the pregnant hypertensive dogs is the compensatory effect of the normal kidneys of the pups, as in the case of an animal with one main renal artery constricted and the other kidney normal. As has been shown (3, 31, 72), the presence of one normal kidney in an animal hypertensive due to constriction of the other main renal artery, results, after a variable period, in a return of the blood pressure to normal. How the normal kidney acts to produce this effect is not known. PMID:19870869

  4. Renal Anomalies Associated with Ectopic Neurohypophysis

    PubMed Central

    Özen, Samim; Şişmek, Damla Gökşen; Önder, Asan; Darcan, Şükran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although the etiology of ectopic neurohypophysis that leads to pituitary hormone deficiencies is not yet clearly understood, birth trauma or genetic factors have been considered responsible. Concurrent cranial and extracranial congenital anomalies have been reported in such cases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of renal anomalies in nonsyndromic cases with ectopic neurohypophysis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 20 patients with ectopic neurohypophysis who were followed up between January 1990 and December 2007 in a tertiary University Hospital. Results: Renal anomalies were identified in three (15%) cases including unilateral renal agenesis in one case, renal hypoplasia in one case, and double collecting system and unilateral renal agenesis in one case. Conclusions: In the present study, the increased frequency of renal anomalies in cases of ectopic neurohypophysis was highlighted, and it was emphasized that there might be common genetic factors that lead to such associations. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750632

  5. Copeptin is associated with kidney length, renal function, and prevalence of simple cysts in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Guessous, Idris; Ehret, Georg; Alwan, Heba; Youhanna, Sonia; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Pchre-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Devuyst, Olivier; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has a key role in osmoregulation by facilitating water transport in the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that AVP may have additional effects on renal function and favor cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Whether AVP also affects kidney structure in the general population is unknown. We analyzed the association of copeptin, an established surrogate for AVP, with parameters of renal function and morphology in a multicentric population-based cohort. Participants from families of European ancestry were randomly selected in three Swiss cities. We used linear multilevel regression analysis to explore the association of copeptin with renal function parameters as well as kidney length and the presence of simple renal cysts assessed by ultrasound examination. Copeptin levels were log-transformed. The 529 women and 481 men had median copeptin levels of 3.0 and 5.2 pmol/L, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, the copeptin level was associated inversely with eGFR (?=-2.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -3.3 to -0.8; P=0.002) and kidney length (?=-1.2; 95% CI, -1.9 to -0.4; P=0.003) but positively with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (?=0.11; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.20; P=0.03) and urine osmolality (?=0.08; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.10; P<0.001). A positive association was found between the copeptin level and the presence of renal cysts (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.4; P=0.02). These results suggest that AVP has a pleiotropic role in renal function and may favor the development of simple renal cysts. PMID:25270071

  6. Renal Clearance of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak Soo; Liu, Wenhao; Misra, Preeti; Tanaka, Eiichi; Zimmer, John P.; Ipe, Binil Itty; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Frangioni, John V.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The field of nanotechnology holds great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. However, the size and charge of most nanoparticles preclude their efficient clearance from the body as intact nanoparticles. Without such clearance or their biodegradation into biologically benign components, toxicity is potentially amplified and radiological imaging is hindered. Using quantum dots (QDs) as a model system, we have precisely defined the requirements for renal filtration and urinary excretion of inorganic, metal-containing nanoparticles. Zwitterionic or neutral organic coatings prevented adsorption of serum proteins, which otherwise increased hydrodynamic diameter (HD) by over 15 nm and prevented renal excretion. A final HD smaller than 5.5 nm resulted in rapid and efficient urinary excretion, and elimination of QDs from the body. This study provides a foundation for the design and development of biologically targeted nanoparticles for biomedical applications. PMID:17891134

  7. The study of streak camera dynamic distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bo; Li, Jing; Chen, Tao; Hu, Xin; Liu, Shenye

    2012-10-01

    Dynamic distortion, which is caused by space-charge effect, widely exists in streak camera. When input light intensity becomes too large, the electric field caused by electric beam turns out analogous to that caused by image converter tube, which leads to the dynamic distortion. In this article, we analyze the theory of the dynamic distortion by experiments and simulations upon CST Particle Studio software. Results show that: the intensity of current and the space position along the photocathode shall affect the dynamic distortion, leading to defocusing effect and reduce both the spatial resolution and the temporal resolution. All above assist us to better understand the electric-optic system of image converter tube, and provide ideas for further experimental diagnose design.

  8. Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Thermal transpiration: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    T, Joe Francis; Sathian, Sarith P.

    2014-12-09

    Thermal transpiration is a phenomenon where fluid molecules move from the cold end towards the hot end of a channel under the influence of longitudinal temperature gradient alone. Although the phenomenon of thermal transpiration is observed at rarefied gas conditions in macro systems, the phenomenon can occur at atmospheric pressure if the characteristic dimensions of the channel is less than 100 nm. The flow through these nanosized channels is characterized by the free molecular flow regimes and continuum theory is inadequate to describe the flow. Thus a non-continuum method like molecular dynamics (MD) is necessary to study such phenomenon. In the present work, MD simulations were carried out to investigate the occurance of thermal transpiration in copper and platinum nanochannels at atmospheric pressure conditions. The mean pressure of argon gas confined inside the nano channels was maintained around 1 bar. The channel height is maintained at 2nm. The argon atoms interact with each other and with the wall atoms through the Lennard-Jones potential. The wall atoms are modelled using an EAM potential. Further, separate simulations were carried out where a Harmonic potential is used for the atom-atom interaction in the platinum channel. A thermally insulating wall was introduced between the low and high temperature regions and those wall atoms interact with fluid atoms through a repulsive potential. A reduced cut off radius were used to achieve this. Thermal creep is induced by applying a temperature gradient along the channel wall. It was found that flow developed in the direction of the increasing temperature gradient of the wall. An increase in the volumetric flux was observed as the length of the cold and the hot regions of the wall were increased. The effect of temperature gradient and the wall-fluid interaction strength on the flow parameters have been studied to understand the phenomenon better.

  10. Thermal transpiration: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T, Joe Francis; Sathian, Sarith P.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal transpiration is a phenomenon where fluid molecules move from the cold end towards the hot end of a channel under the influence of longitudinal temperature gradient alone. Although the phenomenon of thermal transpiration is observed at rarefied gas conditions in macro systems, the phenomenon can occur at atmospheric pressure if the characteristic dimensions of the channel is less than 100 nm. The flow through these nanosized channels is characterized by the free molecular flow regimes and continuum theory is inadequate to describe the flow. Thus a non-continuum method like molecular dynamics (MD) is necessary to study such phenomenon. In the present work, MD simulations were carried out to investigate the occurance of thermal transpiration in copper and platinum nanochannels at atmospheric pressure conditions. The mean pressure of argon gas confined inside the nano channels was maintained around 1 bar. The channel height is maintained at 2nm. The argon atoms interact with each other and with the wall atoms through the Lennard-Jones potential. The wall atoms are modelled using an EAM potential. Further, separate simulations were carried out where a Harmonic potential is used for the atom-atom interaction in the platinum channel. A thermally insulating wall was introduced between the low and high temperature regions and those wall atoms interact with fluid atoms through a repulsive potential. A reduced cut off radius were used to achieve this. Thermal creep is induced by applying a temperature gradient along the channel wall. It was found that flow developed in the direction of the increasing temperature gradient of the wall. An increase in the volumetric flux was observed as the length of the cold and the hot regions of the wall were increased. The effect of temperature gradient and the wall-fluid interaction strength on the flow parameters have been studied to understand the phenomenon better.

  11. Study of the structure and dynamics of complex biological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Areejit

    2008-12-01

    In this thesis, we have studied the large scale structure and system level dynamics of certain biological networks using tools from graph theory, computational biology and dynamical systems. We study the structure and dynamics of large scale metabolic networks inside three organisms, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Staphylococcus aureus. We also study the dynamics of the large scale genetic network controlling E. coli metabolism. We have tried to explain the observed system level dynamical properties of these networks in terms of their underlying structure. Our studies of the system level dynamics of these large scale biological networks provide a different perspective on their functioning compared to that obtained from purely structural studies. Our study also leads to some new insights on features such as robustness, fragility and modularity of these large scale biological networks. We also shed light on how different networks inside the cell such as metabolic networks and genetic networks are interrelated to each other.

  12. Studies on the dynamics of DNA melting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, W.

    1992-01-01

    In this study the self-consistent phonon theory is applied to the understanding of DNA melting from a microscopic point of view. Studies of the dynamics of hydrogen bond motion for a model of replicating fork at room temperature are given. The anharmonic effect increases the hydrogen bond fluctuation by more than a factor of 2 over the harmonic result in some frequency regions. The frequency dependence of the h-bond motion suggests spectral features that could be regarded as a signature for the existence of forks in DNA samples. The effect of an open loop of various sizes on the thermal stability of the adjoining intact base pairs in a duplex DNA chain is studied. For a Y-shaped fork configuration the thermal fluctuation at the fork is so enhanced that the life time of the adjoining base pair is much smaller than the 1 millisecond time scale associated with helicase separation of a base pair. The analysis indicates the significance of thermal fluctuational base pair opening in facilitating the enzyme unwinding process during chain elongation of a replicating DNA. It is likely that the thermal fluctuational opening of the base pair at the junction of a replicating fork is fast enough so that a DNA unwinding enzyme can encounter an unstacked base pair with reasonable probability. The algorithm of calculating base pair opening probability is applied to a localized structure, the replicating fork. The addition of two hot phonons to some local modes can lead to the separation of the last closed base pair. The contribution of various vibrational modes to the melting of poly(dG)[center dot]poly(dC) is studied. The principal contribution comes from the H-bond breathing modes that have been observed in Raman scattering and that have been associated with helix melting. The softening of these modes on approach to melting is in agreement with the observed behavior. The contribution to melting from base rotation modes that are important in melting is also discussed.

  13. Mediation analysis of aortic stiffness and renal microvascular function.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Todd; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gotal, John D; Torjesen, Alyssa A; Inker, Lesley A; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Levey, Andrew S; Mitchell, Gary F

    2015-05-01

    Aortic stiffening, assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, is associated with CKD. Transmission of excessive flow pulsatility into the low-impedance renal microvasculature may mediate this association. However, direct analyses of macrovascular-microvascular relations in the kidney are limited. Using arterial tonometry, iohexol clearance, and magnetic resonance imaging, we related arterial stiffness, GFR, urinary albumin excretion, and potential mediators, including renal artery pulsatility index, renal vascular resistance, and arterial volume in the cortex, in 367 older adults (ages 72-92 years) participating in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. In a model adjusted for age, sex, heart rate, and body size, aortic stiffness was related to GFR (Slope of regression B=-2.28±0.85 ml/min per SD, P=0.008) but not urine albumin (P=0.09). After accounting for pulsatility index, the relation between aortic stiffness and GFR was no longer significant (P=0.10). Mediation analysis showed that 34% of the relation between aortic stiffness and GFR was mediated by pulsatility index (95% confidence interval of indirect effect, -1.35 to -0.29). An additional 20% or 36% of the relation was mediated by lower arterial volume in the cortex or higher renal vascular resistance, respectively, when offered as mediators downstream from higher pulsatility index (95% confidence interval of indirect effect including arterial volume in the cortex, -2.22 to -0.40; 95% confidence interval of indirect effect including renal vascular resistance, -2.51 to -0.76). These analyses provide the first evidence that aortic stiffness may contribute to lower GFR by transferring excessive flow pulsatility into the susceptible renal microvasculature, leading to dynamic constriction or vessel loss. PMID:25294231

  14. Uranyl nitrate inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human and mouse renal proximal tubules: A {sup 13}C-NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Renault, Sophie; Faiz, Hassan; Gadet, Rudy; Ferrier, Bernard; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Conjard-Duplany, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study on uranium nephrotoxicity, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate in isolated human and mouse kidney cortex tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. In the millimolar range, uranyl nitrate reduced lactate removal and gluconeogenesis and the cellular ATP level in a dose-dependent fashion. After incubation in phosphate-free Krebs-Henseleit medium with 5 mM L-[1-{sup 13}C]-, or L-[2-{sup 13}C]-, or L-[3-{sup 13}C]lactate, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by enzymatic and NMR spectroscopic methods. In the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate, glucose production and the intracellular ATP content were significantly reduced in both human and mouse tubules. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism revealed an inhibition of fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase and the gluconeogenic enzymes in the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate; in human and mouse tubules, fluxes were lowered by 20% and 14% (lactate dehydrogenase), 27% and 32% (pyruvate carboxylase), 35% and 36% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 39% and 45% (glucose-6-phosphatase), respectively. These results indicate that natural uranium is an inhibitor of renal lactate gluconeogenesis in both humans and mice.

  15. Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, E.; Leder, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease.

  16. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  17. The Power of Renal Function Estimation Equations for Predicting Long-Term Kidney Graft Survival: A Retrospective Comparison of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Equations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoon Young; Joo, Dong Jin; Song, Mi Kyung; Kim, Myoung Soo; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Kim, Yu Seun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of renal function using an accurate estimation equation is important for predicting long-term graft survival. We designed this retrospective cohort study to evaluate the predictive power of renal function estimation by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equations for graft survival.We reviewed data of 3290 adult kidney transplant recipients who underwent transplantation at a single center between April 1979 and September 2012. The reliability and agreement of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as calculated by the CKD-EPI and MDRD equations were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots and Cohen weighted kappa analyses. The predictive power of CKD stages as classified by each equation for graft survival was investigated using Cox regression models. Additionally, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to reveal the relationship between graft survival and eGFR equations.Of 3290 kidney transplant recipients, 3040 were included in the analysis. The mean follow-up duration was 128.08 ± 83.54 months, and 29.8% of participants were reclassified to higher eGFR categories by the CKD-EPI equation compared to the category classification by the MDRD equation. eGFR calculated using the MDRD equation was underestimated compared to that calculated using the CKD-EPI equation, based on the Bland-Altman plot. In Cohen weighted kappa analysis, agreement across CKD stages classified using the 2 equations was reliable, but all CKD stages classified using the MDRD equation appeared to be in lower eGFR categories than those classified using the CKD-EPI equation. Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses indicated that the CKD stage as classified by the CKD-EPI equation, but not the MDRD equation, was significantly correlated with the risk of graft failure. In multivariable Cox regression analysis for graft failure after adjustment for CKD stage as determined using the MDRD equation, but not the CKD-EPI equation, stage reclassification was significantly associated with a lower graft failure risk.Our data from this long-term follow-up study indicate that the CKD-EPI equation has a stronger predictive power for kidney graft survival than does the MDRD equation in transplantation settings. PMID:26886606

  18. Milling dynamics. I - Attritor dynamics: Results of a cinematographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydin, R. W.; Maurice, D.; Courtney, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    The motions of grinding media and powder in an attritor canister were studied by means of filming the agitated charge and frame-by-frame scrutiny of the footage. In conjunction with auxiliary experiments, this permitted semiquantitative analysis of the milling action. In particular, the mill can be divided into several regions characterized by different balances between direct impacts and rolling/sliding of the grinding media. Simple calculations suggest that impacts are more capable of effecting mechanical alloying (MA) than are rolling or sliding events in an attritor. Powder circulation within an operating mill was also investigated. Based on the results and the accompanying analysis, concepts for improved attritor design are presented.

  19. Currently available useful immunohistochemical markers of renal pathology for the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Go; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-07-01

    Renal allograft dysfunction may be induced by various causes, including alloimmune rejection, viral infection, urinary tract obstruction, calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity and/or recurrent renal disease. In order to determine the underlying cause, a renal biopsy is performed and the renal transplant pathology is diagnosed using the internationally consensus Banff classification. Although a progressive understanding of allograft rejection has provided numerous immunohistochemical markers, only the C4d is regarded to be a sufficiently useful marker for antibody-mediated allograft rejection according to the Banff classification. This review summarizes currently available useful immunohistochemical markers of renal transplant pathology, including C4d, with diagnostic implications for human renal allograft rejection. In particular, we discuss immunohistochemical markers in the following three categories: immunohistochemical markers of renal pathology used to (i) analyze the mechanisms of alloimmune rejection, (ii) monitor cell injury and/or inflammation associated with rejection and (iii) identify renal components in order to improve the diagnosis of rejection. In addition, recent progress in the field of renal transplant pathology includes the development of a new method for assessing molecular pathology using OMICS analyses. As the recent findings of various studies in patients undergoing renal transplantation are very encouraging, novel immunohistochemical markers must be also developed and combined with new technologies for the diagnosis of human renal allograft rejection. PMID:26031579

  20. Renal mu opioid receptor mechanisms in regulation of renal function in rats.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, D R; Jones, S Y; DiBona, G F

    1991-07-01

    Studies were performed in pentobarbital anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats to determine whether mu opioid receptor agonists produce changes in renal function via intrarenal mechanisms. Left renal artery infusion of isotonic saline vehicle or the selective mu opioid receptor agonist, dermorphin (0.5 nmol/kg/min), did not alter mean arterial pressure or heart rate. In contrast, left renal artery dermorphin administration produced a significant decrease in left kidney urinary flow rate and sodium excretion without altering glomerular filtration rate or effective renal plasma flow; function of the right kidney was unaffected. Pretreatment of the left kidney with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, 50 micrograms/kg into left renal artery, prevented changes in urinary flow rate and sodium excretion induced by subsequent left renal artery dermorphin administration. Prior bilateral renal denervation abolished the antidiuretic and antinatriuretic responses to left renal artery dermorphin administration. These results suggest that mu opioid receptor agonists participate in the process of renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption via an intrarenal action that is dependent on an interaction with renal sympathetic nerves. This may occur via an action of mu opioid receptor agonists to facilitate the nerve terminal release and/or the direct tubular action of norepinephrine to affect renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption. PMID:1677034

  1. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Heart Rate Dynamics Is an Important Prognostic Factor in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chu, Fang-Ying; Lin, Yen-Hung; Wu, Cho-Kai; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Hwang, Juei-Jen; Lin, Jiunn-Lee; Chiang, Fu-Tien

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Patients with severe kidney function impairment often have autonomic dysfunction, which could be evaluated noninvasively by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Nonlinear HRV parameters such as detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has been demonstrated to be an important outcome predictor in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction measured by DFA is also a useful prognostic factor in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was designed to test the hypothesis. Materials and Methods Patients with ESRD receiving PD were included for the study. Twenty-four hour Holter monitor was obtained from each patient together with other important traditional prognostic makers such as underlying diseases, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and serum biochemistry profiles. Short-term (DFAα1) and long-term (DFAα2) DFA as well as other linear HRV parameters were calculated. Results A total of 132 patients (62 men, 72 women) with a mean age of 53.7±12.5 years were recruited from July 2007 to March 2009. During a median follow-up period of around 34 months, eight cardiac and six non-cardiac deaths were observed. Competing risk analysis demonstrated that decreased DFAα1 was a strong prognostic predictor for increased cardiac and total mortality. ROC analysis showed that the AUC of DFAα1 (<0.95) to predict mortality was 0.761 (95% confidence interval (CI). = 0.617–0.905). DFAα1≧ 0.95 was associated with lower cardiac mortality (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.062, 95% CI = 0.007–0.571, P = 0.014) and total mortality (HR = 0.109, 95% CI = 0.033–0.362, P = 0.0003). Conclusion Cardiac autonomic dysfunction evaluated by DFAα1 is an independent predictor for cardiac and total mortality in patients with ESRD receiving PD. PMID:26828209

  2. DHEA-induced modulation of renal gluconeogenesis, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile in the control- and dexamethasone-treated rabbits. Metabolic studies.

    PubMed

    Kiersztan, Anna; Nagalski, Andrzej; Nalepa, Paweł; Tempes, Aleksandra; Trojan, Nina; Usarek, Michał; Jagielski, Adam K

    2016-02-01

    In view of antidiabetic and antiglucocorticoid effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) both in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken: (i) to elucidate the mechanism of action of both dexamethasone phosphate (dexP) and DHEA on glucose synthesis in primary cultured rabbit kidney-cortex tubules and (ii) to investigate the influence of DHEA on glucose synthesis, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile in the control- and dexP-treated rabbits. Data show, that in cultured kidney-cortex tubules dexP significantly stimulated gluconeogenesis by increasing flux through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). DexP-induced effects were dependent only upon glucocorticoid receptor. DHEA decreased glucose synthesis via inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and suppressed the dexP-induced stimulation of renal gluconeogenesis. Studies with the use of inhibitors of DHEA metabolism in cultured renal tubules showed for the first time that DHEA directly affects renal gluconeogenesis. However, in view of analysis of glucocorticoids and DHEA metabolites levels in urine, it seems likely, that testosterone may also contribute to DHEA-evoked effects. In dexP-treated rabbits, plasma glucose level was not altered despite increased renal and hepatic FBPase and G6Pase activities, while a significant elevation of both plasma insulin and HOMA-IR was accompanied by a decline of ISI index. It thus appears that increased insulin levels were required to maintain normoglycaemia and to compensate the insulin resistance. DHEA alone affected neither plasma glucose nor lipid levels, while it increased insulin sensitivity and diminished both renal and hepatic G6Pase activities. Surprisingly, DHEA co-administrated with dexP did not alter insulin sensitivity, while it partially suppressed the dexP-induced elevation of renal G6Pase activity and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride contents. As (i) gluconeogenic pathway in rabbit is similar to that in human, and (ii) DHEA counteracts several dexP-evoked effects, it seems likely, that its supplementation might be beneficial to patients treated with glucocorticoids. PMID:26616007

  3. Does Nucleos(t)ide Analogues Treatment Affect Renal Function in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Who Have Already Decreased eGFR? A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Chao; Chen, Chien-Hung; Tseng, Po-Lin; Hung, Chao-Hung; Chiu, King-Wah; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Yen, Yi-Hao; Lin, Ming-Tsung; Hu, Tsung-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the renal function in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who received nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) therapy using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) titer. We performed a longitudinal observational study of 37 tenofovir-, 42 telbivudine-, and 62 entecavir-naïve CHB patients, who had impaired renal function (eGFR, 90–30 ml/min/1.73m2) without history of diabetes, hypertension, and chemotherapy. Calculation and evaluation of eGFR was performed with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, and Cockcroft-Gault formula at pretreatment, at baseline, and after the 1st and 2nd year of treatment. The eGFR was significantly increased in patients given telbivudine or entecavir (p = 0.003 and p = 0.012, respectively), but the eGFR was decreased in patients given tenofovir (p = 0.001) after 2 years of treatment. Of all patients, eGFR was stable one year prior to treatment. If we analyzed the renal function by change of chronic kidney disease (CKD) category with a change of 25% of eGFR, the proportion of uncertain drop (drop in CKD category with <25% decrease in eGFR) and certain drop (drop in CKD category with ≧25% decrease in eGFR) in tenofovir group was smaller (5.4%) than those of telbivudine (12.9%) or entecavir (6.5%). Furthermore, telbivudine had the lowest stable rate (76.2%), the highest certain rise rate (9.5%), and certain drop rate (7.1%) compared to the other groups (p = 0.049). In conclusion, in NAs-naïve CHB patients with impaired renal function, telbivudine and entecavir resulted in a significant increase in eGFR while tenofovir resulted in a significant decrease after a 2-year treatment. Interestingly, TDF had the lowest proportion of patients reclassified to certain and uncertain drop groups; in contrast, LdT had a higher proportion in both raise and drop groups. The outcomes of this renal effect remain to be determined. PMID:26964034

  4. Does Nucleos(t)ide Analogues Treatment Affect Renal Function in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Who Have Already Decreased eGFR? A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Chao; Chen, Chien-Hung; Tseng, Po-Lin; Hung, Chao-Hung; Chiu, King-Wah; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Yen, Yi-Hao; Lin, Ming-Tsung; Hu, Tsung-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the renal function in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who received nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) therapy using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) titer. We performed a longitudinal observational study of 37 tenofovir-, 42 telbivudine-, and 62 entecavir-naïve CHB patients, who had impaired renal function (eGFR, 90-30 ml/min/1.73m2) without history of diabetes, hypertension, and chemotherapy. Calculation and evaluation of eGFR was performed with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, and Cockcroft-Gault formula at pretreatment, at baseline, and after the 1st and 2nd year of treatment. The eGFR was significantly increased in patients given telbivudine or entecavir (p = 0.003 and p = 0.012, respectively), but the eGFR was decreased in patients given tenofovir (p = 0.001) after 2 years of treatment. Of all patients, eGFR was stable one year prior to treatment. If we analyzed the renal function by change of chronic kidney disease (CKD) category with a change of 25% of eGFR, the proportion of uncertain drop (drop in CKD category with <25% decrease in eGFR) and certain drop (drop in CKD category with ≧25% decrease in eGFR) in tenofovir group was smaller (5.4%) than those of telbivudine (12.9%) or entecavir (6.5%). Furthermore, telbivudine had the lowest stable rate (76.2%), the highest certain rise rate (9.5%), and certain drop rate (7.1%) compared to the other groups (p = 0.049). In conclusion, in NAs-naïve CHB patients with impaired renal function, telbivudine and entecavir resulted in a significant increase in eGFR while tenofovir resulted in a significant decrease after a 2-year treatment. Interestingly, TDF had the lowest proportion of patients reclassified to certain and uncertain drop groups; in contrast, LdT had a higher proportion in both raise and drop groups. The outcomes of this renal effect remain to be determined. PMID:26964034

  5. 'Fluid Dynamics,' mixed media by Tina York depicts fluid dynamics studies at the Ames Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    'Fluid Dynamics,' mixed media by Tina York depicts fluid dynamics studies at the Ames Research Center. The purpose of such studies is to learn more about what happens to an object when it encounters the friction of atmospheric resistence (such as a plane encountering resistance as it speeds through the air). used in Ames 60 year history by Glenn Bugos NASA SP-4314

  6. Dynamical studies of confined fluids and polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Christopher A.

    Soft matter, a class of materials including polymers, colloids, and surfactant molecules, are ubiquitous in our everyday lives. Plastics, soaps, foods and living organisms are mostly comprised of soft materials. Research conducted to understand soft matter behavior at the molecular level is essential to create new materials with unique properties. Self-healing plastics, targeted drug delivery, and nanowire assemblies have all been further advanced by soft matter research. The author of this dissertation investigates fundamental soft matter systems, including polymer solutions and melts, colloid dispersions in polymer melts, and interfacial fluids. The dynamics of polymers and confined fluids were studied using the single-molecule sensitive technique of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Here, fluorescent dyes are attached to polymer coils or by introducing free dyes directly into the solution/film. Complementary experiments were also performed, utilizing atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry. FCS and AFM experiments demonstrated the significant difference in properties of thin fluid films of the nearly spherical, nonpolar molecule TEHOS (tetrakis(2-ethylhexoxy)silane) when compared to its bulk counterpart. AFM experiments confirmed TEHOS orders in layers near a solid substrate. FCS experiments show that free dyes introduced in these thin films do not have a single diffusion coefficient, indicating that these films have heterogeneity at the molecular level. FCS experiments have been applied to study the diffusion of gold colloids. The diffusion of gold colloids in polymer melts was found to dramatically depart from the Stokes-Einstein prediction when colloid size was smaller than the surrounding polymer mesh size. This effect is explained by noting the viscosity experienced by the colloid is not equivalent to the overall bulk viscosity of the polymer melt. The conformational change of polymers immersed in a binary solvent was measured via FCS. This experiment was conducted to test a theory proposed by Brochard and de Gennes, who postulated a polymer chain undergoes a collapse and a dramatic re-swelling as the critical point of the binary mixture is approached. Measuring polymer chain diffusion as a function of temperature, this theory was confirmed. To my knowledge, this was the first experimental evidence of contraction/re-swelling for polymers in critical binary solvents.

  7. Renal angiography with iohexol and metrizoate

    SciTech Connect

    Toernquist, C.; Holtaes, S.

    1984-02-01

    The nephrotoxicity of the ionic contrast medium metrizoate was compared with that of nonionic iohexol when used for renal angiography. Fifteen patients who underwent renal angiography with metrizoate and 15 with iohexol were studied. Serum creatinine level, Cr-51-EDTA clearance, and urine albumin level were recorded before and after angiography. Metrizoate affected renal function, as indicated both by a transient decrease in glomerular filtration rate and by a transient albuminuria. Renal function was unaffected by iohexol. Furthermore, iohexol produced less subjective discomfort than metrizoate. There appeared to be no difference in the quality of the angiograms obtained with the two media.

  8. The impact of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose on renal function: an analysis of the FAIR-HF study

    PubMed Central

    Ponikowski, Piotr; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Colet, Josep Comin; Willenheimer, Ronnie; Dickstein, Kenneth; Lüscher, Thomas; Gaudesius, Giedrius; von Eisenhart Rothe, Barbara; Mori, Claudio; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ford, Ian; Macdougall, Iain; Anker, Stefan D

    2015-01-01

    Aims Anaemia and iron deficiency are constituents of the cardio-renal syndrome in chronic heart failure (CHF). We investigated the effects of i.v. iron in iron-deficient CHF patients on renal function, and the efficacy and safety of this therapy in patients with renal dysfunction. Methods and results The FAIR-HF trial randomized 459 CHF patients with iron deficiency (ferritin <100 µg/L, or between 100 and 299 µg/L if transferrin saturation was <20%): 304 to i.v. ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) and 155 to placebo, and followed-up for 24 weeks. Renal function was assessed at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, and 24, using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2), calculated from the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD–EPI) formula. At baseline, renal function was similar between groups (62.4 ± 20.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m2, FCM vs. placebo). Compared with placebo, treatment with FCM was associated with an increase in eGFR [treatment effect: week 4, 2.11 ± 1.21 (P = 0.082); week 12, 2.41 ± 1.33 (P = 0.070); and week 24, 2.98 ± 1.44 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.039)]. This effect was seen in all pre-specified subgroups (P > 0.20 for interactions). No interaction between the favourable effects of FCM and baseline renal function was seen for the primary endpoints [improvement in Patient Global Assessment (P = 0.43) and NYHA class (P = 0.37) at 24 weeks]. Safety and adverse event profiles were similar in patients with baseline eGFR <60 and ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Conclusions Treatment of iron deficiency in CHF patients with i.v. FCM was associated with an improvement in renal function. FCM therapy was effective and safe in CHF patients with renal dysfunction. PMID:25683972

  9. A pilot study to assess markers of renal damage in the rodent kidney after exposure to 7 MHz ultrasound pulse sequences designed to cause microbubble translation and disruption

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kennita; Cianciolo, Rachel; Gessner, Ryan C.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force has been proposed as a mechanism to enhance microbubble concentration for therapeutic and molecular imaging applications. It is hypothesized that once microbubbles are localized, bursting them with acoustic pressure could result in local drug delivery. It is known that low-frequency, high-amplitude acoustic energy combined with cavitation nuclei can result in bioeffects. However, little is known about the bioeffects potential of acoustic parameters involved in radiation-force and microbubble destruction pulse sequences applied at higher frequencies. In this pilot study, rat kidneys are exposed to high-duty cycle, low-amplitude pulse sequences known to cause substantial bubble translation due to radiation force, as well as high-amplitude short pulse sequences known to cause microbubble destruction. Both studies are performed at 7 MHz on a clinical ultrasound system, and implemented in 3-D for entire kidney exposure. Analysis of biomarkers of renal injury and renal histopathology indicate that there was no significant renal damage due to these ultrasound parameters in conjunction with microbubbles within the study group. PMID:22104535

  10. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Sharifiyan, Fatemeh; Movahedian-Attar, Ahmad; Nili, Nafiseh; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The influence of the supplementation of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins on atherosclerotic plaque formation induced by hypercholesterolemia was investigated in renal arteries in rabbits. Materials and Methods: After the determination of polyphenol and anthocyanin's content of P. granatum peel hydroalcoholic extract, 30 male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. They were fed basic diet, hypercholesterolemic diet and hypercholesterolemic diet along with P. granatum peel extract (polyphenolic content for each rabbit 1 g/kg diet) for 2 month. Blood samples were collected at the begging, middle and end of the study in order to measure lipid concentration and oxidative and antioxidative status variables, and renal arteries were taken for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques at the end of the study. Results: The results reveal that P. granatum peel extract significantly increases serum antioxidant capacity in the extract recipient group in comparison with hypercholesterolemic control (P < 0.05). No significant differences are observed in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein and in mean size of accumulated fatty streaks in renal arteries in the extract treatment group in comparison with hypercholesterolemic control (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet) despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period. PMID:26962510

  11. Pharmacokinetic studies and renal dehydropeptidase stability of the new beta-lactamase inhibitor BRL 42715 in animals.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, K; Griffin, D R; Upshon, P A

    1991-01-01

    BRL 42715 is a novel, highly potent beta-lactamase inhibitor with good activity against a broad range of beta-lactamases, including the class I enzymes of Enterobacter and Citrobacter spp. (K. Coleman, D.R.J. Griffin, J.W.J. Page, and P.A. Upshon, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1580-1587, 1989). The pharmacokinetics of BRL 42715 were studied following oral and parenteral administration in mice, rats, rabbits, beagle dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys. The elimination half-life (t1/2) of BRL 42715 following intravenous administration was 7 min in rats, 6.2 min in rabbits, 11 min in dogs, and 18 min in cynomolgus monkeys; and interspecies scaling indicated a t1/2 of 31 min in humans. Urinary recovery was 24 to 43% in the three species studied. A linear relationship was observed between the dose and the theoretical concentration in blood at time zero and between the dose and area under the concentration-time curve following intravenous administration to mice. Extravascular dosing in mice, rats, and dogs resulted in an increase in t1/2, suggesting a depot effect. BRL 42715 was absorbed in mice following an oral dose (bioavailability of 0.2), but was not absorbed in rats, dogs, or cynomolgus monkeys to any significant extent. The binding of BRL 42715 in serum was 27 to 38% in mouse, rat, and dog sera but was somewhat higher (68 to 70%) in primate and human sera. BRL 42715 was not readily hydrolyzed by the renal dehydropeptidase enzymes of any of the five species studied. PMID:1952842

  12. Beam Dynamics Studies for the SPARC Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrario, M.; Biagini, Maria E.; Boscolo, M.; Fusco, V.; Guiducci, S.; Migliorati, M.; Serafini, L.; Vaccarezza, C.; Bartolini, R.; Giannessi, L.; Quattromini, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Limborg, C.G.; /Unlisted /Unlisted /ENEA, Frascati /SLAC

    2008-03-17

    The aim of the SPARC project, is to promote an R&D activity oriented to the development of a high brightness photoinjector to drive SASE-FEL experiments. We discuss in this paper the status of the beam dynamics simulation activities.

  13. Dynamic property studies of Sterling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tani, Y.; Seibara, M.; Takenai, K.; Yamaguchi, W.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of the results of dynamic property tests that were carried out using a trial produced prototype of a 50 KW Sterling engine. The features of the engine are shown graphically. A high thermal efficiency is found in the low rotation region.

  14. Dynamic property studies of Sterling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Y.; Seibara, M.; Takenai, K.; Yamaguchi, W.

    1984-02-01

    A description is given of the results of dynamic property tests that were carried out using a trial produced prototype of a 50 KW Sterling engine. The features of the engine are shown graphically. A high thermal efficiency is found in the low rotation region.

  15. Oncologic and Functional Outcomes after Partial Nephrectomy Versus Radical Nephrectomy in T1b Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Multicenter, Matched Case-Control Study in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hoon Ah; Kim, Jin Wook; Byun, Seok Soo; Hong, Sung Hoo; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Young Hyun; Yang, Kyung Suk; Cho, Seok; Cheon, Jun; Kang, Seok Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The study was to compare the oncologic and functional outcomes of partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) for pathologically proven T1b renal cell carcinoma using pair-matched groups. Materials and Methods We reviewed our prospectively maintained database for RN and PN in T1b renal tumors surgically treated between 1999 and 2011 at five institutions in Korea. Of 611 patients treated with PN or RN for a solitary and NX/N0 M0 renal mass (4-7 cm), 577 (PN, 100; RN, 477) patients with pathologically confirmed pT1b remained for analysis. Study subjects were grouped by PN or RN, then matched by age, sex, comorbidities, body mass index, tumor size and depth, histologic type, and preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using propensities score. To evaluate oncologic outcomes, overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were analyzed. The functional outcomes were evaluated by postoperative eGFR. Results The median follow-up in the RN group was 48.1 and 42.6 months in the PN group. The estimated 10-year CSS rate (PN 85.7% vs. RN 84.4%, p=0.52) and 5- and estimated 10-year PFS rates (PN: 86.4% and 79.2% vs. RN: 86.0% and 66.1%, p=0.66) did not differ significantly between groups. The estimated 10-year OS rate was significantly higher in the PN group (85.7%) compared to the RN group (73.3%) (p=0.003). PN was less likely to induce new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage CKD compared with RN. Conclusion Our study suggests that patients treated with PN demonstrate a superior OS rate and postoperative renal function with analogous CSS and PFS rates compared with pair-matched patients treated with RN. PMID:26044158

  16. Bacterial factors in the formation of renal scars. An experimental study on the role of Escherichia coli P-fimbriation and hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Arnold, A J; Sunderland, D; Rickwood, A M; Hart, C A

    1993-11-01

    A model capable of comparing the effects of bacterial virulence factors on renal scarring in vivo has been developed using the female piglet. By creating, at open surgery, unilateral vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and quantifying scarring both by uptake of an isotope bound to functioning renal parenchyma and by planimetry of the surface area scarred, the effects of 2 organisms, a P-fimbriate Escherichia coli and an E. coli K1 have been compared. The P-fimbriate E. coli was shown to express P-fimbriae in freshly voided urine, was more hydrophobic and produced smaller scars. This indicates that neither the hydrophobicity nor P-fimbriation of the organism causing urinary tract infection (UTI) is of prime importance for the development of renal scars and is evidence against the "big bang" theory for the development of renal scars. Studies on the association of UTI with VUR showed that infection with both E. coli under study led to VUR on the side contralateral to the side undergoing surgery. It seems likely that a non-specific effect of UTI, such as bladder oedema, is responsible for this acquired VUR. An effect of the 2 bacteria under study on the lower urinary tract was observed in that infection with the P-fimbriate E. coli allowed the retention of an intravesical wax plug, whereas infection with E. coli K1 did not. Epidemiological data have shown that the majority of upper urinary tract infections in children are associated with UTI by P-fimbriate organisms. Such an association may be explained in part by an effect of P-fimbriate bacteria on lower urinary tract function rather than an effect on the upper urinary tract. PMID:10071534

  17. Association of Relapse with Renal Outcomes under the Current Therapy Regimen for IgA Nephropathy: A Multi-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhaohui; Zhong, Yifei; Qi, Yinghui; Shao, Xinghua; Wang, Qin; Cao, Liou; Zhang, Minfang; Xie, Yuanyuan; Qi, Chaojun; Tian, Lei; Mou, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Renal relapse is a very common manifestation of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of this condition have not yet been carefully explored. Design and Patients Patients with biopsy-proven IgAN between January 2005 and December 2010 from three medical centers in China was a primary cohort of patients. From January 2010 to April 2012, data of an independent cohort of IgAN patients from Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai, China was collected using the same inclusion and exclusion criteria. These patients formed the validation cohort of this study. Results Of the patients with biopsy-proven IgAN from three medical centers, 489 patients achieved remission within 6 months following the therapy. Additionally, 76 (15.5%) of these patients experienced a relapse after achieving remission. During the median follow-up period of 66 months, 6 patients (1.4%) in the non-relapse group experienced renal deterioration, compared with 22 patients (29.6%) in the relapse group. Our study indicated that each 1-mmHg increase in the baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was associated with a 4.5% increase in the risk of renal relapse; additionally, the male patients had a 3.324-fold greater risk of relapse compared with the female patients according to the adjusted multivariate Cox analysis. The nomogram was based on 489 patients achieved remission. The predictive accuracy and discriminative ability of the nomogram were determined by concordance index (C-index) and calibration curve. The results were validated using bootstrap resampling on the validation cohort. Conclusions This study demonstrated that renal relapse is a potential predictor of prognostic outcomes in patients under the current therapeutic regimens for IgAN. And male patients with higher diastolic blood pressure had a greater risk of experiencing relapse. PMID:26371477

  18. Risk of Retinal Artery Occlusion in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease: A Retrospective Large-Scale Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuh-Shin; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chang, Chun; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Ko, Shun-Yao; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Jan, Ren-Long

    2016-04-01

    There is globally increasing prevalence and incidence in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). These patients are frequently reported to have retinal abnormalities and both diseases share some systemic risk factors. Hence, it is clinically relevant to determine whether ESRD is a predictor of retinal artery occlusion (RAO).To investigate the risk of RAO in ESRD patients.A retrospective, nationwide, matched cohort study. The study included 93,766 ESRD patients recruited between 2000 and 2009 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The same number control group included age- and sex-matched patients without ESRD selected from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, 2000. Data for each patient were collected from the index date until December 2011.The incidence and risk of RAO were compared between the 2 groups. The hazard ratio (HR) for RAO after adjustment for potential confounders was calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate the cumulative RAO incidence rate.In total, 237 ESRD patients and 73 controls exhibited RAO during follow-up; thus, the RAO incidence rate in ESRD patients was 4.49 times (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.45-5.83) that in the control patients. After adjustment for potential confounders, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, and coronary artery disease, ESRD patients were 2.78 times (95% CI, 2.02-3.84) more likely to develop RAO in cohort for the total sample. Among patients with hypertension, the RAO incidence rate was significantly higher in the ESRD group, and hypertension significantly increased RAO risk even after adjustment for other confounders in the cohort.ESRD increases the risk of RAO, particularly in ESRD patients with hypertension. Therefore, clinicians should educate ESRD patients about RAO and ensure appropriate blood pressure control. PMID:27057891

  19. Albuminuria, renal dysfunction and circadian blood pressure rhythm in older men: a population-based longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Lindholm, Bengt; Ärnlöv, Johan; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Background Both albuminuria and kidney dysfunction may affect circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm, while exacerbating each other's effects. We investigated associations and interactions of these two risk factors with circadian BP rhythm variation and non-dipper pattern progression in community-dwelling older men. Methods This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in the third and fourth cycles of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, including 1051 men (age 71 years) with assessments on urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and cystatin-C-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of these, 574 men attended re-examination after 6 years. Study outcomes were ABMP changes and non-dipping BP pattern (prevalence and progression). Results UAER associated with circadian BP rhythm both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Longitudinally, significant interactions were observed between UAER and kidney dysfunction (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in its association with the changes of both night-time systolic BP (SBP) and night–day SBP ratio. After stratification, UAER strongly predicted night–day SBP ratio change only in those with concurrent kidney dysfunction. At re-examination, 221 new cases of non-dipper were identified. In multivariable logistic models, high UAER associated with increased likelihood of non-dipper progression, but more strongly so among individuals with concurrent kidney dysfunction. These associations were evident also in the subpopulation of non-diabetics and in participants with normal range UAER. Conclusions UAER associates with circadian BP rhythm variation and non-dipper progression in elderly men. Concurrent renal dysfunction modifies and exacerbates these associations. PMID:26413281

  20. Efficacy of a reduced pill burden on therapeutic adherence to calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplant recipients: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Massimo; Garofalo, Gianluca; Borrelli, Silvio; Vitale, Sossio; Torino, Massimiliano; Capone, Domenico; Russo, Luigi; Pisani, Antonio; Carrano, Rosa; Gallo, Riccardo; Federico, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nonadherence in a cohort of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and to evaluate prospectively whether more intense clinical surveillance and reduced pill number enhanced adherence. Patients and methods The study was carried out in 310 stable RTRs in whom adherence, life satisfaction, and transplant care were evaluated by specific questionnaires (time 0). The patients under tacrolimus (TAC; bis in die [BID]) were then shifted to once-daily TAC (D-TAC) to reduce their pill burden (Shift group) and were followed up for 6 months to reevaluate the same parameters. Patients on cyclosporin or still on BID-TAC constituted a time-control group. Results The prevalence of nonadherence was 23.5% and was associated with previous rejection episodes (P<0.002), and was inversely related to Life Satisfaction Index, anxiety, and low glomerular filtration rate (minimum P<0.03). Nonadherent patients were significantly less satisfied with their medical care and their relationships with the medical staff. A shift from BID-TAC to D-TAC was performed in 121 patients, and the questionnaires were repeated after 3 and 6 months. In the Shift group, a reduction in pill number was observed (P<0.01), associated with improved adherence after 3 and 6 months (+36%, P<0.05 versus basal), with no change in controls. Decreased TAC trough levels after 3 and 6 months (−9%), despite a slight increase in drug dosage (+6.5%), were observed in the Shift group, with no clinical side effects. Conclusion The reduced pill burden improves patients’ compliance to calcineurin-inhibitors, but major efforts in preventing nonadherence are needed. PMID:24470756

  1. Microvascular density as an independent predictor of clinical outcome in renal cell carcinoma: an automated image analysis study.

    PubMed

    Iakovlev, Vladimir V; Gabril, Manal; Dubinski, William; Scorilas, Andreas; Youssef, Youssef M; Faragalla, Hala; Kovacs, Kalman; Rotondo, Fabio; Metias, Shereen; Arsanious, Androu; Plotkin, Anna; Girgis, Andrew H F; Streutker, Catherine J; Yousef, George M

    2012-01-01

    Tumor microvascular density (MVD) has been shown to correlate with the aggressiveness of several cancers. With the introduction of targeted anti-angiogenic therapy, assessment of MVD has the potential not only as a prognostic but also as a therapeutic marker. The significance of tumor vascularity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has been debated, with studies showing contradictory results. Previous studies were limited by manual quantification of MVD within a small area of tumor. Since then, the validity of this method has been questioned. To avoid the inaccuracies of manual quantification, we employed a computerized image analysis, which allowed assessment of large areas of tumor and adjacent normal tissue. The latter was used as an internal reference for normalization. MVD and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed in 57 cases of ccRCC. Sections were immunostained for CD34 and VEGF. Areas of ccRCC and normal kidney medulla were analyzed within scanned images using software that counted CD34-positive vessels and measured the intensity of VEGF staining. We obtained unadjusted values from tumoral areas and calculated adjusted values as tumor/normal ratios. Unadjusted MVD had no association with clinical outcome. However, similarly to tumor stage, higher adjusted MVD was associated with shorter disease-free survival (log-rank P=0.037, Cox P=0.02). This was significant in univariate and multivariate analyses. MVD did not correlate with tumor stage, pointing to its independent prognostic value. As expected due to the known molecular abnormalities in ccRCC, most tumors showed higher VEGF expression than normal tissue. Higher adjusted VEGF was associated with high tumor grade (P=0.049). The finding of increased MVD as an independent marker of tumor aggressiveness may prove useful in the development of new tests for prognostic and therapeutic guidance. Digital techniques can provide more accurate assessment of immunomarkers and may reveal less obvious associations. PMID:22042086

  2. Acute Kidney Injury, Renal Function, and the Elderly Obese Surgical Patient: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelz, Rachel R.; Reinke, Caroline E.; Zubizarreta, José R.; Wang, Min; Saynisch, Philip; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Reese, Peter P.; Fleisher, Lee A.; Silber, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between obesity and perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI), controlling for preoperative kidney dysfunction. Summary Background Data More than 30% of patients over the age of 60 are obese, and therefore at risk for kidney disease. Post-operative AKI is a significant problem. Methods We performed a matched case control study of patients enrolled in the Obesity and Surgical Outcomes Study (OBSOS), using Medicare claims data enriched with detailed chart review. Each AKI patient was matched to a non-AKI control similar in procedure type, age, sex, race, emergency status, transfer status, baseline eGFR, admission APACHE score, and the risk of death score with fine balance on hospitals. Results We identified 514 AKI cases and 694 control patients. Of the cases, 180 (35%) followed orthopedic procedures and 334 (65%) followed colon or thoracic surgery. After matching, obese patients undergoing a surgical procedure demonstrated a 65% increase in odds of AKI within 30 days from admission (OR=1.65, p<0.005) when compared to the non-obese patients. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds of post-operative AKI remained elevated in the elderly obese (OR=1.68, p=0.01.) Conclusions Obesity is an independent risk factor for post-operative AKI in patients over 65 years of age. Efforts to optimize kidney function pre-operatively should be employed in this at risk population along with keen monitoring and maintenance of intra-operative hemodynamics. When subtle reductions in urine output or a rising creatinine are observed post-operatively, timely clinical investigation is warranted to maximize renal recovery. PMID:23676533

  3. Elevated Circulating Osteoprotegerin and Renal Dysfunction Predict 15-Year Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Study of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kun; Lim, Ee M.; Bollerslev, Jens; Prince, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on the predictive role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) for cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality risk have been presented by our group and others. We now present data on the interactions between OPG with stage I to III chronic kidney disease (CKD) for all-cause and CVD mortality. Methods and Results The setting was a 15-year study of 1,292 women over 70 years of age initially randomized to a 5-year controlled trial of 1.2 g of calcium daily. Serum OPG and creatinine levels with complete mortality records obtained from the Western Australian Data Linkage System were available. Interactions were detected between OPG levels and eGFR for both CVD and all-cause mortality (P < 0.05). Compared to participants with eGFR ≥60ml/min/1.73m2 and low OPG, participants with eGFR of <60ml/min/1.73m2 and elevated OPG had a 61% and 75% increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality respectively (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.27-2.05; P < 0.001 and HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.22-2.55; P = 0.003). This relationship with mortality was independent of decline in renal function (P<0.05). Specific causes of death in individuals with elevated OPG and stage III CKD highlighted an excess of coronary heart disease, renal failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths (P < 0.05). Conclusion The association between elevated OPG levels with CVD and all-cause mortality was more evident in elderly women with poorer renal function. Assessment of OPG in the context of renal function may be important in studies investigating its relationship with all-cause and CVD mortality. PMID:26222774

  4. Preoperative statin therapy is associated with lower requirement of renal replacement therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Inderjeet; Rajagopalan, Sujit; Srinivasan, Anand; Achuthan, Shyambalaji; Dhamija, Puneet; Hota, Debasish; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery is a common complication associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Activation of inflammatory cascade and vascular endothelial dysfunction plays a vital role during the perioperative period leading to AKI. Statins are known to suppress inflammation and improve endothelial dysfunction over and above the cholesterol lowering efficacy. METHODS Observational studies with a defined population in terms of preoperative statin therapy and no preoperative statin therapy undergoing cardiac surgery (CABG, isolated valve surgery or both) and with reported data on the incidence of acute renal failure/injury and/or mortality were identified and analysed for inclusion in the analysis. Outcomes evaluated were occurrence of postoperative acute kidney injury/failure, requirement of any postoperative renal replacement therapy and short-term all-cause mortality rate. A meta-analysis was conducted and a pooled estimate of odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the inverse variance method. RESULTS A total of 17 studies with a total population of 24 998 statin users and 22 082 non-statin users were included in the final analysis. PST resulted in a significantly lower incidence of renal replacement therapy in patients undergoing CABG (OR: 0.56 [0.410.76]) but not in isolated valve surgery (OR: 1.80 [0.734.44]). Also preoperative statin therapy resulted in a significantly lower postoperative mortality (0.72 [0.610.84]) irrespective of the type of surgery. There was no effect of preoperative statin therapy on the incidence of AKI in any of the sub-group of the patients. CONCLUSIONS Patients undergoing CABG might derive benefit from preoperative statin therapy in terms of reducing the need for postoperative renal replacement therapy and mortality. However, the uncertainty concerning the reno-protective efficacy of preoperative statin therapy in patients undergoing isolated valve surgery needs further investigation. PMID:23