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Direct marketers assign the communication channel e-mail an increasing importance, evolving a marketer's collection of customer e-mail addresses to an asset of important business value in order to provide customers the right offer at the right point in time. Besides the design and content of an e-mail campaign the e-mail-transportation process is of critical importance to really reach your potential
Breast cancer is now the leading cause of death in Hispanic women (HW). Internet, e-mail, and instant text messaging may be cost-effective in educating HW about breast health and in reducing breast cancer mortality. We surveyed 905 HW women attending a free health fair about their technology use, acculturation, insurance status, mammography use, and breast cancer knowledge. Data were analyzed by t test or ?(2) tests. Mean age was 51.9 ± 14.2 years (range, 18 to 88 years). Ninety-two per cent were foreign-born. Most had completed some high school (39%) or elementary (38%) education. Most (62%) were uninsured. The majority spoke (67%) and read (66%) only Spanish. Only 60 per cent of HW older than 40 years had a recent mammogram. HW older than 40 years who had not had a recent mammogram were younger (mean 54.9 ± 10.8 vs 58 ± 10.4 years) and less likely to have health insurance (25 vs 44%; P < 0.001). Most HW never use the Internet (58%) or e-mail (64%). However, 70 per cent have mobile phones (66% older than 40 years), and 65 per cent use text messaging daily (58% older than 40 years, P = 0.001). In fact, 45 per cent wish to receive a mammogram reminder by text. Text messaging may be an inexpensive way to promote breast health and screening mammography use among uninsured HW. PMID:24160786
Dang, Catherine M; Estrada, Sylvia; Bresee, Catherine; Phillips, Edward H
The challenge today is how to make e-mail and other forms of electronic communication effective in motivating volunteer action. Is it possible to make e-mails feel personal and welcoming? E-mail, instant messaging, texting, and social media are tools that allow individuals to communicate quickly and inexpensively, but they are lifeless without the…
|The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors…
The thirtieth anniversary of the first e-mail was celebrated recently, but no one knows the exact date or what the original message was. This lack of certainty is typical of research on e-mail – there is now a substantial body of knowledge, but little attempt has been made to co-ordinate it. This article looks at the origins and features of
|Presents guidelines to help businesspeople and business students become more effective and efficient in the use of e-mail. Includes the authors' experiences as instructors in diverse business schools and corporate settings. Notes that the guidelines cover: recognizing the nature of e-mail; composing e-mail; and processing and managing e-mail.…
|Despite the fact that e-mail has been firmly entrenched in offices and homes for some time, debate still rages online about e-mail usage and style. How should and e-mail message begin and end? If replying to a message, should the message be quoted before or after? What tone should be taken with a business e-mail? The author talked with some heavy…
Despite the fact that e-mail has been firmly entrenched in offices and homes for some time, debate still rages online about e-mail usage and style. How should and e-mail message begin and end? If replying to a message, should the message be quoted before or after? What tone should be taken with a business e-mail? The author talked with some heavy…
|Increases in the aging population and use of computer-related technology have spawned research regarding older adults' use of the Internet. This study examined characteristics differentiating rural Midwestern senior citizens (N = 298) who use e-mail from those who do not. Compared to those who did not use e-mail, e-mail-using seniors were younger…
Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Edelbaum, Jessica K.; Ryan, Joseph J.
An e-mail virus is an e-mail that can infect other programs by modifying them to include a replication of itself. When the infected e-mails are opened, the e-mail virus spreads itself to others. Today's society has seen a dramatic increase in the use of e-mails. As a result, organizations must take even more precautions to guard against the introduction of
The research program at IBM's® Collaborative User Experience (CUE) group supports an e-mail system used by millions of people. We present three lessons learned from working with real-world enterprise e-mail solutions. First, a prag- matic, system-level approach reveals that e-mail programs are generally used id- iosyncratically, often for many different goals at once. This fact has strong impli- cations for
Martin Wattenberg; Steven L. Rohall; Daniel Gruen; Bernard Kerr
Legal precedence has been set for employer monitoring of Internet use and both company and personal employee e-mail. Monitoring by both companies and Internet service providers is common. Company e-mail is archived, can be accessed for years after creation and can be subpoenaed. The company has liabilities if it allows illegal activities, harassment, or discrimination. There are many commercially available
This qualitative study investigated the following questions: (1) How quickly can first graders master basic e-mailing skills? (2) Does communicating through the Internet and e-mail provide motivation or incentive for children to read or write? (3) Will children write with specific conventions due to having an identifiable audience to whom they are…
E-mail has at one and the same time become a primary communication tool for many medical practice employees and a source of untold frustration, misunderstandings, and stress. This article provides a total of 50 rules (25 do's and 25 don'ts) for e-mail netiquette to help medical practice employees use e-mail more effectively. It offers suggestions about the optimal format of e-mails, tips for writing concise e-mailtexts, and guidance about the most pressing e-mail privacy and confidentiality concerns. Medical practice employees can use the practical tips presented in this article to help them save time and use their medical practices' e-mail system more productively and effectively. This article also offers suggestions for creating and using a medical practice e-mail disclaimer statement. It describes the six legal threats a disclaimer statement can prevent and the typical content for such disclaimers. Finally, this article includes guidance about creating and implementing a medical practice e-mail policy and provides an outline of typical e-mail policy content. PMID:22111286
We describe an investigation of authorship gender and lan- guage background cohort attribution mining from e-mailtext documents. We used an extended set of predominantly topic content-free e-mail document features such as style markers, structural characteristics and gender-preferential language features together with a Support Vector Machine learning algorithm. Experiments using a corpus of e-mail doc- uments generated by a large
Olivier de Vel; Malcolm Corney; Alison Anderson; George Mohay
Writing E-mail is the most popular Internet activity. Meanwhile, many people have more than one E-mail address. The question how people manage their E-mail addresses, more specifically, whether they use them deliberately for different purposes, is the central question of this paper. E-mail addresses vary in the amount of identifying information they convey (e.g., name, gender, status). It is proposed that the amount of identifying information an email address contains is a predictor of usage for a specific purpose. However, it is assumed that not all people choose email addresses in a rational way, according to the optimal fit between amount of identifying information and purpose of the E-mail. Thus, the role of other factors is tested as well. An online survey on German Internet users showed that it is common to have more than one E-mail address. Especially free webmail addresses (freemail) are extremely popular. People used more anonymous E-mail addresses when they expected spam or were concerned about privacy. However, there were also interindividual differences in the management of E-mail addresses. PMID:15140366
The number of Internet users is still growing and the Internet has become a powerful medium through which learning and communication occur. Hoffman and Novak (1996) pointed out that a significant portion of business communication would occur over the Web. In fact, the Internet and its user-friendly counterpart, the electronic emal (e-mail), have been gradually adopted as educational media in
E-mail is an increasingly common way to share information within business communities and the general population. This technology can significantly affect the process of and expectations for communications between the clinician and the patient. The unique characteristics and attributes of computer-based communications can ultimately enhance outcomes for patient well-being if the clinician is informed, proactive, and avoids certain potential pitfalls related to the technology and its inclusion within the pattern of care. In this article the author considers the impact of E-mail on personal and professional life and includes ideas the reader may find of value in managing and orchestrating this new dimension for communications. PMID:12167935
E-mail is a common but problematic work application. A scale was created to measure tendencies to use e-mail to take breaks (e-breaking); and self-esteem and decisional style (vigilance, procrastination, buck-passing, hypervigilance) were used to predict the self-reported and actual e-mail behaviors of 133 participants (students and marketing employees). Individuals who were low in defensive avoidance (buck-passing) engaged in more e-mailing per week, both in time spent on e-mail and message volume. E-breakers were more likely to engage in behavioral procrastination and spent more time on personal e-mail. PMID:17927540
Most e-mail readers spend a non-trivial amount of time regularly deleting junk e-mail (spam) mes- sages, even as an expanding volume of such e-mail occupies server storage space and consumes network bandwidth. An ongoing challenge, therefore, rests within the development and refinement of automatic clas- sifiers that can distinguish legitimate e-mail from spam. A few published studies have examined spam
Abstract Conventional e-mail systems are prone to problems that affect their dependability. E-mail systems operate following a “push-based” approach: the sender side server pushes the e-mails it wants to send to the corresponding receivers’ servers. This approach may impose processing and storage overhead on the receiver side. This paper presents a peer- to-peer e-mail system in which messages are sent
Edson Kageyama; Carlos Maziero; Altair Olivo Santin
Due to its simple and inherently vulnerable nature, e-mail communication is abused for numerous illegitimate purposes. E-mail spamming, phishing, drug trafficking, cyber bullying, racial vilification, child pornography, and sexual harassment are some common e-mail mediated cyber crimes. Presently, there is no adequate proactive mechanism for securing e-mail systems. In this context, forensic analysis plays a major role by examining suspected
Rachid Hadjidj; Mourad Debbabi; Hakim Lounis; Farkhund Iqbal; Adam Szporer; Djamel Benredjem
|Presents options that travelers can use to keep in e-mail contact. Discusses equipment/access issues related to traveling with a laptop; Internet cafes; free e-mail services; accessing home mail via a Web page; and new options e-mail access for travelers. Includes Internet resources on Internet access providers. (AEF)|
This paper discusses the use of information extraction (IE) and natural language generation (NLG) in the design of an automated e-mail answering system. We analyse short free-form texts and generate a customised and linguistically motivated answer to frequently asked questions. We describe the approach and the design of a system currently being developed to answer e-mail in French regarding printer-related
This paper discusses the use of information extraction and natural language generation in the design of an automated e-mail answering system. We analyse short free-form texts and generating a customised and linguistically-motivated answer to frequently asked questions. We describe the approach and the design of a system currently being developed to answer e-mail in French regarding printer- related questions addressed
This study was undertaken to investigate the use of e-mail and its implications under a telework environment for distributed software engineering. For this, the relative strength between a social influence and individual attributes in affecting teleworkers' e-mail use was studied. Management support was used as the representative social influence, and age, status, and ease of use represented individual attributes. An
Kunihiko Higa; Olivia R. Liu Sheng; Bongsik Shin; Aurelio Jose Figueredo
Exchange of private information content among a large number of users via E-mail List Services is becoming increasingly common. In this paper we address security requirements in that setting and develop a new protocol, SELS (a Secure E-mail List Service) that provides confidentiality, integrity, and authentication for e-mails exchanged via lists. In addition, SELS also protects against the use of
This article summarizes findings from studies that employed electronic mail (e-mail) for conducting in- depth interviewing. It discusses the benefits of, and the challenges associated with, using e-mail interviewing in qualitative research. The article concludes that while a mixed mode interviewing strategy should be considered when possible, e-mail interviewing can be in many cases a viable alternative to face-to-face and
E-mail reference service provides complex challenges, but the service can be planned effectively and improved through cooperative work among reference staff and various library departments. Staff members from the Michigan State University Libraries have engaged in extensive cooperative work to evaluate, improve, and maintain effective e-mail reference services. Two library committees and an e-mail reference team have developed new service
E-mail systems are some of the most admired Internet-based applications today. They enable users to send and receive e-mail messages between each other both from inside and outside the local area network. The simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) is a transportation protocol used to transfer Email messages over the Internet. When the e-mail server sends email messages among each other
R. Sureswaran; Hussein Al Bazar; O. Abouabdalla; Ahmed M. Manasrah
The rise of regulatory oversight and privacy concerns, the exponential growth in the amount of e-mail, the lack of e-mail discipline by employees, and the ubiquity of e-mail as a primary communications mechanism have created new risks for companies and businesses of every size. It is not only the disgruntled worker companies should be worried about; it's likely their star
As the use of e-mail has increased, so has employer monitoring of e-mail messages. But what a health care employer deems its right to protect a vast amount of confidential patient information from improper use, employees may view as a privacy violation. If employees are violating a health care organization's confidentiality or other workplace policies, the health care provider can be held liable for their actions and the e-mail communication could be the proverbial smoking gun. Health care institutions that monitor employee e-mail must have a monitoring policy in place and communicate it to employees. PMID:10159635
In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the USA PATRIOT Act was enacted to “enhance domestic security.” One of the means to accomplish this was to give law enforcement increased authority for the surveillance, interception, and disclosure of private e-mails. The USA PATRIOT Act negated several of the privacy protections afforded private e-mail under the Electronic
|This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…
|In the past decade, the use of computer-mediated communication such as e-mail has reportedly increased the level of parental involvement and parent-teacher communication at the elementary and secondary level. However, research has not yet examined the characteristics of parent-teacher e-mail communication. Thirty parent and 30 teacher interviews…
|Discussion of e-mail technology and requesting information from multiple sources simultaneously focuses on an experiment demonstrating that addressing e-mails simultaneously to multiple recipients may actually reduce the number of helpful responses. Discusses diffusion of responsibility and implications for the application of social cueing theory…
|The increasing use of computer technology for sending and receiving electronic mail messages not only signifies changes in how we communicate, but also signals changes in the skills, knowledge, and practices associated with communication by mail. Some of the characteristics of electronic mail (e-mail) are considered. E-mail refers to the capacity…
|This article, by a principal who received over 17,000 e-mails in his first year on the job, explores ways in which email is reshaping education leadership. The main assets of e-mail--swift and efficient communication, more informed decision making through improved consultation with stakeholders, and automatic archiving of correspondence--come at…
A high school and a university teacher converse via e-mail concerning their cooperative project in electronic literacy. The conversation highlights the frustrations of system crashes, student successes and failures, and the beginning of one teacher's dissertation. References to technology include experiences with e-mail, an LCD panel, and closed…
|This article reports how an "Education Week" review of hundreds of e-mail exchanges that detail a pattern of federal interference in "Reading First" have skirted legal prohibitions. In regular e-mail discussions, Christopher J. Doherty, the Reading First director at the U.S. Department of Education until last September, and G. Reid Lyon, a branch…
A microprocessor buffering system (MBS) was developed at the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory -Cincinnati (EMSL-CI) to provide an efficient transfer for serial ASCII information between intelligent instrument systema and a Data General NOVA...
This paper describes some of the ways in which we use artificial intelligence technologies in numéro interactive, a Customer Interaction Management system. In particular, we focus on the classification of e-mail messages into one of multiple business categories. We describe different features that are extracted from e-mail messages to help in this classification, and the improvement in the overall classification accuracy that results from the use of each kind of feature.
This paper documents some pilot projects using on-campus e-mail to teach communicative English writing to Japanese junior college students. The purpose of this case study is to find how on-campus e-mail can be effectively implemented in order to motivate students to write more communicatively in English. The projects have been carried out in three stages; (1) a preparation period, (2)
|College students (N=151) completed surveys assessing the relationship between e-mail use and extraversion. The variables studied included time spent on e-mail; the frequency of e-mail usage; and the purposes e-mail served for each student. The results suggest that extraverts use e-mail as a form of procrastination more than introverts, and that…
...Acquisition Regulation Supplement; E-Mail/ Internet Addresses on Contracts and...contracting officers must include an e-mail/Internet address, when available...to add the contracting officer's e-mail/Internet address to the...
\\u000a The automatic text categorization (ATC) is an emerging field that is technically based on the machine learning and information\\u000a retrieval. Traditional machine learning usually builds a model that captures the behavior of the ‘concept’ from the training\\u000a instances. Following this context, the ATC learns the concept from text data such as digital text documents, web pages, or\\u000a e-mailtexts. In
|Traditionally, professors use the first day of class to build rapport. However, current technology allows professors to contact students prior to the first day of class. This study assessed how the receipt of a welcoming e-mail from a female professor 1 week before the first day of class affected student motivation and attitudes toward the…
|One hundred and forty-five undergraduate students at a large southwestern university completed a questionnaire designed to assess college students' computer-mediated communication behaviors. Findings revealed that males and females have different perceptions and usages concerning their computer-mediated communication behaviors when e-mailing and…
Frantic troubleshooting by an overworked staff versus someone else fixing problems smoothly. A sliver of server space per person versus a five-gigabyte chunk. Half a million dollars versus free. That's what colleges are faced with as they decide whether to continue running their own e-mail services or outsource them to a professional service like…
This paper discusses privacy and the monitoring of e-mail in the context of the international nature of the modern world. Its three main aims are: (1) to highlight the problems involved in discussing an essentially philosophical question within a legal framework, and thus to show that providing purely legal answers to an ethical question is an inadequate approach to the
This chapter is a comprehensive overview of sampling methods for web and e-mail ('Internet- based') surveys. It reviews the various types of sampling method - both probability and non- probability - and examines their applicability to Internet-based surveys. Issues related to Internet- based survey sampling are discussed, including dif- ficulties assembling sampling frames for probability sampling, coverage issues, and nonresponse
This paper describes a social marketing campaign that encouraged individuals to adopt environmentally sustainable behaviors such as purchasing green power, installing energy?efficient lights, and checking tire pressure and refrigerator efficiency. An e?mail campaign was developed using the social marketing tools of commitment, prompting, and social norms. The results suggest that electronic listservs, which leverage social networks, can be a viable
Nowadays, a problem of data protection is the main research object of numerous companies and scientists. E mail gateway always will be one of the main components of security perimeter. It helps to protect the internal network from the large varieties of hacker's attacks such as phishing and social engineering. In our previous research we have developed concept and prototype
|This paper explores the educational benefits and limitations of e-mail as an instructional aid to classroom-based teaching. It looks at practical ideas of how e-mail has been used to aid classroom instruction, and highlights and examines each usage of e-mail in terms of its effects on classroom teaching. E-mail systems have been used for…
This report documents a computer program to convert standard 4 byte, IBM floating point SEGY files to ASCII xyz format. The program then optionally plots the seismic data using the GMT plotting package. The material for this publication is contained in a standard tar file (of99-126.tar) that is uncompressed and 726 K in size. It can be downloaded by any Unix machine. Move the tar file to the directory you wish to use it in, then type 'tar xvf of99-126.tar' The archive files (and diskette) contain a NOTE file, a README file, a version-history file, source code, a makefile for easy compilation, and an ASCII version of the documentation. The archive files (and diskette) also contain example test files, including a typical SEGY file along with the resulting ASCII xyz and postscript files. Requirements for compiling the source code into an executable are a C++ compiler. The program has been successfully compiled using Gnu's g++ version 2.8.1, and use of other compilers may require modifications to the existing source code. The g++ compiler is a free, high quality C++ compiler and may be downloaded from the ftp site: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu Requirements for plotting the seismic data is the existence of the GMT plotting package. The GMT plotting package may be downloaded from the web site: http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/gmt/
This study investigated possible telepathic communication in connection with e-mails. On each trial, there were four potential e-mailers, one of whom was selected at random by the experimenter. One minute before a prearranged time at which the e-mail was to be sent, the participant guessed who would send it. 50 participants (29 women and 21 men) were recruited through an employment web site. Of 552 trials, 235 (43%) guesses were hits, significantly above the chance expectation of 25%. Further tests with 5 participants (4 women, 1 man, ages 16 to 29) were videotaped continuously. On the filmed trials, the 64 hits of 137 (47%) were significantly above chance. PMID:16491679
Don't expect the online "innovation" to go away--email communication is here to stay, and it is your responsibility as an educational professional to respond to them, and even use them to your advantage. This month's Editor's Roundtable column discusses the upsides to the effective use of e-mail to communicate with parents, students, and administrators. In additon, it provides some helpful guidelines for you to follow.
This paper aims to demonstrate that ties obtained by mining e-mails archives do not necessarily provide a complete and realistic approximation of interactions by other communication media. The results of our project indicate that factors such as co-location and the nature of working relationships influence the preference for face-to-face interactions and chat. Peers who are co-located and who are working
Francesca Grippa; Antonio Zilli; Robert Laubacher; Peter A. Gloor
A new report commissioned by the University of East Anglia (UEA) has largely exonerated climate scientists from the university's Climatic Research Unit (CRU) who wrote a number of controversial e-mail messages that were made public without authorization in November 2009. Critics have argued that the e-mails indicate that scientists had tampered with scientific data—including data related to land station temperatures and temperature reconstructions from tree ring analysis—subverted the peer review process, misused the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and withheld data from critics. At a 7 July news conference to release the “Independent climate change e-mails review,” report chair Muir Russell said, “Climate science is a matter of such global importance that the highest standards of honesty, rigor, and openness are needed in its conduct. On the specific allegations made against the behavior of CRU scientists, we find that their rigor and honesty as scientists are not in doubt.” He continued, “In addition, we do not find that their behavior has prejudiced the balance of advice given to policy makers. In particular, we did not find any evidence of behavior that might undermine the conclusions of the IPCC assessments.” Russell is chair of the Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland and formerly was principal and vice-chancellor of the University of Glasgow, in Scotland.
"Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications" by Robert H. Anderson, Tora K. Bikson, Sally Ann Law, and Bridger M. Mitchell; 1995; Rand Corporation; 267 pages, 24 tables, 18 figures; bibliography, is available for downloading from Rand Corporation's Web site. "This is the final report of a two-year RAND study. It is designed as a sourcebook on key social, technical, economic, and international issues related to providing universal access to e-mail within the United States. It is our hope that this report will help stimulate public policy discussions regarding the feasibility, desirability, and implications of universal e-mail access. Decision makers involved with such public policy issues are the primary audience for this report, but it should also be of interest to academic and business professionals involved with telecommunications policy and its social implications." The report is available in both HTML and .PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format. A free Acrobat Reader download site is available from the page.
Anderson, Robert H.; Bikson, Tora K.; Law, Sally A.; Mitchell, Bridger M.
This paper proposes a new e-mail classification method based on the Artificial Immune System (AIS), which is endowed with good diversity and self-adaptive ability by using the immune learning, immune memory, and immune recognition. In our method, the features of spam and non-spam extracted from the training sets are combined together, and the number of false positives (non-spam messages that are incorrectly classified as spam) can be reduced. The experimental results demonstrate that this method is effective in reducing the false rate.
Introduction1.1. Significance of the StudyOur culture, once based on physical contact, is being transformed to one in which most interactionsrequire no face-to-face contact. (Igbaria, 1999) People have begun favoring e-mail over phone callssince e-mail is not as intrusive, i.e., e-mail does not demand an immediate response. "It is estimated thatin the 21stcentury, more people will correspond through e-mail than by
|Reviews recent research on intercultural learning and reports on a yearlong e-mail exchange between Spanish and English second year university students. Identifies key characteristics of e-mail exchanges that helped to develop learners' intercultural communicative competence. Outlines elements of e-mail messages that may enable students to…
|Though e-mail has become a common interpersonal communication medium, it does not mean that this medium is used without difficulty. While people can write e-mails to peers in any manner they like, writing e-mails to authority figures requires higher pragmatic competence and critical language awareness of how discourse shapes and reflects power…
|This meta-analysis examined 35 study results within last 10 years that directly compared the response rates of e-mail versus mail surveys. Individual studies reported inconsistent findings concerning the response rate difference between e-mail and mail surveys, but e-mail surveys generally have lower response rate (about 20% lower on the average)…
|Conceptually, e-mail is not a whole lot different from regular postal mail ("snail mail"), except that it is much faster. E-mail requires three things: (1) a personal computer; (2) a telephone or communication line; and (3) an Internet provider (e-mail service account). This article provides details on how it works--plus some research activities…
|The authors investigated the use of student-initiated e-mail as a supplemental modality for supervision. Nineteen students e-mailed their instructors weekly during their 15-week practicum: these e-mails were analyzed across 3 time periods using the categories of the discrimination model (J. M. Bernard, 1979, 1997) and an adaptation of W.…
This meta-analysis examined 35 study results within last 10 years that directly compared the response rates of e-mail versus mail surveys. Individual studies reported inconsistent findings concerning the response rate difference between e-mail and mail surveys, but e-mail surveys generally have lower response rate (about 20% lower on the average)…
...Comment Request; Comment Card for E-mail Taglines AGENCY: U.S. and Foreign...Card at the bottom of all employees' e-mail messages to enable clients to submit...tagline would encourage recipients of the e-mail to click the Comment Card link...
...Comment Request; Comment Card for E-mail Taglines AGENCY: U.S. and Foreign...Card at the bottom of all employees' e-mail messages to enable clients to submit...tagline would encourage recipients of the e-mail to click the Comment Card link...
...Part 316 RIN 3084-AA96 Label For E-mail Messages Containing Sexually Oriented...in commercial electronic mail (``e-mail'') that includes sexually oriented...included in or associated with commercial e-mail that contains sexually oriented...
...Public Meetings; Modification of E-mail Addresses AGENCY: National Marine...Commerce. ACTION: Modification of e-mail addresses published in the document...at 5 p.m. on May 16, 2008. The e-mail addresses for comments regarding...
INTRODUCTION SEGY has long been a standard format for storing seismic data and header information. Almost every seismic processing package can read and write seismic data in SEGY format. In the data processing world, however, ASCII format is the 'universal' standard format. Very few general-purpose plotting or computation programs will accept data in SEGY format. The software presented in this report, referred to as SEGY to ASCII (SAC), converts seismic data written in SEGY format (Barry et al., 1975) to an ASCII data file, and then creates a postscript file of the seismic data using a general plotting package (GMT, Wessel and Smith, 1995). The resulting postscript file may be plotted by any standard postscript plotting program. There are two versions of SAC: one version for plotting a SEGY file that contains a single gather, such as a stacked CDP or migrated section, and a second version for plotting multiple gathers from a SEGY file containing more than one gather, such as a collection of shot gathers. Note that if a SEGY file has multiple gathers, then each gather must have the same number of traces per gather, and each trace must have the same sample interval and number of samples per trace. SAC will read several common standards of SEGY data, including SEGY files with sample values written in either IBM or IEEE floating-point format. In addition, utility programs are present to convert non-standard Seismic Unix (.sux) SEGY files and PASSCAL (.rsy) SEGY files to standard SEGY files. SAC allows complete user control over all plotting parameters including label size and font, tick mark intervals, trace scaling, and the inclusion of a title and descriptive text. SAC shell scripts create a postscript image of the seismic data in vector rather than bitmap format, using GMT's pswiggle command. Although this can produce a very large postscript file, the image quality is generally superior to that of a bitmap image, and commercial programs such as Adobe Illustrator? can manipulate the image more efficiently.
Employers and employees continue to be highly vulnerable to negative consequences that may result from e-mail privacy intrusions. Given their potentially differing perceptions, there is a need to understand the privacy issues associated with e-mail use. This article first reviews the U.S. legal system to reveal the lack of e-mail privacy protection. A framework is presented to identify the potential
Government agencies are becoming increasingly dependent on e-mail systems as communication and information transfer tools. Many e-mail messages contain information vital to the business of government, and therefore organisations need to manage the messages in accordance with managerial, legal, and democratic requirements. On a daily basis, government employees send and receive numerous e-mails and, on behalf of their organisations, make
ID-based public key cryptosystem can be a good alternative for certificate-based public key setting, especially when efficient\\u000a key management and moderate security are required. Certified e-mail protocols provide for fair exchange in which the intended\\u000a recipient gets the e-mail content if and only if the mail originator receives an irrefutable receipt for the e-mail. In this\\u000a paper we present an
We describe our work which attempts to mine e-mail authorship for the purpose of computer forensic. We extract various e-mail document features including linguistic features, header features and structural characteristics. These features together are used with the support vector machine learning algorithm to classify or attribute authorship of e-mail messages to an author. The primary experiments on a number of
This exploratory research used Diffusion of Innovations (Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 4th Edition, The Free Press, New York, 1995) to examine and benchmark organisational use of the simplest and most prevalent Internet technology, e-mail. The answers, by 200 Singaporean travel agencies, to a mock customer's e-mail reflect poor e-mail customer service. This study found odds of one in four of
While e-mail remains a popular advertising medium for marketers, consumers' privacy concerns about the medium have become a serious issue. In this study, an online survey examined how two aspects of privacy—perceived intrusiveness and psychological reactance—influenced consumers' attitudes toward unsolicited commercial e-mail and marketing in general. The results indicate that the more intrusive an individual perceives an e-mail, the stronger
Purpose – Instant messaging and e-mail are popular communication methods on college campuses. However, students' perceptions of the two technologies vary greatly. This study seeks to investigate the differences between instant messaging and e-mail. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was given to 545 college students. Findings – Instant messaging is perceived as offering many advantages over e-mail including conveying emotions, building
Sean Lancaster; David C. Yen; Albert H. Huang; Shin-yuan Hung
This study aims to examine the effects of both spam and the resulting lack of privacy on users' behavior with respect to e-mail usage. This study reveals that spam e-mail triggers concerns about privacy and in turn, these privacy concerns influence the way users cope with spam or junk mails. Upon receiving spam e-mail, users predominantly exhibit two different behavioral
Insu Park; R. Sharman; H. Raghav Rao; S. Upadhyaya
This study investigated the efficacy of integrating task-based e-mail activities into a process-oriented ESL writing class. In particular, it examined the linguistic characteristics of 132 pieces of e-mail writing by ESL students in tasks that differed in terms of purpose, audience interaction and task structure. The analysis focused on the linguistic features of the students' e-mail writing at different levels,
This research used a typical e-mail query to investigate customer service by 491 properties from 13 international hotel chains. These five-star hotels had difficulty providing prompt, accurate, and timely e-mail responses to their customers. The results suggest significant differences in e-mail customer service, based on hotel location and the size of the hotel chain. The poor responsiveness and quality by
All students in the organic chemistry class are assigned a unique set of nine molecules to report on as optional extra credit assignments. The molecules are taken from a list containing over 200 molecules on the class Web site; they represent an assortment of biologically relevant compounds, from acetaminophen to yohimbine. Once a week, students may submit information about one of the molecules for two points extra credit (where the course includes a total of over 600 points from traditional quizzes and exams). The information requested about the molecules varies slightly each term as student expertise grows, for example, molecular formula, hybridizations, functional groups, or number of stereocenters, but always includes biological relevance and sources of information. Initially students submitted data directly to the instructor by e-mail, but submissions now are handled by a Web-based course management system (WebCT). The goal is to give students individualized assignments that are relatively realistic in light of their future careers in health sciences. Nearly all of the students do some of the molecules, and many students do all of them. About 30 40% of the students who do the assignments regularly gain a grade benefit. Student responses to the exercise have been positive.
We describe the implementation of a Continuing Medical Education project which utilizes e-mail delivery of HTML documents to facilitate participant access to case material. HTML e-mail is displayed directly within the e-mail reader of the Netscape browser. This system of proactive educational content delivery ensures simultaneous distribution to all participants. Although a more effective method of content distribution, the system preserves user confidentiality and maintains security. HTML e-mail is non-proprietary and could be integrated into existing Internet-based educational projects to facilitate user access. PMID:9357714
The communication medium of the Internet affords psychologists an unprecedented opportunity to provide psychological services to populations who might not ordinarily present to the mental health system but who may nevertheless benefit from psychological intervention. Because the Internet is primarily a medium of the written word, one of the difficulties in providing online psychological services is developing models appropriate to text-only delivery. This article discusses a model for providing online psychological interventions based on the similarity of E-mail composition to traditional journal writing. Two different approaches to interactive online journaling, the Intensive Journal method developed by Progoff and dream journaling, are examined regarding their possible application to delivery within the text-based medium of the Internet. PMID:19178238
E-mail is a means of online teaching that has prospered recently in universities. There is a short term background of using Email for assignments’ management and assessment. In this study, I investigated different dimensions of E- mail applicability and usefulness for assessing assignments and its strengths and weaknesses among new students. With this intention, I based my case study on
This paper examines the legal issues involved with employer monitoring of employee e-mail. In addition to identifying pertinent legal issues, the paper provides guidelines that will help the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) establish a program for monitoring outgoing e-mail to insure compliance with company policies, particularly those regarding protection of trade secrets and proprietary information, and to comply with
|Instructors rely on asynchronous exchanges to provide learners with authentic input and opportunities to communicate in the TL. While most practitioners recognize the advantages of e-mail exchanges, learner benefits are not an automatic byproduct of participation in an exchange. This paper presents findings from an e-mail exchange carried out…
|On today's "wired" college campuses, students avail themselves in increasing numbers of electronic channels, most notably e-mail, as a means to consult with their professors. While some research has investigated the purposes for which university students communicate with their instructors via e-mail, little research has examined differences in…
|E-mail is seen as an inexpensive, fast way to communicate with university constituencies, especially alumni. The next logical stage for the use of this Internet technology is the development and evaluation of permission based e-mail (PBE) campaigns. In this paper, we directly examine recipient evaluation of PBE in the context of a university…
|Reference e-mail continues to be a vital reference service. This article studies the trends in reference e-mail use over an eight year period. Usage statistics are analyzed particularly in light of the marketing of the service via changes in the location of the service on the official university libraries' Web pages. Included are recommendations…
|Some school districts hoping to improve communication and student engagement in learning are taking a step many educators still view warily: providing students with their own e-mail accounts. However, making e-mail a regular part of students' school lives raises a host of concerns about inappropriate use. In addition, many teachers doubt that the…
|E-mail is a tool that can vastly increase the efficiency and productivity of school leaders. It can enable them to better orchestrate school operations and so improve student learning. But administrators must remain wary of the effect that extensive e-mail communication can have on the school community, and they need to work to promote a healthy…
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on one high school English-language-learner's (ELL) breadth and depth of vocabulary as he communicated with his teacher through e-mail across geographic boundaries for over 18 months. Design/methodology/approach: The authors began by separating 358 e-mails into three time periods (first beginning,…
Hwang, Sung-on; Piazza, Carolyn L.; Pierce, Michael J.; Bryce, Sara M.
|Phishing e-mails deceive individuals into giving out personal information which may then be utilized for identity theft. One particular type, the Personal Solicitation E-mail (PSE) mimics personal letters--modern perversions of "ars dictaminis" (the classical art of letter writing). In this article, I determine and discuss 19 appeals common to…
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mail, fax and e-mail requests. 1206.601 Section 1206.601 Aeronautics...THE PUBLIC Procedures Â§ 1206.601 Mail, fax and e-mail requests. In view of the time limits under 5...
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Mail, fax and e-mail requests. 1206.601 Section 1206.601 Aeronautics...THE PUBLIC Procedures Â§ 1206.601 Mail, fax and e-mail requests. In view of the time limits under 5...
|The E-Mail (electronic mail) and BBS (electronic bulletin board systems) Course at Thomas Nelson Community College, in Hampton, Virginia is designed to provide an introduction to e-mail and BBS systems, as well as information on the installation, operation, and administration of such systems. This document describes the class and provides…
|This paper explores the question of how cultural stereotypes are formed, modified, dismissed or reinforced, drawing on findings from a collaborative intercultural e-mail project between Hong Kong learners of Japanese at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and native Japanese speakers at Kagoshima University. It also evaluates role of e-mail…
The aim of this study is to investigate the most preferred free web based e-mail used by students in the technology departments of the Near East University (Departments CIS, CEIT and COM.ENG), and also to find out which technical characteristics affect the participants when making a decision for the choice of an e-mail service. The volunteer…
|The purpose of this article is to report on some of the preliminary results of an on-going study on the use of discourse strategies in e-mail negotiation. The analysis aims at showing how relations between the participants develop through the use of specific discourse strategies in their e-mail communication which covers a period of three months,…
This paper provides a perspective on cultural differences in e-mail use of virtual teams from the critical social theory (CST) point of view. CST can be used as a qualitative methodology in information systems research. Among CST concepts, Habermas' theory of communicative action is applied here for the purpose of drawing a plausible explanation for the phenomenon of cultural differences between East Asian countries and the West in the use of e-mail in virtual teams. East Asian countries such as Korea and Japan, which are heavily influenced by the Confucius tradition of emphasizing respect for the social order in all forms of social communication activity, including e-mail, provide different type of patterns of e-mail use in management of virtual teams compared to Western countries such as the United States. Not only can CST provide adequate theoretical support for the claim that e-mail use can be varied due to cultural difference when it is used to manage virtual teams, but it can also identify cultural codes such as respect for seniors as a part of the complete information package that can be illuminated during the use of e-mail, by using a CST concept called "critical reflection." A real-life example of the experience of a Korean firm's virtual team in the use of e-mail is analyzed in order to illustrate the CST perspective on cultural differences in the use of e-mail for virtual teams. PMID:12123245
Examines effect of use of e-mail by college developmental reading students to respond to literature. Provides a detailed view of the nature of the students' engagement. Shows that using quality literature, e-mail, and authentic audiences engaged many students in academic discourse. (RS)
Sinagra, Marsha D.; Battle, Jennifer; Nicholson, Sheila A.
|An e-mail scam has hit tens of thousands of users at dozens of colleges over the past few weeks, leaving network administrators scrambling to respond before campus computer accounts are taken over by spammers. Students, professors, and staff members at the affected colleges received e-mail messages that purported to come from the colleges' help…
...2010-01-01 false Requirements for Web site registration or alternative e-mail...2010) Â§ 1130.8 Requirements for Web site registration or alternative e-mail...registration page. The manufacturer's Web site, or other Web site established...
The aim of this study is to investigate the free e-mail usage of students in the technology departments of the university, and also to learn which free e-mail service the participants prefer. The volunteer participants in this study consisted of 150 undergraduate students attending the Near East University in Northern Cyprus. 50 students from Department of Computer Information Systems (CIS),
|This article investigates the development of intercultural awareness in an electronic mail (e-mail) discussion project between Hungarian learners of English and American speakers. Students discussed topics relating to cultures, languages, and pedagogical issues. The e-mails were analyzed in terms of language skill improvement, apprehensiveness…
|E-mail is mandatory tool of communications any business to survive in the 21st century. It is imperative that Information technology (IT) managers monitor and make sure that the e-mail systems are used properly. In order to organize a systematic process for proper use of email an administrator must have an input into the development of…
This paper introduces multimedia design guidelines for browsing large volumes of e-mail data. These software design guidelines derived from two sets of experiments under a prototype version of a multimedia e-mail tool. The experiments tested various forms of audio- visual communication metaphors. For example, the audi- tory stimuli consisted of musical sounds (earcons), com- positional sounds, environmental sounds (auditory icons),
|In this article, the authors describe an e-mail-based simulation that helps students experience the fast-paced, complex world of the middle manager. In this electronic in-basket exercise, students assume the role of a district manager in a doughnut company as they respond to a rapid series of high- and low-priority e-mails ostensibly sent from…
|The author addresses the risks and benefits of incorporating therapeutic e-mail communication into clinical social work practice. Consumer demand for online clinical services is growing faster than the professional response. E-mail, when used as an adjunct to traditional meetings with clients, offers distinct advantages and risks. Benefits…
We have developed a simple e-mail application named Seemit which is designed for being used in information literacy courses. It has necessary and sufficient functionality of an e-mail application, and it has been developed for the purpose of learning basic operations and mechanisms of e-mail transfer easily. It is equipped with the function to automatically set the configuration of user's SMTP/POP servers and e-mail address, etc. The process of transferring e-mail via SMTP and POP can be demonstrated step by step showing actual messages passed during the client-server interaction. We have utilized Seemit in a university-wide information literacy course which holds about 1800 students.
Internet-delivered psychological treatment of major depression has been investigated in several trials, but the role of personalized treatment is less investigated. Studies suggest that guidance is important and that automated computerized programmes without therapist support are less effective. Individualized e-mail therapy for depression has not been studied in a controlled trial. Eighty-eight individuals with major depression were randomized to two different forms of Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), or to a waiting-list control group. One form of Internet treatment consisted of guided self-help, with weekly modules and homework assignments. Standard CBT components were presented and brief support was provided during the treatment. The other group received e-mail therapy, which was tailored and did not use the self-help texts i.e., all e-mails were written for the unique patient. Both treatments lasted for 8 weeks. In the guided self-help 93% completed (27/29) and in the e-mail therapy 96% (29/30) completed the posttreatment assessment. Results showed significant symptom reductions in both treatment groups with moderate to large effect sizes. At posttreatment 34.5% of the guided self-help group and 30% of the e-mail therapy group reached the criteria of high-end-state functioning (Beck Depression Inventory score below 9). At six-month follow-up the corresponding figures were 47.4% and 43.3%. Overall, the difference between guided self-help and e-mail therapy was small, but in favour of the latter. These findings indicate that both guided self-help and individualized e-mail therapy can be effective. PMID:20152960
...the Department accept written requests, including fax, e-mail, or telephone requests, for routinely available information...the Department accept written requests, including fax, e-mail, or telephone requests, for routinely available...
...the Department accept written requests, including fax, e-mail, or telephone requests, for routinely available information...the Department accept written requests, including fax, e-mail, or telephone requests, for routinely available...
This paper examines the legal issues involved with employer monitoring of employee e-mail. In addition to identifying pertinent legal issues, the paper provides guidelines that will help the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) establish a program...
... and Acronyms Family Life Listen Chat, E-Mail, Web, and Chat Room Slang and Acronyms Article Body ... btw BeTWeen you and me ... chat room A web page where people gather using software that allows ...
Communication between patients and providers forms the backbone of the patient–provider relationship. Often such communication is strained due to time and space limitations on the part of both patients and providers. Many healthcare organizations are developing secure e-mail communication facilities to allow patients to exchange e-mail messages with their providers. Providers are worried that opening such lines of communication will
The use of e-mail as one of the principal means of workplace communication creates for employers a variety of legal problems because of these three typical e-mail-system features: broadcasting capabilities, perpetual retention, and susceptibility to abuse. Those features can give rise to such legal concerns and challenges as (1) preserving the confidentiality of company information, (2) protecting attorney-client communications between
Much has been written about the widespread abusive practice of e-mail and Internet surveillance by employers in the American workplace. At present, U.S. employees in the private workplace have no constitutional, common law or statutory protection against abusive e-mail monitoring practices. In effect, American workers wave goodbye to their right to privacy as soon as they log onto their workplace
Older Americans, like other groups, vary in their use of the Internet. The participants for this study—elderly computer users from a Midwestern mid-size sample—used e-mail and considered it the most important Internet function. It was common for them to use e-mail with family and friends on a regular, if not daily, basis. When this group of older people did surf
Certified e-mail protocol is a fair exchange of a message for a receipt between two potentially mistrusting parties over the network. A number of certified e-mail protocols have been studied in recent years. However, most of those protocols employ certificate-based cryptography and full trusted third party, which may not be suitable for wireless networks with limited resources such as power,
The authors' objective was to conduct a trial of viral e-mail marketing as a distribution method for tobacco control advertisements. University students (n = 200) in the state of Western Australia were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 2 e-mails with hyperlinks to tobacco control advertisements (“Toilet” and “Rubbish”) emphasizing the disgusting nature of smoking. Recipients followed a hyperlink to a Web
Owen B. J. Carter; Robert Donovan; Geoffrey Jalleh
|Older Americans, like other groups, vary in their use of the Internet. The participants for this study-elderly computer users from a Midwestern mid-size sample-used e-mail and considered it the most important Internet function. It was common for them to use e-mail with family and friends on a regular, if not daily, basis. When this group of older…
|Older Americans, like other groups, vary in their use of the Internet. The participants for this study--elderly computer users from a Midwestern mid-size sample--used e-mail and considered it the most important Internet function. It was common for them to use e-mail with family and friends on a regular, if not daily, basis. When this group of…
|The authors assessed students' use of e-mail for out-of-class communication (OCC) and its impact on satisfaction and learning self-efficacy. Findings showed that students and instructors use e-mail frequently for OCC, and frequency of use is positively associated with student satisfaction with e-mail as an OCC medium. Moreover, the content of…
Zhao, Q.; Ahn, S.; Meyers, R. A.; Timmerman, C. E.; Fonner, K. L.
|Background: Contemporary adolescents use e-mail for a variety of purposes, including peer communication and education. Research into these uses has focused on typically developing individuals; much less is known about the use of e-mail by exceptional youth. Aims: The present study examined the structure and form of e-mail messages sent by…
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Walker, Allan J.
...Guidance for Industry: How to Use E-mail to Submit a Protocol; Availability... 107) entitled ``How to Use E-mail to Submit a Protocol.'' This guidance describes how sponsors can use e-mail to submit protocols for studies...
...Institutes of Health Availability of New E-mail Service for Government-Owned Inventions...announce the availability of a new e-mail service concerning government-owned...opportunities. OTT has initiated a Techbrief e-mail list service to inform...
...Address Change and Phone Number and E-mail Address Changes AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...and to update a telephone number and e-mail address for the Office of Information...20555-0001, telephone 301-415-5661, e-mail...
...FedBizOpps Notice on Charging for E-mail Notification Service; Proposed Rule...FedBizOpps Notice on Charging for E-mail Notification Service AGENCY: Office...charge subscribers to the value-added e-mail notification service of Federal...
The author addresses the risks and benefits of incorporating therapeutic e-mail communication into clinical social work practice. Consumer demand for online clinical services is growing faster than the professional response. E-mail, when used as an adjunct to traditional meetings with clients, offers distinct advantages and risks. Benefits include the potential to reach clients in geographically remote and underserved communities, enhancing and extending the therapeutic relationship and improving treatment outcomes. Risks include threats to client confidentiality and privacy, liability coverage for practitioners, licensing jurisdiction, and the lack of competency standards for delivering e-mail interventions. Currently, the social work profession does not have adequate instructive guidelines and best-practice standards for using e-mail as a direct practice methodology. Practitioners need (formal) academic training in the techniques connected to e-mail exchanges with clients. The author describes the ethical and legal risks for practitioners using therapeutic e-mail with clients and identifies recommendations for establishing best-practice standards. PMID:23252316
Background E-mail communication has the potential to improve communication between patients and doctors. Objective The objective of the study is to describe the access of patients to physicians who conduct e-mail consults. Methods We analyzed data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of office-based physician visits, in 2001, 2002, and 2003. The main outcome measure was the percentage of visits to a provider who reported doing internet or e-mail consults. Results There was fewer than 1 in 10 outpatient visits in 2001 (9.2%) to physicians who reported doing internet or e-mail consults, and this did not increase in 2002 (5.8%) or 2003 (5.5%). Access to these physicians was greater among patients who were male, nonminority, lived in the Western United States, seen for pre-/postoperative care, seen by a primary care provider, and not seen by a nurse during their visit. Access to physicians who conducted internet or e-mail consults was independent of other patient (e.g., chronic conditions), provider (e.g., office setting), and visit (e.g., medications prescribed) characteristics. Conclusions Access to physicians who do internet or e-mail consults is generally low and did not increase between 2001 and 2003, despite growth in internet access and in other internet-related activities.
Rogers, Michelle L.; Shenassa, Edmond D.; Houston, Thomas K.
Described is a format for writing ASCII data on a file to facilitate its transfer from one computer system to another. The TOAD format conforms to all ANSI FORTRAN 77 standards. There are two advantages in using the TOAD format. First, TOAD files are of t...
Seven integrated circuits and a voltage regulator are combined with twelve reed relays to allow the ASCII encoded numerals 0 through 9 and characters ''.'' and R or S to momentarily close switches to an applications device, simulating keypad switch closures. This invention may be used as a PARALLEL TLL (Transistor Transistor Logic) data acqusition interface to a standard Hewlett-Packard
|With the increasing ranks of cell phone ownership is an increase in text messaging, or texting. During 2008, more than 2.5 trillion text messages were sent worldwide--that's an average of more than 400 messages for every person on the planet. Although many of the messages teenagers text each day are perhaps nothing more than "how r u?" or "c u…
Seven integrated circuits and a voltage regulator are combined with twelve reed relays to allow the ASCII encoded numerals 0 through 9 and characters ''.'' and R or S to momentarily close switches to an applications device, simulating keypad switch closures. This invention may be used as a PARALLEL TLL (Transistor Transistor Logic) data acqusition interface to a standard Hewlett-Packard HP-97 Calculator modified with a cable.
The first in a series of Online Issue Briefs presented to congressional offices by the Congress Online Project, this report examines the email overload in Congress. The email flow to the House of Representatives, for instance, more than doubled between 1998 and 2000 and continues to increase by an average of one million messages per month. The report strongly recommends that Congressional offices automate their email systems, analyzing both the reasons and obstacles involved. This recommendation will no doubt encounter some opposition among voters as well as their representatives, who worry about a real or perceived decline in access to our elected officials. Users can read the full text of the report at the above URL. The Congress Online Project is "a joint research project of the Congressional Management Foundation and The George Washington University to study the use of Web sites and Internet technologies by U.S. congressional offices," and more information on the project is available at the main page.
Gerald Boyd has spent much time learning the internal syntax of web search engines. He has made the fruits of his labor available at an ftp site. Interested Internauts can download FAQs on how to query fifteen generic and eight specialty search engines by email. Included are Alta Vista, Excite, Inktomi, Yahoo, Infoseek, OKRA, Open Text, SwitchBoard, TheList, and others. Also included is a FAQ on how to use an Agora Server to use the web by email. See the Scout Report for March 8, 1996 for more on Agora. The FAQs are of greatest use to those without a web connection, but are also interesting to anyone who is intrigued by the intricacies of search engines. Users should download wsintro.faq (table of contents of FAQs), wscrack.faq (basic strategy for figuring out how to query search indexes via email) and wshelp.faq (Agora help file) before any others. For those who would like to download everything at once, wssearch.zip contains all of the files. Note that while these files are fairly technical, they are very useful for those who need such Internet access.
Computer mediated communication (CMC) plays a rapidly growing role in our social lives. Within this domain, e-mail addresses represent the thinnest slice of information that people receive from one another. Using 599 e-mail addresses of young adults, their self-reported personality scores and the personality judgments of 100 independent observers, it was shown that personality impressions based solely on e-mail addresses
Computer mediated communication (CMC) plays a rapidly growing role in our social lives. Within this domain, e-mail addresses represent the thinnest slice of information that people receive from one another. Using 599 e-mail addresses of young adults, their self-reported personality scores and the personality judgments of 100 independent observers, it was shown that personality impressions based solely on e-mail addresses
In this article, we undertake empirical research into e-mail communication in the workplace to provide organizations with practical information about how employees can effectively manage their e-mail interactions. We employ an interpretative, qualitative methodology to examine their views of e-mail. Specifically, we consider the interaction between this and traditional face-to-face (F2F) contact. The- oretical ideas are subject to empirical scrutiny
Technology users continue perceiving telecommunications and computing systems as utilities. Just like water and electrical service, computer networks, e-mail and Web sites are expected to be available 24 hours a day, seven days a week without interruption. Although an uninterrupted expectation is unreasonable because system demands and requirements differ widely and maintenance is needed to ensure reliable operation, the reality
Internet e-mail is becoming more accessible to K-12 teachers. Many colleges and universities will give accounts to teachers for the price of asking. Unfortunately, many of these university systems are hard to use and are usually not offered to K-12 students. Also, most schools do not have phone lines in classrooms. This paper discusses two systems…
Making e-mail a mandatory part of EFL coursework will ensure that students become familiar with the Hannan Internet Community Tool for E-Education. This may help students ease into other courses where this site must be utilized, allow them to retrieve campus information and familiarize them with using the university electronic mail system. Some students, who may not otherwise check the
|Examines the use of shared semantics information to link concepts in an organizational memory to e-mail communications. Presents a framework for determining shared semantics based on organizational and personal user profiles. Illustrates how shared semantics are used by the HyperMail system to help link organizational memories (OM) content to…
|This project is situated within the interpretive tradition in organizational communication research, focusing on organizational discourse. It goes further by bringing the discussion into the 21st century through examining how communication technology--specifically e-mail--plays a role in the linguistic practices that help create, maintain and…
This paper presents several statistical methods for topic identification on two kinds of textual data: newspaper arti- cles and e-mails. Five methods are tested on these two cor- pora: topic unigrams, cache model, TFIDF classifier, topic perplexity, and weighted model. Our work aims to study these methods by confronting them to very different data. This study is very fruitful for
Research has shown that writing about emotional topics can positively influence physical and mental health. The current study tested the efficacy of an e-mail-based writing treatment and shows how such an implementation can aid in the search for moderators. Participants (N = 546) were randomly assigned to either a long- or short-interval traumatic writing condition or to a nonemotional writing
Brad E. Sheese; Erin L. Brown; William G. Graziano
Criminals utilize the Internet to perpetrate all manner of fraud, with the largest dollar losses attributed to advance fee fraud e-mail messages. These messages come from individuals who claim to need assistance moving a large sum of money out of their country. Individuals who respond to the messages often become victims of fraud and identity theft. Few criminologists have examined
|Discusses the use of e-mail and describes 13 mistakes to avoid, including inaccurate addresses, inappropriate subject lines, using conventional greetings, long messages, misspelled words, using special fonts, failing to delete unwanted messages, not answering promptly, sending a file when unnecessary, and using unnecessary jargon and technical…
Given the increased use of the Internet in the travel industry, companies should be eager to provide reliable and high quality service when communicating online. This study focused on e?mail response behavior of airlines with special attention to service recovery. A mystery approach was applied to empirically test the responsiveness and quality of replies to inquiries and complaints. Results show
We determined that it is possible to achieve authorship attribution in the e-mail domain when training on 'personal' e-mails and testing on 'work' e-mails and vice versa. These results are unique since they simulate two different e-mail addresses belongin...
Both Western Europe and the United States limit e-mail monitoring by an employer in the workplace and protect employee privacy. Nevertheless, cases from both Western Europe and the United States show that these regions allow an employer broad rights to monitor employee e-mail. A new case from France, however, demonstrates that Western Europe is increasingly likely to protect employee privacy
|Technological advancements have facilitated the learning process by offering faculty members and students better access to resources, while increasing the potential for more interaction and communication flexibility (Firmin & Miller, 2005). Among these technologies is electronic mail or e-mail. The uses and perceptions of e-mail between business…
|This investigation examined the impact of social support messages on patient health outcomes. Forty-one American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian patients received a total of 618 e-mail messages from their healthcare provider (HCP). The e-mail messages were divided into 3,565 message units and coded for instances of emotional social…
|Electronic mail (e-mail) is an extremely important medium for Internet-based education. Due to its unique characteristics, there is reason to be concerned that students do not put appropriate care into writing messages that are sent via e-mail. This has significant implications for the effectiveness of online learning environments. This paper…
|Research indicates that significant groups of older people are using Internet/e-mail technology. Using data from a 2007 random sample of 1,680 New Zealanders aged 65-84, predictors of Internet/e-mail usage and the impact of usage on well-being were investigated. Gender, age, education, household composition, income, and work were significant…
|Using predicted outcome value theory as a guide, this study investigated the link between e-mail correspondence as a form of computer mediated extra class communication and how it may shape students' desire to foster student-teacher relational development. The findings revealed that when students believe their teacher e-mails the class…
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 7-week standardized cognitive behavioural treatment of work-related stress conducted via e-mail. A total of 342 people applied for treatment in reaction to a newspaper article. Initial screening reduced the sample to a heterogeneous (sub)clinical group of 239 participants. Participants were assigned randomly to a waiting list condition (n562),
Jeroen Ruwaard; Alfred Lange; Manon Bouwman; Janneke Broeksteeg; Bart Schrieken
Our object is to introduce eg(G), the e-mail gossip number of a connected graph G, and derive a simple equation expressing this new invariant in terms of the known  connected domination number cd(G). As a corollary we see that determining each of these numbers is NP-hard. In general we follow the graph theoretic notation and terminology of . Throughout
As more and more social science experiments are being run on computers, the question of whether these new laboratory instruments affect outcomes is increasingly important. We examine whether the mode of communication in experiments has any effect on the choices made by individuals. We find that the effects of `e-mail' vs. face-to-face communication vary with the nature of the decisions
This article presents data from a qualitative case study examining secondary ESL students' attitudes toward and perceptions of a collaborative e-mail exchange between a Form 4 (10th grade) ESL class in Hong Kong and an 11th grade English class in Iowa. The exchange was based on a researcher-designed instructional model, utilizing widely accepted theories and methods for modern second language
Intergenerational interactions have demonstrated some success at improving attitudes of college students toward older adults. This quasiexperimental study involved undergraduate college students paired with older adults for a six-week e-mail exchange. Student attitudes toward older adults were measured pre- and posttest with Polizzi's revised version of the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD). Students were assigned to an intervention group (n = 23) or
To what extent does the wording and syntactic form of people's writing reflect their personalities? Using a bottom-up stratified corpus comparison, rather than the top-down content analysis techniques that have been used before, we examine a cor- pus of e-mail messages elicited from individuals of known personality, as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (S. Eysenck, Eysenck, & Barrett, 1985).
This paper seeks to examine the differences in communication when using e-mail and BBS (bulletin board system) in a counseling environment for school-refusal students. Subjects were asked to view a short movie whose central theme focused on bullying - a possible factor in some school-refusal students absence from school. Subjects were then asked to issue their thoughts and feelings about
An analysis of 96 question and answer pairs from the Bayside Library Ask a Librarian Service found that 54 percent of the queries were received from Bayside residents. Forty-seven percent of the e-mail reference questions were classed as research queries. Although only 25.1 percent of the queries were submitted for formal education purposes, all of these were research questions, and
As mobile office technology becomes more advanced, drivers have increased opportunity to process information "on the move." Although speech-based interfaces can minimize direct interference with driving, the cognitive demands associated with such systems may still cause distraction. We studied the effects on driving performance of an in-vehicle simulated "E-mail" message system; E-mails were either system controlled or driver controlled. A high-fidelity, fixed-base driving simulator was used to test 19 participants on a car-following task. Virtual traffic scenarios varying in driving demand. Drivers compensated for the secondary task by adopting longer headways but showed reduced anticipation of braking requirements and shorter time to collision. Drivers were also less reactive when processing E-mails, demonstrated by a reduction in steering wheel inputs. In most circumstances, there were advantages in providing drivers with control over when E-mails were opened. However, during periods without E-mail interaction in demanding traffic scenarios, drivers showed reduced braking anticipation. This may be a result of increased cognitive costs associated with the decision making process when using a driver-controlled interface when the task of scheduling E-mail acceptance is added to those of driving and E-mail response. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of speech-based in-vehicle messaging systems. PMID:15709325
Jamson, A Hamish; Westerman, Stephen J; Hockey, G Robert J; Carsten, Oliver M J
Electronic mail (e-mail) is an extremely important medium for Internet-based education. Due to its unique characteristics, there is reason to be concerned that students do not put appropriate care into writing messages that are sent via e-mail. This has significant implications for the effectiveness of online learning environments. This paper describes an empirical research project to investigate the amount of
Although e-mail recipients rely on nonverbal cues to form impressions of senders, relatively little is known about specific contextual factors that may influence sender perceptions in computer-mediated communication. Results from an experiment found that the receivers' personalities influenced their perceptions of the e-mail sender both directly and indirectly through perceptions of nonverbal cues. These results support the notions that the
Abstract Potential respondents to web surveys are usually contacted by e-mail. For general target populations e-mail addresses are usually not available. Weexplore whether a sequential mixed mode web\\/mail strategy can be used for such a population to encourage respondents to choose the web mode. In oursequential mixed mode web\\/mail survey respondents were first encouraged to reply by web and in
The expansion of the Internet and e-mail access around the globe, especially into less-developed areas, raises the question of how geographers might use this technology for research purposes and the development of appropriate methodologies. This paper identifies three ways in which the use of e-mail surveys for geographic research differs from traditional mail surveys. First, there are substantial differences in
We draw on a social role theoretical perspective that links women and kinkeeping as well as social-structural and cultural accounts of racial\\/ethnic difference to formulate hypotheses about e-mail use and its influence on family ties. We use nationally representative data to test these hypotheses. We find that: 1) women and whites are more likely to use e-mail to communicate with
We examined Milgram’s (1977) lost-letter technique using e-mail. In the first experiment, 79 college faculty received mock\\u000a lost e-mail messages. Nineteen percent of those who received the messages responded, in all cases by returning the message\\u000a to the “sender” instead of forwarding it to the “recipient.” In the second study, attitudes toward presidential candidate\\u000a Ross Perot were examined by sending
Purpose – To share the experience of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)'s approach to managing its records, using an e-mail system. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The primary importance of communication between the headquarters and delegations of a global organization such as the ICRC lead it to use its e-mail system to manage its “official” current records. The Lotus Notes
Controlled Trial of Worksite Health Education Through Face-to-Face Counseling vs. E- mail on Drinking Behavior Modification: Ikuno ARAKI, et al. Department of Medicine & Occupational Health, ExxonMobil Yugen Kaisha—This study examined the effectiveness of a traditional face-to-face health education and e-mail health education on alcohol usage among male workers in comparison with a control group. Male workers at a manufacturing
...Guidance for Industry on How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Notice of Final Disposition...industry (#86) entitled ``How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Notice of Final Disposition...immediate slaughter (NFDA) as an e-mail attachment by Internet. This...
...Guidance for Industry on How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Request for a Meeting or...88) entitled. ``How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Request for a Meeting or...a new animal drug submission as an e-mail attachment by Internet. These...
...Guidance for Industry on How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Request for a Meeting or...industry (#88) entitled ``How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Request for a Meeting or...a new animal drug submission as an e-mail attachment by Internet. These...
...Guidance for Industry on How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Notice of Intent to Slaughter...industry (#87) entitled ``How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Notice of Intent to Slaughter...Rockville, MD 20855, 301-827-7578, e-mail: email@example.com....
...Guidance for Industry on How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Notice of Intent to Slaughter...industry (#87) entitled ``How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Notice of Intent to Slaughter...purposes (slaughter notices) as an e-mail attachment by Internet. This...
...Guidance for Industry on How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Notice of Final Disposition...industry (#86) entitled ``How to Use E-Mail to Submit a Notice of Final Disposition...immediate slaughter (NFDA) as an e-mail attachment by Internet. These...
...Guidance for Industry on How to Use E-Mail to Submit Information to the Center...industry (#108) entitled ``How to Use E-Mail to Submit Information to the Center...to submit information to CVM as an e-mail attachment by Internet. These...
...Guidance for Industry on How to Use E-Mail to Submit Information to the Center...industry (#108) entitled ``How to Use E-Mail to Submit Information to the Center...for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) as an e-mail attachment by Internet. These...
Background/Aims The management of asymptomatic erosive esophagitis is controversial. We surveyed physicians' opinions on asymptomatic erosive esophagitis using e-mail. Methods All members of the Korean Society of Neurogastro-enterology and Motility were invited to answer the questionnaire on the treatment and follow-up of patients with asymptomatic erosive esophagitis by e-mail. Results A total of 73 members answered the questionnaire (response rate, 18%). As initial management, 41% of respondents chose pharmacologic treatment, whereas 59% chose nonpharmacologic treatment. In the case of pharmacologic treatment, proton pump inhibitors were the preferred medication. The most common treatment duration was 4 weeks (43%), followed by 8 weeks (38%), and 6 months (11%). Sixty-two percent of the respondents recommended follow-up endoscopy annually, whereas 29% chose no endoscopic follow-up. Thirty-four percent of the respondents answered that they would talk about reflux-related sleep disturbances. Only 25% of the respondents explained the possibility of Barrett's esophagus or esophageal adenocarcinoma to their patients. Conclusions There are substantial practice variations in the management of asymptomatic erosive esophagitis in Korea.
Lim, Seong Woo; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Heung Up; Jeon, Seong Woo
The digitization of analog signals has inadvertently opened doors for Covert Channel communication which is being exploited as an innocent carrier of Secret information. A number of techniques have been proposed and are in use to attain confidentiality, integrity and authentication for on-line transaction\\/exchange of messages of which Cryptography and Steganography stands ahead. Cryptography is focused on changing the contents
Personalizing communication means creating persuasive messages that refer to aspects of a person's self. Although the use of personalization is increasing, research on its effectiveness is limited and the results are mixed. This study examined the persuasiveness of personalized e-mail newsletters in terms of increased attention, cognitive activity, evaluation, attitude, intention, and behavior by means of an experiment (n=109). Participants randomly received either a personalized or a generic newsletter advertising a sports center. Personalization triggered a more positive evaluation of the message; however, it did not influence the other effect variables. The effects were moderated by consumers' need for uniqueness, trust, and privacy concerns, suggesting that personalization is a good strategy to increase message evaluation only among individuals who have a high need for uniqueness. PMID:21790275
There is a growing gap between developing and developed countries in the availability of treatment for pediatric subspecialties. Twinning and telemedicine are effective ways to improve the quality of healthcare in developing countries. We evaluated the impact of e-mail exchanges on the development of a neuro-oncology twinning program between the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), Amman, Jordan, and the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. We conducted a retrospective review of all e-mail communications between KHCC and the Hospital for Sick Children from August 2003 to December 2005 for subject, attachments, and responses. Over a period of 29 months, 356 e-mail exchanges (average, 12.3/month) occurred. Subjects discussed were specific consults (88), videoconferencing (65), general neuro-oncological questions (54), personal (45), exchange visits related (44), research projects related (28), articles or treatment guidelines (21), and Web site translation (11). Our study suggests that e-mails promote effective communication between twinning partners and enable discussion of complex cases, organization of teleconferences and workshops, aid other research activities, and further personal relationships between partners. Use of e-mail in telemedicine can be especially useful to improve the quality of care for children with cancer in developing countries. PMID:19929233
There are many applications in which the automatic detection and recognition of text embedded in images isuseful. These applications include multimedia systems, digital libraries, and Geographical Information Systems.When machine generated text is printed against clean backgrounds, it can be converted to a computer readbleform (ASCII) using current Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology. However, text is often printedagainst shaded or textured
Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18?years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6?±?17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%). Ninety-three (46.5%) responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5%) would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5%) who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6%) said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7%) said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7%) were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow of clinical practice.
In light of the current investigations related to possible conflicts of interest involving Wall Street stock analysts, no general counsel at a securities firm needs to be reminded of e-mail’s growing importance in litigation and regulatory investigations. Merrill Lynch paid a $100 million settlement to the State of New York based, in significant part, on damaging evidence culled from the
|Modern technologies can provide language students with authentic content and contextualized, collaborative learning situations. This article illustrates how e-mail exchanges, Web exercises, and CD-ROM development between students in the United States and organizations in Ecuador can promote contextualized and authentic practice of Spanish…
Communication has become a major aspect of a manager's job. When communicating, they are faced with many choices of what media to use - some include face-to-face, telephone, e-mail, or written. Managerial effectiveness can improve if managers make appropr...
|The present study investigated Japanese students' EFL vocabulary development through e-mail interactions with a native English speaker (NS), with primary focus on students' imitation of new words. According to sociocultural theory, learners can internalize new linguistic knowledge by imitating an expert's expressions to create his/her own…
This formative study investigated the attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of university students seeking teacher certification toward students with content-area difficulties as well as towards their own tutoring experience. A qualitative analysis of communication with the university course instructors reported through electronic mail (e-mail) messages revealed several themes. The researchers identified the following themes through analysis: instructional growth; emotional attachment; why
Background: Given the high health care utilization, lim- ited evidence for the effectiveness of back pain interven- tions, and the proliferation of e-mail health discussion groups, this study seeks to determine if the Internet can be used to improve health status and health care utili- zation for people with chronic back pain. Methods: Randomized controlled trial. Participants in- cluded 580
Kate R. Lorig; Diana D. Laurent; Richard A. Deyo; Margaret E. Marnell; Marian A. Minor; Philip L. Ritter
To date, few Internet-delivered smoking cessation interventions have been tested. This study tested the efficacy, understandability, credibility and personal relevance of an e-mail-delivered computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention. It included tailored action plan feedback, as recent studies have demonstrated the importance of planning in…
Poel, Fam Te; Bolman, Catherine; Reubsaet, Astrid; de Vries, Hein
|To date, few Internet-delivered smoking cessation interventions have been tested. This study tested the efficacy, understandability, credibility and personal relevance of an e-mail-delivered computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention. It included tailored action plan feedback, as recent studies have demonstrated the importance of planning…
Poel, Fam Te; Bolman, Catherine; Reubsaet, Astrid; de Vries, Hein
|The goal of this exploratory study was to investigate electronic communication as a potential method to enhance social communication in a range of students with disabilities. This study investigated the usability of an adapted e-mail interface, TeenMail, for 11 middle school students with significant learning and communication impairments who…
This paper reports the results of an exploratory study into the usability of a simplified e-mail interface for eight individuals with acquired cognitive-linguistic impairments. Participatory Action Research, a qualitative research method, was used to capture the range of performance variables and to emphasize a 'user-centred' approach to the research process. The participants were asked to read and reply to e-mails across four writing prompt conditions. An analysis of errors and participant preferences for the prototype e-mail system was conducted. Errors fell into two general categories: (1) computer usability (e.g. conceptual understanding of mouse/cursor operation) and (2) message composition (e.g. generating ideas for a message). Participant preferences for the writing prompt conditions varied considerably. All participants endorsed the use of customized e-mail interfaces as a means of connecting with friends and family, thereby reducing social isolation. Implications for interface design, rehabilitation and future research into assistive technology are discussed. PMID:12775272
The Enforcement Document Retrieval System (EDRS) is a full text database for documents related to enforcement policy and procedures, administrative decisions, judicial decisions, and model/sample forms. All environmental statutes that the Environmental Pr...
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 7-week standardized cognitive behavioural treatment of work-related stress conducted via e-mail. A total of 342 people applied for treatment in reaction to a newspaper article. Initial screening reduced the sample to a heterogeneous (sub)clinical group of 239 participants. Participants were assigned randomly to a waiting list condition (n = 62), or to immediate treatment (n = 177). A follow-up was conducted 3 years after inception of the treatment. The outcome measures used were the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42) and the Emotional Exhaustion scale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS). Fifty participants (21%) dropped out. Both groups showed statistically significant improvements. Intention-to-treat analysis of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed that participants in the treatment condition improved significantly more than those in the waiting control condition (0.001
or = d > or = 0.5 (anxiety)). The between-group effects ranged from d = 0.6 (stress) to d = 0.1 (anxiety). At follow-up, the effects were more pronounced, but this result requires replication in view of high attrition at follow-up. The results warrant further research on Internet-driven standardized cognitive behavioural therapy for work-related stress. Such research should include the direct comparison of this treatment with face-to-face treatment, and should address the optimal level of therapist contact in Internet-driven treatment. PMID:17852171
There is increasing interest in using electronic mail and other electronic health technologies (e-health technologies) in patient follow-ups. This study sheds light on patients' reception of provider-initiated e-health in their everyday environments. In a research project carried out in Norway (2005-2007), an electronic address for a hospital dermatology ward was offered to 50 patient families for improved access to expert advice from the patients' homes. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 12 families, this paper explores how the electronic address was integrated into everyday health practice. The research illuminates how the electronic address did not only represent changes related to treatment procedures and frequency or nature of expert contact; it was also important to other practices in the everyday lives of the families of patients with chronic illness. Once in place on the patients' computers, the electronic address was ascribed at least four different roles: it was used as the intended riverbed for a flow of information, but also as a safety alarm, as a shield to the medical gaze and as a token of competence in care and parenting. The multiplicity in use and reception of an electronic address in patient settings illustrates the need to include patients' everyday practices in current professional and political discussions of e-mail and other e-health technologies. Thus this paper argues that there is a need for research on electronic patient-provider communication that moves beyond frequency of use and questions on how technology will affect medical encounters. Social science equally needs to investigate how provider-initiated e-health technologies gets involved in patients' moral and social performance of health and illness in everyday life. PMID:21208702
The aim of this study is to investigate the free e-mail usage of students in the technology departments of the university, and also to learn which free e-mail service the participants prefer. The volunteer participants in this study consisted of 150 undergraduate students attending the Near East University in Northern Cyprus. 50 students from Department of Computer Information Systems (CIS),
Objective: The aim of this study waS to determine whether an automated e-mail messaging system that sent individually timed educational messages (ITEMs) increased the effectiveness of an INternet smoiking cessation intervention.\\u000aDesign: Using two consecutive series of particiapnts, the authors compared two Web-based style smoking cessation interventions a single-poin-in-time educational intervention and an enhanced intervention that also sent ITEMs timed
BACKGROUND: The work setting provides an opportunity to introduce overweight (i.e., Body Mass Index ? 25 kg\\/m2) adults to a weight management programme, but new approaches are needed in this setting. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle counselling by phone or e-mail on body weight, in an overweight working population. Secondary purposes were
Marieke F van Wier; Geertje AM Ariëns; J Caroline Dekkers; Ingrid JM Hendriksen; Tjabe Smid; Willem van Mechelen
The media choices made by high and low self-esteem Internet users was studied using web- based methodology (n = 265). Participants were asked to rank four media (face-to-face, e-mail, letter, and telephone) in order of preference across four different communication scenarios designed to pose an interpersonal risk. The level of interpersonal risk posed by two of the scenarios (asking for
Background This study identifies sexual and reproductive health misconceptions contained in e-mails sent to an emergency contraception website. Study design From July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2004, 1,134 English-language questions were e-mailed to http://ec.princeton.edu. We performed content analysis on these e-mails and grouped misconceptions into thematic categories. Results Of the questions sent during the study period, 27% (n=303, total n=1,134) evinced underlying misconceptions about sexual and reproductive health issues. Content analysis revealed five major thematic categories of misconceptions: sexual acts that can lead to pregnancy; definitions of “protected” sex; timing of pregnancy and pregnancy testing; dangers that emergency contraceptives pose to women and fetuses; and confusion between emergency contraception and abortion. Conclusions These misconceptions have several possible sources: abstinence-only sexual education programs in the U.S., the proliferation of medically inaccurate websites, terminology used in public health campaigns, non-evidence based medical protocols, and confusion between emergency contraception and medication abortion in the media.
The Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) Gateway, release 1.0 is described. This is a software tool for converting tabular data from one format into another via the TOAD format. This initial release of the Gateway allows free data interchange among the f...
The Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor is an interactive software tool for manipulating the contents of TOAD files. The TOAD editor is specifically designed to work with tabular data. Selected subsets of data may be displayed to the user's scree...
This article describes e-mail therapy with a teenager whom professionals found difficult to communicate with and understand. Anne had a 4-year history of low mood and unpredictable self-harming behaviour that in the past had led to admission to a secure unit. Therapy involved weekly e-mails over a 3-month period and ended when she was transferred to adult services. The article focuses on how e-mail enabled engagement to occur. The therapeutic relationship allowed Anne to explore and understand past experiences, and start resolving present problems. Diagnosis also became clearer. PMID:18411868
Background The work setting provides an opportunity to introduce overweight (i.e., Body Mass Index ? 25 kg/m2) adults to a weight management programme, but new approaches are needed in this setting. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle counselling by phone or e-mail on body weight, in an overweight working population. Secondary purposes were to establish effects on waist circumference and lifestyle behaviours, and to assess which communication method is the most effective. Methods A randomized controlled trial with three treatments: intervention materials with phone counselling (phone group); a web-based intervention with e-mail counselling (internet group); and usual care, i.e. lifestyle brochures (control group). The interventions used lifestyle modification and lasted a maximum of six months. Subjects were 1386 employees, recruited from seven companies (67% male; mean age 43 (SD 8.6) y; mean BMI 29.6 (SD 3.5) kg/m2). Body weight was measured by research personnel and by questionnaire. Secondary outcomes fat, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity and waist circumference were assessed by questionnaire. Measurements were done at baseline and after six months. Missing body weight was multiply imputed. Results Body weight reduced 1.5 kg (95% CI -2.2;-0.8, p < 0.001) in the phone group and 0.6 kg (95% CI -1.3; -0.01, p = 0.045) in the internet group, compared with controls. In completers analyses, weight and waist circumference in the phone group were reduced with 1.6 kg (95% CI -2.2;-1.0, p < 0.001) and 1.9 cm (95% CI -2.7;-1.0, p < 0.001) respectively, fat intake decreased with 1 fatpoint (1 to 4 grams)/day (95% CI -1.7;-0.2, p = 0.01) and physical activity increased with 866 METminutes/week (95% CI 203;1530, p = 0.01), compared with controls. The internet intervention resulted in a weight loss of 1.1 kg (95% CI -1.7;-0.5, p < 0.001) and a reduction in waist circumference of 1.2 cm (95% CI -2.1;-0.4, p = 0.01), in comparison with usual care. The phone group appeared to have more and larger changes than the internet group, but comparisons revealed no significant differences. Conclusion Lifestyle counselling by phone and e-mail is effective for weight management in overweight employees and shows potential for use in the work setting. Trial registration ISCRTN04265725.
van Wier, Marieke F; Ariens, Geertje AM; Dekkers, J Caroline; Hendriksen, Ingrid JM; Smid, Tjabe; van Mechelen, Willem
Text Version... 1971 – September 1971: Staff Nurse – Intensive Care Unit ... CHMC Nursing Research Conference, November 7, 1992 ... Vital Signs Study in The PACU ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
Text Version... companies (PERI); Masters Forum (U of Minnesota); global leadership skills and team development; risk management; business ethics. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
There is a great deal of variation in individual management of non-sharp oesophageal food bolus obstruction in the United Kingdom. An e-mail survey of consultants and specialist registrars in ENT was carried out to establish current UK practice. A review of the published literature was under-taken to establish whether current practice is evidence based. The majority of practitioners (95%) do not proceed immediately to rigid oesophagoscopy but use antispasmodic drugs (83%), most commonly hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan) and diazepam, to try to induce spontaneous passage of the obstruction. There is currently no evidence in the published literature to support the use of these drugs. The use of Buscopan seems to have been encouraged by a misquoted reference in a prominent ENT textbook. Better evidence is needed to establish the best form of treatment for this relatively common problem. PMID:17333232
As Third Generation (3G) networks emerge they provide not only higher data transmission rates but also the ability to transmit\\u000a both voice and low latency data within the same session. This paper describes the architecture and implementation of a multimodal\\u000a application (voice and text) that uses natural language understanding combined with a WAP browser to access email messages\\u000a on a
Jennifer Lai; Stella Mitchell; Christopher Pavlovski
Electronic mail (e-mail) is being investigated as a health care intervention for mothers caring for their infants. The purpose of this study is to describe themes representing the content of e-mail messages written by 12 single, low-income, African American mothers to nurses participating in the New Mothers Network Study. Three themes that emerged were (a) life's logistics: day-to-day concerns; (b) relationships of support; and (c) personal reflections about being a new mother. Reported themes support the social support theory based on works by House and Revenson, Schiaffano, Majerovitz, and Gibofski used to develop the nursing intervention. Nurses are in key positions to offer social support to African American mothers adjusting to single parenting. Nurses can provide social support to single, low-income African American mothers via e-mail messages to assist them with caring for themselves and their infants. PMID:19211545
...device, including for the purpose of short message service texting, e-mailing, instant messaging, obtaining navigational...outreach to employees about the safety risks associated with texting while driving. (d) Subcontracts. The Contractor...
Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate a 6-month intervention to promote office-employees’ walking with pedometers and e-mail messages. Methods Participants were recruited by 10 occupational health care units (OHC) from 20 worksites with 2,230 employees. Voluntary and insufficiently physically active employees (N?=?241) were randomized to a pedometer (STEP, N?=?123) and a comparison group (COMP, N?=?118). STEP included one group meeting, log-monitored pedometer-use and six e-mail messages from OHC. COMP participated in data collection. Reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) and costs were assessed with questionnaires (0, 2, 6, 12?months), process evaluation and interviews (12?months). Results The intervention reached 29% (N?=?646) of employees in terms of participation willingness. Logistic regression showed that the proportion of walkers tended to increase more in STEP than in COMP at 2?months in “walking for transportation” (Odds ratio 2.12, 95%CI 0.94 to 4.81) and at 6?months in “walking for leisure” (1.86, 95%CI 0.94 to 3.69). Linear model revealed a modest increase in the mean duration of “walking stairs” at 2 and 6?months (Geometric mean ratio 1.26, 95%CI 0.98 to 1.61; 1.27, 0.98 to 1.64). Adoption and implementation succeeded as intended. At 12?months, some traces of the intervention were sustained in 15 worksites, and a slightly higher number of walkers in STEP in comparison with COMP was observed in “walking stairs” (OR 2.24, 95%CI 0.94 to 5.31) and in “walking for leisure” (2.07, 95%CI 0.99 to 4.34). The direct costs of the intervention were 43 Euros per participant. Conclusions The findings indicate only modest impact on some indicators of walking. Future studies should invest in reaching the employees, minimizing attrition rate and using objective walking assessment. Trial registeration ISRCTN79432107
A secretary has "n" letters and "n" addressed envelopes. Instead of matching each letter with the corresponding envelope, she inserts the letters in a random manner. What are the chances that every letter will be in the wrong envelope? In this article, the author presents a solution to this problem and discusses possible ways of placing the…
Chat services that provide real-time help for customers have been adopted widely and rapidly on many websites in the past few years. Our paper investigates online live chat customer services from two perspectives: media choice between chat service and web e-mail, and media use of chat service analyzed from the perspectives of characteristics, interactivity and socioemotional content. We collected four
An e-mail system should be more robust to be utilized as a central tool in business and medical fields. Toward this robustness, we have worked out a sort of state of the art for the configurations of DNS (Domain Name Service) and sendmail. Our method has six advantages over BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) peering: no need for maintaining high-level administration
H. Nogawa; H. Tatsumi; S. Kobayashi; S. Kawai; N. Ohishi; S. Akiba
E-mail technology provides a way of requesting information or assistance from multiple sources by simultaneously addressing a letter to more than one recipient. Models of prosocial behavior taken from social psychology and economics suggest that the probability of receiving a helpful response is an inverse function of the number of simultaneous addressees. An experiment is presented which examines this prediction
This dissertation is a qualitative case study examining the feelings, attitudes, and opinions of secondary school, English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students toward collaborative e-mail exchange for the purpose of learning English between 10th and 11th grade between students in Hong Kong and Green River, Iowa, USA. The research looks at the…
This qualitative study focused on the development of reflective practice with preservice teachers through a framework during an early field experience. The framework provided an explicit structure for the preservice teachers to investigate four focus areas (teachers role, active learning, culture, and assessment). The preservice teachers explored a focus area, dialogued via e-mail with a peer, and then discussed their
From 1988 to 1990 several collaborative “cross-country” intermediate French classes at Harvard and Stanford became one class. Students combined their efforts and insights in the accomplishment of a semester-long task, in most cases the publication of a student newspaper or magazine, using the electronic mail (e-mail) network to contact each other, elaborate their plans, and bring their projects to successful conclusion. Additional experiments of a similar nature took place between Harvard and the University of Pittsburgh (in the spring of 1990) and between Stanford and the University of Pittsburgh during 1991 1993. This paper suggests that this type of task-oriented learning through distance-communication is applicable at many different course levels and has considerable merit as an approach to teaching and learning. The key phases of this task-based model are presented along with technological information regarding computers and networks, as a guide to colleagues interested in pursuing similar lines of experimental teaching. Also included are samples of student messages, with their varied and often highly colorful discourse features, which attest to the motivation of students and reveal the strong personal investment made by the participants as they join hands across the miles in a productive, communication-based enterprise. The language and learning styles generated by technology and computers fully deserve closer investigation by researchers and teaching practitioners alike. The authors summarize the experiments, discuss assessment, and present research issues, concluding that good pedagogy and quality technology must share a vision of what can be accomplished in this rapidly evolving educational work place.
The problem with Lomborg's conclusion is that the scientists themselves disavow it. Many spoke to us at SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN about their frustration at what they described as Lomborg's misrepresentation of their fields. His seemingly dispassionate outsider's view, they told us, is often marred by an incomplete use of the data or a misunderstanding of the underlying science. Even where his
In today's "I-gotta-know-now" society, many patients turn to e-mail to contact doctors on matters, as opposed to waiting for an in-person office visit. Now, some insurers are actually reimbursing doctors for their electronic time, which is also known as a "virtual visit." Internist Paul Tang, left, doesn't consider the practice mainstream yet. "No one is reimbursing us," he says. PMID:17972489
This paper first reviews the literature on computer mediated communication (CMC) to examine whether claims about gender-linked\\u000a differences in specific attitudes, styles and content in CMC have been validated. Empirical studies were limited, with considerable\\u000a variation in audiences, tasks, and contexts that was related to varied outcomes. The paper next describes an empirical study\\u000a on the e-mail communication of elementary
Physician accessibility, for example how available a doctor should be by cell phone or e-mail is an important issue that is\\u000a not well understood. There can be large differences between the expectations of patients and the perspective of their providers.\\u000a The rationale for providing accessibility has historical roots and relates to the very basis of the physician–patient relationship\\u000a and the
Reuben K. M. Wong; Jane S. M. Tan; Douglas A. Drossman
Background Self-help or self-management strategies are commonly used to deal with depression, but not all are thought to be helpful. A previous study found that sub-threshold depression symptoms were improved by an e-mail intervention that encouraged the use of evidence-based self-help strategies. Aim To investigate whether these e-mails were effective for adults with a range of depression symptomatology including major depression. Method The study was a parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Adult participants with any level of depressive symptoms were recruited over the internet from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. Participants were randomised to receive a series of e-mails either promoting the use of evidence-based self-help strategies or containing depression information as a control. E-mails were sent automatically twice a week for six weeks. Depression symptoms were assessed with the self-rated Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9). Results 1736 participants with a wide range of symptom severity were recruited and assigned to active (n?=?862) and control (n?=?874) groups. However, there was a significant attrition rate, with 66.9% lost to follow-up at post-intervention. Both groups showed large improvements in depression symptoms overall, with no significant difference in improvement at the end of the study (mean difference in improvement 0.35 points, 95% CI: ?0.57 to 1.28, d?=?0.11, 95% CI: ?0.06 to 0.27), although there was a small effect at the study mid-point. Results were similar for the sub-group of participants with major depression. The active group showed small to moderate improvements in self-help behaviour (d?=?0.40, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.56). Conclusions These results suggest that the e-mails were able to increase participants’ use of evidence-based self-help, but that this did not improve depression more than an attention control. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01399502
Morgan, Amy J.; Jorm, Anthony F.; Mackinnon, Andrew J.
Categorization of text in IR has traditionally focused on topic. As use of the Internet and e-mail increases, categorization has become a key area of research as users demand methods of prioritizing documents. This work investigates text classification by format style, i. e. \\
Nigel Dewdney; Carol Vaness-dykema; Richard Macmillan
Existing research on workplace incivility has demonstrated an association with a host of negative outcomes, including increased burnout, turnover intentions, and physical symptoms. With the rise in Internet communication over the last decade, interpersonal mistreatment has spilled over to the Internet, but little is known about the impact of incivility communicated via e-mail on employee psychological and performance outcomes. The current study presents a within-subjects experiment wherein incivility and support were manipulated in a laboratory-based simulated workplace setting. Eighty-four participants completed a series of math tasks while interacting with either an uncivil or a supportive supervisor via e-mail. Data were collected on energy, cardiac activity, mood, task performance, and engagement. Findings indicate that participants reported higher levels of negative affect and lower levels of energy after working with the uncivil supervisor than with the supportive supervisor. Additionally, participants performed significantly worse on the math tasks and had lower engagement in the uncivil condition than the supportive condition, and these relationships were mediated by energy. No differences were found in cardiac activity between the two conditions. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the 21st century world of work. PMID:23834445
Giumetti, Gary W; Hatfield, Andrea L; Scisco, Jenna L; Schroeder, Amber N; Muth, Eric R; Kowalski, Robin M
Unicode was designed to extend ASCII for encoding text in different languages, but it still has several important drawbacks. Multicode addresses many of Unicode's drawbacks and should have considerable appeal to programmers who work with text in a variety of languages. Its future, however, depends on the computer industry's acceptance. Multicode can represent Unicode files because it reserves a character
|Discusses the critical need for tools to manage, access, and disseminate text and image information ranging from free-form ASCII data to scanned documents stored on optical media. Current types of integrated text/image databases are described and the advancement of technology toward systems that manage large collections of documents made up of…
The development of internet-based mobile electronic commerce (mcommerce) has been slow, but commercial applications for text messages have developed rapidly. This paper explores the role of SMS or text message advertising. Although SMS advertising is strictly a form of telemarketing, it shares features with e-mail marketing and mcommerce. An analysis of 26 text marketing campaigns (5,401 respondents) demonstrates the surprising
Increasingly our perception of others is based on short samples of written text, for example, in e-mail or chat rooms. In this paper we will examine the extent to which text co- occurrence techniques, such as LSA, HAL, and PMI-IR, can be successfully applied to human personality perception based on short written texts. In particular, we compare two approaches: The
In spring 2005, Sims Memorial Library at Southeastern Louisiana University initiated “Text A Librarian,” a service that enables Southeastern students, faculty, and staff to use the text message feature of their cell phones to send questions to and receive answers from the library. Librarians at Sims use a dedicated text messaging telephone number and “e-mail\\/SMS” conversion software, provided by Altarama
Describes Western Governors University, a virtual university (http://www.westgov.org) organized by 15 western states and Guam to offer competency-based degrees via the Internet, electronic mail, computer software, video, or satellite. (Author)
|This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…
Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.
Two articles propose two systems for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) translations of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA): Multibet 1.0 and Unibet 1.0. Multibet 1.0 consists of a set of names and a set of ASCII translations for the letters and diacritics of the 1979 version of the "Principles of the International…
In this paper we considered a theoretical evaluation of data and text compression algorithm based on the Burrows-Wheeler Transform (BWT) and General Bidirectional Associative Memory (GBAM). A new data and text lossless compression method, based on the combination of BWT1 and GBAM2 approaches, is presented. The algorithm was tested on many texts in different formats (ASCII and RTF). The compression ratio achieved is fairly good, on average 28-36%. Decompression is fast. PMID:12638122
Background Distance lifestyle counseling for weight control is a promising public health intervention in the work setting. Information about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is lacking, but necessary to make informed implementation decisions. The purpose of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of a six-month program with lifestyle counseling aimed at weight reduction in an overweight working population with a two-year time horizon from a societal perspective. Methods A randomized controlled trial comparing a program with two modes of intervention delivery against self-help. 1386 Employees from seven companies participated (67% male, mean age 43 (SD 8.6) years, mean BMI 29.6 (SD 3.5) kg/m2). All groups received self-directed lifestyle brochures. The two intervention groups additionally received a workbook-based program with phone counseling (phone; n=462) or a web-based program with e-mail counseling (internet; n=464). Body weight was measured at baseline and 24 months after baseline. Quality of life (EuroQol-5D) was assessed at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after baseline. Resource use was measured with six-monthly diaries and valued with Dutch standard costs. Missing data were multiply imputed. Uncertainty around differences in costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios was estimated by applying non-parametric bootstrapping techniques and graphically plotting the results in cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results At two years the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €1009/kg weight loss in the phone group and €16/kg weight loss in the internet group. The cost-utility analysis resulted in €245,243/quality adjusted life year (QALY) and €1337/QALY, respectively. The results from a complete-case analysis were slightly more favorable. However, there was considerable uncertainty around all outcomes. Conclusions Neither intervention mode was proven to be cost-effective compared to self-help. Trial registration ISRCTN04265725
Faxing moved from a marginal to essential business communications technology in the early 1980s in Japan and the late 1980s in the United States. In the late 1990s in the United States and early 2000s in Japan, fax lost its primary role to e-mail, the worldwide web, and internet-capable cellphones (keitai) as economics, perceptions, and the environment shifted against faxing.
This web page defines and describes text structure, or how the information within a written text is organized. It explains the benefits of teaching students to identify and analyze text structures within text and describes an instructional sequence in which students read examples of different text structures and then write paragraphs that follow a specific text structure. The site includes definitions and examples of five common text structures, and graphic organizers that can be used with each type of text. Links to additional resources and research citations are included.
Describes the Victorian Women Writers Project, a full-text poetry database created and published on the World Wide Web by Indiana University Libraries. Electronic formats such as graphical, character-based, and proprietary files are discussed, along with standards for formatting, including ASCII, HTML, and Text Encoding Initiatives. Decisions must…
Zusammenfassung Im Blickpunkt dieses Artikels stehen die Funktionsweise und die Einsatzpotenziale des Text Mining. Text Mining läuft in einem mehrstufigen Prozess ab, dessen einzelne Schritte knapp vorgestellt werden. Der Fokus liegt hierbei auf der Datenaufbereitung, bei der mittels Techniken des Natural Language Processing Terme aus den zugrunde liegenden Texten extrahiert werden.
|Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)|
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.
This essay is just one story in the ongoing conversation of how to approach teaching indigenous literatures in colonial educational institutions. Through sharing her experiences in teaching Richard Van Camp's "The Lesser Blessed," the author hopes to reveal the power of this particular text and the way its effects on students who willingly engage…
|This essay is just one story in the ongoing conversation of how to approach teaching indigenous literatures in colonial educational institutions. Through sharing her experiences in teaching Richard Van Camp's "The Lesser Blessed," the author hopes to reveal the power of this particular text and the way its effects on students who willingly engage…
|In this essay, the author describes the difficulties email has introduced to the academic world, from monopolizing faculty's down time to adding a new dimension to interpersonal problems. He discusses the "withdrawal" symptoms he felt when he decided to go without email during a family vacation, and his realization, upon examining the emails sent…
While most of the attention lately has been focused on the political aspects of cryptography, some attention has been paid to he mechanisms required for the implementation of such a scheme. To encrypt is simple, numerous means exist from simple ciphers to complex algorithms thought to require thousands of years to break. Concerns have been raised, primarily by law enforcement
The newest guide from Inc.com offers step-by-step instructions for publishing an email newsletter. This series of articles leads users through the process "from conceptualizing your newsletter to formatting it and delivering it to subscribers." Each of the articles also links to other articles from the Inc.com archives, thus creating an extensive manual for enewsletter creation. By the end of guide, users will have a clear understanding as to the steps they need to take in order to create a successful email newsletter.
With the widespread use of full-text information retrieval,passage-retrieval techniques are becoming increasinglypopular. Larger texts can then be replacedby important text excerpts, thereby simplifying the retrievaltask and improving retrieval effectiveness. Passagelevelevidence about the use of words in local contextsis also useful for resolving language ambiguities and improvingretrieval output.Two main text decomposition strategies are introducedin this study, including a...
Gerard Salton; Amit Singhal; Chris Buckley; Mandar Mitra
Introduction: why bother with electronic texts?. Document Analysis: defining the essentials of your texts. Markup and the Basics of SGML. Introduction to the TEI. TEI Lite. Tagging a Text2Introduction. Why do electronic texts at all?. Why bother with markup?. The steps of a project:--- clarify goals--- select sample and analyse documents--- specify markup policy--- encode the texts--- enrich, reuse, retarget,
In this paper we present results from the METER (MEasuring TExt Reuse) project whose aim is to explore issues pertaining to text reuse and derivation, especially in the context of newspapers using newswire sources. Although the reuse of text by journalists has been studied in linguistics, we are not aware of any investigation using existing computational methods for this particular
Paul Clough; Robert Gaizauskas; Scott S. L. Piao; Yorick Wilks
We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a
KidsHealth > Teens > Staying Safe > Driving > Texting on the Move Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? (click to view) What's the Big Deal? ... on something other than the road. In fact, driving while texting (DWT) can be more dangerous than driving under ...
Text is a popular storage and distribution format for information, partly due to generic text-processing tools like Unix grep and sort. Unfortunately, ex- isting generic tools make assumptions about text format (e.g., each line is a record) that limit their applicability. Custom-built tools are one alterna- tive, but they require substantial time investment and programming expertise. We describe a new
Those persons who do their own website design will find TextImages most useful. Developed by Stefan Trost, this helpful tool allows users to integrate text written on images into their websites. Visitors can create single text images with this application, along with a wide range of pictures. Visitors also have the ability to precisely adjust the writing, design, format, style, colors, fonts, margins, and spacing as they see fit. The tool is particularly useful for those who want headings or other recurring text to look the same regardless of browser or available fonts. This version is compatible with Windows 7, XP, and Vista.
|Using composition, reader response, critical, and feminist theories, a teacher demonstrates how adult students respond critically to literary texts and how teachers must critically analyze the texts of their teaching practice. Both students and teachers can use writing to bring their experiences to interpretation. (SK)|
|A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…
The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…
|The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…
Summary form only given. In 1951 Shannon estimated the entropy of English text by giving human subjects a sample of text and asking them to guess the next letters. He found, in one example, that 79% of the attempts were correct at the first try, 8% needed two attempts and 3% needed 3 attempts. By regarding the number of attempts
In his work on the information content of English text in 1951, Shannon described a method of recoding the input text, a technique which has apparently lain dormant for the ensuing 45 years. Whereas traditional compressors exploit symbol frequencies and symbol contexts, Shannon's method adds the concept of \\
Text Version... nausea, and feeling cold. Your doctor may recommend or administer calcium to prevent or treat these side effects. If you have ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/cellulargenetherapyproducts
Though most text generators are capable of simply stringing together more than one sentence, they cannot determine which order will ensure a coherent paragraph. A paragraph is coherent when the information in successive sentences follows some pattern of i...
. We investigate the problem of text segmentation by topic.Applications for this task include topic tracking of broadcast speech dataand topic identification in full-text databases. Researchers have tackledsimilar problems before but with different goals. This study focuses ondata with relatively small segment sizes and for which within-segmentsentences have relatively few words in common making the problem challenging.We present a method
The Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) is an annual event that supports "research within the information retrieval community by providing the infrastructure necessary for large-scale evaluation of text retrieval methodologies." Proceedings of the conference covering all twelve years of its history are available on the TREC homepage. As TREC has evolved, it has added several focus areas that span new and different topics in information retrieval. These tracks mainly examine methods of searching and filtering different types of data, including genomic records, digital video, and data that is given in multiple languages.
The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is an "international and interdisciplinary standard that helps libraries, museums, publishers, and individual scholars represent all kinds of literary and linguistic texts for online research and teaching." The site offers information about the TEI consortium; recommendations for the encoding of textual material in various languages; TEI Tutorials that provide introductory and advanced teaching materials, presentations, and user case studies; a history archive of TEI publications and working papers; and much more. This site is primarily for individuals who already possess some knowledge of material encoding.
This paper addresses the question of whether it is possible tosense-tag systematically, and on a large scale, and how we shouldassess progress so far. That is to say, how to attach each occurrenceof a word in a text to one and only one sense in a dictionary – aparticular dictionary of course, and that is part of the problem. Thepaper
This report lists and describes the new linguistic information which has been implemented in the TERSE(Text Reduction System) system. The software for this deliverable has been delivered and is present on the Symbolics workstation at NRL. The TERSE system...
|As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…
An overseas teaching assignment in 1961 led one educator to visit St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin where he came upon an effigy of Richard Whately and realized that Whately had written a text used in many American universities. The educator especially recalled that Whately had said "Encourage your students." He also wrote that the audience…
RECENTLY, while referring to Charles Lyell' ``Elements of Geology'', it was found that the Yale Library copy, of date September 12, 1839, had been sent by the publishers to Benjamin Silliman. This was the first American edition from the first London edition as published by Kay Bros., Philadelphia, with 316 pages and 295 figures in the text. After one hundred
This brief video from WPSU compares technologies from yesterday with today. Yesterday a middle school girl writes in cursive while today a girl the same age texts on her cell. The video suggests that science will bring us technologies of tomorrow.
Text messaging programs on mobile phones have shown some promise in helping people quit smoking. Text2Quit is an automated, personalized, and interactive mobile health program that sends text messages and e-mails timed around a participant's quit date over the course of 3 months. The text messages include pre- and post-quit educational messages, peer ex-smoker messages, medication reminders and relapse messages, and multiple opportunities for interaction. Study participants were university students (N = 23) enrolled in the Text2Quit program. Participants were surveyed at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks after enrollment. The majority of participants agreed that they liked the program at 2 and 4 weeks after enrollment (90.5% and 82.3%, respectively). Support for text messages was found to be moderate and higher than that of the e-mail and web components. Of participants, 75% reported reading most or all of the texts. On average, users made 11.8 responses to the texts over a 4-week period, although responses declined after the quit date. The interactive feature for tracking cigarettes was the most used interactive feature, followed by the craving trivia game. This pilot test provides some support for the Text2Quit program. A future iteration of the program will include additional tracking features in both the pre-quit and post-quit protocols and an easier entry into the not-quit protocol. Future studies are recommended that identify the value of the interactive and personalized features that characterize this program. PMID:22548598
Abroms, Lorien C; Ahuja, Meenakshi; Kodl, Yvonne; Thaweethai, Lalida; Sims, Justin; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Windsor, Richard A
Among several diagrams defined in UML, the class diagram is particularly useful through entire software development process, from early domain analysis stages to later maintenance stages. However conventional UML environments are often inappropriate for collaborative modeling in physically remote locations, such as exchanging models on a public mailing list via email. To overcome this issue, we propose a new diagram notation, called "TCD" (Text-based uml Class Diagram), for describing UML class diagrams using ASCIItext. Since text files can be easily created, modified and exchanged in anywhere by any computing platforms, TCD facilitates the collaborative modeling with a number of unspecified people. Moreover, we implemented model converters for converting in both directions between UML class diagrams described in the XMI form and those in the TCD form. By using the converters, the reusability of models can be significantly improved because many of UML modeling tools support the XMI for importing and exporting modeling data.
Edited and maintained by Gianluca Mori of the University of Turin-Vercelli, this site currently hosts the full texts (in French) of seventeen French clandestine manuscripts from the early enlightenment. As Mori notes, the treatises share an anti-Christian attitude, but beyond that their philosophical inspiration varies, "leading sometimes either to a deist (Examen de la religion) or to an atheist position (Meslier's Memoire, Freret's Lettre de Thrasybule a Leucippe)." The treatises are offered in HTML format, some with related links. Links are also provided to several texts on other servers and to related resources. Users may register for email notification of updates to the site, which is also available in French and Italian.
In this experiment, we investigated metamemory for narrative text passages. Subjects read two stories and made memory predictions\\u000a for the idea units in one and rated the importance of ideas in the other. Half of the subjects were asked to recall the story\\u000a immediately after reading the passages and half were asked to recall 1 week later; half received passages
A large amount of information is stored in databases, in intranets or in Internet. This information is organised in documents\\u000a or in text documents. The difference depends on the fact if pictures, tables, figures, and formulas are included or not. The\\u000a common problem is to find the desired piece of information, a trend, or an undiscovered pattern from these sources.
The world's philosophical and religious traditions have found a fine home at the Internet Sacred Text Archive, which, as the homepage notes, is "a quiet place in cyberspace devoted to religious tolerance and scholarship." Working together with a number of colleagues and volunteers, JB Hare has compiled this vast archive of sacred and philosophical texts from a number of public-domain sources and placed them on the site. What makes the site so intriguing is that Hare has placed detailed information about the sources and standards that have been deployed for each separate project, which will be of great interest to scholars. While the entire site can be searched, there is much to be learned by looking through the topics listed on the main page, which range from Atlantis to Zoroastrianism. Each separate topic contains a number of accurately transcribed (and some times, translated) primary and secondary documents, such as first-hand collections of oral traditions. For persons looking for their own copy of the material contained on the site, a CD-ROM is available for purchase as well.
Ergito's Virtual Text, started in 2000, was created to provide a more timely and interactive alternative to printed scientific textbooks at the undergraduate and graduate level. This still-developing Web site covers life science writ large, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and so on. However, only a small number of features are available free of charge. The first chapter of the molecular biology module -- Genes are DNA -- is available for free, as is Great Experiments, a collection of essays written by authors who conducted original research that has contributed greatly to our understanding of molecular and cellular biology. Great Experiments has a recently added essay by 2001 Nobel Prize winner Paul Nurse, titled "The Discovery of cdc2 as the Key Regulator of the Cell Cycle." These essays are formatted just as the Virtual Text pages are, with downloadable figures, a glossary, an online note-taking feature (notes are automatically compiled with a summary of the essay), glossary, and more. Ergito will soon make available Techniques, another free feature offering descriptions of widely used experimental protocols. Even without free access to the larger body of material in this Web site, Ergito is a fantastic resource for learning about molecular and cellular biology. Users must complete a free registration process to access this Web site.
It has generally been thought that the short treatise Physician was written for the beginning medical student and as such it has been criticized for being so superficial as to be worthless for producing anything but an empty charade of a physician. There are also numerous cruces in the text on which scholars have failed to come to any consensus. This paper argues that by taking the audience of the treatise to be the beginning instructor rather than the beginning student the tone of and information included in the treatise can be seen to be appropriate and the textual cruces can all be explained with little or no amendment by the same hypothesis. PMID:21560569
|Explores implications of increased publication options and examines conceptual distinctions among Fixed-Format, Electronic, and Meta-media Editors. Proposes a keyboard editing/commenting technique that will work across platforms and software programs and in every mode of electronic communication including simple e-mail. Suggests an increased…
...in ASCII format, WordPerfect, or Microsoft Word). Except as otherwise provided...in ASCII format, WordPerfect, or Microsoft Word). (2) The first page of the...in ASCII format, WordPerfect, or Microsoft Word) by e-mail, as the...
Employer monitoring of electronic mail constitutes an emerging area of the law that is clearly unsettled at this point in time. This iBrief demonstrates that the privacy rights of non public-sector employees are relatively unprotected by the federal and state constitutions, broad judicial interpretations of enacted privacy legislation favor legitimate employer-monitoring practices, and many of the elements of common law
The job of literary archivist is changing as paper manuscripts yield to laptops, Blackberry's, and Facebook content, and digital preservation lets scholars learn more about authors' creative process than ever before. Personal computers and external storage devices have been around for more than a quarter-century, but only now, as the famous…
|Studies that examined virtual reference and its potential for collaboration have by and large represented experiences in western English-speaking countries. This article reports the results of a three-nation (Israel, Japan, and Lebanon) comparative analysis to bridge this research gap. Similarities and differences between these countries…
Low-cost personal computers and the explosive growth of the Internet over the past decade have introduced new methods of conducting research surveys. It is now possible to conduct an entire survey solely through the World Wide Web or by e-mrnl. But, just ...
|The popularity of and reliance on emergent computer-mediated communication technologies such as instant messaging, blogs, and social networks have arguably widened the generation gap between faculty and traditional undergraduate students. Marc Prensky defined this generational technology divide by coining the terms "digital natives" and "digital…
We examine the diffusion of different types of information through email networks and the effects of these diffusion patterns on the performance of information workers. In particular, we ask: What predicts the likelihood of individuals becoming aware of a new piece of information, and how quickly they obtain it? Do different types of information exhibit different diffusion patterns, and do
Sinan Aral; Erik Brynjolfsson; Marshall van Alstyne
Complex networks such as the World Wide Web or social networks often do not have an engineered architecture but instead are self-organized by the actions of a large number of individuals. From these local interactions nontrivial global phenomena can emerge as, for example, small-world proper- ties @1# or a scale-free distribution of the degree @2#. In small- world networks short
ABSTRACT Email is one of the most successful computerapplications ever developed. Despite its success, it is now dogged by numerous problems. Users complain about feeling overwhelmed by the volume of messages they receive, they have difficulties too in organizing and managing their email data, but most importantly they have problems in using email to manage collaborative tasks (Bellotti et al.,
Contents contained here are: Ablative Materials and Ablation; Adhesives and Sealants; Carbon and Graphite; Ceramics, Refractories, and Glass; Coatings, Colorants, and Finishes; Composite Materials; Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition; Elastomers; Fibers and Textiles; Iron and Iron Alloys; Lubricants and Hydraulic Fluids; Materials Degradation and Fouling; Miscellaneous Materials; Nonferrous Metals and Alloys.
Describes the instructional use of electronic mail, and its implications for technical literacy. Discusses the fall from the illusion of narrative consciousness into the reality of "hypertext consciousness" and the impersonality factor. (SR)
Humans are storytelling animals that learn best when things are put into an experience or story. Teachers seem to think they can just lecture about the principles that they believe govern the world and the students will remember them. This is in spite of much evidence to the contrary. They ignore the fact that large numbers of their students fail or barely pass their courses using the techniques of lecturing. Students learn best on a need-to-know basis--when they are presented with a story that engages them. This articles provides insight on the case study method through a conversation in a chatroom with the philosopher "Socrates" and a college professor.
The editor of a refereed scientific journal mustsomehow get unpaid referees and unpaid associateeditors to provide prompt evaluations oftechnical papers. The use of electronic mail,with a well organized management system---and the software and sta# to support it---make this possible, without unduly burdeningeither the editor, associate editors, or referees.Some refereed scientific journals have long delaysfrom submission to publication. Others achieve fastturnaround
The present study examined the factors associated with individuals' use of three different text-based communication media: e-mail, cell-phone texting, and Facebook Wall postings. Three theoretical perspectives, including media richness theory, uses and gratifications, and perceived network effects, were examined. Using data from a survey of college students (N=280), the study found that the theoretical constructs from these theories play different roles when applied to different technologies. The results suggest that a simultaneous consideration of technological attributes, users' motivations, and social circumstances in which users select and use the technology is useful for fully understanding the dynamics of the selection and the use of a given technology. PMID:22780995
This study provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis from an organic chemistry laboratory class of student's communication preferences for scheduling an appointment with a science librarian. The communication channels investigated include office hours, phone, e-mail, walk-in, and short message service (SMS). The data show that science students primarily use walk-ins, SMS, and e-mail as a means of communication. Students tend
This paper considers how children's text making is shaped by the environment in which the texts are made. By considering texts made in classrooms and texts made in homes, the paper explores how classrooms and homes interact with children's (6-7 year old boys) reflective processes as they create artifacts--drawings, models, and writings. The paper…
|Choice of texts for use in French language instruction is discussed. It is argued that the text's format (e.g., advertising, figurative poetry, journal article, play, prose, etc.) is instrumental in bringing attention to the language in it, and this has implications for the best uses of different text types. (MSE)|
People are often able to reproduce a text quite well but are unable to use the information in the text for other purposes. Factors that help people to reproduce a text have been studied for some time. This article explores ways that enable people to learn from texts. Content overlap between a text and the reader's prior knowledge is identified as one factor, and methods are proposed to identify whether a text is suitable for readers with given background knowledge. For readers with low background knowledge, a text should be as coherent and explicit as possible to facilitate learning. However, data are presented to show that for readers with adequate background knowledge, texts with coherence gaps that stimulate constructive activities are in fact better for learning. PMID:8203801
... While Driving Guide Print Email The Dangers of Texting While Driving "Putting the brakes on the distracted driving epidemic ... 12th Street, SW Washington, DC 20554 Print Out Texting While Driving Guide (pdf) Related Information Filter NTT DOCOMO USA ...
Text Version... For motavizumab, MedImmune has included specific text in the package insert which describes recommendations for safety monitoring and product ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
starts with a'world'state, represented by structures of an application program (e. g., an expert system) that has text generation needs and an impetus to produce a natu-ral language text. The output of generation is a natural language text. The generation process involves the tasks of a) delimiting the content of the eventual text, b) plano ning its structure, c) selecting
Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaTexttext analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.
Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.
The rapid growth of online information services causes the problem of information explosion. Automatic text summarization techniques are essential for dealing with this problem. The process of compacting a source document to reduce complexity and length, retaining the most important information is called text summarization. This paper introduces PARSUMIST; a text summarization system for Persian documents. It can generate generic
Most work in text retrieval aims at presenting the information held by several texts in order to give entry clues towards these texts and to allow a navigation between them. Besides, a lesser interest is dedicated to the definition of principles for accessing content of single documents. As most information retrieval systems return documents from an initial request made of
|The idea of "slippery texts" provides a useful descriptor for materials that mutate and evolve across different media. Eight adult gamers, encountering the slippery text "American McGee's Alice," demonstrate a variety of ways in which players attempt to manage their attention as they encounter a new text with many resonances. The range of their…
Textual information brings important semantic clues in video content analysis. We describe a method for detection and representation of text in video segments. The method consists of seven steps: channel separation, image enhancement, edge detection, edge filtering, character detection, text box detection, and text line detection. Our results show that this method can be applied to English as well as
|Review of text processing software for microcomputers covers data entry, text editing, document formatting, and spelling and proofreading programs including "Wordstar,""PeachText,""PerfectWriter,""Select," and "The Word Plus.""The Whole Earth Software Catalog" and a new terminal to be manufactured for OCLC by IBM are mentioned. (EJS)|
Text prediction is one of the most widely used techniques to enhance the communication rate in augmentative and alternative communication. Prediction systems are traditionally used by people with disabilities (e.g. people with motor and speech impairments). However, new applications, such as writing short text messages via mobile phones, have recently appeared. A vast amount of heterogeneous text prediction methods and
|Describes experiments with Australian high school students that investigated differences in performance on chemistry word problems between two learning strategies: text editing, and conventional problem solving. Concluded that text editing had no advantage over problem solving in stoichiometry problems, and that the suitability of a text editing…
We present a model of text analysis for text-to-speech (TTS) syn- thesis based on weighted finite-state transducers, which serves as the text-analysis module of the multilingual Bell Labs TTS system. The transducers are constructed using a lexical toolkit that allows declarative descriptions of lexicons, morphological rules, numeral- expansion rules, and phonological rules, inter alia. To date, the model has been
A succinct text index uses space proportional to the text itself, say, two times n log? for a text of n characters over an alphabet of size ?. In the past few years, there were several exciting results leading to succinct indexes that support efficient pattern matching. In this paper we present the first succinct index for a text that contains wildcards. The space complexity of our index is (3 + o(1))n log? + O(?logn) bits, where ? is the number of wildcard groups in the text. Such an index finds applications in indexing genomic sequences that contain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), which could be modeled as wildcards.
Tam, Alan; Wu, Edward; Lam, Tak-Wah; Yiu, Siu-Ming
The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is an international project established in 1988 to develop guidelines for the preparation and interchange of electronic texts for research, and to satisfy a broad range of uses by the language industries more generally. The need for standardized encoding practices has become inxreasingly critical as the need to use and, most importantly, reuse vast amounts
The automatic processing of text is a major challenge because of the increasing availability of textual informa- tion and the need to organise and manage such information effectively and efficiently. Automatic Text Categori- sation is one of a number of functions we would like to have available to us and involves the assignment of one or more predefined categories to
The study investigated the segmental intelligibility of four currently available text-to-speech (TTS) products under 0-dB and 5-dB signal-to-noise ratios. The products were IBM ViaVoice version 5.1, which uses formant coding, Festival version 1.4.2, a diphone-based LPC TTS product, AT&T Next-Gen, a half-phone-based TTS product that uses harmonic-plus-noise method for synthesis, and FlexVoice2, a hybrid TTS product that combines concatenative and formant coding techniques. Overall, concatenative techniques were more intelligible than formant or hybrid techniques, with formant coding slightly better at modeling vowels and concatenative techniques marginally better at synthesizing consonants. No TTS product was better at resisting noise interference than others, although all were more intelligible at 5 dB than at 0-dB SNR. The better TTS products in this study were, on the average, 22% less intelligible and had about 3 times more phoneme errors than human voice under comparable listening conditions. The hybrid TTS technology of FlexVoice had the lowest intelligibility and highest error rates. There were discernible patterns of errors for stops, fricatives, and nasals. Unrestricted TTS output--e-mail messages, news reports, and so on--under high noise conditions prevalent in automobiles, airports, etc. will likely challenge the listeners. PMID:12703720
With the advent of centralized data warehouses, where\\u000a data might be stored as electronic documents or as text\\u000a fields in databases, text mining has increased in\\u000a importance and economic value. One important goal in text\\u000a mining is automatic classification of electronic\\u000a documents. Computer programs scan text in a document and\\u000a apply a model that assigns the document to one or
Sholom M. Weiss; Chidanand Apte; Fred J. Damerau; David E. Johnson; Frank J. Oles; Thilo Goetz; Thomas Hampp
Textarc is an unconventional tool that gives readers the opportunity to discover patterns and concepts in texts. Still in a developmental stage, the site offers readers the opportunity to utilize human visual processing by allowing intuition to help extract meaning from a text. By exposing every word at once, the eye is able to make connections and decipher meaning otherwise overlooked by normal reading, thereby exposing the essence of a text. The site currently has Hamlet available as a full textarc text, and is in the process of exposing more literary works. Not only of value for avid readers and literary critics, the site offers librarians and archivists new approaches to cataloguing. On the whole, this new and innovative creation is at a minimum intriguing, and the site is definitely worth a visit.
A considerable part of scientific and technological knowledge is coded in writing. In this context, automated text categorization can be regarded as a promising tool particularly for patent data analysis. In a real-life example, we show that automated text categorization can closely resemble the time-consuming categorisation job of an expert. By comparing different algorithms we reveal systematic differences in their
This paper introduces a new statistical ap- proach to partitioning text automatically into coherent segments. Our approach en- lists both short-range and long-range lan- guage models to help it sniff out likely sites of topic changes in text. To aid its search, the system consults a set of simple lexical hints it has learned to associate with the presence of
The ability to cheaply train text classifiers is critical to their use in information retrieval, content analysis, natural language processing, and other tasks involving data which is partly or fully textual. An algorithm for sequential sampling during machine learning of statistical classifiers was developed and tested on a newswire text categorization task. This method, which we call uncertainty sampling, reduced
In two experiments, we examine university students' ability to comprehend authentic argumentative texts and factors that influence their application of this skill. Participants read several relatively lengthy arguments and identified the main claim and reasons. Experiment 1 shows that participants are not skilled at identifying key elements from an argumentative text (only 30% accuracy). The performance of participants of all
There is a great deal of variation in the encoding of spoken texts in electronic form, both with respect to the types of features represented and the way particular features are rendered. This paper surveys problems in the electronic representation of speech and presents the solutions proposed by the Text Encoding Initiative. The special tags needed for the encoding of
Objective: This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. Background: In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Method: Forty participants engaged
Frank A. Drews; Hina Yazdani; Celeste N. Godfrey; Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer
This paper presents a novel method of representing a text document by the use of interval valued symbolic features. A method of classification of text documents based on the proposed representation is also presented. The newly proposed model significantly reduces the dimension of feature vectors and also the time taken to classify a given document. Further, extensive experimentations are conducted
?? Abstract. This paper deals with automatic structuring and sentence boundary labelling in natural language texts. We describe the imple- mented structure tagging algorithm and heuristic rules that are used for automatic or semiautomatic labelling. Inside the detected sentence the algorithm performs a decomposition to clauses and then marks the parts of text which do not form a sentence, i.e.
Marek Veber; Ales Horák; Rostislav Julinek; Pavel Smrz
A method for conceptual clustering of a collection of texts represented with conceptual graphs is presented. It uses an incremental strategy to construct the cluster hierarchy and incorporates some characteristics attractive for text mining purposes. For instance, it considers the structural information of the graphs, uses domain knowledge to detect the clusters with generalized descriptions, and uses a user-defined similarity
M. Montes-Y-Gomez; A. Gelbukh; A. Lopez-Lopez; R. Baeza-Yates
A method for conceptual clustering of a collection of texts represented with conceptual graphs is presented. It uses the incremental strategy to construct the clus- ter hierarchy and incorporates some characteristics attractive for text mining proposes. For instance, it considers the structural information of the graphs, uses domain knowledge to detect the clusters with generalized descriptions, and uses a user-defined
M. MONTES-Y-GÓMEZ; A. GELBUKH; A. LÓPEZ-LÓPEZ; R. BAEZA-YATES
In this paper, we present approaches used in text summarization, showing how they can be adapted for speech summarization and where they fall short. Informal style and apparent lack of structure in speech mean that the typical approaches used for text summarization must be extended for use with speech. We illustrate how features derived from speech can help determine summary
Kathleen McKeown; Julia Hirschberg; Michel Galley; Sameer Maskey
Text summarization addresses both the problem of selecting the most important portions of text and the problem of generating coherent summaries. We present in this paper the summarizer of the University of Lethbridge at DUC 2001, which is based on an efficient use of lexical chains.
Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.
This catalog, maintained by Eric Lease Morgan, a systems librarian at North Carolina State University, specializes in American literature, English literature, and philosophy. Alex is particularly helpful because the search interface allows researchers to both look for documents and search the content of those documents. Users first search standard fields such as author, title, or publication date; then they can search the content of documents they select from their returns list. Though returns in content searches would be more convenient were they hyperlinked to the complete record for the text, such a search nonetheless has obvious utility for someone writing on, for example, flower imagery in Shakespearian sonnets or Emerson's vision of democracy. Another nice feature of the catalog is the ability to convert documents to .pdf files on-the-fly (with the font and spacing customizable). Alternately, users can download the whole collection of American or English literature or philosophy texts and the tools to search the texts.
In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.
Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga
We propose a novel approach for categorizing text\\u000a documents based on the use of a special kernel. The kernel\\u000a is an inner product in the feature space generated by all\\u000a subsequences of length k. A subsequence is any ordered\\u000a sequence of k characters occurring in the text though not\\u000a necessarily contiguously. The subsequences are weighted by\\u000a an exponentially decaying factor
Huma Lodhi; Craig Saunders; John Shawe-Taylor; Nello Cristianini; Christopher J. C. H. Watkins
Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.
Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database. PMID:23197989
|Describes a series of instructional episodes in an 11th-grade classroom discussing J.D. Salinger's short story "The Laughing Man." Presents and discusses the "Text and Context" model for the negotiation of interpretations in classroom contexts. Offers suggestions for developing interpretive classroom communities. (SR)|
Chabot Davis analyzes contemporary texts that bond together two seemingly antithetical sensibilities: the sentimental and the postmodern. Ranging across multiple media and offering a methodological union of textual analysis and reception study, Chabot Davis presents case studies of audience responses. Chabot Davis argues that sentimental postmodernism deepened leftist political engagement by moving audiences to identify emotionally with people across the
Two studies examined the influence of emotions on nondirected learning. Nondirected learning is conceptualized as learning which occurs in the absence of external prompts, reinforcements, or specific instruction. In Study 1, one of two expository texts was given to ninety-two undergraduate subjects for the ostensible purpose of obtaining attitudinal and emotional ratings. Two separate measures of motivational and emotional factors
RICHARD M. RYAN; JAMES P. CONNELL; ROBERT W. PLANT
|Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)|
An effective procedure for automatically acquiring a new set of disambiguation rules for an existing deterministic parser on the basis of tagged text is presented. Performance of the automatically acquired rules is much better than the existing hand-written disambiguation rules. The success of the acquired rules depends on using the linguistic information encoded in the parser; enhancements to various components
This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…
|One intention that an instructor had for her new course called "Writing and Healing: Women's Journal Writing" was to make apparent the power of self-written text to transform the writer. She asked her students--women studying women writing their lives and women writing their own lives--to write three pages a day and to focus on change. The…
As the text databases available to users become larger and more heterogeneous, genre becomes increasingly important for computational linguistics as a complement to topical and structural principles of classification. We propose a theory of genres as bundles of , which correlate with various surface cues, and argue that genre detection based on surface cues is as successful as detection based
We present a novel approach to learning taxonomies or concept hierarchies from text. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis, a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. Our approach is based on the distributional hypothesis, i.e. that nouns or terms are similar to the extent to which they share
|An observational study investigated the influence of text difficulty (independent, instructional, or frustration level) on the reading experiences of students in grades 1-3 in two schools for the deaf. Participants included 12 students who are deaf or hard of hearing and 5 educators. The most significant findings were twofold. First, students…
A critical edition takes into account all the different known versions of the same text in order to show the differ- ences between any two distinct versions. The construction of a critical edition is a long and, sometimes, tedious work. Some software that help the philologist in such a task have been available for a long time for the European
We describe current approaches to text-independent speaker identification based on probabilistic modeling techniques. The probabilistic approaches have largely supplanted methods based on comparisons of long-term feature averages. The probabilistic approaches have an important and basic dichotomy into nonparametric and parametric probability models. Nonparametric models have the advantage of being potentially more accurate models (though possibly more fragile) while parametric models
Presents three text compression methods of increasing power and evaluates each based on the trade-off between compression gain and processing time. The advantages of using hash coding for speed and optimal arithmetic coding to successor information for compression gain are discussed. (26 references) (Author/CLB)
Layout analysis is a crucial process for document image understanding and information retrieval. Document layout analysis depends on page segmentation and block classification. This paper describes an algorithm for extracting blocks from document images and a boosting based method to classify those blocks as machine printed text or not. The feature vector which is fed into the boosting classifier consists of a four direction run-length histogram, and connected components features in both background and foreground. Using a combination of features through a boosting classifier, we obtain an accuracy of 99.5% on our test collection.
This paper explores the morphosyntactic tools for text watermarking and develops a syntax-based natural language watermarking scheme. Turkish, an agglutinative language, provides a good ground for the syntax-based natural language watermarking with its relatively free word order possibilities and rich repertoire of morphosyntactic structures. The unmarked text is first transformed into a syntactic tree diagram in which the syntactic hierarchies and the functional dependencies are coded. The watermarking software then operates on the sentences in syntax tree format and executes binary changes under control of Wordnet to avoid semantic drops. The key-controlled randomization of morphosyntactic tool order and the insertion of void watermark provide a certain level of security. The embedding capacity is calculated statistically, and the imperceptibility is measured using edit hit counts.
Meral, Hasan M.; Sevinç, Emre; Ünkar, Ersin; Sankur, Bülent; Özsoy, A. S.; Güngör, Tunga
David D. Friedman, Professor of Law at Santa Clara University, has made his textbook, "Price Theory: An Intermediate Text" available on the web. The book focuses on trying to teach students the "economic way of thinking" and the "analytical core of economics -- price theory." Topics covered include consumer choice, market structure and economic efficiency. Price Theory also contains chapters on less conventional topics such as the political marketplace, the economics of law and law breaking; and the economics of love and marriage.
There are obvious reasons for trying to automate the production of multilingual documentation, especially for routine subject-matter in restricted domains (e.g. technical instructions). Two approaches have been adopted: Machine Translation (MT) of a source text, and Multilingual Natural Language Generation (M-NLG) from a knowledge base. For MT, information extraction is a major difficulty, since the meaning must be derived by
The growing volume of textual data presents genuine, modern day challenges that traditional decision support systems, focused\\u000a on quantitative data processing, are unable to address. The costs of competitive intelligence, customer experience metrics,\\u000a and manufacturing controls are escalating as organizations are buried in piles of open-ended responses, news articles and\\u000a documents. The emerging field of text mining is capable of
The two texts presented here--Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença [literally, "useful regime against pestilence"] and Modus curandi cum balsamo ["curing method using balm"]--represent the extent of Portugal's known medical library until circa 1530, produced in gothic letters by foreign printers: Germany's Valentim Fernandes, perhaps the era's most important printer, who worked in Lisbon between 1495 and 1518, and Germdo Galharde, a Frenchman who practiced his trade in Lisbon and Coimbra between 1519 and 1560. Modus curandi, which came to light in 1974 thanks to bibliophile José de Pina Martins, is anonymous. Johannes Jacobi is believed to be the author of Regimento proueytoso, which was translated into Latin (Regimen contra pestilentiam), French, and English. Both texts are presented here in facsimile and in modern Portuguese, while the first has also been reproduced in archaic Portuguese using modern typographical characters. This philological venture into sixteenth-century medicine is supplemented by a scholarly glossary which serves as a valuable tool in interpreting not only Regimento proueytoso but also other texts from the era. Two articles place these documents in historical perspective. PMID:17500134
\\u000a Since the early days of generation research, it has been acknowledged that modeling the global structure of a document is\\u000a crucial for producing coherent, readable output. However, traditional knowledge-intensive approaches have been of limited\\u000a utility in addressing this problem since they cannot be effectively scaled to operate in domain-independent, large-scale applications.\\u000a Due to this difficulty, existing text-to-text generation systems rarely
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is the DNA-equivalent of Gutenberg’s movable type printing, both allowing large-scale replication of a piece of text. De novo DNA synthesis is the DNA-equivalent of mechanical typesetting, both ease the setting of text for replication. What is the DNA-equivalent of the word processor? Biology labs engage daily in DNA processing—the creation of variations and combinations of existing DNA—using a plethora of manual labor-intensive methods such as site-directed mutagenesis, error-prone PCR, assembly PCR, overlap extension PCR, cleavage and ligation, homologous recombination, and others. So far no universal method for DNA processing has been proposed and, consequently, no engineering discipline that could eliminate this manual labor has emerged. Here we present a novel operation on DNA molecules, called Y, which joins two DNA fragments into one, and show that it provides a foundation for DNA processing as it can implement all basic text processing operations on DNA molecules including insert, delete, replace, cut and paste and copy and paste. In addition, complicated DNA processing tasks such as the creation of libraries of DNA variants, chimeras and extensions can be accomplished with DNA processing plans consisting of multiple Y operations, which can be executed automatically under computer control. The resulting DNA processing system, which incorporates our earlier work on recursive DNA composition and error correction, is the first demonstration of a unified approach to DNA synthesis, editing, and library construction. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-010-9059-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. PMID:23874909
Anyone who has spent time looking into science books with young children has no doubt experienced the endless questions that the information and visuals in the books can stimulate. Can snakes climb trees? How do frogs hide from predators? Why do volcanoes erupt? Books prompt questions, which can lead to further reading about and investigations of science topics. Whether from a textbook or a nonfiction trade book, informational text can be the fuel that sparks curiosity about and interest in science, thus contributing to the development of science attitudes.
CELT, an "online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts," is aimed at the greatest possible range of readers, from academic scholars to the general public. Texts at the site can be searched, read on-screen, or downloaded. Other works available at CELT include essays by Michael Collins, the Dail debates on the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, works by James Connolly and Padraic Pearse, and almost the whole corpus of Hiberno-Norman French poetry.
Clinical narratives, such as radiology and pathology reports, are commonly available in electronic form. However, they are also commonly entered and stored as free text. Knowledge of the structure of clinical narratives is necessary for enhancing the productivity of healthcare departments and facilitating research. This study attempts to automatically segment medical reports into semantic sections. Our goal is to develop a robust and scalable medical report segmentation system requiring minimum user input for efficient retrieval and extraction of information from free-text clinical narratives. Hand-crafted rules were used to automatically identify a high-confidence training set. This automatically created training dataset was later used to develop metrics and an algorithm that determines the semantic structure of the medical reports. A word-vector cosine similarity metric combined with several heuristics was used to classify each report sentence into one of several pre-defined semantic sections. This baseline algorithm achieved 79% accuracy. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier trained on additional formatting and contextual features was able to achieve 90% accuracy. Plans for future work include developing a configurable system that could accommodate various medical report formatting and content standards. PMID:19965054
This paper deals with one of the new emerging multimedia data types, namely, handwritten cursive text. The paper presents two indexing methods for searching a collection of cursive handwriting. The first index, word-level index, treats word as pictogram and uses global features for retrieval. The word-level index is suitable for large collection of cursive text. While the second one, called stroke-level index, treats the word as a set of strokes. The stroke-level index is more accurate, but more costly than the word level index. Each word (or stroke) can be described with a set of features and, thus, can be stored as points in the feature space. The Karhunen-Loeve transform is then used to minimize the number of features used (data dimensionality) and thus the index size. Feature vectors are stored in an R-tree. We implemented both indexes and carried many simulation experiments to measure the effectiveness and the cost of the search algorithm. The proposed indexes achieve substantial saving in the search time over the sequential search. Moreover, the proposed indexes improve the matching rate up to 46% over the sequential search.
\\u000a Mobile devices often utilize touchscreen keyboards for text input. However, due to the lack of tactile feedback and generally\\u000a small key sizes, users often produce typing errors. Key-target resizing, which dynamically adjusts the underlying target areas\\u000a of the keys based on their probabilities, can significantly reduce errors, but requires training data in the form of touch\\u000a points for intended keys.
We present SENT (semantic features in text), a functional interpretation tool based on literature analysis. SENT uses Non-negative Matrix Factorization to identify topics in the scientific articles related to a collection of genes or their products, and use them to group and summarize these genes. In addition, the application allows users to rank and explore the articles that best relate to the topics found, helping put the analysis results into context. This approach is useful as an exploratory step in the workflow of interpreting and understanding experimental data, shedding some light into the complex underlying biological mechanisms. This tool provides a user-friendly interface via a web site, and a programmatic access via a SOAP web server. SENT is freely accessible at http://sent.dacya.ucm.es.
Vazquez, Miguel; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Chagoyen, Monica; Tirado, Francisco; Carazo, Jose Maria; Pascual-Montano, Alberto
The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.
Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.
During the past several years, a subcommittee within the American National Standard Institute Committee on Computers and Information Processing has been working on a standard that will impact computer communications. The proposed Standard is on: An Eight-Bit Code for General Information Interchange and Code Extension Procedures for 7 and 8-Bit Codes. This paper presents the historical background to this effort,
This article introduced the text excavation's research condition, has analyzed the text excavation basic concept and the technology, summarized the text excavation process, the commonly used algorithm, the text classification, the text cluster, the connection analysis, the tendency forecast and so on, pointed out that the algorithm the insufficiency, has forecast the text excavation futurology question and the direction.
: This paper presents a text block extraction algorithm that takes as its input a set of text lines of a given document, and\\u000a partitions the text lines into a set of text blocks, where each text block is associated with a set of homogeneous formatting\\u000a attributes, e.g. text-alignment, indentation. The text block extraction algorithm described in this paper is probability
Jisheng Liang; Ihsin T. Phillips; Robert M. Haralick
Texting--using a mobile phone to send text messages--has become a form of mass communication. Building on studies that described how British teenagers have incorporated text messaging into their lives, we examine the purposes and nature of the conversations themselves. We also present findings that suggest that teenagers do not have many simultaneous multiple conversations via text messaging; end most text
|Two experiments investigated the role of text coherence in junior high school students' comprehension of science texts. Found that text coherence improved readers' comprehension, but also that giving readers with sufficient background knowledge an incoherent text that forced them to infer unstated relations engaged them in compensatory…
In Summer 2008, Navy recruiters were invited to participate in the first known survey conducted through cell phone text message. Recruiters received two text message questions, one about their use of text messaging for contacting potential applicants and ...
This study compares reading comprehension of three different texts: two mathematical texts and one historical text. The two\\u000a mathematical texts both present basic concepts of group theory, but one does it using mathematical symbols and the other only\\u000a uses natural language. A total of 95 upper secondary and university students read one of the mathematical texts and the historical\\u000a text.
Materialist criticism treats literary texts as essentially in process, as being open to continual (socially determined) recreation. Critical readings of texts are as obviously ideologically determined as the critical production of texts, to the point where the critic can be seen at times to be ‘recreating’ the text in order to make it fit a set of ideologically determined moral
Though rereading is a study method commonly used by students, theoretical disagreement exists regarding whether rereading a text significantly enhances the representation and retention of the text’s contents. In four experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of rereading relative to a single reading in a context paralleling that faced by students in the classroom. Participants read educational texts (textbook chapters or
Text type is proposed as a psychologically valid construct. Previous research has suggested that text type may play a role in a reader's comprehension and memory for a text. Two experiments were conducted to explore the psychological reality of text types...
\\u000a In recent decades, the role of canonical texts in major literary civilizations has been a subject of much debate. Some regard\\u000a canonical texts as the essence of a civilization. Others stress the selected nature of these texts, arguing that the formation\\u000a of authoritative texts is a power process which serves the interests of the elite who control these texts. This
The functionality described in these modules provide a new media type for use in SMIL presentations. This functionality is called smilText. Unlike other media types defined in the media object module, all of which are synonyms of the ref element, the smilText modules provide a text container element with an explicit content model for defining timed text. The smilText modules
Text Version... LIST OF IN-TEXT AND ADDITIONAL ... ALL TABLES FOUND IN AMENDMENT 14 AND ADDITIONAL TABLES NOT SHOWN IN THE NARRATIVE) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
This article describes how to help students engage with nonfiction text by asking questions, identifying facts, making connections, and reflecting on the text. A template for use with students is included.
Though Sanskrit has a huge repository of texts as well as well discussed grammar formalism, we still neither have a full fledged\\u000a parser for Sanskrit based on this formalism nor do we have any annotated text.
The most common style of text entry using a mobile phone's number pad is multitap, where multiple letters are mapped to the same key. We discuss twiddler chording, blind typing, and mini qwerty keyboards etc., for fast mobile text entry.
As an initial research prototype, TextTrack demonstrates the feasibility of applying multiple hypothesis tracking concepts from radar signal processing to natural-language text tracking and correlation problems
The goal of DARPA's Reading Learning Comprehension seedling was to determine the feasibility of autonomous knowledge acquisition through the analysis of text. This report describes the results of that effort by detailing the capabilities of the TextLearne...
J. Curtis M. Witbrock J. Baxter P. Wagner B. Aldag
Natural scene text location is the precondition of the text recognition, a fast and effective technique is proposed for text location oriented Chinese environment. First, the color edge of the image is detected in consideration of the stroke directions of Chinese characters, then the collection of candidate text blocks is obtained by post-processing; Second, because text differs from non-text in texture, local binary pattern (LBP) operator is employed to extract the texture feature of candidate text block, then feed them into SVM classifier for verification, thus a great number of non-text blocks are excluded, and a higher accuracy rate is obtained. Finally, the algorithm is tested on our database, which includes 1000 images, and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm works well and very robust under the conditions of uneven lighting, blurring, and low contrast etc.
This activity helps students learn how computers "compress" text by identifying repeating patterns of letters, words, and phrases. Students use poems or nursery rhymes as their source text, draw boxes around repeating parts, and use arrows to point to earlier parts of the text that can be used to "uncompress" the text. The boxes and arrows are then related to the numbers that computers use in compression. An extension has students try compressing a much longer story, "The Three Little Pigs."
Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike; Adams, Robyn; Mckenzie, Jane
The problem of compressing English text is important both because of the ubiquity of English as a target for compression and because of the light that compression can shed on the structure of English. English text is examined in conjunction with additional information about the parts of speech of each word in the text (these are referred to as “tags”).
|This text is an elementary-intermediate level text designed to teach conversational Kapampangan, the language spoken in the Pampanga-Tarlac area of the central plain of Luzon in the Philippines. The purpose of the text is to acquaint the learner with the vocabulary and basic structures necessary for participation in everyday conversations. The…
Visualization is a human cognitive activity and is not something that a computer does. A good visualization for Quranic text enables us to communicate the content with clarity, precision, and efficiency. Being a large information source, a visualization system for Quranic text is required. This paper proposes AQILAH, dialogue-based information visualization for Quranic text. AQILAH facilitates the interaction and rearrange
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 NAIVE SEMANTICS The reader of a text actively constructs a rich picture of the objects, events, and situation described. The text is a vague, insufficient, and ambiguous indicator of the world that the writer intends to depict. The reader draws upon world knowledge to disambiguate and clar-ify the text, selecting the most plausible interpretation from among the
Kathleen Dahlgren; Joyce P. McDowell; Edward P. Stabler Jr.
|College subjects were required to read and recall an expository text. They recalled information about fewer topics if they were randomly ordered and the introductory paragraph was uninformative. Subjects recalled information about more topics if the text contained topic sentences. Readers used representation of a text's topic structure to guide…
Purpose – To present a concise introduction to and history of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Presents the TEI from a literature-based, chronological perspective. Findings – The de facto standard for electronic text encoding in the humanities, the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), an international and interdisciplinary standard for the electronic representation of documents in the humanities, has influenced
Describes the development and activities of the Center for Electronic Texts in the Humanities, established by Princeton University and Rutgers University to provide a national focus for the development, dissemination, and use of electronic texts in the humanities. Sidebars explain the Text Encoding Initiative and Standard Generalized Markup…
Texts in multiple versions constitute the core problem of textual scholarship. For texts from antiquity and the medieval period, the many versions may be the result of manuscript transmission, requiring editors and readers to discriminate between levels of authority in variant readings produced along the chain of copying. For texts of all periods, and particularly for more modern authors, there
Although high school graduates may be able to successfully navigate high school course content, they may not be prepared to handle the readability of texts they encounter in various postsecondary endeavors. The average readability of high school texts is lower than the average readability of citizenship, workplace, community college, university, and graduate admissions text collections. Previously successful students can appear
This report reviews the present state of the art in selection of texts in one languagebased on queries in another, a problem we refer to as "multilingual" text retrieval.Present applications of multilingual text retrieval systems are limited by the cost andcomplexity of developing and using the multilingual thesauri on which they are basedand by the level of user training that
MULTEXT (Multilingual Text Tools and Corpora) is the largest project funded in the Commission of European Communities Linguistic Research and Engineering Program. The project will contribute to the development of generally usable software tools to manipulate and analyse text corpora and to create multilingual text corpora with structural and linguistic markup. It will attempt to establish conventions for the encoding
Weblogs and other web text are an incredibly rich knowledge base, and the marketing industry is beginning to recognize the value of web texts as a source of information about their customers. However, the nature of web texts make them un- suitable for analysis using standard market research methods. In this paper, we describe the use of exploratory data analysis
Robert Malouf; Bradley Davidson; Ashli Sherman; Wayne NJ
This paper describes cell phone text messaging during the 2004 US Democratic and Republican National Conventions by protesters using TXTmob -- a text-message broadcast system developed by the authors. Drawing upon analysis of TXTmob messages, user interviews, self-reporting, and news media accounts, we describe the ways that activists used text messaging to share information and coordinate actions during decentralized protests.
Reflecting the concerns of researchers and practitioners about children's text comprehension, this book defines and provides examples of narrative and expository text and describes research-based strategies for helping children comprehend these two types of text. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Research on Stories: Implications for…
Detection of text in color images of complex colored background is a very challenging problem. In this paper, an efficient automatic multi-feature fusing text detection method is proposed. First, we generate candidate text regions by merging bounding blocks, which are extracted using the color feature in the spatial color quantized map and the edge feature in the edge map obtained
The TIPSTER Text Summarization Evaluation (SUMMAC) has established definitively that automatic text summarization is very effective in relevance assessment tasks. Summaries as short as 17% of full text length sped up decision-making by almost a factor of 2 with no statistically significant degradation in F-score accuracy. SUMMAC has also introduced a new intrinsic method for automated evaluation of informative summaries.
Inderjeet Mani; David House; Gary Klein; Lynette Hirschman; Therese Firmin; Beth Sundheim
This informational text introduces students to photosynthesis and lichens-plant-like organisms resulting from a symbiotic relationship between an alga and a fungus. The text is written at a kindergarten through grade one reading level. This is a PDF containing the informational text.
Video is an increasingly important source of information to the intelligence analyst. Recognizing text that appears in real-world scenery is potentially useful for characterizing the contents of video imagery. Previous research in text recognition for both printed documents and other sources of imagery has generally assumed that the text lies in a plane that is oriented roughly perpendicular to the
Gregory K. Myers; Robert C. Bolles; James A. Herson
It was hypothesized that readers represent a text's topics and their interrelations as they read, then use their representations to access information about each topic. In two experiments, college subjects were required to read and free recall an expository text. Experiment 1 manipulated both the order of topics in the stimulus text and whether or not the introductory paragraph stated
This paper describes an approach to text planning, one of the distinct tasks identifiedin Ehud Reiter's "consensus" architecture for Natural Language Generation(Reiter 1994, Reiter and Dale 1997). This consists a "pipeline" of distinct tasks:Text Planning - deciding the content of a message, and organising the componentpropositions into a text tree;
Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text. PMID:22858873
The aim of the present work is to investigate the relative contribution of ordered and stochastic components in natural written texts and examine the influence of text category and language on these. To this end, a binary representation of written texts and the generated symbolic sequences are examined by the standard block entropy analysis and the Shannon and Kolmogorov entropies are obtained. It is found that both entropies are sensitive to both language and text category with the text category sensitivity to follow almost the same trends in both languages (English and Greek) considered. The values of these entropies are compared with those of stochastically generated symbolic sequences and the nature of correlations present in this representation of real written texts is identified.
Papadimitriou, C.; Karamanos, K.; Diakonos, F. K.; Constantoudis, V.; Papageorgiou, H.
The tradeoff between employees’ workplace privacy and employers’ need to protect company assets, safeguard proprietary information,\\u000a and avoid costly litigation has been receiving increased attention (Lee and Kleiner 2003; Mello 2003; National Workplace Institute\\u000a 2004). This tradeoff often favors employers, as the legal system provides much leeway for employers to monitor employees’\\u000a electronic communications in the workplace. However, employers need
Purpose – In a 31-month period, 1,184 questions addressed to the Internet Public Library's (IPL) reference service remained unanswered on the grounds that they were “out of scope”. This paper aims to analyze the questions as artifacts of users' expectations to better chart the distinction between user and librarian views of reference service. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Each question is examined to
Our paper investigates the problem of justifying security investments concerning spam and email virus using real life data from a midsize North American university. We formulate the spam and email virus security problem as a capital budgeting problem using operating characteristic (ROC) curves in a decision theoretic framework. Prior research has investigated the optimal configuration in a detection system focusing
|A little over a year ago, Sheryl, one of the authors, became a principal for the first time. Her transformation from education professor to elementary principal represented a significant and unusual career progression. Gayle, one of the authors and an elementary school principal for 11 years and a curriculum specialist and classroom teacher for…
Identity-based encryption (IBE) systems are relatively recently proposed; yet they are highly popular for messaging applications since they offer new features such as certificateless infrastructure and anonymous communication. However, recent studies also reveal that the infrastructure needed for IBE systems may be as complicated as the conventional public key cryptosytems and not sufficient research has been conducted in relevant issues
The volume of email that help-desks receive every day is very high and often queries are repeated. Any kind of automation in processing of emails requires good understanding of the emails. In the current work we propose a schema for tagging author composed sentences in help-desk emails by the intent of the author. We have created a corpus taking email
|Describes a project which used email to link the author's English classroom with classrooms in three other states so that students could discuss Zora Neale Hurston's novel "Their Eyes Were Watching God." Discusses email as a distinct genre of writing with rules, characteristics, and even an aesthetic of its own. Offers a student-generated list…
To begin at the end, or rather at a point that marks both an ending and a beginning: in The Post-Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond (1980), Jacques Derrida designated the letter “not a genre but all genres, literature itself ” (48), and then announced that “an entire epoch of so-called literature, if not all of it, cannot survive
The purpose of this project is to explore the feasibility of detecting terms within the electronic messages of patients that could be used to effectively search electronic knowledge resources and bring health information resources into the hands of patients. Our team is exploring the application of the natural language processing (NLP) tools built within the Lister Hill Center at the
The availability of inexpensive robotic hardware has brought to realization the dream of having autonomous mobile robots around\\u000a us. As such, the research community has recently manifested more interest in assisting robotic technology (see proceedings\\u000a of the last two IEEE RO-MAN conferences, the emergence of the RoboCup@Home challenge at RoboCup and the first annual Human\\u000a Computer Interaction Conference jointly sponsored
Counting entropy of social networks is used to study the dynamic of such networks. It depends on counting the number of cycles in the network, which is an NP problem. In this work we used a polynomial time approximation algorithm to count the number of cycles in an undirected graph that is based on regression and on a statistical mechanics
|Describes the Missouri Sunshine Law; discusses a Missouri appellate court decision indicating that the sunshine law may prohibit the electronic exchange (voice or email) of information concerning public matters among a quorum of school board members. (PKP)|
Energy consumption caused by wireless transmission poses a big challenge to the battery lifetime of mobile devices. While the potential of using lossless compression for saving energy has been long acknowledged, no general solution has been proposed for applying lossless compression to energy adaptation for mobile services. We propose a proxy-based energy adaptation framework, in which the data to be
|Research has shown that positive communication between parents and teachers at all grade levels is essential for student success and parent-teacher relationship formation. This positive communication practice is the key component of the parent-teacher relationship that is supported by the uncertainty reduction theory. The purpose of this study…
The Internet provides a new environment of developing a variety of applications for both educational and research purposes. At Purdue University, we have developed an innovative remote-access control-engineering laboratory. Remote control, network reliability, and safety features are integrated into the experimental hardware and software design. Remotely located students are able to develop and run controllers on the experiments in the
|Some professors, librarians, and administrators have begun using Twitter, a service that can blast very short notes (up to 140 characters) to select users' cell phones or computer screens. The practice is often called microblogging because people use it to send out pithy updates about their daily lives. No need to wait until you are back at your…
Computer-based media place new demands on language which can promote variations in language use (cf. Halliday, 1990). Electronic mail has assumed functions and formal features associated with spoken language as well as formal writing (Davis & Brewer, 1997; Maynor, 1994; Murray, 1996). This has implications for language instructors: If electronic mail does engender features of both written and spoken language,
|The importance of using systematic formative assessment to guide students toward meaningful learning has gained more recognition in the education community in recent years. This form of assessment is characterized by task-oriented feedback in a low-risk environment, which is believed to promote mastery goal orientation and self-regulated…
An online discussion group, TA-TALK, supplements weekly staff meetings for 50 graduate students who teach introductory composition and literature classes at the University of California at Irvine. Various dynamics of this electronic exchange are analyzed: The advantages of a listserv over a distributed mailing list or bulletin board system (BBS); benefits of a local listserv over a national listserv in
Purpose – Although the financial markets are regulated by robust systems and rules that control their efficiency and try to protect investors from various manipulation schemes, markets still suffer from frequent attempts to mislead or misinform investors in order to generate illegal profits. The impetus to effectively and systematically address such schemes presents many challenges to academia, industry and relevant
Mohamed Zaki; Babis Theodoulidis; David Díaz Solís
Describes a mentoring program between an elementary school and a corporation that connects fifth and sixth grade students with adults who exchange email messages at least once a week to improve students' writing skills. Discusses benefits to students and offers suggestions for starting an electronic mentoring program. (LRW)
This paper presents a framework for understanding the technological change and its impacts on environments where multiple versions of a technology exist simultaneously. Both orienting and limiting role of physical (skeumorph) and conceptual metaphors on the products, processes, and user experience in changing from a familiar functional implementation to the one employing new media is illustrated using examples showing the
An increasing number of older adults are using computers for communication, entertainment, and information. This descriptive study examined the perceived benefits and barriers encountered by 58 older adults. Benefits of computer use listed by these elders included a sense of connectedness, satisfaction, utility, and positive learning experiences. Barriers included frustration, physical and mental limitations, mistrust, and time issues. Professionals who
Until very recently, the email collections that have been available for research have been rather artificially created and consist of emails that contributors have chosen to make available. These collections serve very well for certain applications, but are certainly not repre- sentative of a person's email habits; thus, they have not been realistic resources for testing automatic techniques for detecting
|Providing undergraduates with mentored research experiences is a critical component of contemporary undergraduate science education. Although the benefits of undergraduate research experiences are apparent, the methods for mentoring young scientists as they first begin navigating the research lab environment are reinvented in labs all over the…
Grounded in communication theory and using the Ross Communication Model, the purpose of this study was to: (1) determine the impact of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) on the management relationship between Head Nurses (HNs) and Clinical Staf Nurses ...
This paper describes how advertisements sent to mobile terminals instead of flyers can avoid urban environmental problems associated with waste paper. In particular, it proposes an alternative to existing mobile terminal advertisements that are ineffective at attracting customers.
These days, communications technology has found its way not only in education but also in people's every day life. In fact, if there is no computer, one can hardly do his daily routines including letter writing and correspondence with ease and satisfaction. Keyboard and screen have taken the place of paper and pencil. One can find just a bunch of
This article describes a content analysis of virtual reference transcripts taken from the NCknows virtual reference service. The analysis sought to determine why librarians consider some questions to be unanswerable at the time they are submitted by users. Questions were coded by a classification of question causes and by how complete the reference interview was in the transaction. The transcripts
This article describes a content analysis of virtual reference transcripts taken from the NCknows virtual reference ser- vice. The analysis sought to determine why librarians consider some questions to be unanswerable at the time they are submitted by users. Questions were cod- ed by a classifi cation of question causes and by how complete the reference in- terview was in
...page: âPRODUCT REGISTRATION FOR SAFETY ALERT OR RECALL ONLY. We will use the information...only to contact you if there is a safety alert or recall for this product. We will not...than notifying the consumer of a safety alert or...
This article explains why student-athletes on college and university campuses are chosen as a special group for library instruction outreach programs. A brief history of the library instruction to athletes’ programs at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is given, emphasizing the collaboration between the academic advisors of the athletes and the instruction librarians. With the inception of electronic library services and
...International Business Machines Corporation, Web Strategy and Enablement Organization, Including...The company confirmed that workers of the Web Strategy and Enablement Organization provided...that a number of workers assigned to the Web Strategy and Enablement Organization...
The purpose of the TMT (Text Mining Tools) library is to enable the use of modern text-mining techniques for natural languages on cross-platform environments that can be applied equally well to research and development of end-user text-mining applications. The paper is structured as follows. Section 2 discusses the related work. Section 3 describes the functionalities of the library, whereas Section
Healthcare information support (HIS) is essential in managing, gathering, and disseminating information for healthcare decision\\u000a support through the Internet. To support HIS, text classification (TC) is a key kernel. Upon receiving a text of healthcare\\u000a need (e.g. symptom description from patients) or healthcare information (e.g. information from medical literature and news),\\u000a a text classifier may determine its corresponding categories (e.g.
... Cooked Seafood Poster: Text Version / Accessible Version. Nutrition Information for Raw Fruits, Vegetables, and Fish. Nutrition ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition
As a simple classification method VSM has been widely applied in text information processing field. There are some problems for traditional VSM to select a refined vector model representation, which can make a good tradeoff between complexity and performance, especially for incremental text mining. To solve these problems, in this paper, several improvements, such as VSM based on improved TF,
Zhen Yang; Jianjun Lei; Jian Wang; Xing Zhang; Jim Guo
|This volume contains 13 essays by distinguished scholars and public figures on texts that influenced them to act wisely and justly in their personal and professional lives. These essays were originally given at two Symposia on Text and Teaching at Georgetown University. The participants and their subjects are as follows: (1) Edmund D. Pellegrino…
Collins, Michael J., Ed.; Ambrosio, Francis J., Ed.
We tested the accuracy of college students' judgments of the relative learnability of original and rewritten versions of 20 pairs of instructional texts. For each pair of texts, we knew from earlier experiments which version was retained better 24 hr after reading. Results showed that the students were 95% accurate in their judgments. College textbook selection procedures can therefore give
Bruce K. Britton; Lani Van Dusen; Sami Gülgöz; Shawn M. Glynn; Laury Sharp
This paper describes a quantitative indicatorfor segmenting narrative text into coherentscenes. The indicator, called the lexicalcohesion profile (LCP), records lexical cohesivenessof words in a fixed-length windowmoving word by word on the text. The cohesivenessof words, which represents theircoherence, is computed by spreading activationon a semantic network. The basicidea of LCP is: (1) if the window is insidea scene, the words
This study investigates the use of relative clauses in French children's narrative monologues. Narrative texts were collected from French- speaking monolinguals in four age groups (five, seven, ten years and adults). Twenty subjects from each group were asked to tell a story based on a picture book consisting of twenty-four images without text (Frog, Where are you?). Relative constructions were
Systems for text retrieval, routing, categorization and other IR tasks rely heavily on linear classifiers. We propose that two machine learning algorithms, the Widrow-Hoff and EG algorithms, be used in training linear text classifiers. In con- trast to most IR methods, theoretical analysis provides per- formance guarantees and guidance on parameter settings for these algorithms. Experimental data is presented showing
David D. Lewis; Robert E. Schapire; James P. Callan; Ron Papka
Researchers in both machine translation (e. g., Brown et a\\/, 1990) arm bilingual lexicography (e. g., Klavans and Tzoukermarm, 1990) have recently become interested in studying parallel texts (also known as bilingual corpora), bodies of text such as the Canadian Hansards (parliamentary debates) which are available in multiple languages (such as French and English). Much of the current excitement surrounding
String searching is a very important component of many problems, including text editing, bibliographic retrieval, and symbol manipulation. Recent surveys of string searching can be found in [4, 18]. The string-matching problem consists of finding all occurrences of a pattern of length m in a text of length n. We generalize the problem allowing don't care symbols, the complement of
In this paper we present some experiments on the use of a probabilistic model to tag English text, i.e. to assign to each word the correct tag (part of speech) in the context of the sentence. The main novelty of these experiments is the use of untagged text in the training of the model. We have used a simple triclass
|Explores journalistic quoting practices as an interface between written and oral modes of communication, or between text and talk. Examines both prescriptive and performative dimensions of journalistic quoting across the media. States that when quoting, journalists creatively mix and meld text and talk. Suggests that the cogency of news…
|Fluency is a critical skill of adept readers. As listening to read alouds and performing Readers Theatre scripts are two prevalent strategies that can increase students' fluency skills, this article provides suggestions in using these strategies with digital texts through free, online resources. Digital texts can be accessed using a desktop,…
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to compare several machine learning techniques on the task of Asian language text classification, such as Chinese and Japanese where no word boundary information is available in written text. The paper advocates a simple language modeling based approach for this task. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Naïve Bayes, maximum entropy model, support vector machines, and
|This language textbook is designed for beginning students of Tagalog, the principal language spoken on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The introduction discusses the history of Tagalog and certain features of the language. An explanation of the text is given, along with notes for the teacher. The text itself is divided into nine sections:…
Parallel translations of written texts have long been useful tools for human students of language and have begun to serve as an intriguing source of data for corpus-based approaches to natural language processing. A source text and its translation can be viewed as a coarse map between the two languages, and an industrious student or clever computer program may wish
|This article argues for the development of a framework through which to describe children's multimodal texts. Such a shared discourse should be capable of including different modes and media and the ways in which children integrate and combine them for their own meaning-making purposes. It should also acknowledge that multimodal texts are not…
Describes characteristics of structured text design; benefits of its use in training; benefits for developers of training materials and steps in preparing training materials. A case study illustrating how the structured text design process solved the sales training needs of the Mercedes-Benz Truck Company is presented. (MBR)
|Investigated the use of relative clauses in French children's narrative monologues. Narrative texts, based on a picture book without text, were collected from monolinguals age 5, 7, and 10 years and adults. Researchers coded relative constructions. Use of relative clauses in general-discourse functions preceded use in more specific narrative…
Automatic music genre classification is one of the most challenging problems in music information retrieval and management of digital music database. In this paper, we propose a new framework using text category methods to classify music genres. This framework is different from current methods for music genre classification. In our framework, we consider music as text-like semantic music document, which
|Working on the theory that intonation miscues caused by confusion over punctuation and other phrase boundaries will make the apprehension of text more difficult than necessary for young developing readers, a study reviewed the research and literature relevant to the effects of location of punctuation, phrasing, and line breaks in text and on the…
Linguistic evidence alone is not able to date biblical texts. Among the arguments challenged in this paper are that the archaic linguistic forms of Archaic Biblical Hebrew poems such as the Song of Moses in Exodus 15 demonstrate the great antiquity of those texts; that Standard Biblical Hebrew, such as the prose of the book of Samuel, is a phenomenon
This paper describes a text normalization system for deletion-based abbreviations in informal text. We propose using statistical classifiers to learn the probability of deleting a given character using features based on character context, position in the word and containing syllable, and function within the word. To ensure that our system is robust to different and previously unseen abbreviations for a
Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. Existing supervised learning algorithms to automatically classify text need sufficient labeled documents to learn accurately. Applying the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to this problem is an alternative approach that utilizes a large pool of unlabeled documents to augment the available labeled documents. Unfortunately, the time needed
Mobile phone networks are increasingly supporting the transmission of textual messages between mobile phones and between mobile phones and other services. This paper describes the current text entry method on mobile phones and describes a new text entry method using a single key-press per letter together with a large dictionary of words for disambiguation. This approach, which is similar to
|This study asked participants to rate models of computer-generated text on the perceived ease with which it could be read and studied. These ratings were submitted to a Q-mode factor analysis to identify the underlying criteria used when the reader/perceiver formed a judgment related to the "study-ability" of the text model. Subjects were…
Searching large text databases often resembles detective work. We explored this notion with an experiment in which subjects used powerful full text searching software to solve problems about the Arthur Conan Doyle story The Hound of the Baskervilles . The experiment was conducted in two parts: in the first part subjects attempted to teach themselves about the software using only
Searching large text databases often resembles detective work. We explored this notion with an experiment in which subjects used powerful full text searching software to solve problems about the Arthur Conan Doyle story The Hound of the Baskervilles. The experiment was conducted in two parts: in the first part subjects attempted to teach themselves about the software using only the
Our researches works are interested on the application of the intertextual distance theory on the Arabic language as a tool for the classification of texts. This theory assumes the classification of texts according to criteria of lexical statistics, and it is based on the lexical connection approach. Our objective is to integrate this theory as a tool of classification of
Our researches works are interested on the applica tion of the intertextual distance theory on the Ara bic language as a tool for the classification of texts. This theory assumes th e classification of texts according to criteria of lexical statistics, and it is based on the lexical connection approach. Our objec tive is to integrate this theory as a
The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.
This report describes and implements an automata based text analysis system. We have collected some of the writing samples. Each sample establishes a tree, and uses the ALERGIA algorithm to merge all compatible nodes in order to get a merged stochastic finite automaton. We store these automatons which demonstrate writing style of the sample texts in the hard drive. For
The present study examined the role that an elaborate analogy can play when middle school students learn a major concept from a science text. The elaborate analogy had both graphic and text com- ponents that integrated and mapped key features from an analog (a factory) to the target concept (an ani- mal cell). The target features were the functions of
In his work on the information content of English text in 1951, Shannon described a method of recoding the input text, a technique which has apparently lain dormant for the ensuing 45 years. Whereas traditional compressors exploit symbol frequencies and symbol contexts, Shannon's method adds the concept of \\
The widespread citation of management texts in academic journals implies that they are a significant influence on the diffusion and implementation of management concepts. This article applies a neo-institutional analysis to the use of two widely cited management texts in the diffusion of a management fashion: Reengineering Work (Harv. Bus. Rev. 68 (1990) 104) and Reengineering the Corporation (Reengineering the
It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation- handling, can essentially be considered solved
Pierre Zweigenbaum; Dina Demner-fushman; Hong Yu; Kevin B. Cohen
Anchor text plays a special important role in improving the performance of general Web search, due to the fact that it is relatively ob- jective description for a Web page by poten- tially a large number of other Web pages. Academic Search provides indexing and search functionality for academic articles. It may be desirable to utilize anchor text in aca-
Although scholars have called for greater attention to informational texts in the early grades for some time, there have been few data available about the degree to which informational texts are actually included in early grade classrooms, and in what way...
This volume contains 13 essays by distinguished scholars and public figures on texts that influenced them to act wisely and justly in their personal and professional lives. These essays were originally given at two Symposia on Text and Teaching at Georgetown University. The participants and their subjects are as follows: (1) Edmund D. Pellegrino…
Collins, Michael J., Ed.; Ambrosio, Francis J., Ed.
Text message stream is a newly emerging type of Web data which is produced in enormous quantities with the popu- larity of Instant Messaging and Internet Relay Chat. It is beneficial for detecting the threads contained in the text stream for various applications, including information re- trieval, expert recognition and even crime prevention. De- spite its importance, not much research
This paper presents a software system supporting analysts in the domain of open source intelligence. The desktop application contains functions to extract information acquired from open sources. The text mining engine combines finite state machines, rule based entity guessing and machine learning in a lightweight pipelined approach. The text mining functions and the overall system design have been developed to
Using a sociohistoric developmental lens, this paper traces the construction of texts composed by fifth graders in an urban classroom in order to answer the following questions: How do children develop as writers in school? How do writing and drawing function in children's texts? How do teaching practices shape children's writing development?…
This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves…
This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves unwanted homonyms. Numerous other problems also make
|Discusses indexes for text databases and presents an efficient implementation of an index for text searching called PAT array, or suffix array, where the database is stored on secondary storage devices such as magnetic or optical disks. Additional hierarchical index structures and searching algorithms are proposed that improve searching time, and…
Using Susanne Langer's concepts of presentational and discursive symbolism, constructs a theory of text production that describes presentation and discourse and relations between them as major components in the evolution of text from thought to written language. Concludes by examining the implications of this theory for understanding students'…
Translations have been shown to exhibit particular linguistic features indicating that they are a special type of text. The specific properties of translations are of interest both to the practising translator, to the linguist and the translation scholar. The first part of the course is concerned with an extended register analysis of an English original text and its German translation,
Contextual text mining is concerned with extracting topical themes from a text collection with context information (e.g., time and location) and comparing\\/analyzing the variations of themes over different contexts. Since the topics covered in a document are usually related to the context of the doc- ument, analyzing topical themes within context can poten- tially reveal many interesting theme patterns. In