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Sample records for dystonic disorders

  1. Food for thought: ego-dystonicity and fear of self in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Purcell Lalonde, Magali; O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick; Coelho, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Degree of ego-dystonicity in obsessions is clinically relevant to the conceptualization and treatment of eating disorders (EDs). Obsessive-compulsive disorder research has suggested that the transformation of intrusive thoughts into obsessions is linked to the degree to which intrusive thoughts threaten core perceptions of the self. This study aims to explore the relationship between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions in ED patients and a fear of self, the link between ED symptom severity and ego-dystonicity in obsessions, and differences between non-clinical and individuals with EDs in the presence of ego-dystonic thoughts and a fear of self. Ego-dystonicity (Ego-dystonicity Questionnaire (EDQ)) and feared self (Fear of Self Questionnaire (FSQ)) degrees were measured in a clinical sample (n = 57 with EDs) and a non-clinical sample (n = 45). EDQ and FSQ scores were highly correlated in both samples. EDQ scores were not significantly correlated to ED symptom severity with the exception of the EDQ Irrationality subscale, which was strongly related to compulsion severity. Participants with an ED had significantly higher EDQ and FSQ scores compared with controls. PMID:25728327

  2. Quantification of gait in dystonic Gunn rats.

    PubMed

    Chaniary, Kunal D; Baron, Mark S; Rice, Ann C; Wetzel, Paul A; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Shapiro, Steven M

    2009-06-15

    Spontaneously jaundiced Gunn rats exposed to sulfadimethoxine develop bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus) with hearing loss and dystonia, closely resembling the human syndrome. We recently characterized the electromyographic activity in this animal model supporting our clinical impression of dystonia. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, non-invasive method to quantify the motor deficits in dystonic rodents. On postnatal day 16, Gunn rats were treated with 100mg/kg of sulfadimethoxine or saline. On postnatal day 31, the ventral view of the animals was videotaped while the animals walked inside a Plexiglas chamber. Individual video frames were reviewed and specific gait parameters including hindlimb spread, step length ratio variability, stance/swing ratio and walking speed were compared between dystonic and non-dystonic jaundiced and non-jaundiced littermates. Data analysis demonstrated statistically significant increases in hindlimb spread and step length ratio variability and decreases in walking speed in dystonic animals as compared to controls. This study demonstrates a valuable technique to objectively characterize dystonia in Gunn rats, which could have wide use for other experimental movement disorders as well. PMID:19464517

  3. Primary and secondary dystonic syndromes: an update

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Gavin; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The dystonias are a common but complex group of disorders that show considerable variation in cause and clinical presentation. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most important discoveries and insights from across the field over the period of the past 18 months. Recent findings Five new genes for primary dystonia (PRRT2, CIZ1, ANO3, TUBB4A and GNAL) have made their appearance in the literature. New subtypes of neuronal brain iron accumulation have been delineated and linked to mutations in C19orf12 and WDR45, while a new treatable form of dystonia with brain manganese deposition related to mutations in SLC30A10 has been described. At the same time, the phenotypes of other forms of dystonic syndromes have been expanded or linked together. Finally, there has been increasing recognition of both the extramotor phenotype in dystonia and the part played by the cerebellum in its pathophysiology. Summary Recently, there has been unprecedented change in the scientific landscape with respect to the cause of various dystonic syndromes that is likely to make a direct impact on clinical practice in the near future. Understanding the genetic cause of these syndromes and the often wide phenotypic variation in their presentations will improve diagnosis and treatment. With time, these discoveries may also lead to much-needed progress in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology of dystonia. PMID:23757263

  4. Diagnosis and Management of Essential Tremor and Dystonic Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Gironell, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common adult movement disorder. Traditionally considered as a benign disease, it can cause an important physical and psychosocial disability. Drug treatment for ET remains poor and often unsatisfactory. Current therapeutic strategies for ET are reviewed according to the level of discomfort caused by tremor. For mild tremor, nonpharmacological strategies consist of alcohol and acute pharmacological therapy; for moderate tremor, pharmacological therapies (propranolol, gabapentin, primidone, topiramate, alprazolam and other drugs); and for severe tremor, the role of functional surgery is emphasised (thalamic deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy). The more specific treatment of head tremor with the use of botulinum toxin is also discussed. Several points are discussed to guide the immediate research into this disease in the near future. Dystonic tremor is a common symptom in dystonia. Diagnostic criteria for dystonic tremor and differential diagnosis with psychogenic tremor and ET are described. Treatment of dystonic tremor matches the treatment of dystonia. In cases of symptomatic dystonic tremor similar to ET, therapeutic strategies would be the same as for ET. PMID:21179530

  5. Nefazadone-induced acute dystonic reaction.

    PubMed

    Burda, A; Webster, K; Leikin, J B; Chan, S B; Stokes, K A

    1999-10-01

    A 53-y-o patient presented approximately 2 h after taking her first dose of nefazadone. Chief complaint was lip smacking with hand and arm gesturing. The patient also took 25 mg meclizine which she had used before with no adverse effects. Diphenhydramine followed by benztropine led to resolution of symptoms within 1 h. Patient subsequently used meclizine with no untoward reactions. Nefazadone should be added to the list of agents that cause acute dystonic reactions. PMID:10509438

  6. Acute dystonic reaction due to dexketoprofen trometamol.

    PubMed

    Kayipmaz, Afsin Emre; Giray, Tufan Akin; Tasci, Suleyman Serdar; Tasci, Suleyman Serdar; Kavalci, Cemil; Kocalar, Ummu Gulsum

    2015-11-01

    Dexketoprofentrometamol (DKP), is a tromethamine salt of the water-soluble S-enantiomer of ketoprofen. As with all other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, the most common side effect of DKP is gastric complications. In this paper, we report a case of dystonic reaction after intravenous DKP use. A 24-year-old man was admitted to our hospital after suffering a leg burn from boiling oil. He had no drug hypersensitivity. An intravenous preparation containing the active ingredient DKP was injected for analgesia, after which the patient experienced an involuntary flexion response in both upper extremities. With a suspected diagnosis of dystonia, biperiden lactate 5 mg/ml was administered via the intramuscular route and the contractions abated within 30 seconds of the injection.As non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are commonly used and prescribed in emergency departments, it should be kept in mind that an acute dystonic reaction can develop against one of these agents, DKP. PMID:26564300

  7. Intrathecal baclofen treatment in dystonic cerebral palsy: a randomized clinical trial: the IDYS trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dystonic cerebral palsy is primarily caused by damage to the basal ganglia and central cortex. The daily care of these patients can be difficult due to dystonic movements. Intrathecal baclofen treatment is a potential treatment option for dystonia and has become common practice. Despite this widespread adoption, high quality evidence on the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on daily activities is lacking and prospective data are needed to judge the usefulness and indications for dystonic cerebral palsy. The primary aim of this study is to provide level one clinical evidence for the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on the level of activities and participation in dystonic cerebral palsy patients. Furthermore, we hope to identify clinical characteristics that will predict a beneficial effect of intrathecal baclofen in an individual patient. Methods/Design A double blind placebo-controlled multi-center randomized clinical trial will be performed in 30 children with dystonic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 25 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of dystonic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level IV or V, with lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia or central cortex and who are eligible for intrathecal baclofen treatment will be included. Group A will receive three months of continuous intrathecal baclofen treatment and group B will receive three months of placebo treatment, both via an implanted pump. After this three month period, all patients will receive intrathecal baclofen treatment, with a follow-up after nine months. The primary outcome measurement will be the effect on activities of and participation in daily life measured by Goal Attainment Scaling. Secondary outcome measurements on the level of body functions include dystonia, spasticity, pain, comfort and sleep-related breathing disorders. Side effects will be monitored and we will study whether patient characteristics

  8. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: Tight linkage to chromosome 2q

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Rainier, S.; Wilkowski, J.; Jones, S.M.

    1996-07-01

    Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is characterized by attacks of involuntary movements that last up to several hours and occur at rest both spontaneously and following caffeine or alcohol consumption. We analyzed a Polish-American kindred with autosomal dominant PDC and identified tight linkage between the disorder and microsatellite markers on chromosome 2q (maximum two-point LOD score 4.77; recombination fraction 0). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant PDC on distal chromosome 2q. The fact that three other paroxysmal neurological disorders (periodic ataxia with myokymia and hypo- and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) are due to mutation in ion-channel genes raises the possibility that PDC is also due to an ion-channel gene mutation. It is noteworthy that a cluster of sodium-channel genes is located on distal chromosome 2q, near the PDC locus. Identifying the PDC locus on chromosome 2q will facilitate discovery whether PDC is genetically homogeneous and whether other paroxysmal movement disorders are also genetically linked to the PDC locus. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Motor control investigation of dystonic cerebral palsy: A pilot study of passive knee trajectory.

    PubMed

    Androwis, Ghaith J; Michael, Peter A; Jewaid, Darine; Nolan, Karen J; Strongwater, Allan; Foulds, Richard A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand dystonia in CP and be able to objectively distinguish between individuals who experience spasticity, dystonia, or a combination of these conditions while evaluating the effect of 2Hz vestibular stimulation. Selected outcome measures included knee ROM, angular velocity and acceleration and all measures increased post vestibular stimulation; these results are indications of a possible reduction in the level of disability. The current investigation also identified an unexpected and unique behavior of the knee in children with dystonic cerebral palsy (CP) that was noticed while administering the Pendulum Knee Drop test (PKD) at approximately 0.4 rad (a mid-angle between full extension and zero vertical). There was a catch-like phenomenon at the described mid-angle in dystonic individuals. These results may suggest that dystonia is not a velocity dependent hypersensitivity of reflexes, but may include position dependent muscle reflexes and co-contractions. This reinforces the need for a more precise objective measure or perhaps a modified measure such as a mid-angle PKD test. Furthermore, based on the results obtained through the modified technique, beneficial alterations can be made to the form of treatment such as: robotic therapy or physical therapy that specifically accommodates the unique motor control disorder in individuals with dystonic CP. PMID:26737309

  10. The clinical spectrum of laryngeal dystonia includes dystonic cough: observations of a large series.

    PubMed

    Payne, Susannah; Tisch, Stephen; Cole, Ian; Brake, Helen; Rough, Judy; Darveniza, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Laryngeal dystonia is a movement disorder of the muscles within the larynx, which most commonly manifests as spasmodic dysphonia (SD). Rarer reported manifestations include dystonic respiratory stridor and dyscoordinate breathing. Laryngeal dystonia has been treated successfully with botulinum neurotoxin (BTX) injections since 1984. We reviewed prospectively collected data in a consecutive series of 193 patients with laryngeal dystonia who were seen at St. Vincent's Hospital between 1991 and 2011. Patient data were analyzed in Excel, R, and Prism. Laryngeal dystonia manifested as SD (92.7%), stridor (11.9%), dystonic cough (6.2%), dyscoordinate breathing (4.1%), paroxysmal hiccups (1.6%), and paroxysmal sneezing (1.6%). There were more women (68.4%) than men (31.6%), and the average age at onset was 47 years. A positive family history of dystonia was present in 16.1% of patients. A higher incidence of extra-laryngeal dystonia (ie, torticollis and blepharospasm) and concurrent manifestations of laryngeal dystonia were present in patients with dystonic cough, dyscoordinate breathing, paroxysmal sneezing, and hiccups than in other patients (P = 0.003 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The average starting dose of BTX decreased from 2.3 to 0.5 units between 1991 and 2011. The median treatment rating was excellent across all subgroups. Patients with adductor SD, stridor, extra-laryngeal dystonia and male patients had relatively better treatment outcomes. Technical failures were rare (1.1%). Dysphonia secondary to vocal cord paresis followed 38.7% of treatments. Laryngeal dystonia manifests predominantly as SD, but other manifestations include stridor, dyscoordinate breathing, paroxysmal cough, hiccups, and sneezing. BTX injections are very effective across all subgroups. Severe adverse events are rare. PMID:24753288

  11. A new clinical feature associated with familial early-onset of dystonic-guttural tics: An unusual diagnosis of PANDAS

    PubMed Central

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Trifiletti, Rosario R.; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Parano, Enrico; Spalice, Alberto; Pavone, Piero

    2014-01-01

    Until today there is a large debate about the existence of PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) or PANS (pediatric acute onset neuropsychiatric syndrome). These children usually have dramatic, “overnight” onset of symptoms, including motor or vocal tics, obsessions, and/or compulsions. In addition to these symptoms, children may also have comorbid features of associated disorders. Herein, we report a family with an early onset of tics, with exclusively dystonic and guttural tics. All patients had a particularly strong excitement trigger. Two of the patients were shown to have signs suggestive of PANDAS and all family members were Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) carriers. The PANDAS spectrum is probably a group of disorders. We have described a PANDAS variant, in which the family seems to share common autoimmune pattern and may be viewed in the large spectrum of PANDAS. PMID:24891915

  12. A new clinical feature associated with familial early-onset of dystonic-guttural tics: An unusual diagnosis of PANDAS.

    PubMed

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Trifiletti, Rosario R; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Parano, Enrico; Spalice, Alberto; Pavone, Piero

    2014-01-01

    Until today there is a large debate about the existence of PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) or PANS (pediatric acute onset neuropsychiatric syndrome). These children usually have dramatic, "overnight" onset of symptoms, including motor or vocal tics, obsessions, and/or compulsions. In addition to these symptoms, children may also have comorbid features of associated disorders. Herein, we report a family with an early onset of tics, with exclusively dystonic and guttural tics. All patients had a particularly strong excitement trigger. Two of the patients were shown to have signs suggestive of PANDAS and all family members were Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) carriers. The PANDAS spectrum is probably a group of disorders. We have described a PANDAS variant, in which the family seems to share common autoimmune pattern and may be viewed in the large spectrum of PANDAS. PMID:24891915

  13. The neurosurgical treatment of patients in dystonic state - overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sobstyl, Michał Roman; Sławek, Jarosław Wojciech; Ząbek, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Treatment options for patients in dystonic state include sedation, artificial ventilation, intrathecal baclofen infusions and stereotactic procedures. The main aim of this overview is the presentation and assessment of stereotactic procedures applied for treating patients in severe dystonic state. We performed literature overview starting from 1998 to 2012 with case reports regarding all patients treated by stereotactic procedures for dystonic state. We were able to find 15 articles describing 22 patients. Ablative procedures were described in 5 articles (3 thalamotomies, 3 pallidotomies) and were done in 6 patients. In the remaining 10 articles, globus pallidus internus stimulation was utilized in another 16 patients. We can conclude that bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation seems to be the best stereotactic target for patients in dystonic state. PMID:24636773

  14. Cocaine-induced dystonic reaction: an unlikely presentation of child neglect.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jamie M; Babu, Kavita; Jenny, Carole

    2013-09-01

    Child neglect can be difficult to recognize. Parental substance abuse may place a child at increased risk of neglect. This report reviews 2 cases of dystonic reaction in children after accidental exposure to cocaine in their home environments. The reports are followed by a review of proposed physiologic mechanisms for cocaine-induced dystonia and a discussion on neurological symptoms that may develop after cocaine exposure. Pediatric emergency physicians should consider cocaine exposure when a child of any age presents with abnormal movements. Dystonic reaction is an uncommon, but reported, complication of cocaine exposure in the absence of other risk factors and may be the first presentation of child neglect. PMID:24201982

  15. A dystonic syndrome associated with anti-basal ganglia antibodies.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Dale, R C; Church, A J; Giovannoni, G; Bhatia, K P

    2004-06-01

    Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) have been associated with movement disorders (usually tics and chorea) and psychiatric disturbance in children. This report describes five adult and adolescent patients (one male, four females; mean age of onset, 16 years (range, 13-35)) who presented subacutely with a clinical syndrome dominated by dystonia and had ABGA binding to antigens of similar molecular weights to those seen in Sydenham's chorea. Three patients had a clear history of respiratory infection before the onset of their symptoms. Three patients received immunosuppressive treatment, with three showing a notable reduction in symptoms. It is hypothesised that dystonia in adults or adolescents may be part of the clinical spectrum of the post-infectious syndrome associated with ABGA. PMID:15146015

  16. Dystonic reaction associated with ondansetron administration in a patient with normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Parlet, Jay; Subramani, Sudhakar

    2015-08-01

    A 77-year-old female with normal pressure hydrocephalus underwent urgent revision of the abdominal component of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Upon emergence from an uneventful general anesthetic, the patient exhibited cogwheel rigidity with decerebrate posturing and a markedly irregular respiratory rate. This prohibited extubation and prompted an unplanned intensive care unit admission. Ondansetron was the only medication administered that had previously been associated with dystonic reactions. In a previous procedure, the patient had been given ondansetron without a similar reaction. This presentation may have been provoked by existing pathology such as her underlying normal pressure hydrocephalus and small increases in intracranial pressure. PMID:25935832

  17. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  18. Glutaric aciduria type 1 as a cause of dystonic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Sarar; Hamad, Muddathir H.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Salih, Mustafa A.

    2015-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an inherited inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glutaryl Co-A dehydrogenase (GCDH). Here, we report a 14-month-old Saudi boy with GA1 who presented with severe dystonia and was mis-diagnosed as cerebral palsy (CP). He presented to our institute with encephalopathy following an episode of gastroenteritis. His physical examination showed dystonia and spastic quadriplegia. His investigations revealed elevated both urinary 3-hydroxy glutaric acid, and serum glutarylcarnitine. The DNA analysis confirmed homozygosity for a mutation in the GCDH-coding gene (c.482G>A;p.R161Q). This case alerts pediatricians to consider GA1 as a differential diagnosis of children presenting with dystonic CP. PMID:26593172

  19. Increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the cerebellum of the x-irradiated dystonic rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dopico, A.M.; Rios, H.; Mayo, J.; Zieher, L.M. )

    1990-08-01

    The exposure of the cephalic end of rats to repeated doses of x-irradiation (150 rad) immediately after birth induces a long-term increase in the noradrenaline (NA) content of cerebellum (CE) (+ 37.8%), and a decrease in cerebellar weight (65.2% of controls), which results in an increased NA concentration (+ 109%). This increase in the neurotransmitter level is accompanied by a dystonic syndrome and histological abnormalities: Purkinje cells (the target cells for NA afferents to CE) fail to arrange in a characteristic monolayer, and their primary dendritic tree appears randomly oriented. The injection of reserpine 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg ip to adult rats for 18 h depletes cerebellar NA content in both controls (15.7 {plus minus} 4 ng/CE and 2.8 {plus minus} 1.5 ng/CE, respectively) and x-irradiated rats (17.1 {plus minus} 1 ng/CE and 8.3 {plus minus} 2 ng/CE, respectively). The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in CE of adult rats, measured by an in vitro assay, is significantly increased in neonatally x-irradiated animals when compared to age-matched controls (16.4 {plus minus} 1.4 vs 6.32 {plus minus} 0.6 nmol CO2/h/mg prot., p less than 0.01). As observed for NA levels, a net increase in TH activity induced by the ionizing radiation is also measured: 308.9 {plus minus} 23.8 vs 408.2 {plus minus} 21.5 nmol CO2/h/CE, p less than 0.01 (controls and x-treated, respectively). These results suggest that x-irradiation at birth may induce an abnormal sprouting of noradrenergic afferents to CE. The possibility that these changes represent a response of the NA system to the dystonic syndrome is discussed.

  20. Preserved dichotomy but highly irregular and burst discharge in the basal ganglia in alert dystonic rats at rest.

    PubMed

    Kumbhare, Deepak; Chaniary, Kunal D; Baron, Mark S

    2015-10-22

    Despite its prevalence, the underlying pathophysiology of dystonia remains poorly understood. Using our novel tri-component classification algorithm, extracellular neuronal activity in the globus pallidus (GP), STN, and the entopeduncular nucleus (EP) was characterized in 34 normal and 25 jaundiced dystonic Gunn rats with their heads restrained while at rest. In normal rats, neurons in each nucleus were similarly characterized by two physiologically distinct types: regular tonic with moderate discharge frequencies (mean rates in GP, STN and EP ranging from 35-41 spikes/s) or irregular at slower frequencies (17-20 spikes/s), with a paucity of burst activity. In dystonic rats, these nuclei were also characterized by two distinct principal neuronal patterns. However, in marked difference, in the dystonic rats, neurons were primarily slow and highly irregular (12-15 spikes/s) or burst predominant (14-17 spikes/s), with maintained modest differences between nuclei. In GP and EP, with increasing severity of dystonia, burstiness was moderately further increased, irregularity mildly further increased, and discharge rates mildly further reduced. In contrast, these features did not appreciably change in STN with worsening dystonia. Findings of a lack of bursting in GP, STN and EP in normal rats in an alert resting state and prominent bursting in dystonic Gunn rats suggest that cortical or other external drive is normally required for bursting in these nuclei and that spontaneous bursting, as seen in dystonia and Parkinson's disease, is reflective of an underlying pathophysiological state. Moreover, the extent of burstiness appears to most closely correlate with the severity of the dystonia. PMID:26210616

  1. Forebrain deletion of the dystonia protein torsinA causes dystonic-like movements and loss of striatal cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Samuel S; Darr, Katherine; Holley, Sandra M; Cepeda, Carlos; Mabrouk, Omar S; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; LeWitt, Tessa M; Paudel, Reema; Houlden, Henry; Kennedy, Robert T; Levine, Michael S; Dauer, William T

    2015-01-01

    Striatal dysfunction plays an important role in dystonia, but the striatal cell types that contribute to abnormal movements are poorly defined. We demonstrate that conditional deletion of the DYT1 dystonia protein torsinA in embryonic progenitors of forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic neurons causes dystonic-like twisting movements that emerge during juvenile CNS maturation. The onset of these movements coincides with selective degeneration of dorsal striatal large cholinergic interneurons (LCI), and surviving LCI exhibit morphological, electrophysiological, and connectivity abnormalities. Consistent with the importance of this LCI pathology, murine dystonic-like movements are reduced significantly with an antimuscarinic agent used clinically, and we identify cholinergic abnormalities in postmortem striatal tissue from DYT1 dystonia patients. These findings demonstrate that dorsal LCI have a unique requirement for torsinA function during striatal maturation, and link abnormalities of these cells to dystonic-like movements in an overtly symptomatic animal model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08352.001 PMID:26052670

  2. Ego-Dystonic Pregnancy and Prenatal Consumption of Alcohol Among First-Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines predictors of drinking during pregnancy among first-time mothers, in order to distinguish those in need of targeted screening and intervention. Methods Data from the prenatal panel of the Parenting for the First Time study were used in hierarchical linear regressions to determine likelihood of prenatal alcohol consumption among a sample of 645 women. Results African-American women and those of race/ethnicities other than White were less likely to drink, regardless of age or level of education. Among all women, being in school was associated with abstention (p = 0.05). Among teens, endorsing a perception of feeling “pushed around” was a significant indicator of prenatal alcohol consumption (p = 0.05), as was not having plans for infant feeding shortly before delivery (p = 0.05). Among adults with some level of college education, having a first prenatal visit after the fourth month of pregnancy was a significant predictor of drinking (p = 0.01). Conclusions This study indicates that women who evidence behaviors or attitudes indicating an ego-dystonic pregnancy (one that is psychologically or emotionally uncomfortable), may be more likely to self-medicate and cope via avoidance through drinking. These behaviors and attitudes may be indicators of the need for targeted screening and intervention, as well as indicators of underlying problems to be targeted in treatment. Further, among all women for whom continued education is a possibility, retaining the ability to attend school during the pregnancy can be protective. PMID:22045021

  3. Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity in LGI1-autoantibody faciobrachial dystonic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kotsenas, Amy L.; Britton, Jeffrey W.; McKeon, Andrew; Watson, Robert E.; Klein, Christopher J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Lowe, Val; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Shin, Cheolsu; Boes, Christopher J.; Crum, Brian A.; Laughlin, Ruple S.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the clinical features and MRI abnormalities of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1)-autoantibody (Ab) faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). Methods: Forty-eight patients with LGI1-Ab encephalopathy were retrospectively identified by searching our clinical and serologic database from January 1, 2002, to June 1, 2015. Of these, 26 met inclusion criteria for this case series: LGI1-Ab seropositivity and FBDS. In a separate analysis of all 48 patients initially identified, the MRIs of patients with (n = 26) and without (n = 22) FBDS were compared by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to the clinical details. Results: The median age of the 26 included patients was 62.5 years (range 37–78); 65% were men. FBDS involved arm (26), face (22), and leg (12). Ten were previously diagnosed as psychogenic. Ictal EEGs were normal in 20 of 23 assessed. Basal ganglia T1 and T2 signal abnormalities were detected in 11 patients (42%), with excellent agreement between neuroradiologists (κ scores of 0.86 and 0.93, respectively), and included T1 hyperintensity alone (2), T2 hyperintensity alone (1), or both (8). The T1 hyperintensities persisted longer than the T2 hyperintensities (median 11 weeks vs 1 week, p = 0.02). Improvement with immunotherapy (18/18) was more frequent than with antiepileptic medications (10/24). A separate analysis of all 48 patients initially identified with LGI1-Ab encephalopathy showed that basal ganglia MRI abnormalities were present in 11 of 26 with FBDS but not present in those without FBDS (0/22) (p < 0.001). In contrast, mesial temporal MRI abnormalities were less common among those with FBDS (42%) than those without (91%) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity is a clinically useful MRI biomarker of LGI1-Ab FBDS and suggests a basal ganglia localization. PMID:26468474

  4. White Matter Abnormalities and Dystonic Motor Disorder Associated with Mutations in the "SLC16A2" Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gika, Artemis D.; Siddiqui, Ata; Hulse, Anthony J.; Edward, Selvakumari; Fallon, Penny; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Jan, Wajanat; Josifova, Dragana; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Refetoff, Samuel; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mutations in the "SLC16A2" gene have been implicated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked learning disability syndrome associated with thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities. Delayed myelination is a non-specific finding in individuals with learning disability whose genetic basis is often uncertain. The aim of this study…

  5. Movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452

  6. The Management of Osteoarthritis in Movement Disorders: A Case Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Giles H.; Howard, Robin S.; Lavelle, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Background A 37-year-old female with a hyperkinetic movement disorder due to chorea–acanthocytosis developed severe painful degenerative arthritis of her left knee as a consequence of repetitive involuntary flexion and extension dystonic and ballistic movements. Case Report Despite profound limitation in her mobility a total knee replacement was successfully undertaken. Discussion The case emphasizes that patients with progressive neurodegenerative disorders may derive relief or resolution of pain by joint replacement even if mobility does not improve following surgery. A multidisciplinary approach to care is essential. PMID:23858393

  7. [A case of smoldering anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody-associated limbic encephalitis with faciobrachial dystonic seizure].

    PubMed

    Nakaoku, Yuriko; Maki, Takakuni; Kanazawa, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Riki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2013-01-01

    We report a 59-year-old right-handed woman with smoldering leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (LE) following faciobrachial dystonic seizures. During 8 months before her admission, she developed partial seizures manifesting very brief and very frequent dystonia in her right hand sometimes with oral automatism and loss of awareness. In addition, she showed psychiatric disturbances such as emotionally labile condition and personality changes. On admission, neuropsychological examination revealed short-term memory impairment. During electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, ictal EEG showed rhythmic delta waves and interictal EEG showed intermittent irregular slow waves at the bilateral frontotemporal area. Brain MRI demonstrated high T2/FLAIR signal changes in the left amygdala expanding into the left hippocampus. FDG-PET showed hypermetabolism in the left amygdala, hippocampus and the bilateral basal ganglia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was unremarkable. There were no signs of malignant tumor detected on systemic examination. LGI1 antibody was positive in the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid and the clinical diagnosis of LGI1 antibody-associated LE was confirmed. Her symptoms and the abnormalities in the brain MRI/FDG-PET showed immediate improvement after anti-epileptic and steroid therapy. PMID:24097318

  8. Movement disorder emergencies in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, F J; Haywood, P; Kashyape, P; Borbone, J; Lording, A; Pryde, K; Cox, M; Keslake, J; Smith, M; Cuthbertson, L; Murugan, V; Mackie, S; Thomas, N H; Whitney, A; Forrest, K M; Parker, A; Forsyth, R; Kipps, C M

    2011-09-01

    The literature on paediatric acute-onset movement disorders is scattered. In a prospective cohort of 52 children (21 male; age range 2mo-15y), the commonest were chorea, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, and Parkinsonism in descending order of frequency. In this series of mainly previously well children with cryptogenic acute movement disorders, three groups were recognised: (1) Psychogenic disorders (n = 12), typically >10 years of age, more likely to be female and to have tremor and myoclonus (2) Inflammatory or autoimmune disorders (n = 22), including N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus, Sydenham chorea, systemic lupus erythematosus, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (which may be autosomal dominant), and other encephalitides and (3) Non-inflammatory disorders (n = 18), including drug-induced movement disorder, post-pump chorea, metabolic, e.g. glutaric aciduria, and vascular disease, e.g. moyamoya. Other important non-inflammatory movement disorders, typically seen in symptomatic children with underlying aetiologies such as trauma, severe cerebral palsy, epileptic encephalopathy, Down syndrome and Rett syndrome, include dystonic posturing secondary to gastro-oesophageal reflux (Sandifer syndrome) and Paroxysmal Autonomic Instability with Dystonia (PAID) or autonomic 'storming'. Status dystonicus may present in children with known extrapyramidal disorders, such as cerebral palsy or during changes in management e.g. introduction or withdrawal of neuroleptic drugs or failure of intrathecal baclofen infusion; the main risk in terms of mortality is renal failure from rhabdomyolysis. Although the evidence base is weak, as many of the inflammatory/autoimmune conditions are treatable with steroids, immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, or cyclophosphamide, it is important to make an early diagnosis where possible. Outcome in survivors is variable. Using illustrative case histories, this review draws attention to the practical difficulties in

  9. The role of DAT-SPECT in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kägi, G; Bhatia, K P; Tolosa, E

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging is a sensitive method to detect presynaptic dopamine neuronal dysfunction, which is a hallmark of neurodegenerative parkinsonism. DAT imaging can therefore assist the differentiation between conditions with and without presynaptic dopaminergic deficit. Diagnosis of Parkinson disease or tremor disorders can be achieved with high degrees of accuracy in cases with full expression of classical clinical features; however, diagnosis can be difficult, since there is a substantial clinical overlap especially in monosymptomatic tremor (dystonic tremor, essential tremor, Parkinson tremor). The use of DAT-SPECT can prove or excludes with high sensitivity nigrostriatal dysfunction in those cases and facilitates early and accurate diagnosis. Furthermore, a normal DAT-SPECT is helpful in supporting a diagnosis of drug-induced-, psychogenic- and vascular parkinsonism by excluding underlying true nigrostriatal dysfunction. This review addresses the value of DAT-SPECT and its impact on diagnostic accuracy in movement disorders presenting with tremor and/or parkinsonism. PMID:20019219

  10. Increased hexosaminidase activity in antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects: possible association with higher occurrence in bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Zeliha; Resmi, Halil; Ozkara, H Asuman; Ciliv, Gönenc; Celtikci, Basak; Alptekin, Koksal; Ozerdem, Aysegul; Akdede, Berna Kivircik; Baykara, Burak; Birsoy, Bilge; Ergor, Gul

    2008-07-01

    Dystonic movements and Parkinsonism are frequently seen in gangliosidoses and these conditions have been reported to modify dopaminergic plasticity. We investigated whether the activity of hexosaminidase, a type-two ganglioside (GM2) degrading enzyme, correlates with drug-induced extrapyramidal system (EPS) side effects in psychiatric patients. We compared hexosaminidase activity in the lymphocytes of 29 EPS-positive patients, 13 EPS-negative patients, and 30 healthy volunteers. The activities of A and B isoforms of hexosaminidase were higher in EPS-positive patients than EPS-negative patients and healthy controls. Multivariate analysis suggested an interaction with increased B isoform activity and EPS side effects in female bipolar disorder patients. Higher levels of hexosaminidase enzyme activity may explain the frequent occurrence of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects in mood disorder patients. PMID:18436361

  11. Non-Parkinson movement disorders: Five new things.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Mark S

    2013-02-01

    SOLUTIONS TO THE MAJOR RIDDLES IN MOVEMENT DISORDERS ARE APPEARING AT A BREATHTAKING PACE: 1) loss-of-function mutations in PRRT2, which encodes a cell surface protein expressed in neurons, have been found in many patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias; 2) mutations in CIZ1, which encodes a protein involved in cell-cycle control at the G1-S checkpoint, have been identified in a small percentage of patients with cervical dystonia; and 3) finally, after many years of genetics and identification of more than 25 disease-associated genes, cellular studies related to the pathobiology of hereditary spastic paraplegia are converging on defects in modeling the endoplasmic reticulum and membrane trafficking. On the treatment front, the distinctive syndromes of faciobrachial dystonic seizures with anti-LRI1 antibodies and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartic acid encephalitis with orobuccolingual dyskinesias are becoming increasingly recognized by clinicians as imminently treatable conditions. Also on the treatment front, the first phase I trial of MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound for essential tremor has been completed and intraoperative MRI is currently being used to place electrodes in the brains of patients with medically intractable dystonia. Definitive etiologies and efficacious treatments for non-Parkinson disease movement disorders are no longer wishful thinking. PMID:23634381

  12. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression and low activity or energy (depression). The following ...

  13. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally. It most often starts between ages 15 and 25. The exact ...

  14. Cyclothymic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... mental disorder. It is a mild form of bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness), in which a person has ... causes of cyclothymic disorder are unknown. Major depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymia often occur together in families. This ...

  15. Molecular imaging of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington’s disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette’s syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a

  16. Molecular imaging of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-03-28

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington's disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette's syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a caudal

  17. Autism spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism; Autistic disorder; Asperger syndrome; Childhood disintegrative disorder; Pervasive developmental disorder ... to be regarded as separate disorders: Autistic disorder Asperger syndrome Childhood disintegrative disorder Pervasive developmental disorder

  18. Autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection: Sydenham chorea, PANDAS, and PANDAS variants.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Piero; Parano, Enrico; Rizzo, Renata; Trifiletti, Rosario R

    2006-09-01

    Streptococcal infection in children is usually benign and self-limited. In a small percentage of children, prominent neurologic and/or psychiatric sequelae can occur. Sydenham chorea is the best defined and best recognized. PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection) is a well-defined syndrome in which tics (motor and/or vocal) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder consistently exacerbate in temporal correlation to a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection. PANDAS constitutes a subset of children with tics, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to strictly defined PANDAS, we and others have recognized several PANDAS variants, including adult-onset variant, a dystonic variant, a myoclonic variant, and a "chronic" PANDAS variant. The nosology and classification of these entities are rapidly evolving. The recognition that some pediatric neurobehavioral syndromes have infectious and/or immunologic triggers points to important new avenues of disease treatment. In this review, we summarize this complex and rapidly evolving area of clinical research. PMID:16970875

  19. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder Print A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  20. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  1. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ... Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a ...

  2. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Eating Disorders Definition There is a commonly held view that ... can lead to stroke or heart attack Binge-eating disorder People with binge-eating disorder lose control over ...

  3. Cyclothymic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is a mild form of bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness), in which a person has mood swings over ... causes of cyclothymic disorder are unknown. Major depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymia often occur together in families. This ...

  4. TMJ Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... referred Sally and her parents to a local dentist who specialized in jaw disorders. After examining Sally ... having symptoms of a TMJ disorder, let your dentist know. The earlier a TMJ disorder is diagnosed ...

  5. Cerebellar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems with the cerebellum include Cancer Genetic disorders Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in ...

  6. Phonological disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Articulation disorder; Developmental articulation disorder; Speech distortion; Sound distortion ... unknown. Close relatives may have had speech and language problems. ... sounds. These changes may include cleft palate and problems ...

  7. Panic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anxiety disorder - panic attacks References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  8. Tongue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... more, written in everyday language. Home Mouth and Dental Disorders Lip and Tongue Disorders Burning Mouth Syndrome Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Lip Changes and Discoloration Lip Inflammation Lip ...

  9. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  10. Any Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  11. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  12. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  13. Borderline Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  14. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page You are here Home » Personality Disorder Personality Disorder What is “Personality?” Personality refers to a distinctive set of traits, ... family, friends, and co-workers. What is a Personality Disorder? Those who struggle with a personality disorder ...

  15. Complex movement disorders at disease onset in childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Plazzi, Giuseppe; Pizza, Fabio; Palaia, Vincenzo; Franceschini, Christian; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan K; Cortelli, Pietro; Nobili, Lino; Bruni, Oliviero; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lin, Ling; Edwards, Mark J; Mignot, Emmanuel; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2011-12-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is characterized by daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden loss of bilateral muscle tone triggered by emotions), sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disturbed nocturnal sleep. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is most often associated with human leucocyte antigen-DQB1*0602 and is caused by the loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the hypothalamus of likely autoimmune aetiology. Noting that children with narcolepsy often display complex abnormal motor behaviours close to disease onset that do not meet the classical definition of cataplexy, we systematically analysed motor features in 39 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy in comparison with 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We found that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy displayed a complex array of 'negative' (hypotonia) and 'active' (ranging from perioral movements to dyskinetic-dystonic movements or stereotypies) motor disturbances. 'Active' and 'negative' motor scores correlated positively with the presence of hypotonic features at neurological examination and negatively with disease duration, whereas 'negative' motor scores also correlated negatively with age at disease onset. These observations suggest that paediatric narcolepsy with cataplexy often co-occurs with a complex movement disorder at disease onset, a phenomenon that may vanish later in the course of the disease. Further studies are warranted to assess clinical course and whether the associated movement disorder is also caused by hypocretin deficiency or by additional neurochemical abnormalities. PMID:21930661

  16. Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Carbohydrates are sugars. ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism NOTE: This is ...

  17. Personality disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000939.htm Personality disorders To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in ...

  18. Personality disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role. Mental health professionals categorize these ...

  19. Conversion disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from reality that is not on purpose) A personality disorder (inability to manage feelings and behaviors that ... MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, ...

  20. Rumination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Katzman DK, Kearney SA, Becker AE. Feeding and eating disorders. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Eating Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  1. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  2. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  3. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include depression and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). Mood disorders can increase a person's risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. With treatment, most ...

  4. Schizoaffective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ... Complications are similar to those for schizophrenia and major mood ... therapy Problems due to manic behavior (for example, spending ...

  5. Metabolic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  6. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  7. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs of a muscle disorder, tests such as an electromyogram , ...

  8. Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... new information. People with learning disorders may have problems Listening or paying attention Speaking Reading or writing ... around them can make them less of a problem. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  9. Swallowing Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Swallowing Disorders Information Page Synonym(s): Dysphagia Table of Contents ( ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What are Swallowing Disorders? Having trouble swallowing (dysphagia) is a symptom ...

  10. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard ... problems called parasomnias. There are treatments for most sleep disorders. Sometimes just having regular sleep habits can help.

  11. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... panic disorder? Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent panic attacks—an uncontrollable and terrifying response to ordinary, nonthreatening ... is also persistent anxiety or fear about the panic attacks and changes in behavior in an attempt to ...

  12. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  13. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  14. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause weakness, pain or even paralysis. Causes of muscle disorders include Injury or overuse, such as sprains or strains, cramps or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some ... muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not ...

  15. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders. PMID:27319605

  16. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  17. Tooth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include eating, speaking and even smiling. But tooth disorders are nothing to smile about. They include problems ... with your teeth. Fortunately, you can prevent many tooth disorders by taking care of your teeth and keeping ...

  18. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  19. Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

  20. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  1. Bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. PMID:26388529

  2. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  3. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  4. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Rome, Ellen S

    2003-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eating disorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eating disorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725

  5. [Nervous disorders in those engaged in the cleanup of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station subjected to ionizing radiation exposure at low doses].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, E N; Kazakova, S E; Safonova, E F

    1993-07-01

    Neurological, psychiatric, somatic and immune status were studied in 256 patients subjected to ionizing radiation at the dose of 10-45 cGy during liquidation of aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. In 61% of them neurocirculatory dystonia was found, 39% of patients revealed dyscirculatory encephalopathy. Alongside with dystonic disorders structural changes of vessels were detected. Asthenoneurosis diagnosed in 97% of patients was recognized as a key syndrome in 53%, while in 23%--obsessional-phobic syndrome dominated, in 7%--depressive syndrome and in 14%--psycho-organic syndrome were at the foreground. Somatic status in most patients (67%) was burdened by diseases of digestive tract. 191 patients revealed considerable immune imbalance. In 95 patients (33%) it was less pronounced and consisted in moderate decrease of TPR/TPS ratio. Degrees of immune and neurological disorders correlated closely. The conclusion was made that low-dose radiation induces primary damage of immunity and vessels with secondary nervous system involvement. That is why connection between neurological symptoms and radiation in subjects who took part in liquidation of Chernobyl accident aftermath may be considered probable only in association with immune and circulatory disorders. PMID:8079465

  6. Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Marilyn

    Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of "nerves,"…

  7. EATING DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

  8. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... or digestive problems Problems sleeping, or wanting to sleep all of the time Feeling tired all of the time Thoughts about death and suicide Causes & Risk Factors What causes bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. It sometimes runs in ...

  9. Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  10. Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... age. About one-third of children who have learning disabilities also have ADHD, which makes it hard to focus. Evaluation and testing by a trained professional can help identify a learning disorder. The next step is special education, which ...

  11. Tooth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... made of a hard, bonelike material. Inside the tooth are nerves and blood vessels. You need your ... These include eating, speaking and even smiling. But tooth disorders are nothing to smile about. They include ...

  12. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and play a role in your body's immune response. They can also build up and cause inflammation. ... Your body may produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal ...

  13. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent ...

  14. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  15. TMJ Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the popular belief that a bad bite or orthodontic braces can trigger TMJ disorders. There is no ... effective – and may make the problem worse – include orthodontics to change the bite; crown and bridge work ...

  16. Conduct disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Disruptive behavior - child; Impulse control problem - child ... Conduct disorder has been linked to: Child abuse Drug or alcohol abuse in the parents Family conflicts Genetic defects Poverty The diagnosis is more common among boys. It is ...

  17. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror when there ... or a cold chill Tingly or numb hands Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere, and without warning. You ...

  18. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  19. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  20. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  1. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... health professional before making a commitment. Learn More Free Booklets and Brochures Bipolar Disorder: A brochure on ... in the public domain and available for use free of charge. Citation of the NIMH is appreciated. ...

  2. Disorderly Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ivars

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between theories about electrical conductivity in microscopic wires and laser speckle patterns is described. Practical applications of laser speckle patterns are included. Wave ideas are being used to describe and predict novel phenomena in disordered solids. (KR)

  3. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... make you hoarse. They can also lead to problems such as nodules, polyps, and sores on the ... disorders varies depending on the cause. Most voice problems can be successfully treated when diagnosed early. NIH: ...

  4. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePlus

    The child may have problems in school, including behavior problems and loss of self-esteem. Some children with mathematics disorder become anxious or afraid when given math problems, making the problem even worse.

  5. Psychotic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. People with psychoses lose touch with reality. Two ... is sending you secret messages. Hallucinations are false perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or feeling something that ...

  6. Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... combine with a food’s aroma to produce a perception of flavor. It is flavor that lets you ... The most common taste disorder is phantom taste perception : a lingering, often unpleasant taste even though there ...

  7. Corneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injuries Dystrophies - conditions in which parts of the cornea lose clarity due to a buildup of cloudy material Treatments of corneal disorders include medicines, corneal transplantation, and corneal laser surgery. NIH: National Eye Institute

  8. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... by recurrent episodes of paralyzing fear, known as panic attacks. Panic disorder, which affects three million to six ... Americans, typically surfaces between ages fifteen and nineteen. Panic attacks may be precipitated by specific events, but they ...

  9. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. One theory is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or viruses) or drugs may trigger changes that confuse the immune system. This may happen ...

  10. Bleeding disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process. These disorders can lead to heavy and ... Normal blood clotting involves blood components called platelets and as many as 20 different plasma proteins. These are known as ...

  11. Peritoneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your peritoneum is the tissue that lines your abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in your abdomen. ... the surface of this tissue. Disorders of the peritoneum are not common. They include Peritonitis - an inflammation ...

  12. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sense of unease) to severe (frequent, disabling panic attacks). Severe anxiety disorders can lead the person to ... More Are there medications that can help with panic attacks? Yes. There are many medications that have FDA ...

  13. Parathyroid Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  14. Bleeding disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process. These disorders can lead to heavy and ... II, and III) Causes Watch this video about: Blood clotting Normal blood clotting involves blood components called platelets ...

  15. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  16. Illness anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Somatic symptom disorder; Somatic symptom and related disorders; Hypochondriasis ... Illness anxiety disorder is different from somatic symptom disorder. With somatic symptom disorder, the person has physical pain or other ...

  17. Somatic symptom disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder ... and emotionally sensitive to pain and other sensations Family ... to illness anxiety disorder . This is when a person is overly ...

  18. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder ... The following tests can help diagnose speech disorders: Denver ... Peabody Picture Test Revised A hearing test may also be done.

  19. Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232

  20. Gastroduodenal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Chan, Francis K L; Hasler, William L; Malagelada, Juan R; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tack, Jan; Talley, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    Symptoms that can be attributed to the gastroduodenal region represent one of the main subgroups among functional gastrointestinal disorders. A slightly modified classification into the following 4 categories is proposed: (1) functional dyspepsia, characterized by 1 or more of the following: postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning, which are unexplained after a routine clinical evaluation; and includes 2 subcategories: postprandial distress syndrome that is characterized by meal-induced dyspeptic symptoms and epigastric pain syndrome that does not occur exclusively postprandially; the 2 subgroups can overlap; (2) belching disorders, defined as audible escapes of air from the esophagus or the stomach, are classified into 2 subcategories, depending on the origin of the refluxed gas as detected by intraluminal impedance measurement belching: gastric and supragastric belch; (3) nausea and vomiting disorders, which include 3 subcategories: chronic nausea and vomiting syndrome; cyclic vomiting syndrome; and cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome; and (4) rumination syndrome. PMID:27147122

  1. [Headache disorders].

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Takao; Kikui, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Primary headache disorders such as migraine, tension-type headache, and cluster headache are prevalent and disabling neurological disorders. Although most headache disorders are largely treatable, they are under-recognized, under-diagnosed, and under-treated. Many headache sufferers in Japan do not receive appropriate and effective health care; hence, the illness, which should be relieved, persists and acts as an individual and societal burden. One of the barriers most responsible for this is poor awareness of the disorders. For lifting the burden, health care must be improved. Education is an essential way to resolve these issues at multiple levels. We have a Japanese version of the international headache classification and diagnostic criteria II (ICHD-II) and guidelines for the management of chronic headaches. Utilization of these resources is key for the improvement of headache management in our country. Not only neurologists, but also neurosurgeons and other medical specialists are participating in headache care in Japan. The Japanese Headache Society and the Japanese Society for Neurology should play major roles in health care service, education programs, as well as clinical and basic research for headache disorders. The road map for realizing our aim on headache treatment is as follows: (1) increase the number of units concerning headache in lectures for medical students, implement training programs for residents and neurologists, and offer continuous medical educations for physicians and neurologists; (2) secure more funding for headache research; (3) propagate medical care for headache in primary care settings and regional fundamental hospitals; (4) reform the health care system for headache and incentivize appropriate compensation for headache care in public health insurance; and (5) spread appropriate information on medical and socio-ethical issues related to headache for the sufferers and citizens. The authors expect that many neurologists have an

  2. Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5%) or bulimia (15.4 %) was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 %) among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis. PMID:15345084

  3. Other Disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental conditions, such as wind, water, and temperature, or genetic disorders can affect beet production but can also cause symptoms that may be confused with those associated with pest or disease damage. Listed below are some the potential abiotic stresses that may occur to beet but are unr...

  4. Myeloproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, D. Gary

    2008-01-01

    In 1951 William Dameshek classified polycythemia vera (PV), essential thombocytosis (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) as pathogenetically related myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). Subsequent studies demonstrated that PV, ET, and PMF are clonal disorders of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. In 2005, a somatic activating mutation in the JAK2 nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (JAK2V617F) was identified in most patients with PV and in a significant proportion of patients with ET and PMF. Subsequent studies identified additional mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway in some patients with JAK2V617F− MPD, suggesting that constitutive activation of this signaling pathway is a unifying feature of these disorders. Although the discovery of mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway is important from a pathogenetic and diagnostic perspective, important questions remain regarding the role of this single disease allele in 3 related but clinically distinct disorders, and the role of additional genetic events in MPD disease pathogenesis. In addition, these observations provide a foundation for development of small molecule inhibitors of JAK2 that are currently being tested in clinical trials. This review will discuss our understanding of the pathogenesis of PV, ET, and PMF, the potential role of JAK2-targeted therapy, and the important unanswered questions that need to be addressed to improve clinical outcome. PMID:18779404

  5. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... might cause your mood changes. If not treated, bipolar disorder can lead to damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide. However, there are effective treatments to control symptoms: medicine and talk therapy. A combination usually works best. NIH: National Institute ...

  6. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and family history may play a role. Your life experiences, such as stress or a history of abuse, may also matter. Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a mental disorder. A mother's exposure to viruses or toxic chemicals while pregnant may play a ...

  7. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Mental Disorders Stress Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  8. Penis Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...

  9. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  10. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Kontić, Olga; Vasiljević, Nadja; Trisović, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Lakić, Aneta; Gasić, Miroslava Jasović

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  11. Dysthymic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression, it appears to be more common in women. Causes & Risk Factors What causes dysthymic disorder? No one knows for sure what causes dysthymia. It may be related to some changes in the brain that involve a chemical called serotonin (say: seer-uh-tone-in). Serotonin helps your ...

  12. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Going to the Doctor I'm Growing Up - But Am I Normal? Feeling Too Tall or Too Short What a Pain! Kids and Growing ... Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  13. Autism and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  14. Autism and related disorders.

    PubMed

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), and Rett's disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as autism spectrum disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiological characteristics compared to Rett's disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews research and clinical information to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  15. Somatic symptom disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. Ferri F. Somatization disorder. In: Ferri FF, ...

  16. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anxiety Disorder Treating Anxiety Disorders: Educational Videos Clinical Practice Review for Major Depressive Disorder Meetings & Events Mental Health Apps Announcements Awards Alies Muskin Career Development ...

  17. Screening for Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anxiety Disorder Treating Anxiety Disorders: Educational Videos Clinical Practice Review for Major Depressive Disorder Meetings & Events Mental Health Apps Announcements Awards Alies Muskin Career Development ...

  18. [Dysmorphic disorder].

    PubMed

    Racy, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    The term "dysmorphic disorder" is used in psychiatry to define an obsessive fear of being ugly or deformed. Orthognathic surgery can entail varying degrees of facial change in patients. However, it is widely acknowledged that some patients find it difficult to adjust to the changes, either as a result of what they see in the mirror or of comments from those around them. Occasionally, the psychological impact of the transformation exceeds the extent of the modification itself. The term "dysmorphic disorder" is applied to this type of psychological suffering due to an inability to adapt. It is the duty of practitioners (orthodontists and surgeons) to screen patients who show signs during their first appointments of psychological fragility in order either to dissuade them from choosing a surgical route involving a high potential for transformation or to assist them, with professional support from a psychologist or psychotherapist, towards accepting the change. PMID:27083236

  19. Oppositional defiant disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Bipolar disorder Depression Learning disorders Substance abuse disorders ... Group on Quality Issues. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with oppositional ...

  20. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Dependent personality disorder is a mental condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Causes of dependent personality disorder are unknown. The disorder usually ... It is one of the most common personality disorders and ...

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a ... and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people with ASD can have a ...

  2. Screening for Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression ... Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Screening for Panic Disorder Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for ...

  3. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  4. Disorder of written expression

    MedlinePlus

    Written expression disorder; Dysgraphia; Specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression ... disorder appears by itself or along with other learning disabilities, such as: Developmental coordination disorder (includes poor handwriting) ...

  5. Disorder of written expression

    MedlinePlus

    Written expression disorder; Dysgraphia; Specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression ... Specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression is as common as other learning disorders, which is about 5 ...

  6. Paranoid personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a full-blown psychotic disorder, such as schizophrenia . Causes Causes of paranoid personality disorder are unknown. ... common in families with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder. This suggests genes may be ...

  7. Disorders of Lipid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Fats (lipids) are ... carbohydrates and low in fats. Supplements of the amino acid carnitine may be helpful. The long-term outcome ...

  8. Arousal disorders.

    PubMed

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes. PMID:22136894

  9. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... your neck and your abdomen. It includes the ribs and breastbone. Inside your chest are several organs, ... and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders of the mediastinum, the ...

  10. Panic Disorder and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your state. Panic Attacks, Panic Disorder, and Agoraphobia (Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians) - This online ... and examples of co-existing conditions. Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia (Copyright © Anxiety Disorders Association of America) - This web ...

  11. Social anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in the teens ...

  12. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  13. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  14. Preschool Language Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... not get a language disorder from learning a second language. It won't confuse your child to speak ... on child language disorders describes research supporting the benefits of speech-language pathology treatment for children with language disorders. It ...

  15. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  16. Children with Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder ... make teachers and parents concerned about their general intelligence. Often, these children may try very hard to ...

  17. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum disorder Brain injury Stroke Some speech and ...

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Autism Spectrum Disorder Information Page Condensed from Autism Spectrum ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autistic disorder (sometimes called autism or ...

  19. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Overview What is obsessive-compulsive disorder? Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an illness that causes people to have unwanted thoughts (obsessions) ...

  20. Help With Bipolar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Bipolar Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Bipolar disorders are brain disorders that cause changes in a ...

  1. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  2. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  3. Stereotypic movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... include repetitive and purposeless picking, hand wringing, head tics, or lip-biting. Long-term stimulant use may ... disorders Obsessive compulsive disorder Tourette syndrome or other tic disorder

  4. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Studies Peer Support Research WeSearchTogether Types of Bipolar Disorder There are several kinds of bipolar disorder. Each ... like an illness. What is the difference between bipolar disorder and ordinary mood swings? The three main things ...

  5. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally ...

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  7. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  8. Avoidant personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  9. Borderline personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Personality disorder - borderline References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  10. Borderline personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  11. Antisocial personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to ...

  12. Generalized anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Calkins AW, Bui E, Taylor CT, Pollack ...

  13. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from a weight-loss program that also offers treatment for eating disorders. However, some people with binge eating disorder may ... disorder should get help from a specialist in eating disorders, such as a psychiatrist or a psychologist. Treatment may include the use of behavior change therapy, ...

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Easy-to-Read) Download PDF Download ePub Order ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  15. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  16. Eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    Robb, Adelaide S; Dadson, Michele J

    2002-04-01

    Eating disorders are one of the rare psychiatric disorders with a large preponderance of female patients. The other articles in this issue review eating disorders in children and adolescents and focus primarily on female patients. This article reviews the eating disorders that occur in male children and teenagers, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder named muscle dysmorphobia, and obesity. This article reviews subgroups of boys who are at higher risk for developing eating disorders. The article commences with the difference in male perceptions of body image and dieting behaviors. PMID:12109328

  17. Learning and Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anil; Uderman, Jodi; Feirsen, Nicole; Bedard, Anne-Claude; Marks, David

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to provide a select review of treatments for addressing reading disorder, mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression, auditory processing disorder and poor working memory. This information will be valuable to practitioners in determining the suitability of certain treatments for these various disorders/problems which has direct implications for providing comprehensive, multi-disciplinary treatment for youth. PMID:23806314

  18. Overview of sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Glenn; Ang, Robert C

    2006-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common and can affect anyone, from every social class and every ethnic background. It is estimated that more than 70 million Americans are afflicted by chronic sleep disorders. Currently about 88 sleep disorders are described by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders as established by The American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article describes the dyssomnias and parasomnias most commonly seen in the clinical setting of the sleep disorder clinic or laboratory. PMID:16530646

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Ptáček, R; Kuželová, H; Papežová, H; Stěpánková, T

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child diagnosis with frequent comorbidities (Quinn, 2008). According to present studies eating disorders may represent one of them (Mikami et al., 2008). Several studies reported ADHD relation to the higher predisposition to obesity (Altafas, 2002), higher values of signs of overnutrition, as body mass index (Waring and Lapane, 2008) or higher value of fat (Ptacek et al., 2009a, c). These characteristics are considered to be directly related to the disorder. They can be caused by impulsivity and probable specific feeding customs of ADHD patients. The presence of eating disorders in ADHD patients could partially explain previously described growth and weight changes. PMID:20946717

  20. Depression and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Casper, R C

    1998-01-01

    Both depressive disorders and eating disorders are multidimensional and heterogeneous disorders. This paper examines the nature of their relationship by reviewing clinical descriptive, family-genetic, treatment, and biological studies that relate to the issue. The studies confirm the prominence of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders in eating disorders. Other psychiatric syndromes which occur with less frequency, such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders in anorexia nervosa, or personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in bulimia nervosa, also play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Since few studies have controlled for starvation-induced physical, endocrine, or psychological changes which mimic the symptoms considered diagnostic for depression, further research will be needed. The evidence for a shared etiology is not compelling for anorexia nervosa and is at most suggestive for bulimia nervosa. Since in contemporary cases dieting-induced weight loss is the principal trigger, women with self-critical or depressive features will be disproportionately recruited into eating disorders. The model that fits the data best would accommodate a relationship between eating disorders and the full spectrum of depressive disorders from no depression to severe depression, with somewhat higher rates of depression in bulimic anorectic and bulimia nervosa patients than in restricting anorexia nervosa patients, but the model would admit a specific pathophysiology and psychopathology in each eating disorder. PMID:9809221

  1. [Adolescent behavioral disorders].

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Larrar, Michael; Ferreri, Mélanie

    2014-04-01

    Adolescence is a period of physical and mental transition between childhood and adulthood, two supposedly quieter periods. Puberty and social pressures generate painful psychic conflicts even for a subject without particular problem. Behavioral disorders of adolescents are numerous and heterogeneous. It is oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, hyperactive disorder with attention deficit which often begin during childhood to evolve negatively in adolescence. Eating disorders, addictive disorders, self-mutilation and scarification are also found. Therapeutic management should be multimodal and involve different actors in the health, education and social areas. PMID:24855786

  2. [Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders].

    PubMed

    Zwanzger, P

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety disorders belong to the most frequent psychiatric disorders according to epidemiological studies and are associated with a high economic burden. Panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia belong to the most important clinical disorders. The etiology is complex, including genetic, neurobiological as well as psychosocial factors. With regard to treatment, both psychotherapy and medication can be employed according to current treatment guidelines. With regard to psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the treatment of choice. As for pharmacological treatment, in particular modern antidepressants and pregabalin are recommended. However, several recommendations have to be considered in daily clinical practice. PMID:27299791

  3. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland. PMID:25682808

  4. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  5. Anxiety Disorders Information: Helping Others

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anxiety Disorder Treating Anxiety Disorders: Educational Videos Clinical Practice Review for Major Depressive Disorder Meetings & Events Mental Health Apps Announcements Awards Alies Muskin Career Development ...

  6. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000941.htm Dependent personality disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dependent personality disorder is a mental condition in which people ...

  7. Histrionic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001531.htm Histrionic personality disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Histrionic personality disorder is a mental condition in which people ...

  8. Schizotypal personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001525.htm Schizotypal personality disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Schizotypal personality disorder is a mental condition in which a ...

  9. Histrionic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Histrionic personality disorder is a mental condition in which people act in a very emotional and dramatic way that ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and ... may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in women than ...

  10. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  11. Kinetics of Tetrataenite Disordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    Tetrataenite is a sensitive tracer of transient secondary thermal events that leads to disordering of tetrataenite into taenite. Thus, preliminary results concerning time-temperature data for tetrataenite disordering are presented.

  12. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  13. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  14. Specific Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Genetic Terms Definitions for genetic terms Specific Genetic Disorders Many human diseases have a genetic component. ... Condition in an Adult The Undiagnosed Diseases Program Genetic Disorders Achondroplasia Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Antiphospholipid Syndrome ...

  15. Genetic Brain Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  16. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and men also are vulnerable. Boys with eating disorders show the same types of ... as girls, but for a variety of reasons, boys are less likely to be diagnosed with what ...

  17. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders Go Back Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders Email Print + Share The kidneys filter the ... but some less serious ones occur more frequently. Kidney stones These are probably the most commonly encountered ...

  18. Schizoid personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder is unknown. It may be related to schizophrenia and shares many of the same risk factors. Schizoid personality disorder is not as disabling as schizophrenia. It does not cause the disconnection from reality ( ...

  19. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum ...

  20. How to characterize disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, T.

    2016-05-01

    Researchers working on nuclear materials encounter disorder in the atomic structure all the time, usually caused by irradiation. The nature of disorder varies widely, from lattice defects to amorphous phase formation. Generally it is not easy to characterize the state of disorder with the accuracy necessary to elucidate the properties caused by structural disorder. However, owing to advances in the tools of characterization and rapid rise in computer power, significant progress has been made in characterizing structural disorder. We discuss how to describe and determine the structure and dynamics of disordered materials using scattering measurements and modeling. Lattice defects caused by irradiation usually has negative effects on properties, but glasses and highly disordered materials can be irradiation resistant, and could be useful as nuclear materials. Characterizing and controlling disorder is becoming an important endeavor in the field of nuclear materials.

  1. Diagnosing Tic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Diagnosing Tic Disorders Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... or postviral encephalitis). Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder For a person to be diagnosed with ...

  2. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  3. Antisocial personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development ...

  4. Narcissistic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - borderline; Narcissism ... A person with narcissistic personality disorder may: React to criticism with rage, shame, or humiliation Take advantage of other people to achieve his or her ...

  5. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord. Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain ... body. There are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. ...

  6. Narcissistic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - borderline; Narcissism ... A person with narcissistic personality disorder may: React to criticism with rage, shame, or humiliation Take advantage of other people to achieve his or her own ...

  7. What Are Reading Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are reading disorders? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... for more information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of ...

  8. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  9. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs ...

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral ... for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. More E-mail Your Friends "Children with autism ...

  11. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders are rarely caused by a lack of intelligence. Language disorders are different than delayed language. With ... also recommended because of the possibility of related emotional or behavioral problems.

  12. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  13. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Binge Eating Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Binge Eating Disorder Print A A A Text Size What's in ... takes a combination of things to develop an eating disorder — including a person's genes, emotions, and behaviors (such ...

  14. Eating disorders in men.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Damon B; Williams, Jeffrey

    2016-09-22

    Eating disorders are traditionally thought of as a problem specific to women, but evidence suggests the disorders also occur in men. Identifying the problem and referring patients for treatment can be difficult. Understanding the nuances of these disorders and realizing the incidence in men is important, as it is often overlooked as a differential diagnosis. PMID:27552690

  15. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Print A ... Diagnosing OCD Getting Therapy for OCD What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? Everyone feels anxiety, fear, uncertainty, or worry at ...

  16. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  17. Reading disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Olitsky, Scott E; Nelson, Leonard B

    2003-02-01

    Reading difficulties are a complex set of disorders. Current research indicates that these disorders are not caused by vision abnormalities. Treatment of these disorders requires a multidisciplinary approach involving educators, psychologists, and physicians. Parents, physicians, and school officials should understand that there are no quick cures for these children. PMID:12713114

  18. Pituitary Disorders and Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Various hormonal disorders can influence bone metabolism and cause secondary osteoporosis. The consequence of this is a significant increase of fracture risk. Among pituitary disorders such effects are observed in patients with Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, and hypopituitarism. Severe osteoporosis is the result of the coexistence of some of these disorders and hypogonadism at the same time, which is quite often. PMID:25873948

  19. Behavior Disorders Program Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seely, Trudy; And Others

    Described is a Georgia county school system's program which began in 1972 for behaviorally disordered children (kindergarten through high school). Opening chapters include a rationale for the program, a definition of behavior disorders, and a list of program objectives such as identifying children with behavior disorders and assisting them to…

  20. Rare Disorders and Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  1. Mood Disorders after TBI

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Ricardo E.; Arciniegas, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis In this article, we will examine the epidemiology and risk factors for the development of the most common mood disorders observed in the aftermath of TBI: depressive disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. We will describe the classification approach and diagnostic criteria proposed in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-V). We will also examine the differential diagnosis of post-TBI mood disorders and describe the mainstay of the evaluation process. Finally, we will place a special emphasis on the analysis of the different therapeutic options and provide guidelines for the appropriate management of these conditions. PMID:24529421

  2. Personality disorder diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    WIDIGER, THOMAS A

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general personality functioning, and from each other. Each of these issues is discussed in turn, and it is suggested that personality disorders are more accurately and effectively diagnosed as maladaptive variants of common personality traits. PMID:16946918

  3. Disorders of diminished motivation.

    PubMed

    Marin, Robert S; Wilkosz, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Disorders of diminished motivation occur frequently in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Motivation is an ever-present, essential determinant of behavior and adaptation. The major syndromes of diminished motivation are apathy, abulia, and akinetic mutism. Depending on their etiology, disorders of diminished motivation may be a primary clinical disturbance, a symptom of another disorder, or a coexisting second disorder. This article presents a biopsychosocial approach to the assessment and management of motivational impairments in patients with traumatic brain injury. The recognition and differential diagnosis of disorders of diminished motivation, as well as the mechanism and clinical pathogenesis, are discussed. PMID:16030444

  4. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  5. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  6. [Adolescent eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Hagenah, Ulrich; Vloet, Timo; Holtkamp, Kristian

    2005-04-01

    Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa are common psychiatric disorders in adolescent girls. In discrepancy to ICD-10 and DSM-IV we would propose the 10th BMI percentile as weight criterium for anorexia nervosa. Both disorders have a high somatic and psychiatric comorbidity; the most severe complication at long term follow-up is osteoporosis. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders are affective disorders, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse. There is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition and a range of general and personal environmental risk factors. Treatment of adolescent eating disorders mostly requires a multimodal approach which consists of several components, e.g. weight rehabilitation, nutritional counselling, individual and family psychotherapy, and treatment of comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:15918539

  7. [Eating disorders in men].

    PubMed

    Bak, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Despite of being perceived as 'woman's diseases', eating disorders were described among boys and adult men. This article presents epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in men. The clinical presentation of eating disorders in men was described and compared with similar data from the female population. Moreover, a significance of selected risk factors, specifically those referring to men, was discussed. These are: the disturbance of body perception, personality traits and potential association of eating disorders with sexual orientation. Efficacy of different psychotherapy approaches aimed at eating disorders was summarized. Rules governing psychotherapy of men suffering from eating disorders were described. Specific features of eating disorders' aetiology were taken into account together with characteristic difficulties influencing treatment. PMID:19697523

  8. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Teresa; Mason, Thornton B A

    2002-12-01

    Sleep disorders are common in childhood, and may affect multiple aspects of a child's life and the lives of other family members. A sleep disorder assessment should begin with detailed sleep history and a review of interrelated health issues. Factors contributing to disturbed sleep may be discovered or confirmed by a thorough physical examination. Thereafter, appropriate ancillary testing can provide support for a specific clinical diagnosis. The spectrum of childhood sleep disorders includes OSA, narcolepsy, RLS/PLMD, sleep onset association disorder, and parasomnias. Diagnosing sleep disorders in children remains a challenge; however, a multidisciplinary approach may provide an opportunity for productive collaboration and, thereby, more effective patient management. Centers treating pediatric sleep disorders may include providers from a variety of disciplines in pediatric healthcare, such as child psychology, pulmonology, neurology, psychiatry, nursing, and otolaryngology. Over the last decade, research in pediatric sleep disorders has expanded greatly, paralleled by an increased awareness of the importance of adequate, restorative sleep in childhood. PMID:12587368

  9. [Language in autistic disorders].

    PubMed

    Artigas, J

    1999-02-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder affecting social relationships, communication and flexibility of thought. These three basic aspects of autism may present in many different forms and degrees. Therefore autism should be considered to be a spectrum of autistic disorders rather than a single strictly defined condition. The spectrum of autistic disorders extends from intelligent individuals with acceptable social integration, to severely retarded patients with scarcely any social interaction. Language is almost always affected either in its formal aspects or in its usage. Autistic linguistic disorders form a specific language disorder (developmental dysphasia) and a pragmatic disorder linked both to the primary language problem and to the social cognitive deficit. We discuss the different linguistic syndromes observed in autistic patients with special emphasis on the semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:10778500

  10. Sexual Desire Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

  11. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling. PMID:26394523

  12. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  13. Autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Hadeel; Al Ateeqi, Nahed; Tidmarsh, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, reciprocal social interaction and restricted repetitive behaviors or interests. The term autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been used to describe their variable presentation. Although the cause of these disorders is not yet known, studies strongly suggest a genetic basis with a complex mode of inheritance. More research is needed to explore environmental factors that could be contributing to the cause of these disorders. The occurrence of ASD has been increasing worldwide, with the most recent prevalence studies indicating that they are present in 6 per 1000 children. The objectives of this article are to provide physicians with relevant information needed to identify and refer children presenting with symptoms suggestive of ASDs to specialized centers early, and to make them feel comfortable in dealing with public concerns regarding controversial issues about the etiology and management of these disorders. PMID:20622347

  14. [Haemostatic disorders in children].

    PubMed

    Kurnik, Karin; Bidlingmaier, Christoph; Hütker, Sebastian; Olivieri, Martin

    2016-05-10

    Haemorrhagic and thrombotic events occur in both children and adults. The underlying causes are congenital or acquired disorders. In contrast to haemorrhagic disorders, inherited thrombotic disorders nearly exclusively in association with additional external risk factors lead to thrombotic events predominantly during the newborn period and adolescence. It is necessary to be aware of age-specific properties of coagulation in order to correctly interpret clinical and laboratory findings and to provide optimal care for children with haemorrhagic and thrombotic complications. PMID:26988657

  15. Gastrointestinal disorders - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Digestive disease - resources; Resources - gastrointestinal disorders ... org American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- digestive.niddk.nih.gov

  16. Mood and affect disorders.

    PubMed

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

    2015-02-01

    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians. PMID:25646309

  17. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. PMID:27041258

  18. Expressive language disorder - developmental

    MedlinePlus

    ... language skills needed to understand verbal or written communication. ... Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication disorders. ... Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  19. Small Intestine Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  20. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Osborn J, Raetz J, Kost A. Seasonal ...

  1. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache.

    PubMed

    Graff-Radford, Steven B; Abbott, Jeremy J

    2016-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and primary headaches can be perpetual and debilitating musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The presence of both can affect up to one-sixth of the population at any one time. Initially, TMDs were thought to be predominantly musculoskeletal disorders, and migraine was thought to be solely a cerebrovascular disorder. The further understanding of their pathophysiology has helped to clarify their clinical presentation. This article focuses on the role of the trigeminal system in associating TMD and migraine. By discussing recent descriptions of prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of headache and TMD, we will further elucidate this relationship. PMID:27475510

  2. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25577484

  3. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  4. Psychiatric rehabilitation of emotional disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorder is psychological and behavioral problems of emotional domain that is different from cognitive domain, such as thought and memory. Typical emotional disorders are anxiety disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. In the present study, we discussed on the symptoms, progression, and treatment for the anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder), depression, and bipolar disorder. The goal of treatment for the emotional disorder is removal of symptoms. In spite of the development of brain science, removal of symptoms, prevention of recurrence, and coming back to normal life require patience and effort. PMID:25210694

  5. Definitions: Communicative Disorders and Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asha, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Definitions are provided for the overall category of "communicative disorder," and "hearing disorder." In addition, definitions are provided for the following narrower categories: "voice disorder,""articulation disorder,""fluency disorder,""deaf," and "hard of hearing." Journal Availability: See EC 152 480. (SEW)

  6. Beat (Beat Eating Disorders).

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    This charity website provides a comprehensive range of information on eating disorders. There is an overview section about different types of eating disorders, which is in clear and easily understood terms, giving readers the option to seek more detailed information. PMID:26419568

  7. Social anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in adolescence and may have to do ...

  8. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  9. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-09

    Immune Deficiency Disorders:; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorder:; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  10. Understanding Panic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Mary Lynn

    This booklet is part of the National Institute of Mental Health's efforts to educate the public and health care professionals about panic disorder. Discussed here are the causes, definition, and symptoms of the disorder. Panic attacks, which can seriously interfere with a person's life, may strike more than three million U.S. citizens at some time…