Science.gov

Sample records for e-supply chain management

  1. A Hybrid Genetic-Simulated Annealing Algorithm for the Location-Inventory-Routing Problem Considering Returns under E-Supply Chain Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hao; Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-business. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Many of returned merchandise have no quality defects, which can reenter sales channels just after a simple repackaging process. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a location-inventory-routing problem model with no quality defects returns. To solve this NP-hard problem, an effective hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed. Results of numerical examples show that HGSAA outperforms GA on computing time, optimal solution, and computing stability. The proposed model is very useful to help managers make the right decisions under e-supply chain environment. PMID:24489489

  2. A hybrid genetic-simulated annealing algorithm for the location-inventory-routing problem considering returns under e-supply chain environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Guo, Hao; Wang, Lin; Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-business. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Many of returned merchandise have no quality defects, which can reenter sales channels just after a simple repackaging process. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a location-inventory-routing problem model with no quality defects returns. To solve this NP-hard problem, an effective hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed. Results of numerical examples show that HGSAA outperforms GA on computing time, optimal solution, and computing stability. The proposed model is very useful to help managers make the right decisions under e-supply chain environment. PMID:24489489

  3. B2B collaboration method through trust values for e-supply chain integrator: a case study of Malaysian construction industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ab. Aziz, Norshakirah; Ahmad, Rohiza; Dhanapal Durai, Dominic

    2011-12-01

    Limited trust, cooperation and communication have been identified as some of the issues that hinder collaboration among business partners. These one also true in the acceptance of e-supply chain integrator among organizations that involve in the same industry. On top of that, the huge number of components in supply chain industry also makes it impossible to include entire supply chain components in the integrator. Hence, this study intends to propose a method for identifying "trusted" collaborators for inclusion into an e-supply chain integrator. For the purpose of constructing and validating the method, the Malaysian construction industry is chosen as the case study due to its size and importance to the economy. This paper puts forward the background of the research, some relevant literatures which lead to trust values elements formulation, data collection from Malaysian Construction Supply Chain and a glimpse of the proposed method for trusted partner selection. Future work is also presented to highlight the next step of this research.

  4. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  5. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    PubMed

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. PMID:23611335

  6. Antiretroviral procurement and supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Ripin, David J; Jamieson, David; Meyers, Amy; Warty, Umesh; Dain, Mary; Khamsi, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Procurement, the country-level process of ordering antiretrovirals (ARVs), and supply chain management, the mechanism by which they are delivered to health-care facilities, are critical processes required to move ARVs from manufacturers to patients. To provide a glimpse into the ARV procurement and supply chain, the following pages provide an overview of the primary stakeholders, principal operating models, and policies and regulations involved in ARV procurement. Also presented are key challenges that need to be addressed to ensure that the supply chain is not a barrier to the goal of universal coverage. This article will cover the steps necessary to order and distribute ARVs, including different models of delivery, key stakeholders involved, strategic considerations that vary depending on context and policies affecting them. The single drug examples given illustrate the complications inherent in fragmented supply and demand-driven models of procurement and supply chain management, and suggest tools for navigating these hurdles that will ultimately result in more secure and reliable ARV provision. Understanding the dynamics of ARV supply chain is important for the global health community, both to ensure full and efficient treatment of persons living with HIV as well as to inform the supply chain decisions for other public health products. PMID:25310145

  7. Essential tools of supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Buddress, L; Raedels, A

    2000-08-01

    At a recent conference, the keynote speaker provoked an incredulous response when he said, "Today, competition among individual firms is dead." He then went on to explain that today, competition is supply chain against supply chain. Whichever firm has the superior supply chain will win out in the marketplace. Given the global marketplace in which we all operate, most of us would agree that his statements are true. How does a firm establish a world-class supply base? What kinds of contracts and agreements are necessary to support the diverse requirements of today's firms? How should a firm select from among the available contract types? These are foundation questions for supply chain management. PMID:11183384

  8. Study on Green Supply Chain Management Based on Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Jiang; Li-jun, Zhou

    The article starts with circular economy and the connotation of green supply chain, then analyzes the difference between green supply chain and traditional supply chain and elaborates the content of green supply chain management. On that basis, the approach to implement green supply chain management in china shall be put forward.

  9. Performance measurement for supply chain management and evaluation criteria determination for reverse supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongar, N. Elif

    2004-12-01

    Today, since customers are able to obtain similar-quality products for similar prices, the lead time has become the only preference criterion for most of the consumers. Therefore, it is crucial that the lead time, i.e., the time spent from the raw material phase till the manufactured good reaches the customer, is minimized. This issue can be investigated under the title of Supply Chain Management (SCM). An efficiently managed supply chain can lead to reduced response time for customers. To achieve this, continuous observation of supply chain efficiency, i.e., a constant performance evaluation of the current SCM is required. Widely used conventional performance measurement methods lack the ability to evaluate a SCM since the supply chain is a dynamic system that requires a more thorough and flexible performance measurement technique. Balanced Scorecard (BS) is an efficient tool for measuring the performance of dynamic systems and has a proven capability of providing the decision makers with the appropriate feedback data. In addition to SCM, a relatively new management field, namely reverse supply chain management (RSCM), also necessitates an appropriate evaluation approach. RSCM differs from SCM in many aspects, i.e., the criteria used for evaluation, the high level of uncertainty involved etc., not allowing the usage of identical evaluation techniques used for SCM. This study proposes a generic Balanced Scorecard to measure the performance of supply chain management while defining the appropriate performance measures for SCM. A scorecard prototype, ESCAPE, is presented to demonstrate the evaluation process.

  10. Don't break the chain: importance of supply chain management in the operating room setting.

    PubMed

    Bilyk, Candis

    2008-09-01

    Management of supplies within the operating room (OR) has considerable implications for decreasing healthcare costs while maintaining high-quality patient care. This area of healthcare therefore requires more monitoring by end-users including OR management, physicians, and nursing staff. This article is based on understanding supply chain management in the OR setting. Information provided throughout the article can be applied to small or large health care centers. It defines supply chain management and contains a brief overview of supply chain processes. It reviews the benefits of following these processes. The article also includes recommendations for improving the supply chain in the OR. PMID:18980068

  11. Collaborative Manufacturing Management in Networked Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouly, Michel; Naciri, Souleiman; Berthold, Sébastien

    ERP systems provide information management and analysis to industrial companies and support their planning activities. They are currently mostly based on theoretical values (averages) of parameters and not on the actual, real shop floor data, leading to disturbance of the planning algorithms. On the other hand, sharing data between manufacturers, suppliers and customers becomes very important to ensure reactivity towards markets variability. This paper proposes software solutions to address these requirements and methods to automatically capture the necessary corresponding shop floor information. In order to share data produced by different legacy systems along the collaborative networked supply chain, we propose to use the Generic Product Model developed by Hitachi to extract, translate and store heterogeneous ERP data.

  12. Emergency management logistics must become emergency supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard R; Peterson, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written about how emergency management (EM) needs to look to the future regarding issues of resource management (monetary, human, and material). Constraints on budgets are ongoing and the staffing of emergency response activities is often difficult because volunteers have little to no training. The management of material resources has also been a challenge because 1) the categories of material vary by the type of emergency, 2) the necessary quantities of material are often not located near the ultimate point of need, and 3) the transportation assets are rarely available in the form and quantity required to allow timely and effective response. The logistics and resource management functions of EM (what we refer to as EM logistics) have been largely reactive, with little to no pre-event planning for potential demand. We applied the Supply Chain Operational Reference (SCOR) model to EM logistics in an effort to transform it to an integrated and scalable system of physical, information, and financial flows into which are woven the functions of sourcing, making, delivering, and returning, with an overarching planning function that transcends the organizational boundaries of participants. The result is emergency supply chain management, which embraces many more participants who share in a larger quantity of more useful information about the resources that need to be deployed when responding to and recovering from emergency events. PMID:24828913

  13. Supply Chain Management (SCM) mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Anja; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Gerth, Wolf-Michael; Graßy, Mario; Herron, Colin; Schmidt, Peter; Seidl, Florian; Wittmann, Claus-Eduard

    Nach Schätzungen von Mercer Management Consulting und dem Fraunhofer Institut wird der Wertschöpfungsanteil in der Automobilindustrie von durchschnittlich 35 % im Jahr 2002 auf 23 % im Jahr 2015 sinken [Merc 04]. Der Trend, die Produktionstiefe oder allgemeiner, die Wertschöpfungstiefe, zu reduzieren, hat zur Folge, dass die Kaufteile den größeren Teil der Wertschöpfung einnehmen. Die Optimierungspotentiale und der Einfluss auf die Kosten wandern immer mehr zu den Lieferanten, vor allem bei größeren Unternehmen oder Konzernen. Lieferanten-Philosophien, die auf oberflächlichen Verbindungen zu Lieferanten aufbauen, um immer optimal und schnell den günstigsten Teilepreis zu erhalten, haben sich in vielen Sparten oder Produktbereichen, z. B. im Maschinenbau, im besten Fall als kurzfristig erfolgreich erwiesen. Kooperative und nachhaltige Strategien sind der erfolgversprechendere Weg, zumindest mittelbis langfristig. In der Realität wird sehr wenig in Supply Chain-Konzepte investiert und die Umsetzungen sind daher vielmals oberflächlich.

  14. Sustainable Supply Chain Management Programs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neureuther, Brian D.; O'Neill, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges for an undergraduate supply chain management program at smaller universities is to create an environment of sustainability. Supply chain management is not at the tip of tongue for many graduating high school students and few undergraduate curriculums require a course in the content area. This research addresses…

  15. Supply chain management for small business--how to avoid being part of the food chain.

    PubMed

    Knechtges, J P; Watts, C A

    2000-08-01

    A supply chain is a series of customer and supplier relationships that extend throughout and beyond the company. It is an interwoven set of links that together form a chain supplying our customers in a seamless and integrated fashion delivering a high level of customer satisfaction. Supply chain management (SCM) integrates all activities so they are focused on customer satisfaction (both internally and externally). One of the things this article will attempt to accomplish is to provide a clear understanding of SCM's positive impact on customer service as well as on improving profitability, cash flow, product cycle times, and communication. Whether we go forward in the supply chain to the final end-user or backward in the supply chain to our supplier's suppliers, SCM will significantly improve our ability to serve our customers. PMID:11183383

  16. Master's Degree in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Kizhanatham V.; Boyd, Joseph L.; Desai, Mayur

    2007-01-01

    A graduate curriculum in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management focus is presented. The motivation for this endeavor stems from the fact that the global scope of modern business organizations and the competitive environment in which they operate, requires an information system leveraged supply chain management system (SCM)…

  17. Construction and Application of a Refined Hospital Management Chain.

    PubMed

    Lihua, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Large scale development was quite common in the later period of hospital industrialization in China. Today, Chinese hospital management faces such problems as service inefficiency, high human resources cost, and low rate of capital use. This study analyzes the refined management chain of Wuxi No.2 People's Hospital. This consists of six gears namely, "organizational structure, clinical practice, outpatient service, medical technology, and nursing care and logistics." The gears are based on "flat management system targets, chief of medical staff, centralized outpatient service, intensified medical examinations, vertical nursing management and socialized logistics." The core concepts of refined hospital management are optimizing flow process, reducing waste, improving efficiency, saving costs, and taking good care of patients as most important. Keywords: Hospital, Refined, Management chain PMID:27180468

  18. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments. PMID:25578550

  19. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston, Texas... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life...

  20. The application of supply chain management principles to emergency management logistics: An empirical study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew R; Young, Richard R; Gordon, Gary A

    2016-01-01

    Key elements of supply chain theory remain relevant to emergency management (EM) logistics activities. The Supply Chain Operations Reference model can also serve as a useful template for the planning, organizing, and execution of EM logistics. Through a series of case studies (developed through intensive survey of organizations and individuals responsible for EM), the authors identified the extent supply chain theory is being adopted and whether the theory was useful for emergency logistics managers. The authors found several drivers that influence the likelihood of an organization to implement elements of supply chain management: the frequency of events, organizational resources, population density, range of events, and severity of the disaster or emergency. PMID:27575640

  1. Proactive Supply Chain Performance Management with Predictive Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Today's business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment. PMID:25386605

  2. Proactive supply chain performance management with predictive analytics.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Today's business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment. PMID:25386605

  3. Supply Chain Management: Are You Maximizing Your Procurement Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbin, James; Jenkins, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Today's purchasing professionals recognize the need to reduce non-value-added procedures (clerical functions) while emphasizing strategic planning. Results-oriented supply-chain managers need superb communication, negotiation, and leadership skills to achieve long-term value and resist the lowest, first- cost bids. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)

  4. Supply Chain Development: Insights from Strategic Niche Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caniels, Marjolein C. J.; Romijn, Henny A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of supply chain design from the perspective of complex dynamic systems. Unlike extant studies that use formal simulation modelling and associated methodologies rooted in the physical sciences, it adopts a framework rooted in the social sciences, strategic niche management, which…

  5. Supply chain management/ Some lessons learned the hard way.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper will look at some of the experiences, lessons and frustrations experienced in managing supply chains for business continuity. No-one has time to make all the mistakes, nor to learn all the lessons on their own, so it is useful to share experiences. Over the last 25 years, the author has been involved in supply chain management as a contract manager; a programme and project manager; and as a business continuity manager. Although times change, there are some fundamental principles that are absolutely critical in making sure that supply chains do what they are needed to do/ to keep business going. Supply chains are here to stay. Indeed, with today's drive towards outsourcing, best-shoring and contracting out, they are becoming more important every year and this will only continue over time. Moreover, in the highly competitive markets in which all organisations operate, suppliers may well be carrying out operations that not all that long ago would have been considered to be part of core business. Getting the right relationship with the supply chain is more critical than ever before.1 What does this mean to business continuity professionals? They need to think not just about their own BC plans, but about the plans of their suppliers, and even those of their suppliers' suppliers. This may seem obvious, but unlike internal BC plans written by and for an organisation, it must be considered just what a supplier's plans are designed to achieve. What business outcomes will their plans deliver? If they recover their own business, how does that affect the business they serve? Are others' assumptions of how they will react in line with theirs? PMID:23615062

  6. Environmental and sustainability ethics in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Beamon, Benita M

    2005-04-01

    Environmentally Conscious Supply Chain Management (ECSCM refers to the control exerted over all immediate and eventual environmental effects of products and processes associated with converting raw materials into final products. While much work has been done in this area, the focus has traditionally been on either: product recovery (recycling, remanufacturing, or re-use) or the product design function only (e.g., design for environment). Environmental considerations in manufacturing are often viewed as separate from traditional, value-added considerations. However, the case can be made that professional engineers have an ethical responsibility to consider the immediate and eventual environmental impacts of products and processes that they design and/or manage. This paper describes ECSCM as a component of engineering ethics, and highlights the major issues associated with ethical decision-making in supply chain management. PMID:15915861

  7. Continuity in health care: lessons from supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Meijboom, Bert R; Bakx, Saskia J W G C; Westert, Gert P

    2010-01-01

    In health care, multidisciplinary collaboration is both indispensable and complicated. We discuss organizational problems that occur in situations where multiple health care providers are required to cooperate for patients with complex needs. Four problem categories, labelled as communication, patient safety, waiting times and integration are distinguished. Then we develop a supply chain perspective on these problems in the sense of discussing remedies according to supply chain management (SCM) literature. This perspective implies a business focus on inter-organizational conditions and requirements necessary for delivering health care and cure across organizational borders. We conclude by presenting some strategic and policy recommendations. PMID:21069770

  8. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    PubMed

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  9. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  10. Laboratory Information Management System Chain of Custody: Reliability and Security

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, J. J.; Elliott-Smith, W.; Radosta, T.

    2006-01-01

    A chain of custody (COC) is required in many laboratories that handle forensics, drugs of abuse, environmental, clinical, and DNA testing, as well as other laboratories that want to assure reliability of reported results. Maintaining a dependable COC can be laborious, but with the recent establishment of the criteria for electronic records and signatures by US regulatory agencies, laboratory information management systems (LIMSs) are now being developed to fully automate COCs. The extent of automation and of data reliability can vary, and FDA- and EPA-compliant electronic signatures and system security are rare. PMID:17671623

  11. Study on supply chain management in tourism e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaodong; Wu, Shuyan; Ma, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    On-line customer research has been conducted for European and American markets by marketers and academics. Whilst e-Commerce and tourism develop rapidly in China, and the fraud information in E-commerce market makes the conditions of information asymmetry becoming more seriously, understanding of Chinese internet travelers is required. This paper reviews current research on supply chain management (SCM) within the context of tourism. SCM in the manufacturing industry has attracted widespread research interest over the past two decades, whereas studies of SCM in the tourism e-commerce are very limited. The potential benefit of considering not only individual enterprises but also the tourism value chain becomes evident. This paper presents the model e-market structure and process analysis of tourism e-commerce, and also sets up tourism supply chain and tourism e-commerce system to probe how to apply tourism ecommerce to promote the sustainable development of tourism. The paper also identifies key research questions in TSCM worthy of future theoretical and empirical exploration.

  12. Construction and Application of a Refined Hospital Management Chain.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lihua; Hao, Aimin; Hu, Minmin; Huang, Pei; Yuan, Huikang; Xing, Ming

    2015-05-01

    Gaining large scale success was quite common in the later period of industrialization for hospitals in China. Today, Chinese hospital management face such problems as service inefficiency, high human resources cost, and low rate of capital use. This study analyzes the refined management chain of the Wuxi No. 2 People's Hospital. This consists of six gears namely "organizational structure, clinical practice, outpatient service, medical technology, and nursing care and logistics" used to achieve maximum scale and benefits. The gears are based on "flat management system targets, chief of medical staff, centralized outpatient service, intensified medical examinations, vertical nursing management and socialized logistics". The hospital took innovative measures. The "one doctor-one patient-one clinic" was well accepted; "one dispensary" shorten the waiting time by 20 min. The 168 rear service hot line "made patients' lives easier; and a red wrist ribbon" for seriously ill patient was implemented to prioritize medical treatment. The core concepts of refined hospital management are optimizing flow process, reducing waste, improving efficiency, saving costs, and taking good care of patients as most important. PMID:25388850

  13. Teaching Supply Chain Management Complexities: A SCOR Model Based Classroom Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, G. Scott; Thomas, Stephanie P.; Liao-Troth, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The SCOR (Supply Chain Operations Reference) Model Supply Chain Classroom Simulation is an in-class experiential learning activity that helps students develop a holistic understanding of the processes and challenges of supply chain management. The simulation has broader learning objectives than other supply chain related activities such as the…

  14. Managing perceived operational risk factors for effective supply-chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylla, Cheickna

    2014-12-01

    This research is part of a large scale comprehensive mathematical and empirical modeling investigation projects aimed at developing a better understanding of supply-chain risk management by offering a comprehensive framework including theoretical elements and empirical evidence based on managers' perception of improved organizational level of preparedness to safeguard against the threats of disruptions, delays and stoppage in the supply chain. More specifically, this paper reports the empirical investigation conducted using 92 companies in several eastern USA regions involved in international trades with global supply chains. Among the 56 general hypotheses investigated, the results support that managers strive to balance their control and decision impacts to mold their responses to risk factors with knowledge of the extent of cost consequences as stated in previous research. However, the results also propose new findings which significantly vary from previous research reports.

  15. Open-Source ERP: Is It Ripe for Use in Teaching Supply Chain Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Minh Q.; Chu, Hung W.

    2011-01-01

    The field of supply chain management has changed greatly and rapidly. With the advent of enterprise systems, supply chains are now operating with up-to-the-minute information. The value of the information flow is marked by speed, accessibility, accuracy, and most of all relevancy. As it continually evolves, the supply chain management curriculum…

  16. Dryden Flight Research Center Critical Chain Project Management Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Dennis O.

    2012-01-01

    In Fiscal Year 2011 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) implemented a new project management system called Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM). Recent NASA audits have found that the Dryden workforce is strained under increasing project demand and that multi-tasking has been carried to a whole new level at Dryden. It is very common to have an individual work on 10 different projects during a single pay period. Employee surveys taken at Dryden have identified work/life balance as the number one issue concerning employees. Further feedback from the employees indicated that project planning is the area needing the most improvement. In addition, employees have been encouraged to become more innovative, improve job skills, and seek ways to improve overall job efficiency. In order to deal with these challenges, DFRC management decided to adopt the CCPM system that is specifically designed to operate in a resource constrained multi-project environment. This paper will discuss in detail the rationale behind the selection of CCPM and the goals that will be achieved through this implementation. The paper will show how DFRC is tailoring the CCPM system to the flight research environment as well as laying out the implementation strategy. Results of the ongoing implementation will be discussed as well as change management challenges and organizational cultural changes. Finally this paper will present some recommendations on how this system could be used by selected NASA projects or centers.

  17. Cultivating a disease management partnership: a value-chain model.

    PubMed

    Murray, Carolyn F; Monroe, Wendy; Stalder, Sharon A

    2003-01-01

    Disease management (DM) is one of the health care industry's more innovative value-chain models, whereby multiple relationships are created to bring complex and time-sensitive services to market. The very nature of comprehensive, seamless DM provided through an outsourced arrangement necessitates a level of cooperation, trust, and synergy that may be lacking from more traditional vendor-customer relationships. This discussion highlights the experience of one health plan and its vendor partner and their approach to the development and delivery of an outsourced heart failure (HF) DM program. The program design and rollout are discussed within principles adapted from the theoretical framework of a value-chain model. Within the value-chain model, added value is created by the convergence and synergistic integration of the partners' discrete strengths. Although each partner brings unique attributes to the relationship, those attributes are significantly enhanced by the value-chain model, thus allowing each party to bring the added value of the relationship to their respective customers. This partnership increases innovation, leverages critical capabilities, and improves market responsiveness. Implementing a comprehensive, outsourced DM program is no small task. DM programs incorporate a broad array of services affecting nearly every department in a health plan's organization. When true seamless integration between multiple organizations with multiple stakeholders is the objective, implementation and ongoing operations can become even more complex. To effectively address the complexities presented by an HF DM program, the parties in this case moved beyond a typical purchaser-vendor relationship to one that is more closely akin to a strategic partnership. This discussion highlights the development of this partnership from the perspective of both organizations, as revealed through contracting and implementation activities. It is intended to provide insight into the program

  18. D Partition-Based Clustering for Supply Chain Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaibah, A.; Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Mioc, D.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the management of the products and goods flow from its origin point to point of consumption. During the process of SCM, information and dataset gathered for this application is massive and complex. This is due to its several processes such as procurement, product development and commercialization, physical distribution, outsourcing and partnerships. For a practical application, SCM datasets need to be managed and maintained to serve a better service to its three main categories; distributor, customer and supplier. To manage these datasets, a structure of data constellation is used to accommodate the data into the spatial database. However, the situation in geospatial database creates few problems, for example the performance of the database deteriorate especially during the query operation. We strongly believe that a more practical hierarchical tree structure is required for efficient process of SCM. Besides that, three-dimensional approach is required for the management of SCM datasets since it involve with the multi-level location such as shop lots and residential apartments. 3D R-Tree has been increasingly used for 3D geospatial database management due to its simplicity and extendibility. However, it suffers from serious overlaps between nodes. In this paper, we proposed a partition-based clustering for the construction of a hierarchical tree structure. Several datasets are tested using the proposed method and the percentage of the overlapping nodes and volume coverage are computed and compared with the original 3D R-Tree and other practical approaches. The experiments demonstrated in this paper substantiated that the hierarchical structure of the proposed partitionbased clustering is capable of preserving minimal overlap and coverage. The query performance was tested using 300,000 points of a SCM dataset and the results are presented in this paper. This paper also discusses the outlook of the structure for future reference.

  19. Managing the innovation supply chain to maximize personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2014-02-01

    Personalized medicine epitomizes an evolving model of care tailored to the individual patient. This emerging paradigm harnesses radical technological advances to define each patient's molecular characteristics and decipher his or her unique pathophysiological processes. Translated into individualized algorithms, personalized medicine aims to predict, prevent, and cure disease without producing therapeutic adverse events. Although the transformative power of personalized medicine is generally recognized by physicians, patients, and payers, the complexity of translating discoveries into new modalities that transform health care is less appreciated. We often consider the flow of innovation and technology along a continuum of discovery, development, regulation, and application bridging the bench with the bedside. However, this process also can be viewed through a complementary prism, as a necessary supply chain of services and providers, each making essential contributions to the development of the final product to maximize value to consumers. Considering personalized medicine in this context of supply chain management highlights essential points of vulnerability and/or scalability that can ultimately constrain translation of the biological revolution or potentiate it into individualized diagnostics and therapeutics for optimized value creation and delivery. PMID:24448453

  20. Needed: a strategic approach to supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Jamie C

    2009-06-01

    When devising a supply chain strategic plan, consider these points: Frame the supply chain broadly to include all possible components and expenses. Recognize how each part of the supply chain affects other parts. Engage all parties and customers in strategic discussions. Educate all involved. Objectively assess the current state. Visualize an unencumbered future state. Quantify quality, productivity, and financial goals. PMID:19526824

  1. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices. PMID:27233046

  2. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Supply Chain Group, including leased workers from QFlex, North America Logistics and UPS...

  3. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  4. The Multidisciplinary Nature of Supply Chain Management: Where Does It Fit in Business Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.; Cope, Robert; Budden, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Supply chain management is an area of growing interest in both industry and academics. A number of new text books are available for courses in the area, and a number of Colleges of Business are adding relevant curriculum. However, questions arise as to what Supply Chain Management comprises, as to needed courses in the area, and an appropriate…

  5. Using SCOR as a Supply Chain Management Framework for Government Agency Contract Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxton, Joseph; Tucker, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a model that uses the Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model as a foundation for a framework to illustrate the information needed throughout a product lifecycle to support a healthy supply chain management function and the subsequent contract requirements to enable it. It will also show where in the supply chain the information must be extracted. The ongoing case study used to exemplify the model is NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Ares I program for human spaceflight. Effective supply chain management and contract requirements are ongoing opportunities for continuous improvement within government agencies, specifically development of systems for human spaceflight operations. Multiple reports from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reinforce this importance. The SCOR model is a framework for describing a supply chain with process building blocks and business activities. It provides a set of metrics for measuring supply chain performance and best practices for continuously improving. This paper expands the application of the SCOR to also provide the framework for defining information needed from different levels of the supply chain and at different phases of the lifecycle. These needs can be incorporated into contracts to enable more effective supply chain management. Depending on the phase of the lifecycle, effective supply chain management will require involvement from different levels of the organization and different levels of the supply chain.

  6. Using SCOR as a Supply Chain Management Framework for Government Agency Contract Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxton, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise Supply Chain Management consists of: Specifying suppliers to support inter-program and inter-agency efforts. Optimizing inventory levels and locations throughout the supply chain. Executing corrective actions to improve quality and lead time issues throughout the supply chain. Processing reported data to calculate and make visible supply chain performance (provide information for decisions and actions). Ensuring the right hardware and information is provided at the right time and in the right place. Monitoring the industrial base while developing, producing, operating and retiring a system. Seeing performance deep in the supply chain that could indicate issues affecting system availability and readiness.

  7. Challenges and opportunities of health care supply chain management in the United States.

    PubMed

    Elmuti, Dean; Khoury, Grace; Omran, Omar; Abou-Zaid, Ahmed S

    2013-01-01

    This article explores current supply chain management challenges and initiatives and identifies problems that affect supply chain management success in the U.S. health-care industry. In addition, it investigates the impact of health care supply chain management (SCM) initiatives on the overall organizational effectiveness. The attitudinal results, as well as the performance results presented in this study support the claim of health care proponents that the SCM allows organizations to reduce cost, improve quality, and reduce cycle time, and leads to high performance. PMID:23697853

  8. Selected Aspects Of The Risk In The Supply Chain In Context Of The Supplier Quality Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblen, Ivan; Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína

    2015-06-01

    The introductory part of the paper underlines the importance of "Risk-based thinking" in the Quality Management System (QMS) and risk in the supply chain, as a principle part of the QMS. After introducing the key terms, the authors focused on the principle part of the article - explanation of the external and internal supply chain risks and the main factors concerning the supply risks, demand risks and environmental risks (as cardinal types of external supply chain risks) as well as the manufacturing and process risks, network/planning and control risks (as most important types of internal supply chain risks). The authors inform on the selected supply chain risk management tools, especially on those which are linked to the appropriate utilization of quality management tools.

  9. Teaching Teachers about Supply Chain Management to Influence Students' Career and Education Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Leslie L.

    2013-01-01

    Since teachers are influential in high school students' career choices, enabling high school teachers to introduce educational and career opportunities in supply chain management is a viable strategy for reaching high school students about these opportunities. This article presents a pilot program of supply chain workshops to educate high school…

  10. Supply-chain management: exceeding the customer's expectations.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, B

    2000-10-01

    Driven by increasing competition, manufacturers are desperate to cut costs and are looking for increased efficiency and customer service from their supply chains. E-commerce offers a new model of supply and demand, but many companies do not have the processes in place to support this new model. By implementing the techniques discussed here they can achieve substantial improvements in performance. PMID:11185186

  11. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  12. "Cola-Game": An Innovative Approach to Teaching Inventory Management in a Supply Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhumal, Parag; Sundararaghavan, P. S.; Nandkeolyar, Udayan

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present a game that can be used as a tool to educate students and managers on the issues in supply chain (SC), inventory management. The game has a bilevel demand with one level during regular times and another during sale times. The game could be played in two modes (independence and cooperation) and has been field tested in…

  13. Strategic information technology alliances for effective health-care supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Shih, Stephen C; Rivers, Patrick A; Hsu, H Y Sonya

    2009-08-01

    To gain and sustain competitive advantage, health-care providers have to continuously review and renovate their operational and information technology (IT) strategies through collaborative and cooperative endeavour with their supply chain channel members. This paper explores new ways of enhancing a health-care organization's responsiveness to changes and increasing its competitiveness through implementing strategic information technology alliances among channel members in a health-care supply chain network. An overview of issues and problems (e.g. bullwhip effect, negative externalities and free-riding phenomenon in multichannel supply chains) presented in the health-care supply chains is first delineated. This paper further goes over the issues of health-care supply chain coordination and integration for strategic IT alliances, followed by the discussion of the spillover effect of IT investments. A number of viable IT practices (such as information sharing and Internet-enabled supply chain portal) for effective health-care supply chain collaboration and coordination are then examined in this research. Finally, the paper discusses how strategic IT alliances can help improve the effectiveness of health-care supply chain management. PMID:19633183

  14. A stochastic inventory management model for a dual sourcing supply chain with disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovou, Eleftherios; Vlachos, Dimitrios; Xanthopoulos, Anastasios

    2010-03-01

    As companies continue to globalise their operations and outsource significant portion of their value chain activities, they often end up relying heavily on order replenishments from distant suppliers. The explosion in long-distance sourcing is exposing supply chains and shareholder value at ever increasing operational and disruption risks. It is well established, both in academia and in real-world business environments, that resource flexibility is an effective method for hedging against supply chain disruption risks. In this contextual framework, we propose a single period stochastic inventory decision-making model that could be employed for capturing the trade-off between inventory policies and disruption risks for an unreliable dual sourcing supply network for both the capacitated and uncapacitated cases. Through the developed model, we obtain some important managerial insights and evaluate the merit of contingency strategies in managing uncertain supply chains.

  15. Management traceability information system for the food supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendriss, S.; Benabdelhafid, A.; Boukachour, J.

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, the traceability was applied only for management reasons, but with the advent of new communication and information technologies more and more used in the logistic medium, the notion of the traceability became new extensive to meet the new market needs in term of information by ensuring accessibility the data characteristic or been dependent on the product throughout its life cycle. On the basis of this postulate, we tried to raise some questions of research, beginning by the presentation of the progress achieved, assumptions and objective relating to the traceability, in the second time we mentioned principal work by showing how evolved the scientific question especially the information systems integrating the traceability were developed very little in the literature. Based on what was developed in the first part, we present our generic modeling approach of communicating product "smart object", able to take into account the various essential elements for its traceability: the product in its various states, various operations carried out on the product, resources used, its localization, and interactions between the product and its environment carried out on the basis of whole of service. In order to validate our generic modeling, a case of study representing an application in a context of food industry is presented.

  16. Developing a Taxonomy and Model to Transfer and Assess Best Practices for Supply Chain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Myrna; Mendoza, Ana; Lavin, Victor; Flores, Benito

    Supply Chain Management can be briefly defined as the orchestration of a network of entities such as suppliers, distributors and clients to achieve a common goal: delivering cost efficient products and services exceeding customers’ expectations. Therefore, firms should consider all those End-to-End processes enabling an efficient integration and interoperability of partners collaborating in such Supply Chain when designing their Business Process Architecture (BPA). One key enabler to accomplish this goal is the identification, documentation and sharing of best practices. This paper describes the outcomes of a collaborative project carried out by CEMEX Research Group and the Universidad de Monterrey (UDEM), which focused on developing taxonomy to document best practices for the supply chain management together with a generic model to evaluate their level of implementation.

  17. Integrating a Discovery-Based Laboratory to Teach Supply Chain Management Fundamentals in an Undergraduate Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Amy; Johnson, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Using experiential simulation games is a commonly used pedagogical method to enrich classroom discussions and to facilitate students' learning in supply chain management education at both undergraduate and graduate levels. However, existing games are inappropriate for undergraduate students that are first-time learners of the subject. In this…

  18. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  19. An Innovative Supply Chain Management Programme Structure: Broadening the SCM Skill Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okongwu, Uche

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a matrix structure for training Supply Chain Management (SCM) professionals. It is an innovative programme structure that combines two approaches: cross-border and inter-organisational. It enables the students to comprehend complex and specific business environments and to understand the diverse nature of SCM systems in both…

  20. The Role of Multi-Institutional Partnerships in Supply Chain Management Course Design and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Suzanna; Moos, J. Chris; Radic, Anne Bartel

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the skills achieved through a multicultural, virtual student project environment among 3 supply chain management courses. The partnership included 2 universities in the United States and 1 in France and created virtual teams of students across university lines and is presented as a case study. The case includes detailed…

  1. Data Science in Supply Chain Management: Data-Related Influences on Demand Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Data-driven decisions have become an important aspect of supply chain management. Demand planners are tasked with analyzing volumes of data that are being collected at a torrential pace from myriad sources in order to translate them into actionable business intelligence. In particular, demand volatilities and planning are vital for effective and…

  2. Service-Learning in Supply Chain Management: Benefits, Challenges and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a pedagogical approach in which students are assigned a course-related project in a not-for-profit organization, and are tasked to apply course content to execute the project. While the benefits are multifarious, only recently have supply chain management (SCM) courses adapted this innovative teaching methodology. The…

  3. Designing a Supply Chain Management Academic Curriculum Using QFD and Benchmarking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Marvin E.; Quesada, Gioconda; Gourdin, Kent; Hartley, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilize quality function deployment (QFD), Benchmarking analyses and other innovative quality tools to develop a new customer-centered undergraduate curriculum in supply chain management (SCM). Design/methodology/approach: The researchers used potential employers as the source for data collection. Then,…

  4. International Supply Chain Management Courses: Semester-Long versus Study-Abroad Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Matthew J.; Luchs, Ryan J.; Mawhinney, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term study-abroad programs are gaining in popularity at business schools around the United States. We discuss the innovative 4-week program we have developed at Duquesne University where we offer two three-credit, required business core courses. In particular, we focus on the structure of a 2-week core supply chain management course. By…

  5. Notes from the field: the economic value chain in disease management organizations.

    PubMed

    Fetterolf, Donald

    2006-12-01

    The disease management (DM) "value chain" is composed of a linear series of steps that include operational milestones in the development of knowledge, each stage evolving from the preceding one. As an adaptation of Michael Porter's "value chain" model, the process flow in DM moves along the following path: (1) data/information technology, (2) information generation, (3) analysis, (4) assessment/recommendations, (5) actionable customer plan, and (6) program assessment/reassessment. Each of these stages is managed as a major line of product operations within a DM company or health plan. Metrics around each of the key production variables create benchmark milestones, ongoing management insight into program effectiveness, and potential drivers for activity-based cost accounting pricing models. The value chain process must remain robust from early entry of data and information into the system, through the final presentation and recommendations for our clients if the program is to be effective. For individuals involved in the evaluation or review of DM programs, this framework is an excellent method to visualize the key components and sequence in the process. The value chain model is an excellent way to establish the value of a formal DM program and to create a consultancy relationship with a client involved in purchasing these complex services. PMID:17115879

  6. Application of risk management to the production chain of intensively reared fish.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, A

    2003-09-01

    Principles of risk management, as a part of risk analysis, are described with respect to their application to the production chain of intensively reared fish. According to the outcomes of the FAO/WHO Expert consultation on the Application of Risk Management (Rome, 1997), there are four steps: risk evaluation, risk management option assessment, implementation of management decisions, and monitoring and review. There is a lack of information on risk assessment for farmed fish though, regarding bacteriological hazards, the data on farmed fish pathology and microbiology suggest a potential prevalence of Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas spp. Other bacterial contaminants could be introduced on handling during selection and packaging of products. On the basis of the above qualitative risk evaluation, risk management options have been individuated. These concern the monitoring of the health status of fish during the fattening period, harvest parameters, hygiene of selection and packaging, and storage characteristics. PMID:14535456

  7. Supply Chain Engineering and the Use of a Supporting Knowledge Management Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakmann, Frank

    The future competition in markets will happen between logistics networks and no longer between enterprises. A new approach for supporting the engineering of logistics networks is developed by this research as a part of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 559: "Modeling of Large Networks in Logistics" at the University of Dortmund together with the Fraunhofer-Institute of Material Flow and Logistics founded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Based on a reference model for logistics processes, the process chain model, a guideline for logistics engineers is developed to manage the different types of design tasks of logistics networks. The technical background of this solution is a collaborative knowledge management application. This paper will introduce how new Internet-based technologies support supply chain design projects.

  8. [Production chain supply management for public hospitals: a logistical approach to healthcare].

    PubMed

    Infante, Maria; dos Santos, Maria Angélica Borges

    2007-01-01

    Despite their importance for hospital operations, discussions of healthcare organization logistics and supply and materials management are notably lacking in Brazilian literature. This paper describes a methodology for organizing the supply of medical materials in public hospitals, based on an action-research approach. Interventions were based on the assumption that a significant portion of problems in Brazil's National Health System (SUS) facilities derive from the fact that their clinical and administrative departments do not see themselves as belonging to the same production chain - neither the hospital nor the supply department is aware of what the other produces. The development of the methodology and its main steps are presented and discussed, against a background of recent literature and total quality and supply chain management concepts. PMID:17680153

  9. Simulation and modeling efforts to support decision making in healthcare supply chain management.

    PubMed

    AbuKhousa, Eman; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Mohamed, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM) by improving the decision making pertaining processes' efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM) has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges. PMID:24683333

  10. Simulation and Modeling Efforts to Support Decision Making in Healthcare Supply Chain Management

    PubMed Central

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM) by improving the decision making pertaining processes' efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM) has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges. PMID:24683333

  11. Towards a Tool for Malaria Supply Chain Management Improvement in Rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Lorena; Bakken, Suzanne; Mamykina, Lena; Kodie, Richmond; Kanter, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of adequate quantities of antimalarial medicines and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) at health facilities in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa is a challenging task because of poor supply chain management. Antimalarial stock-outs in the communities could lead patients (that need to travel long distances to get medications) to remain untreated, develop severe malaria and die. A prototype to improve the management of health commodities in rural Ghana through the visualization of current stock levels and the forecasting of commodities is proposed. PMID:26262307

  12. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    PubMed

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models. PMID:20537276

  13. Quality of service management framework for dynamic chaining of geographic information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchaga, Richard

    2006-06-01

    Dynamic chaining of geographic information services (geo-services) is gaining popularity as a new paradigm for evolving flexible geo-information systems and for providing on-demand access to geo-information. In dynamic chaining, disparate geo-services are discovered and composed at run time to yield more elaborate functionality and create value-added geo-information. Common approaches to service chaining discover and compose disparate geo-services based on the functional capability of individual geo-services. The primary concern of common approaches is thus the emergent behavior of the resulting composite geo-service. However, as geo-services become mundane and take on a greater and more strategic role in mission critical processes, deliverable quality of service (QoS) becomes an important concern. QoS concerns operational characteristics of a service that determine its utility in an application context. To address pertinent QoS requirements, a new approach to service chaining becomes necessary. In this paper we propose a QoS-aware chaining approach in which geo-services are discovered, composed and executed considering both functional and QoS requirements. We prescribe a QoS management framework that defines fundamental principles, concepts and mechanisms which can be applied to evolve an effective distributed computing platform for QoS-aware chaining of geo-services - the so-called geo-service infrastructure. The paper also defines an extensible QoS model for services delivered by dynamic compositions of geo-services. The process of orthophoto generation is used to demonstrate the applicability of the prescribed framework to service-oriented geographic information processing.

  14. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  15. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  16. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimei; Huang, Guo He; He, Li

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well. PMID:24268473

  17. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yimei; Huang, Guo He; He, Li

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well.

  18. Incentives to improve farm management: EMS, supply-chains and civil society.

    PubMed

    Gunningham, Neil

    2007-02-01

    This paper focuses on impediments to environmentally sound management practices and how these might be overcome, with an emphasis on the role of environmental management systems, supply chains and civil society. It argues that: Farmers are under increased pressure to cut costs and improve production but with little opportunity to increase prices. Commonly short-term economic interest has damaging environmental implications. Current government policy, in Australia and in many other jurisdictions, relies heavily on voluntary arrangements, education and information, as the main policy instruments through which to persuade farmers to adopt better environmental farm management - e.g. the recent push to encourage the use of voluntary environmental management systems. However, there is good evidence to suggest that these can only make a valuable contribution when combined with a range of other policy instruments, including positive and negative incentives, intervention by third parties and in some cases, an underpinning of regulation. Arguably, what is needed is a strategy that builds on the strengths of voluntary environmental management arrangements while compensating for their weaknesses by combining them with other, complementary policy instruments. If so, we must engage with a range of questions that have not so far figured substantially in the policy debate. Although the principal focus has been on the role of government in bringing about on-farm change in management practices, supply chain pressure (at least in respect of agricultural chemicals and practices which threaten food safety) and civil society action are also potentially powerful mechanisms for bringing about change. Government can and should play a role in harnessing such forces in the interests of improved environmental on-farm practices. PMID:17092630

  19. A split-path schema-based RFID data storage model in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

  20. A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products. Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

  1. Potential contaminants in the food chain: identification, prevention and issue management.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Francis P

    2007-01-01

    Contaminants are a vast subject area of food safety and quality. They are generally divided into chemical, microbiological and physical classes and are present in our food chain from raw materials to finished products. They are the subject of international and national legislation that has widened to cover more and more contaminant classes and food categories. In addition, consumers have become increasingly aware of and alarmed by their risks, whether rightly or not. What is the food industry doing to ensure the safety and quality of the products we feed our children? This is a valid question which this article attempts to address from an industrial viewpoint. Chemical food safety is considered a complex field where the risk perception of consumers is often the highest. The effects of chronic or acute exposure to chemical carcinogens may cause disease conditions long after exposure that can be permanently debilitating or even fatal. It is also a moving target, as knowledge about the toxicity and occurrence data of new chemical contaminants continues to be generated. Their identification, prevention and management are challenges to the food industry as a whole. A reminder of the known chemical hazards in the food chain will be presented with an emphasis on the use of early warning to identify potential new contaminants. Early warning is also a means of prevention, anticipating food safety concerns before they become issues to manage. Current best management practices including Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points relating to the supply chain of baby foods and infant formulae will be developed. Finally, key lessons from a case study on recent contamination issues in baby food products will be presented. PMID:17664897

  2. A methodology and supply chain management inspired reference ontology for modeling healthcare teams.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig E; Yazdi, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies and strategic plans are advocating more team based healthcare delivery that is facilitated by information and communication technologies (ICTs). However before we can design ICTs to support teams we need a solid conceptual model of team processes and a methodology for using such a model in healthcare settings. This paper draws upon success in the supply chain management domain to develop a reference ontology of healthcare teams and a methodology for modeling teams to instantiate the ontology in specific settings. This research can help us understand how teams function and how we can design ICTs to support teams. PMID:21893841

  3. A COMPARISON OF GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONG INDUSTRIES SECTORS IN CHINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    This paper aims to examine the differences of Green supply chain management (GSCM) implementation among chemical, automobile and machinery industries in China based on a questionnaire survey designed by Industrial Ecology at two industrial parks in Shenyang city. Exploratory factor analysis and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The main result was that the GSCM practices of the three industries are still at a beginning stage. The level of GSCM practices of automobile industry (promoted by international market competition) was higher than those of chemical and machinery industry (promoted by domestic laws and policies).

  4. A Risk Management Method for the Operation of a Supply-Chain without Storage:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Yuuji; Nakata, Norimasa; Kusaka, Satoshi

    A business risk management method has been developed for a supply-chain without a storage function under demand uncertainty. Power supply players in the deregulated power market face the need to develop the best policies for power supply from self-production and reserved purchases to balance demand, which is predictable with error. The proposed method maximizes profit from the operation of the supply-chain under probabilistic demand uncertainty on the basis of a probabilistic programming approach. Piece-wise linear functions are employed to formulate the impact of under-booked or over-booked purchases on the supply cost, and constraints on over-demand probability are introduced to limit over-demand frequency on the basis of the demand probability distribution. The developed method has been experimentally applied to the supply policy of a power-supply-chain, the operation of which is based on a 3-stage pricing purchase contract and on 28 time zones. The characteristics of the obtained optimal supply policy are successfully captured in the numerical results, which suggest the applicability of the proposed method.

  5. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas. PMID:20231084

  6. Design and implementation of an integrated management system for ochratoxin A in the coffee production chain.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Garcia, R; Mallmann, C Augusto; Pineiro, M

    2008-02-01

    Coffee is an important export product of Ecuador. Producers are challenged by the implementation of regulatory limits for ochratoxin A. Ecuador has four coffee production areas and the potential for mycotoxin contamination varies due to different environmental conditions and cultural differences in harvesting, storage, processing and commercialization. The major contributors to contamination are the lack of selection during harvesting, delays in drying or rewetting, the lack of proper drying and storage conditions, the mixing of products with different levels of moisture, and the potential for cross-contamination. The long commercialization chain involves different intermediaries that use foreign materials to increase the weight of the product without consideration of quality. An integrated mycotoxin management system using the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Systems (HACCP) principles was developed to prevent mycotoxin contamination at each stage of production. Critical control points were developed based on the resources available at the different stages of the production chain. Training programmes helped increase awareness about the impact of contamination, but failed to transform knowledge into improved practices. Thus, different demonstrative models specific for each productive region at all production levels were developed to show the application of prevention mechanisms using limited resources and to demonstrate the increased commercial value of coffee produced using good practices throughout the chain so producers have a better disposition to adopt improved practices. Preliminary results show that coffee managed using the models had a better quality, a lower contamination, a higher yield and better commercial value. The use of local resources and low-cost technology was important in demonstrating the practical approach. PMID:18286413

  7. A taxonomy of green supply chain management capability among electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shang, Kuo-Chung; Lu, Chin-Shan; Li, Shaorui

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated crucial green supply chain management (GSCM) capability dimensions and firm performance based on electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan. On the basis of a factor analysis, six green supply chain management dimensions were identified: green manufacturing and packaging, environmental participation, green marketing, green suppliers, green stock, and green eco-design. According to their factor scores in the GSCM dimensions, a cluster analysis subsequently assigned responding firms into four groups, namely, the weak GSCM oriented group, the green marketing oriented group, the green supplier oriented group, and the green stock oriented group. Differences in firm performance and GSCM dimensions among groups were examined. Results indicated that the green marketing oriented group performed best. Based on the resource-based view (RBV), the capability of the green marketing oriented group was considered to be the deployment of a collection of resources that enables it to successfully compete against rivals. The importance of green marketing as a GSCM capability and strategic asset/critical resources for electronics-related manufacturing firms to obtain a competitive edge is therefore highlighted in this study. PMID:20181423

  8. Essays on the Effect of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) on the Management of Healthcare Supply Chain Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakici, Ozden Engin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines three issues on the effect of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) on the management of healthcare supply chain performance within the context of inventory management. Motivated by a case study conducted in a radiology practice, the second chapter analyzes the incremental benefits of RFID over barcodes for managing…

  9. Veterinary Public Health Approach to Managing Pathogenic Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the Agri-Food Chain.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Geraldine; McCabe, Evonne

    2014-10-01

    Verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) comprises many diverse serogroups, but seven serogroups, O157, O26, O103, O145, O111, O21, and O45, have been most commonly linked to severe human infections, though illness has also been reported from a range of other VTEC serogroups. This poses challenges in assessing the risk to humans from the diverse range of VTEC strains that may be recovered from animals, the environment, or food. For routine assessment of risk posed by VTEC recovered from the agri-food chain, the concept of seropathotype can be used to rank the human risk potential from a particular VTEC serogroup on the basis of both serotype (top seven serogroups) and the presence of particular virulence genes (vt in combination with eae, or aaiC plus aggR). But for other VTEC serogroups or virulence gene combinations, it is not currently possible to fully assess the risk posed. VTEC is shed in animal feces and can persist in the farm environment for extended periods ranging from several weeks to many months, posing an ongoing reservoir of contamination for grazing animals, water courses, and fresh produce and for people using farmland for recreational purposes. Appropriate handling and treatment of stored animal waste (slurries and manures) will reduce risk from VTEC in the farm environment. Foods of animal origin such as milk and dairy products and meat may be contaminated with VTEC during production and processing, and the pathogen may survive or grow during processing operations, highlighting the need for well-designed and validated Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point management systems. This article focuses on a veterinary public health approach to managing VTEC, highlighting the various routes in the agri-food chain for transmission of human pathogenic VTEC and general approaches to managing the risk. PMID:26104349

  10. A strategic decision-making model considering the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions for sustainable supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shih-Chang; Hung, Shiu-Wan

    2014-01-15

    Incorporating sustainability into supply chain management has become a critical issue driven by pressures from governments, customers, and various stakeholder groups over the past decade. This study proposes a strategic decision-making model considering both the operational costs and social costs caused by the carbon dioxide emissions from operating such a supply chain network for sustainable supply chain management. This model was used to evaluate carbon dioxide emissions and operational costs under different scenarios in an apparel manufacturing supply chain network. The results showed that the higher the social cost rate of carbon dioxide emissions, the lower the amount of the emission of carbon dioxide. The results also suggested that a legislation that forces the enterprises to bear the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from their economic activities is an effective approach to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. PMID:24412595

  11. Feed the crop not the soil: rethinking phosphorus management in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Withers, Paul J A; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Jones, Davey L; Healey, John R; Talboys, Peter J

    2014-06-17

    Society relies heavily on inorganic phosphorus (P) compounds throughout its food chain. This dependency is not only very inefficient and increasingly costly but is depleting finite global reserves of rock phosphate. It has also left a legacy of P accumulation in soils, sediments and wastes that is leaking into our surface waters and contributing to widespread eutrophication. We argue for a new, more precise but more challenging paradigm in P fertilizer management that seeks to develop more sustainable food chains that maintain P availability to crops and livestock but with reduced amounts of imported mineral P and improved soil function. This new strategy requires greater public awareness of the environmental consequences of dietary choice, better understanding of soil-plant-animal P dynamics, increased recovery of both used P and unutilized legacy soil P, and new innovative technologies to improve fertilizer P recovery. In combination, they are expected to deliver significant economic, environmental, and resource-protection gains, and contribute to future global P stewardship. PMID:24840064

  12. Multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainable implementation of effective green supply chain management practices.

    PubMed

    Boutkhoum, Omar; Hanine, Mohamed; Boukhriss, Hicham; Agouti, Tarik; Tikniouine, Abdessadek

    2016-01-01

    At present, environmental issues become real critical barriers for many supply chain corporations concerning the sustainability of their businesses. In this context, several studies have been proposed from both academia and industry trying to develop new measurements related to green supply chain management (GSCM) practices to overcome these barriers, which will help create new environmental strategies, implementing those practices in their manufacturing processes. The objective of this study is to present the technical and analytical contribution that multi-criteria decision making analysis (MCDA) can bring to environmental decision making problems, and especially to GSCM field. For this reason, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, combining fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (fuzzy TOPSIS), is proposed to contribute to a better understanding of new sustainable strategies through the identification and evaluation of the most appropriate GSCM practices to be adopted by industrial organizations. The fuzzy AHP process is used to construct hierarchies of the influential criteria, and then identify the importance weights of the selected criteria, while the fuzzy TOPSIS process employs these weighted criteria as inputs to evaluate and measure the performance of each alternative. To illustrate the effectiveness and performance of our MCDA approach, we have applied it to a chemical industry corporation located in Safi, Morocco. PMID:27350904

  13. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains. PMID:17609687

  14. Initiatives and outcomes of green supply chain management implementation by Chinese manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinghua; Sarkis, Joseph; Lai, Kee-hung

    2007-10-01

    This paper aims to explore the green supply chain management (GSCM) initiatives (implementation) of various manufacturing industrial sectors in China and examine the links between GSCM initiatives and performance outcomes. We conducted a survey to collect data from four typical manufacturing industrial sectors in China, namely, power generating, chemical/petroleum, electrical/electronic and automobile, and received 171 valid organizational responses for data analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. The results are consistent with our prediction that the different manufacturing industry types display different levels of GSCM implementation and outcomes. We specifically found that the electrical/electronic industry has relatively higher levels of GSCM implementation and achieves better performance outcomes than the other three manufacturer types. Implications of the results are discussed and suggestions for further research on the implementation of GSCM are offered. PMID:17084502

  15. A Demand-Driven Approach for a Multi-Agent System in Supply Chain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, Yevgeniya; Fasli, Maria

    This paper presents the architecture of a multi-agent decision support system for Supply Chain Management (SCM) which has been designed to compete in the TAC SCM game. The behaviour of the system is demand-driven and the agents plan, predict, and react dynamically to changes in the market. The main strength of the system lies in the ability of the Demand agent to predict customer winning bid prices - the highest prices the agent can offer customers and still obtain their orders. This paper investigates the effect of the ability to predict customer order prices on the overall performance of the system. Four strategies are proposed and compared for predicting such prices. The experimental results reveal which strategies are better and show that there is a correlation between the accuracy of the models' predictions and the overall system performance: the more accurate the prediction of customer order prices, the higher the profit.

  16. On the Supply Chain Management Supported by E-Commerce Service Platform for Agreement based Circulation of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Liwei; Huang, Yuchi; Ma, Zengjun; Zhang, Jie; Lv, Qingchu

    According to analysis of the supply chain process of agricultural products, the IT application requirements of the market entities participating in the agreement based circulation of fruits and vegetables have been discussed. The strategy of supply chain management basing on E-commerce service platform for fruits and vegetables has been proposed in this paper. The architecture and function composing of the service platform have been designed and implemented. The platform is constructed on a set of application service modules User can choose some of the application service modules and define them according to the business process. The application service modules chosen and defined by user are integrated as an application service package and applied as management information system of business process. With the E-commerce service platform, the supply chain management for agreement based circulation of agricultural products of vegetables and fruits can be implemented.

  17. Managing a sustainable, low carbon supply chain in the English National Health Service: The views of senior managers.

    PubMed

    Grose, Jane; Richardson, Janet

    2013-04-18

    Objectives:In an effort to reduce costs and respond to climate change, health care providers (Trusts) in England have started to change how they purchase goods and services. Many factors, both internal and external, affect the supply chain. Our aim was to identify those factors, so as to maintain future supply and business continuity in health and social care.Methods:Qualitative interviews with 20 senior managers from private and public sector health service providers and social care providers in south west England. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed.Results:There were four areas of concern: contradictions with government legislation which caused confusion about how best to deliver sustainable solutions; procurement was unclear and created multiple approaches to purchasing bulk items at low cost; internal organizational systems needed to be reconsidered to embed sustainability; and embedding sustainability requires a review of organizational systems. There are examples of sustainability solutions throughout the National Health Service (NHS) but the response continues to be patchy. More research is needed into why some Trusts and some staff do not recognize the benefits of a core approach or find the systems unable to respond.Conclusions:The NHS is one of the major purchasers of goods and services in England and is therefore in an excellent position to encourage sustainable resource management, manufacturing, use and disposal. PMID:23599047

  18. Is EDI dead? The future of the Internet in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Peters, L R

    2000-08-01

    I have been involved in materials management for about 30 years (that is not something many of us really want to admit--it says we are getting old), and over that time I have seen many methods of communication come and go. In the 1960s, we used seven-part carbon forms to generate orders. We also used the keypunch card or IBM card to send our request for materials to our supplier. The supplier would acknowledge our order and provide us with a promise date. This could be done by mail using these cards or by forwarding the information to us electronically for conversion to cards. I could trace the history of communication in painful detail, but that is not important. What is important is that the only thing that has remained constant in those past 30 years has been change. We have all heard that before, but we seem to forget it. This presentation will look at the future of EDI and the Internet in supply chain management. PMID:11183385

  19. Analyzing Impact of Intermodal Facilities on Design and Management of Biofuel Supply Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Eksioglu, Sandra D; Li, Song; Zhang, Shu; Petrolia, Daniel; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-09-01

    The impact of an intermodal facility on location and transportation decisions for biofuel production plants is analyzed. Location decisions affect the management of the inbound and outbound logistics of a plant. This supply chain design and management problem is modeled as a mixed integer program. Input data for this model are location of intermodal facilities and available transportation modes, cost and cargo capacity for each transportation mode, geographical distribution of biomass feedstock and production yields, and biomass processing and inventory costs. Outputs from this model are the number, location, and capacity of biofuel production plants. For each plant, the transportation mode used, timing of shipments, shipment size, inventory size, and production schedule that minimize the delivery cost of biofuel are determined. The model proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for investors in the biofuels industry since it estimates the real cost of the business. The state of Mississippi is considered as the testing grounds for the model.

  20. Medication supply chain management through implementation of a hospital pharmacy computerized inventory program in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Michelle R.; Rudis, Maria I.; Wilson, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, St. Luke Hospital was built to help manage the mass casualties and subsequent cholera epidemic. A major problem faced by the hospital system was the lack of an available and sustainable supply of medications. Long-term viability of the hospital system depended largely on developing an uninterrupted medication supply chain. Objective We hypothesized that the implementation of a new Pharmacy Computerized Inventory Program (PCIP) would optimize medication availability and decrease medication shortages. Design We conducted the research by examining how medications were being utilized and distributed before and after the implementation of PCIP. We measured the number of documented medication transactions in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 as well as user logins to determine if a computerized inventory system would be beneficial in providing a sustainable, long-term solution to their medication management needs. Results The PCIP incorporated drug ordering, filling the drug requests, distribution, and dispensing of the medications in multiple settings; inventory of currently shelved medications; and graphic reporting of ‘real-time’ medication usage. During the PCIP initiation and establishment periods, the number of medication transactions increased from 219.6 to 359.5 (p=0.055), respectively, and the mean logins per day increased from 24.3 to 31.5, p<0.0001, respectively. The PCIP allows the hospital staff to identify and order medications with a critically low supply as well as track usage for future medication needs. The pharmacy and nursing staff found the PCIP to be efficient and a significant improvement in their medication utilization. Conclusions An efficient, customizable, and cost-sensitive PCIP can improve drug inventory management in a simplified and sustainable manner within a resource-constrained hospital. PMID:25623613

  1. Patient relation management: a relevant solution to connect the links of a healthcare chain.

    PubMed

    Michel-Verkerke, Margreet B; Spil, Ton A; Schuring, Roel W

    2003-01-01

    The USIT-tool is used to investigate the health care chain of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in a Dutch region. The advantage of the USIT-tool is that is results in insight in the relevant problems, solutions and constraints of the caregivers both in the organisational and the information technological area. The main problem in the MS-health care chain proved to be the lack of co-ordination and the inefficient communication between caregivers. Although most caregivers were convinced of the need to improve delivered care for MS-patient, most of them also expressed that they would spend little time and energy on improving MS-care, because of the low relevance of MS-care compared to other kinds of care. To improve care, taking in account this constraint we propose to build a Patient Relation Management (PRM) System. A PRM is a simple web-based application that is based on agreement by the caregivers about the route an MS-patient should follow through health care. PRM supports routing, tracking and tracing of a patient and supplies the caregivers with professional guidelines. The PRM-concept can easily be expanded to other patient groups or diseases and can serve as a first step to a regional Electronic Patient Record. It is likely that we would have suggested a far more complicated ICT solution if we had only analysed the MS-care process as such, without specific consideration of the USIT dimensions. The USIT analysis helped us to balance the breadth of the proposed solution with the nature of the situation the future users of the system are in. PMID:14664068

  2. Managing Distance Education Institutions through Value Chain Analysis: the Nigerian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderinto, J. A.; Akintayo, M. O.

    Value chain analysis can gauge, analyze, and predict organization effects to control cost in light of achieving strategic organization objectives of distance education. Value chain analysis enables organizations to accomplish their goal or mission through cost effectiveness or differentiation. The value chain activity structure in a distance…

  3. A "simulation chain" to define a Multidisciplinary Decision Support System for landslide risk management in pyroclastic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Mercogliano, P.; Netti, N.; Olivares, L.

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a Multidisciplinary Decision Support System (MDSS) as an approach to manage rainfall-induced shallow landslides of the flow type (flowslides) in pyroclastic deposits. We stress the need to combine information from the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, geotechnics and economics to support the agencies engaged in land monitoring and management. The MDSS consists of a "simulation chain" to link rainfall to effects in terms of infiltration, slope stability and vulnerability. This "simulation chain" was developed at the Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (CMCC) (meteorological aspects), at the Geotechnical Laboratory of the Second University of Naples (hydrological and geotechnical aspects) and at the Department of Economics of the University of Naples "Federico II" (economic aspects). The results obtained from the application of this simulation chain in the Cervinara area during eleven years of research allowed in-depth analysis of the mechanisms underlying a flowslide in pyroclastic soil.

  4. Supply Chain Management: How the Curricula of the Top Ten Undergraduate Universities Meet the Practitioners' Knowledge Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahouth, Saba; Hartmann, David; Willis, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    The disciplines of logistics and supply chain management have the potential of having many areas of emphasis. Universities that have some kind of emphasis in this field have developed programs that depend on the need of potential employers and their own faculty mix. Several studies have previously looked at how universities deal with this field at…

  5. Animated Powerpoint Presentations for Teaching Operations and Supply Chain Management: Perceived Value and Electronic Exchange of Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treleven, Mark D.; Penlesky, Richard J.; Callarman, Thomas E.; Watts, Charles A.; Bragg, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the innovation of sharing animated PowerPoint presentations used in teaching operations and supply chain management techniques and concepts through an international electronic exchange. The plan for the exchange is presented and discussed. The potential benefits to faculty and students of using PowerPoint animations in…

  6. Implementation of Network Leader Sponsored Supply Chain Management Systems: A Case Study of Supplier IT Business Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative multiple-case study was conducted to explore and understand how the implementation of required relationship-specific supply chain management system (SCMS) dictated by the network leader within a supplier network affects a supplier organization. The study, on a very broad sense, attempted to research the current validity of how the…

  7. E-procurement and automatic identification: enhancing supply chain management in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D; Flanegin, Frank R

    2004-01-01

    The concepts of automated e-procurement, or electronic B2B (business-to-business) trade, are grounded in the strategic leveraging of both tangible/intangible assets for successful implementation and execution of electronic trade, resulting in significant financial benefits for firms. Some of the major reasons for this growth include significant process savings from automation, compliance, and purchasing advantage; and reduced costs that organisations can experience by conducting transactions electronically. Although these are the basic benefits associated with generic e-commerce strategies, a majority of these B2B transactions have focused on the purchase of indirect materials (especially office products and travel services). In fact, more than 93% of medical supplies on hospital shelves appear to have universal product numbers on them--at least while still in their boxes and there is a great potential for huge savings in e-procurement in the healthcare field. However, other types of supply chain-related purchases, including maintenance, repair, and operating and replacement parts, and direct material purchases, are becoming more important operational management considerations. In addition, several other key considerations are: existing procurement strategy, the vendor, technology, suppliers, and total costs of ownership. Companies need to analyse their current procurement strategy before developing an e-procurement plan. PMID:18048219

  8. Coordination of a supply chain with consumer return under vendor-managed consignment inventory and stochastic demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihui; Chen, Dongyan; Yu, Hui

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the problem of the coordination policy is investigated for vendor-managed consignment inventory supply chain subject to consumer return. Here, the market demand is assumed to be affected by promotional effort and consumer return policy. The optimal consignment inventory and the optimal promotional effort level are proposed under the decentralized and centralized decisions. Based on the optimal decision conditions, the markdown allowance-promotional cost-sharing contract is investigated to coordinate the supply chain. Subsequently, the comparison between the two extreme policies shows that full-refund policy dominates the no-return policy when the returning cost and the positive effect of return policy are satisfied certain conditions. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the impacts of consumer return policy on the coordination contract and optimal profit as well as the effectiveness of the proposed supply chain decision.

  9. EVALUATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ALERT CHAIN IN CASTILLA Y LEÓN (SPAIN): How can the meteorological risk managers help researchers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Laura; Guerrero-Higueras, Ángel Manuel; Sánchez, José Luis; Matía, Pedro; Ortiz de Galisteo, José Pablo; Rodríguez, Vicente; Lorente, José Manuel; Merino, Andrés; Hermida, Lucía; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Fernández-Manso, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    Evaluating the meteorological alert chain, or, how information is transmitted from the meteorological forecasters to the final users, passing through risk managers, is a useful tool that benefits all the links of the chain, especially the meteorology researchers and forecasters. In fact, the risk managers can help significantly to improve meteorological forecasts in different ways. Firstly, by pointing out the most appropriate type of meteorological format, and its characteristics when representing the meteorological information, consequently improving the interpretation of the already-existing forecasts. Secondly, by pointing out the specific predictive needs in their workplaces related to the type of significant meteorological parameters, temporal or spatial range necessary, meteorological products "custom-made" for each type of risk manager, etc. In order to carry out an evaluation of the alert chain in Castilla y León, we opted for the creation of a Panel of Experts made up of personnel specialized in risk management (Responsible for Protection Civil, Responsible for Alert Services and Hydrological Planning of Hydrographical Confederations, Responsible for highway maintenance, and management of fires, fundamentally). In creating this panel, a total of twenty online questions were evaluated, and the majority of the questions were multiple choice or open-ended. Some of the results show how the risk managers think that it would be interesting, or very interesting, to carry out environmental educational campaigns about the meteorological risks in Castilla y León. Another result is the elevated importance that the risk managers provide to the observation data in real-time (real-time of wind, lightning, relative humidity, combined indices of risk of avalanches, snowslides, index of fires due to convective activity, etc.) Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Junta de Castilla y León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2.

  10. Managing ochratoxin A risk in the grape-wine food chain.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Angelo; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2008-02-01

    The main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the wine food chain is the infection of grapes by "black aspergilli" in the field. OTA-producing black aspergilli include principally Aspergillus carbonarius, followed by A. niger and possibly A. tubingensis. They are opportunistic fungi that develop particularly on damaged berries at ripening, although they may occur and form OTA on grapes from veraison to harvest. Climatic conditions (high humidity and temperature) and geographical location are important factors favouring OTA accumulation in grape berries. The severity of aspergillus rot is influenced by excessive irrigation and rainfall prior to harvest, which causes berry splitting. In addition, berry wounds caused by insect attack provide preferential entries for black aspergilli. High OTA levels occur in grapes severely damaged by the grape moth, Lobesia botrana, particularly in Mediterranean areas. Some grape varieties display greater susceptibility to aspergillus rot due to intrinsic genetic characteristics and bunch conformation (i.e. compact>sparse). Control measures for toxigenic mycoflora in the vineyards must consider these critical control points. Proper fungicidal and insecticidal treatments can reduce OTA contamination. Nevertheless, knowledge about the fate of OTA and its distribution in wine and winery by-products is important to manage OTA risk in contaminated stock. In our wine-making experiments, only 4% of the OTA present in grapes remained in the wine--the majority is retained in pressed grape pomaces. OTA concentration remained unchanged in wine after a 1-year aging as well as in all liquid fractions collected during vinification (i.e. must, free run wine, and wine after first and second decantation). Activated carbon can reduce OTA levels in wine but negatively affects wine quality. PMID:18286409

  11. Management and outcome in 75 individuals with long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects: results from a workshop.

    PubMed

    Spiekerkoetter, U; Lindner, M; Santer, R; Grotzke, M; Baumgartner, M R; Boehles, H; Das, A; Haase, C; Hennermann, J B; Karall, D; de Klerk, H; Knerr, I; Koch, H G; Plecko, B; Röschinger, W; Schwab, K O; Scheible, D; Wijburg, F A; Zschocke, J; Mayatepek, E; Wendel, U

    2009-08-01

    At present, long-chain fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects are diagnosed in a number of countries by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry. In the majority of cases, affected newborns are asymptomatic at time of diagnosis and acute clinical presentations can be avoided by early preventive measures. Because evidence-based studies on management of long-chain FAO defects are lacking, we carried out a retrospective analysis of 75 patients from 18 metabolic centres in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the Netherlands with special regard to treatment and disease outcome. Dietary treatment is effective in many patients and can prevent acute metabolic derangements and prevent or reverse severe long-term complications such as cardiomyopathy. However, 38% of patients with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency had intermittent muscle weakness and pain despite adhering to therapy. Seventy-six per cent of patients with disorders of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein (TFP)-complex including long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency, had long-term myopathic symptoms. Of these, 21% had irreversible peripheral neuropathy and 43% had retinopathy. The main principle of treatment was a fat-reduced and fat-modified diet. Fat restriction differed among patients with different enzyme defects and was strictest in disorders of the TFP-complex. Patients with a medium-chain fat-based diet received supplementation of essential long-chain fatty acids. l-Carnitine was supplemented in about half of the patients, but in none of the patients with VLCAD deficiency identified by newborn screening. In summary, in this cohort the treatment regimen was adapted to the severity of the underlying enzyme defect and thus differed among the group of long-chain FAO defects. PMID:19399638

  12. Ownership, financing, and management strategies of the ten largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies. PMID:22053531

  13. The phosphorus footprint of China's food chain: implications for food security, natural resource management, and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Sims, J T; Ma, L; Ma, W; Dou, Z; Zhang, F

    2011-01-01

    Efficient use of phosphorus (P) for producing food, preventing water pollution, and managing a dwindling rock P reserve are major challenges for China. We analyzed P stocks and flows in the Chinese food chain to identify where P use efficiency can be improved, where P leaks to the environment, and the research, technologies, and policies needed to improve P use. We found a high degree of inefficiency; of 6652 Gg P entering the food chain, only 1102 Gg P (18%) exit as food for humans. The greatest inefficiencies were a large build-up of soil P (3670 Gg P yr; 52% of P inputs) and high P losses to the environment from animal production (1582 Gg P yr; 60% of excreted P). Improving P use in China must focus on national-scale nutrient management strategies, better animal nutrition, and adoption of technologies and policies to reduce P discharges from the animal sector and recycle P as manures in agriculture. PMID:21712576

  14. Supply chain management with cost-containment & financial-sustainability in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Hem; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta; Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Verma, Shuchita; Kapoor, Rakesh; Sharma, R K

    2013-01-01

    Financial crunch in the present recession results in the non-availability of the right materials at the right time in large hospitals. However due to insufficient impetus towards systems development, situation remains dismal even when funds are galore. Cost incurred on materials account for approximately one-third of the total recurring expenditures in hospitals. Systems development for effective and efficient materials management is thus tantamount to cost-containment and sustainability. This scientific paper describes an innovative model, Hospital Revolving Fund (HRF), developed at a tertiary care research institute in Asia. The main idea behind inception of HRF was to ensure availability of all supplies in the hospital so that the quality of healthcare delivery was not affected. The model was conceptualized in the background of non-availability of consumables in the hospital leading to patient as well as staff dissatisfaction. Hospital supplies have been divided into two parts, approximately 3250 unit items and 1750 miscellaneous items. This division is based on cost, relative-utility and case-specific utilization. 0.1 Million USD, separated from non-planned budget, was initially used as seed money in 1998. HRF procures supplies from reputed firms on concessional rates (8-25%) and make them available to patients at much lesser rates vis-à-vis market rates, levying minimal maintenance charges. In 2009-10, total annual purchases of 14 Million USD were made. The balance sheet reflected 1.4 Million USD as fixed deposit investment. The minimal maintenance charges levied on the patients along with the interest income were sufficient to pay for all recurring expenses related to HRF. Even after these expenses, HRF boosted of 0.2 Million USD as cash-in-hand in financial year 2009-10. In-depth analysis of 'balance sheet' and 'Income and Expenditure' statement of the fund for last five financial years affirms that HRF is a self-sustainable and viable supply chain

  15. Developing Students' Understanding of Co-Opetition and Multilevel Inventory Management Strategies in Supply Chains: An In-Class Spreadsheet Simulation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetter, Gary; Shockley, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Instructors look for ways to explain to students how supply chains can be constructed so that competing suppliers can work together to improve inventory management performance (i.e., a phenomenon known as co-opetition). An Excel spreadsheet-driven simulation is presented that models a complete multilevel supply chain system--customer, retailer,…

  16. Waste management of printed wiring boards: a life cycle assessment of the metals recycling chain from liberation through refining.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Kendall, Alissa; Xu, Zhenming; Schoenung, Julie M

    2015-01-20

    Due to economic and societal reasons, informal activities including open burning, backyard recycling, and landfill are still the prevailing methods used for electronic waste treatment in developing countries. Great efforts have been made, especially in China, to promote formal approaches for electronic waste management by enacting laws, developing green recycling technologies, initiating pilot programs, etc. The formal recycling process can, however, engender environmental impact and resource consumption, although information on the environmental loads and resource consumption is currently limited. To quantitatively assess the environmental impact of the processes in a formal printed wiring board (PWB) recycling chain, life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a formal recycling chain that includes the steps from waste liberation through materials refining. The metal leaching in the refining stage was identified as a critical process, posing most of the environmental impact in the recycling chain. Global warming potential was the most significant environmental impact category after normalization and weighting, followed by fossil abiotic depletion potential, and marine aquatic eco-toxicity potential. Scenario modeling results showed that variations in the power source and chemical reagents consumption had the greatest influence on the environmental performance. The environmental impact from transportation used for PWB collection was also evaluated. The results were further compared to conventional primary metals production processes, highlighting the environmental benefit of metal recycling from waste PWBs. Optimizing the collection mode, increasing the precious metals recovery efficiency in the beneficiation stage and decreasing the chemical reagents consumption in the refining stage by effective materials liberation and separation are proposed as potential improvement strategies to make the recycling chain more environmentally friendly. The LCA results provide

  17. 78 FR 25416 - Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain... for domestic and export food donation programs. FSA and CCC issue invitations to purchase or sell commodities for food donation programs on monthly, multiple monthly, quarterly, and yearly bases....

  18. Surgical Management of Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Associated With Light-Chain Deposition Disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Largacha, Juan A; O'Hara, Carl J; Sloan, J Mark; Fernando, Hiran C; Litle, Virginia R

    2016-06-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with a right middle lobe (RML) lung nodule suspicious for malignancy. Thoracoscopic middle lobectomy was performed. The pathology report revealed a pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in association with light-chain deposition disease (LCDD). Pulmonary MALT lymphoma and LCDD are unusual disorders presenting in the lung, and the association between these 2 conditions is even more uncommon. The optimal management for these patients is controversial, although surgical resection of localized well-circumscribed lesions may represent an effective therapeutic approach. PMID:27211983

  19. What is new in diagnosis and management of light chain amyloidosis?

    PubMed

    Palladini, Giovanni; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2016-07-14

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by a usually small plasma cell clone producing a misfolded light chain that deposits in tissues. Survival is mostly determined by the severity of heart involvement. Recent studies are clarifying the mechanisms of cardiac damage, pointing to a toxic effect of amyloidogenic light chains and offering new potential therapeutic targets. The diagnosis requires adequate technology, available at referral centers, for amyloid typing. Late diagnosis results in approximately 30% of patients presenting with advanced, irreversible organ involvement and dying in a few months despite modern treatments. The availability of accurate biomarkers of clonal and organ disease is reshaping the approach to patients with AL amyloidosis. Screening of early organ damage based on biomarkers can help identify patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance who are developing AL amyloidosis before they become symptomatic. Staging systems and response assessment based on biomarkers facilitate the design and conduction of clinical trials, guide the therapeutic strategy, and allow the timely identification of refractory patients to be switched to rescue therapy. Treatment should be risk-adapted. Recent studies are linking specific characteristics of the plasma cell clone to response to different types of treatment, moving toward patient-tailored therapy. In addition, novel anti-amyloid treatments are being developed that might be combined with anti-plasma cell chemotherapy. PMID:27053535

  20. Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L

    2013-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions. PMID:23834791

  1. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene

    2015-03-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we present a meta-analysis and integrated assessment of the effects of mitigation measures on NH3 , CH4 and (direct and indirect) N2 O emissions from the whole manure management chain. We analysed the effects of mitigation technologies on NH3 , CH4 and N2 O emissions from individual sources statistically using results of 126 published studies. Whole-chain effects on NH3 and GHG emissions were assessed through scenario analysis. Significant NH3 reduction efficiencies were observed for (i) housing via lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content (24-65%, compared to the reference situation), for (ii) external slurry storages via acidification (83%) and covers of straw (78%) or artificial films (98%), for (iii) solid manure storages via compaction and covering (61%, compared to composting), and for (iv) manure application through band spreading (55%, compared to surface application), incorporation (70%) and injection (80%). Acidification decreased CH4 emissions from stored slurry by 87%. Significant increases in N2 O emissions were found for straw-covered slurry storages (by two orders of magnitude) and manure injection (by 26-199%). These side-effects of straw covers and slurry injection on N2 O emission were relatively small when considering the total GHG emissions from the manure chain. Lowering the CP content of feed and acidifying slurry are strategies that consistently reduce NH3 and GHG emissions in the whole chain. Other strategies may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Proper farm-scale combinations of mitigation measures are important to minimize impacts of

  2. Necessity of Mutual Understandings in Supply Chain Management of Lithium-Ion Battery for Space Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, T.; Nakajima, M.; Mori, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Application of Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) is getting growth these days in space industry. Through the supply chain of LIB, it is very important to establish deepen mutual understandings between space industry people and non-space industry people in order to meet requirements of space grade quality control. Furthermore, this approach has positive effects for safety handling and safety transportation. This paper explains necessity of mutual understandings based on the analysis of aviation incident report. The study is focused on its background and issues on each related industry. These contents are studied and discussed in the New Work Item Proposal of the International Standard of LIB for space vehicle.

  3. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  4. Managing Distrust-Induced Risk with Deposit in Supply Chain Contract Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Guanghua; Dong, Ming; Sun, Qi

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the trust issue in a two-echelon supply chain information sharing process. In a supply chain, the retailer reports the forecasted demand to the supplier. Traditionally, the supplier's trust in the retailer's reported information is based on the retailer's reputation. However, this paper considers that trust is random and is also affected by the reputation and the demand gap. The supplier and retailer have been shown to have different evaluations regarding the degree of trust. Furthermore, distrust is inherently linked to perceived risk. To mitigate perceived risk, a two-stage decision process with an unpayback deposit contract is proposed. At the first stage, the supplier and the retailer negotiate the deposit contract. At the second stage, a Stackelberg game is used to determine the retailer's reported demand and the supplier's production quantity. We show that the deposits from the retailer's and supplier's perspectives are different. When the retailer's reported demand is equal to the supplier's forecasted demand, the retailer's evaluation of the deposit is more than that of supplier's. When the retailer's reported demand is equal to the retailer's forecasted demand, the deposit from the retailer's perspective is at the lowest level. PMID:25054190

  5. Food-chain and dose model, CALDOS, for assessing Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management concept.

    PubMed

    Zach, R; Sheppard, S C

    1991-05-01

    The food-chain and dose model, CALculation of DOSe (CALDOS), was developed for assessing Canada's concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal in a vault deep in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. The model is very general and based on the Shield as a whole. The critical group is totally self-sufficient and represented by ICRP (1975) Reference Man for dose prediction. CALDOS assumes steady-state conditions and deals with variation and uncertainty through Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Ingrowth of some radioactive daughters is considered during food-chain transfer. A limit is set on root uptake to avoid unrealistic plant concentrations. Integrated ingestion and inhalation rates of man are calculated in a unique way, based on energy needs. Soil ingestion by man and external exposure from building material are unique pathways considered. Tritium, 129I, and 222Rn are treated through special models, and 14C and 129I involve unique geosphere dose limits. All transfer coefficients are lognormally distributed, and the plant/soil concentration ratio is correlated with the soil partition coefficient. Animals' ingestion rates are normally distributed and correlated with each other. Comprehensive sets of internal and external dose conversion factors were calculated for CALDOS. Sample calculations show that dose distributions tend to be strongly right-skewed. Many features of CALDOS are relevant for environmental assessment in general. PMID:2019495

  6. Food-chain and dose model, CALDOS, for assessing Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management concept

    SciTech Connect

    Zach, R.; Sheppard, S.C. )

    1991-05-01

    The food-chain and dose model, CALculation of DOSe (CALDOS), was developed for assessing Canada's concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal in a vault deep in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. The model is very general and based on the Shield as a whole. The critical group is totally self-sufficient and represented by ICRP (1975) Reference Man for dose prediction. CALDOS assumes steady-state conditions and deals with variation and uncertainty through Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Ingrowth of some radioactive daughters is considered during food-chain transfer. A limit is set on root uptake to avoid unrealistic plant concentrations. Integrated ingestion and inhalation rates of man are calculated in a unique way, based on energy needs. Soil ingestion by man and external exposure from building material are unique pathways considered. Tritium, {sup 129}I, and {sup 222}Rn are treated through special models, and {sup 14}C and {sup 129}I involve unique geosphere dose limits. All transfer coefficients are lognormally distributed, and the plant/soil concentration ratio is correlated with the soil partition coefficient. Animals' ingestion rates are normally distributed and correlated with each other. Comprehensive sets of internal and external dose conversion factors were calculated for CALDOS. Sample calculations show that dose distributions tend to be strongly right-skewed. Many features of CALDOS are relevant for environmental assessment in general.

  7. Managing distrust-induced risk with deposit in supply chain contract decisions.

    PubMed

    Han, Guanghua; Dong, Ming; Sun, Qi

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the trust issue in a two-echelon supply chain information sharing process. In a supply chain, the retailer reports the forecasted demand to the supplier. Traditionally, the supplier's trust in the retailer's reported information is based on the retailer's reputation. However, this paper considers that trust is random and is also affected by the reputation and the demand gap. The supplier and retailer have been shown to have different evaluations regarding the degree of trust. Furthermore, distrust is inherently linked to perceived risk. To mitigate perceived risk, a two-stage decision process with an unpayback deposit contract is proposed. At the first stage, the supplier and the retailer negotiate the deposit contract. At the second stage, a Stackelberg game is used to determine the retailer's reported demand and the supplier's production quantity. We show that the deposits from the retailer's and supplier's perspectives are different. When the retailer's reported demand is equal to the supplier's forecasted demand, the retailer's evaluation of the deposit is more than that of supplier's. When the retailer's reported demand is equal to the retailer's forecasted demand, the deposit from the retailer's perspective is at the lowest level. PMID:25054190

  8. Evaluating environmental impacts of alternative construction waste management approaches using supply-chain-linked life-cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Kucukvar, Murat; Egilmez, Gokhan; Tatari, Omer

    2014-05-22

    Waste management in construction is critical for the sustainable treatment of building-related construction and demolition (C&D) waste materials, and recycling of these wastes has been considered as one of the best strategies in minimization of C&D debris. However, recycling of C&D materials may not always be a feasible strategy for every waste type and therefore recycling and other waste treatment strategies should be supported by robust decision-making models. With the aim of assessing the net carbon, energy, and water footprints of C&D recycling and other waste management alternatives, a comprehensive economic input-output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is developed by tracing all of the economy-wide supply-chain impacts of three waste management strategies: recycling, landfilling, and incineration. Analysis results showed that only the recycling of construction materials provided positive environmental footprint savings in terms of carbon, energy, and water footprints. Incineration is a better option as a secondary strategy after recycling for water and energy footprint categories, whereas landfilling is found to be as slightly better strategy when carbon footprint is considered as the main focus of comparison. In terms of construction materials' environmental footprint, nonferrous metals are found to have a significant environmental footprint reduction potential if recycled. PMID:24855225

  9. Functional analysis, a resilience improvement tool applied to a waste management system - application to the "household waste management chain"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraud, H.; Barroca, B.; Hubert, G.

    2012-12-01

    A waste management system plays a leading role in the capacity of an area to restart after flooding, as their impact on post-crisis management can be very considerable. Improving resilience, i.e. enabling it to maintain or recover acceptable operating levels after flooding is primordial. To achieve this, we must understand how the system works for bringing any potential dysfunctions to light and taking preventive measures. Functional analysis has been used for understanding the complexity of this type of system. The purpose of this article is to show the interest behind this type of method and the limits in its use for improving resilience of waste management system as well as other urban technical systems1, by means of theoretical modelling and its application on a study site. 1In a systemic vision of the city, urban technical systems combine all the user service systems that are essential for the city to operate (electricity, water supplies, transport, sewerage, etc.). These systems are generally organised in the form of networks (Coutard, 2010; CERTU, 2005).

  10. Coordination-based inventory management for deteriorating items in a two-echelon supply chain with profit sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Lin, Yu-Siang; Wang, Kung-Jeng

    2013-09-01

    This study develops a model for inventory management consisting of a two-echelon supply chain (SC) with profit sharing and deteriorating items. The retailer and the supplier act as the leader and follower, in which the supplier faces a huge setup cost and economic order quantity ordering strategy. The market demand is affected by the sale price of the product, and the inventory has a deterioration rate following a Weibull distribution. The retailer executes three profit-sharing mechanisms to motivate the supplier to participate in SC optimisation and to extend the life cycle of the product. A search algorithm is developed to determine the solutions as using the profit-sharing mechanisms. The outcomes from numerical experiments demonstrate the profitability of the proposed model.

  11. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  12. The role of camera-bundled image management software in the consumer digital imaging value chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Milton; Mundkur, Anuradha; Balasubramanian, Ashok; Chirania, Virat

    2005-02-01

    This research was undertaken by the Convergence Center at the Syracuse University School of Information Studies (www.digital-convergence.info). Project ICONICA, the name for the research, focuses on the strategic implications of digital Images and the CONvergence of Image management and image CApture. Consumer imaging - the activity that we once called "photography" - is now recognized as in the throes of a digital transformation. At the end of 2003, market researchers estimated that about 30% of the households in the U.S. and 40% of the households in Japan owned digital cameras. In 2004, of the 86 million new cameras sold (excluding one-time use cameras), a majority (56%) were estimated to be digital cameras. Sales of photographic film, while still profitable, are declining precipitously.

  13. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management. PMID:12866156

  14. Event Management of RFID Data Streams: Fast Moving Consumer Goods Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, John P. T.; Li, Xue

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a wireless communication technology that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer information between tagged objects and readers without line of sight. This creates tremendous opportunities for linking real world objects into a world of "Internet of things". Application of RFID to Fast Moving Consumer Goods sector will introduce billions of RFID tags in the world. Almost everything is tagged for tracking and identification purposes. This phenomenon will impose a new challenge not only to the network capacity but also to the scalability of processing of RFID events and data. This chapter uses two national demonstrator projects in Australia as case studies to introduce an event managementframework to process high volume RFID data streams in real time and automatically transform physical RFID observations into business-level events. The model handles various temporal event patterns, both simple and complex, with temporal constraints. The model can be implemented in a data management architecture that allows global RFID item tracking and enables fast, large-scale RFID deployment.

  15. Demolition waste generation for development of a regional management chain model.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Miguel; Gomes, Marta Castilho; de Brito, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Even though construction and demolition waste (CDW) is the bulkiest waste stream, its estimation and composition in specific regions still faces major difficulties. Therefore new methods are required especially when it comes to make predictions limited to small areas, such as counties. This paper proposes one such method, which makes use of data collected from real demolition works and statistical information on the geographical area under study. Based on a correlation analysis between the demolition waste estimates and indicators such as population density, buildings ageing index, buildings density and land occupation type, relationships are established that can be used to determine demolition waste outputs in a given area. The derived models are presented and explained. This methodology is independent from the specific region with which it is exemplified (the Lisbon Metropolitan Area) and can therefore be applied to any region of the world, from the country to the county level. Generation of demolition waste data at the county level is the basis of the design of a systemic model for CDW management in a region. Future developments proposed include a mixed-integer linear programming formulation of such recycling network. PMID:26838607

  16. Risk characterisation and management of sewage sludge on agricultural land--implications for the environment and the food-chain.

    PubMed

    Ross, A D; Lawrie, R A; Keneally, J P; Whatmuff, M S

    1992-08-01

    The disposal of sewage wastes may cause severe environmental problems as was graphically demonstrated with pollution on Sydney's ocean beaches in recent years. Sewage sludges contain valuable plant nutrients and organic matter which can improve the fertility and structure of the soil. However, human parasites, pathogenic micro-organisms and chemicals capable of causing soil contamination, phytotoxicity and residues in animal products may also be present. Although sewage sludge is frequently spread on agricultural land overseas, it is not common in Australia and most states do not have specific regulations to minimise risk and promote good practice. A sludge-to-land program began in the Sydney region in 1990. It follows guidelines written by NSW Agriculture to encourage beneficial agricultural use of sludge by adoption of environmentally sustainable practices. This article describes the major risks to the food-chain and the environment, which may be associated with applying sewage sludge to agricultural land. It summarises how the risks are managed, and where further research data are required. PMID:1530551

  17. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  18. The life cycle of rice: LCA of alternative agri-food chain management systems in Vercelli (Italy).

    PubMed

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko

    2009-03-01

    The Vercelli rice district in northern Italy plays a key role in the agri-food industry in a country which accounts for more than 50% of the EU rice production and exports roughly 70%. However, although wealth and jobs are created, the sector is said to be responsible for environmental impacts that are increasingly being perceived as topical. As a complex and comprehensive environmental evaluation is necessary to understand and manage the environmental impact of the agri-food chain, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied to the rice production system: from the paddy field to the supermarket. The LCA has pointed out the magnitude of impact per kg of delivered white milled rice: a CO2eq emission of 2.9 kg, a primary energy consumption of 17.8 MJ and the use of 4.9 m3 of water for irrigation purposes. Improvement scenarios have been analysed considering alternative rice farming and food processing methods, such as organic and upland farming, as well as parboiling. The research has shown that organic and upland farming have the potential to decrease the impact per unit of cultivated area. However, due to the lower grain yields, the environmental benefits per kg of the final products are greatly reduced in the case of upland rice production and almost cancelled for organic rice. LCA has proved to be an effective tool for understanding the eco-profile of Italian rice and should be used for transparent and credible communication between suppliers and their customers. PMID:19046619

  19. Extending the "Knowledge Advantage": Creating Learning Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maqsood, Tayyab; Walker, Derek; Finegan, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a synergy between the approaches of knowledge management in a learning organisation and supply chain management so that learning chains can be created in order to unleash innovation and creativity by managing knowledge in supply chains. Design/methodology/approach: Through extensive literature…

  20. Laboratory-based strategy using a new marketed polymerase chain reaction assay to manage diarrheic episodes among patients from rehabilitation and long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Salmona, Maud; Jolivet, Sarah; Duprilot, Marion; Akpabie, Anani Clément; Fourati, Slim; Decousser, Jean-Winoc

    2016-06-01

    Management of Norovirus and Clostridium difficile gastroenteritis is challenging for rehabilitation and long-term care facilities. We evaluated the contribution of a 2-step laboratory-based strategy, including a new ready-to-use Norovirus polymerase chain reaction assay to promote isolation precautions. C difficile and Norovirus were successively identified from 17% and 23% of 52 episodes of diarrhea, respectively, during the winter season, leading to 100% adequate isolation measures. In patient populations with numerous risk factors for diarrhea, a combined laboratory-based approach could improve infection control. PMID:26921013

  1. Effects of subzero temperature exposure and supercooling on glass vial breakage: risk management and other applications in cold chain distribution.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ernest J; Kitaguchi, Ben; Trier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    During the distribution of temperature-sensitive products (cold chain distribution), unintentional exposure of typical glass drug vials to subzero (below 0 °C) temperatures introduces potential risks of glass vial breakage during freeze (as well as thaw) and potential destabilizing effects of any biologic or pharmaceutical contained within. Vial breakage during freezing not only leads to product loss, but also to potential safety/sterility issues. This paper focuses on the physical aspects of tested glass vials as well as thermodynamic behaviors observed (specifically supercooling) in liquid product. In this study, filled glass vials varying from 5 to 500 mL were subjected to specific temperature levels (-15, -10, and -6 °C) in controlled chambers. Thermocouples were used to record temperatures within various probed vials and the ambient temperature of the controlled chamber. Vials were visually inspected for cracks/fractures after every cycle of conditioning. Samples of the cracked and non-cracked vials were sent to a third party glass analysis laboratory for further observations. This study provides insight into the physical impact of exposing filled glass vials to subzero temperatures for short durations commonly observed during cold chain distribution. PMID:22307662

  2. Crater Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The large crater at the top of this THEMIS visible image has several other craters inside of it. Most noticeable are the craters that form a 'chain' on the southern wall of the large crater. These craters are a wonderful example of secondary impacts. They were formed when large blocks of ejecta from an impact crashed back down onto the surface of Mars. Secondaries often form radial patterns around the impact crater that generated them, allowing researchers to trace them back to their origin.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.3, Longitude 347.5 East (12.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  3. Another Link in the Chain: State Policies and Practices for Case Management and Environmental Investigation for Lead-Poisoned Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Anne M.; McLaine, Pat

    Policy and practice for screening children for lead poisoning have dominated the dialogue about the health care system's role in lead poisoning prevention, with little attention directed to how the health care system responds to a lead-poisoned child once identified. This report details a study of the case management and environmental…

  4. Management of familial Mediterranean fever by colchicine does not normalize the altered profile of microbial long chain fatty acids in the human metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Ktsoyan, Zhanna A.; Beloborodova, Natalia V.; Sedrakyan, Anahit M.; Osipov, George A.; Khachatryan, Zaruhi A.; Manukyan, Gayane P.; Arakelova, Karine A.; Hovhannisyan, Alvard I.; Arakelyan, Arsen A.; Ghazaryan, Karine A.; Zakaryan, Magdalina K.; Aminov, Rustam I.

    2013-01-01

    In our previous works we established that in an autoinflammatory condition, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), the gut microbial diversity is specifically restructured, which also results in the altered profiles of microbial long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) present in the systemic metabolome. The mainstream management of the disease is based on oral administration of colchicine to suppress clinical signs and extend remission periods and our aim was to determine whether this therapy normalizes the microbial LCFA profiles in the metabolome as well. Unexpectedly, the treatment does not normalize these profiles. Moreover, it results in the formation of new distinct microbial LCFA clusters, which are well separated from the corresponding values in healthy controls and FMF patients without the therapy. We hypothesize that the therapy alters the proinflammatory network specific for the disease, with the concomitant changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding microbial LCFAs in the metabolome. PMID:23373011

  5. Health risk assessment along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda: a visualization.

    PubMed

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S; Schneeberger, Pierre H H; Niwagaba, Charles B; Buwule, Joseph; Babu, Mohammed; Medlicott, Kate; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2014-11-01

    Reuse of wastewater in agriculture is a common feature in the developing world. While this strategy might contribute to the livelihood of farming communities, there are health risks associated with the management and reuse of wastewater and faecal sludge. We visualise here an assessment of health risks along the major wastewater channel in Kampala, Uganda. The visualization brings to bear the context of wastewater reuse activities in the Nakivubo wetlands and emphasises interconnections to disease transmission pathways. The contextual features are complemented with findings from environmental sampling and a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in selected exposure groups. Our documentation can serve as a case study for a step-by-step implementation of risk assessment and management as described in the World Health Organization's 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, greywater and excreta in light of the forthcoming sanitation safety planning approach. PMID:25545942

  6. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  7. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  8. [Suggestions to strengthen quality management of herbal decoction pieces--based on production chain of herbal decoction pieces].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing

    2015-08-01

    With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise. PMID:26790314

  9. Buffer management to solve bed-blocking in the Netherlands 2000–2010. Cooperation from an integrated care chain perspective as a key success factor for managing patient flows

    PubMed Central

    Mur-Veeman, Ingrid; Govers, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Bed-blocking problems in hospitals reflect how difficult and complex it is to move patients smoothly through the chain of care. In the Netherlands, during the first decade of the 21st century, some hospitals attempted to tackle this problem by using an Intermediate Care Department (ICD) as a buffer for bed-blockers. However, research has shown that ICDs do not sufficiently solve the bed-blocking problem and that bed-blocking is often caused by a lack of buffer management. Tool Buffer management (BM) is a tool that endeavors to balance patient flow in the hospital to nursing home chain of care. Results Additional research has indicated that the absence of BM is not the result of providers’ thinking that BM is unnecessary, unethical or impossible because of unpredictable patient flows. Instead, BM is hampered by a lack of cooperation between care providers. Conclusion Although stakeholders recognize that cooperation is imperative, they often fail to take the actions necessary to realize cooperation. Our assumption is that this lack of willingness and ability to cooperate is the result of several impeding conditions as well as stakeholders’ perceptions of these conditions and the persistence of their current routines, principles and beliefs (RPBs). Discussion We recommend simultaneously working on improving the conditions and changing stakeholders’ perceptions and RPBs. PMID:21954373

  10. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Among Women: Comparative Effectiveness of 5 Prevention and Management Strategies Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Model

    PubMed Central

    Eells, Samantha J.; Bharadwa, Kiran; McKinnell, James A.; Miller, Loren G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem among women. However, comparative effectiveness strategies for managing recurrent UTIs are lacking. Methods. We performed a systematic literature review of management of women experiencing ≥3 UTIs per year. We then developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo model of recurrent UTI for each management strategy with ≥2 adequate trials published. We simulated a cohort that experienced 3 UTIs/year and a secondary cohort that experienced 8 UTIs/year. Model outcomes were treatment efficacy, patient and payer cost, and health-related quality of life. Results. Five strategies had ≥2 clinical trials published: (1) daily antibiotic (nitrofurantoin) prophylaxis; (2) daily estrogen prophylaxis; (3) daily cranberry prophylaxis; (4) acupuncture prophylaxis; and (5) symptomatic self-treatment. In the 3 UTIs/year model, nitrofurantoin prophylaxis was most effective, reducing the UTI rate to 0.4 UTIs/year, and the most expensive to the payer ($821/year). All other strategies resulted in payer cost savings but were less efficacious. Symptomatic self-treatment was the only strategy that resulted in patient cost savings, and was the most favorable strategy in term of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Conclusions. Daily antibiotic use is the most effective strategy for recurrent UTI prevention compared to daily cranberry pills, daily estrogen therapy, and acupuncture. Cost savings to payers and patients were seen for most regimens, and improvement in QALYs were seen with all. Our findings provide clinically meaningful data to guide the physician–patient partnership in determining a preferred method of prevention for this common clinical problem. PMID:24065333

  11. Stakeholders Integration in Higher Education: Supply Chain Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Turki, U. M.; Duffuaa, S.; Ayar, T.; Demirel, O.

    2008-01-01

    Supply chain management principles have emerged in the last decade as a strategic option to meet new challenges in global business environment. Viewing business environment as part of a chain, starting from raw material suppliers to end customers passing by producers, is at the heart of supply-chain management. Many management principles have…

  12. The Influence of U.S. Chain Restaurant Food Consumption and Obesity in China and South Korea: An Ecological Perspective of Food Consumption, Self-Efficacy in Weight Management, Willingness to Communicate About Weight/Diet, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Mazzone, Raphael; Oh, Hyun; Du, Joshua; Smithson, Anne-Bennett; Ryan, Diane; MacNeil, David; Tong, Xing; Stiller, Carol

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the impact of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption in China and South Korea from an ecological perspective. Specifically, it explored the relationships among several environmental and individual variables that have been found to affect obesity/weight management in previous research, including the prevalence/popularity of U.S. chain restaurants in these countries, frequency of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption, self-efficacy in weight management, willingness to communicate about weight/diet, self-perceptions of weight/obesity stigma, body mass index (BMI), and depression. The results indicated that willingness to communicate about weight/diet predicted increased self-efficacy in weight management. Higher BMI scores were found to predict increased weight/obesity stigma, and increased frequency of U.S. restaurant food consumption, weight/obesity stigma, and reduced self-efficacy in weight management were found to predict increased levels of depression. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and directions for future research. PMID:27007254

  13. Teaching Lean Six Sigma within a Supply Chain Context: The Airplane Supply Chain Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Scott C.; Goldsby, Thomas J.; Bailey, Ana M.; Oh, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Lean six sigma is a management methodology that firms can employ to achieve substantial improvement in supply chain performance. However, few pedagogical exercises facilitate students' use of a comprehensive set of lean six sigma principles within a supply chain context. We describe the Airplane Supply Chain Simulation that helps students…

  14. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice. PMID:19885962

  15. Callisto Crater Chain Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic of three images shows an area within the Valhalla region on Jupiter's moon, Callisto. North is to the top of the mosaic and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The smallest details that can be discerned in this picture are knobs and small impact craters about 160 meters (175 yards) across. The mosaic covers an area approximately 45 kilometers (28 miles) across. It shows part of a prominent crater chain located on the northern part of the Valhalla ring structure.

    Crater chains can form from the impact of material ejected from large impacts (forming secondary chains) or by the impact of a fragmented projectile, perhaps similar to the Shoemaker-Levy 9 cometary impacts into Jupiter in July 1994. It is believed this crater chain was formed by the impact of a fragmented projectile. The images which form this mosaic were obtained by the solid state imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on Nov. 4, 1996 (Universal Time).

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http:// www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  16. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain. PMID:17580654

  17. Alignment of Information Systems with Supply Chains: Impacts on Supply Chain Performance and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qrunfleh, Sufian M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an important focus of researchers has been on supply chain management (SCM), as many organizations believe that effective SCM is the key to building and sustaining competitive advantage for their products/services. To manage the supply chain, companies need to adopt an SCM strategy (SCMS) and implement appropriate SCM…

  18. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    PubMed

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come. PMID:15559580

  19. Supply chain challenges. building relationships.

    PubMed

    Beth, Scott; Burt, David N; Copacino, William; Gopal, Chris; Lee, Hau L; Lynch, Robert Porter; Morris, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Supply chain management is all about software and systems, right? Put in the best technology, sit back, and watch as your processes run smoothly and the savings roll in? Apparently not. When HBR convened a panel of leading thinkers in the field of supply chain management, technology was not top of mind. People and relationships were the dominant issues of the day. The opportunities and problems created by globalization, for example, are requiring companies to establish relationships with new types of suppliers. The ever-present pressure for speed and cost containment is making it even more important to break down stubbornly high internal barriers and establish more effective cross-functional relationships. The costs of failure have never been higher. The leading supply chain performers are applying new technology, new innovations, and process thinking to far greater advantage than the laggards, reaping tremendous gains in all the variables that affect shareholder value: cost, customer service, asset productivity, and revenue generation. And the gap between the leaders and the losers is growing in almost every industry. This roundtable gathered many of the leading thinkers and doers in the field of supply chain management, including practitioners Scott Beth of Intuit, Sandra Morris of Intel, and Chris Gopal of Unisys. David Burt of the University of San Diego and Stanford's Hau Lee bring the latest research from academia. Accenture's William Copacino and the Warren Company's Robert Porter Lynch offer the consultant's perspectives. Together, they take a wide-ranging view of such topics as developing talent, the role of the chief executive, and the latest technologies, exploring both the tactical and the strategic in the current state of supply chain management. PMID:12858712

  20. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  1. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  2. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  3. "Another Link in the Chain" Update: State Policies and Practices for Case Management and Environmental Investigation for Lead-Poisoned Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaine, Pat; Gaitens, Joanna

    This report details a national survey, conducted in 2000, to document changes since 1998 in policies and practices for case management and environmental investigation for lead poisoned children; the study also investigated the impact of the previous national survey in precipitating change. Participating in the survey were program directors or…

  4. Relations in Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineur, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    The criticisms made against chain indexing are reviewed, and PRECIS briefly considered as a possible (but improbable) general substitute for indexing. The failures of chain indexing arise mainly from an overemphasis on generic relationships. The use of symbols to represent relations between terms is suggested for the chain index. (80 references)…

  5. Gushing metal chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.

  6. Crater chains on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V.; Skobeleva, T.

    After discovery of disruption comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into fragment train before it's collision with Jupiter there was proposed that linear crater chains on the large satellites of Jupiter and on the Moon are impact scars of past tidally disrupted comets.It's known that radar images have revealed the possible presence of water ice deposits in polar regions of Mercury. Impacts by a few large comets seem to provide the best explanation for both the amount and cleanliness of the ice deposits on Mercury because they have a larger volatile content that others external sources, for example, asteroid. A number of crater chains on the surface of Mercury are most likely the impact tracks of "fragment trains" of comets tidally disrupted by Sun or by Mercury and are not secondary craters. Mariner 10 image set (the three Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975) was used to recognize the crater chains these did not associate with secondary crater ejecta from observed impact structures. As example, it can be shown such crater chain located near crater Imhotep and crater Ibsen (The Kuiper Quadrangle of Mercury). Resolution of the Mariner 10 image is about 0.54 km/pixel. The crater chain is about 50 km long. It was found a similar crater chain inside large crater Sophocles (The Tolstoj Quadrangle of Mercury). The image resolution is about 1.46 km/pixel. The chain about 50 km long is located in northen part of the crater. Image resolution limits possibility to examine the form of craters strongly. It seems the craters in chains have roughly flat floor and smooth form. Most chain craters are approximately circular. It was examined many images from the Mariner 10 set and there were identified a total 15 crater chains and were unable to link any of these directly to any specific large crater associated with ejecta deposits. Chain craters are remarkably aligned. All distinguished crater chains are superposed on preexisting formations. A total of 127 craters were identified in the 15 recognized

  7. Planning the bioterrorism response supply chain: learn and live.

    PubMed

    Brandeau, Margaret L; Hutton, David W; Owens, Douglas K; Bravata, Dena M

    2007-01-01

    Responses to bioterrorism require rapid procurement and distribution of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, trained personnel, and information. Thus, they present significant logistical challenges. On the basis of a review of the manufacturing and service supply chain literature, the authors identified five supply chain strategies that can potentially increase the speed of response to a bioterrorism attack, reduce inventories, and save money: effective supply chain network design; effective inventory management; postponement of product customization and modularization of component parts; coordination of supply chain stakeholders and appropriate use of incentives; and effective information management. The authors describe how concepts learned from published evaluations of manufacturing and service supply chains, as well as lessons learned from responses to natural disasters, naturally occurring outbreaks, and the 2001 US anthrax attacks, can be applied to design, evaluate, and improve the bioterrorism response supply chain. Such lessons could also be applied to the response supply chains for disease outbreaks and natural and manmade disasters. PMID:18491839

  8. Chain entanglements. I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixman, Marshall

    1988-09-01

    A model of concentrated polymer solution dynamics is described. The forces in a linear generalized Langevin equation for the motion of a probe chain are derived on the assumption that all relaxation of the forces is due to motion of the surrounding matrix. Vicinal chain displacements are classified as viscoelastic deformation, reptation, and minor residual fluctuations. The latter provide a torsional relaxation of the primitive path that minimizes the significance of transverse forces on the probe chain. All displacements of vicinal segments are assumed proportional to the forces that they exert on the probe chain. In response to an external force, the displacement of the probe chain relative to a laboratory frame is increased by viscoelastic deformation of the matrix, but reptative diffusion relative to the deforming matrix is slowed down. The net effect on translational diffusion is negligible if the probe and vicinal chains have the same chain length N, but the friction constant for reptative motion is increased by a factor N1-xs. xs=1/2 if Gaussian conformational statistics applies during the disengagement process, while xs =0.6 if excluded volume statistics applies. The translational friction constant is βp ˜N2, as in reptation theory, but the viscosity is η˜N4-xs . The persistence of entanglements during the translational diffusion of the probe chain across many radii of gyration is rationalized pictorially in terms of correlated reptative motion of the probe and vicinal chains.

  9. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  10. Towards biotracing in food chains.

    PubMed

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran; Bouquin, Solveig Lind; Skiby, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly, the integration of these disciplines will lead to better capability in full-chain tracing and tracking biological contaminations (biotracing). The advantages of improved biotraceability are faster intervention, limited recalls and more targeted remedial action. The project is not dealing with risk assessments but developing tools that can be used in "second-generation" risk assessments involving quantitative microbiology. This concept is the core activity of BIOTRACER, which is an Integrated Project (2007-2011) funded by the EU 6th Framework Programme. The research in biotracing is organised into five Research Areas, and 21 cross-disciplinary work packages that cover tracing and tracking of contamination in feed, meat and dairy chains, in addition to accidental and deliberate contamination of bottled water. The BIOTRACER Consortium consists of 46 partners, including Europe's largest food/feed industries, several SMEs, and relevant International Cooperation (INCO) countries. The Consortium includes experts in predictive microbiology, database developers, software companies, risk assessors, risk managers, system biologists, food and molecular microbiologists, legislative officers, standardization and validation members and food retailers. The outcomes will ensure a more reliable and rapid response to a microbial contamination event. PMID:20627434

  11. SUMO chains: polymeric signals.

    PubMed

    Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2010-02-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins are conjugated to a wide variety of target proteins that play roles in all biological processes. Target proteins are conjugated to ubiquitin monomers or to ubiquitin polymers that form via all seven internal lysine residues of ubiquitin. The fate of these target proteins is controlled in a chain architecture-dependent manner. SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) shares the ability of ubiquitin to form chains via internal SUMOylation sites. Interestingly, a SUMO-binding site in Ubc9 is important for SUMO chain synthesis. Similar to ubiquitin-polymer cleavage by USPs (ubiquitin-specific proteases), SUMO chain formation is reversible. SUMO polymers are cleaved by the SUMO proteases SENP6 [SUMO/sentrin/SMT3 (suppressor of mif two 3)-specific peptidase 6], SENP7 and Ulp2 (ubiquitin-like protease 2). SUMO chain-binding proteins including ZIP1, SLX5/8 (synthetic lethal of unknown function 5/8), RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) and CENP-E (centromere-associated protein E) have been identified that interact non-covalently with SUMO chains, thereby regulating target proteins that are conjugated to SUMO multimers. SUMO chains play roles in replication, in the turnover of SUMO targets by the proteasome and during mitosis and meiosis. Thus signalling via polymers is an exciting feature of the SUMO family. PMID:20074033

  12. Translocation of reptating chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żurek, S.; Drzewiński, A.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.

    2011-05-01

    Voltage-driven translocation is modeled with the Rubinstein-Duke rules for hopping reptons in one- and two-dimensional lattices. The chain is driven through the pore by a bias potential promoting the transition of stored length in one direction. Coupling states give a semi-periodicity of the process that enables us to relate the properties to the stationary state of the master equation. The exact solution for short chains and Monte Carlo simulations for longer chains are used to calculate displacements, velocities and the translocation time.

  13. Atomic Chain Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Adatom chains, precise structures artificially created on an atomically regulated surface, are the smallest possible candidates for future nanoelectronics. Since all the devices are created by combining adatom chains precisely prepared with atomic precision, device characteristics are predictable, and free from deviations due to accidental structural defects. In this atomic dimension, however, an analogy to the current semiconductor devices may not work. For example, Si structures are not always semiconducting. Adatom states do not always localize at the substrate surface when adatoms form chemical bonds to the substrate atoms. Transport properties are often determined for the entire system of the chain and electrodes, and not for chains only. These fundamental issues are discussed, which will be useful for future device considerations.

  14. Factorialsum Number Chains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes several phenomena in which interesting properties of numbers are demonstrated. Includes discussions of amicable, perfect, and sociable numbers. Presents computer programs for conducting a number chain search. (RT)

  15. Respiratory chain supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Schägger, H

    2001-01-01

    Respiratory chain supercomplexes have been isolated from mammalian and yeast mitochondria, and bacterial membranes. Functional roles of respiratory chain supercomplexes are catalytic enhancement, substrate channelling, and stabilization of complex I by complex III in mammalian cells. Bacterial supercomplexes are characterized by their relatively high detergent-stability compared to yeast or mammalian supercomplexes that are stable to sonication. The mobility of substrate cytochrome c increases in the order bacterial, yeast, and mammalian respiratory chain. In bacterial supercomplexes, the electron transfer between complexes III and IV involves movement of the mobile head of a tightly bound cytochrome c, whereas the yeast S. cerevisiae seems to use substrate channelling of a mobile cytochrome c, and mammalian respiratory chains have been described to use a cytochrome c pool. Dimeric ATP synthase seems to be specific for mitochondrial OXPHOS systems. Monomeric complex V was found in Acetobacterium woodii and Paracoccus denitrificans. PMID:11798023

  16. Light chain nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Darouich, Sihem; Bettaieb, Ilhem; Aouadia, Raja; Hedri, Hafedh; Abderrahim, Ezzeddine; Goucha, Rym; Khedher, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is characterized by the tissue deposition of monotypic immunoglobulin light chains of either kappa or lambda isotype. It is the archetypal systemic disease that is most frequently diagnosed on a kidney biopsy, although the deposits may involve several other organs. This brief review focuses on the clinicopathological features of LCDD-associated nephropathy with an emphasis on the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties related to this elusive condition. PMID:26022011

  17. Fuzzy Entropy Method for Quantifying Supply Chain Networks Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihui; Xu, Junqin

    Supply chain is a special kind of complex network. Its complexity and uncertainty makes it very difficult to control and manage. Supply chains are faced with a rising complexity of products, structures, and processes. Because of the strong link between a supply chain’s complexity and its efficiency the supply chain complexity management becomes a major challenge of today’s business management. The aim of this paper is to quantify the complexity and organization level of an industrial network working towards the development of a ‘Supply Chain Network Analysis’ (SCNA). By measuring flows of goods and interaction costs between different sectors of activity within the supply chain borders, a network of flows is built and successively investigated by network analysis. The result of this study shows that our approach can provide an interesting conceptual perspective in which the modern supply network can be framed, and that network analysis can handle these issues in practice.

  18. PSI Management: Down the Administrative Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, B. V.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Presents three viewpoints on the Keller Plan or Personalized System of Instruction (PSI), given by an associate dean, a department chairman, and a professor. Concentrates on PSI engineering courses, but includes many general comments. (MLH)

  19. Supply Chain Collaboration Alternatives: Understanding the Expected Costs and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Tim; Head, Milena; Yuan, Yufei

    2002-01-01

    Discusses collaboration as a recent trend in supply chain management (SCM) that focuses on joint planning, coordination, and process integration between suppliers, customers, and other partners in a supply chain. Analyzes alternative information systems approaches for supporting collaborative SCM, including phone, fax, or email systems; Web-based…

  20. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    PubMed

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data. PMID:26353069

  1. The science of sustainable supply chains.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Dara

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in the science and technology of global supply chain management offer near-real-time demand-response systems for decision-makers across production networks. Technology is helping propel "fast fashion" and "lean manufacturing," so that companies are better able to deliver products consumers want most. Yet companies know much less about the environmental and social impacts of their production networks. The failure to measure and manage these impacts can be explained in part by limitations in the science of sustainability measurement, as well as by weaknesses in systems to translate data into information that can be used by decision-makers inside corporations and government agencies. There also remain continued disincentives for firms to measure and pay the full costs of their supply chain impacts. I discuss the current state of monitoring, measuring, and analyzing information related to supply chain sustainability, as well as progress that has been made in translating this information into systems to advance more sustainable practices by corporations and consumers. Better data, decision-support tools, and incentives will be needed to move from simply managing supply chains for costs, compliance, and risk reduction to predicting and preventing unsustainable practices. PMID:24904157

  2. Benefits of use, and tolerance of, medium-chain triglyceride medical food in the management of Japanese patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective, open-label pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, Tohru; Toda, Aiko; Kimoto, Ayako; Takebayashi, Yuto; Higashiyama, Ryoko; Tagata, Yuko; Ito, Masanobu; Ota, Tsuneyoshi; Shibata, Nobuto; Arai, Heii

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This is the first clinical trial of this type in Japan, designed to analyze two important aspects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) management using medium-chain triglycerides. Axona was administered for 3 months (40 g of powder containing 20 g of caprylic triglycerides). We used an indurating, four-step dose-titration method (from 10 to 40 g per day) for 7 days before the trial, and examined the tolerance and adverse effects of this intervention. We also investigated its effect on cognitive function in mild-to-moderate AD patients. Patients and methods This was a clinical intervention in 22 Japanese patients with sporadic AD at a mild-to-moderate stage (ten females, 12 males), mean age (± standard deviation) 63.9 (±8.5) years, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, 10–25, seven patients were ApoE4-positive. During Axona administration, we examined changes in cognitive function by obtaining MMSE and AD assessment-scale scores. Intolerance and serum ketone concentrations were also examined. Results The tolerance of Axona was good, without severe gastrointestinal adverse effects. Axona did not improve cognitive function in our sample of AD patients, even in those patients without the ApoE4 allele. However, some ApoE4-negative patients with baseline MMSE score ≥14 showed improvement in their cognitive functions. Conclusion The modified dose-titration method, starting with a low dose of Axona, decreased gastrointestinal adverse effects in Japanese patients. Axona might be effective for some relatively mildly affected patients with AD (with cognitive function MMSE score of ≥14 and lacking the ApoE4 allele). PMID:26811674

  3. Supply chain optimization for pediatric perioperative departments.

    PubMed

    Davis, Janice L; Doyle, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Economic challenges compel pediatric perioperative departments to reduce nonlabor supply costs while maintaining the quality of patient care. Optimization of the supply chain introduces a framework for decision making that drives fiscally responsible decisions. The cost-effective supply chain is driven by implementing a value analysis process for product selection, being mindful of product sourcing decisions to reduce supply expense, creating logistical efficiency that will eliminate redundant processes, and managing inventory to ensure product availability. The value analysis approach is an analytical methodology for product selection that involves product evaluation and recommendation based on consideration of clinical benefit, overall financial impact, and revenue implications. PMID:21884843

  4. Chain formation and chain dynamics in a dilute magnetorheological fluid.

    PubMed

    Hagenbüchle, M; Liu, J

    1997-10-20

    Magnetorheological fluids are suspensions of magnetizable particles that reversibly change from liquid to solid when subjected to a magnetic field. A field-induced structure of dipolar chains is responsible for these changes. Our work aimed at understanding chain dynamics and the kinetics of chain formation by using dynamic light scattering. Chain length is determined by measurement of the diffusion coefficient. Chain-length growth shows a Smoluchowski behavior. PMID:18264283

  5. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  6. Investigation of Influence of Modeling Fidelities on Supply Chain Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Son, Young Jun; Venkatestwaran, Jayendran

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, a three-echelon supply chain model is analyzed to determine strategies to reduce the total supply chain system dynamics. Many researchers have attempted to improve the system performance by simulation of an abstract model representing the actual supply chain. Uniqueness of the research in this paper stems from the usage of multiple models with varying degrees of detail representing the same supply chain. The significance of a detailed supply chain model on the quality of experimental result obtained is made clear. Combinations of the factors employed to build an abstract to a detailed supply chain model include: (i) Transportation and production delay, (ii) Demand at the retailer, and (iii) Production and transportation capacity. It is shown that the system dynamics itself varies with increasing detail in the supply chain model. In addition, it is examined to see if a strategy found effective in improving the system dynamics with an abstract supply chain model is also effective with a detailed supply chain model. For this purpose, the following strategies are identified: Inventory level determination, Lead time reduction, Access to Point of Sale (PoS) data I, Access to PoS data II and Vendor Managed Inventory. It is established that the strategy found to be the most effective on an abstract model of the supply chain is not always the best strategy for the real supply chain.

  7. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  8. Solitons in Granular Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Manciu, M.; Sen, S.; Hurd, A.J.

    1999-04-12

    The authors consider a chain of elastic (Hertzian) grains that repel upon contact according to the potential V = a{delta}{sup u}, u > 2, where {delta} is the overlap between the grains. They present numerical and analytical results to show that an impulse initiated at an end of a chain of Hertzian grains in contact eventually propagates as a soliton for all n > 2 and that no solitons are possible for n {le} 2. Unlike continuous, they find that colliding solitons in discrete media initiative multiple weak solitons at the point of crossing.

  9. System Dynamics Modeling for Supply Chain Information Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yang

    In this paper, we try to use the method of system dynamics to model supply chain information sharing. Firstly, we determine the model boundaries, establish system dynamics model of supply chain before information sharing, analyze the model's simulation results under different changed parameters and suggest improvement proposal. Then, we establish system dynamics model of supply chain information sharing and make comparison and analysis on the two model's simulation results, to show the importance of information sharing in supply chain management. We wish that all these simulations would provide scientific supports for enterprise decision-making.

  10. INTERACTING QUANTUM SPIN CHAINS

    SciTech Connect

    ZHELUDEV,A.

    2001-09-09

    A brief review of recent advances in neutron scattering studies of low-dimensional quantum magnets is followed by a particular example. The separation of single-particle and continuum states in the weakly-coupled S = l/2 chains system BaCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} is described in some detail.

  11. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  12. Heavy Chain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells often prevents proper absorption of nutrients from food (malabsorption), resulting in severe diarrhea and weight loss. A rare form that affects the respiratory tract also exists. Blood tests are done when alpha heavy chain disease is suspected. Serum protein electrophoresis, measurement of ...

  13. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  14. Atwood's Heavy Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    While perusing various websites in search of a more challenging lab for my students, I came across a number of ideas where replacing the string in an Atwood's machine with a simple ball chain like the kind found in lamp pulls created an interesting system to investigate. The replacement of the string produced a nice nonuniform acceleration, but…

  15. Breaking the Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In 1792 more than 350,000 people in Britain signed a petition calling for an end to the slave trade. It was, writes historian Adam Hochschild in his book "Bury the Chains," "the first time in history that a large number of people became outraged, and stayed outraged for many years, over someone else's rights". In 1807--after 15 years of…

  16. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  17. Cross-contact chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on a normal probability chart, enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

  18. Cross-contact chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, U. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on normal probability chart enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

  19. Transformational leadership: a cascading chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lorraine

    2005-03-01

    Historical influences still permeate contemporary nursing practise. These are mirrored in organizational philosophies, transactional and autocratic leadership styles and disempowered staff. Whilst there is disparity amongst the theorists' definitions of leadership, there is consensus pertaining to the attributes necessary to realize effective leadership. Transformational leadership is heralded as new criterion for nurse managers, and can be achieved through training, education and professional development in key leadership competencies. To achieve a chain reaction, charismatic transformational leaders espouse intellectual stimulation and individual consideration to empower staff and enhance patient care. Nurse managers that develop and foster transformational leadership can surmount oppressive traditions and confidently navigate a complex and rapidly changing health care environment. PMID:15720482

  20. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  1. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  2. Musical Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volchenkov, Dima; Dawin, Jean René

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  3. Monte Carlo without chains

    SciTech Connect

    Chorin, Alexandre J.

    2007-12-12

    A sampling method for spin systems is presented. The spin lattice is written as the union of a nested sequence of sublattices, all but the last with conditionally independent spins, which are sampled in succession using their marginals. The marginals are computed concurrently by a fast algorithm; errors in the evaluation of the marginals are offset by weights. There are no Markov chains and each sample is independent of the previous ones; the cost of a sample is proportional to the number of spins (but the number of samples needed for good statistics may grow with array size). The examples include the Edwards-Anderson spin glass in three dimensions.

  4. [Trophic chains in soil].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Trophic links of soil animals are extensively diverse but also flexible. Moreover, feeding activity of large soil saprotrophs often cascades into a range of ecosystem-level consequences via the ecological engineering. Better knowledge on the main sources of energy utilized by soil animals is needed for understanding functional structure of soil animal communities and their participation in the global carbon cycling. Using published and original data, we consider the relative importance of dead organic matter and saprotrophic microorganisms as a basal energy source in the detritus-based food chains, the feeding of endogeic macrofauna on the stabilized soil organic matter, and the role of recent photosynthate in the energy budget of soil communities. Soil food webs are spatially and functionally compartmentalized, though the separation of food chains into bacteria- and fungi-based channels seems to be an over-simplification. The regulation of the litter decomposition rates via top-down trophic interactions across more than one trophic level is only partly supported by experimental data, but mobile litter-dwelling predators play a crucial role in integrating local food webs within and across neighboring ecosystems. PMID:25508107

  5. [Trophic chains in soil].

    PubMed

    Goncharov, A A; Tiunov, A V

    2013-01-01

    Trophic links of soil animals are extensively diverse but also flexible. Moreover, feeding activity of large soil saprotrophs often cascades into a range of ecosystem-level consequences via the ecological engineering. Better knowledge on the main sources of energy utilized by soil animals is needed for understanding functional structure of soil animal communities and their participation in the global carbon cycling. Using published and original data, we consider the relative importance of dead organic matter and saprotrophic microorganisms as a basal energy source in the detritus-based food chains, the feeding of endogeic macrofauna on the stabilized soil organic matter, and the role of recent photosynthate in the energy budget of soil communities. Soil food webs are spatially and functionally compartmentalized, though the separation of food chains into bacteria- and fungi-based channels seems to be an over-simplification. The regulation of the litter decomposition rates via top-down trophic interactions across more than one trophic level is only partly supported by experimental data, but mobile litter-dwelling predators play a crucial role in integrating local food webs within and across neighboring ecosystems. PMID:25438576

  6. Design of supply chain in fuzzy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kandukuri Narayana; Subbaiah, Kambagowni Venkata; Singh, Ganja Veera Pratap

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, customer expectations are increasing and organizations are prone to operate in an uncertain environment. Under this uncertain environment, the ultimate success of the firm depends on its ability to integrate business processes among supply chain partners. Supply chain management emphasizes cross-functional links to improve the competitive strategy of organizations. Now, companies are moving from decoupled decision processes towards more integrated design and control of their components to achieve the strategic fit. In this paper, a new approach is developed to design a multi-echelon, multi-facility, and multi-product supply chain in fuzzy environment. In fuzzy environment, mixed integer programming problem is formulated through fuzzy goal programming in strategic level with supply chain cost and volume flexibility as fuzzy goals. These fuzzy goals are aggregated using minimum operator. In tactical level, continuous review policy for controlling raw material inventories in supplier echelon and controlling finished product inventories in plant as well as distribution center echelon is considered as fuzzy goals. A non-linear programming model is formulated through fuzzy goal programming using minimum operator in the tactical level. The proposed approach is illustrated with a numerical example.

  7. The Complex Economic System of Supply Chain Financing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili; Yan, Guangle

    Supply Chain Financing (SCF) refers to a series of innovative and complicated financial services based on supply chain. The SCF set-up is a complex system, where the supply chain management and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) financing services interpenetrate systematically. This paper establishes the organization structure of SCF System, and presents two financing models respectively, with or without the participation of the third-party logistic provider (3PL). Using Information Economics and Game Theory, the interrelationship among diverse economic sectors is analyzed, and the economic mechanism of development and existent for SCF system is demonstrated. New thoughts and approaches to solve SMEs financing problem are given.

  8. Competence-Based Approach in Value Chain Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Rodrigo Cambiaghi; D'Amours, Sophie; Rönnqvist, Mikael

    There is a gap between competence theory and value chain processes frameworks. While individually considered as core elements in contemporary management thinking, the integration of the two concepts is still lacking. We claim that this integration would allow for the development of more robust business models by structuring value chain activities around aspects such as capabilities and skills, as well as individual and organizational knowledge. In this context, the objective of this article is to reduce this gap and consequently open a field for further improvements of value chain processes frameworks.

  9. Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.

  10. Myosin light-chain phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M; Perry, S V; Ottaway, J

    1976-01-01

    1. A method for the isolation of a new enzyme, myosin light-chain phosphatase, from rabbit white skeletal muscle by using a Sepharose-phosphorylated myosin light-chain affinity column is described. 2. The enzyme migrated as a single component on electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel at pH7.0, with apparent mol.wt. 70000. 3. The enzyme was highly specific for the phosphorylated P-light chain of myosin, had pH optima at 6.5 and 8.0 and was not inhibited by NaF. 4. A Ca2+-sensitive 'ATPase' (adenosine triphosphatase) system consisting of myosin light-chain kinase, myosin light-chain phosphatase and the P-light chain is described. 5. Evidence is presented for a phosphoryl exchange between Pi, phosphorylated P-light chain and myosin light-chain phosphatase. 6. Heavy meromyosin prepared by chymotryptic digestion can be phosphorylated by myosin light-chain kinase. 7. The ATPase activities of myosin and heavy meromyosin, in the presence and absence of F-actin, were not significantly changed (+/- 10%) by phosphorylation of the P-light chain. Images PLATE 1 PMID:186030

  11. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  12. The glassy wormlike chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroy, Klaus; Glaser, Jens

    2007-11-01

    We introduce a new model for the dynamics of a wormlike chain (WLC) in an environment that gives rise to a rough free energy landscape, which we name the glassy WLC. It is obtained from the common WLC by an exponential stretching of the relaxation spectrum of its long-wavelength eigenmodes, controlled by a single parameter \\boldsymbol{\\cal E} . Predictions for pertinent observables such as the dynamic structure factor and the microrheological susceptibility exhibit the characteristics of soft glassy rheology and compare favourably with experimental data for reconstituted cytoskeletal networks and live cells. We speculate about the possible microscopic origin of the stretching, implications for the nonlinear rheology, and the potential physiological significance of our results.

  13. Polymerase chain displacement reaction.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire L; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma J; Olson, Ken E; Alphey, Luke; Fu, Guoliang

    2013-02-01

    Quantitative PCR assays are now the standard method for viral diagnostics. These assays must be specific, as well as sensitive, to detect the potentially low starting copy number of viral genomic material. We describe a new technique, polymerase chain displacement reaction (PCDR), which uses multiple nested primers in a rapid, capped, one-tube reaction that increases the sensitivity of normal quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Sensitivity was increased by approximately 10-fold in a proof-of-principle test on dengue virus sequence. In PCDR, when extension occurs from the outer primer, it displaces the extension strand produced from the inner primer by utilizing a polymerase that has strand displacement activity. This allows a greater than 2-fold increase of amplification product for each amplification cycle and therefore increased sensitivity and speed over conventional PCR. Increased sensitivity in PCDR would be useful in nucleic acid detection for viral diagnostics. PMID:23384180

  14. Quality tracing in meat supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production. PMID:24797136

  15. A New Model for Food Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chung-Chu; Liu, Xia-Shi

    2002-01-01

    An experiment for a new model of food chain was studied. In this special circulating system we succeeded in integrating animal, fish and plant production into a new model of food chain. The advantages of the new model are as follows: A. The new model of food chain was under special water circulating system. Hence water consumption was minimized and it would be possible to be use the model in the area where water shortage. B. Output of this model was ten times more than that of output in the conventional production system, for example the products obtained from new model in an area of 66m3 exceeded same amount of products obtained from conventional production system in an area of 660m3. It may be possible to raise the output up to 20-fold if better management is made. In that case, such high output and high water use efficiency may be a hopeful base for the study to set up a new biosphere on Moon and Mars. C. Growth of the plant in this model will mainly depend on its own circulation without add fertilizer and pesticide except for supplementary certain food to feed the animal and fish product, Hence, the products from this model will be no pollution food. In our primary experiment shows that rice, celery, water convolvulus, water spinach and tomato growing well in this model. D. By use of water circulating system there will be no pollution to ecosystem. E. Based on this new model of food chain, it is possible to start the experiment on setting up the artificial biosphere No.. Key words: Food chain, Water circulating system, Artificial biosphere

  16. Chains, bombs, potrzebies and slugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewess, Mike; McDowell, Alex; Maxfield, Stephen; Hunt, A. G.; Hicks, Bruce

    2010-03-01

    I read with pleasure Robert Crease's article on unusual units (February pp17-19). However, the article stated that an acre is 10×10 chains, when it is in fact 10×1 chains. Incidentally, a distance of 10 chains (220 yards) is known as a furlong, a word that suggests the length of a ploughed furrow and that is still used in horse-racing.

  17. Supply Chain Coordination in Hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, Nazaré; de Sousa, Jorge Pinho

    This paper presents an innovative approach to support the definition of strategies for the design of alternative configurations of hospital supply chains. This approach was developed around a hybrid Tabu Search / Variable Neighbourhood Search metaheuristic, that uses several neighbourhood structures. The flexibility of the procedure allows its application to supply chains with different topologies and atypical cost characteristics. A preliminary computational experience shows the approach potential in solving large scale supply chain configuration problems. The future incorporation of this approach in a broader Decision Support System (DSS) will provide a tool that can significantly contribute to an increase of healthcare supply chains efficiency and encourage the establishment of collaborative partnerships between their members.

  18. Dynamical Aspects of Inextensible Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Franco; Pyrka, Maciej

    In the present work, a method to impose the inextensibility constraints on the dynamics of a chain fluctuating in a thermal bath at fixed temperature is investigated. The final goal is to construct the probability function of the chain and the generating functional of the correlation functions of the relevant degrees of freedom of the system. First, we study the dynamics of a freely hinged chain composed by massive beads connected together by massless segments of fixed length. It is shown that a system of this kind may be described by a set of Langevin equations in which the noise is characterized by a non-gaussian probability distribution. Starting from these Langevin equations, the generating functional of the freely hinged chain is derived in path integral form. A connection with a stochastic process governed by a Fokker-Planck equation is established. Next, a chain composed by one-dimensional bars with constant mass distribution is considered. A path integral expression of the generating functional for a chain of this type is derived. Finally, it is verified that in the limit in which the chain becomes continuous, both generating functionals of the freely hinged chain and of the freely jointed bar chain converge to the same result as expected.

  19. Human laminin B2 chain

    SciTech Connect

    Pikkarainen, T.; Kallunki, T.; Tryggvason, K.

    1988-05-15

    The complete amino acid sequence of the human laminin B2 chains has been determined by sequencing of cDNA clones. The six overlapping clones studied cover approximately 7.5 kilobases of which 5312 nucleotides were sequenced from the 5' end. The open reading frame codes for a 33-residue signal peptide and a 1576-residue B2 chain proper, which is 189 residues less than in the highly homologous B1 chain. Computer analysis revealed that the B2 chain consists of distinct domains that contain helical structures, cysteine-rich repeats, and globular regions, as does the B1 chain. However, domain ..cap alpha.. and domain ..beta.. of the B1 chain have no counterpart in B2, and the number of cysteine-rich repeats is 12, or 1 less than in the B1 chain. The degree of homology between the two chains is highest in the cysteine repeat-containing domains III and V where 40% of the residues match. However, in helical domains I/II only 16% of residues match. The results demonstrate that the B1 and B2 chains of laminin are highly homologous proteins that are probably the products of related genes.

  20. Treatment of cardiomyopathy and rhabdomyolysis in long-chain fat oxidation disorders using an anaplerotic odd-chain triglyceride

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Charles R.; Sweetman, Lawrence; Roe, Diane S.; David, France; Brunengraber, Henri

    2002-01-01

    The current dietary treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects (high carbohydrate with medium-even-chain triglycerides and reduced amounts of long-chain fats) fails, in many cases, to prevent cardiomyopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and muscle weakness. We hypothesized that the apparent defect in energy production results from a depletion of the catalytic intermediates of the citric acid cycle via leakage through cell membranes (cataplerosis). We further hypothesized that replacing dietary medium-even-chain fatty acids (precursors of acetyl-CoA) by medium-odd-chain fatty acids (precursors of acetyl-CoA and anaplerotic propionyl-CoA) would restore energy production and improve cardiac and skeletal muscle function. We fed subjects with long-chain defects a controlled diet in which the fat component was switched from medium-even-chain triglycerides to triheptanoin. In three patients with very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, this treatment led rapidly to clinical improvement that included the permanent disappearance of chronic cardiomyopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and muscle weakness (for more than 2 years in one child), and of rhabdomyolysis and weakness in the others. There was no evidence of propionyl overload in these patients. The treatment has been well tolerated for up to 26 months and opens new avenues for the management of patients with mitochondrial fat oxidation disorders. PMID:12122118

  1. Treatment of cardiomyopathy and rhabdomyolysis in long-chain fat oxidation disorders using an anaplerotic odd-chain triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Roe, Charles R; Sweetman, Lawrence; Roe, Diane S; David, France; Brunengraber, Henri

    2002-07-01

    The current dietary treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects (high carbohydrate with medium-even-chain triglycerides and reduced amounts of long-chain fats) fails, in many cases, to prevent cardiomyopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and muscle weakness. We hypothesized that the apparent defect in energy production results from a depletion of the catalytic intermediates of the citric acid cycle via leakage through cell membranes (cataplerosis). We further hypothesized that replacing dietary medium-even-chain fatty acids (precursors of acetyl-CoA) by medium-odd-chain fatty acids (precursors of acetyl-CoA and anaplerotic propionyl-CoA) would restore energy production and improve cardiac and skeletal muscle function. We fed subjects with long-chain defects a controlled diet in which the fat component was switched from medium-even-chain triglycerides to triheptanoin. In three patients with very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, this treatment led rapidly to clinical improvement that included the permanent disappearance of chronic cardiomyopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and muscle weakness (for more than 2 years in one child), and of rhabdomyolysis and weakness in the others. There was no evidence of propionyl overload in these patients. The treatment has been well tolerated for up to 26 months and opens new avenues for the management of patients with mitochondrial fat oxidation disorders. PMID:12122118

  2. Making Supply Chains Resilient to Floods Using a Bayesian Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazards distress the global economy by disrupting the interconnected supply chain networks. Manufacturing companies have created cost-efficient supply chains by reducing inventories, streamlining logistics and limiting the number of suppliers. As a result, today's supply chains are profoundly susceptible to systemic risks. In Thailand, for example, the GDP growth rate declined by 76 % in 2011 due to prolonged flooding. Thailand incurred economic damage including the loss of USD 46.5 billion, approximately 70% of which was caused by major supply chain disruptions in the manufacturing sector. Similar problems occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, the Mississippi River floods and droughts during 2011 - 2013, and Hurricane Sandy in 2012. This study proposes a methodology for modeling supply chain disruptions using a Bayesian network analysis (BNA) to estimate expected values of countermeasures of floods, such as inventory management, supplier management and hard infrastructure management. We first performed a spatio-temporal correlation analysis between floods and extreme precipitation data for the last 100 years at a global scale. Then we used a BNA to create synthetic networks that include variables associated with the magnitude and duration of floods, major components of supply chains and market demands. We also included decision variables of countermeasures that would mitigate potential losses caused by supply chain disruptions. Finally, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis by estimating the expected values of these potential countermeasures while conducting a sensitivity analysis. The methodology was applied to supply chain disruptions caused by the 2011 Thailand floods. Our study demonstrates desirable typical data requirements for the analysis, such as anonymized supplier network data (i.e. critical dependencies, vulnerability information of suppliers) and sourcing data(i.e. locations of suppliers, and production rates and

  3. Chain Dynamics in Magnetorheological Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) suspensions are composed of colloidal particles which acquire dipole moments when subjected to an external magnetic field. At sufficient field strengths and concentrations, the dipolar particles rapidly aggregate to form long chains. Subsequent lateral cross-linking of the dipolar chains is responsible for a rapid liquid-to-solid-like rheological transition. The unique, magnetically-activated rheological properties of MR suspensions make them ideal for interfacing mechanical systems to electronic controls. Additionally, the ability to experimentally probe colloidal suspensions interacting through tunable anisotropic potentials is of fundamental interest. Our current experimental work has focused on understanding the fluctuations of dipolar chains. It has been proposed by Halsey and Toor (HT) that the strong Landau-Peierls thermal fluctuations of dipolar chains could be responsible for long-range attractions between chains. Such interactions will govern the long-time relaxation of MR suspensions. We have synthesized monodisperse neutrally buoyant MR suspensions by density matching stabilized ferrofluid emulsion droplets with D2O. This allows us to probe the dynamics of the dipolar chains using light scattering without gravitational, interfacial, and polydispersity effects to resolve the short-wavelength dynamics of the dipolar chains. We used diffusing wave spectroscopy to measure these dynamics. The particle displacements at short times that show an independence to the field strength, but at long times exhibit a constrained, sub-diffusive motion that slows as the dipole strength is increased. The experiments are in good qualitative agreement with Brownian dynamics simulations of dipolar chains. Although there have been several important and detailed studies of the structure and interactions in MR suspensions, there has not been conclusive evidence that supports or contradicts the HT model prediction that long-range interactions exist between

  4. Exploring membrane respiratory chains.

    PubMed

    Marreiros, Bruno C; Calisto, Filipa; Castro, Paulo J; Duarte, Afonso M; Sena, Filipa V; Silva, Andreia F; Sousa, Filipe M; Teixeira, Miguel; Refojo, Patrícia N; Pereira, Manuela M

    2016-08-01

    Acquisition of energy is central to life. In addition to the synthesis of ATP, organisms need energy for the establishment and maintenance of a transmembrane difference in electrochemical potential, in order to import and export metabolites or to their motility. The membrane potential is established by a variety of membrane bound respiratory complexes. In this work we explored the diversity of membrane respiratory chains and the presence of the different enzyme complexes in the several phyla of life. We performed taxonomic profiles of the several membrane bound respiratory proteins and complexes evaluating the presence of their respective coding genes in all species deposited in KEGG database. We evaluated 26 quinone reductases, 5 quinol:electron carriers oxidoreductases and 18 terminal electron acceptor reductases. We further included in the analyses enzymes performing redox or decarboxylation driven ion translocation, ATP synthase and transhydrogenase and we also investigated the electron carriers that perform functional connection between the membrane complexes, quinones or soluble proteins. Our results bring a novel, broad and integrated perspective of membrane bound respiratory complexes and thus of the several energetic metabolisms of living systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27044012

  5. Verifying the Hanging Chain Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The wave equation with variable tension is a classic partial differential equation that can be used to describe the horizontal displacements of a vertical hanging chain with one end fixed and the other end free to move. Using a web camera and TRACKER software to record displacement data from a vibrating hanging chain, we verify a modified version…

  6. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  7. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  8. Affecting the value chain through supplier kaizen.

    PubMed

    Forman, C R; Vargas, D H

    1999-02-01

    In the aerospace industry, typically 60 percent of a product's cost and 70 percent of the lead time are due to purchased material. To affect price and customer responsiveness, improvement initiatives must be extended into the supply chain. Many companies have developed supply base management systems that include long-term agreements with suppliers, partnering with suppliers in risk taking and product design, information sharing, and quality and delivery rating systems. The premise is that suppliers are an extension of the factory. But to take full advantage of customer-supplier relationships, the suppliers must be "developed" in the same manner as a manufacturing unit. Supplier kaizen is a method of bringing suppliers to the same level of operations as the parent company, through training and improvement projects, to ensure superior performance and nurture the trust that is required for strong partnerships. This article describes Sikorsky Aircraft's use of kaizen to improve its supply base management. PMID:10345628

  9. Management Training Program in a Discount Store.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethi, Manmohan Singh

    This study inquired into the objectives of management training programs in two chains of discount stores, and whether those who complete training believe that program objectives have been met. Questionnaire interviews were held with two managers and four trainees from one chain, and with two managers and two trainees from the other. Ten hypotheses…

  10. Food Chain Security and Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric

    In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

  11. Teaching Managers How to Manage

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Following graduation from a college or university with a technical degree, or through years of experience, an individual's training and career development activities typically focus on enhancing technical problem-solving skills. However, as these technical professionals, herein referred to as 'Techies', advance throughout their careers, they may be required to accept and adapt to the role of being a manager, and must undergo a transition to learn and rely on new problem-solving skills. However, unless a company has a specific manager-trainee class to address this subject and develop talent from within, an employee's management style is learned and developed 'on the job'. Both positive and negative styles are nurtured by those managers having similar qualities. Unfortunately, a negative style often contributes to the deterioration of employee morale and ultimate closing of a department or company. This paper provides the core elements of an effective management training program for 'Teaching Managers How to Manage' derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration 's Voluntary Protection Program. Discussion topics and real-life examples concentrate on transitioning an employee from a 'Techie' to a manager; common characteristics of being a manager; the history and academic study of management; competition, change and the business of waste management; what to do after taking over a department by applying Hylko's Star of Success; command media; the formal and informal organizational charts; chain of command; hiring and developing high-degree, autonomous employees through effective communication and delegation; periodic status checks; and determining if the program is working successfully. These common characteristics of a strong management/leadership culture and practical career tips discussed herein provide a solid foundation for any company or department that is serious about developing

  12. Proposal for Supply Chain Concentration in the Traditional MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop and implement a concentration in Supply Chain Management in the existing traditional MBA program effective fall 2012. Houston is the hub for many multinational oil and energy companies, large healthcare systems, wholesale/retail businesses, engineering and construction companies, and is a major city along…

  13. Benchmarking Operations to Promote Learning: An Internal Supply Chain Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Helen; Binder, Mario; Egel-Hess, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Despite the widespread discussion of organisational learning, there is little scholarly contribution on promoting learning through the practical application of management tools. This is especially true in a complex internal supply chain context of an organisation. This paper seeks to address this gap by exploring and analysing the capability of…

  14. Understanding and reducing the risk of supply chain disruptions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters can wreck havoc on business operations. When civil unrest swept the UK in August 2011, the effect on business was stark, losing the retail sector £300m in unexpected costs and lost revenues. On the other side of the world, the natural disaster that hit Japan in early 2011 is estimated to have run up costs in the region of £189bn in repairs. Beyond this, the earthquake and its aftermath shattered supply chains, with technology companies expecting delays of up to six months before business could resume fully. It is impossible to predict incidents like these, but businesses can help mitigate disruption in the supply chain by undertaking business continuity management (BCM). A flexible supply chain is essential when it comes to BCM - whether it means being able to cope with altering transport routes at short notice, or finding or replacing a supplier at the last minute. Understanding the supply chain is critical when responding to major impacts that affect supply chains in multiple points - like IT system failures and country-wide fuel strikes. Businesses should carry out detailed business impact assessments and risk assessments right across the end-to-end supply chain and not just at key single points of failure. It is an intensive process that needs dedicated resources and ownership at the highest level. Recognising this, DHL has designed a 10-step process, which it has implemented across its global supply chain business. This paper provides an overview of what a supply chain really looks like, what can cause disruptions and how far up/down the supply chain companies need to go with their BCM planning. PMID:22948101

  15. Bibliometric Application of Markov Chains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Miranda Lee; McCreery, Laurie

    1986-01-01

    A rudimentary description of Markov Chains is presented in order to introduce its use to describe and to predict authors' movements among subareas of the discipline of ethnomusicology. Other possible applications are suggested. (Author)

  16. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  17. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  18. Elastic properties of magnetosome chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Bahareh; Faivre, Damien; Klumpp, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria swim and orient in the direction of a magnetic field thanks to the magnetosome chain, a cellular ‘compass needle’ that consists of a string of vesicle-enclosed magnetic nanoparticles aligned on a cytoskeletal filament. Here we investigate the mechanical properties of such a chain, in particular the bending stiffness. We determine the contribution of magnetic interactions to the bending stiffness and the persistence length of the chain. This contribution is comparable to, but typically smaller than the contribution of the semiflexible filament. For a chain of magnetic nanoparticles without a semiflexible filament, the linear configuration is typically metastable and the lowest energy structures are closed chains (flux closure rings) without a net magnetic moment that are thus not functional as a cellular compass. Our calculations show that the presence of the cytoskeletal filament stabilizes the chain against ring closure, either thermodynamically or kinetically, depending on the stiffness of the filament, confirming that such stabilization is one of the roles of this structure in these bacterial cells.

  19. Linear chains and chain-like fractals from electrostatic heteroaggregation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anthony Y; Hauch, Kip D; Berg, John C; Martin, James E; Anderson, Robert A

    2003-04-01

    The internal structure of materials prepared by aggregation of oppositely charged polystyrene spheres (electrostatic heteroaggregation) is investigated by static light scattering, optical microscopy, and Brownian dynamics simulation. Light scattering indicates ultralow mass fractal dimensions, as low as 1.2. Such low fractal dimensions, approaching the theoretical limit of a linear object, imply a chaining mechanism. Optical micrographs reveal linear chains with the particle charge alternating down the chains. Brownian dynamics simulation gives additional support for a chaining mechanism. For the polystyrene system (120-nm primary particle diameters), the fractal dimension is found to increase from 1.2 to 1.7 as the background electrolyte is increased. In terms of electrostatic screening, the results match those reported recently for larger polystyrene spheres. The low fractal dimensions appear to represent a crossover from linear chains to a structure of diffusion-limited aggregates; however, experiments under density-neutral conditions imply that sedimentation plays an important role in the formation of ultralow fractal dimensions. The practical implication is that microcomposites with a locally uniform distribution of starting materials and almost any degree of branching can be prepared from oppositely charged particles. PMID:12742045

  20. Removal of methadone by extended dialysis using a high cut-off dialyzer: implications for the treatment of overdose and for pain management in patients undergoing light chain removal.

    PubMed

    Arelin, Viktor; Schmidt, Julius J; Kayser, Nathalie; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Suhling, Hendrik; Eden, Gabriele; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic opioid methadone hydrochloride has a low molecular weight of 346 D, a high volume of distribution (4 - 7 L/kg), and is lipophilic. It is used as an analgesic and for the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. In drug addicts, methadone is frequently involved in mixed intoxications that can lead to death. Here we present the case of a drug addict in whom a high cut-off dialysis membrane together with extended dialysis was used in the setting of suspected overdose and acute kidney injury. Although the observed dialyzer plasma clearance (31.5 mL/min) and reduction ratio (38%) were higher than previously reported for standard hemodialysis, the total amount of methadone in the spent dialysate after 1 extended dialysis session was quite low. Hence, even extended dialysis with a high cut-off membrane does not seem to offer a clinically relevant benefit in the setting of overdose for enhanced methadone removal. On the other hand, in patients undergoing high cut-off dialysis for the removal of light chains, methadone could still be used as an analgesic without an additional dose after high cut-off hemodialysis. PMID:27116939

  1. The Diffusion and Impact of Radio Frequency Identification in Supply Chains: A Multi-Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoran

    2012-01-01

    As a promising and emerging technology for supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a new alternative to existing tracking technologies and also allows a range of internal control and supply chain coordination. RFID has generated a significant amount of interest and activities from both practitioners and researchers in…

  2. Closed loop supply chain network design with fuzzy tactical decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, Mahtab; Bashiri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    One of the most strategic and the most significant decisions in supply chain management is reconfiguration of the structure and design of the supply chain network. In this paper, a closed loop supply chain network design model is presented to select the best tactical and strategic decision levels simultaneously considering the appropriate transportation mode in activated links. The strategic decisions are made for a long term; thus, it is more satisfactory and more appropriate when the decision variables are considered uncertain and fuzzy, because it is more flexible and near to the real world. This paper is the first research which considers fuzzy decision variables in the supply chain network design model. Moreover, in this study a new fuzzy optimization approach is proposed to solve a supply chain network design problem with fuzzy tactical decision variables. Finally, the proposed approach and model are verified using several numerical examples. The comparison of the results with other existing approaches confirms efficiency of the proposed approach. Moreover the results confirms that by considering the vagueness of tactical decisions some properties of the supply chain network will be improved.

  3. Disentangling of two intertwined chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgärtner, A.; Muthukumar, M.

    1986-01-01

    The nonequilibrium process of disentangling of two self-avoiding polymer chains is investigated using Monte Carlo methods. The initial configuration of the two chains corresponds to a double helix of M turns. Chains consisting of N=8M+1 segments with M=2, 4, and 8 have been simulated. The disentangling process is found to take place in two distinct stages. The first step is the softening of the original double helix configuration to form interpenetrating chains with their centers of mass not far away from each other. This process takes a typical time of the order of N3.0 ± 0.2 . During the first stage, the center of mass of the either strand obeys the diffusion law, with the diffusion coefficient D˜N-(1.6±0.2) . The second stage involves the actual unraveling of the interpenetrating chains to form the isolated coils. The time taken for this step is found to scale as N3.3±0.2 . After the disentangling is complete, we recover the Rouse behavior, D˜N-1 for the center of mass diffusion of each coil.

  4. Data-driven backward chaining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) cannot effectively perform sound and complete logical inference in most real-world contexts. The problem facing CLIPS is its lack of goal generation. Without automatic goal generation and maintenance, forward chaining can only deduce all instances of a relationship. Backward chaining, which requires goal generation, allows deduction of only that subset of what is logically true which is also relevant to ongoing problem solving. Goal generation can be mimicked in simple cases using forward chaining. However, such mimicry requires manual coding of additional rules which can assert an inadequate goal representation for every condition in every rule that can have corresponding facts derived by backward chaining. In general, for N rules with an average of M conditions per rule the number of goal generation rules required is on the order of N*M. This is clearly intractable from a program maintenance perspective. We describe the support in Eclipse for backward chaining which it automatically asserts as it checks rule conditions. Important characteristics of this extension are that it does not assert goals which cannot match any rule conditions, that 2 equivalent goals are never asserted, and that goals persist as long as, but no longer than, they remain relevant.

  5. Chain store engineer aims for 30% energy reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Warrock, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    An energy management program designed to save Cumberland Farms Inc. 30% on its annual energy bill won its designer, Charles Bowser, the Energy User News' Commercial Energy Manager of the Year award. The program includes a customized energy management system (EMS), heat recovery, insulating, reduced outdoor air infiltration, and redesign of the lighting systems and the basic floor plan. Paybacks for the investments are mostly one to two years. The variety of 1200 facilities in the chain prompted the custom design. An erasable memory chip programmed at Cumberland's headquarters is installed in each store's EMS. (DCK)

  6. Modeling of polypeptide chains as C alpha chains, C alpha chains with C beta, and C alpha chains with ellipsoidal lateral chains.

    PubMed

    Fogolari, F; Esposito, G; Viglino, P; Cattarinussi, S

    1996-03-01

    In an effort to reduce the number of degrees of freedom necessary to describe a polypeptide chain we analyze the statistical behavior of polypeptide chains when represented as C alpha chains, C alpha chains with C beta atoms attached, and C alpha chains with rotational ellipsoids as models of side chains. A statistical analysis on a restricted data set of 75 unrelated protein structures is performed. The comparison of the database distributions with those obtained by model calculation on very short polypeptide stretches allows the dissection of local versus nonlocal features of the distributions. The database distribution of the bend angles of polypeptide chains of pseudo bonded C alpha atoms spans a restricted range of values and shows a bimodal structure. On the other hand, the torsion angles of the C alpha chain may assume almost all possible values. The distribution is bimodal, but with a much broader probability distribution than for bend angles. The C alpha - C beta vectors may be taken as representative of the orientation of the lateral chain, as the direction of the bond is close to the direction of the vector joining C alpha to the ad hoc defined center of the "steric mass" of the side chain. Interestingly, both the bend angle defined by C alpha i-C alpha i+1-C beta i+1 and the torsional angle offset of the pseudo-dihedral C alpha i-C alpha i+1-C alpha i+2-C beta i+2 with respect to C alpha i-C alpha i+1-C alpha i+2-C alpha i+3 span a limited range of values. The latter results show that it is possible to give a more realistic representation of polypeptide chains without introducing additional degrees of freedom, i.e., by just adding to the C alpha chain a C beta with given side-chain properties. However, a more realistic description of side chains may be attained by modeling side chains as rotational ellipsoids that have roughly the same orientation and steric hindrance. To this end, we define the steric mass of an atom as proportional to its van der

  7. Precise Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    Adatom chains on an atomically regulated substrate will be building components in future precise nanoelectronics. Adatoms need to be secured with chemical bonding, but then electronic isolation between the adatom and substrate systems is not guaranteed. A one-dimensional model shows that good isolation with existence of surface states is expected on an s-p crossing substrate such as Si, Ge, or GaAs, reflecting the bulk nature of the substrate. Isolation is better if adatoms are electronically similar to the substrate atoms, and can be manipulated by hydrogenation. Chain structures with group IV adatoms with two chemical bonds, or group III adatoms with one chemical bond, are semiconducting, reflecting the surface nature of the substrate. These structures are unintentionally doped due to the charge transfer across the chemical bonds. Physical properties of adatom chains have to be determined for the unified adatom-substrate system.

  8. Ligand chain length conveys thermochromism.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Mainak; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Chandrakumar, K R S; Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-08-14

    Thermochromic properties of a series of non-ionic copper compounds have been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that Cu(II) ion with straight-chain primary amine (A) and alpha-linolenic (fatty acid, AL) co-jointly exhibit thermochromic properties. In the current case, we determined that thermochromism becomes ligand chain length-dependent and at least one of the ligands (A or AL) must be long chain. Thermochromism is attributed to a balanced competition between the fatty acids and amines for the copper(II) centre. The structure-property relationship of the non-ionic copper compounds Cu(AL)2(A)2 has been substantiated by various physical measurements along with detailed theoretical studies based on time-dependent density functional theory. It is presumed from our results that the compound would be a useful material for temperature-sensor applications. PMID:24943491

  9. Chain reconfiguration in active noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Nairhita; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi

    2016-05-01

    In a typical single molecule experiment, the dynamics of an unfolded protein is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Förster resonance energy transfer, where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in the presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the mean square displacement grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in the presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm-like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In brief, such active noise makes the polymer move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slow.

  10. RFID Application Strategy in Agri-Food Supply Chain Based on Safety and Benefit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong

    Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.

  11. Differential evolution Markov chain with snooker updater and fewer chains

    SciTech Connect

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Ter Braak, Cajo J F

    2008-01-01

    Differential Evolution Markov Chain (DE-MC) is an adaptive MCMC algorithm, in which multiple chains are run in parallel. Standard DE-MC requires at least N=2d chains to be run in parallel, where d is the dimensionality of the posterior. This paper extends DE-MC with a snooker updater and shows by simulation and real examples that DE-MC can work for d up to 50--100 with fewer parallel chains (e.g. N=3) by exploiting information from their past by generating jumps from differences of pairs of past states. This approach extends the practical applicability of DE-MC and is shown to be about 5--26 times more efficient than the optimal Normal random walk Metropolis sampler for the 97.5% point of a variable from a 25--50 dimensional Student T{sub 3} distribution. In a nonlinear mixed effects model example the approach outperformed a block-updater geared to the specific features of the model.

  12. Modelling inter-supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Teng, Chunxian; Zhang, Ding; Sun, Jiayi

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive model for studying supply chain versus supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption. We assume that there are supply chains with heterogeneous supply network structures that compete at multiple demand markets. Each supply chain is comprised of internal and external firms. The internal firms are coordinated in production and distribution and share some common but limited resources within the supply chain, whereas the external firms are independent and do not share the internal resources. The supply chain managers strive to develop optimal strategies in terms of production level and resource allocation in maximising their profit while facing competition at the end market. The Cournot-Nash equilibrium of this inter-supply chain competition is formulated as a variational inequality problem. We further study the case when there is demand disruption in the plan-execution phase. In such a case, the managers need to revise their planned strategy in order to maximise their profit with the new demand under disruption and minimise the cost of change. We present a bi-criteria decision-making model for supply chain managers and develop the optimal conditions in equilibrium, which again can be formulated by another variational inequality problem. Numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  13. Self-organized escape of oscillator chains in nonlinear potentials.

    PubMed

    Hennig, D; Fugmann, S; Schimansky-Geier, L; Hänggi, P

    2007-10-01

    We present the noise-free escape of a chain of linearly interacting units from a metastable state over a cubic on-site potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and purely deterministic. The mutual interplay between nonlinearity and harmonic interactions causes an initially uniform lattice state to become unstable, leading to an energy redistribution with strong localization. As a result, a spontaneously emerging localized mode grows into a critical nucleus. By surpassing this transition state, the nonlinear chain manages a self-organized, deterministic barrier crossing. Most strikingly, these noise-free, collective nonlinear escape events proceed generally by far faster than transitions assisted by thermal noise when the ratio between the average energy supplied per unit in the chain and the potential barrier energy assumes small values. PMID:17994939

  14. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    PubMed

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. PMID:27209347

  15. [The fragile beginning of the vaccine cold chain in Spain].

    PubMed

    Tuells, José

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aiming to analyze the vaccine cold chain throughout Spain, performed from 1988-89, sparked interest in vaccine logistics among public health authorities. The studies were performed using evaluation methodology based on cold chain monitor cards with a time-temperature indicator (Battersby's report) and cross-sectional surveys on the conditions of the cold chain (Ferrando's report) in the second and third levels (provincial and local stores). The technical reports revealed the precariousness of the situation, identified the weak points that were jeopardizing the vaccines' efficiency, and favored awareness of an activity that constitutes the vertebral column of any immunization program. The improvements proposed were gradually implemented by regional governments. More funds for equipment and personnel training were provided and specific management protocols were established. PMID:19939512

  16. Reclamation chain of waste concrete: A case study of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianzhuang; Ma, Zhiming; Ding, Tao

    2016-02-01

    A mass of construction and demolition (C&D) waste are generated in Shanghai every year, and it has become a serious environment problem. Reclaiming the waste concrete to produce recycled aggregate (RA) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is an effective method to reduce the C&D waste. This paper develops a reclamation chain of waste concrete based on the researches and practices in Shanghai. C&D waste management, waste concrete disposition, RA production and RAC preparation are discussed respectively. In addition, technical suggestions are also given according to the findings in practical engineering, which aims to optimize the reclamation chain. The results show that the properties of RA and RAC can well meet the requirement of design and practical application through a series of technical measures. The reclamation chain of waste concrete is necessary and appropriate for Shanghai, which provides more opportunities for the wider application of RA and RAC, and it shows a favorable environmental benefit. PMID:26452425

  17. Smallest Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is focused on the general aspect of atomic chain electronics that I have been studying. Results have been published before, but are being rederived here using a new physical/mathematical picture/model, which deepens the physical understanding. Precise adatom structures can be used as a template on a regulated surface with no uncertainty.

  18. Novette chain design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1980-12-11

    The design and performance of the Novette laser system, which is a two-beam, two-wavelength (1.05 ..mu.. and 0.53 ..mu..) target irradiation facility using phosphate glass laser chains, are discussed with information on the glass properties, controlling factors in the design selection, and projected performance with varying operating conditions. (LCL)

  19. Categorization Using Chains of Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Evan

    1992-01-01

    Presents a mathematical-categorization model using multiple-step chains of reasoning (CORs) and memory for examples. In 5 experiments, 144 undergraduates memorized descriptions of fictional people, then made predictions from incomplete descriptions using 1-, 2-, or 3-step CORs. The multiple-step context model with one- and two-step inference…

  20. Analysing the external supply chain risk driver competitiveness: a risk mitigation framework and business continuity plan.

    PubMed

    Blos, Mauricio F; Wee, Hui-Ming; Yang, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    Innovation challenges for handling supply chain risks have become one of the most important drivers in business competitiveness and differentiation. This study analyses competitiveness at the external supply chain level as a driver of risks and provides a framework for mitigating these risks. The mitigation framework, also called the supply chain continuity framework, provides insight into six stages of the business continuity planning (BCP) process life cycle (risk mitigation management, business impact analysis, supply continuity strategy development, supply continuity plan development, supply continuity plan testing and supply continuity plan maintenance), together with the operational constructs: customer service, inventory management, flexibility, time to market, ordering cycle time and quality. The purpose of the BCP process life cycle and operational constructs working together is to emphasise the way in which a supply chain can deal with disruption risks and, consequently, bring competitive advantage. Future research will consider the new risk scenarios and analyse the consequences to promote the improvement of supply chain resilience. PMID:21177223

  1. Glacier lake outburst floods - modelling process chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian; Haeberli, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    New lakes are forming in high-mountain areas all over the world due to glacier recession. Often they will be located below steep, destabilized flanks and are therefore exposed to impacts from rock-/ice-avalanches. Several events worldwide are known, where an outburst flood has been triggered by such an impact. In regions such as in the European Alps or in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru, where valley bottoms are densely populated, these far-travelling, high-magnitude events can result in major disasters. For appropriate integral risk management it is crucial to gain knowledge on how the processes (rock-/ice-avalanches - impact waves in lake - impact on dam - outburst flood) interact and how the hazard potential related to corresponding process chains can be assessed. Research in natural hazards so far has mainly concentrated on describing, understanding, modeling or assessing single hazardous processes. Some of the above mentioned individual processes are quite well understood in their physical behavior and some of the process interfaces have also been investigated in detail. Multi-hazard assessments of the entire process chain, however, have only recently become subjects of investigations. Our study aims at closing this gap and providing suggestions on how to assess the hazard potential of the entire process chain in order to generate hazard maps and support risk assessments. We analyzed different types of models (empirical, analytical, physically based) for each process regarding their suitability for application in hazard assessments of the entire process chain based on literature. Results show that for rock-/ice-avalanches, dam breach and outburst floods, only numerical, physically based models are able to provide the required information, whereas the impact wave can be estimated by means of physically based or empirical assessments. We demonstrate how the findings could be applied with the help of a case study of a recent glacier lake outburst event at Laguna

  2. UncertWeb: chaining web services accounting for uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornford, Dan; Jones, Richard; Bastin, Lucy; Williams, Matthew; Pebesma, Edzer; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    The development of interoperable services that permit access to data and processes, typically using web service based standards opens up the possibility for increasingly complex chains of data and processes, which might be discovered and composed in increasingly automatic ways. This concept, sometimes referred to as the "Model Web", offers the promise of integrated (Earth) system models, with pluggable web service based components which can be discovered, composed and evaluated dynamically. A significant issue with such service chains, indeed in any composite model composed of coupled components, is that in all interesting (non-linear) cases the effect of uncertainties on inputs, or components within the chain will have complex, potentially unexpected effects on the outputs. Within the FP7 UncertWeb project we will be developing a mechanism and an accompanying set of tools to enable rigorous uncertainty management in web based service chains involving both data and processes. The project will exploit and extend the UncertML candidate standard to flexibly propagate uncertainty through service chains, including looking at mechanisms to develop uncertainty enabled profiles of existing Open Geospatial Consortium services. To facilitate the use of such services we will develop tools to address the definition of the input uncertainties (elicitation), manage the uncertainty propagation (emulation), undertake uncertainty and sensitivity analysis and visualise the output uncertainty. In this talk we will outline the challenges of the UncertWeb project, illustrating this with a prototype service chain we have created for correcting station level pressure to sea-level pressure, which accounts for the various uncertainties involved. In particular we will discuss some of the challenges of chaining Open Geospatial Consortium services using the Business Process Execution Language. We will also address the issue of computational cost and communication bandwidth requirements for

  3. Chain networking revealed by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yexin; Tsige, Mesfin; Wang, Shi-Qing

    Based on Kremer-Grest model for entangled polymer melts, we demonstrate how the response of a polymer glass depends critically on the chain length. After quenching two melts of very different chain lengths (350 beads per chain and 30 beads per chain) into deeply glassy states, we subject them to uniaxial extension. Our MD simulations show that the glass of long chains undergoes stable necking after yielding whereas the system of short chains is unable to neck and breaks up after strain localization. During ductile extension of the polymer glass made of long chain significant chain tension builds up in the load-bearing strands (LBSs). Further analysis is expected to reveal evidence of activation of the primary structure during post-yield extension. These results lend support to the recent molecular model 1 and are the simulations to demonstrate the role of chain networking. This work is supported, in part, by a NSF Grant (DMR-EAGER-1444859)

  4. Chain Release Behavior of Gellan Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Khandker S.; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi

    The chain release behavior from gellan gels was studied by immersing the gel into water and monitoring the mass loss as a function of time. Concentration of released gellan in the external solution was determined for gels of different sizes using phenol-sulfuric acid method. The chain release process became faster with increasing total surface area and volume. However the concentration of released chain normalized by surface area and volume suggests that the chain release itself is governed not only by the ionic effect and the amount of unassociated chains in gel but other factors such as osmotic pressure may play an important role on the chain release from the gels. The diffusion coefficient was estimated from the chain release process which is in the same order of magnitude reported for an isolated gellan chain by light scattering. Rheological measurements also suggest that the unassociated gellan chains are released out when immersed in pure water while unassociated chains are restricted to release out when immersed in salt solution due to the intrusion of cations which is responsible for further association of the unassociated gellan chains being in agreement with the previously published results. The elastic modulus of gels was increased by immersion of gels in water and in salt solutions, which can be attributed as the stiffening of network chains due to gel swelling and the conversion from free and unassociated chains into network chains, respectively, leading to an increase in elastic modulus with time.

  5. Polymer Chain Reinforcement across Narrow Interfaces: Entanglements Versus Chain Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkoski, Jason J.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.; Kramer, Edward J.

    2002-03-01

    It is widely believed that entangled chains that bridge a glassy polymer/polymer interface solely determine its fracture energy (G_c). However, experiments show that while Gc increases with interfacial width (w), Gc vs. w/d_t, where dt is the tube diameter of the melt, is not universal. For some polymer pairs Gc increases dramatically even when w << d_t, while for others Gc does not increase until w >= d_t. We demonstrate that the friction stress for polymer loop pull-out from the interface is given by f_monoρ_merw/2 where f_mono is the static friction coefficient per mer and ρ_mer is the mer number density. Unlike interfaces with short block copolymers, where the friction stress for block pull-out is limited by a maximum areal density of block copolymer, the polymer/polymer friction stress grows linearly with w. For interfaces as narrow as 3 nm, it can be large enough to induce crazing. A model that includes both loop pull-out and chain entanglement shows that modest changes in f_mono can account for the fact that Gc versus w/dt is non-universal. A high areal density of bridging, entangled chains is therefore sufficient, but not necessary, to reinforce polymer interfaces.

  6. Parallel algorithms for simulating continuous time Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Heidelberger, Philip

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that the mathematical technique of uniformization can serve as the basis of synchronization for the parallel simulation of continuous-time Markov chains. This paper reviews the basic method and compares five different methods based on uniformization, evaluating their strengths and weaknesses as a function of problem characteristics. The methods vary in their use of optimism, logical aggregation, communication management, and adaptivity. Performance evaluation is conducted on the Intel Touchstone Delta multiprocessor, using up to 256 processors.

  7. Immunodiagnosis of alpha chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Doe, W F; Danon, F; Seligmann, M

    1979-01-01

    Since the early diagnosis of alpha chain disease (alphaCD)) is essential to successful treatment and to epidemiological studies, the available immunodiagnostic techniques were compared for their sensitivity, specificity and ease of performance on a panel of sixteen sera, comprising ten alphaCD sera and six control sera containing either IgA myeloma protein or high levels of polyclonal IgA. Immunoselection by immunoelectrophoresis into gel containing a specially developed anti-Fabalpha antiserum provided the most sensitive and specific detection system for alphaCD protein. The same technique using anti-light chain antiserum for immunoselection was also highly sensitive, but proved less specific, being prone to false positives with difficult IgA myeloma proteins. Somewhat less sensitive, but specific and simple to perform, was immunoelectrophoresis using an antiserum recognizing the conformational specificities of Fabalpha as well as those of the constant region of alpha chains. Immunoselection using the Ouchterlony or rocket techniques proved to be less sensitive and prone to false positives when some IgA myeloma sera were tested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:113152

  8. Comparisons of Modified Backward Chaining: Backward Chaining with Leap-Aheads and Reverse Chaining with Leap-Aheads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Variations of backward chaining--backward chaining with leap-aheads (BCLA) and reverse chaining with leap-aheads (RCLA)-- were compared with four severely retarded learners (17-32 years) who were trained on two complex vocational tasks. Learning rate for the BCLA procedure was superior to the RCLA procedure. Time to criterion differences were…

  9. Modelling and analysis of workflow for lean supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinping; Wang, Kanliang; Xu, Lida

    2011-11-01

    Cross-organisational workflow systems are a component of enterprise information systems which support collaborative business process among organisations in supply chain. Currently, the majority of workflow systems is developed in perspectives of information modelling without considering actual requirements of supply chain management. In this article, we focus on the modelling and analysis of the cross-organisational workflow systems in the context of lean supply chain (LSC) using Petri nets. First, the article describes the assumed conditions of cross-organisation workflow net according to the idea of LSC and then discusses the standardisation of collaborating business process between organisations in the context of LSC. Second, the concept of labelled time Petri nets (LTPNs) is defined through combining labelled Petri nets with time Petri nets, and the concept of labelled time workflow nets (LTWNs) is also defined based on LTPNs. Cross-organisational labelled time workflow nets (CLTWNs) is then defined based on LTWNs. Third, the article proposes the notion of OR-silent CLTWNS and a verifying approach to the soundness of LTWNs and CLTWNs. Finally, this article illustrates how to use the proposed method by a simple example. The purpose of this research is to establish a formal method of modelling and analysis of workflow systems for LSC. This study initiates a new perspective of research on cross-organisational workflow management and promotes operation management of LSC in real world settings.

  10. Relation chain based clustering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-ning; Zhao, Ming-yang; Luo, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Clustering analysis is currently one of well-developed branches in data mining technology which is supposed to find the hidden structures in the multidimensional space called feature or pattern space. A datum in the space usually possesses a vector form and the elements in the vector represent several specifically selected features. These features are often of efficiency to the problem oriented. Generally, clustering analysis goes into two divisions: one is based on the agglomerative clustering method, and the other one is based on divisive clustering method. The former refers to a bottom-up process which regards each datum as a singleton cluster while the latter refers to a top-down process which regards entire data as a cluster. As the collected literatures, it is noted that the divisive clustering is currently overwhelming both in application and research. Although some famous divisive clustering methods are designed and well developed, clustering problems are still far from being solved. The k - means algorithm is the original divisive clustering method which initially assigns some important index values, such as the clustering number and the initial clustering prototype positions, and that could not be reasonable in some certain occasions. More than the initial problem, the k - means algorithm may also falls into local optimum, clusters in a rigid way and is not available for non-Gaussian distribution. One can see that seeking for a good or natural clustering result, in fact, originates from the one's understanding of the concept of clustering. Thus, the confusion or misunderstanding of the definition of clustering always derives some unsatisfied clustering results. One should consider the definition deeply and seriously. This paper demonstrates the nature of clustering, gives the way of understanding clustering, discusses the methodology of designing a clustering algorithm, and proposes a new clustering method based on relation chains among 2D patterns. In

  11. Polymerization as a Model Chain Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Maurice

    1973-01-01

    Describes the features of the free radical, anionic, and cationic mechanisms of chain addition polymerization. Indicates that the nature of chain reactions can be best taught through the study of macromolecules. (CC)

  12. Model protocells from single-chain lipids.

    PubMed

    Mansy, Sheref S

    2009-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed. PMID:19399223

  13. Model Protocells from Single-Chain Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Mansy, Sheref S.

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed. PMID:19399223

  14. Visualisation for System Learning in Supply Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindskog, Magnus; Abrahamsson, Mats; Aronsson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary supply chains are vastly complex, and decisions made by actors have system-wide consequences that these might not be able to foresee. There are gaps between "best practice"-founded theory and actual practice in supply chains. To remedy this, we argue, the supply chain actors need to enhance systems knowledge. There is a need to…

  15. Learning to Integrate: Supply Chains Reconceptualised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sense, Andrew J.; Clements, Michael D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains a conception of supply chains from a situated learning perspective. This non-conventional supply chain perspective invites the reader to consider supply chain scenarios as "situated learning opportunities involving multiple communities of practice" interacting and participating together. It is argued that by…

  16. 1D ferrimagnetism in homometallic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, E.; Gómez-García, C. J.; Borrás-Almenar, J. J.

    1990-05-01

    The magnetic properties of the cobalt zigzag chain Co(bpy)(NCS)2 (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) are discussed on the basis of an Ising-chain model that takes into account alternating Landé factors. It is emphasized, for the first time, that a homometallic chain containing only one type of site can give rise to a 1D ferrimagneticlike behavior.

  17. On a Result for Finite Markov Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Ghosh, Lagnojita

    2006-01-01

    In an undergraduate course on stochastic processes, Markov chains are discussed in great detail. Textbooks on stochastic processes provide interesting properties of finite Markov chains. This note discusses one such property regarding the number of steps in which a state is reachable or accessible from another state in a finite Markov chain with M…

  18. Chains versus Independents: Newspaper and Market Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, F. Dennis

    A study examined the marketing differences between large chain newspapers and small chain and independent newspapers by analyzing differences in characteristics of the newspapers, patterns of circulation, economic and social conditions of the market, and competition from other print media. The 200 newspapers studied--113 large chain and 87 small…

  19. The Advancement Value Chain: An Exploratory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Edward F., III

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the value chain concept in 1985, several varying, yet virtually similar, value chains have been developed for the business enterprise. Shifting to higher education, can a value chain be found that links together the various activities of advancement so that an institution's leaders can actually look at the philanthropic…

  20. Tunnel current across linear homocatenated germanium chains

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, Yukihito

    2014-01-28

    The electronic transport properties of germanium oligomers catenating into linear chains (linear Ge chains) have been theoretically studied using first principle methods. The conduction mechanism of a Ge chain sandwiched between gold electrodes was analyzed based on the density of states and the eigenstates of the molecule in a two-probe environment. Like that of silicon chains (Si chains), the highest occupied molecular orbital of Ge chains contains the extended σ-conjugation of Ge 4p orbitals at energy levels close to the Fermi level; this is in contrast to the electronic properties of linear carbon chains. Furthermore, the conductance of a Ge chain is expected to decrease exponentially with molecular length L. The decay constant β, which is defined as e{sup −βL}, of a Ge chain is similar to that of a Si chain, whereas the conductance of the Ge chains is higher than that of Si chains even though the Ge–Ge bond length is longer than the Si–Si bond length.

  1. The knowledge-value chain: A conceptual framework for knowledge translation in health.

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Réjean; Amara, Nabil; Pablos-Mendes, Ariel; Shademani, Ramesh; Gold, Irving

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly discusses knowledge translation and lists the problems associated with it. Then it uses knowledge-management literature to develop and propose a knowledge-value chain framework in order to provide an integrated conceptual model of knowledge management and application in public health organizations. The knowledge-value chain is a non-linear concept and is based on the management of five dyadic capabilities: mapping and acquisition, creation and destruction, integration and sharing/transfer, replication and protection, and performance and innovation. PMID:16917645

  2. Improving the cold chain for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J S

    1977-01-01

    The cold chain may be defined as a system for transporting and storing vaccines at very low temperataures, particularly in tropical countries. In Ghana, efforts are being made, with the assistance of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop and test a new cold chain technology. Emphasis is on local production in order to meet the needs of the countrywide immunization program, and, if possible, of similar programs in other West African nations. Focus in this discussion is on the losses resulting from mishandling of vaccines during storage and in transit through various stages in the cold chain as well as the problems, requirements, and proposed solutions. In most countries with immunization programs, breakdowns in refrigeration during the transport and storage of vaccines in remote rural areas or at the regional and national central stores have led to great losses of vaccine. The losses are often caused by inappropriate management and technology. The most promising recent development in the area of storage is an enzyme-based time/temperature indicator contained in a paper tab which is attached to the vaccine packet. In order to reduce to a minimum the handling of vaccines at the national central store it is proposed that the ministry of health submit details of regional requirements in their requisition to the manufacturer. Then the manufacturer can make presealed packages which are dispatched by air to the national central store and from there to the regions, while they are still sealed. Insulated boxes for this purpose have been tested in Sweden and been shown to maintain deep-freezing temperatures for 5 days. Road communications to the regional centers are good in Ghana and the 5-day cold boxes give adequate safety margins. The plan for the immunization program in Ghana is to employ a combination of teams from both fixed and mobile centers. 3 contacts, 3 months apart, will be made by the fixed teams; mobile teams will make 2 contacts, 2 months apart. Mobile

  3. Chemical Synthesis of Ubiquitin Chains.

    PubMed

    Hemantha, Hosahalli P; Bondalapati, Somasekhar; Singh, Sumeet K; Brik, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Chemical synthesis of complex biomolecules such as proteins is a challenging adventure, yet rewarding in driving various biochemical and biophysical research activities. Over the years, the refinement of peptide synthesis and invention of ligation methodologies have led to the successful synthesis of several complex protein targets. Ubiquitin bioconjugates, which are being studied intensively by many groups due to their involvement in numerous biological processes, represent a fine example where chemistry is greatly aiding these studies. In this article, we describe the synthetic routes and strategies to prepare different ubiquitin analogs with desired modifications, as well as di-ubiquitin chains. PMID:26629614

  4. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS.

    PubMed

    Van Keer, Jan; Meijers, Björn; Delforge, Michel; Verhoef, Gregor; Poesen, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of "heavy chain MGUS" have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. PMID:27213064

  5. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS

    PubMed Central

    Meijers, Björn; Delforge, Michel; Verhoef, Gregor; Poesen, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of “heavy chain MGUS” have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. PMID:27213064

  6. Nova chain design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.W.; Glaze, J.A.; Trenholme, J.B.; Hagen, W.F.

    1980-09-04

    During the past year design of the Nova laser has undergone significant change as a result of developments in our laser glass and optical coating evaluation programs. Two notable aspects of the glass development program deserve emphasis. First, vendor qualification for production of fluorophosphate laser glass is progressing satisfactorily. There is a reasonable expectation that vendors can meet fluorophosphate glass specifications within Nova schedule constraints. Secondly, recent gain saturation measurements have shown that the saturation fluence of the fluorophosphate glass is larger than previously supposed (approx. 5.5 J/cm/sup 2/) and in fact is somewhat larger than Shiva silicate glasses. Hence, performance of Nova for pulses in the 3 ns and longer range should be satisfactory. For pulses in the 1 ns regime, of course, the fluorophosphate chain will have superior performance to that of silicate because of its low nonlinear index of refraction (approx. 30% that of silicate). These and other considerations have led us to choose a chain design based upon the use of fluorophosphate glass in our amplifiers.

  7. The CUE Domain of Cue1 Aligns Growing Ubiquitin Chains with Ubc7 for Rapid Elongation.

    PubMed

    von Delbrück, Maximilian; Kniss, Andreas; Rogov, Vladimir V; Pluska, Lukas; Bagola, Katrin; Löhr, Frank; Güntert, Peter; Sommer, Thomas; Dötsch, Volker

    2016-06-16

    Ubiquitin conjugation is an essential process modulating protein function in eukaryotic cells. Surprisingly, little is known about how the progressive assembly of ubiquitin chains is managed by the responsible enzymes. Only recently has ubiquitin binding activity emerged as an important factor in chain formation. The Ubc7 activator Cue1 carries a ubiquitin binding CUE domain that substantially stimulates K48-linked polyubiquitination mediated by Ubc7. Our results from NMR-based analysis and in vitro ubiquitination reactions point out that two parameters accelerate ubiquitin chain assembly: the increasing number of CUE binding sites and the position of CUE binding within a growing chain. In particular, interactions with a ubiquitin moiety adjacent to the acceptor ubiquitin facilitate chain elongation. These data indicate a mechanism for ubiquitin binding in which Cue1 positions Ubc7 and the distal acceptor ubiquitin for rapid polyubiquitination. Disrupting this mechanism results in dysfunction of the ERAD pathway by a delayed turnover of substrates. PMID:27264873

  8. An approach for formalising the supply chain operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravković, Milan; Panetto, Hervé; Trajanović, Miroslav; Aubry, Alexis

    2011-11-01

    Reference models play an important role in the knowledge management of the various complex collaboration domains (such as supply chain networks). However, they often show a lack of semantic precision and, they are sometimes incomplete. In this article, we present an approach to overcome semantic inconsistencies and incompleteness of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model and hence improve its usefulness and expand the application domain. First, we describe a literal web ontology language (OWL) specification of SCOR concepts (and related tools) built with the intention to preserve the original approach in the classification of process reference model entities, and hence enable the effectiveness of usage in original contexts. Next, we demonstrate the system for its exploitation, in specific - tools for SCOR framework browsing and rapid supply chain process configuration. Then, we describe the SCOR-Full ontology, its relations with relevant domain ontology and show how it can be exploited for improvement of SCOR ontological framework competence. Finally, we elaborate the potential impact of the presented approach, to interoperability of systems in supply chain networks.

  9. "Supply Chain-Marketing Shark Tank" Experiential Lab Game in Interdisciplinary Business Education: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, A.; Arora, A. Saxena

    2015-01-01

    This article provides educators in business schools with a new interdisciplinary experiential lab game called Supply Chain-Marketing (SC-Mark) Shark Tank game, which can be implemented in both Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Marketing courses. The SC-Mark experiential lab game is a real-life business environment simulation that explores…

  10. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  11. Developing Supply Chain Management Program: A Competency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauber, Matthew H.; McSurely, Hugh B.; Tummala, V. M. Rao

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to show the process of designing and measuring learning competencies in program development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes cross-sectoral comparisons to draw on programmatic and pedagogical strategies, more commonly utilized in vocational education, and transfer the application of these strategies into…

  12. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Supply Chain Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the working of the Supplier Assessment Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The program supports many GSFC projects to ensure suppliers are aware of and are following the contractual requirements, to provide an independent assessment of the suppliers' processes, and provide suppliers' safety and mission assurance organizations information to make the changes within their organization.

  13. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  14. Assessing the differences and similarities between hospital chains and independents regarding revenues, profits, and community contributions.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Dennis R

    2009-01-01

    Hospital systems or chains continue to grow their market share relative to independent hospitals. This trend generates concerns among health care industry observers as historical performance suggests chains charge more for health care services than the independents while providing reduced contributions to their community. This study empirically assesses key performance measures of 67 acute-care hospitals in Virginia by testing if there are differences between chains and independents regarding total patient revenues, revenues per admission, profitability and community support, including charity care, bad debt, taxes paid and Medicaid participation. Implications to industry policy-makers as well as to hospital executives and marketing managers are then presented. PMID:19197585

  15. Dangling chain elastomers as repeatable fibrillar adhesives.

    PubMed

    Sitti, Metin; Cusick, Brian; Aksak, Burak; Nese, Alper; Lee, Hyung-il; Dong, Hongchen; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2009-10-01

    This work reports on repeatable adhesive materials prepared by controlled grafting of dangling hetero chains from polymer elastomers. The dangling chain elastomer system was prepared by grafting poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) chains from prefunctionalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer networks using atom transfer radical polymerization. To study the effects of chain growth and network strain as they relate to network adhesion mechanics, various lengths of PBA chains with degree of polymerizations (DP) of 65, 281, 508, and 1200 were incorporated into the PDMS matrix. PBA chains with a DP value of 281 grafted from a flat PDMS substrate showed the highest (approximately 3.5-fold) enhancement of nano- and macroscale adhesion relative to a flat raw (ungrafted and not prefunctionalized) PDMS substrate. Moreover, to study the effect of PBA dangling chains on adhesion in fibrillar elastomer structures inspired by gecko foot hairs, a dip-transfer fabrication method was used to graft PBA chains with a DP value of 296 from the tip endings of mushroom-shaped PDMS micropillars. A PBA chain covered micropillar array showed macroscale adhesion enhancement up to approximately 7 times relative to the flat ungrafted prefunctionalized PDMS control substrate, showing additional nonoptimized approximately 2-fold adhesion enhancement due to fibrillar structuring and mushroom-shaped tip ending. These dangling hetero chains on elastomer micro-/nanofibrillar structures may provide a novel fabrication platform for multilength scale, repeatable, and high-strength fibrillar adhesives inspired by gecko foot hairs. PMID:20355863

  16. Continuous chain bit with downhole cycling capability

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, Don F.; St. Clair, Jack A.; Togami, Henry K.

    1983-01-01

    A continuous chain bit for hard rock drilling is capable of downhole cycling. A drill head assembly moves axially relative to a support body while the chain on the head assembly is held in position so that the bodily movement of the chain cycles the chain to present new composite links for drilling. A pair of spring fingers on opposite sides of the chain hold the chain against movement. The chain is held in tension by a spring-biased tensioning bar. A head at the working end of the chain supports the working links. The chain is centered by a reversing pawl and piston actuated by the pressure of the drilling mud. Detent pins lock the head assembly with respect to the support body and are also operated by the drilling mud pressure. A restricted nozzle with a divergent outlet sprays drilling mud into the cavity to remove debris. Indication of the centered position of the chain is provided by noting a low pressure reading indicating proper alignment of drilling mud slots on the links with the corresponding feed branches.

  17. Determinants of integrated health care development: chains of care in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ahgren, Bengt; Axelsson, Runo

    2007-01-01

    Local health care in Sweden is an emerging form of integrated care, linked together by chains of care. Experiences show, however, that the development of chains of care is making slow progress. In order to study the factors behind this development, an embedded multiple-case study design was chosen. The study compared six health authorities in Sweden, three with successful and three with unsuccessful chain of care development. Three major determinants of integrated health care development were identified: professional dedication, legitimacy and confidence. In more detail, space for prime movers and trust between participants were crucial success factors, while top-down approaches targeting at the same time a change of management systems were negative for the development of chains of care. Resistance from the body of physicians was a serious obstacle to such a development. Local health care depends on developed chains of care, but it seems that health care managers do not have the management systems necessary to run these clinical networks, mainly due to a lack of acceptance from the medical profession. This is an impossible situation in the long run, since the number of chains of care is likely to increase as a result of the emerging local health care. PMID:17623356

  18. Pentagon chain in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, György; Gulácsi, Zsolt

    2015-11-01

    We consider a pentagon chain described by a Hubbard type of model considered under periodic boundary conditions. The system (i) is placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the cells, and (ii) is in a site-selective manner under the action of an external electric potential. In these conditions, we show in an exact manner that the physical properties of the system can be qualitatively changed. The changes cause first strong modifications of the band structure of the system created by the one-particle part of the Hamiltonian, and second, produce marked changes of the phase diagram. We exemplify this by deducing ferromagnetic ground states in the presence of external fields in two different domains of the parameter space.

  19. Influence of credit scoring on the dynamics of Markov chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galina, Timofeeva

    2015-11-01

    Markov processes are widely used to model the dynamics of a credit portfolio and forecast the portfolio risk and profitability. In the Markov chain model the loan portfolio is divided into several groups with different quality, which determined by presence of indebtedness and its terms. It is proposed that dynamics of portfolio shares is described by a multistage controlled system. The article outlines mathematical formalization of controls which reflect the actions of the bank's management in order to improve the loan portfolio quality. The most important control is the organization of approval procedure of loan applications. The credit scoring is studied as a control affecting to the dynamic system. Different formalizations of "good" and "bad" consumers are proposed in connection with the Markov chain model.

  20. Information Risk Management and Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynes, Scott

    Are the levels of information risk management efforts within and between firms correlated with the resilience of the firms to information disruptions? This paper examines the question by considering the results of field studies of information risk management practices at organizations and in supply chains. The organizations investigated differ greatly in the degree of coupling from a general and information risk management standpoint, as well as in the levels of internal awareness and activity regarding information risk management. The comparison of the levels of information risk management in the firms and their actual or inferred resilience indicates that a formal information risk management approach is not necessary for resilience in certain sectors.

  1. Kinetic Chain Rehabilitation: A Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Aaron; Cromwell, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Sequenced physiologic muscle activations in the upper and lower extremity result in an integrated biomechanical task. This sequencing is known as the kinetic chain, and, in upper extremity dominant tasks, the energy development and output follows a proximal to distal sequencing. Impairment of one or more kinetic chain links can create dysfunctional biomechanical output leading to pain and/or injury. When deficits exist in the preceding links, they can negatively affect the shoulder. Rehabilitation of shoulder injuries should involve evaluation for and restoration of all kinetic chain deficits that may hinder kinetic chain function. Rehabilitation programs focused on eliminating kinetic chain deficits, and soreness should follow a proximal to distal rationale where lower extremity impairments are addressed in addition to the upper extremity impairments. A logical progression focusing on flexibility, strength, proprioception, and endurance with kinetic chain influence is recommended. PMID:22666599

  2. SCRL-Model for Human Space Flight Operations Enterprise Supply Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Brian; Paxton, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a Supply Chain Readiness Level (SCRL) model that can be used to evaluate and configure adaptable and sustainable program and mission supply chains at an enterprise level. It will also show that using SCRL in conjunction with Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs), Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRLs) and National Aeronautics Space Administrations (NASA s) Project Lifecycle Process will provide a more complete means of developing and evaluating a robust sustainable supply chain that encompasses the entire product, system and mission lifecycle. In addition, it will be shown that by implementing the SCRL model, NASA can additionally define supplier requirements to enable effective supply chain management (SCM). Developing and evaluating overall supply chain readiness for any product, system and mission lifecycle is critical for mission success. Readiness levels are presently being used to evaluate the maturity of technology and manufacturing capability during development and deployment phases of products and systems. For example, TRLs are used to support the assessment of the maturity of a particular technology and compare maturity of different types of technologies. MRLs are designed to assess the maturity and risk of a given technology from a manufacturing perspective. In addition, when these measurement systems are used collectively they can offer a more comprehensive view of the maturity of the system. While some aspects of the supply chain and supply chain planning are considered in these familiar metric systems, certain characteristics of an effective supply chain, when evaluated in more detail, will provide an improved insight into the readiness and risk throughout the supply chain. Therefore, a system that concentrates particularly on supply chain attributes is required to better assess enterprise supply chain readiness.

  3. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains.

    PubMed

    Lautala, Pasi T; Hilliard, Michael R; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J; Roni, Mohammad S; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study. PMID:26122631

  4. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-06-30

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. Our paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Lastly, gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  5. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  6. Mathematical supply-chain modelling: Product analysis of cost and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easters, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Establishing a mathematical supply-chain model is a proposition that has received attention due to its inherent benefits of evolving global supply-chain efficiencies. This paper discusses the prevailing relationships found within apparel supply-chain environments, and contemplates the complex issues indicated for constituting a mathematical model. Principal results identified within the data suggest, that the multifarious nature of global supply-chain activities require a degree of simplification in order to fully dilate the necessary factors which affect, each sub-section of the chain. Subsequently, the research findings allowed the division of supply-chain components into sub-sections, which amassed a coherent method of product development activity. Concurrently, the supply-chain model was found to allow systematic mathematical formulae analysis, of cost and time, within the multiple contexts of each subsection encountered. The paper indicates the supply-chain model structure, the mathematics, and considers how product analysis of cost and time can improve the comprehension of product lifecycle management.

  7. Optically controlled periodical chain of quantum rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M.; Iorsh, I. V.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrated theoretically that a circularly polarized electromagnetic field substantially modifies electronic properties of a periodical chain of quantum rings. Particularly, the field opens band gaps in the electron energy spectrum of the chain, generates edge electron currents, and induces the Fano-like features in the electron transport through the finite chain. These effects create physical prerequisites for the development of optically controlled nanodevices based on a set of coupled quantum rings.

  8. Forming particle chains in inertial microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Kaitlyn; Liu, Lawrence; Roper, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    Particles in microfluidic devices at finite Reynolds number self-assemble into evenly-spaced chains, which can be exploited in inertial microfluidic devices for flow cytometry, high speed imaging, and entrapment. While the location and number of chains can be manipulated by changing the channel geometry, the particle interactions are not understood well enough to manipulate the spacing between particles. We present a mathematical model of particle interactions and the formation of particle chains. We will address the following questions: Is there a preferred particle spacing? What are the conditions needed for chain formation?

  9. Effects of tethered chains on adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sides, Scott; Grest, Gary; Stevens, Mark

    2001-03-01

    We study adhesion between a polymer melt and substrate due to chemically attached polymer chains on the substrate surface. We have performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of temperature, crosslink density, tethered chain density (Σ), tethered chain length (N_t), tensile pull velocity (v) and chain stiffness on the adhesive failure mechanisms of pullout and/or scission of the tethered chains. We observe a crossover from pure chain pullout to chain scission as Nt and v are increased. The value of Nt at which this crossover occurs is comparable to the chain entanglement length for the coarse-grained model used. Experiments and simulations have shown that the energy required to separate a polymer melt from a substrate increases considerably if the formation of large voids, or crazing can be initiated in the melt. The onset of crazing depends on the temperature and the interaction strength of the substrate with the melt. We also present data illustrating the additional effects of tethered chains on crazing mechanisms.

  10. Magnetization dynamics in isolated Ising chains

    SciTech Connect

    Kudasov, A. N.

    2010-02-15

    The Glauber dynamics of an Ising chain or ring is shown to be determined by two characteristic times: {tau}{sub 1} for relaxation of the average magnetization per spin and {tau}{sub 2} for dynamical spontaneous symmetry breaking. An analytical solution for magnetization dynamics in a finite chain with fixed spins at both ends is found by the method of images. This solution is then used to calculate the spin-spin correlation functions for rings and chains. At low temperatures, since {tau}{sub 1} >> {tau}{sub 2}, there must exist a range of times when the chain is in one of two ordered states.

  11. Undiagnosed light chain systemic amyloidosis: does it matter to anesthesiologists? -a case report-.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwan Ho; Lee, Woo Kyung; Na, Se Hee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2013-11-01

    Light chain systemic amyloidosis is rare but may accompany laryngeal or pulmonary involvement, which may increase the risk in airway management. We present a case of a patient planned for resection of cervical epidural mass. The patient had face and neck ecchymoses and purpuras with an unknown cause. Mask ventilation and intubation were successful, but the operation was cancelled to evaluate bleeding from facial skin lesions. A diagnosis of light chain systemic amyloidosis prompted evaluation of involvement of other organs and treatment. This case shows the importance of preoperative evaluation and careful airway management in patients with systemic amyloidosis. PMID:24363850

  12. Thermally multiplexed polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, Christopher R.; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D. Curtis; Holst, Gregory L.; Birjiniuk, Joav; Nagpal, Nikita; Culpepper, Stephen; Popler, Emily; Shane, Andi L.; Jerris, Robert; Forest, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Amplification of multiple unique genetic targets using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly required in molecular biology laboratories. Such reactions are typically performed either serially or by multiplex PCR. Serial reactions are time consuming, and multiplex PCR, while powerful and widely used, can be prone to amplification bias, PCR drift, and primer-primer interactions. We present a new thermocycling method, termed thermal multiplexing, in which a single heat source is uniformly distributed and selectively modulated for independent temperature control of an array of PCR reactions. Thermal multiplexing allows amplification of multiple targets simultaneously—each reaction segregated and performed at optimal conditions. We demonstrate the method using a microfluidic system consisting of an infrared laser thermocycler, a polymer microchip featuring 1 μl, oil-encapsulated reactions, and closed-loop pulse-width modulation control. Heat transfer modeling is used to characterize thermal performance limitations of the system. We validate the model and perform two reactions simultaneously with widely varying annealing temperatures (48 °C and 68 °C), demonstrating excellent amplification. In addition, to demonstrate microfluidic infrared PCR using clinical specimens, we successfully amplified and detected both influenza A and B from human nasopharyngeal swabs. Thermal multiplexing is scalable and applicable to challenges such as pathogen detection where patients presenting non-specific symptoms need to be efficiently screened across a viral or bacterial panel. PMID:26339317

  13. Respiratory Chain of Plant Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Bayard T.

    1976-01-01

    Oxidation of the respiratory chain carriers of anaerobic, CO-saturated skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) mitochondria, by means of an O2 pulse, proceeds primarily through the cyanide-insensitive alternate oxidase, since the oxidation of cytochromes a and a3 takes place with a half-time of 3 seconds, corresponding to the rate of dissociation of CO from reduced cytochrome a3. Ubiquinone and part of the flavoprotein are oxidized within 1 second under these conditions, and this rapid rate of oxidation is strongly inhibited by m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid (mCLAM), a specific inhibitor of the alternate oxidase of plant mitochondria. The rate of ubiquinone oxidation under these conditions in white potato (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondria, which have no alternate oxidase, is the same as that in skunk cabbage mitochondria treated with mCLAM. Ubiquinone, thus identified as the carrier common to both the cytochrome and alternate oxidase pathways, is linked to the alternate oxidase by a flavoprotein of midpoint potential 50 millivolts more negative with which it is in equilibrium. This arrangement provides a switch for diverting electron transport primarily through the cytochrome pathway under state 3 conditions and primarily through the alternate oxidase pathway under state 4 conditions. PMID:16659709

  14. A spinor boson AB chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Reyes, Greis Julieth; Franco, Roberto; Silva Valencia, Jereson; Universidad Santo Tomas Collaboration; Universidad Nacional de Colombia Collaboration

    Recent research is focused on superlattices arising from optical lattices, which allow a tunable environment. Experimentally bosons present transitions from superfluid to Mott insulator by changing the energy offset in the unit cell [Nat. Commun. 5:5735 (2014)]. Many studies displayed that ground state of spinless boson systems on superlattices present superfluid, Mott insulator and an additional CDW phase created by the energy shift between the sites into the unit cell [Phys. Rev. A 83, 053621 (2011)]. The first confinement methods were magnetic traps, which freezes the spin; with optical lattices the grade of freedom of spin plays an important role. We consider bosons with spin S =1 on a superlattice made by two sites with energy offset per unit cell (AB chain). The Hamiltonian that describes the system is the Bose-Hubbard model with the superlattice potential (W) and the exchange interaction (V) parameters. This model supports CDW, Mott insulator and superfluid phases. For W near to U, with V =0, Mott phase disappears, but for V increasing, a new CDW appears due to the spin interaction, while the half-integer CDW decrease. These results are widely different from spinless boson, where the CDW phases are stables.

  15. Single-Chain Antibody Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baird, Cheryl

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have constructed a nonimmune library consisting of 109 human antibody scFv fragments, which have been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast. Nanomolar-affinity scFvs are routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 1010 fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity. This allows for indefinite expansion of the library. All scFv clones can be assessed directly on the yeast cell surface by immunofluorescent labeling and flow cytometry, obviating separate subcloning, expression, and purification steps. The ability to use multiplex library screening demonstrates the utility of this approach for high-throughput antibody isolation for proteomic applications. The yeast library may be used for research projects or teaching performed for U.S. Government purposes only. If you would like to request an aliquot of the single-chain antibody library for your research, please print and fill out the Materials Transfer Agreement (MTA) [PDF, 20K]. The website provides the contact information for mailing the MTA. [copied from http://www.sysbio.org/dataresources/singlechain.stm

  16. Deterioration Prediction Model of Irrigation Facilities by Markov Chain Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takehisa; Nishino, Noriyasu; Fujiwara, Tetsuro

    "Stock Management" launched in all over Japan is an activity to use irrigation facilities effectively and to reduce life cycle costs of theirs. Deterioration prediction of the irrigation facility condition is a vital process for the study of maintenance measures and the estimation of maintenance cost. It is important issue to establish the prediction technique with higher accuracy. Thereupon, we established a deterioration prediction model by a statistical method "Markov chain", and analyzed a function diagnosis data of irrigation facilities. As a result, we clarified the deterioration characteristics into each structure type and facilities.

  17. Community resiliency through recovery resource supply chain planning.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Charlotte; Todt, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations. PMID:24578021

  18. Integrated Computer System of Management in Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwesiuk, Krzysztof

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims at presenting a concept of an integrated computer system of management in logistics, particularly in supply and distribution chains. Consequently, the paper includes the basic idea of the concept of computer-based management in logistics and components of the system, such as CAM and CIM systems in production processes, and management systems for storage, materials flow, and for managing transport, forwarding and logistics companies. The platform which integrates computer-aided management systems is that of electronic data interchange.

  19. Using Games to Teach Markov Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    Games are promoted as examples for classroom discussion of stationary Markov chains. In a game context Markov chain terminology and results are made concrete, interesting, and entertaining. Game length for several-player games such as "Hi Ho! Cherry-O" and "Chutes and Ladders" is investigated and new, simple formulas are given. Slight…

  20. The chain-length dependence test.

    PubMed

    Stone, Matthew T; Heemstra, Jennifer M; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2006-01-01

    Trends obtained from systematic studies based on chain-length variation have provided valuable insight and understanding into the behavior of m-phenylene ethynylene foldamers. The generalization of this experimental approach, the chain-length dependence test, is useful for studying solution conformation, packing in the solid state, specific intrachain interactions, and the contributions of end groups to a particular property. PMID:16411735

  1. Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Fuksa, Jan; Isaev, Alexei

    2014-11-01

    The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included.

  2. Supramolecular polymers: Chain growth in control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Renren; Liu, Xiaogang

    2015-06-01

    Supramolecular polymerizations typically proceed through stepwise intermolecular mechanisms, concomitant with many side reactions to yield aggregates of unpredictable size, shape and mass. Now, a chain-growth strategy is shown to allow assembly of molecules into supramolecular chain structures endowed with precisely controlled characteristics.

  3. Jetfighter: An Experiential Value Chain Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Norman T.; Gamble, Edward N.

    2010-01-01

    Value chain analysis is widely taught in business schools and applied by practitioners to improve business performance. Despite its ubiquity, many students struggle to understand and apply value chain concepts in practice. JetFighter uses a complex manufacturing process (making intricate paper planes) to provide students an opportunity to enhance…

  4. Squeezed states of damped oscillator chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manko, O. V.

    1993-01-01

    The Caldirola-Kanai model of one-dimensional damped oscillator is extended to the chain of coupled parametric oscillators with damping. The correlated and squeezed states for the chain of coupled parametric oscillators with damping are constructed. Based on the concept of the integrals of motion, it is demonstrated how squeezing phenomenon arises due to parametric excitation.

  5. Stepwise assembling of polypeptide chain energy distributions.

    PubMed

    Jacchieri, S G

    2001-03-01

    The principles and application of conformational analysis software that makes use of a new algorithm are described. It is known that the existence of a local energy minimum in the energy landscape is in general related to the clustering of polypeptide chain conformations near that energy value or, in other words, to a high density of states. A criterion based on this principle is part of an algorithm employed to select subsets of polypeptide chain conformations in broad energy ranges. Chain fragments belonging to these subsets are then combined to build larger polypeptide chains and the corresponding energy distributions. The functionality of the various operations employed in the process is described and the FORTRAN 77 source code that defines the algorithm is listed. The methodology is illustrated with a calculation involving three chain fragments belonging to the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). PMID:11219430

  6. Lipid Acyl Chain Remodeling in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Renne, Mike F.; Bao, Xue; De Smet, Cedric H.; de Kroon, Anton I. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane lipid homeostasis is maintained by de novo synthesis, intracellular transport, remodeling, and degradation of lipid molecules. Glycerophospholipids, the most abundant structural component of eukaryotic membranes, are subject to acyl chain remodeling, which is defined as the post-synthetic process in which one or both acyl chains are exchanged. Here, we review studies addressing acyl chain remodeling of membrane glycerophospholipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model organism that has been successfully used to investigate lipid synthesis and its regulation. Experimental evidence for the occurrence of phospholipid acyl chain exchange in cardiolipin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylethanolamine is summarized, including methods and tools that have been used for detecting remodeling. Progress in the identification of the enzymes involved is reported, and putative functions of acyl chain remodeling in yeast are discussed. PMID:26819558

  7. Five cases of alpha chain disease

    PubMed Central

    Doe, William F.; Henry, K.; Hobbs, J. R.; Jones, F. Avery; Dent, C. E.; Booth, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Five patients suffering from alpha chain disease are described. Clinically the patients presented with clubbing and the symptoms of malabsorption. There was a characteristic, predominantly plasma cell infiltrate of the wall of the small intestine. Spread of the plasmacytosis beyond the small intestine to bone marrow (1), peripheral blood (1), and probably the nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue (1) is described. Fragments of the heavy chain of IgA (alpha chain) were found in serum (5), urine (3), jejunal fluid (2), and saliva (1). The jejunal biopsy of one patient was shown to synthesize free alpha chain in tissue culture. A new and simple immunoselection technique for the identification of free alpha chain is described. Marked clinical remissions were achieved in two patients treated with intermittent cytotoxic and steroid therapy, and in a third patient who received intermittent cytotoxic therapy and tetracycline. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4119805

  8. The Packing of Granular Polymer Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Cheng, Xiang; Rivers, Mark L.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.; UC

    2009-12-01

    Rigid particles pack into structures, such as sand dunes on the beach, whose overall stability is determined by the average number of contacts between particles. However, when packing spatially extended objects with flexible shapes, additional concepts must be invoked to understand the stability of the resulting structure. Here, we examine the disordered packing of chains constructed out of flexibly connected hard spheres. Using x-ray tomography, we find that long chains pack into a low-density structure whose mechanical rigidity is mainly provided by the backbone. On compaction, randomly oriented, semi-rigid loops form along the chain, and the packing of chains can be understood as the jamming of these elements. Finally, we uncover close similarities between the packing of chains and the glass transition in polymers.

  9. Effect of chain stiffness on polymer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2008-03-01

    Static and dynamic properties of polymers are affected by the stiffness of the chains. In this work, we investigate structural and thermodynamic properties of a lattice model for semiflexible polymer chains. The model is an extension of Shaffer's bond- fluctuation model and includes attractive interactions between monomers and an adjustable bending penalty that determines the Kuhn segment length. For isolated chains, a competition between monomer-monomer interactions and bending penalties determines the chain conformations at low temperatures. For dense melts, packing effects play an important role in the structure and thermodynamics of the polymeric liquid. In order to investigate static properties as a function of temperature and chain stiffness, we perform Wang-Landau type simulations and construct densities of states over the two-dimensional state space of monomer-monomer and bending contributions to the internal energy.

  10. 78 FR 31590 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division Of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... management segment of the supply chain unit. The Department also received information from the subject firm... management services, another petitioner supplied project coordinator analytics services, and the third... Employment and Training Administration Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division Of Sears...

  11. Maintaining the cold chain for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Vladimir; Seguljev, Zorica; Gajin, Branka

    2005-01-01

    Cold chain for vaccines a is a system for storing and transporting vaccines at very low temperatures to maintain their effectiveness before use. Because vaccines are sensitive biological substances, their exposition to high temperatures directly affects the quality of vaccines and safety of immunization. The goal of this study was to assess the safety of cold chain for vaccines within the cold chain system in two services of Health Center Novi Sad. Cold Chain Monitors (CCM) and Freeze Watch (FW) indicators were used. A total of 155 (94.5%) Cold Chain Monitors (CCM) and 100 (95.2%) Freeze Watch (FW) indicators were analyzed. Only one CCM showed a breack in cold chain. A total of 3 CCMs indicated risk of vaccine wastage. A total of 9 CCMs were colorized without risk of vaccine wastage. FWs were positive in a high percentage in both services of Health Center Novi Sad. FWs were exposed to low temperatures during transport. Statistically significant differencies in the number of exposed CCMs to high temperatures and the number of exposed FWs to low temperatures were observed in these two services. A statistically significant difference in number of FWs exposed to low temperatures was observed in regard to the period of transport and the period of storage at the vaccination stations. The study shows high level of safety of the cold chain in two services of Health Center Novi Sad Cold Chain Monitor is a reliable indicator of the quality of cold chain for vaccines. Freeze Watch is a reliable indicator of the quality of cold chain during storage of vaccines, but not during their transport. PMID:16296574

  12. The amplification of risk in experimental diffusion chains.

    PubMed

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Brighton, Henry; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how people form and revise their perception of risk is central to designing efficient risk communication methods, eliciting risk awareness, and avoiding unnecessary anxiety among the public. However, public responses to hazardous events such as climate change, contagious outbreaks, and terrorist threats are complex and difficult-to-anticipate phenomena. Although many psychological factors influencing risk perception have been identified in the past, it remains unclear how perceptions of risk change when propagated from one person to another and what impact the repeated social transmission of perceived risk has at the population scale. Here, we study the social dynamics of risk perception by analyzing how messages detailing the benefits and harms of a controversial antibacterial agent undergo change when passed from one person to the next in 10-subject experimental diffusion chains. Our analyses show that when messages are propagated through the diffusion chains, they tend to become shorter, gradually inaccurate, and increasingly dissimilar between chains. In contrast, the perception of risk is propagated with higher fidelity due to participants manipulating messages to fit their preconceptions, thereby influencing the judgments of subsequent participants. Computer simulations implementing this simple influence mechanism show that small judgment biases tend to become more extreme, even when the injected message contradicts preconceived risk judgments. Our results provide quantitative insights into the social amplification of risk perception, and can help policy makers better anticipate and manage the public response to emerging threats. PMID:25902519

  13. Modeling Value Chain Analysis of Distance Education using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Anal; Mukherjee, Soumen

    2010-10-01

    Distance education continues to grow as a methodology for the delivery of course content in higher education in India as well as abroad. To manage this growing demand and to provide certain flexibility, there must be certain strategic planning about the use of ICT tools. Value chain analysis is a framework for breaking down the sequence of business functions into a set of activities through which utility could be added to service. Thus it can help to determine the competitive advantage that is enjoyed by an institute. To implement these business functions certain visual representation is required. UML allows for this representation by using a set of structural and behavioral diagrams. In this paper, the first section defines a framework for value chain analysis and highlights its advantages. The second section gives a brief overview of related work in this field. The third section gives a brief discussion on distance education. The fourth section very briefly introduces UML. The fifth section models value chain of distance education using UML. Finally we discuss the limitations and the problems posed in this domain.

  14. The amplification of risk in experimental diffusion chains

    PubMed Central

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Brighton, Henry; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how people form and revise their perception of risk is central to designing efficient risk communication methods, eliciting risk awareness, and avoiding unnecessary anxiety among the public. However, public responses to hazardous events such as climate change, contagious outbreaks, and terrorist threats are complex and difficult-to-anticipate phenomena. Although many psychological factors influencing risk perception have been identified in the past, it remains unclear how perceptions of risk change when propagated from one person to another and what impact the repeated social transmission of perceived risk has at the population scale. Here, we study the social dynamics of risk perception by analyzing how messages detailing the benefits and harms of a controversial antibacterial agent undergo change when passed from one person to the next in 10-subject experimental diffusion chains. Our analyses show that when messages are propagated through the diffusion chains, they tend to become shorter, gradually inaccurate, and increasingly dissimilar between chains. In contrast, the perception of risk is propagated with higher fidelity due to participants manipulating messages to fit their preconceptions, thereby influencing the judgments of subsequent participants. Computer simulations implementing this simple influence mechanism show that small judgment biases tend to become more extreme, even when the injected message contradicts preconceived risk judgments. Our results provide quantitative insights into the social amplification of risk perception, and can help policy makers better anticipate and manage the public response to emerging threats. PMID:25902519

  15. A supply chain contract with flexibility as a risk-sharing mechanism for demand forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Whan-Seon

    2013-06-01

    Demand forecasting is one of the main causes of the bullwhip effect in a supply chain. As a countermeasure for demand uncertainty as well as a risk-sharing mechanism for demand forecasting in a supply chain, this article studies a bilateral contract with order quantity flexibility. Under the contract, the buyer places orders in advance for the predetermined horizons and makes minimum purchase commitments. The supplier, in return, provides the buyer with the flexibility to adjust the order quantities later, according to the most updated demand information. To conduct comparative simulations, four-echelon supply chain models, that employ the contracts and different forecasting techniques under dynamic market demands, are developed. The simulation outcomes show that demand fluctuation can be effectively absorbed by the contract scheme, which enables better inventory management and customer service. Furthermore, it has been verified that the contract scheme under study plays a role as an effective coordination mechanism in a decentralised supply chain.

  16. The Complexities of Implementing Cluster Supply Chain - Case Study of JCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiao; Zhang, Jibiao; Wang, Yang

    As a new type of management pattern, "cluster supply chain" (CSC) can help SMEs to face the global challenges through all kinds of collaboration. However, a major challenge in implementing CSC is the gap between theory and practice in the field. In an effort to provide a better understanding of this emerging phenomenon, this paper presents the implementation process of CSC in the context of JingCheng Mechanical & Electrical Holding co., ltd.(JCH) as a case study. The cast study of JCH suggests that the key problems in the practice of cluster supply chain: How do small firms use cluster supply chain? Only after we clarify the problem, the actual construction and operation of cluster supply chain does show successful results as it should be.

  17. Laminin alpha1 chain reduces muscular dystrophy in laminin alpha2 chain deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Kinga; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Ekblom, Peter; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2004-08-15

    Laminin (LN) alpha2 chain deficiency in humans and mice leads to severe forms of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). Here, we investigated whether LNalpha1 chain in mice can compensate for the absence of LNalpha2 chain and prevent the development of muscular dystrophy. We generated mice expressing a LNalpha1 chain transgene in skeletal muscle of LNalpha2 chain deficient mice. LNalpha1 is not normally expressed in muscle, but the transgenically produced LNalpha1 chain was incorporated into muscle basement membranes, and normalized the compensatory changes of expression of certain other laminin chains (alpha4, beta2). In 4-month-old mice, LNalpha1 chain could fully prevent the development of muscular dystrophy in several muscles, and partially in others. The LNalpha1 chain transgene not only reversed the appearance of histopathological features of the disease to a remarkable degree, but also greatly improved health and longevity of the mice. Correction of LNalpha2 chain deficiency by LNalpha1 chain may serve as a paradigm for gene therapy of CMD in patients. PMID:15213105

  18. Hydrodynamics of diatom chains and semiflexible fibres.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa; Fauci, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Diatoms are non-motile, unicellular phytoplankton that have the ability to form colonies in the form of chains. Depending upon the species of diatoms and the linking structures that hold the cells together, these chains can be quite stiff or very flexible. Recently, the bending rigidities of some species of diatom chains have been quantified. In an effort to understand the role of flexibility in nutrient uptake and aggregate formation, we begin by developing a three-dimensional model of the coupled elastic-hydrodynamic system of a diatom chain moving in an incompressible fluid. We find that simple beam theory does a good job of describing diatom chain deformation in a parabolic flow when its ends are tethered, but does not tell the whole story of chain deformations when they are subjected to compressive stresses in shear. While motivated by the fluid dynamics of diatom chains, our computational model of semiflexible fibres illustrates features that apply widely to other systems. The use of an adaptive immersed boundary framework allows us to capture complicated buckling and recovery dynamics of long, semiflexible fibres in shear. PMID:24789565

  19. Chain Dynamics in a Dilute Magnetorheological Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jing; Hagenbuchle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The structure, formation, and dynamics of dilute, mono-dispersive ferrofluid emulsions in an external magnetic field have been investigated using dynamic light scattering techniques. In the absence of the magnetic field, the emulsion particles are randomly distributed and behave like hard spheres in Brownian motion. An applied magnetic field induces a magnetic dipole moment in each particle. Dipolar interactions between particles align them into chains where correlation functions show two decay processes. The short-time decay shows the motion of straight chains as a whole where the apparent chain length increases with the applied magnetic field and the particle volume fraction. Good scaling results are obtained showing that the apparent chain length grows with time following a power law with exponent of 0.6 and depends on the applied field, particle volume fraction, and diffusion constant of the particles. The long-time decay in the correlation function shows oscillation when the chains reach a certain length with time and stiffness with threshold field This result shows that chains not only fluctuate, but move in a periodic motion with a frequency of 364 Hz at lambda = 15. It may suggest the existence of phonons. This work is the first step in the understanding of the structure formation, especially chain coarsening mechanism, of magnetorheological (MR) fluids at higher volume fractions.

  20. Interaction between glycosaminoglycans and immunoglobulin light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Myatt, E.; Lykos, P.; Stevens, F. J.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    1997-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a pathological process in which normally soluble proteins polymerize to form insoluble fibrils (amyloid). Amyloid formation is found in a number of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, adult-onset diabetes, and light-chain-associated amyloidosis. No pharmaceutical methods currently exist to prevent this process or to remove the fibrils from tissue. The search for treatment and prevention methods is hampered by a limited understanding of the biophysical basis of amyloid formation. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, unbranched heteropolysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide subunits and are known to associate with amyloid fibrils. The interaction of amyloid-associated free light chains with GAGs was tested by both size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments. The results indicated that heparin 16 000 and chondroitin sulfate B and C precipitated both human intact light chains and recombinant light chain variable domains. Although all light chains interacted with heparin, the strongest interactions were obtained with proteins that had formed amyloid. Molecular modeling indicated the possibility of interaction between heparin and the conserved saddle like surface of the light chain dimer opposite the complementarity-determining segments that form part of the antigen-binding site of a functional antibody. This suggestion might offer a new path to block the aggregation of amyloid-associated light chain proteins, by design of antagonists based on properties of GAG binding. A hexasaccharide was modeled as the basis for a possible antagonist.

  1. Carbon Chains in the Diffuse Interstellar Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaddeus, P.

    1999-05-01

    Linear carbon chain molecules are the dominant fraction of the 125 molecules which have now been identified in interstellar clouds or circumstellar shells, and the only molecules which have been conclusively identified as carriers of optical diffuse interstellar bands are carbon chains (as discussed by Maier at this meeting). In our laboratory over the past two years we have succeeded in detecting 46 carbon chains by applying Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy to supersonic molecular beams of reactive species produced in a gas discharge. The radio spectrum of all - including hyperfine structure when present - has been measured to the point that the laboratory astrophysics is complete: very precise rest frequencies are in hand for astronomical searches, and six of the chains have in fact already been detected with large radio telescopes. Because the longer chains tend to have their strongest lines at low frequencies, the resurfaced Arecibo telescope and the Green Bank Telescope under construction promise to be especially effective search instruments. Carbon chains are by far the best candidates for the several hundred diffuse bands which have been identified since 1922, and since the chain densities achieved in the laboratory are fairly high by the standards of laser spectroscopy, the classical problem of the diffuse bands may be on the point of general solution.

  2. Structure of Human Ferritin L Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,Z.; Li, C.; Ellenburg, M.; Soistman, E.; Ruble, J.; Wright, B.; Ho, J.; Carter, D.

    2006-01-01

    Ferritin is the major iron-storage protein present in all cells. It generally contains 24 subunits, with different ratios of heavy chain (H) to light chain (L), in the shape of a hollow sphere hosting up to 4500 ferric Fe atoms inside. H-rich ferritins catalyze the oxidation of iron(II), while L-rich ferritins promote the nucleation and storage of iron(III). Several X-ray structures have been determined, including those of L-chain ferritins from horse spleen (HoSF), recombinant L-chain ferritins from horse (HoLF), mouse (MoLF) and bullfrog (BfLF) as well as recombinant human H-chain ferritin (HuHF). Here, structures have been determined of two crystal forms of recombinant human L-chain ferritin (HuLF) obtained from native and perdeuterated proteins. The structures show a cluster of acidic residues at the ferrihydrite nucleation site and at the iron channel along the threefold axis. An ordered Cd{sup 2+} structure is observed within the iron channel, offering further insight into the route and mechanism of iron transport into the capsid. The loop between helices D and E, which is disordered in many other L-chain structures, is clearly visible in these two structures. The crystals generated from perdeuterated HuLF will be used for neutron diffraction studies.

  3. Hydrodynamics of diatom chains and semiflexible fibres

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoa; Fauci, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are non-motile, unicellular phytoplankton that have the ability to form colonies in the form of chains. Depending upon the species of diatoms and the linking structures that hold the cells together, these chains can be quite stiff or very flexible. Recently, the bending rigidities of some species of diatom chains have been quantified. In an effort to understand the role of flexibility in nutrient uptake and aggregate formation, we begin by developing a three-dimensional model of the coupled elastic–hydrodynamic system of a diatom chain moving in an incompressible fluid. We find that simple beam theory does a good job of describing diatom chain deformation in a parabolic flow when its ends are tethered, but does not tell the whole story of chain deformations when they are subjected to compressive stresses in shear. While motivated by the fluid dynamics of diatom chains, our computational model of semiflexible fibres illustrates features that apply widely to other systems. The use of an adaptive immersed boundary framework allows us to capture complicated buckling and recovery dynamics of long, semiflexible fibres in shear. PMID:24789565

  4. Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.

    PubMed

    Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management. PMID:25144560

  5. Comparisons of the polypeptide chains of globins.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the amino acid differences and minimum base differences per codon due to mutations which took place during divergent evolution of vertebrates from a common ancestral gene. The ?random mutation model' of evolution is examined by comparing a carp alpha Hb chain and six mammalian alpha Hb chains in terms of the genetic code. The occurrence of recognizable three-base changes is analyzed and a summary of the distribution of changes in the hemoglobin and myoglobin chains is given for 148 sites.

  6. Decay Chain Deduction of Uranium Fission Products.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiping; Tian, Chenyang; Wang, Xiaotian; Lv, Ning; Ma, Meng; Wei, Yingguang

    2016-07-01

    Delayed gamma spectrum is the fingerprint of uranium materials in arms control verification technology. The decay chain is simplified into basic state linear chain and excitation state linear chain to calculate and analyze the delayed gamma spectra of fission products. Formulas of the changing rule for nuclide number before and after zero-time are deduced. The C program for calculating the delayed gamma ray spectra data is constructed, and related experiments are conducted to verify this theory. Through analysis of the delayed gamma counts of several nuclides, the calculated results are found to be consistent with experimental values. PMID:27218290

  7. Walls and chains of planar Skyrmions

    SciTech Connect

    Harland, Derek; Ward, R. S.

    2008-02-15

    In planar (baby) Skyrme systems, there may be extended linear structures which resemble either domain walls or chains of skyrmions, depending on the choice of potential and boundary conditions. We show that systems with a single vacuum, for example, with potential V=1-{phi}{sub 3}, admit chain solutions, whereas walls are ruled out by the uniqueness of the vacuum. On the other hand, in double-vacuum systems such as V=(1/2)(1-{phi}{sub 3}{sup 2}), one has stable wall solutions, but there are no stable chains; the walls may be viewed as the primary objects in such systems, with skyrmions being made out of them.

  8. Quantum spin chains with fractional revival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2016-08-01

    A systematic study of fractional revival at two sites in XX quantum spin chains is presented. Analytic models with this phenomenon are obtained by combining two basic ways of realizing fractional revival in a spin chain. The first proceeds through isospectral deformations of spin chains with perfect state transfer. The second makes use of couplings provided by the recurrence coefficients of polynomials with a bi-lattice orthogonality grid. The latter method leads to analytic models previously identified that can exhibit perfect state transfer in addition to fractional revival.

  9. Switching of antiferromagnetic chains with magnetic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kun; Polyakov, Oleg P.; Stepanyuk, Valeri S.

    2016-04-01

    Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the possibility of information storage in short antiferromagnetic chains on an insulator substrate [S. Loth et al., Science 335, 196 (2012), 10.1126/science.1214131]. Here, using the density functional theory and atomistic spin dynamics simulations, we show that a local magnetic control of such chains with a magnetic tip and magnetic pulses can be used for fast switching of their magnetization. Furthermore, by changing the position of the tip one can engineer the magnetization dynamics of the chains.

  10. Nuclear chain reaction: forty years later

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings from a 1982 symposium 40 years after the first controlled nuclear chain reaction took place in Chicago covers four sessions and public discussion. The session covered the history of the chain reaction; peaceful uses in technology, medicine, and biological science; peaceful uses in power generation; and nuclear weapons control. Among the speakers were Eugene Wigner, Glenn Seaborg, Alvin Weinberg, and others who participated in the first chain reaction experiments. The proceedings reflect differences of opinion among the scientists as well as the general public. References, slides, and tables used to illustrate the individual talks are included with the papers.

  11. Spectroscopy of element 115 decay chains.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, D; Forsberg, U; Golubev, P; Sarmiento, L G; Yakushev, A; Andersson, L-L; Di Nitto, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Gates, J M; Gregorich, K E; Gross, C J; Heßberger, F P; Herzberg, R-D; Khuyagbaatar, J; Kratz, J V; Rykaczewski, K; Schädel, M; Åberg, S; Ackermann, D; Block, M; Brand, H; Carlsson, B G; Cox, D; Derkx, X; Eberhardt, K; Even, J; Fahlander, C; Gerl, J; Jäger, E; Kindler, B; Krier, J; Kojouharov, I; Kurz, N; Lommel, B; Mistry, A; Mokry, C; Nitsche, H; Omtvedt, J P; Papadakis, P; Ragnarsson, I; Runke, J; Schaffner, H; Schausten, B; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Torres, T; Traut, T; Trautmann, N; Türler, A; Ward, A; Ward, D E; Wiehl, N

    2013-09-13

    A high-resolution α, x-ray, and γ-ray coincidence spectroscopy experiment was conducted at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Thirty correlated α-decay chains were detected following the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ca + 243Am. The observations are consistent with previous assignments of similar decay chains to originate from element Z=115. For the first time, precise spectroscopy allows the derivation of excitation schemes of isotopes along the decay chains starting with elements Z>112. Comprehensive Monte Carlo simulations accompany the data analysis. Nuclear structure models provide a first level interpretation. PMID:24074079

  12. Spectroscopy of element 115 decay chains

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, Dirk; Forsberg, U.; Golubev, P.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Yakushev, A.; Andersson, L.-L.; Di Nitto, A.; Duehllmann, Ch. E.; Gates, J. M.; Gregorich, K. E.; Gross, Carl J; Hessberger, F. P.; Herzberg, R.-D; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kratz, J. V.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Schaedel, M.; Aberg, S.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Carlsson, B. G.; Cox, D.; Derkx, X.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Fahlander, C.; Gerl, J.; Jaeger, E.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Mistry, A.; Mokry, C.; Nitsche, H.; Omtvedt, J. P.; Papadakis, P.; Ragnarsson, I.; Runke, J.; Schaffner, H.; Schausten, B.; Thoerle-Pospiech, P.; Torres, T.; Traut, T.; Trautmann, N.; Tuerler, A.; Ward, A.; Ward, D. E.; Wiehl, N.

    2013-01-01

    A high-resolution a, X-ray and -ray coincidence spectroscopy experiment was conducted at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fu r Schwerionenforschung. Thirty correlated a-decay chains were detected following the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ca + 243Am. The observations are consistent with previous assignments of similar decay chains to originate from element Z = 115. The data includes first candidates of fingerprinting the decay step Mt --> Bh with characteristic X rays. For the first time, precise spectroscopy allows the derivation of excitation schemes of isotopes along the decay chains starting with elements Z > 112. Comprehensive Monte-Carlo simulations accompany the data analysis. Nuclear structure models provide a first level interpretation.

  13. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  14. Diffusing Supply Chain Innovations at Hewlett-Packard Company: Applications of Performance Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargille, Brian; Branvold, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Explains how Hewlett-Packard creates supply chain management innovations and effectively diffuses new technologies. Outlines how performance technologists help accelerate the diffusion and adoption of innovations by modifying innovations, define the client adoption path, create resources to lead clients through adoption, and improve the diffusion…

  15. Bridging the Operational Divide: An Information-Processing Model of Internal Supply Chain Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado Feger, Ana L.

    2009-01-01

    Supply Chain Management, the coordination of upstream and downstream flows of product, services, finances, and information from a source to a customer, has risen in prominence over the past fifteen years. The delivery of a product to the consumer is a complex process requiring action from several independent entities. An individual firm consists…

  16. Plastic deformation in a metallic granular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musson, Ryan W.; Carlson, William

    2016-03-01

    Solitary wave response was investigated in a metallic granular chain-piston system using LS-DYNA. A power law hardening material model was used to show that localized plastic deformation is present in a metallic granular chain for an impact velocity of 0.5 m/s. This loss due to plastic deformation was quantified via impulse, and it was shown that the loss scales nearly linearly with impact velocity. Therefore, metallic grains may not be suitable for devices that require high-amplitude solitary waves. There would be too much energy lost to plastic deformation. One can assume that ceramics will behave elastically; therefore, the response of an aluminum oxide granular chain was compared to that of a steel chain.

  17. On Substrate for Atomic Chain Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A substrate for future atomic chain electronics, where adatoms are placed at designated positions and form atomically precise device components, is studied theoretically. The substrate has to serve as a two-dimensional template for adatom mounting with a reasonable confinement barrier and also provide electronic isolation, preventing unwanted coupling between independent adatom structures. However, the two requirements conflict. For excellent electronic isolation, we may seek adatom confinement via van der Waals interaction without chemical bonding to the substrate atoms, but the confinement turns out to be very weak and hence unsatisfactory. An alternative chemical bonding scheme with excellent structural strength is examined, but even fundamental adatom chain properties such as whether chains are semiconducting or metallic are strongly influenced by the nature of the chemical bonding, and electronic isolation is not always achieved. Conditions for obtaining semiconducting chains with well-localized surface-modes, leading to good isolation, are clarified and discussed.

  18. Doping Scheme of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Atomic chains, precise structures of atomic scale created on an atomically regulated substrate surface, are candidates for future electronics. A doping scheme for intrinsic semiconducting Mg chains is considered. In order to suppress the unwanted Anderson localization and minimize the deformation of the original band shape, atomic modulation doping is considered, which is to place dopant atoms beside the chain periodically. Group I atoms are donors, and group VI or VII atoms are acceptors. As long as the lattice constant is long so that the s-p band crossing has not occurred, whether dopant atoms behave as donors or acceptors is closely related to the energy level alignment of isolated atomic levels. Band structures are calculated for Br-doped (p-type) and Cs-doped (n-type) Mg chains using the tight-binding theory with universal parameters, and it is shown that the band deformation is minimized and only the Fermi energy position is modified.

  19. Lattice Vibrations in a Linear Triatomic Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesavasamy, K.; Krishnamurthy, N.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the vibrations of a linear triatomic chain and shows that the addition of the third atom gives rise to an extra optical branch. The nature of the normal modes in ionic crystals and molecular crystals is also discussed. (GA)

  20. Chain friction system gives positive, reversible drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidsen, J. S.

    1964-01-01

    By cementing a strip of an elastomer to the smooth metal rim of the pulley and neoprene covered idlers providing suitable tension to the chain around the pulley, a positive reversible drive is accomplished more quietly and with less vibration.

  1. Supplement to Theory of Neutron Chain Reactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Weinberg, Alvin M.; Noderer, L. C.

    1952-05-26

    General discussions are given of the theory of neutron chain reactions. These include observations on exponential experiments, the general reactor with resonance fission, microscopic pile theory, and homogeneous slow neutron reactors. (B.J.H.)

  2. On thinning of chains in MCMC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, William A.; Eaton, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    4. We discuss the background and prevalence of thinning, illustrate its consequences, discuss circumstances when it might be regarded as a reasonable option and recommend against routine thinning of chains unless necessitated by computer memory limitations.

  3. Pseudocarbynes: Charge-Stabilized Carbon Chains.

    PubMed

    Tarakeshwar, Pilarisetty; Buseck, Peter R; Kroto, Harold W

    2016-05-01

    Carbyne is the long-sought linear allotrope of carbon. Despite many reports of solid carbyne, the evidence is unconvincing. A recent report of supposed carbyne shows gold clusters in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. In order to determine the effects of such clusters, we performed ab initio calculations of uncapped and capped linear carbon chains and their complexes with gold clusters. The results indicate that gold dramatically alters the electron densities of the C≡C bonds. The resulting charge-stabilization of the carbon chains leads to pseudocarbynes. These findings are corroborated in calculations of the structures of crystals containing isolated carbon chains and those intercalated with gold clusters. Calculated Raman spectra of these pseudocarbynes with gold clusters are in better agreement with experiment than calculated spectra of isolated carbon chains. The current work opens the way toward the design and development of a new class of metal-intercalated carbon compounds. PMID:27078718

  4. Ubiquitin chain diversity at a glance.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Masato; Dikic, Ivan; Bremm, Anja

    2016-03-01

    Ubiquitin plays an essential role in modulating protein functions, and deregulation of the ubiquitin system leads to the development of multiple human diseases. Owing to its molecular features, ubiquitin can form various homo- and heterotypic polymers on substrate proteins, thereby provoking distinct cellular responses. The concept of multifaceted ubiquitin chains encoding different functions has been substantiated in recent years. It has been established that all possible ubiquitin linkage types are utilized for chain assembly and propagation of specific signals in vivo. In addition, branched ubiquitin chains and phosphorylated ubiquitin molecules have been put under the spotlight recently. The development of novel technologies has provided detailed insights into the structure and function of previously poorly understood ubiquitin signals. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we provide an update on the complexity of ubiquitin chains and their physiological relevance. PMID:26906419

  5. Dioxin in the agricultural food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Gerbec, E.N.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin's (PCDD) behavior in the agricultural food chain was modeled in this study. The source of PCDD was a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator. Of the farm livestock investigated only the beef cow and the milk cow were shown to contribute significant amounts of PCDD to humans. Milk was the single highest dietary source of PCDD. Comparison of the calculated human dose of PCDD from the agricultural food chain with an estimate human PCDD dose from inhalation of contaminated air revealed that the agricultural food chain could be responsible for a vast majority of the dose to an individual impacted by these facilities. Thus, these data suggest that operating MSW facilities in agricultural areas may result in enhanced PCDD exposure to individuals via the agricultural food chain. The data also suggest that milk and beef may be good sentinels to evaluate environmental impacts of these facilities.

  6. Microbial production of short chain diols.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yudong; Liu, Wei; Zou, Huibin; Cheng, Tao; Tian, Ning; Xian, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Short chain diols (propanediols, butanediols, pentanediols) have been widely used in bulk and fine chemical industries as fuels, solvents, polymer monomers and pharmaceutical precursors. The chemical production of short chain diols from fossil resources has been developed and optimized for decades. Consideration of the exhausting fossil resources and the increasing environment issues, the bio-based process to produce short chain diols is attracting interests. Currently, a variety of biotechnologies have been developed for the microbial production of the short chain diols from renewable feed-stocks. In order to efficiently produce bio-diols, the techniques like metabolically engineering the production strains, optimization of the fermentation processes, and integration of a reasonable downstream recovery processes have been thoroughly investigated. In this review, we summarized the recent development in the whole process of bio-diols production including substrate, microorganism, metabolic pathway, fermentation process and downstream process. PMID:25491899

  7. Stochastically Perturbed Chains of Variable Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Nancy L.; Moreira, Lucas

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we study inference for chains of variable order under two distinct contamination regimes. Consider a chain of variable memory on a finite alphabet containing zero, at each instant of time an independent coin is flipped and if it turns head a contamination occurs. In the first regime a zero is read independently of the value of the chain. In the second regime, the value of another chain of variable memory is observed instead of the original one. Our results state that the difference between the transition probabilities of the original process and the corresponding ones of the contaminated process may be bounded above uniformly. Moreover, if the contamination probability is small enough, using a version of the Context algorithm we are able to recover the context tree of the original process through a contaminated sample.

  8. Doping Scheme in Atomic Chain Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toshishige, Yamada

    1997-01-01

    Due to the dramatic reduction in MOS size, there appear many unwanted effects. In these small devices, the number of dopant atoms in the channel is not macroscopic and electrons may suffer significantly different scattering from device to device since the spatial distribution of dopant atoms is no longer regarded as continuous. This prohibits integration, while it is impossible to control such dopant positions within atomic scale. A fundamental solution is to create electronics with simple but atomically precise structures, which could be fabricated with recent atom manipulation technology. All the constituent atoms are placed as planned, and then the device characteristics are deviation-free, which is mandatory for integration. Atomic chain electronics belongs to this category. Foreign atom chains or arrays form devices, and they are placed on the atomically flat substrate surface. We can design the band structure and the resultant Fermi energy of these structures by manipulating the lattice constant. Using the tight-binding theory with universal parameters, it has been predicted that isolated Si chains and arrays are metallic, Mg chains are insulating, and Mg arrays have metallic and insulating phases [1]. The transport properties along a metallic chain have been studied, emphasizing the role of the contact to electrodes [2]. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along die chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome

  9. Dissipative Quantum Control of a Spin Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morigi, Giovanna; Eschner, Jürgen; Cormick, Cecilia; Lin, Yiheng; Leibfried, Dietrich; Wineland, David J.

    2015-11-01

    A protocol is discussed for preparing a spin chain in a generic many-body state in the asymptotic limit of tailored nonunitary dynamics. The dynamics require the spectral resolution of the target state, optimized coherent pulses, engineered dissipation, and feedback. As an example, we discuss the preparation of an entangled antiferromagnetic state, and argue that the procedure can be applied to chains of trapped ions or Rydberg atoms.

  10. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  11. Mass Chain Evaluation for A=95

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.K.; Sonzogni, A.; Basu, Swapan Kr.; Mukherjee, Gopal; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2011-08-01

    A full evaluation of the mass chain A = 95 has been done in the ENSDF format taking into account all the available data until June 2009. Excited states populated by in-beam nuclear reactions and by radioactive decay have been considered. The 'evp' editor, developed at the NNDC, has been used for the evaluation. This mass chain was last evaluated in 1993. Many new and improved data were reported since then. A total of 13 nuclei have been evaluated.

  12. Chain Of Test Contacts For Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo

    1989-01-01

    Test structure forms chain of "cross" contacts fabricated together with large-scale integrated circuits. If necessary, number of such chains incorporated at suitable locations in integrated-circuit wafer for determination of fabrication yield of contacts. In new structure, resistances of individual contacts determined: In addition to making it possible to identify local defects, enables generation of statistical distributions of contact resistances for prediction of "parametric" contact yield of fabrication process.

  13. The value marketing chain in health care.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, S

    1999-01-01

    In health care, Michael Porter's value chain can be reconceptualized as a "Value Marketing Chain," in which value is reinforced during each step of the customer recruitment and retention process. "Value" is a concept that must jointly be defined by buyer and seller as they interact every step of the way during the process. This requires the establishment of end-to-end mechanisms for soliciting feedback from customers. PMID:10351394

  14. The cutoff phenomenon in finite Markov chains.

    PubMed Central

    Diaconis, P

    1996-01-01

    Natural mixing processes modeled by Markov chains often show a sharp cutoff in their convergence to long-time behavior. This paper presents problems where the cutoff can be proved (card shuffling, the Ehrenfests' urn). It shows that chains with polynomial growth (drunkard's walk) do not show cutoffs. The best general understanding of such cutoffs (high multiplicity of second eigenvalues due to symmetry) is explored. Examples are given where the symmetry is broken but the cutoff phenomenon persists. PMID:11607633

  15. 77 FR 58811 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... International Trade Administration Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Meeting AGENCY... notice announces a public meeting of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness (Committee... comments may be mailed to Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness, Office of Service...

  16. Myosin light chains: Teaching old dogs new tricks

    PubMed Central

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2014-01-01

    The myosin holoenzyme is a multimeric protein complex consisting of heavy chains and light chains. Myosin light chains are calmodulin family members which are crucially involved in the mechanoenzymatic function of the myosin holoenzyme. This review examines the diversity of light chains within the myosin superfamily, discusses interactions between the light chain and the myosin heavy chain as well as regulatory and structural functions of the light chain as a subunit of the myosin holoenzyme. It covers aspects of the myosin light chain in the localization of the myosin holoenzyme, protein-protein interactions and light chain binding to non-myosin binding partners. Finally, this review challenges the dogma that myosin regulatory and essential light chain exclusively associate with conventional myosin heavy chains while unconventional myosin heavy chains usually associate with calmodulin. PMID:26155737

  17. Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Irreversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottobre, Michela

    2016-06-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are statistical methods designed to sample from a given measure π by constructing a Markov chain that has π as invariant measure and that converges to π. Most MCMC algorithms make use of chains that satisfy the detailed balance condition with respect to π; such chains are therefore reversible. On the other hand, recent work [18, 21, 28, 29] has stressed several advantages of using irreversible processes for sampling. Roughly speaking, irreversible diffusions converge to equilibrium faster (and lead to smaller asymptotic variance as well). In this paper we discuss some of the recent progress in the study of nonreversible MCMC methods. In particular: i) we explain some of the difficulties that arise in the analysis of nonreversible processes and we discuss some analytical methods to approach the study of continuous-time irreversible diffusions; ii) most of the rigorous results on irreversible diffusions are available for continuous-time processes; however, for computational purposes one needs to discretize such dynamics. It is well known that the resulting discretized chain will not, in general, retain all the good properties of the process that it is obtained from. In particular, if we want to preserve the invariance of the target measure, the chain might no longer be reversible. Therefore iii) we conclude by presenting an MCMC algorithm, the SOL-HMC algorithm [23], which results from a nonreversible discretization of a nonreversible dynamics.

  18. A Kinetic Chain Approach for Shoulder Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, John; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To introduce an approach to shoulder rehabilitation that integrates the kinetic chain throughout the rehabilitation program while providing the theoretical rationale for this program. Background: The focus of a typical rehabilitation program is to identify and treat the involved structures. However, in activities of sport and daily life, the body does not operate in isolated segments but rather works as a dynamic unit. Recently, rehabilitation programs have emphasized closed kinetic chain exercises, core-stabilization exercises, and functional programs. These components are implemented as distinct entities and are used toward the end of the rehabilitation program. Description: Kinetic chain shoulder rehabilitation incorporates the kinetic link biomechanical model and proximal-to-distal motor-activation patterns with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and closed kinetic chain exercise techniques. This approach focuses on movement patterns rather than isolated muscle exercises. Patterns sequentially use the leg, trunk, and scapular musculature to activate weakened shoulder musculature, gain active range of motion, and increase strength. The paradigm of kinetic chain shoulder rehabilitation suggests that functional movement patterns and closed kinetic chain exercises should be incorporated throughout the rehabilitation process. Clinical Advantages: The exercises in this approach are consistent with biomechanical models, apply biomechanical and motor control theory, and work toward sport specificity. The exercises are designed to stimulate weakened tissue by motion and force production in the adjacent kinetic link segments. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:16558646

  19. Interstellar Carbon Chains: Is Thermodynamics the Key?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    In an effort to further our interest in understanding basic chemistry of interstellar molecules, we carry out here an extensive investigation of the stabilities of interstellar carbon chains; C_n, H_2C_n, HC_nN and C_nX (X=N, O, Si, S, H, P, H^-, N^-). These sets of molecules account for about 20% of all the known interstellar and circumstellar molecules. Their high abundances therefore demand a serious attention. High level ab initio quantum chemical simulations are employed to accurately estimate enthalpy of formation, chemical reactivity indices; global hardness and softness; and other chemical parameters of these molecules. Chemical modeling of the abundances of these molecular species has also been performed. Of the 89 molecules considered from these groups, 47 have been astronomically observed, these observed molecules are found to be more stable with respect to other members of the group. Of the 47 observed molecules, 60% are odd number carbon chains. The reason for the high abundance of odd numbered carbon chains can easily be seen from the fact that they are more stable than the corresponding even number carbon chains. This further confirms the dominance of thermodynamics in interstellar formation processes as described in the Energy, Stability and Abundance (ESA) relationship. The next possible carbon chain molecule for astronomical observation in each group is proposed. The effect of kinetics in the formation processes of these carbon chains is shown to be largely dominated by thermodynamics.

  20. Immunoglobulin light chains, glycosaminoglycans and amyloid.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F. J.; Kisilevsky, R.; Biosciences Division; Queen's Univ.

    2000-03-01

    Immunoglobulin light chains are the precursor proteins for fibrils that are formed during primary amyloidosis and in amyloidosis associated with multiple myeloma. As found for the approximately 20 currently described forms of focal, localized, or systemic amyloidoses, light chain-related fibrils extracted from physiological deposits are invariably associated with glycosaminoglycans, predominantly heparan sulfate. Other amyloid-related proteins are either structurally normal, such as g2-microglobulin and islet amyloid polypeptide, fragments of normal proteins such as serum amyloid A protein or the precursor protein of the g peptide involved in Alzheimer's disease, or are inherited forms of single amino acid variants of a normal protein such as found in the familial forms of amyloid associated with transthyretin. In contrast, the primary structures of light chains involved in fibril formation exhibit extensive mutational diversity rendering some proteins highly amyloidogenic and others non-pathological. The interactions between light chains and glycosaminoglycans are also affected by amino acid variation and may influence the clinical course of disease by enhancing fibril stability and contributing to resistance to protease degradation. Relatively little is currently known about the mechanisms by which glycosaminoglycans interact with light chains and light-chain fibrils. It is probable that future studies of this uniquely diverse family of proteins will continue o shed light on the processes of amyloidosis, and contribute as well to a greater understanding of the normal physiological roles of glycosaminoglycans.

  1. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    and supply chain models specifically for biomass to bioenergy production. The study suggest that this species can be profitably managed for biomass production with rotation length of 11 to 12 years and with a stand tree density of 1,200 trees per acre. Optimum rotation length is greatly affected by seedlings costs and biomass productivity. In the fourth study, a evaluation of seven different feedstocks (loblolly pine, natural mixed hardwood, Eucalyptus, switchgrass, miscanthus, corn stover and sweet sorghum) is made in terms of supply chain, biomass delivered costs, dollar per ton of carbohydrate and dollar per million BTU delivered to a biorefinery. Forest feedstocks present better advantages in terms of a well established supply chain, year round supply and no need for biomass storage. In the same context biomass delivered costs, as well as cost to delivered one ton of carbohydrate and one million BTU is lower in forest feedstocks. In the fifth study, conversion costs, profitability and sensitivity analysis for a novel pretreatment process, green liquor, are modeled for ethanol production with loblolly pine, natural mixed hardwood and Eucalyptus as feedstocks, evaluated in two investment scenarios: green field and repurposing of an old kraft pulp mill. Better financial returns are perceived in the natural hardwood - repurposing scenario, mainly due to lower CAPEX and lower enzyme charge and cost. In the sixth study, conversion cost, CAPEX, ethanol yield and profitability for the thermochemical process (indirect gasification and production of mixed alcohol) is simulated for loblolly pine, natural hardwood, eucalyptus, corn stover and switchgrass. Higher ethanol yield with forest feedstock (due to higher content of %C and %H) result in better economic performance, when compare to agriculture biomass. This research indicates that forest feedstock outperform agriculture biomass in terms of delivered costs, supply chain, ethanol yield and process profitability. Loblolly

  2. Shared epitopes of avian immunoglobulin light chains.

    PubMed

    Benčina, Mateja; Cizelj, Ivanka; Berčič, Rebeka Lucijana; Narat, Mojca; Benčina, Dušan; Dovč, Peter

    2014-04-15

    Like all jawed vertebrates, birds (Aves) also produce antibodies i.e. immunoglobulins (Igs) as a defence mechanism against pathogens. Their Igs are composed of two identical heavy (H) and light (L) chains which are of lambda isotype. The L chain consists of variable (VL), joining (JL) and constant (CL) region. Using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (3C10 and CH31) to chicken L chain, we analysed their cross-reactivity with sera from 33 avian species belonging to nine different orders. Among Galliformes tested, mAbs 3C10 and CH31 reacted with L chains of chicken, turkey, four genera of pheasants, tragopan and peafowl, but not with sera of grey partridge, quail and Japanese quail. Immunoglobulins of guinea-fowl reacted only with mAb 3C10. Both mAbs reacted also with the L chain of Eurasian griffon (order Falconiformes) and domestic sparrow (order Passeriformes). Sera from six other orders of Aves did not react with either of the two mAbs. EIA using mAbs 3C10 and CH31 enabled detection of antibodies to major avian pathogens in sera of chickens, turkeys, pheasants, peafowl, Eurasian griffon and guinea-fowl (only with mAb 3C10). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of pheasant L chain (19 residues) was identical to that of chicken. Sequences of genes encoding the L chain constant regions of pheasants, turkey and partridge were determined and deposited in the public database (GenBank accession numbers: FJ 649651, FJ 649652 and FJ 649653, respectively). Among them, amino acid sequence of pheasants is the most similar to that of chicken (97% similarity), whereas those of turkey and partridge have greater similarity to each other (89%) than to any other avian L chain sequence. The characteristic deletion of two amino acids which is present in the L chain constant region in Galliformes has been most likely introduced to their L chain after their divergence from Anseriformes. PMID:24603015

  3. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  4. Chain Dynamics in Single Chain Limit by Rheological and Diffusion Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-Qing; Wang, Shanfeng

    2004-03-01

    Our recent trace and self diffusion measurements , indicate (a) (b) that the molecular weight scaling of the self-diffusion coefficient is non-reptative for moderately entangled polymer melts as noted previously (c) but asymptotically approaches the reptative exponent of -2.0 for sufficiently entangled polymers, whereas the trace diffusion coefficient, measured by immersing a dilute amount of probe chains in a matrix of sufficiently entangled polymer of the same species, scales reptatively even for the probe chains of moderate entanglement. To further understand the behavior of probe chain dynamics in a matrix, we have measured the intrinsic viscosity and intrinsic storage and loss moduli of dilute solutions made of long chains (in dilution) and short chains, where both chain lengths can be much longer than the entanglement chain length. A rich variety of chain dynamics is observed including Stokes-Zimm behavior and Rouse like behavior as a function of the long and short chain lengths and concentration. (a) S.Q. Wang, Highlight Article, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys., 41, 1589 (2003). (b) "Diffusion and Rheology of Binary Polymer Mixtures", S. Wang et al, Macromolecules, in press (2003). (c) T.P. Lodge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3218 (1999).

  5. Event-Driven Process Chains (EPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendling, Jan

    This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of Event-driven Process Chains (EPCs) and introduces a novel definition of EPC semantics. EPCs became popular in the 1990s as a conceptual business process modeling language in the context of reference modeling. Reference modeling refers to the documentation of generic business operations in a model such as service processes in the telecommunications sector, for example. It is claimed that reference models can be reused and adapted as best-practice recommendations in individual companies (see [230, 168, 229, 131, 400, 401, 446, 127, 362, 126]). The roots of reference modeling can be traced back to the Kölner Integrationsmodell (KIM) [146, 147] that was developed in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1990s, the Institute of Information Systems (IWi) in Saarbrücken worked on a project with SAP to define a suitable business process modeling language to document the processes of the SAP R/3 enterprise resource planning system. There were two results from this joint effort: the definition of EPCs [210] and the documentation of the SAP system in the SAP Reference Model (see [92, 211]). The extensive database of this reference model contains almost 10,000 sub-models: 604 of them non-trivial EPC business process models. The SAP Reference model had a huge impact with several researchers referring to it in their publications (see [473, 235, 127, 362, 281, 427, 415]) as well as motivating the creation of EPC reference models in further domains including computer integrated manufacturing [377, 379], logistics [229] or retail [52]. The wide-spread application of EPCs in business process modeling theory and practice is supported by their coverage in seminal text books for business process management and information systems in general (see [378, 380, 49, 384, 167, 240]). EPCs are frequently used in practice due to a high user acceptance [376] and extensive tool support. Some examples of tools that support EPCs are ARIS Toolset by IDS

  6. Risk assessment in the upstream crude oil supply chain: Leveraging analytic hierarchy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Charles Awoala

    For an organization to be successful, an effective strategy is required, and if implemented appropriately the strategy will result in a sustainable competitive advantage. The importance of decision making in the oil industry is reflected in the magnitude and nature of the industry. Specific features of the oil industry supply chain, such as its longer chain, the complexity of its transportation system, its complex production and storage processes, etc., pose challenges to its effective management. Hence, understanding the risks, the risk sources, and their potential impacts on the oil industry's operations will be helpful in proposing a risk management model for the upstream oil supply chain. The risk-based model in this research uses a three-level analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multiple-attribute decision-making technique, to underline the importance of risk analysis and risk management in the upstream crude oil supply chain. Level 1 represents the overall goal of risk management; Level 2 is comprised of the various risk factors; and Level 3 represents the alternative criteria of the decision maker as indicated on the hierarchical structure of the crude oil supply chain. Several risk management experts from different oil companies around the world were surveyed, and six major types of supply chain risks were identified: (1) exploration and production, (2) environmental and regulatory compliance, (3) transportation, (4) availability of oil, (5) geopolitical, and (6) reputational. Also identified are the preferred methods of managing risks which include; (1) accept and control the risks, (2) avoid the risk by stopping the activity, or (3) transfer or share the risks to other companies or insurers. The results from the survey indicate that the most important risk to manage is transportation risk with a priority of .263, followed by exploration/production with priority of .198, with an overall inconsistency of .03. With respect to major objectives the most

  7. Lean production in improving supply chain performance through hybrid model SCOR 11.0 - system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Chairul; Fatcha Mubiena, Ghaida; Immawan, Taufiq; Hassan, Azmi

    2016-02-01

    Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) is a method to measure supply chain serving the business process framework, performance indicators and unique technologies to support communication and collaboration among supply chain partners. The objective of this paper is to measure Supply Chain Management performance by using SCOR version 11.0 for production typology of MTS-MTO in Indonesian Batik Industry. This research combines SCOR's model and System Dynamics in order to predict the complex activities on batik industry. The hybrid SCOR-SD could identify the interaction among five attributes with the associated variables simultaneously. The results are obtained after the performance of lean production application is increased and the targets are achieved, even exceeding the target. For reliability attributes that associated with perfect order fulfilment started from 2015 to 2019 respectively are calculated as 80.06%, 103.53%, 105.58%, 93.76%, and 72.17%. Responsiveness attributes associated with the order fulfilment cycle time, respectively 122.45%, 149.10%, 159.26%, 131.53%, and 119.36%. Attributes associated with the total cost of service charge respectively 93.46%, 93.53%, 93.45%, 93.49, and 93.49%. Attributes associated with cash management assets to cash cycle time in a row were 160%, 153%, 146.3%, 150%, and 126.7%. The latter attribute is agility attributes associated with supply chain flexibility upside respectively 100%, 87.2%, 100%, 82%, and 82%.

  8. Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  9. Coordinating a supply chain with a loss-averse retailer and effort dependent demand.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  10. Energy localization in weakly dissipative resonant chains.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Agnessa

    2016-08-01

    Localization of energy in oscillator arrays has been of interest for a number of years, with special attention paid to the role of nonlinearity and discreteness in the formation of localized structures. This work examines a different type of energy localization arising due to the presence of dissipation in nonlinear resonance arrays. As a basic model, we consider a Klein-Gordon chain of finite length subjected to a harmonic excitation applied at an edge of the chain. It is shown that weak dissipation may be a key factor preventing the emergence of resonance in the entire chain, even if its nondissipative analog is entirely captured into resonance. The resulting process in the dissipative oscillator array represents large-amplitude resonant oscillations in a part of the chain adjacent to the actuator and small-amplitude oscillations in the distant part of the chain. The conditions of the emergence of resonance as well as the conditions of energy localization are derived. An agreement between the obtained analytical results and numerical simulations is demonstrated. PMID:27627299

  11. Energy localization in weakly dissipative resonant chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, Agnessa

    2016-08-01

    Localization of energy in oscillator arrays has been of interest for a number of years, with special attention paid to the role of nonlinearity and discreteness in the formation of localized structures. This work examines a different type of energy localization arising due to the presence of dissipation in nonlinear resonance arrays. As a basic model, we consider a Klein-Gordon chain of finite length subjected to a harmonic excitation applied at an edge of the chain. It is shown that weak dissipation may be a key factor preventing the emergence of resonance in the entire chain, even if its nondissipative analog is entirely captured into resonance. The resulting process in the dissipative oscillator array represents large-amplitude resonant oscillations in a part of the chain adjacent to the actuator and small-amplitude oscillations in the distant part of the chain. The conditions of the emergence of resonance as well as the conditions of energy localization are derived. An agreement between the obtained analytical results and numerical simulations is demonstrated.

  12. Using Gagne`s Chain in OJT

    SciTech Connect

    Fetters, F.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses Gagne`s Chain which is a taxonomy which can used as a tool to identify trainee deficiencies encountered during On-the-Job Training. It also assists in the development of effective training strategies for the training of deficient behaviors and knowledges. Gagne`s Chain presupposes three phases of acquisition for knowledges and skills identified as deficiencies: precondition, qualified acquisition, and unassisted demonstration. The hierarchy of the taxonomy identifies both the psychomotor and cognitive branches. At the ``Principles`` level, verbal and psychomotor activities are combined. Gagne`s Chain identifies the hierarchy as follows: Problem Solving [higher psychomotor and verbal combined level], Principles (lower psychomotor and verbal combined level), Association [highest verbal level], Discrimination [second highest verbal level], Signal Recognition [lowest verbal level], Operant Chain [higher psychomotor level], and Single Operant [lower psychomotor level]. A ``rule of thumb`` associated with the use of Gagne`s Chain is, if behavior or knowledge are not acquired at a higher level, the trainee should be trained at the next lower step. Then the knowledge or behavior acquired at this step becomes the precondition for the acquisition of the actual knowledge or skill identified at the original level.

  13. Validation of a terrestrial food chain model

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Blaylock, B.P. )

    1992-04-01

    An increasingly important topic in risk assessment is the estimation of human exposure to environmental pollutants through pathways other than inhalation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently developed a computerized methodology (EPA, 1990) to estimate indirect exposure to toxic pollutants from Municipal Waste Combuster emissions. This methodology estimates health risks from exposure to toxic pollutants from the terrestrial food chain (TFC), soil ingestion, drinking water ingestion, fish ingestion, and dermal absorption via soil and water. Of these, one of the most difficult to estimate is exposure through the food chain. This paper estimates the accuracy of the EPA methodology for estimating food chain contamination. To our knowledge, no data exist on measured concentrations of pollutants in food grown around Municipal Waste Incinerators, and few field-scale studies have been performed on the uptake of pollutants in the food chain. Therefore, to evaluate the EPA methodology, we compare actual measurements of background contaminant levels in food with estimates made using EPA's computerized methodology. Background levels of contaminants in air, water, and soil were used as input to the EPA food chain model to predict background levels of contaminants in food. These predicted values were then compared with the measured background contaminant levels. Comparisons were performed for dioxin, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and lead.

  14. Removing costs from the health care supply chain: lessons from mass retail.

    PubMed

    Agwunobi, John; London, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Improved supply-chain management and high-volume purchasing have benefited other industries. This same approach could also reduce health care costs. Streamlining layers in the supply chain and using purchasing volume to reduce prices can save money and may improve care. Providing access to in-store health clinics and low-cost generic drugs are examples of how this approach is being tested by mass retailers. We examine lessons learned from these and similar initiatives and identify opportunities to cut the costs of generic and name-brand drugs, medical supplies, over-the-counter remedies, and vision care. PMID:19738249

  15. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; et al

    2015-06-30

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmostmore » importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. Our paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Lastly, gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.« less

  16. Dynamics of global supply chain and electric power networks: Models, pricing analysis, and computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsypura, Dmytro

    In this dissertation, I develop a new theoretical framework for the modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of solutions to electric power supply chains with power generators, suppliers, transmission service providers, and the inclusion of consumer demands. In particular, I advocate the application of finite-dimensional variational inequality theory, projected dynamical systems theory, game theory, network theory, and other tools that have been recently proposed for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks (cf. Nagurney (2006)) to electric power markets. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature on the modeling, analysis, and solution of supply chain networks, including global supply chains, in general, and electric power supply chains, in particular, in the following ways. It develops a theoretical framework for modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of electric power flows/transactions in electric power systems using the rationale for supply chain analysis. The models developed include both static and dynamic ones. The dissertation also adds a new dimension to the methodology of the theory of projected dynamical systems by proving that, irrespective of the speeds of adjustment, the equilibrium of the system remains the same. Finally, I include alternative fuel suppliers, along with their behavior into the supply chain modeling and analysis framework. This dissertation has strong practical implications. In an era in which technology and globalization, coupled with increasing risk and uncertainty, complicate electricity demand and supply within and between nations, the successful management of electric power systems and pricing become increasingly pressing topics with relevance not only for economic prosperity but also national security. This dissertation addresses such related topics by providing models, pricing tools, and algorithms for decentralized electric power supply chains. This dissertation is based heavily on the following

  17. Chain Effects: The Impact of Academy Chains on Low Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Merryn; Francis, Becky; De Vries, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The authors analysed school performance data to review how well disadvantaged pupils achieve in academy chains. They included chains only if they had at least three academies in 2013, and two sponsored secondary academies for the whole period from September 2010 to July 2013. This means that academies are included in our analysis only when there…

  18. Reversible melting of extended-chain and folded-chain polymer crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androsch, Rene; Wunderlich, Bernhard; Radusch, Hans-Joachim

    2005-03-01

    The reversibility of crystallization and melting of crystals of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyethylene (PE) of extended-chain and folded-chain morphology has been investigated by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). The total and average specific reversibility of folded-chain crystals is considerably larger than in the case of extended-chain crystals. This experimental observation can be attributed to a different number of points of possible decoupling between crystallized and amorphous sequences along individual, partially crystallized molecules within the globally semi-crystalline superstructure in extended-chain and folded-chain crystals. Due to incomplete melting of the macromolecules, the morphology of the folded-chain crystal allows molecular segments to reversibly melt and crystallize as a function of temperature. The extended-chain conformation, in turn, inhibits reversible melting due to the required molecular nucleation after complete melting of a single molecule. The experimental findings support both, the concepts of lateral-surface activity and molecular nucleation presented earlier.

  19. Substrate Effects for Atomic Chain Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A substrate for future atomic chain electronics, where adatoms are placed at designated positions and form atomically precise device components, is studied theoretically. The substrate has to serve as a two-dimensional template for adatom mounting with a reasonable confinement barrier and also provide electronic isolation, preventing unwanted coupling between independent adatom structures. For excellent structural stability, we demand chemical bonding between the adatoms and substrate atoms, but then good electronic isolation may not be guaranteed. Conditions are clarified for good isolation. Because of the chemical bonding, fundamental adatom properties are strongly influenced: a chain with group IV adatoms having two chemical bonds, or a chain with group III adatoms having one chemical bond is semiconducting. Charge transfer from or to the substrate atoms brings about unintentional doping, and the electronic properties have to be considered for the entire combination of the adatom and substrate systems even if the adatom modes are well localized at the surface.

  20. Quantized spin waves in antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains.

    PubMed

    Wieser, R; Vedmedenko, E Y; Wiesendanger, R

    2008-10-24

    The quantized stationary spin wave modes in one-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin chains with easy axis on-site anisotropy have been studied by means of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert spin dynamics. We demonstrate that the confined antiferromagnetic chains show a unique behavior having no equivalent, neither in ferromagnetism nor in acoustics. The discrete energy dispersion is split into two interpenetrating n and n' levels caused by the existence of two sublattices. The oscillations of individual sublattices as well as the standing wave pattern strongly depend on the boundary conditions. Particularly, acoustical and optical antiferromagnetic spin waves in chains with boundaries fixed (pinned) on different sublattices can be found, while an asymmetry of oscillations appears if the two pinned ends belong to the same sublattice. PMID:18999780

  1. Growth and Dissolution of Macromolecular Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of free living copolymerization are studied for processes with rates depending on k monomeric units of the macromolecular chain behind the unit that is attached or detached. In this case, the sequence of monomeric units in the growing copolymer is a kth-order Markov chain. In the regime of steady growth, the statistical properties of the sequence are determined analytically in terms of the attachment and detachment rates. In this way, the mean growth velocity as well as the thermodynamic entropy production and the sequence disorder can be calculated systematically. These different properties are also investigated in the regime of depolymerization where the macromolecular chain is dissolved by the surrounding solution. In this regime, the entropy production is shown to satisfy Landauer's principle.

  2. Slowest local operators in quantum spin chains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungwon; Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J Ignacio; Hastings, Matthew B; Huse, David A

    2015-07-01

    We numerically construct slowly relaxing local operators in a nonintegrable spin-1/2 chain. Restricting the support of the operator to M consecutive spins along the chain, we exhaustively search for the operator that minimizes the Frobenius norm of the commutator with the Hamiltonian. We first show that the Frobenius norm bounds the time scale of relaxation of the operator at high temperatures. We find operators with significantly slower relaxation than the slowest simple "hydrodynamic" mode due to energy diffusion. Then we examine some properties of the nontrivial slow operators. Using both exhaustive search and tensor network techniques, we find similar slowly relaxing operators for a Floquet spin chain; this system is hydrodynamically "trivial," with no conservation laws restricting their dynamics. We argue that such slow relaxation may be a generic feature following from locality and unitarity. PMID:26274145

  3. Iron modulates the alpha chain of fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Jacobsen, Wayne K

    2016-04-01

    Iron-bound fibrinogen has been noted to accelerate plasmatic coagulation in patients with divergent conditions involving upregulation of heme oxygenase activity, including hemodialysis, Alzheimer's disease, sickle cell anemia, and chronic migraine. Our goal was to determine if a site of iron-fibrinogen interaction was on the alpha chain. Using thrombelastography, we compared the coagulation kinetic profiles of plasma exposed to 0-10 µM ferric chloride after activation of coagulation with thrombin generated by contact activation of plasma with the plastic sample cup or by exposure to 1 µg/ml of Calloselasma rhodostoma venom (rich in ancrod activity), which causes coagulation via polymerization of alpha chain monomers. Venom mediated coagulation always occurred before thrombin activated thrombus formation, and ferric chloride always diminished the time of onset of coagulation and increased the velocity of clot growth. Iron enhances plasmatic coagulation kinetics by modulating the alpha chain of fibrinogen. PMID:26782808

  4. New polymer systems: Chain extension by dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented for a systematic investigation on the use of anhydrides to prepare stable elastomeric materials for space use, under mild reaction conditions. The three anhydrides investigated were found to provide effective chain extension of hydroxy-terminated poly(alkylene oxides) and poly(butadienes). These were tetrahydrofuran tetracarboxylic dianhydride, pyromellitic dianhydride, and benzophenone tetracarboxylic diahydride. The most effective catalyst investigated was ferric acetylacetonate, which resulted in chain extension at 333 K (60 C). One feature of these anhydride reactants is that they are difunctional as anhydrides, but tetrafunctional if conditions are selected that lead to reaction of all carboxyl groups. Therefore, chain extension can be effected and then followed by crosslinking via the residual carboxyl groups.

  5. Ernst Chain: a great man of science.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-08-01

    This paper is a tribute to the scientific accomplishments of Ernst Chain and the influence he exerted over the fields of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Chain is the father of the modern antibiotic era and all the benefits that these therapeutic agents have brought, i.e., longer life spans, greater levels of public health, widespread modern surgery, and control of debilitating infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, gonorrhea, syphilis, etc. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to become commercially available, and its use ushered in the age of antibiotics. The discovery of penicillin's bactericidal action had been made by Alexander Fleming in London in 1928. After publishing his observations in 1929, no further progress was made until the work was picked up in 1939 by scientists at Oxford University. The group was headed by Howard Florey, and Chain was the group's lead scientist. Chain was born and educated in Germany, and he fled in 1933 as a Jewish refugee from Nazism to England. Other important members of the Oxford research team were Norman Heatley and Edward Abraham. The team was able to produce and isolate penicillin under conditions of scarce resources and many technical challenges. Sufficient material was collected and tested on mice to successfully demonstrate penicillin's bactericidal action on pathogens, while being nontoxic to mammals. Chain directed the microbiological methods for producing penicillin and the chemical engineering methods to extract the material. This technology was transferred to US government facilities in 1941 for commercial production of penicillin, becoming an important element in the Allied war effort. In 1945, the Nobel Prize for medicine was shared by Fleming, Florey, and Chain in recognition of their work in developing penicillin as a therapeutic agent. After World War II, Chain tried to persuade the British government to fund a new national antibiotic industry with both research and production facilities. As

  6. SHARP ENTRYWISE PERTURBATION BOUNDS FOR MARKOV CHAINS

    PubMed Central

    THIEDE, ERIK; VAN KOTEN, BRIAN; WEARE, JONATHAN

    2015-01-01

    For many Markov chains of practical interest, the invariant distribution is extremely sensitive to perturbations of some entries of the transition matrix, but insensitive to others; we give an example of such a chain, motivated by a problem in computational statistical physics. We have derived perturbation bounds on the relative error of the invariant distribution that reveal these variations in sensitivity. Our bounds are sharp, we do not impose any structural assumptions on the transition matrix or on the perturbation, and computing the bounds has the same complexity as computing the invariant distribution or computing other bounds in the literature. Moreover, our bounds have a simple interpretation in terms of hitting times, which can be used to draw intuitive but rigorous conclusions about the sensitivity of a chain to various types of perturbations. PMID:26491218

  7. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  8. Kinetic chain abnormalities in the athletic shoulder.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Aaron; Thigpen, Charles; Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith

    2012-03-01

    Overhead activities require the shoulder to be exposed to and sustain repetitive loads. The segmental activation of the body's links, known as the kinetic chain, allows this to occur effectively. Proper muscle activation is achieved through generation of energy from the central segment or core, which then transfers the energy to the terminal links of the shoulder, elbow, and hand. The kinetic chain is best characterized by 3 components: optimized anatomy, reproducible efficient motor patterns, and the sequential generation of forces. However, tissue injury and anatomic deficits such as weakness and/or tightness in the leg, pelvic core, or scapular musculature can lead to overuse shoulder injuries. These injuries can be prevented and maladaptations can be detected with a thorough understanding of biomechanics of the kinetic chain as it relates to overhead activity. PMID:22311288

  9. Single-Chain Semiconducting Polymer Dots

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the preparation and validation of single-chain semiconducting polymer dots (sPdots), which were generated using a method based on surface immobilization, washing, and cleavage. The sPdots have an ultrasmall size of ∼3.0 nm as determined by atomic force microscopy, a size that is consistent with the anticipated diameter calculated from the molecular weight of the single-chain semiconducting polymer. sPdots should find use in biology and medicine as a new class of fluorescent probes. The FRET assay this work presents is a simple and rapid test to ensure methods developed for preparing sPdot indeed produced single-chain Pdots as designed. PMID:25521606

  10. Predicting the chemical stability of monatomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zheng-Zhe; Chen, Xi

    2013-02-01

    A simple model for evaluating the thermal atomic transfer rates in nanosystems (Lin Z.-Z. et al., EPL, 94 (2011) 40002) was developed to predict the chemical reaction rates of nanosystems with small gas molecules. The accuracy of the model was verified by MD simulations for molecular adsorption and desorption on a monatomic chain. By the prediction, a monatomic carbon chain should survive for 1.2 × 102 years in the ambient of 1 atm O2 at room temperature, and it is very invulnerable to N2, H2O, NO2, CO and CO2, while a monatomic gold chain quickly ruptures in vacuum. It is worth noting that since the model can be easily applied via common ab initio calculations, it could be widely used in the prediction of chemical stability of nanosystems.

  11. Markov chains for testing redundant software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.; Sjogren, Jon A.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary design for a validation experiment has been developed that addresses several problems unique to assuring the extremely high quality of multiple-version programs in process-control software. The procedure uses Markov chains to model the error states of the multiple version programs. The programs are observed during simulated process-control testing, and estimates are obtained for the transition probabilities between the states of the Markov chain. The experimental Markov chain model is then expanded into a reliability model that takes into account the inertia of the system being controlled. The reliability of the multiple version software is computed from this reliability model at a given confidence level using confidence intervals obtained for the transition probabilities during the experiment. An example demonstrating the method is provided.

  12. The Respiratory Chain of Alkaliphilic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Ann Krulwich

    2008-01-29

    Alkaliphilic bacteria that grow at extremely high pH are confronted by particular bioenergetic problems in carrying out oxidative phosphorylation. This project focused on the properties and adaptations of the respiratory chain. The respiratory chain as a whole, the redox poises of its components and several individual complexes of the respiratory chain of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 have been characterized as part of this project and, importantly, this project has helped support the development of genetic tools that make B. pseudofirmus OF4 the most genetically tractable and, hence, most bioenergetically characterized extreme alkaliphile. Evidence has been obtained for a pivotal role of the cca3-type terminal oxidase in oxidative phosphorylation, especially at high pH and motifs that may be relevant to that special role have been identified.

  13. Magnetic chains on a triplet superconductor.

    PubMed

    Sacramento, P D

    2015-11-11

    The topological state of a two-dimensional triplet superconductor may be changed by an appropriate addition of magnetic impurities. A ferromagnetic magnetic chain at the surface of a superconductor with spin-orbit coupling may eliminate the edge states of a finite system giving rise to localized zero modes at the edges of the chain. The coexistence/competition between the two types of zero modes is considered. The reduction of the system to an effective 1d system gives partial information on the topological properties but the study of the two sets of zero modes requires a two-dimensional treatment. Increasing the impurity density from a magnetic chain to magnetic islands leads to a finite Chern number. At half-filling small concentrations are enough to induce chiral modes. PMID:26459719

  14. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    PubMed

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  15. Integration of vaccine supply chains with other health commodity supply chains: a framework for decision making.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Prashant; Lydon, Patrick; Oswald, Julianna; Dicko, Modibo; Zaffran, Michel

    2014-11-28

    One of the primary objectives of National Immunization Programs is to strengthen and optimize immunization supply chains so that vaccines are delivered to the end recipients effectively, efficiently and sustainably. As a result of larger investments in global health and a wider portfolio of vaccines, global agencies are recognizing the need for vaccine supply chains to operate at their most optimal levels. Integration with other supply chains is often presented as a strategy to improve efficiency. However, it remains unclear if the proposed benefits from integration of vaccine supply chains with other supply chains will outweigh the costs. This paper provides a framework for deciding where such integration offers the most significant benefits. It also cautions about the pitfalls of integration as a one size fits all strategy. It also highlights the need for systematic collection of cost and efficiency data in order to understand the value of integration and other such initiatives. PMID:25446826

  16. 4. Within building #6 chain was heattreated. On the left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Within building #6 chain was heat-treated. On the left are the overhead dumpers, which loaded tire chain into the rotary atmospheric furnaces (missing). On the right is the conveyor which pulled the heat-treated chain out of the quencher (cooking), situated beneath the furnaces. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  17. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  18. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  19. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  20. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  1. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  2. Radioimmunoassay of free light chains of immunoglobulins in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.L.; Gowland, E.; Ward, I.D.; Scarffe, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays for kappa and lambda light chains of immunoglobulins in urine are described. The assays, which involve antisera to free light chains, were sufficiently sensitive to measure the light chains in unconcentrated urine from healthy subjects. The usefulness of the assays in clinical practice is illustrated by measurements of light chain excretion by patients, including serial studies on patients undergoing treatment for myeloma.

  3. Weed Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management can complement integrated programs to manage weeds in forage production systems. This approach requires establishing management goals, developing and implementing management programs based on the goals, monitoring and assessing impacts of management efforts, and modifying goals a...

  4. Optical spin Hall effects in plasmonic chains.

    PubMed

    Shitrit, Nir; Bretner, Itay; Gorodetski, Yuri; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez

    2011-05-11

    Observation of optical spin Hall effects (OSHEs) manifested by a spin-dependent momentum redirection is presented. The effect occurring solely as a result of the curvature of the coupled localized plasmonic chain is regarded as the locally isotropic OSHE, while the locally anisotropic OSHE arises from the interaction between the optical spin and the local anisotropy of the plasmonic mode rotating along the chain. A wavefront phase dislocation was observed in a circular curvature, in which the dislocation strength was enhanced by the locally anisotropic effect. PMID:21513279

  5. Long-chain polyacetals from plant oils.

    PubMed

    Chikkali, Samir; Stempfle, Florian; Mecking, Stefan

    2012-07-13

    Plant oil-derived α,ω-diacetals are polycondensated to the novel polyacetals [OCH(2) O(CH(2))(y)](n) (y = 19 and 23) with molecular weight of ca. M(n) = 2 × 10(4) g mol(-1). The long methylene sequences provide substantial melt and crystallization temperatures (T(m) = 88 °C and T(c) = 68 °C for y = 23), and rates of hydrolytic degradation are dramatically lower for the long-chain polyacetals versus a shorter chain analogue (y = 12) studied for comparison. PMID:22648983

  6. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Colmenares, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  7. Entropy Computation in Partially Observed Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbouvries, François

    2006-11-01

    Let X = {Xn}n∈N be a hidden process and Y = {Yn}n∈N be an observed process. We assume that (X,Y) is a (pairwise) Markov Chain (PMC). PMC are more general than Hidden Markov Chains (HMC) and yet enable the development of efficient parameter estimation and Bayesian restoration algorithms. In this paper we propose a fast (i.e., O(N)) algorithm for computing the entropy of {Xn}n=0N given an observation sequence {yn}n=0N.

  8. Phonons of the cis-polyacetylene chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulques, Eric; Buisson, Jean-Pierre; Lefrant, Serge

    1995-12-01

    An investigation of the in-plane phonons of the cis-polyacetylene chain (CH)x and isotopic analogs (CD)x and (13CH)x is presented on the basis of a Fourier's dynamical D-matrix formalism. The conjugation is found to be similar to that of the trans-polyacetylene chain. Phonon dispersions have been calculated and follow the shapes predicted by Božović. Finally, the most interesting result is that phonon density of states exhibits van Hove singularities whose energies are close to those determined experimentally with incoherent inelastic neutron scattering.

  9. Structure and Stability of Monatomic Metallic Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Inder P.; Sen, Prasenjit; Ciraci, S.

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated atomic and electronic structure of Au and Al monatomic chains by using first-principle plane wave method within density-functional theory. Despite their different valencies, Au and Al form planar zigzag chains with each atom having four nearest neighbors. The zigzag structure is stable against linearization and non-planar deformations. We performed an extensive charge density analysis and finite temperature calculations to reveal the origin of the unusual atomic structure in these one dimensional metallic systems. The implications of the zigzag structure on the electronic properties and the balistic electron conduction have been examined.

  10. Peppytides: Interactive Models of Polypeptide Chains

    ScienceCinema

    Zuckermann, Ron; Chakraborty, Promita; Derisi, Joe

    2014-10-28

    Peppytides are scaled, 3D-printed models of polypeptide chains that can be folded into accurate protein structures. Designed and created by Berkeley Lab Researcher, Promita Chakraborty, and Berkeley Lab Senior Scientist, Dr. Ron Zuckermann, Peppytides are accurate physical models of polypeptide chains that anyone can interact with and fold intro various protein structures - proving to be a great educational tool, resulting in a deeper understanding of these fascinating structures and how they function. Build your own Peppytide model and learn about how nature's machines fold into their intricate architectures!

  11. Nanoparticle chains as electrochemical sensors and electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pu, Long; Baig, Maarij; Maheshwari, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    With the advances in the field of nanotechnology, significant progress is being achieved in fabrication of nanoscale electrodes (nanoelectrodes) and using their properties for applications in multiple fields. Compared with conventional macroscale electrodes, nanoelectrodes offer many advantages that arise from their limited size. Self-assembled chains of metal nanoparticles in particular have drawn interest for fabrication of nanoelectrodes because of their unique electrical properties and geometric morphology. This article discusses the fabrication methods and potential applications of nanoparticle chains as nanoelectrodes in electrochemical systems and also as conductometric sensors. The challenges for such systems are also summarized. PMID:26758602

  12. Peppytides: Interactive Models of Polypeptide Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckermann, Ron; Chakraborty, Promita; Derisi, Joe

    2014-01-21

    Peppytides are scaled, 3D-printed models of polypeptide chains that can be folded into accurate protein structures. Designed and created by Berkeley Lab Researcher, Promita Chakraborty, and Berkeley Lab Senior Scientist, Dr. Ron Zuckermann, Peppytides are accurate physical models of polypeptide chains that anyone can interact with and fold intro various protein structures - proving to be a great educational tool, resulting in a deeper understanding of these fascinating structures and how they function. Build your own Peppytide model and learn about how nature's machines fold into their intricate architectures!

  13. Excitation Chains at the Glass Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, J. S.

    2006-09-15

    The excitation-chain theory of the glass transition, proposed in an earlier publication, predicts diverging, super-Arrhenius relaxation times and, via a similarly diverging length scale, suggests a way of understanding the relations between dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-forming liquids. I argue here that critically large excitation chains play a role roughly analogous to that played by critical clusters in the droplet model of vapor condensation. Unlike a first-order condensation point in a vapor, the glass transition is not a conventional phase transformation, and may not be a thermodynamic transition at all.

  14. Entanglement Dynamics of Disordered Quantum XY Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Rahman, Houssam; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Sims, Robert; Stolz, Günter

    2016-05-01

    We consider the dynamics of the quantum XY chain with disorder under the general assumption that the expectation of the eigenfunction correlator of the associated one-particle Hamiltonian satisfies a decay estimate typical of Anderson localization. We show that, starting from a broad class of product initial states, entanglement remains bounded for all times. For the XX chain, we also derive bounds on the particle transport which, in particular, show that the density profile of initial states that consist of fully occupied and empty intervals only have significant dynamics near the edges of those intervals, uniformly for all times.

  15. Effects of chain flexibility on the properties of DNA hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Wen, Hao; Niu, Lin; Su, Cuicui; Liu, Chenyang; Zhao, Jiang; Mao, Chengde; Liang, Dehai

    2016-07-01

    The effect of chain rigidity on the mechanic properties of DNA hydrogels was studied. Counterintuitively, the hydrogel formed by mainly flexible chains exhibited better stability, stretchability, and much mechanical properties than the hydrogel containing only rigid chains. Calculations showed that the crosslinking ratio in the hydrogel formed by flexible chains was about twice that of the hydrogel formed by rigid chains under the same conditions. We attributed this to the ease of conformational adjustment of flexible chains. Incorporation of 25% rigid chains further improved the performance of DNA hydrogel by shrinking the pore size and tuning its distribution. PMID:27121600

  16. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Bever, Katherine M; Masha, Luke I; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C; Sloan, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60-11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  17. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bever, Katherine M.; Masha, Luke I.; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C.; Sloan, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60–11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  18. Shrinking the Supply Chain for Implantable Coronary Stent Devices.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean S; O'Sullivan, Kevin J; Verdecchia, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Stenting treatments for the management of disease in the heart, arterial and venous systems, biliary ducts, urethras, ureters, oesophageal tract and prostate have made enormous technical advances since their introduction into clinical use. The progression from metallic to polymer based bio-absorbable stents, coupled with the advances in additive manufacturing techniques, present a unique opportunity to completely re-envision the design, manufacture, and supply chain of stents. This paper looks at current stenting trends and proposes a future where the stent supply chain is condensed from ~150 days to ~20 min. The Cardiologist therefore has the opportunity to become a designer, manufacturer and user with patients receiving custom stents specific to their unique pathology that will be generated, delivered and deployed in the Cath-lab. The paper will outline this potentially revolutionary development and consider the technical challenges that will need to be overcome in order to achieve these ambitious goals. A high level overview of the generating eluting stents in situ program-GENESIS-is outlined including some early experimental work. PMID:26438449

  19. Labeling to manage marketing of GM foods.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart; Phillips, Peter W B

    2003-09-01

    Biotechnology has the potential to introduce new food safety risks, liabilities and benefits, and although privately managed supply chains (involving proactive management of the production of branded products) are effective at providing, managing and communicating adequate information about products with well understood risks, products with uncertain risks pose a greater challenge. The demand for increased product information regarding genetically modified content, in particular, places new constraints on food supply chains, frequently resulting in communication failures. Here we assess and reject mandatory labeling as an appropriate response. PMID:12948671

  20. The monoculture vs. rotation strategies in forestry: formalization and prediction by means of Markov-chain modelling.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Olga; Korotkov, Vladimir N; Logofet, Dmitrii O

    2005-10-01

    The monoculture strategy of forest management, where the same tree species (e.g., Picea abies) is cultivated in a number of successive planting-growing-felling cycles, is generally considered to be economically efficient, yet not sustainable as it reduces biodiversity in the forest. The sound alternative suggests a long-term strategy of forest management in which different forest types rotate either with planting after clear cutting, or by natural forest succession, yet the commercial output remains dubious. We suggest an approach to formalization and modelling forest dynamics in the long-term by means of Markov chains, the monoculture strategy resulting in an absorbing chain and the rotation one in a regular chain. The approach is illustrated with a case study of Russkii Les, a managed forest located in the Moscow Region, Russia, and the nearby forest reserve having been used as a data source for undisturbed forest dynamics. Starting with conceptual schemes of transitions among certain forest types (states of the chain) in the monoculture and rotation cases, we estimated the transition probabilities by an original method based on average duration of the corresponding states and on the likelihood of alternative transitions from a state into the next one. Formal analysis of the regular chain reveals an opportunity to achieve particular management objectives within the rotation strategy, in particular, to get the distribution of forest types in accordance with an adopted hierarchy of their commercial values, i.e. more valuable types have greater shares. PMID:16111801

  1. Microsporidia - Emergent Pathogens in the Global Food Chain.

    PubMed

    Stentiford, G D; Becnel, J J; Weiss, L M; Keeling, P J; Didier, E S; Williams, B A P; Bjornson, S; Kent, M L; Freeman, M A; Brown, M J F; Troemel, E R; Roesel, K; Sokolova, Y; Snowden, K F; Solter, L

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of food production has the potential to drive increased disease prevalence in food plants and animals. Microsporidia are diversely distributed, opportunistic, and density-dependent parasites infecting hosts from almost all known animal taxa. They are frequent in highly managed aquatic and terrestrial hosts, many of which are vulnerable to epizootics, and all of which are crucial for the stability of the animal-human food chain. Mass rearing and changes in global climate may exacerbate disease and more efficient transmission of parasites in stressed or immune-deficient hosts. Further, human microsporidiosis appears to be adventitious and primarily associated with an increasing community of immune-deficient individuals. Taken together, strong evidence exists for an increasing prevalence of microsporidiosis in animals and humans, and for sharing of pathogens across hosts and biomes. PMID:26796229

  2. Microsporidia – Emergent Pathogens in the Global Food Chain

    PubMed Central

    Stentiford, G.D.; Becnel, J.J.; Weiss, L.M.; Keeling, P.J.; Didier, E.S.; Williams, B.A.P.; Bjornson, S.; Kent, M.L.; Freeman, M.A.; Brown, M.J.F.; Troemel, E.R.; Roesel, K.; Sokolova, Y.; Snowden, K.F.; Solter, L.

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of food production has the potential to drive increased disease prevalence in food plants and animals. Microsporidia are diversely distributed, opportunistic, and density-dependent parasites infecting hosts from almost all known animal taxa. They are frequent in highly managed aquatic and terrestrial hosts, many of which are vulnerable to epizootics, and all of which are crucial for the stability of the animal–human food chain. Mass rearing and changes in global climate may exacerbate disease and more efficient transmission of parasites in stressed or immune-deficient hosts. Further, human microsporidiosis appears to be adventitious and primarily associated with an increasing community of immune-deficient individuals. Taken together, strong evidence exists for an increasing prevalence of microsporidiosis in animals and humans, and for sharing of pathogens across hosts and biomes. PMID:26796229

  3. Bars to jars: bamboo value chains in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Verina; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2013-04-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and savannah Oxytenanthera abyssinica) and exotic (Bambusa vulgaris spp.) bamboos were identified as most utilized. They were tracked from major production zones to final consumers. The ecological, socio-economic, institutional, and governance contexts and impacts are described and analyzed. Issues for research, conservation, and development are highlighted. These include the ambiguous regulatory status, the relationship between tenure and management, threats and conservation of African species and options to increase the sustainable livelihoods for stakeholders dependent upon bamboo. PMID:23015325

  4. On the tryptic peptides from hemoglobin chains of six carnivores.

    PubMed

    Brimhall, B; Stenzel, P; Dresler, S L; Hermodson, M; Stangland, K; Joyce, J; Jones, R T

    1977-05-13

    The amino acid compositions of the tryptic peptides of the following carnivore hemoglobin chains have been determined: gray fox (Urocyon cineroargenteus); raccoon (Procyon lotor); polar bear (Thalarctos maritimus); coati mundi (Nasua nasua) beta chain; coati mundi (Nasua narica) two beta chains; cat (Felis catus) alpha chain; and lion (Pantbera leo) beta chain. These provide a basis for future sequencing of these hemoglobins and construction of an evolutionary tree. The specific results are summarized in the following article (Stenzel and Brimhall, 1977). PMID:864727

  5. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  6. Chain dynamics near surfaces: an unconventional approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Jean-Loup; Green, Peter

    2001-03-01

    Chain dynamics near surfaces: an unconventional approach Jean-Loup Masson and Peter F. Green Graduate Program in Materials Science and Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin When the thickness of a polymer film is comparable to the radius of gyration, or a few radii of gyration, of the polymer chains, the properties of the film can differ appreciably from the bulk. Indeed, recent studies have documented the existence of changes of the glass transition, translational chain diffusion and the viscosity, with decreasing film thickness. For liquid films, a few tens of nanometers thick, on substrates, the disjoining pressure has a significant effect on the stability of the film. This can result on the formation of patterns reflecting fluctuations in the local film thickness. The structural, time-dependent, evolution of the film is a reflection of the effects of the disjoining pressure together with the translational dynamics of the chains. This presentation discusses the structural evolution of a thin polymer film in light of theoretical models to gain insight into the manner in which the diffusion and viscosity of the polymer changes with decreasing film thickness.

  7. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Driven by the Energy and Independence Act of 2007 mandate to increase production of alternative fuels and to ensure that this increase causes minimal environmental impact, a project to design sustainable biofuel supply chains has been developed. This effort uses life cycle asses...

  8. Quasicrystal Ising chain and automata theory

    SciTech Connect

    Allouche, J.P.; France, M.M.

    1986-03-01

    An automatic sequence is generated by a finite machine (automaton). These sequences can be periodic or not; in the latter case, however, they are not random, but rather ''quasicrystalline.'' The authors consider an Ising chain with variable interaction in a uniform external field, at zero temperature, and prove that, if this interaction is automatic, then the induced magnetic field is also automatic.

  9. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Caldeira, Ken

    2011-01-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally attributed to the country where the emissions are produced (i.e., where the fuels are burned). However, these production-based accounts represent a single point in the value chain of fossil fuels, which may have been extracted elsewhere and may be used to provide goods or services to consumers elsewhere. We present a consistent set of carbon inventories that spans the full supply chain of global CO2 emissions, finding that 10.2 billion tons CO2 or 37% of global emissions are from fossil fuels traded internationally and an additional 6.4 billion tons CO2 or 23% of global emissions are embodied in traded goods. Our results reveal vulnerabilities and benefits related to current patterns of energy use that are relevant to climate and energy policy. In particular, if a consistent and unavoidable price were imposed on CO2 emissions somewhere along the supply chain, then all of the parties along the supply chain would seek to impose that price to generate revenue from taxes collected or permits sold. The geographical concentration of carbon-based fuels and relatively small number of parties involved in extracting and refining those fuels suggest that regulation at the wellhead, mine mouth, or refinery might minimize transaction costs as well as opportunities for leakage. PMID:22006314

  10. Heterogeneous Force Chains in Cellularized Biopolymer Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Long; Jones, Christopher Allen Rucksack; Sun, Bo; Jiao, Yang

    Biopolymer Networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the mechanical response of a model biopolymer network due to the active contraction of embedded cells. Specifically, a graph (bond-node) model derived from confocal microscopy data is used to represent the network microstructure, and cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes, representing the focal adhesion sites. A force-based stochastic relaxation method is employed to obtain force-balanced network under cell contraction. We find that the majority of the forces are carried by a small number of heterogeneous force chains emerged from the contracting cells. The force chains consist of fiber segments that either possess a high degree of alignment before cell contraction or are aligned due to the reorientation induced by cell contraction. Large fluctuations of the forces along different force chains are observed. Importantly, the decay of the forces along the force chains is significantly slower than the decay of radially averaged forces in the system, suggesting that the fibreous nature of biopolymer network structure could support long-range mechanical signaling between cells.

  11. Chain Feeding. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp, Jane

    Supporting performance objectives 82, 76, and 85 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on chain feeding techniques and correction methods are included in this packet. (The packet is the sixth in a set of fifteen on typewriting--CE 016…

  12. The Electron Transport Chain: An Interactive Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Chris; Choun, James

    2014-01-01

    This activity provides students an interactive demonstration of the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis during aerobic respiration. Students use simple, everyday objects as hydrogen ions and electrons and play the roles of the various proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane to show how this specific process in cellular…

  13. Determining Annealing Temperatures for Polymerase Chain Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porta, Angela R.; Enners, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common technique used in high school and undergraduate science teaching. Students often do not fully comprehend the underlying principles of the technique and how optimization of the protocol affects the outcome and analysis. In this molecular biology laboratory, students learn the steps of PCR with an…

  14. Polymerase Chain Reaction for Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Stephen J.; dePamphillis, Claude

    1994-01-01

    Suggests the incorporation of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique into high school and college biology laboratories. Discusses the following sections: (1) current PCR applications; (2) PCR technique; (3) Manual and Machine PCR; (4) Manual PCR Preparations and Procedure; (5) Materials, Supplies, and Recipes; (6) Primer Selection; and (7)…

  15. New polymer systems: Chain extension by dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Three anhydrides provide effective chain extension of hydroxy-terminated polyalkylene oxides and polybutadienes. Novel feature of these anhydride reactants is that they are difunctional as anhydrides, but they are tetrafunctional if conditions are selected that lead to total esterification or reaction of all carboxyl groups.

  16. Teaching Swimming Using a Backward Chain Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    The backward chaining instructional method, based on behavioral learning principles, offers swimming instructors an alternative to traditional methods of teaching swimming skills by breaking down the skill into a number of tasks or steps and teaching them in reverse sequence. (CB)

  17. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  18. Generalized mutual information of quantum critical chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz, F. C.; Rajabpour, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the generalized mutual information I˜n of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The generalized mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the Rényi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete Z (Q ) symmetries (Q -state Potts model with Q =2 ,3 ,4 and Z (Q ) parafermionic models with Q =5 ,6 ,7 ,8 and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the U (1 ) continuous symmetries (Klein-Gordon field theory, X X Z and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wave functions in two special bases. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter n that defines I˜n. For a system, with total size L and subsystem sizes ℓ and L -ℓ , the I˜n has a logarithmic leading behavior given by c/˜n4 log[L/π sin(π/ℓ L ) ] where the coefficient c˜n is linearly dependent on the central charge c of the underlying conformal field theory describing the system's critical properties.

  19. Chain Shift in Second Language Phonological Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shin-Sook

    2000-01-01

    Examines whether Korean students learning English as a Second Language show chain shift of a similar kind to that demonstrated in first language acquisition, and if so, whether there is any difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition with respect to affected sounds. (Author/VWL)

  20. Hybrid ion chains inside an optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zichao; Siverns, James; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2016-05-01

    Trapped ions remain a leading candidate for the implementation of large-scale quantum networks. These networks require nodes that can store and process quantum information as well as communicate with each other though photonic flying qubits. We propose to use hybrid ion chains of barium, for communication, and ytterbium, for quantum information processing. We report on progress in setting up a hybrid ion chain in a versatile four-blade trap using high numerical aperture collection optics. Although the visible photons produced from barium ions are more favorable as they are not suitable for long distance fiber communication. With this in mind, we intend to implement frequency conversion to overcome this issue. Also, with the view toward increasing the flying-qubit production rate, we propose a cavity-based system to enhance interactions between the ions and photons. The cavity axis is to be placed along the axial direction of the trap allowing a chain of multiple ions to interact with the cavity at the same time. With this configuration the atom-photon coupling strength can be improved by sqrt(N), where N is the number of ions. Experiments will focus on exploring the dynamics of hybrid ion chain, dual species quantum information processing, two-colour entanglement and phase gates assisted by the ion-cavity coupling are to be explored.

  1. The Epistemological Chain: Practical Applications in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grecic, David; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the role of personal epistemology in decision-making and proposes the construct of an epistemological chain (EC) to support this process in the domain of sports coaching. First, the EC is outlined using examples from education and other parallel disciplines. What it looks like to sports coaches is then described, and its…

  2. Document Ranking Based upon Markov Chains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danilowicz, Czeslaw; Balinski, Jaroslaw

    2001-01-01

    Considers how the order of documents in information retrieval responses are determined and introduces a method that uses a probabilistic model of a document set where documents are regarded as states of a Markov chain and where transition probabilities are directly proportional to similarities between documents. (Author/LRW)

  3. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  4. Transitive reasoning distorts induction in causal chains.

    PubMed

    von Sydow, Momme; Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2016-04-01

    A probabilistic causal chain A→B→C may intuitively appear to be transitive: If A probabilistically causes B, and B probabilistically causes C, A probabilistically causes C. However, probabilistic causal relations can only guaranteed to be transitive if the so-called Markov condition holds. In two experiments, we examined how people make probabilistic judgments about indirect relationships A→C in causal chains A→B→C that violate the Markov condition. We hypothesized that participants would make transitive inferences in accordance with the Markov condition although they were presented with counterevidence showing intransitive data. For instance, participants were successively presented with data entailing positive dependencies A→B and B→C. At the same time, the data entailed that A and C were statistically independent. The results of two experiments show that transitive reasoning via a mediating event B influenced and distorted the induction of the indirect relation between A and C. Participants' judgments were affected by an interaction of transitive, causal-model-based inferences and the observed data. Our findings support the idea that people tend to chain individual causal relations into mental causal chains that obey the Markov condition and thus allow for transitive reasoning, even if the observed data entail that such inferences are not warranted. PMID:26620811

  5. Synthesis of furanonaphthoquinones with hydroxyamino side chains.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Johnson, R K; Mattern, M R; Wong, J C; Kingston, D G

    1999-07-01

    Several furanonaphthoquinones have shown useful activity in a yeast assay for DNA-damaging agents and cytotoxicity in mammalian cell culture assays. These results, together with the planar aromatic character of the furanonaphthoquinones, suggested that they might be acting as DNA intercalators. In an attempt to improve this activity, various analogues containing a hydroxyamino side chain have been synthesized. The analogues were prepared by standard methods, but some unexpected reactions were observed nonetheless. Thus, 8-formyl-5-methoxy-4,9-dihydronaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (24) showed an unusual reactivity toward reductive amination, with the reaction proceeding further to give one of two different cyclized products, depending on the amination reagent used. Bioassay results indicated that only simple furanonaphthoquines showed activity in a yeast assay for DNA-damaging agents; compounds with a substituted hydroxyamino side chain were uniformly inactive in this assay. Most of the compounds with a substituted hydroxyamino side chain on the furan ring did, however, show cytotoxicity, although none of them was any more active than the simple aldehyde 2-formyl-4, 9-dihydronaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (14). This evidence tends to suggest that the furanonaphthoquinones do not serve primarily as DNA intercalators, because if this were the case, they would have been expected to show an increased activity on conversion to their hydroxyamino side chain derivatives. PMID:10425117

  6. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently put forth a new vision for environmental protection that states that sustainability is our “True North”. In support of this new vision, an effort to design supply chains to ...

  7. The repeated acquisition of behavioral chains1

    PubMed Central

    Boren, John J.; Devine, Dennis D.

    1968-01-01

    Monkeys were trained with food reinforcement in a chamber containing four groups of three levers. For each session the monkey's task was to learn a new four-response chain by pressing the correct lever in each group. A stable pattern of learning resulted, and the number of errors reached a steady state from session to session. The technique was then used to determine how various durations of timeouts, following errors, affected the acquisition of new chains. With no timeout, the monkeys made a great many errors, due in large part to superstitious responses within the reinforced chain. Timeout durations ranging from 1 sec to 4 min reduced the number of errors substantially. A second experiment investigated the effects upon acquisition errors of presenting a single light (an “instruction” stimulus) over the correct lever. When this light did not influence the monkeys' responses to the three alternatives, the chains were learned as without it. When the light did control responding, the monkey pressed the appropriate sequence of levers but did not learn the sequence. Thus, when the light was removed, the monkey performed as if learning that sequence for the first time. PMID:16811312

  8. Cooperative spin decoherence in finite spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Fernando; Fernandez-Rossier, Joaquin

    2014-03-01

    Overcoming the problem of relaxation and decoherence of magnetic nanostructures is one of the mayor goals in magnetic data storage. Although spin chains with as few as 12 magnetic atoms have revealed stability in cryogenic conditions, understanding the mechanism leading to these effects is essential for the engineered of stable structures. Here we consider the problem of spin decoherence and relaxation of finite size quantum spin chains due to elastic and spin conserving interactions with an electron gas. Specifically, we consider how the decoherence (T2) and relaxation (T1) times between the two degenerate ground states of a chain of N coupled spins compares with the one of an isolated spin in the same environment. We find that the spin decoherence time of Ising chains can be either enhanced or suppressed depending on the matching between the Fermi wavelength 2 π /kF and the inter-spin distance a. In particular, we find that depending on the values of kF a , it can show, for certain values that depends on the dimensionality of the electron gas, a cooperative enhancement proportional to N2 of the decoherence, analogous to super radiance decay of atom ensembles, or a suppression.

  9. The Research on Integrated Strategy of Supply Chain Information Systems in the Automobile Industry Based on Order-To-Delivery Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Gan, Lianzhen; He, Xuefeng

    The automotive industry there are different degrees of impairment of many companies supply chain IT strategy. In this paper, in which the automotive industry supply chain management business cooperation between enterprises loose, poor exchange of information leading to the presence or delays in product customization, supply of raw materials, material control, production planning and control, sales and service and a fast response propose a series of typical problems of scientific and rational supply chain information integration strategy. The strategy through the development system integration platform, improve internal ERP system, implementation of supply chain management and other methods. Put some protection principles in the information process, to ensure the correct implementation of supply chain IT strategy, and ultimately achieve collaborative business development concept and enhance the automotive industry as a whole level of information.

  10. Chain and Ion Dynamics in Ionomer Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Register, Richard A.

    2003-03-01

    Ionomers contain a minor quantity of covalently-bound ionic sites, such as carboxylic or sulfonic acid salts, typically distributed randomly along the polymer backbone. Associations between these ionic groups greatly increase the melt viscosity and elasticity through the formation of a reversible network, where the ionic crosslinks gradually relax by a ``hopping" of ionic groups between aggregates. Because terminal relaxation of the chain requires an accumulation of many hops, the time scales for ion and chain motion differ by several orders of magnitude, so we employ mechanical rheometry to probe chain motion, and gauge ion motion through cation diffusion, by annealing for a preset interval and measuring the cation concentration profile through electron probe microanalysis or electron spin resonance spectroscopy. We have investigated both ethylene-methacrylic acid (E/MAA) ionomers, with a broad molecular weight distribution and substantial long-chain branching, as well as new linear-chain ionomers of narrow distribution based on lightly-sulfonated styrene-ethylene-butene (SSEB) terpolymers. Our E/MAA results support the ion-hopping mechanism, with similarly-large activation energies for terminal relaxation and cation diffusion. The choice of neutralizing metal cation has only a modest effect on the dynamics, though the terminal time increases exponentially with neutralization level. Unneutralized acid groups can accelerate the ion-hopping process by "plasticizing" the ionic aggregates. The model SSEB ionomers, which are noncrystallizable and have a low Tg, permit measurements over a much wider range of effective frequencies and are found to deviate substantially from time-temperature superposition, because the outermost portions of the polymer chains, which contain no ionic groups, relax with a smaller activation energy. Relaxation of these chain segments leads to a dilution of the entanglement network, and a plateau modulus below that for highly

  11. Chain termination in polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis: involvement of exogenous hydroxy-compounds as chain transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Madden, L A; Anderson, A J; Shah, D T; Asrar, J

    1999-01-01

    We have identified a range of compounds which, when present during poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] accumulation by Ralstonia eutropha (reclassified from Alcaligenes eutrophus), can act as chain transfer agents in the chain termination step of polymerization. End-group analysis by 31P NMR of polymer derivatized with 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane revealed that all these compounds were covalently linked to P(3HB) at the carboxyl terminus. All chain transfer agents possessed one or more hydroxyl groups, and glycerol was selected for further investigation. The number-average molecular mass (Mn) of P(3HB) produced by R. eutropha from glycerol was substantially lower than for polymer produced from glucose, and we identified two new end-group structures. These were attributed to a glycerol molecule bound to the P(3HB) chain via the primary or secondary hydroxyl groups. When a primary hydroxyl group of glycerol is involved in chain transfer, the end-group structure is in both [R] and [S] configurations, implying that chain transfer to glycerol is a random transesterification and that PHA synthase does not catalyse chain transfer. 3-Hydroxybutyric acid is the most probable chain transfer agent in vivo, with propagation and termination reactions involving transfer of the P(3HB) chain to enzyme-bound and free 3-hydroxybutyrate, respectively. Only carboxyl end-groups were detected in P(3HB) extracted from exponentially growing bacteria. It is proposed that a compound other than 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA acts as a primer in the initiation of polymer synthesis. PMID:10416649

  12. Petrologic evolution of the Louisville seamount chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, James W.; Lonsdale, Peter F.; Batiza, Rodey

    The Louisville Seamount Chain (LSC) extends for 4300 km from Osbourn Seamount, at the junction of the Tonga and Kermadec Trenches, southeasterly towards the Pacific Antarctic Ridge. The chain is formed of 60 or more seamounts and guyots which are aligned along a trend concentric with the Emperor-Hawaii Chain. The Louisville Chain crosses at a low angle several fracture zones which are part of the Eltanin Fracture Zone system, but there is no apparent genetic relation between the two structures. Rocks collected from the Louisville Chain comprise a spectrum of rock types including alkalic basalt, hawaiite, and basanitoid. Some samples have compositions suggesting that they are transitional to tholeiitic basalt, but no true tholeiites have been collected from the seamounts. Osbourn Seamount, at the westernmost end of the chain, is capped with basanitoid; these have been dated as ˜66 Ma. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts in basaltic composition pebbles and detrital grains of clinopyroxene have been recovered from DSDP site 204, north of Osbourn Seamount, at subbottom depths of 112 to 114 meters (Late? Cretaceous age). Some of these pyroxenes have compositions indicating a tholeiitic parental magma, some were derived from alkalic magmas. Osbourn Seamount or an older neighbor were likely sources of the clastic sediments. This is an indication that the early stages of seamount volcanism included tholeiitic magmas, magmatism subsequently evolved through alkalic and basanitic types. Samples dredged from the carapaces of seamounts east of Osbourn are mainly alkalic basalt, or hawaiite, or both. The young, eastern end of the chain near Long. 139°10'W has alkalic basalt lavas. Modeling of trace element and REE data suggest that small amounts (e.g., 4%) melting of garnet Iherzolite could have provided the parental alkalic basalt magmas. Basanitoids represent slightly higher (˜9%) levels of melting. Element ratios of Ti/Zr, Nb/Zr, Y/Zr, Ba/La, La/Ce, La/Sm, Nb/La suggest that the

  13. Breathers in oscillator chains with Hertzian interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Guillaume; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Cuevas, Jesús

    2013-05-01

    We prove nonexistence of breathers (spatially localized and time-periodic oscillations) for a class of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices representing an uncompressed chain of beads interacting via Hertz’s contact forces. We then consider the setting in which an additional on-site potential is present, motivated by the Newton’s cradle under the effect of gravity. We show the existence of breathers in such systems, using both direct numerical computations and a simplified asymptotic model of the oscillator chain, the so-called discrete p-Schrödinger (DpS) equation. From a spectral analysis, we determine breather stability and explain their translational motion under very weak perturbations. Numerical simulations demonstrate the excitation of traveling breathers from simple initial conditions corresponding to small perturbations at the first site of the chain. This regime is well described by the DpS equation, and is found to occur for physical parameter values in granular chains with stiff local oscillators. In addition, traveling breather propagation can be hindered or even suppressed in other parameter regimes. For soft on-site potentials, a part of the energy remains trapped near the boundary and forms a surface mode. For hard on-site potentials and large to moderate initial excitations, one observes a “boomeron”, i.e. a traveling breather displaying spontaneous direction-reversing motion. In addition, dispersion is significantly enhanced when a precompression is applied to the chain. Depending on parameters, this results either in the absence of traveling breather excitation on long time scales, or in the formation of a “nanopteron” characterized by a sizable wave train lying at both sides of the localized excitation.

  14. Solution NMR assignment of the heavy chain complex of the human cardiac myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Rostkova, Elena; Gautel, Mathias; Pfuhl, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The regulatory light chain (RLC) of striated and cardiac muscle myosin plays a complex role in muscle function and regulation. Together with the essential light chain it provides stability to the lever arm, which is essential for force generation. Furthermore, phosphorylation and interaction with myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) suggest an additional role in the regulation of muscle contraction. The former is of particular importance in the heart, where RLC phosphorylation appears to be correlated to the wringing motion of heart contraction. To address these questions and because of a lack of mammalian RLC structures, we initiated an NMR study of the human cardiac regulatory myosin light chain. PMID:24414277

  15. A Novel Algorithm for the Generation of Distinct Kinematic Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medapati, Sreenivasa Reddy; Kuchibhotla, Mallikarjuna Rao; Annambhotla, Balaji Srinivasa Rao

    2016-07-01

    Generation of distinct kinematic chains is an important topic in the design of mechanisms for various industrial applications i.e., robotic manipulator, tractor, crane etc. Many researchers have intently focused on this area and explained various processes of generating distinct kinematic chains which are laborious and complex. It is desirable to enumerate the kinematic chains systematically to know the inherent characteristics of a chain related to its structure so that all the distinct chains can be analyzed in depth, prior to the selection of a chain for a purpose. This paper proposes a novel and simple method with set of rules defined to eliminate isomorphic kinematic chains generating distinct kinematic chains. Also, this method simplifies the process of generating distinct kinematic chains even at higher levels i.e., 10-link, 11-link with single and multiple degree of freedom.

  16. Conceptual Model of Supply Chain Structure Mapping - A Case of Subsidized LPG Commodity in Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistio, Joko; Thoif, Afifuddin; Fitri Alindira, Aulia

    2016-01-01

    — In 2007, the government launched a conversion program of kerosene to LPG by issuing a Presidential Regulation No. 104/2007 on Supply, Distribution and Pricing LPG 3 Kg. Article 2 on the regulation says that setting the supply, distribution, and pricing of LPG 3 Kg include planning an annual sales volume of enterprises, the reference price and the retail price and conditions of export and import of LPG 3 Kg in order to reduce subsidies Kerosene especially to divert the use of kerosene according to government policy. In principle, the purpose of this policy is to reduce energy subsidies on commodities, especially Kerosene. Although the government claimed the conversion program is success, there are few problems arising from conversion program. In 2014, many scarcity and high price of LPG 3 Kg were reported. In this case, Pertamina was given full authority to manage all supply chain and distribution. Because the root of the problem of scarcity that occurred in the supply chain system has not been explained, the proposed solutions will also be partial and not comprehensive. Thus, this research will build a structural map of the causes of supply chain system LPG 3 Kg, as well as providing a comprehensive picture of system dynamics of LPG 3 Kg supply chain system which applied in Indonesia. And the result is expected as in form of Causal Loop Diagram of supply chain system.

  17. Developing a model for agile supply: an empirical study from Iranian pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API. PMID:24250689

  18. The food chain as a source of human exposure from municipal waste combustion: An uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, G.D.; Travis, C.C.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH . Office of Environmental Criteria and Assessment)

    1989-01-01

    The current installed incineration capacity of municipal waste combustors (MWCs) in the United States has reached approximately 50 thousand tons per day and is projected to triple over the next decade. As the use of MWCs as a waste management alternative has increased, public concern over possible environmental and human health effects has also increased. Of particular concern are health risks associated with potential exposures through the food chain. The food chain is the primary pathway of human exposure for a large class of organics, such as dioxin, PCBs, DDT, and other pesticides. Because many pollutants emitted by MWCs are lipophilic, extremely persistent compounds, they tend to sorb strong to air particles, soil, and sediment and to bioaccumulate in living organisms. As a result, the food chain can be a major pathway of exposure to pollutants emitted by MWCs. It is the purpose of this paper to assess the magnitude of human exposure through the food chain for two pollutants released by MWCs: cadmium and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), commonly referred to as dioxin. These pollutants were chosen as representative of two chemical classes: metals and organics. Cadmium is a metal which presumably will enter the food chain primarily through vegetative root uptake, while dioxin is an extremely lipophilic compound which will bioconcentrate in beef and milk. 57 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Optimization of Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain Analysis for Subclassification of Cardiac Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Halushka, Marc K; Eng, George; Collins, A Bernard; Judge, Daniel P; Semigran, Marc J; Stone, James R

    2015-06-01

    Accurate and rapid classification of cardiac amyloidosis is important for patient management. We have optimized the use of serum free light chain kappa and lambda values to differentiate immunoglobulin light chain amyloid (AL) amyloidosis from transthyretin amyloid and amyloid A using 85 cases of tissue-proven cardiac amyloidosis, in which there was direct classification of amyloidosis by mass spectrometry or immunofluorescence. The serum free light chain kappa/lambda ratios were non-overlapping for the three major groups: AL-lambda (0.01-0.41, n = 30), non-AL (0.52-2.7, n = 43), and AL-kappa (6.7-967, n = 12). A kappa/lambda ratio value between 0.5 and 5.0 had 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for distinguishing AL amyloidosis from non-AL amyloidosis. This optimized range for serum light chain kappa/lambda ratio provides extremely robust classification of cardiac amyloidosis. Cases of cardiac amyloidosis in which the serum kappa/lambda free light chain ratio falls close to these new cutoff values may benefit most from direct amyloid subtyping. PMID:25925232

  20. Developing a Model for Agile Supply: an Empirical Study from Iranian Pharmaceutical Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API. PMID:24250689

  1. Metaheuristic simulation optimisation for the stochastic multi-retailer supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Marina; Mustaffa, Noorfa Haszlinna H.; Othman, Siti Norsyahida

    2013-04-01

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) is an important activity in all producing facilities and in many organizations to enable vendors, manufacturers and suppliers to interact gainfully and plan optimally their flow of goods and services. A simulation optimization approach has been widely used in research nowadays on finding the best solution for decision-making process in Supply Chain Management (SCM) that generally faced a complexity with large sources of uncertainty and various decision factors. Metahueristic method is the most popular simulation optimization approach. However, very few researches have applied this approach in optimizing the simulation model for supply chains. Thus, this paper interested in evaluating the performance of metahueristic method for stochastic supply chains in determining the best flexible inventory replenishment parameters that minimize the total operating cost. The simulation optimization model is proposed based on the Bees algorithm (BA) which has been widely applied in engineering application such as training neural networks for pattern recognition. BA is a new member of meta-heuristics. BA tries to model natural behavior of honey bees in food foraging. Honey bees use several mechanisms like waggle dance to optimally locate food sources and to search new ones. This makes them a good candidate for developing new algorithms for solving optimization problems. This model considers an outbound centralised distribution system consisting of one supplier and 3 identical retailers and is assumed to be independent and identically distributed with unlimited supply capacity at supplier.

  2. Modelling and genetic algorithm based optimisation of inverse supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányai, T.

    2009-04-01

    product portfolio segmented by lead-time. This publication was supported by the National Office for Research and Technology within the frame of Pázmány Péter programme. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Office for Research and Technology. Literature: [1] H. F. Lund: McGraw-Hill Recycling Handbook. McGraw-Hill. 2000. [2] P. T. Williams: Waste Treatment and Disposal. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 2005. [3] M. Christopher: Logistics & Supply Chain Management: creating value-adding networks. Pearson Education [4] A. Gungor, S. M. Gupta: Issues in environmentally conscious manufacturing and product recovery: a survey. Computers & Industrial Engineering. Volume 36. Issue 4. 1999. pp. 811-853. [5] H. C. Zhang, T. C. Kuo, H. Lu, S. H. Huang: Environmentally conscious design and manufacturing: A state-of-the-art survey. Journal of Manufacturing Systems. Volume 16. Issue 5. 1997. pp. 352-371. [6] P. Veerakamolmal, S. Gupta: Design for Disassembly, Reuse, and Recycling. Green Electronics/Green Bottom Line. 2000. pp. 69-82. [7] A. Rushton, P. Croucher, P. Baker: The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management. Kogan P.page Limited. 2006. [8] H. Stadtler, C. Kilger: Supply Chain Management and Advanced Planning: Concepts, Models, Software, and Case Studies. Springer. 2005.

  3. Managing Fault Management Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDougal, John M.

    2010-01-01

    As the complexity of space missions grows, development of Fault Management (FM) capabilities is an increasingly common driver for significant cost overruns late in the development cycle. FM issues and the resulting cost overruns are rarely caused by a lack of technology, but rather by a lack of planning and emphasis by project management. A recent NASA FM Workshop brought together FM practitioners from a broad spectrum of institutions, mission types, and functional roles to identify the drivers underlying FM overruns and recommend solutions. They identified a number of areas in which increased program and project management focus can be used to control FM development cost growth. These include up-front planning for FM as a distinct engineering discipline; managing different, conflicting, and changing institutional goals and risk postures; ensuring the necessary resources for a disciplined, coordinated approach to end-to-end fault management engineering; and monitoring FM coordination across all mission systems.

  4. Cooperative Supply Chain Re-scheduling: The Case of an Engine Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, Jaime; Garcia-Sabater, Jose P.; Marin-Garcia, Juan A.

    One of the main issues on task planning of the enterprises with several production sites is how they can reassign tasks when a part of the supply chain is stopped. In this case, a good re-schedule, involving parts from supply chains from other sites, could imply to reduce overall costs. In this paper, we propose a cooperative system to re-schedule a network chain. The algorithm proposed is described and analyzed analytically in detail. The re-schedule decision is taken based on the time and the cost reduction. In order to test its performance and the success of our proposal, we have simulated a stylized system based on an engine network chain using the Anylogic TM simulator. Our proposal allows cooperative multisite re-scheduling by selecting the type of transport for sending components from one site to another based on the costs and the deadline to assemble the final product.

  5. Characteristics of a chain thermal explosion as a function of the kinetic properties of reaction chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azatyan, V. V.; Piloyan, A. A.; Saikova, G. R.; Smirnov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Study of the combustion and explosion of hydrogen‒carbon oxide‒air mixtures shows that the sharpness of a chain thermal explosion depends on the frequency of branching in a given branch of a reaction chain. It is established that varying the CO: H2 concentration allows us to observe and eliminate the degeneration of an explosion while maintaining the regimes of ignition and deflagration.

  6. Understanding Transferable Supply Chain Lessons and Practices to a “High-Tech” Industry Using Guidelines from a Primary Sector Industry: A Case Study in the Food Industry Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E.; Coronado, Etienne S.

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a “high-tech” industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a “high-tech” industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in “low-tech” industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived “low-tech” industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a “high-tech” industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a “low-tech” industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  7. Understanding transferable supply chain lessons and practices to a "high-tech" industry using guidelines from a primary sector industry: a case study in the food industry supply chain.

    PubMed

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E; Coronado Mondragon, Christian E; Coronado, Etienne S

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a "high-tech" industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a "high-tech" industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in "low-tech" industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived "low-tech" industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a "high-tech" industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a "low-tech" industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  8. Understanding your supply chain to reduce the risk of supply chain disruption.

    PubMed

    Wildgoose, Nick; Brennan, Patrick; Thompson, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Supply chains are at the heart of the way in which organisations operate and compete today; they also play a critical role in overall organisation performance. In the context of increasingly complex and global supply chains, the actions taken to drive down costs are likely to drive risk into the supply chain. The frequency of supply chain disruptions is high and this paper offers practical advice to help reduce the frequency and cost associated with these. There is advice to help with the understanding of how to identify critical suppliers. The reader is guided through comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation approaches and a selection of practical risk solutions and tools that you can use is described. There is a section on the 'dos and don'ts' relating to supplier due diligence. For those organisations facing the challenge of drawing up a business case relating to investment in improving supply chain resiliency, there is also a section outlining some of the business benefits of improving supply chain resiliency. PMID:22948106

  9. Deubiquitinase–based analysis of ubiquitin chain architecture using Ubiquitin Chain Restriction (UbiCRest)

    PubMed Central

    Komander, David

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a versatile protein modification that regulates virtually all cellular processes. This versatility originates from polyubiquitin chains, which can be linked in eight distinct ways. The combinatorial complexity of eight linkage types in homotypic (one chain type per polymer) and heterotypic (multiple linkage types per polymer) chains poses significant problems for biochemical analysis. Here we describe UbiCRest, in which substrates (ubiquitinated proteins or polyubiquitin chains) are treated with a panel of linkage-specific deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in parallel reactions, followed by gel-based analysis. UbiCRest can be used to show that a protein is ubiquitinated, to identify which linkage type(s) are present on polyubiquitinated proteins and to assess the architecture of heterotypic polyubiquitin chains. DUBs used in UbiCRest can be obtained commercially; however, we include details for generating a toolkit of purified DUBs and for profiling their linkage preferences in vitro. UbiCRest is a qualitative method that yields insights into ubiquitin chain linkage types and architecture within hours, and it can be performed on western blotting quantities of endogenously ubiquitinated proteins. PMID:25633630

  10. Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef and soy supply chains.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Daniel; McGrath, David; Stickler, Claudia; Alencar, Ane; Azevedo, Andrea; Swette, Briana; Bezerra, Tathiana; DiGiano, Maria; Shimada, João; Seroa da Motta, Ronaldo; Armijo, Eric; Castello, Leandro; Brando, Paulo; Hansen, Matt C; McGrath-Horn, Max; Carvalho, Oswaldo; Hess, Laura

    2014-06-01

    The recent 70% decline in deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon suggests that it is possible to manage the advance of a vast agricultural frontier. Enforcement of laws, interventions in soy and beef supply chains, restrictions on access to credit, and expansion of protected areas appear to have contributed to this decline, as did a decline in the demand for new deforestation. The supply chain interventions that fed into this deceleration are precariously dependent on corporate risk management, and public policies have relied excessively on punitive measures. Systems for delivering positive incentives for farmers to forgo deforestation have been designed but not fully implemented. Territorial approaches to deforestation have been effective and could consolidate progress in slowing deforestation while providing a framework for addressing other important dimensions of sustainable development. PMID:24904156

  11. Customer involvement in greening the supply chain: an interpretive structural modeling methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Luthra, Sunil; Haleem, Abid

    2013-04-01

    The role of customers in green supply chain management needs to be identified and recognized as an important research area. This paper is an attempt to explore the involvement aspect of customers towards greening of the supply chain (SC). An empirical research approach has been used to collect primary data to rank different variables for effective customer involvement in green concept implementation in SC. An interpretive structural-based model has been presented, and variables have been classified using matrice d' impacts croises- multiplication appliqué a un classement analysis. Contextual relationships among variables have been established using experts' opinions. The research may help practicing managers to understand the interaction among variables affecting customer involvement. Further, this understanding may be helpful in framing the policies and strategies to green SC. Analyzing interaction among variables for effective customer involvement in greening SC to develop the structural model in the Indian perspective is an effort towards promoting environment consciousness.

  12. Lunar crater chains of non-impact origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, D.; Heiken, G.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 15, 16, and 17 photographs were scanned for lunar crater chains consisting of three or more aligned craters with similar states of degradation, and the origin of these chains is considered. The mode of origin for mare crater chains appears to be associated with either collapsed lava tubes or cinder cones, while the origin of highland crater chains generally seems to involve highland volcanoes. Crater chains from mare regions range from 20 to 40 km long and appear to have no preferred structural control of their orientation. Highland crater chains range from 1 to 113 km long and may be structurally controlled by the lunar grid system.

  13. Efficient dynamic simulation for multiple chain robotic mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilly, Kathryn W.; Orin, David E.

    1989-01-01

    An efficient O(mN) algorithm for dynamic simulation of simple closed-chain robotic mechanisms is presented, where m is the number of chains, and N is the number of degrees of freedom for each chain. It is based on computation of the operational space inertia matrix (6 x 6) for each chain as seen by the body, load, or object. Also, computation of the chain dynamics, when opened at one end, is required, and the most efficient algorithm is used for this purpose. Parallel implementation of the dynamics for each chain results in an O(N) + O(log sub 2 m+1) algorithm.

  14. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  15. Anionic synthesis of in-chain and chain-end functionalized polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Chowdhury, Sumana

    The objective of this work was to anionically synthesize well-defined polymers having functional groups either at the chain-end or along the polymer chain. General functionalization methods (GFM) were used for synthesizing both kinds of polymers. Chain-end functionalized polymers were synthesized by terminating the anionically synthesized, living polymer chains using chlorodimethylsilane. Hydrosilation reactions were then done between the silyl-hydride groups at the chain-ends and the double bonds of commercially available substituted alkenes. This produced a range of well-defined polymers having the desired functional groups at the chain-ends. In-chain functionalized polymers were synthesized by anionically polymerizing a silylhydride functionalized styrene monomer: (4-vinylphenyl)dimethysilane. Polymerizations were done at room temperature in hydrocarbon solvents to produce well-defined polymers. Functional groups were then introduced into the polymer chains by use of hydrosilation reactions done post-polymerization. The functionalized polymers produced were characterized using SEC, 1H and 13C NMR, FTIR, MALDI TOF mass spectrometry and DSC. The monomer reactivity ratios in the copolymerization of styrene with (4-vinylphenyl)dimethylsilane were also measured. A series of copolymerizaions was done with different molar ratios of styrene(S) and (4-vinylphenyl)dimethylsilane(Si). Three different methods were used to determine the values of the monomer reactivity ratios: Fineman-Ross, Kelen-Tudos and Error-In-Variable (EVM) methods. The average values of the two monomer reactivity ratios obtained were: r Si = 0.16 and rS = 1.74. From these values it was observed that in the copolymerization of styrene with (4-vinylphenyl)dimethylsilane, the second monomer was preferentially incorporated into the copolymer chain. Also, rSirS = 0.27, which shows that the copolymer has a tendency to have an alternating structure. Amino acid-functionalized polymers (biohybrids) were

  16. Magnetic Properties of Dipolar Chains in Ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgin, I.; Huber, D. L.

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the dipole interaction energies per particle and the local dipole field distributions in a frozen-magnetization model of a ferrofluid chain in a saturating magnetic field. A lognormal distribution of particle diameters was assumed. The interaction energies were calculated for one-dimensional arrays of dipoles with moments parallel to the chain. We have computed the energies by various approximations related to the hard sphere particle diameter distribution. A similar approach was followed for the local field distributions. It was found that the energy per particle and mean local field were largely determined by the mean particle diameter, but the distribution of local fields was sensitive to both the mean diameter and the assumptions about spatial correlations between particles of different size. Detailed results are presented for water-soluble Fe3O4/PAA (polyacrylic acid).

  17. Time Evolution of Two Ring Dust Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    A strongly coupled two-ring dust chain of micron sized particles will regularly form in a R-F generated plasma under the proper conditions. When the rings are in a high energy state the dynamics of the particles is dominated by random thermal motions. As the energy of the system is reduced the particles eventually settle into two dimensional dust chains. The time evolution of these particles from high energy random thermal motion to regular lattice structures under rapid cooling conditions has been investigated using motion tracking techniques. As the system cools, the dust particles shift and rotate in a two-dimensional plane in order to achieve an equilibrium position. Analysis shows that most particle shifts are local involving only a few particles, though some adjustments are global and involve most of the particles in the cluster. Laser induced acoustic (longitudinal) waves have also been observed in the two ring system and the dispersion relation is compared to theory.

  18. Food-chain competition influences gene's size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembska, Marta; Dudek, Mirosław R.; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2006-11-01

    We have analyzed an effect of the Bak-Sneppen predator-prey food-chain self-organization on nucleotide content of evolving species. In our model, genomes of the species under consideration have been represented by their nucleotide genomic fraction and we have applied two-parameter Kimura model of substitutions to include the changes of the fraction in time. The initial nucleotide fraction and substitution rates were decided with the help of random number generator. Deviation of the genomic nucleotide fraction from its equilibrium value was playing the role of the fitness parameter, B, in Bak-Sneppen model. Our finding is, that the higher is the value of the threshold fitness, during the evolution course, the more frequent are large fluctuations in number of species with strongly differentiated nucleotide content; and it is more often the case that the oldest species, which survive the food-chain competition, might have specific nucleotide fraction making possible generating long genes.

  19. Kohlrausch Parameter Determination for Simple Chain Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, John; Dotson, Taylor; Heffernan, Julieanne; Dotson, Keenan; Budzien, Joanne; Adolf, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    The second Legendre polynomials of the end-to-end vector of freely jointed and freely rotating chains were extracted from molecular dynamics simulations and analyzed in terms of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function. Of particular interest is the variation of the stretching exponent, β, as a function of state point and, consequently, of the detailed compliance with time-temperature superposition. A new analysis methodology is introduced that permits the determination of β at the needed level of precision. Detailed time-temperature superposition does not hold for freely-jointed or freely-rotating chain liquids. Indications of a breakdown in time-temperature superposition are also found in violations of Stokes-Einstein and Debye-Stokes-Einstein behavior.

  20. Magnetocaloric effect in ferroelectric Ising chain magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yan; Liu, Jia; Yu, Nai-sen; Du, An

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in multiferroic chain system by adopting the elastic Ising-chain model. Based on the transfer-matrix method, the magnetothermal quantities of characterizing MCE behaviors including the entropy, entropy change and adiabatic cooling rate are rigorously determined. Combined with analysis of ground-state, we mainly discuss results in an antiferromagnetic regime associated with ferroelectric transition. Our results show that the entropy change is greatly enhanced near the saturation field as frustration parameter varies in this regime, and accompanied with remarkable inverse MCE, indicating the enormous potential of multiferroic system in low-temperature refrigeration. Meanwhile we also observe a prominent temperature variation in the isoentropy curves close to zero-temperature ferroelectric transition, but this enhancing MCE signal is very sensitive to the thermal fluctuations, and can be strongly suppressed even under a small temperature.