Sample records for e1 two-phonon strengths

  1. Spectral Collapse via Two-phonon Interactions in Trapped Ions

    E-print Network

    S. Felicetti; J. S. Pedernales; I. L. Egusquiza; G. Romero; L. Lamata; D. Braak; E. Solano

    2015-06-01

    Two-photon processes have so far been considered only as resulting from frequency-matched second-order expansions of light-matter interaction, with consequently small coupling strengths. However, a variety of novel physical phenomena arises when such coupling values become comparable with the system characteristic frequencies. Here, we propose a realistic implementation of two-photon quantum Rabi and Dicke models in trapped-ion technologies. In this case, effective two-phonon processes can be explored in all relevant parameter regimes. In particular, we show that an ion chain under bichromatic laser drivings exhibits a rich dynamics and highly counterintuitive spectral features, such as interaction-induced spectral collapse.

  2. Origin of Low-Lying Enhanced E1 Strength in Rare-Earth Nuclei

    E-print Network

    M. Spieker; S. Pascu; A. Zilges; F. Iachello

    2015-05-17

    The experimental $E1$ strength distribution below 4 MeV in rare-earth nuclei suggests a local breaking of isospin symmetry. In addition to the octupole states, additional $1^-$ states with enhanced E1 strength have been observed in rare-earth nuclei by means of ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) experiments. By reproducing the experimental results, the spdf interacting boson model calculations provide further evidence for the formation of an $\\alpha$ cluster in medium-mass nuclei and might provide a new understanding of the origin of low-lying E1 strength.

  3. Origin of Low-Lying Enhanced E 1 Strength in Rare-Earth Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieker, M.; Pascu, S.; Zilges, A.; Iachello, F.

    2015-05-01

    The experimental E 1 strength distribution below 4 MeV in rare-earth nuclei suggests a local breaking of isospin symmetry. In addition to the octupole states, additional J?=1- states with enhanced E 1 strength have been observed in rare-earth nuclei by means of (? ,? ') experiments. By reproducing the experimental results, the s p d f interacting boson model calculations provide further evidence for the formation of an ? cluster in medium-mass nuclei and might provide a new understanding of the origin of low-lying E 1 strength.

  4. Origin of Low-Lying Enhanced E1 Strength in Rare-Earth Nuclei

    E-print Network

    Spieker, M; Zilges, A; Iachello, F

    2015-01-01

    The experimental $E1$ strength distribution below 4 MeV in rare-earth nuclei suggests a local breaking of isospin symmetry. In addition to the octupole states, additional $1^-$ states with enhanced E1 strength have been observed in rare-earth nuclei by means of ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) experiments. By reproducing the experimental results, the spdf interacting boson model calculations provide further evidence for the formation of an $\\alpha$ cluster in medium-mass nuclei and might provide a new understanding of the origin of low-lying E1 strength.

  5. Origin of low-lying enhanced e1 strength in rare-Earth nuclei.

    PubMed

    Spieker, M; Pascu, S; Zilges, A; Iachello, F

    2015-05-15

    The experimental E1 strength distribution below 4 MeV in rare-earth nuclei suggests a local breaking of isospin symmetry. In addition to the octupole states, additional J^{?}=1^{-} states with enhanced E1 strength have been observed in rare-earth nuclei by means of (?,?') experiments. By reproducing the experimental results, the spdf interacting boson model calculations provide further evidence for the formation of an ? cluster in medium-mass nuclei and might provide a new understanding of the origin of low-lying E1 strength. PMID:26024168

  6. Isoscalar E0, E1, and E2 strength in Ca-40

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW; Clark, HL.

    2001-01-01

    The giant resonance region from 10 particles at small angles including 0 degrees. Strength corresponding to 97 +/- 11%, 108 +/- 12%, and 62 + 10-20 % of the isoscalar E0, E2, and E1 sum rules, respectively, was identified with centroids of 19...

  7. Search for E1 strength in 62,64Fe around the threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, O.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; affil="1, R.; pre="for ">the PRESPEC,

    2015-02-01

    The structure and nature of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) states below and above the neutron threshold is a recent open problem, particularly in exotic, neutron rich nuclei. Present experimental observations give only limited information on this subject. New experiments using different methods are needed. A recent measurement at the GSI laboratories on 62,64Fe with the PRESPEC (2014) setup, following a past experiment with the RISING (2005) setup on 68Ni, will contribute to solve the open questions. The setup located at GSI consists of the segmented HPGe detector array AGATA, scintillators (HECTOR), an Energy Loss / Total Energy time of flight measuring detector system called LYCCA and the fragment separator (FRS) apparatus. The experiment is based on relativistic Coulomb excitation together with the detection of the incoming and outgoing particles event by event. The detection of the produced y-rays in the reactions, provides insight into the problem of the electric dipole response and E1 strength distribution around particle separation threshold.

  8. Nuclear-structure dependence of the E 1 strength located in the giant dipole resonance of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nolte, R.; Schroder, F.; Baumann, A.; Rose, K.W.; Fuhrberg, K.; Schumacher, M. (II. Physikalisches Institut der Universitat Gottingen, D-3400 Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany (DE)); Fettweis, P.; Carchon, R. (Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie-Centre d' Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire, B-2400 Mol, Belgium)

    1989-09-01

    Using monochromatic photons from ({ital n},{gamma}) and ({ital p},{gamma}) capture reactions, the elastic scattering of photons was studied in the mass range {ital A}=181--238 and energy range {ital E}=8--18 MeV. It is shown that the {ital A} dependence of the enhancement of {ital E}1 strength located in the giant-dipole resonance as revealed by part of the photoneutron cross sections is confirmed by our photon-scattering data. The possibility is discussed that the concentration of {ital E}1 strength in the giant dipole resonance may be larger for closed-shell nuclei as compared to open-shell nuclei.

  9. New probe of M1 and E1 strengths in GDR regions

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency and National Astronomical Observatory in Japan (Japan); Ogata, K. [RCNP, Osaka University (Japan); Miyamoto, S.; Mochizuki, T.; Horikawa, K.; Amano, S. [University of Hyogo (Japan); Imazaki, K.; Li, D.; Izawa, Y. [Institute for Laser Technology (Japan); Chiba, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    The M1 strengths (or level density of 1{sup +} states) are of importance for estimation of interaction strengths between neutrinos and nuclei for the study of the supernova neutrino-process. In 1957, Agodi predicted theoretically angular distribution of neutrons emitted from states excited via dipole transitions with linearly polarized gamma-ray beam at the polar angle of ?=90° should be followed by a simple function, a + b cos(2?), where ?, is azimuthal angel. However, this theoretical prediction has not been verified over the wide mass region except for light nuclei as deuteron. We have measured neutron angular distributions with (polarized gamma, n) reactions on Au, Nal, and Cu. We have verified the Agodi's prediction for the first time over the wide mass region. This suggests that (polarized gamma, n) reactions may be useful tools to study M1 strengths in giant resonance regions.

  10. New probe of M1 and E1 strengths in GDR regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, T.; Ogata, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Mochizuki, T.; Horikawa, K.; Amano, S.; Imazaki, K.; Li, D.; Izawa, Y.; Chiba, S.

    2014-05-01

    The M1 strengths (or level density of 1+ states) are of importance for estimation of interaction strengths between neutrinos and nuclei for the study of the supernova neutrino-process. In 1957, Agodi predicted theoretically angular distribution of neutrons emitted from states excited via dipole transitions with linearly polarized gamma-ray beam at the polar angle of ?=90° should be followed by a simple function, a + b cos(2?), where ?, is azimuthal angel. However, this theoretical prediction has not been verified over the wide mass region except for light nuclei as deuteron. We have measured neutron angular distributions with (polarized gamma, n) reactions on Au, Nal, and Cu. We have verified the Agodi's prediction for the first time over the wide mass region. This suggests that (polarized gamma, n) reactions may be useful tools to study M1 strengths in giant resonance regions.

  11. Isoscalar E0, E1, and E2 strength in Ca-40 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW; Clark, HL.

    2001-01-01

    in the scattering plane. The out- of-plane scattering angle was not measured. Position resolu- tion of approximately 0.9 mm and scattering angle resolution 0556-2813/2001/63~6!/067301~4!/$20.00 63 067301- E2 strength in 40Ca . Lui, and H. L. Clark , College... to their calculation in Fig. 4. The agreement is quite remark- able. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG03-93ER40773 and by The Robert A. Welch Foundation. @1# D. H. Youngblood, Y.-W. Lui, and H. L. Clark, Phys...

  12. Uniform properties of Jpi=1- two-phonon states in the semimagic even-even tin isotopes 116,118,120,122,124Sn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bryssinck; L. Govor; D. Belic; F. Bauwens; O. Beck; P. von Brentano; D. de Frenne; T. Eckert; C. Fransen; K. Govaert; R.-D. Herzberg; E. Jacobs; U. Kneissl; H. Maser; A. Nord; N. Pietralla; H. H. Pitz; V. Yu. Ponomarev; V. Werner

    1999-01-01

    Systematic nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments including model-independent parity determinations provided clear evidence for strong, isolated E1 excitations at excitation energies of 3.3-3.5 MeV in the spherical, semimagic nuclei 116,118,120,122,124Sn. The corresponding Jpi=1- states are interpreted as two-phonon excitations (2+?3-). The excitation energies Ex(1-) and reduced excitation probabilities B(E1)? are nearly constant in the entire isotopic chain A=116-124. The results are

  13. Two-phonon {gamma}-vibrational states in rotating triaxial odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, Masayuki [Department of Physics, Fukuoka University of Education, Munakata, Fukuoka 811-4192 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    The distribution of the two-phonon {gamma}-vibrational collectivity in the rotating triaxial odd-A nucleus {sup 103}Nb, which is one of the three nuclides for which experimental data were reported recently, is calculated in the framework of the particle vibration coupling model based on the cranked shell model plus random phase approximation. This framework was previously utilized for analyses of the zero- and one-phonon bands in another mass region and is applied to the two-phonon band for the first time. In the present calculation, three sequences of two-phonon bands share collectivity almost equally at finite rotation whereas the K={Omega}+4 state is the purest at zero rotation.

  14. Two-phonon character of the lowest Jpi=1- state of 142Nd

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Belgya; R. A. Gatenby; E. M. Baum; E. L. Johnson; D. P. Diprete; S. W. Yates; B. Fazekas; G. Molnár

    1995-01-01

    The decay properties of the 3424-keV 1- state in 142Nd, which has long been interpreted as a member of the quadrupole-octupole two-phonon quintet, and of the lowest 3- state, the octupole phonon, have been examined with the (n,n'gamma) reaction. gamma-ray branching ratios of these states have been determined, and level lifetimes have been measured by the Doppler-shift attenuation method. These

  15. Covariant density functional theory with two-phonon coupling in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ring, P.; Litvinova, E.; Tselyaev, V. [Physik Department, Technische Universitat Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany) and State Key Lab Nucl. Phys. and Tech., School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nuclear Physics Department, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-20

    A full description of excited states within the framework of density functional theory requires energy dependent self energies. We present a new class of many-body models. It allows a parameter free description of the fragmentation of nuclear states induced by mode coupling of two-quasiparticle and two-phonon configurations. The method is applied for an investigation of low-lying dipole excitations in Sn isotopes with large neutron excess.

  16. Mode Coupling and the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in a Relativistic Two-Phonon Model

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinova, Elena; Ring, Peter; Tselyaev, Victor [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249033 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Physik-Department der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nuclear Physics Department, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-09

    A new class of many-body models, based on covariant density functional theory for excited states, is presented. It allows a parameter free description of the fragmentation of nuclear states induced by mode coupling of two-quasiparticle and two-phonon configurations. As compared to earlier methods it provides a consistent and parameter free theory of the fine structure of nuclear resonances. The method is applied very successfully to investigate the newly discovered low-lying dipole excitations in Sn and Ni isotopes with large neutron excess.

  17. Heavy ion Coulomb excitation and gamma decay studies of the one and two phonon giant dipole resonances in {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.E.; Beene, J.R.; Bertrand, F.E. [and others] [and others

    1993-12-01

    Projectile -- photon coincidences were measured for the scattering of an 80 MeV/nucleon {sup 64}Zn beam from {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi targets at the GANIL heavy ion accelerator facility. Projectile-like particles between 0.5{degrees} and 4.5{degrees} relative to the incident beam direction were detected in the SPEG energy loss spectrometer where their momentum, charge, and mass were determined. Photons were detected in the BaF{sub 2} scintillation detector array TAPS. Light charged particles produced in the reaction were detected in the KVI Forward Wall. The analysis of the data acquired in this experiment is focused on three different phenomena: (1) the two phonon giant dipole resonance, (2) time dependence of the decay of the one phonon giant dipole resonance, and (3) giant resonance strength in projectile nuclei.

  18. Applying a two-phonon light scattering in crystals to the spectrum analysis of radio-signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre S. Shcherbakov; Jewgenij Maximov; Eduardo Tepichin Rodriguez; Sandra Eloisa Balderas Mata; Abraham Luna Casellanos; Jose Gabriel Aguilar Soto

    2007-01-01

    We study practical opportunities of characterizing the angular or frequency bandwidth as well as the number of resolvable elements (spots) within a two-phonon light scattering in optically and acoustically anisotropic tellurium dioxide crystal when the efficiency of acousto-optical interaction is small enough to consider these problems in the first-order approximation. Then, an approach based on the transfer function technique is

  19. Generalized two phonon theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Schenzle; Richard G. Brewer

    1978-01-01

    Recent laser experiments and theoretical discussions of coherent two photon transient phenomena have prompted us to develop a generalized theory for the case of anN+2 level quantum system interacting with two optical fields. New perturbation solutions, derived from an effective two level Hamiltonian, are presented in the form of a continued fraction expansion where the leading term agrees with earlier

  20. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  1. THE E1 PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Bergvall, Monika; Melendy, Thomas; Archambault, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    E1, an ATP-dependent DNA helicase, is the only enzyme encoded by papillomaviruses (PVs). It is essential for replication and amplification of the viral episome in the nucleus of infected cells. To do so, E1 assembles into a double-hexamer at the viral origin, unwinds DNA at the origin and ahead of the replication fork and interacts with cellular DNA replication factors. Biochemical and structural studies have revealed the assembly pathway of E1 at the origin and how the enzyme unwinds DNA using a spiral escalator mechanism. E1 is tightly regulated in vivo, in particular by post-translational modifications that restrict its accumulation in the nucleus. Here we review how different functional domains of E1 orchestrate viral DNA replication, with an emphasis on their interactions with substrate DNA, host DNA replication factors and modifying enzymes. These studies have made E1 one of the best characterized helicases and provided unique insights on how PVs usurp different host-cell machineries to replicate and amplify their genome in a tightly controlled manner. PMID:24029589

  2. Strength Training

    MedlinePLUS

    Strength training is a vital part of a balanced exercise routine that includes aerobic activity and flexibility exercises. Regular ... sit-ups, or body weight squats) for strength training. Many people tend to lump all types of ...

  3. Relation of E1 pygmy and toroidal resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, V. O.; Repko, A.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Kvasil, J.

    2015-05-01

    A possible relation of low-lying E1 strength ("pygmy resonance") and toroidal strength is analyzed by using Skyrme random-phase-approximation (RPA) results for the strength functions, transition densities and current fields in 208Pb. It is shown that the irrotational pygmy motion can appear as a local manifestation of the collective vortical toroidal dipole resonance (TDR) at the nuclear surface. The RPA results are compared to unperturbed (1ph) ones.

  4. Monopole strength as a probe of nuclear shape mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.A.

    1987-08-17

    The monopole strength, MS, within a single set of nuclear shape excitations is compared with the MS between different shapes. After misconceptions are pointed out concerning the spin dependence of B(E2) values, MS properties are juxtaposed with gamma-ray and beta-decay properties of /sup 70/Se, /sup 96/Zr, /sup 102/Pd, and the N = 60 isotones to illustrate the utility of combined investigations and evidence is given for the observation of a two-phonon octupole multiplet. Finally, consideration is given to the dominance of the /sup 3/S/sub 1/ force in producing deformation in the N > 50 1g nuclei. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Spaghetti Strength

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-08

    In this activity on page 7 of the PDF, learners explore how engineers characterize building materials. Learners test the strength of spaghetti and determine how the number of spaghetti strands affects the strength of a bundle of spaghetti. Use this activity to chemical bonds, mechanical testing, and engineering. Note: The pasta strands can be dipped in water and stuck together to more closely mimic the layers within a piece of plywood. More information about this can be found at the top of page 7, directly underneath the cartoon image. Safety note: Do not eat or drink any of the materials in this activity.

  6. E1 and E3 transition rates in the sdf-IBA

    SciTech Connect

    Zamfir, N.V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States)]|[Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania)

    1994-11-01

    The E1 and E3 transition operators in the sdf-IBA model are discussed. An effective E1 operator containing one- and two-body terms explains very well the E1 data in transitional and rotational nuclei. The E1 parameters for rotational nuclei are obtained by imposing a constraint on the IBA model namely, the validity of Alaga rules for ``pure K`` states. The systematic behavior of the octupole strength is well reproduced using a one-body octupole operator. The anomalously large fragmentation of the low-energy octupole strength in non-rotational nuclei is shown to be a signature of the O(6) dynamical symmetry.

  7. Application of Strength Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Dugan, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the various strength qualities (maximum strength, high- and low-load speed strength, reactive strength, rate of force development, and skill performance), noting why a training program design based on strength diagnosis can lead to greater efficacy and better performance gains for the athlete. Examples of tests used to assess strength…

  8. Why Strength Training?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical Activity Physical Activity Share Compartir Why strength training? Research has shown that strengthening exercises are both ... person's mental and emotional health. Benefits of Strength Training There are numerous benefits to strength training regularly, ...

  9. Energy-dependence of skin-mode fraction in E1 excitations of neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, H.; Inakura, T.; Sawai, H.

    2015-05-01

    We have extensively investigated characters of the low-energy E1 strengths in N > Z nuclei, by analyzing the transition densities obtained by the HF+RPA calculations with several e?ective interactions. Crossover behavior has been confirmed, from the skin mode at low energy to the pn mode at higher energy. Decomposing the E1 strengths into the skin-mode, pn-mode and interference fractions, we show that the ratio of the skin-mode strength to the full strength may be regarded as a generic function of the excitation energy, insensitive to nuclides and e?ective interactions, particularly beyond Ni.

  10. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.R.; Laymon, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1996-07-16

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol. 6 figs.

  11. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Steven R. (Denver, CO); Laymon, Robert A. (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    1996-01-01

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol.

  12. E1 transitions between spin-dipole and Gamow-Teller giant resonances

    E-print Network

    V. A. Rodin; M. H. Urin

    2000-08-30

    The branching ratios for E1 transitions between the spin-dipole (SD) and Gamow-Teller (GT) giant resonances in $^{90}$Nb and $^{208}$Pb are evaluated. Assuming the main GT-state has the wave function close to that for the "ideal" GT-state, we reduced the problem to calculate the SD and GT strength functions. These strength functions are evaluated within an extended continuum-RPA approach.

  13. Strengths of gamma-ray transitions in A = 6–44 nuclei (III)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Endt

    1979-01-01

    The present tables list the strengths (in Weisskopf units) of over 2400 ?-ray transitions in A = 6–44 nuclei, classified according to character (electric or magnetic, multipolarity, isospin forbiddenness). Selected transitions from unbound states are included. The strengths for isovector E1 and M1 transitions (E1IV and M1IV) show a marked decrease with A. Strengths depended very little on the excitation

  14. Section E: Procedures Recruitment and Inquiries............................................................................................. E1

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    Section E: Procedures Recruitment and Inquiries............................................................................................. E1 Recruitment Responsibilities......................................................................................................E ..............................................................................................E1 Instructions for Searching and Adding Prospective Applicant Information to EMT Connect......E1

  15. Corium crust strength measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lomperski; M. T. Farmer

    2009-01-01

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium\\/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium

  16. Strength of composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. F. Egorov; P. S. Kislyi; P. A. Verkhovodov

    1979-01-01

    1.A study was made of the strength of ZrN-Al2O3 composite materials produced by solid- and liquid-phase sintering in argon and nitrogen. It is shown that the strength of composites sintered in nitrogen is such less than that of composites sintered in argon, which is linked with the formation of new phases at boundaries between dissimilar phases and with a weakening

  17. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post-LEP apples seem to have been from a single batch of material. The pre-LEP apples of the weak strength and the post-LEP apples with even weaker strength could have been made of the same batch of material, and the small strength differential might be due to the difference in the induction heating system. If the pre-LEP apples with the lower strength and the post LEP apples are made from the same batch of material, their combined scatter of strength data would be wider and can be understood as a result of the additional processing steps of stress relief and induction heating as discussed.

  18. Strength Training and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using free weights, weight ... harder, they grow stronger and more efficient. Strength training can also help fortify the ligaments and tendons ...

  19. Adenovirus E1A and Ewing tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. de Alava; R. Sanchez-Prieto; S. Ramon y Cajal

    2000-01-01

    In the December 1999 issue of Nature Medicine, Melot and Delattre and Kovar, challenged the Sanchez-Prieto et al . September 1999 article proposing that the adenoviral E1A gene induces the Ewing tumor fusion transcript EWS–FLI1. Here Sanchez-Prieto et al. respond…Ed.

  20. Identification of the E1fE1k cholinesterase genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, A M

    1988-01-01

    A family segregating for the A, F, and K alleles at cholinesterase locus 1 is described. This work, undertaken after the proband suffered prolonged apnoea after the use of suxamethonium during the delivery of her third child, resulted in the identification of the E1fE1k genotype in her oldest son. PMID:3172151

  1. Crossover from skin mode to proton-neutron mode in E1 excitations of neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, H.; Inakura, T.; Sawai, H.

    2013-03-01

    The character of the low-energy E1 excitations is investigated by analyzing transition densities obtained from the RPA calculations in the doubly magic nuclei. We propose a decomposition method of the E1 excitations into the pn mode (i.e., oscillation between protons and neutrons) and the skin mode (i.e., oscillation of the neutron skin against the inner core) via the transition densities, by which their mixing is handled in a straightforward manner. Crossover behavior of the E1 excitations is found, from the skin mode at low energy to the pn mode at higher energy. The ratio of the skin-mode strength to the full strength turns out to be insensitive to the nuclides and to the effective interactions in the energy region of the crossover. Depending on the excitation energy, the observed low-energy E1 excitations are not necessarily dominated by the skin mode, as exemplified for 90Zr.

  2. Isoscalar giant resonance strength in Si-28 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, Y. -W; Clark, H. L.

    2007-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 76, 027304 (2007) Isoscalar giant resonance strength in 28Si D. H. Youngblood, Y.-W. Lui, and H. L. Clark Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA (Received 7 May 2007; published 28 August... that somewhat mimic an E1 angular distribution. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant No. DE-FG03-93ER40773 and by The Robert A. Welch Foundation under grant No. A-0558. [1] D. H. Youngblood, Y.-W. Lui, and H. L. Clark...

  3. Time-dependent density-functional studies on strength functions in neutron-rich nuclei

    E-print Network

    Shuichiro Ebata; Tsunenori Inakura; Takashi Nakatsukasa

    2013-02-08

    The electric dipole (E1) strength functions have been systematically calculated based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), using the finite amplitude method and the real-time approach to the TDDFT with pairing correlations. The low-energy E1 strengths in neutron-rich isotopes show peculiar behaviors, such as sudden enhancement and reduction, as functions of the neutron numbers.They seem to be due to the interplay between the neutron shell effect and the deformation effect.

  4. Crossover from Skin-Mode to Proton-Neutron-Mode in E1 Excitations of Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, H.; Inakura, T.; Sawai, H.

    We investigate character of the low-energy E1 excitations, based on transition densities obtained from the RPA calculations in the doubly-magic nuclei. While the low-energy E1 excitations are dominated by the skin mode (i.e., oscillation of the neutron skin against the inner core), their character is gradually shifted to the pn mode (i.e., oscillation between protons and neutrons) as the excitation energy grows. Via a decomposition method based on the transition densities, we find that the ratio of the skin-mode strength to the full strength is insensitive to nuclide and to effective interactions in the energy region of the crossover.

  5. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  6. Spin Resonance Strength Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E. D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States)

    2009-08-04

    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  7. Electron impact collision strengths in Sn XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Y.Q. [School of Logistics, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China)], E-mail: yaqiongliang@hotmail.com; Zhong, J.Y. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2008-11-15

    The energy levels, multipole (E1, M1, E2, and M2) transition rates, and electron-impact collision strengths are calculated for Sn XXIII. The data refer to 107 fine-structure levels belonging to the configurations (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4l, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}4l, and 3s3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}4l(l = s, p, d, and f). The collision strengths are calculated with a 20-collision-energy grid in terms of the energy of the scattered electron between 37.5 and 8436 eV by using the distorted-wave approximation. Effective collision strengths are obtained at five electron temperatures, T{sub e} (eV) = 193.89, 387.78, 581.67, 775.57, and 969.46, by integrating the collision strengths over a Maxwellian electron distribution.

  8. The Strength of Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Bobby; Franklin, John Travis

    2004-01-01

    Many aspects of our work with at-risk children are spiritual by nature. A whole generation of at-risk children are crying out and asking hard questions. Although we certainly will not have all the answers, a shared experience of the very vulnerability of our human condition can turn this into a strength for us and our children. The authors propose…

  9. Two-phonon giant resonances in 136 Pb, and 238

    E-print Network

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    from a purely harmonic nuclear dipole response. The cumulative effect of excitations of two¨ln, D-50937 Ko¨ln, Germany 8 Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Received 9 was observed in heavy projectile nuclei imping- ing on targets of high nuclear charge with energies of 500

  10. Crew Strength Training

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners will train to develop upper and lower body strength in their muscles and bones by performing body-weight squats and push-ups. Learners perform the exercises over time (week or month) and record and graph their observations. This activity simulates how astronauts must participate in strength training prior to missions in order to compensate for the weakening of muscles and bones in the reduced gravity environment of space. An embedded video on this page showcases the activity. Learners can complete this activity as part of NASA's Fit Explorer Challenge, in which learners train like astronauts, set goals, track their progress, and accumulate points to progress through Exploration Levels and earn certificates.

  11. Strength of Moissanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, L.; Weidner, D. J.; Uchida, T.; Xu, J.

    2002-05-01

    Despite success of diamond anvil cells in all fields of high-pressure research, there have been continuous efforts to search for new anvil materials that are complementary to diamond but not limited by its cost, availability, and crystal size. In this regard, hexagonal silicon carbide, moissanite, has been found to be an ideal material (Xu and Mao, 2000). It is believed that moissanite anvil cell will open a new window for studies that require large sample volumes as well as stable and accurate temperature measurements. This study reports the yield strength measurements of moissanite at high temperature, which is one of the fundamental properties that define the ultimate performance of this material at high temperature conditions. We use the principles outlined by Weidner et al. (1994) to obtain information of stress and strength in the powder samples from x-ray diffraction signals. Two experiments have been performed at pressures up to 18.3 GPa and temperatures up to 1200 ° C using a DIA-type cubic anvil apparatus and a newly developed "T-Cup" high pressure system. At room temperature, the moissanite crystal behaves elastically with increasing pressure up to 13.7 GPa. At higher pressures applied, the sample is yielded, and the yield strength of moissanite is determined to be 13.6 GPa. Upon heating at 18.3 GPa, significant stress relaxation is observed at temperatures above 400 ° C, and the yield strength of moissanite decreases rapidly from 12.8 GPa at 400 ° C to 4.2 GPa at 1200 ° C. Such behavior will place severe limitations on the use of moissanite as anvil material when external heating is desired for high pressure and temperature experiments. References: Xu and Mao (2000), Science 290, 783-786. Weidner et al. (1994), Geophy. Res. Lett. 21, 753-756.

  12. Strength calculations on airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, A

    1925-01-01

    Every strength calculation, including those on airplanes, must be preceded by a determination of the forces to be taken into account. In the following discussion, it will be assumed that the magnitudes of these forces are known and that it is only a question of how, on the basis of these known forces, to meet the prescribed conditions on the one hand and the practical requirements on the other.

  13. Strengths of gamma-ray transitions in A = 91--150 nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P ENDT

    1981-01-01

    The present tables list the strengths (in Weisskopf units) of 1340 gamma-ray transitions in A = 91--150 nuclei, classified according to character (electric or magnetic, multipolarity). A comparison with the A = 6--20, 21--44, and 45--90 regions shows that up to A = 150 E1 and M1 strengths continue to decrease with A whereas E2 strengths increase. The following recommended

  14. Photon Strength Functions of Heavy Nuclei: Achievements and Open Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Becvar, Frantisek [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2009-03-31

    Experimental studies of {gamma} decay of highly excited levels in nuclei started as early as 60 years ago. Soon, it turned out that this decay is strongly dominated by E1 transitions and that it is closely related to the giant electric dipole resonances built not only on the ground state, but also on each excited level, including the levels in the quasicontinuum. These findings brought the first evidence for the electric dipole vibrations coupled to the excited levels and demonstrated viability of Brink's concept. Nevertheless, with growing information on {gamma} rays following neutron capture it emerged that extrapolation of the photonuclear cross sections to the energy region below the neutron separation energy leads in some cases to overpredictions of the E1 photon strength. Several theories were developed, but this disproportion has not yet been satisfactorily accounted for. New information deduced from the data on two-step {gamma} cascades following the thermal neutron capture and from the data yielded by {gamma}-calorimetric (n. {gamma}) measurements at isolated neutron resonances seems promising for further studies of the E1 photon strength functions. The paper is focused on two issues: on the observed deficit of photon strength in transitional nuclei at {gamma}-ray energies above 5 MeV and on the recently observed strong enhancement of the photon strength in nuclei near mass number A{approx_equal}100 at low energies. The main problems to be solved are formulated.

  15. Design shear strength formula for high strength concrete beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Russo; G. Somma; P. Angeli

    2004-01-01

    After a brief review on the concrete shear strength mechanisms, two very reliable expressions for predicting the shear strength\\u000a of beams without transverse reinforcement are reported: the one proposed by Bažant and Kim [7], which is valid for Normal\\u000a strength Concrete (NSC) beams, and the other recently proposed by the authors, which is valid for High Strength Concrete (HSC)\\u000a beams.

  16. Absolute dipole gamma-ray strength functions for /sup 176/Lu. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Hoff, R.W.

    1984-10-16

    We have derived absolute dipole strength-function information for /sup 176/Lu from an average resonance capture study of /sup 175/Lu with 2-keV neutrons and from neutron capture cross-section measurements with neutrons from 30 keV to about 1 MeV. We found that we needed to increase our previous estimate of the relative M1/E1 strengths near 5 MeV by a factor of 3 and to revise downward the absolute magnitude of our E1 strength function. We accomplished the latter, while still maintaining continuity with the photonuclear data, by adjusting the one free parameter in our line shape. The present E1 and M1 strengths now seem correct both near the neutron separation energy and also around 1 MeV.

  17. Prepubescent Strength Training. Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Joe W.; Holshouser, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    Under the careful supervision of a trained fitness professional, the benefits of prepubescent strength training (improved strength, power, muscular endurance, bone density) outweigh the risks (acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries). (CB)

  18. Oscillator strengths and collision strengths for S III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Y. K.; Henry, R. J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The present calculation, in a close-coupled approximation for the energy range up to 1,000,000 K, yields collision strengths for the electron impact excitation of S III from the ground 3p2 3P state to the excited states 3s3p3 3D0, 3P0, 3S0, 3d 3D0, 3P0, and 4s 3P0. Also obtained are those transitions' oscillator strengths, and strengths for others involving 3p2 1D and 1S. Configuration-interaction target wave functions yielding oscillator strengths that are accurate to 20 percent are used in collision strength calculations.

  19. Strength of Rewelded Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcllwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Inconel 718, nickel-based alloy used extensively for high-temperature structural service, welded repeatedly without detriment to its strength. According to NASA report, tests show 12 repairs on same weld joint do not adversely affect ultimate tensile strenth, yield strength, fatigue strength, metallurgical grain structures, or ability of weld joint to respond to post weld heat treatments.

  20. Production of high strength concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Peterman; R. L. Carrasquillo

    1986-01-01

    The criteria for selection of concrete materials and their proportions to producer uniform, economical, high strength concrete are presented in this book. The recommendations provided are based on a study of the interactions among components of plain concrete and mix proportions, and of their contribution to the compressive strength of high strength concrete. These recommendations will serve as guidelines to

  1. The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone have been measured as a function of confining pressure and pore pressure. Both the fracture strength and the frictional strength obey the law of effective stress, that is, the strength is determined not by the confining pressure alone but by the difference between the confining pressure and the pore pressure. The fracture strength of the rock varies by as much as 20 per cent depending on the cement between the grains, but the frictional strength is independent of lithology. Over the range 0 2 kb, ??=0??5 + 0??6??n. This relationship also holds for other rocks such as gabbro, dunite, serpentinite, granite and limestone. ?? 1975.

  2. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-print Network

    Martin Chaplin

    2007-06-10

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

  3. Dipole strength functions in the actinide mass region

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Hoff, R.W.

    1987-07-15

    We have calculated a number of neutron- and photon-induced reactions for the actinide nuclei /sup 232/Th, /sup 238/U, and /sup 237/Np. By fitting average resonance capture (ARC) measurements and total neutron capture data, we deduced absolute dipole strength functions for /sup 233/Th and /sup 239/U. We have found that the M1/E1 ratio is the same as in the /sup 176/Lu case, but the total transition strength was larger by about 27%. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. QM02 Strength Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J; Wu, J.; /SLAC; ,

    2010-11-24

    In late April, Paul Emma reported that his orbit fitting program could find a reasonably good fit only if the strength of QM02 was changed from design value of -5.83 kG to -6.25 kG - a strength change of 7.3%. In late May, we made a focal length measurement of QM02 by turning off all focusing optics between YC07 and BPMS1 (in the spectrometer line) except for QM02 and adjusted the strength of QM02 so that vertical kicks by YC07 did not produce any displacements at BPMS1 (see Figure 1). The result was quoted in the LCLS elog was that QM02 appeared to 6% too weak, and approximately agreed with Paul's observation. The analysis used for the entry in the log book was based on the thin lens approximation and used the following numbers: Distance YC07 to QM02 - 5.128 m; Distance QM02 to BPMS1 - 1.778 m; and Energy - 135 MeV. These distances were computed from the X,Z coordinates given the on the large plot of the Injector on the wall of the control room. On review of the MAD output file coordinates, it seems that the distance used for QM02 to BPMS1 is not 1.778 m. The correct value is Distance, center of QM02 to BPMS1 - 1.845 m. There may be a typo on the wall chart values for the coordinates of BPMS1, or perhaps there was a misinterpretation of edge versus center of QM02. In any case, the effect of this change is that the thin lens estimate changes from 6% too weak to 9% too weak. At John Galayda's suggestion, we looked into the thin lens versus thick lens approximation. A Mathematica program was written to solve for the K value of the QM02, in the thick lens approximation, that provides point to point focusing from YC07 to BPMS1, and to compare this number with the value obtained using the thin lens approximation. The length of QM02 used in the thick lens calculation is the effective length determined by magnetic measurements of 0.108 m. The result of the Mathematica calculation is that the thin lens approximation predicts less magnet strength is required to produce the same focusing by about 1.3%. When both the distance correction and the thick lens approximation are taken into account, the result is: K{sub thick} - K{sub mm}/K{sub thick} = -7.6% where K{sub mm} is the value obtained from magnetic measurements and K{sub thick} is the value of K obtained from the focal length measurement in the thick lens approximation. That is, QM02 acts weaker than it was measured by magnetic measurements by 7.6%. This is remarkably close to Paul's original estimate. The unexpected weakness could in principle be due to several things: shorted turns, a current calibration error, magnetic measurement error; it could even be due to the presence of an gradient from QM01, which is of opposite sign and right next to QM02, despite it being set to zero current (although it was not DAC-zeroed). Plans have been implemented to remove and replace QM02 at the earliest ROD.

  5. Impact strength and indentation hardness of high-strength ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Hugoniot elastic limit and indentation hardness data are provided for selected high-strength ceramics AlN, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 4}C, SiC, TiB, Zr{sub 2}. Degree of correlation of the strength data by the two test methods is examined. Influence of reformation mechanism on strength measurement, including rate sensitivity, size scale and confining pressure, is discussed.

  6. Fault Roughness Records Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Candela, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Fault roughness is commonly ~0.1-1% at the outcrop exposure scale. More mature faults are smoother than less mature ones, but the overall range of roughness is surprisingly limited which suggests dynamic control. In addition, the power spectra of many exposed fault surfaces follow a single power law over scales from millimeters to 10's of meters. This is another surprising observation as distinct structures such as slickenlines and mullions are clearly visible on the same surfaces at well-defined scales. We can reconcile both observations by suggesting that the roughness of fault surfaces is controlled by the maximum strain that can be supported elastically in the wallrock. If the fault surface topography requires more than 0.1-1% strain, it fails. Invoking wallrock strength explains two additional observations on the Corona Heights fault for which we have extensive roughness data. Firstly, the surface is isotropic below a scale of 30 microns and has grooves at larger scales. Samples from at least three other faults (Dixie Valley, Mount St. Helens and San Andreas) also are isotropic at scales below 10's of microns. If grooves can only persist when the walls of the grooves have a sufficiently low slope to maintain the shape, this scale of isotropy can be predicted based on the measured slip perpendicular roughness data. The observed 30 micron scale at Corona Heights is consistent with an elastic strain of 0.01 estimated from the observed slip perpendicular roughness with a Hurst exponent of 0.8. The second observation at Corona Heights is that slickenlines are not deflected around meter-scale mullions. Yielding of these mullions at centimeter to meter scale is predicted from the slip parallel roughness as measured here. The success of the strain criterion for Corona Heights supports it as the appropriate control on fault roughness. Micromechanically, the criterion implies that failure of the fault surface is a continual process during slip. Macroscopically, the fundamental nature of the control means that 0.1 to 1% roughness should be ubiquitous on faults and can generally be used for simulating ground motion. An important caveat is that the scale-dependence of strength may result in a difference in the yield criterion at large-scales. The commonly observed values of the Hurst exponent below 1 may capture this scale-dependence.

  7. Wheelchair armrest strength testing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; Rentschler, A J; O'Connor, T J; Ster, J F

    2000-01-01

    There are about 1.4 million manual wheelchair users, 100,000 electric-powered wheelchair users, and 60,000 electric-powered scooter users. The current study was undertaken to determine if the fasteners of a clamp-type armrest receiver were prone to failure. The first test was used to examine the potential misalignment of the armrest receiver components that attach it to the frame. The second test was to evaluate the entire armrest using the American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America armrest static strength standard. Finally, we conducted three fatigue tests. The first fatigue test was performed by repeating the static stability tests multiple times. The last two tests were a modified version of the double-drum wheelchair fatigue test used to apply repeated loading and vibration simultaneously. A paired t-test showed that there is no statistically significant difference (p = 0.08), with a confidence of 95%, between critical alignment measurements. The armrest including the receiver passed the standard requirement of a force of 760 N being applied outward at 15 degrees. During fatigue testing, we found that armrests did not exhibit any visible or functional damage. Upon completion of the tests, the armrests and receivers functioned properly. At about 100,289 cycles on a double-drum test machine, three bolts failed on each armrest receiver when the screws were loosened to have only five threads engaged prior to commencing the test. The design of the armrest tested was in compliance with existing national and international standards. Currently, both International Standards Organization and American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society committees are developing standards for seating systems that will include static, impact, and fatigue strength testing of devices like lateral torso supports, lateral hip support, etc. Methods similar to those explored in this study should be considered. This study may help manufacturers when designing products and purchasers or regulatory agencies when attempting to evaluate the safety and quality of armrest assemblies. PMID:11508400

  8. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  9. CYP2E1 and Oxidative Liver Injury by Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongke; Cederbaum, Arthur I.

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to play a major role in mechanisms by which ethanol causes liver injury. Many pathways have been suggested to contribute to the ability of ethanol to induce a state of oxidative stress. One central pathway appears to be the induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) by ethanol. CYP2E1 metabolizes and activates many toxicological substrates, including ethanol, to more reactive, toxic products. Levels of CYP2E1 are elevated under a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and after acute and chronic alcohol treatment. CYP2E1 is also an effective generator of reactive oxygen species such as the superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide, and in the presence of iron catalysts, produces powerful oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical. This Review Article summarizes some of the biochemical and toxicological properties of CYP2E1, and briefly describes the use of cell lines developed to constitutively express CYP2E1 in assessing the actions of CYP2E1. Possible therapeutic implications for treatment of alcoholic liver injury by inhibition of CYP2E1 or CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress will be discussed, followed by some future directions which may help to understand the actions of CYP2E1 and its role in alcoholic liver injury. PMID:18078827

  10. Many trained at E1 Salvador center.

    PubMed

    1970-02-01

    The Family Planning Association of E1 Salvador is conducting regular week-long courses in family planning for doctors, nurses, social workers and other interested people in El Salvador and the surrounding countries of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Twelve regional courses on population dynamics, the physiology of reproduction and family planning were held in the academic year 1968-69 at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of El Salvador. Because the demand for places far exceeds the capacity of the Association's training unit, careful selection of candidates is made through consultation with the national family planning associations. Most of those trained are doctors who are being specially equipped to carry out family planning work either as part of government maternal and child health centres or in Association clinics. Many places are also found for nurses and some social workers also attend in order to build up teams for effective clinic management. A few journalists and teachers have been among the trainees as well as groups of religious leaders including Roman Catholics. Lecturers are mainly university personnel drawn from a wide range of disciplines in order to relate family planning not only to health and medicine but also to socio-economic aspects and community welfare. The El Salvador Association, an IPPF member, gets financial support from the Population Council for the training programme but hopes eventually that responsibility for continuing the courses will be taken over by the Government, probably through the Ministry of Education. Another pace-setting activity of the Association has been its close contacts with industry, particulary through the efforts of its President, Mr. Lucio Burgos, General Manager of the El Salvador Power Company, who has gained the interest and support of business and union leaders. Not only do these groups help the work of the Association through fund-raising and public relations activities, but they co-operate with the Association in introducing family planning to their workers through group meetings and talks. PMID:12275386

  11. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  12. Study of gamma-ray strength functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

    1980-08-07

    The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

  13. Strength and Conditioning for Judo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Amtmann; Adam Cotton

    2005-01-01

    summary For elite judo athletes and recre- ational judo athletes alike, sport- specific strength and conditioning is essential in the prevention of in- juries and for enhancing perfor- mance. This article offers sugges- tions for judo athletes and coaches for the development of strength and conditioning programs specific to the requirements of their sport.

  14. The target strengths of fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. G. Haslett

    1969-01-01

    Knowledge of the acoustic target strength of a fish (or of a shoal of fish) is required to enable the performance of present and future sonar equipments to be determined for fish targets. Also, it is hoped that measurement of the strengths and characters of the echoes received from fish will give a reliable guide to the size of the

  15. Burst Strength of Silicone Tubing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina M. Malczewski; William D. Inman; Brent L. Cadieux

    ilicone tubing is known for its flexibility and versatility. Tubing used for the pharmaceutical industry must meet special process requirements for purity, consistency, and in some cases for burst strength where pressure variations can be significant. Dow Corning® Pharma brand tubings with and without reinforcement have been tested for burst strength by procedures similar to those described in published guidelines.

  16. Reliability analysis of containment strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Greimann; F. Fanous; A. Sabri; D. Ketelaar; A. Wolde-Tinsae; D. Bluhm

    1982-01-01

    The Sequoyah and McGuire ice condenser containment vessels were designed to withstand pressures in the range of 12 to 15 psi. Since pressures of the order of 28 psi were recorded during the Three Mile Island incident, a need exists to more accurately define the strength of these vessels. A best estimate and uncertainty assessment of the strength of the

  17. Determination of PinDetermination of Pin--bearing Strength for thebearing Strength for the Design of Bolted Connections with StandardDesign of Bolted Connections with Standard

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Toby

    study?Why study? "Standard for Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) of Pultruded Fiber;5 Standards for bearing strength ASTM D 5961-05 - scope is for with laminated composites (aerospace). t = 3 to 5 mm, e1/d = 3 and w/d = 6. Metallic fastener (lightly torqued (2.2-3.4 N·m )) of d = 6 mm

  18. Oscillator strengths and collision strengths for S v

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Wyngaarden, W. L.; Henry, R. J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the optical extreme-ultraviolet spectrum of the Jupiter planetary system during the Voyager space mission revealed bright emission lines of some sulfur ions. The spectra of the torus at the orbit of Io are likely to contain S V lines. The described investigation provides oscillator strengths and collision strengths for the first four UV lines. The collision strengths from the ground state to four other excited states are also obtained. Use is made of a two-state calculation which is checked for convergence for some transitions by employing a three-state or a four-state approximation. Target wave functions for S V are calculated so that the oscillator strengths calculated in dipole length and dipole velocity approximations agree within 5%.

  19. Deletion analysis of Ad5 E1a transcriptional control region: impact on tumor-selective expression of E1a and E1b

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Hedjran; K Shantanu; R Tony

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory sequences upstream of E1a, the first viral protein expressed upon infection of cells with adenovirus, have binding sites for multiple transcription factors including two binding sites for E2f and five binding sites for Pea3. We evaluated the impact of deletions, which remove one or more of these transcription factor-binding sites on the expression of E1a in a panel

  20. Monopole Strength in Ni-58 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW.

    1991-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C VOLUME 44, NUMBER 5 Monopole strength in Ni NOVEMBER 1991 D. H. Youngblood and Y.-W. Lui Cyclotron Institute, Texas AdkM Uni Uersi ty, College Station, Texas 77843 (Received 20 June 1991) Differential cross-section data from... strength is locat- ed nearer the quadrupole (for Ca [3] and Si [4] at vir- tually the same energy). Only two reports of substantial strength in lighter nuclei are in the literature. Lui et al. [4] reported 66%%uo of the EO energy-weighted sum rule...

  1. Residual strength and pore structure of high-strength concrete and normal strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. N. Chan; G. F. Peng; M. Anson

    1999-01-01

    Based on normal strength concrete (NSC) and high-strength concrete (HSC), with compressive strengths of 39, 76, and 94 MPa respectively, damage to concrete under high temperatures was identified. After exposure to temperatures up to 1200 °C, compressive strength and tensile splitting strength were determined. The pore structure in HSC and in NSC was also investigated. Results show that HSC lost

  2. CYP2E1 autoantibodies in liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sutti, Salvatore; Rigamonti, Cristina; Vidali, Matteo; Albano, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune reactions involving cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) are a feature of idiosyncratic liver injury induced by halogenated hydrocarbons and isoniazid, but are also detectable in about one third of the patients with advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In these latter the presence of anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies is an independent predictor of extensive necro-inflammation and fibrosis and worsens the recurrence of hepatitis following liver transplantation, indicating that CYP2E1-directed autoimmunity can contribute to hepatic injury. The molecular characterization of the antigens recognized by anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies in ALD and CHC has shown that the targeted conformational epitopes are located in close proximity on the molecular surface. Furthermore, these epitopes can be recognized on CYP2E1 expressed on hepatocyte plasma membranes where they can trigger antibody-mediated cytotoxicity. This does not exclude that T cell-mediated responses against CYP2E1 might also be involved in causing hepatocyte damage. CYP2E1 structural modifications by reactive metabolites and molecular mimicry represent important factors in the breaking of self-tolerance against CYP2E1 in, respectively, ALD and CHC. However, genetic or acquired interferences with the mechanisms controlling the homeostasis of the immune system are also likely to contribute. More studies are needed to better characterize the impact of anti-CYP2E1 autoimmunity in liver diseases particularly in relation to the fact that common metabolic alterations such as obesity and diabetes stimulates hepatic CYP2E1 expression. PMID:25462068

  3. CYP2E1 autoantibodies in liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Sutti, Salvatore; Rigamonti, Cristina; Vidali, Matteo; Albano, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune reactions involving cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) are a feature of idiosyncratic liver injury induced by halogenated hydrocarbons and isoniazid, but are also detectable in about one third of the patients with advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In these latter the presence of anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies is an independent predictor of extensive necro-inflammation and fibrosis and worsens the recurrence of hepatitis following liver transplantation, indicating that CYP2E1-directed autoimmunity can contribute to hepatic injury. The molecular characterization of the antigens recognized by anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies in ALD and CHC has shown that the targeted conformational epitopes are located in close proximity on the molecular surface. Furthermore, these epitopes can be recognized on CYP2E1 expressed on hepatocyte plasma membranes where they can trigger antibody-mediated cytotoxicity. This does not exclude that T cell-mediated responses against CYP2E1 might also be involved in causing hepatocyte damage. CYP2E1 structural modifications by reactive metabolites and molecular mimicry represent important factors in the breaking of self-tolerance against CYP2E1 in, respectively, ALD and CHC. However, genetic or acquired interferences with the mechanisms controlling the homeostasis of the immune system are also likely to contribute. More studies are needed to better characterize the impact of anti-CYP2E1 autoimmunity in liver diseases particularly in relation to the fact that common metabolic alterations such as obesity and diabetes stimulates hepatic CYP2E1 expression. PMID:25462068

  4. New Insights into FoxE1 Functions: Identification of Direct FoxE1 Targets in Thyroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Lara P.; López-Márquez, Arístides; Martínez, Ángel M.; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Santisteban, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Background FoxE1 is a thyroid-specific forkhead transcription factor essential for thyroid gland development, as well as for the maintenance of the thyroid differentiated state in adults. FoxE1 recognizes and binds to a short DNA sequence present in thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroperoxidase (Tpo) promoters, but FoxE1 binding to regulatory regions other than Tg and Tpo promoters remains almost unexplored. Improving knowledge of the regulatory functions of FoxE1 is necessary to clarify its role in endocrine syndromes and cancer susceptibility. Methodology/Principal Finding In order to further investigate downstream FoxE1 targets, we performed a genome-wide expression screening after knocking-down FoxE1 and obtained new insights into FoxE1 transcriptional networks in thyroid follicular cells. After validation, we confirmed Adamts9, Cdh1, Duox2 and S100a4 as upregulated genes and Casp4, Creld2, Dusp5, Etv5, Hsp5a, Nr4a2 and Tm4sf1 as downregulated genes when FoxE1 was silenced. In promoter regions of putative FoxE1-regulated genes and also in the promoters of the classical thyroid genes Nis, Pax8 and Titf1, we performed an in silico search of the FoxE1 binding motif that was in close proximity to the NF1/CTF binding sequence, as previously described for other forkhead factors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we detected specific in vivo FoxE1 binding to novel regulatory regions in two relevant thyroid genes, Nis and Duox2. Moreover, we demonstrated simultaneous binding of FoxE1 and NF1/CTF to the Nis upstream enhancer region, as well as a clear functional activation of the Nis promoter by both transcription factors. Conclusions/Significance In search for potential downstream mediators of FoxE1 function in thyroid cells, we identified two novel direct FoxE1 target genes. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence regarding the implication of Nis and Duox2 in executing the transcriptional program triggered by FoxE1. Furthermore, this study points out the important role of FoxE1 in the regulation of a large number of genes in thyroid cells. PMID:23675434

  5. Minimal and Maximal e=1 Functions P. Dankelmann0

    E-print Network

    Goddard, Wayne

    Minimal and Maximal e=1 Functions P. Dankelmann0 University of Natal, Durban D.J. Erwin0 Western Michigan University G. Fricke Morehead State University W. Goddard University of Natal, Durban H.C. Swart0 University of Natal, Durban Dedicated to Ernie Cockayne, friend and colleague Abstract. An e = 1 function

  6. Intrinsic Electric Strength of Polythene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Oakes

    1947-01-01

    THE work of Austen and Pelzer1 on the use of recessed specimens for measurement of the electric strength of dielectrics suggested that with specimens of this type experimental verification of the theories of breakdown developed by Frohlich and von Hippel2,3 might be possible. Frohlich's recent extension4 of his theory predicts: (a) that the electric strength should be independent of thickness

  7. Electron demagnetization and collisionless magnetic reconnection in {beta}{sub e}<<1 plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Scudder, J.D.; Mozer, F.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240 (United States); Space Science Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2005-09-15

    Abrupt, intense electric field enhancements (EFEs) with E>100 mV/m surveyed over 3 years of NASA's Polar spacecraft data are used to illustrate the occurrence and locales of nonguiding center demagnetization of thermal electrons in strongly inhomogeneous electric fields. A lower bound E*(a) on the perpendicular electric strength sufficient to cause nongyrotropic effects on the electron pressure tensor is determined for EFE thickness {delta}x=a{rho}{sub e}. Minimum E*(a) occurs when a{approx_equal}1. Of 258 observed EFEs, 15.3% (39) are demagnetizing (DEFEs) with E{>=}E*(1). DEFEs occur within 3x10{sup -5}{<=}{beta}{sub e}{<=}3x10{sup -1}, while EFEs are found as low as {beta}{sub e}=10{sup -8}. While E*(1) does not depend on the ambient density, the DEFEs are organized by the density-dependent inequality {lambda}{sub De}/{rho}{sub e}<1 and are consistently understood as sites where the electron pressure tensor could become agyrotropic, enabling collisionless magnetic reconnection. The geophysical locales of the demagnetizing EFEs are not random, always occurring within magnetic cusp invariant latitudes, strongly concentrated at noon magnetic local times and at orbit apogee near the nominal magnetopause.

  8. Excitation energy and strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in stable tin isotopes

    E-print Network

    B. Özel; J. Enders; H. Lenske; P. von Neumann-Cosel; I. Poltoratska; V. Yu. Ponomarev; A. Richter; D. Savran; N. Tsoneva

    2009-01-16

    The $^{112,120}$Sn$(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ reactions have been studied at the S-DALINAC. Electric dipole (E1) strength distributions have been determined including contributions from unresolved strength extracted by a fluctuation analysis. Together with available data on $^{116,124}$Sn, an experimental systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in stable even-mass tin isotopes is established. The PDR centroid excitation energies and summed strengths are in reasonable agreement with quasiparticle-phonon model calculations based on a nonrelativistic description of the mean field but disagree with relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions.

  9. [Human Origins Research 2011; 1:e1] [page 1] Human Origins Research 2011; volume 1:e1

    E-print Network

    Smith, Tanya M.

    - species have been named, largely on the basis of dental metric varia- tion, occlusal morphology[Human Origins Research 2011; 1:e1] [page 1] Human Origins Research 2011; volume 1:e1 Dental tissue, including a trend of dental reduction during the past million years. While studies have documented variation

  10. Oscillator strengths and collision strengths for neutral sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Y. K.; Henry, R. J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Configuration-interaction target wave functions are used in the present calculation of collision strengths, for electron impact excitation of neutral sulfur from the group 3p4 3P state to excited states 3p3 4s 3S0, 3p3(4S0)3d 3D0, and 3p3 4s 3P0, in a close coupling approximation for the energy range up to 1,000,000 K. Configuration-interaction target wave functions are used in the calculation of collision strengths, and oscillator strengths for various triplet transitions are reported together with transitions between 3p4 1D and 3p4 1S and other singlet-excited states.

  11. Resolvin E1 receptor activation signals phosphorylation and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Taisuke; Arita, Makoto; Omori, Kazuhiro; Recchiuti, Antonio; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Serhan, Charles N

    2010-01-29

    Resolvins are endogenous lipid mediators that actively regulate the resolution of acute inflammation. Resolvin E1 (RvE1; (5S,12R,18R)-trihydroxy-6Z,8E,10E,14Z,16E-eicosapentaenoic acid) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediator derived from eicosapentaenoic acid that regulates leukocyte migration and enhances macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils to resolve inflammation. In the inflammatory milieu, RvE1 mediates counter-regulatory actions initiated via specific G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we have identified RvE1-specific signaling pathways initiated by the RvE1 receptor ChemR23. RvE1 stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that was both ligand- and receptor-dependent. RvE1 regulated Akt phosphorylation in a time (0-15 min)- and dose-dependent (0.01-100 nm) manner in human ChemR23-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. RvE1 stimulated phosphorylation of both Akt and a 30-kDa protein, a downstream target of Akt, identified using a phospho-Akt substrate antibody. The 30-kDa protein was identified as ribosomal protein S6, a translational regulator, and its phosphorylation was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (wortmannin) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) but not by a p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Ribosomal protein S6 is a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway as well as the Raf/ERK pathway. In ChemR23-expressing differentiated HL60 cells, RvE1 also stimulated the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. In addition, RvE1 enhanced phagocytosis of zymosan A by human macrophages, which are inhibited by PD98059 and rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor). These results indicate that RvE1 initiates direct activation of ChemR23 and signals receptor-dependent phosphorylation. These phosphorylation-signaling pathways identified for RvE1 receptor-ligand interactions underscore the importance of endogenous pro-resolving agonists in resolving acute inflammation. PMID:19906641

  12. Effect of solar wind pressure pulses on the size and strength of the auroral oval

    E-print Network

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    Effect of solar wind pressure pulses on the size and strength of the auroral oval A. Boudouridis, E. [1] It has recently been found that solar wind dynamic pressure changes can dramatically affect solar wind dynamic pressure increases on the location, size, and intensity of the auroral oval using

  13. Strength of welded copper joints

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzyukova, A.N.; Fedorenko, M.I.; Kovalenko, N.I.; Zelik, E.I.

    1983-07-01

    A coefficient of the strength of welded joints in structures of copper and its alloys made by manual arc welding are known. At the Severedonetsk Branch of the Institute of Chemical Engineering the strength coefficients were determined for welded joints made of MZR (phosphorous-deoxydized) copper produced by manual argonarc welding. Optimum welding regimes were selected, and specimens of strips tested for tensile strength. Metallographic investigations showed significant grain growth in the zone of thermal influence. The results of mechanical tests are given. The results are verified by the fabrication of nine models. All the models ruptured in the zone of thermal influence, confirming results that the zone of thermal influence was the weak point in the welded joints in copper.

  14. Observation of large scissors resonance strength in actinides.

    PubMed

    Guttormsen, M; Bernstein, L A; Bürger, A; Görgen, A; Gunsing, F; Hagen, T W; Larsen, A C; Renstrøm, T; Siem, S; Wiedeking, M; Wilson, J N

    2012-10-19

    The orbital M1 scissors resonance has been measured for the first time in the quasicontinuum of actinides. Particle-? coincidences are recorded with deuteron and (3)He-induced reactions on (232)Th. The residual nuclei (231,232,233)Th and (232,233) Pa show an unexpectedly strong integrated strength of B(M1)=11-15?(n)(2) in the E(?)=1.0-3.5 MeV region. The increased ?-decay probability in actinides due to scissors resonance is important for cross-section calculations for future fuel cycles of fast nuclear reactors and may also have an impact on stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23215072

  15. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

  16. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

  17. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

  18. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

  19. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

  20. Earthquake stress drop and laboratory-inferred interseismic strength recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Hickman, S.H.; Wong, T.-F.

    2001-01-01

    We determine the scaling relationships between earthquake stress drop and recurrence interval tr that are implied by laboratory-measured fault strength. We assume that repeating earthquakes can be simulated by stick-slip sliding using a spring and slider block model. Simulations with static/kinetic strength, time-dependent strength, and rate- and state-variable-dependent strength indicate that the relationship between loading velocity and recurrence interval can be adequately described by the power law VL ??? trn, where n=-1. Deviations from n=-1 arise from second order effects on strength, with n>-1 corresponding to apparent time-dependent strengthening and n<-1 corresponding to weakening. Simulations with rate and state-variable equations show that dynamic shear stress drop ????d scales with recurrence as d????d/dlntr ??? ??e(b-a), where ??e is the effective normal stress, ??=??/??e, and (a-b)=d??ss/dlnV is the steady-state slip rate dependence of strength. In addition, accounting for seismic energy radiation, we suggest that the static shear stress drop ????s scales as d????s/dlntr ??? ??e(1+??)(b-a), where ?? is the fractional overshoot. The variation of ????s with lntr for earthquake stress drops is somewhat larger than implied by room temperature laboratory values of ?? and b-a. However, the uncertainty associated with the seismic data is large and the discrepancy between the seismic observations and the rate of strengthening predicted by room temperature experiments is less than an order of magnitude. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Cellular transformation by E1 genes of enteric adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Cousin, C; Winter, N; Gomes, S A; D'Halluin, J C

    1991-03-01

    The ability of Ad40 and Ad41 E1A plus E1B genes to transform BRK cells was considerably lower than that of Ad5 and Ad12 corresponding genes. However, as for Ad5, the E1A genes of enteric adenoviruses could cooperate with an activated ras oncogene for full cell transformation and the Ad41 E1B could be complemented by E1A gene of Ad5 or Ad12 for cell transformation. Complementation studies suggested that the conserved region 1 of Ad41 E1A was responsible for this inefficient transformation. The Ad40- and Ad41-transformed cell lines exhibited a low level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens correlated to the low level of Ad12-transformed cells. Class I MHC antigen amounts expressed at the surface of the cells transformed by the weakly oncogenic Ad3 were between the high level of Ad5- and the low level of Ad12-transformed cells. PMID:1825253

  2. Information content of the low-energy electric dipole strength: Correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent experiments on the electric dipole (E1) polarizability in heavy nuclei have stimulated theoretical interest in the low-energy electric dipole strength, both isovector and isoscalar.Purpose: We study the information content carried by the electric dipole strength with respect to isovector and isoscalar indicators characterizing bulk nuclear matter and finite nuclei. To separate isoscalar and isovector modes, and low-energy strength and giant resonances, we analyze the E1 strength as a function of the excitation energy E and momentum transfer q.Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy density functionals, augmented by the random phase approximation, to compute the E1 strength and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables. Calculations are performed for the spherical, doubly magic nuclei 208Pb and 132Sn.Results: We demonstrate that E1 transition densities in the low-energy region below the giant dipole resonance exhibit appreciable state dependence and multinodal structures, which are fingerprints of weak collectivity. The correlation between the accumulated low-energy strength and the symmetry energy is weak, and dramatically depends on the energy cutoff assumed. On the other hand, a strong correlation is predicted between isovector indicators and the accumulated isovector strength at E around 20 MeV and momentum transfer q˜0.65 fm-1.Conclusions: Momentum- and coordinate-space patterns of the low-energy dipole modes indicate a strong fragmentation into individual particle-hole excitations. The global measure of low-energy dipole strength correlates poorly with the nuclear symmetry energy and other isovector characteristics. Consequently, our results do not support the suggestion that there exists a collective “pygmy dipole resonance,” which is a strong indicator of nuclear isovector properties. By considering nonzero values of momentum transfer, one can isolate individual excitations and nicely separate low-energy excitations from the T=1 and T=0 giant collective modes. That is, measurements at q>0 may serve as a tool to correlate the E1 strength with certain bulk observables, such as incompressibility and symmetry energy.

  3. Information Content of the Low-Energy Electric Dipole Strength: Correlation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhard, P.-G. [Inst. fur Theoretische Physik II, Univ. Erlangen-Numberg, Germany; Nazarewicz, Witold [UTK/ORNL/University of Warsaw

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent experiments on the electric dipole (E1) polarizability in heavy nuclei have stimulated theoretical interest in the low-energy electric dipole strength, both isovector and isoscalar. Purpose: We study the information content carried by the electric dipole strength with respect to isovector and isoscalar indicators characterizing bulk nuclear matter and finite nuclei. To separate isoscalar and isovector modes, and low-energy strength and giant resonances, we analyze the E1 strength as a function of the excitation energy E and momentum transfer q. Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy density functionals, augmented by the random phase approximation, to compute the E1 strength and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables. Calculations are performed for the spherical, doubly magic nuclei 208Pb and 132Sn. Results: We demonstrate that E1 transition densities in the low-energy region below the giant dipole resonance exhibit appreciable state dependence and multinodal structures, which are fingerprints of weak collectivity. The correlation between the accumulated low-energy strength and the symmetry energy is weak, and dramatically depends on the energy cutoff assumed. On the other hand, a strong correlation is predicted between isovector indicators and the accumulated isovector strength at E around 20 MeV and momentum transfer q 0.65 fm 1. Conclusions: Momentum- and coordinate-space patterns of the low-energy dipole modes indicate a strong fragmentation into individual particle-hole excitations. The global measure of low-energy dipole strength correlates poorly with the nuclear symmetry energy and other isovector characteristics. Consequently, our results do not support the suggestion that there exists a collective pygmy dipole resonance, which is a strong indicator of nuclear isovector properties. By considering nonzero values of momentum transfer, one can isolate individual excitations and nicely separate low-energy excitations from the T=1 and T=0 giant collective modes. That is, measurements at q>0 may serve as a tool to correlate the E1 strength with certain bulk observables, such as incompressibility and symmetry energy.

  4. Strength training for the warfighter.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible. PMID:22643142

  5. Strength gain through eccentric isotonic training without changes in clinical signs or blood markers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Localized exercises are widely used in rehabilitation processes. The predominant options are exercises with an emphasis on either concentric or eccentric contractions. Eccentric exercises promote greater strength gains compared to classical concentric stimuli, but can cause muscle damage. The aim of present study was to compare strength training composed of 10 sessions with progressive loads between groups with a predominance of concentric versus eccentric contraction through an analysis of isotonic strength, pressure pain threshold, creatine kinase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cortisol. Methods One hundred twenty male subjects were divided into four groups: C1 and E1 – single session of maximum strength with emphasis on concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively; C10 and E10 – 10 sessions with progressive loads from 80% to maximum strength with emphasis on concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Results Isotonic strength increased by 10% in E10 following the ten training sessions. C1 and E1 exhibited a lower pressure pain threshold 48 hours after the sessions in comparison to C10 and E10, respectively. Creatine kinase was increased in C1 in comparison to baseline, with significant differences (p???0.05) in comparison to E1 at 48 and 96 hours as well as C10 at 48, 72 and 96 hours. No significant differences were found in TNF-? or cortisol among the groups or evaluation times. Conclusion Eccentric contraction training promotes functional adaptation. Moreover, both concentric and eccentric contraction training have a protective effect on the muscle in relation to a single session of maximum strength exercise. Trial registration RBR-75scwh PMID:24261331

  6. CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, SHRINKAGE AND BOND STRENGTH AS AFFECTED BY ADDITION

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, SHRINKAGE AND BOND STRENGTH AS AFFECTED BY ADDITION OF FLY ASH on compressive strength, shrinkage and bond strength of concrete were investigated. In this study, two different types of concrete with compressive strengths of 2500 psi and 4500 psi, were designed and tested

  7. Attitude strength and resistance processes.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, E M; Chaiken, S; Tordesillas, R S

    1995-09-01

    This study examined whether multiple indicators of attitude strength form general dimensions that foster differential pathways to resistance. Ego involvement, certainty, personal importance, knowledge, and extremity were assessed. Resistance processes and outcomes were measured in a selective judgment paradigm. Intentions to act on attitudes and information-seeking proclivities were also assessed. Factor analysis of the strength measures revealed 2 factors. Both fostered intentions to act but were associated with differential resistance processes and outcomes. Heightened levels of the factor representing Commitment to one's position were associated with increased selective elaboration, selective judgment, and attitude polarization. Embeddedness, the linkage of the attitude to one's self-concept, value system, and knowledge structure, was associated with decreased selective elaboration and increased information seeking and selective memory. PMID:7562388

  8. Skill, strength, handedness, and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Provins, K A; Magliaro, J

    1989-06-01

    Thirty male subjects, 20 of whom were self-classified left-handers and 10 right-handers, were tested on a grip-strength task and a handwriting task with each hand, both under normal conditions and in a situation of induced experimental fatigue. On the basis of questionnaire scores, the left-handers were sub-divided into two groups comprising the 10 most left-handed and the 10 least left-handed subjects. The test of grip strength showed a small but significant deterioration in performance of both hands from fatigue. With the handwriting task, a similar significantly adverse effect of fatigue was recorded for all groups as well as a large significant difference in performance between the preferred and nonpreferred hands under normal conditions, which decreased under fatigue. An explanation of these differential effects is discussed in terms of the greater efficiency of the preferred hand in the highly developed skill of handwriting. PMID:15132940

  9. Strength scaling in fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Morton, John

    1991-01-01

    A research program was initiated to study and isolate the factors responsible for scale effects in the tensile strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates. Four layups were chosen with appropriate stacking sequences so as to highlight individual and interacting failure modes. Four scale sizes were selected for investigation including full scale size, 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4, with n = to 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively. The full scale specimen sizes was 32 piles thick as compared to 24, 16, and 8 piles for the 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4 specimen sizes respectively. Results were obtained in the form of tensile strength, stress-strain curves and damage development. Problems associated with strength degradation with increasing specimen sizes are isolated and discussed. Inconsistencies associated with strain measurements were also identified. Enchanced X-ray radiography was employed for damage evaluation, following step loading. It was shown that fiber dominated layups were less sensitive to scaling effects compared to the matrix dominated layups.

  10. Strength Scaling in Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Morton, John

    1990-01-01

    A research program was initiated to study and isolate the factors responsible for scale effects in the tensile strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates. Four layups were chosen with appropriate stacking sequences so as to highlight individual and interacting failure modes. Four scale sizes were selected for investigation including full scale size, 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4, with n = to 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively. The full scale specimen sizes was 32 piles thick as compared to 24, 16, and 8 piles for the 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4 specimen sizes respectively. Results were obtained in the form of tensile strength, stress-strain curves and damage development. Problems associated with strength degradation with increasing specimen sizes are isolated and discussed. Inconsistencies associated with strain measurements were also identified. Enhanced x ray radiography was employed for damage evaluation, following step loading. It was shown that fiber dominated layups were less sensitive to scaling effects compared to the matrix dominated layups.

  11. Acetaldehyde and parkinsonism: role of CYP450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Vaglini, Francesca; Viaggi, Cristina; Piro, Valentina; Pardini, Carla; Gerace, Claudio; Scarselli, Marco; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The present review update the relationship between acetaldehyde (ACE) and parkinsonism with a specific focus on the role of P450 system and CYP 2E1 isozyme particularly. We have indicated that ACE is able to enhance the parkinsonism induced in mice by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a neurotoxin able to damage the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Similarly diethyldithiocarbamate, the main metabolite of disulfiram, a drug widely used to control alcoholism, diallylsulfide (DAS) and phenylisothiocyanate also markedly enhance the toxin-related parkinsonism. All these compounds are substrate/inhibitors of CYP450 2E1 isozyme. The presence of CYP 2E1 has been detected in the dopamine (DA) neurons of rodent Substantia Nigra (SN), but a precise function of the enzyme has not been elucidated yet. By treating CYP 2E1 knockout (KO) mice with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, the SN induced lesion was significantly reduced when compared with the lesion observed in wild-type animals. Several in vivo and in vitro studies led to the conclusion that CYP 2E1 may enhance the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice by increasing free radical production inside the dopaminergic neurons. ACE is a good substrate for CYP 2E1 enzyme as the other substrate-inhibitors and by this way may facilitate the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to toxic events. The literature suggests that ethanol and/or disulfiram may be responsible for toxic parkinsonism in human and it indicates that basal ganglia are the major targets of disulfiram toxicity. A very recent study reports that there are a decreased methylation of the CYP 2E1 gene and increased expression of CYP 2E1 mRNA in Parkinson's disease (PD) patient brains. This study suggests that epigenetic variants of this cytochrome contribute to the susceptibility, thus confirming multiples lines of evidence which indicate a link between environmental toxins and PD. PMID:23801948

  12. Strength loss in kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarne, Jose

    Unbleached kraft pulps from two U.S. mills were 21% and 26% weaker than comparable laboratory pulps from the same chip sources, when assessed as the tear index at a tensile index of 70 kN.m/kg. The phenomena involved were clarified by characterizing the differences between the mill and laboratory pulps in terms of fundamental fiber properties. All of the strength loss could be explained by a reduction in intrinsic fiber strength of 9% to 11%, as estimated from wet zero-span tensile tests and fiber length distributions. Most of the effects of different fiber shape and length were isolated by PFI mill refining and decrilling, respectively. The higher fiber coarseness of mill pulps was a factor in their maximum density and bond strength, but changes in these variables were analogous to those of laboratory pups due to similar swelling. Specific bond strength, determined from a wet pressing experiment, was similar in mill and laboratory pulps. Neither carbohydrate composition nor crystalline structure, assessed through x-ray diffraction analysis, were significant factors in the observed fiber strength differences. The mill pulps were not more heterogeneous than the laboratory pulps, within the resolution of a fractionation experiment. The number of weak points in each pulp was assessed through analysis of the amount of fiber cutting during PFI mill refining and treatments with potassium superoxide or cellulase. The results suggested that the chemistry of kraft pulping preferentially weaken short, slender fibers, while mechanical stresses during the hot discharge of batch digesters mainly affect long, thick fibers. The greater number of weak points in the long-fiber fractions of mill pulps is probably associated with their lower wet zero-span tensile indices. Automated optical detection of major singularities with a prototype instrument suggested that only the weak points induced by mechanical stress could be detected by local variations in birefringence. In contrast, chemically damaged short, slender fibers were not optically active. Strong chemical attack during superoxide treatment appeared to affect all fibers, but the effect of fiber cutting was partially offset by a preferential dissolution of short fibers and fines. A simple model of weak point formation by combinations of mechanical stress and localized chemical attack was sufficient to explain all the experimental results.

  13. 17 CFR 274.127e-1 - Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights with respect to periodic payment plan certificates. 274.127e-1...127e-1 Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders...

  14. 17 CFR 274.127e-1 - Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights with respect to periodic payment plan certificates. 274.127e-1...127e-1 Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders...

  15. 17 CFR 274.127e-1 - Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights with respect to periodic payment plan certificates. 274.127e-1...127e-1 Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders...

  16. 17 CFR 274.127e-1 - Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights with respect to periodic payment plan certificates. 274.127e-1...127e-1 Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders...

  17. 17 CFR 274.127e-1 - Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights with respect to periodic payment plan certificates. 274.127e-1...127e-1 Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders...

  18. M1 {gamma} Strength for Zirconium Nuclei in the Photoneutron Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Utsunomiya, H.; Kondo, T.; Kaihori, T.; Makinaga, A.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Goriely, S. [Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP-226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Goko, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Toyokawa, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Harano, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Hohara, S. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Lui, Y.-W. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Hilaire, S.; Peru, S. [Departement de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, Service de Physique Nucleaire, B.P. 12 - F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Koning, A. J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-04-25

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for {sup 91}Zr, {sup 92}Zr, and {sup 94}Zr near the neutron separation energy with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays. The data exhibit some extra components around the neutron threshold. A coherent analysis of the photoneutron data for {sup 92}Zr together with the neutron capture on {sup 91}Zr based on the microscopic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov plus quasiparticle random-phase approximation model for the E1 strength has revealed the presence of an M1 resonance at 9 MeV. The microscopic approach systematically shows the same M1 strength in the photoneutron cross section for {sup 91}Zr and {sup 94}Zr. The total M1 strength is about 75% larger than the strength predicted by the systematics, being qualitatively consistent with the giant M1 resonance observed in the inelastic proton scattering.

  19. E1-DEGENERATION OF THE IRREGULAR HODGE FILTRATION OF

    E-print Network

    Sabbah, Claude

    E1-DEGENERATION OF THE IRREGULAR HODGE FILTRATION OF EXPONENTIALLY TWISTED MIXED HODGE MODULES, we associate to these data a filtration (the irregular Hodge fil- tration) on the exponentially by projective morphisms, duality, etc.). In particular, the behaviour of the Hodge filtration is well

  20. 24. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS REINFORCEMENT DETAILS; MONOLITHS E1 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS - REINFORCEMENT DETAILS; MONOLITHS E-1 TO F-4 INCL. & NO. 34. Sheet S-11, June, 1939. File no. SA 342/24(?). - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  1. Ion selectivity of colicin E1: III. Anion permeability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Bullock; E. R. Kolen

    1995-01-01

    The antibiotic protein colicin E1 forms ion channels in planar lipid bilayers that are capable of conducting monovalent organic cations having mean diameters of at least 9 Å. Polyvalent organic cations appear to be completely impermeant, regardless of size. All permeant ions, whether large or small, positively or negatively charged, are conducted by this channel at very slow rates. We

  2. P a g e | 1 Moodle: email student cohort

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    P a g e | 1 Moodle: email student cohort Every Moodle course has a special discussion forum the forum, in the form of an email message and is sent to their university email address. These functions "Mail now", the message will be emailed to students at once. If you didn't select this option, you

  3. Mapping Titanium Abundance Using Chang'E-1 IIM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Z. C.; Zhang, J.; Liu, J. Z.; Zhang, W. X.; Zhang, G. L.; Liu, B.; Ren, X.; Mu, L. L.; Liu, J. J.; Li, C. L.

    2011-03-01

    The derivation of the preliminary algorithm for TiO2 mapping using Chang’E-1 IIM data were presented in this abstract. A regional case study near MS2 region is also performed in comparisons with corresponding Clementine TiO2 mapping.

  4. E1 11/19/03 CRITERIA FOR ACCREDITING

    E-print Network

    Efe, Mehmet Önder

    E1 11/19/03 CRITERIA FOR ACCREDITING ENGINEERING PROGRAMS Effective for Evaluations During the 2004-2005 Accreditation Cycle Incorporates all changes approved by the ABET Board of Directors as of November 1, 2003 Engineering Accreditation Commission ABET, Inc. 111 Market Place, Suite 1050 Baltimore, MD 21202 Telephone

  5. Replication of Colicin E1 Plasmid DNA in Cell Extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshimasa Sakakibara; Jun-Ichi Tomizawa

    1974-01-01

    Cell extracts were prepared from Escherichia coli carrying colicin El plasmid. The DNA in extracts was almost exclusively closed-circular DNA of the plasmid. Labeled deoxyribonucleotides were incorporated into DNA in extracts. DNA of colicin E1 plasmid was the sole DNA product, and was composed of completely replicated molecules and a class of replicative intermediates. The intermediates carried an average of

  6. The Adenovirus E1A Proteins Induce Apoptosis, which is Inhibited by the E1B 19-kDa and Bcl2 Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmi Rao; Michael Debbas; Peter Sabbatini; David Hockenbery; Stanley Korsmeyer; Eileen White

    1992-01-01

    Cooperation between the adenovirus E1A and E1B oncogenes is required for transformation of primary quiescent rodent cells. Although expression of E1A alone will stimulate cell proliferation sufficient to initiate transformed focus formation, proliferation fails to be sustained and foci degenerate. Coexpression of either the 19-kDa or 55-kDa E1B oncoproteins with E1A permits high-frequency transformation by overcoming this cytotoxic response. Without

  7. Residual strength of damaged marine structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Dhruba J.; Nappi, Natale S.; Wiernicki, Christopher J.

    1994-09-01

    Traditionally assessment of ship's longitudinal strength has been made by comparing the elastic stresses at the deck or bottom shell to fractions of the material yield strength. This results in high reserve capacity due to inherent redundancies in ship structures. Residual strength, which is defined as the strength of the structure after damage, has rarely been considered either during design or at the time of repair. In this report, key elements required to undertake an engineering analysis to evaluate the residual strength have been identified. Emphasis has been placed on assessing the residual strength of marine structures damaged due to normal operating loads. Methods available to industry for evaluation of damage such as, fracture and ultimate strength have been summarized. An example problem, illustrating the application of an integrated approach to residual strength assessment on a particular ship type, is presented.

  8. Monopole Strength in Ni-58

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW.

    1991-01-01

    of Ener- gy under Grant No. DE-FG05-86ER40256. MONOPOLE STRENGTH IN "Ni 1881 [1]D. H. Youngblood, P. Bogucki, J. D. Bronson, U. Garg, Y.-W. Lui, and C. M. Rozsa, Phys. Rev. C 23, 1997 (1981). [2] M. Buenerd, J. Phys. C 4, 115 (1984). [3] S.... Udagawa, and T. Tamura, Phys. Rev. C 36, 1317(1987). [11]D. H. Youngblood, J. M. Moss, C. M. Rozsa, J. D. Bron- son, A. D. Bacher, and D. R. Brown, Phys. Rev. C 13, 994 (1976). [12]G. R. Satchler, Part. Nucl. 5, 105 (1973); Nucl. Phys. A195, 1 {1972). ...

  9. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  10. Weibull statistical analysis of granite bending strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Amaral; J. Cruz Fernandes; L. Guerra Rosa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the adequacy of Weibull statistical analysis to analyse the bending strength of granite. The experimental results show that strength variability is related with a specific origin of failure. This conclusion is based on analysing the influence of the surface condition (extrinsic defects) on the bending strength results treated by the Weibull statistics. The conclusions drawn

  11. Climate strength – How leaders form consensus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gil Luria

    2008-01-01

    This research further develops the theories concerning climate strength in organizations. Climate strength is a measure for within-group variability in climate perceptions. We studied groups in 3 military fighting brigades, using a validated military safety-climate questionnaire to check the relationship between safety climate strength and two possible antecedents: leadership (transformational and passive), and interaction with group members (military cohesion). Statistical

  12. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  13. {gamma}-strength functions in {sup 60}Ni from two-step cascades following proton capture

    SciTech Connect

    Voinov, A.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Schiller, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-02-15

    The two-step cascade method previously used in neutron-capture experiments is now applied to a proton-capture reaction. The spectrum of two-step cascades populating the first 2{sup +} level of {sup 60}Ni has been measured with the {sup 59}Co(p,2{gamma}){sup 60}Ni reaction. The simulation technique used for the spectrum analysis allows one to reveal the range of possible shapes of both E1 and M1 {gamma}-strength functions. The low-energy enhancement previously observed in {sup 3}He-induced reactions is seen to appear in M1 strength functions of {sup 60}Ni.

  14. Cavernous auto-injection therapy with prostaglandin E1.

    PubMed

    Nisén, H

    1993-01-01

    During 1990-1992, 176 consecutive patients (aged 18-83 years, mean 53 years) with erectile dysfunction were personally investigated by the author in the private office setting at Eira Hospital. Pharmacotesting with 20 micrograms prostaglandin was positive in 89 of 138 patients (64%) tested. Eleven per cent of the patients complained of pain during erection. Of 131 patients, who initially were offered auto-injections as a primary treatment modality, 99 (76%) began the therapy. Seventy-four per cent of the patients continued auto-injections after three months. The overall efficacy of prostaglandin E1 to induce adequate erections for sexual intercourse was estimated to be 71%. One prolonged erection without medical intervention and no penile fibrotic lesions were recorded. In conclusion, cavernous auto-injection therapy with prostaglandin E1 is a well accepted, effective and safe treatment alternative in psychogenic as well as organic impotence. Every impotent patient should be informed of this therapy. PMID:8291874

  15. Strength of anchor bolts in masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, A. R.; Brown, R. H.

    1983-08-01

    The strength properties of bent bar bolts in masonry were evaluated. The variables studied include bolt size, loading direction, embedment substrate, and bolt location. It is found that bolt strength increases with bolt size up to the point where failure is controlled by masonry strength. The loading direction, substrate, and location of bolts are shown to be significant factors in the strength of anchors. Previously developed empirical and analytical design equations for anchor bolts in reinforced concrete and masonry are investigated and compared to the study results. The equations are found to accurately predict the mean strengths of anchor bolts.

  16. Flexural vs. tensile strength in brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leguillon, Dominique; Martin, Éric; Lafarie-Frenot, Marie-Christine

    2015-04-01

    The tests leading to the determination of the strength of brittle materials show a very wide scattering and a noticeable difference between flexural and tensile strengths. The corresponding statistics are usually described by the Weibull law, which only partly explained the observed difference. From a theoretical point of view, the coupled criterion reaches the same conclusion, the flexural strength is higher than the tensile one. It is shown that these two approaches complement to give a satisfying explanation of the difference between the flexural and tensile strengths. Moreover, according to the coupled criterion, the tensile strength appears to be the only material parameter.

  17. Dissecting the roles of E1A and E1B in adenoviral replication and RCAd-enhanced RDAd transduction efficacy on tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Wang, Huiping; Chen, Xiafang; Li, Chuanyuan; Huang, Qian

    2014-10-01

    Oncolytic viruses have recently received widespread attention for their potential in innovative cancer therapy. Many telomerase promoter-regulated oncolytic adenoviral vectors retain E1A and E1B. However, the functions of E1A and E1B proteins in the oncolytic role of replication-competent adenovirus (RCAd) and RCAd enhanced transduction of replication defective adenoviruses (RDAd) have not been addressed well. In this study, we constructed viruses expressing E1A alone, E1A plus E1B-19 kDa, and E1A plus E1B-19 kDa/55 kDa. We then tested their roles in oncolysis and replication of RCAd as well as their roles in RCAd enhanced transfection rate and transgene expression of RDAd in various cancer cells in vitro and in xenografted human NCI-H460 tumors in nude mice. We demonstrated that RCAds expressing E1A alone and plus E1B-19 kDa exhibited an obvious ability in replication and oncolytic effects as well as enhanced RDAd replication and transgene expression, with the former showed more effective oncolysis, while the latter exhibited superior viral replication and transgene promotion activity. However, RCAd expressing both E1A and E1B-19 kDa/55 kDa was clearly worst in all these abilities. The effects of E1A and E1B observed through using RCAd were further validated by using plasmids expressing E1A alone, E1A plus E1B-19 kDa, and E1A plus E1B-19 kDa/55 kDa proteins. Our study provided evidence that E1A was essential for inducing replication and oncolytic effects of RCAd as well as RCAd enhanced RDAd transduction, and expression of E1B-19 kDa other than E1B-55 kDa could promote these effects. E1B-55 kDa is not necessary for the oncolytic effects of adenoviruses and somehow inhibits RCAd-mediated RDAd replication and transgene expression. PMID:25019940

  18. Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not. Another approach, in addition to differentiation between various cure conditions, may even provide information with respect to the bond strength. Several technical papers were published during the course of this research and a summary is presented in the Ph.D. dissertation of Tobias P. Berndt, a graduate student financially supported by this NASA Grant.

  19. The Strengths Assessment Inventory: Reliability of a New Measure of Psychosocial Strengths for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazeau, James N.; Teatero, Missy L.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Blanchette, Loretta R.

    2012-01-01

    A new measure, the Strengths Assessment Inventory-Youth self-report (SAI-Y), was recently developed to assess the strengths of children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 years. The SAI-Y differs from similar measures in that it provides a comprehensive assessment of strengths that are intrinsic to the individual as well as strengths…

  20. Oscillator Strength Measurement for the A(0-6)-X(0), C(0)-X(0), and E(0)-X(0) Transitions of CO by the Dipole (?,?) Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, X.; Liu, Y. W.; Xu, L. Q.; Ni, D. D.; Yang, K.; Hiraoka, N.; Tsuei, K. D.; Zhu, L. F.

    2015-07-01

    The oscillator strengths of CO, especially for the excitations to the predissociating levels {C}1{{{? }}}+ and {E}1{{\\Pi }}, have significant applications in the studies of interstellar gases. A large number of investigations, applying a variety of experimental and calculational methods, have focused on the determination of these oscillator strengths. However, deviations of more than 10% have been observed, even for the same experimental method. In this case, we introduce a new technique, the dipole (?, ?), to measure the oscillator strengths. The obtained oscillator strengths of the strong bands {C}1{{{? }}}+({? }\\prime =0)-{X}1{{{? }}}+ and {E}1{{\\Pi }}({? }\\prime =0)-{X}1{{{? }}}+ in this work reach high accuracy and are in excellent agreement with some previous results, although they are different from the recommended values in other works. In addition, we measured the oscillator strengths of the {A}1{{\\Pi }}({? }\\prime =0-6)-{X}1{{{? }}}+ bands, and the electronic transition moment dependence on r-centroid was derived.

  1. Correlation of Yield Strength and Tensile Strength with Hardness for Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlina, E. J.; van Tyne, C. J.

    2008-12-01

    Hardness values as well as yield and tensile strength values were compiled for over 150 nonaustenitic, hypoeutectoid steels having a wide range of compositions and a variety of microstructures. The microstructures include ferrite, pearlite, martensite, bainite, and complex multiphase structures. The yield strength of the steels ranged from approximately 300 MPa to over 1700 MPa. Tensile strength varied over the range of 450-2350 MPa. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of the yield strength and the tensile strength to the diamond pyramid hardness values for these steels. Both the yield strength and tensile strength of the steels exhibited a linear correlation with the hardness over the entire range of strength values. Empirical relationships are provided that enable the estimation of strength from a bulk hardness measurement. A weak effect of strain-hardening potential on the hardness-yield strength relationship was also observed.

  2. Strength of Welded Aircraft Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueggeman, W C

    1937-01-01

    This investigation is a continuation of work started in 1928 and described in NACA-TR-348 which shows that the insertion of gusset plates was the most satisfactory way of strengthening a joint. Additional tests of the present series show that joints of this type could be improved by cutting out the portion of the plate between the intersecting tubes. T and lattice joints in thin-walled tubing 1 1/2 by 0.020 inch have somewhat lower strengths than joints in tubing of greater wall thickness because of failure by local buckling. In welding the thin-walled tubing, the recently developed "carburizing flux" process was found to be the only method capable of producing joints free from cracks. The "magnetic powder" inspection was used to detect cracks in the joints and flaws in the tubing.

  3. Cyclic strength of hard metals

    SciTech Connect

    Sereda, N.N.; Gerikhanov, A.K.; Koval'chenko, M.S.; Pedanov, L.G.; Tsyban', V.A.

    1986-02-01

    The authors study the strength of hard-metal specimens and structural elements under conditions of cyclic loading since many elements of processing plants, equipment, and machines are made of hard metals. Fatigue tests were conducted on KTS-1N, KTSL-1, and KTNKh-70 materials, which are titanium carbide hard metals cemented with nickel-molybdenum, nickelcobalt-chromium, and nickel-chromium alloys, respectively. As a basis of comparison, the standard VK-15 (WC+15% Co) alloy was used. Some key physicomechanical characteristics of the materials investigated are presented. On time bases not exceeding 10/sup 6/ cycles, titanium carbide hard metals are comparable in fatigue resistance to the standard tungstencontaining hard metals.

  4. Relation between interfacial shear strength and tensile strength of carbon fiber\\/resin composite strands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shioya; S. Yasui; A. Takaku

    1998-01-01

    The dependence of the tensile strength of unidirectional carbon fiber\\/epoxy resin composite strand on the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength was investigated. The interfacial shear strength was changed by applying different levels of liquid-phase oxidations to the carbon fibers. The tensile strength of the composite strands did not increase monotonically with increasing interfacial shear strength but showed a maximum at a

  5. Limits on the magnetic field strength for critical ionization velocity interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Brenning

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical lower limit to the magnetic field strength required for critical ionization velocity (vc) interaction is found to correspond to the requirement ve)1\\/2, which can also be expressed as ?pe\\/?ce<(c\\/v)[(1+?e) ×me\\/mi]1\\/2. This limit is found to agree, within the experimental uncertainties, with the results from all the vc experiments in the impact configuration. The different experiments have very different

  6. Effects of Eccentric Strength Training on Different Maximal Strength and Speed-Strength Parameters of the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Szilvas, Elena; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre

    2015-07-01

    Wirth, K, Keiner, M, Szilvas, E, Hartmann, H, and Sander, A. Effects of eccentric strength training on different maximal strength and speed-strength parameters of the lower extremity. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1837-1845, 2015-The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effects of an eccentric strength training protocol using supramaximal loads (>1 repetition maximum [1RM]) on different maximal and explosive strength parameters of the lower extremity. The eccentric maximal strength (EX max), maximal isometric strength ("maximal voluntary contraction" [MVC]), 1RM, explosive strength ("rate of force development" [RFD]), countermovement jump, and squat jump height were tested before and after a training period of 6 weeks. The training group was composed of 15 individuals with low-weight training experience and a control group of 13 subjects, also with a low-weight training experience. The lower extremities were trained 3 days per week using a 45° leg press. Each training session comprised 5 sets of 3 repetitions with a 6-minute rest between each set. The training weights were adjusted continuously during each training session and between training sessions. In each case, a load was chosen that could be lowered unilaterally in a controlled manner by the subjects. For the concentric part of the exercise, 2 investigators lifted the weight to the starting position. After 6 weeks, strength training with supramaximal loads showed a significant increase in EX max (28.2%, p < 0.001) and 1RM (31.1%, p < 0.001). The increases observed in the control group were not significant. Changes in MVC, RFD, and vertical jump heights were not significant in both groups. The results of this study suggest that in untrained subjects, unilateral eccentric strength training in the leg press generates equal and significant improvements in unilateral eccentric and bilateral eccentric-concentric maximal strength, with a nonsignificant transfer to vertical jump performances and unilateral isometric force production. PMID:24832973

  7. Weibull statistical analysis of granite bending strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Amaral; J. Cruz Fernandes; L. Guerra Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Summary  This paper describes and discusses the adequacy of Weibull statistical analysis to analyse the bending strength of granite.\\u000a The experimental results show that strength variability is related with a specific origin of failure. This conclusion is based\\u000a on analysing the influence of the surface condition (extrinsic defects) on the bending strength results treated by the Weibull\\u000a statistics. The conclusions drawn

  8. Handgrip strength at midlife and familial longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina H. Y. Ling; Anton J. M. de Craen; P. Eline Slagboom; Rudi G. J. Westendorp; Andrea B. Maier

    Low handgrip strength has been linked with premature mortality in diverse samples of middle-aged and elderly subjects. The\\u000a value of handgrip strength as marker of “exceptional” human longevity has not been previously explored. We postulated that\\u000a the genetic influence on extreme survival might also be involved in the muscular strength determination pathway. Therefore,\\u000a the objective of this study was to

  9. Imparting strength and toughness to brittle composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, A. G.

    1974-01-01

    Appropriate intermittent coatings of fibers can produce areas of low and high toughness in brittle composites. Experiments using silicon vacuum grease (SVG) and polyurethane varnish (PUV) coatings that achieve weakly and strongly bonded interfaces are described. Tensile strength and edge-crack fracture toughness for both SVG and PUV coatings were plotted against the percentage coating (C). Both coating materials maintain tensile strengths in the order of the rule of mixture strength values up to a large C. It is suggested that both materials produce similar coated interfacial shear strengths while producing different effects on toughness.

  10. Mechanical strength and stability of lithium aluminate

    SciTech Connect

    Brimhall, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated the strength and resistance to thermal shock of lithium aluminate annular pellets. The room temperature, axial compressive fracture strength of pellets made at Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES) varied from 80 to 133 ksi. The strength at 430{degrees}C (806{degrees}F) was to 30 to 40% lower. The strength at 900{degrees}C (1652{degrees}F) showed a wide variation with one measurement near 90 ksi. These strength values are consistent with other data and predictions made in the literature when the grain size and porosity of the microstructure are taken into account. In diametral compression tests, the fracture strengths were much lower due to the existence of tensile stresses in some pellet regions from this type of loading. However, the fracture stresses were still generally higher than those reported in the literature; this fracture resistance probably reflects the better quality of the pellets tested in this study. Measurements on pellets made at PNL indicated lower strengths compared to the WAES material. This strength difference could be accounted for by different processing technologies: material made at PNL was cold-pressed and sintered with high porosity whereas the WAES material was isostatically hot-pressed with high density. Thermal shocking of the material by ramping to 900{degrees}C in two minutes did not have an observable effect on the microstructure or the strength of any of the pellets.

  11. Strength Training in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper reviews the mechanisms underlying the inability to generate force in individuals with stroke and summarizes the effects of strength training in these individuals. In addition, a systematic review of studies that have incorporated progressive strengthening interventions in individuals with stroke is presented. Summary of Key Points Central (e.g., motor recruitment) and peripheral (e.g., muscle atrophy) sources may alter muscle strength in individuals with stroke and further investigations are needed to partition and quantify their effects. As to the effect of strength training interventions in individuals with stroke, the majority of studies (albeit with small samples) that evaluated muscle strength as an outcome demonstrated improvements. With regard to the effect of strength training on functional outcomes in individuals with stroke, positive outcomes were found in less rigorous pre-test/post-test studies, but more conflicting results with controlled trials. Conclusions Although there is some suggestion that strength training alone can improve muscle strength, further research is required to optimize strength training and the transfer of these strength gains to functional tasks in individuals with stroke. PMID:23255839

  12. Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

  13. Microscopic nature of the photon strength function: stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achakovskiy, Oleg; Avdeenkov, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Kamerdzhiev, Sergei; Krewald, Siegfried; Voitenkov, Dmitriy

    2015-05-01

    The pygmy-dipole resonances and photon strength functions in stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes are calculated within the microscopic self-consistent version of the Extended Theory of Finite Fermi Systems that includes the QRPA and phonon coupling effects and uses the known Skyrme forces SLy4. The pygmy dipole resonance in 72Ni is predicted with the mean energy of 12.4 MeV and with the energy-weighted sum rule exhausting 25.6% of the total strength. The microscopically obtained photon E1 strength functions are used to calculate radiative neutron capture cross sections, gamma-ray spectra, and average radiative widths. Our main conclusion is that in all these quantities it is necessary to take the phonon coupling effects into account.

  14. Reduction of Benzene Metabolism and Toxicity in Mice That Lack CYP2E1 Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Valentine; Susanna S.-T. Lee; Mark J. Seaton; Bahman Asgharian; Georgia Farris; J. Christopher Corton; Frank J. Gonzalez; Michele A. Medinsky

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic CYP2E1 knockout mice (cyp2e1?\\/?) were used to investigate the involvement of CYP2E1 in thein vivometabolism of benzene and in the development of benzene-induced toxicity. After benzene exposure, absence of CYP2E1 protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis of mouse liver samples. For the metabolism studies, malecyp2e1?\\/?and wild-type control mice were exposed to 200 ppm benzene, along with a radiolabeled

  15. Your Best Plans Should Use Your Best Strengths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerald R. Forster

    High School students are encouraged to articulate their strengths and use those strengths when making their most important plans. The rationale for articulating strengths is based on the psychological literature describing the well-documented advantages of optimism, hope and focus on strengths. Haldane's process of Dependable Strengths Articulation (DSA) is recommended. Activities that can help a student identify significant strengths are

  16. Strength Development and Motor-Sports Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This document examines the effects of strength-development programs on the improvement of motor skills and sports competencies. Part one defines various terms used throughout the development studies. Part two discusses the mixed results of experiments involving speed of movement as the motor item indicative of strength development. Part three…

  17. The strength of glass, a nontransparent value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Veer

    The tendency in modern architecture to use glass structurally means that we need to know the engineering properties of glass accurately. The most important of these is the failure strength of glass in bending. Although much work on this has been done and published there are still many questions. These deal mainly with the correct statistical description of the strength

  18. Tensile Strength Measurements on Biopolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Eugene S.; Poliks, Mark D.

    2003-07-01

    An experiment is described in which students prepare biopolymer (agar, gelatin, and starch) films from aqueous solution and measure the tensile strengths of the films using easily constructed equipment. Agar and gelatin form moderately strong films. Starch forms weak films but the strength is increased by combining with agar and gelatin.

  19. Estimation of dynamic tensile strength of sandstone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiro Kubota; Yuji Ogata; Yuji Wada; Ganda Simangunsong; Hideki Shimada; Kikuo Matsui

    2008-01-01

    A series of dynamic tests on Kimachi sandstone for measuring dynamic tensile strength are carried out using underwater shock waves. An emulsion explosive is used as the source of dynamic loading, and a pipe filled with water was arranged between the explosive and a cylindrical specimen. The length of the pipe is varied to produce different strengths of the incidence

  20. The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His presentation shows…

  1. The Electric Strength of Some Solid Dielectrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. W. Austen; S. Whitehead

    1940-01-01

    Methods are described by which the 'intrinsic' electric strength of solid dielectrics may be defined and evaluated. It is shown that the magnitudes of and the effect of temperature and thickness upon the electric strengths of certain crystals agree with Frohlich's theory of electronic breakdown, as also does the effect of disordered structure and microstructure in similar instances. On the

  2. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  3. Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…

  4. 14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fatigue strength. 23.627 Section 23.627...Design and Construction § 23.627 Fatigue strength. The structure must be...concentration where variable stresses above the fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal...

  5. Impact of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength.

    PubMed

    Paramonova, E; Kalmykowa, O J; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J; Sharma, P K

    2009-10-01

    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of Streptococcus oralis J22, Actinomyces naeslundii TV14-J1, and full dental plaque at shear rates ranging from 0.1 to 50 1/sec and measured their compressive strength. Subsequently, biofilm architecture was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Multi-species biofilms were stronger than single-species biofilms, with strength values ranging from 6 to 51 Pa and from 5 to 17 Pa, respectively. In response to increased hydrodynamic shear, biofilm strength decreased, and architecture changed from uniform carpet-like to more "fluffy" with higher thickness. S. oralis biofilms grown under variable shear of 7 and 50 1/sec possessed properties intermediate of those measured at the respective single shears. PMID:19783800

  6. Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Skochko, G.W.; Herrmann, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low Alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

  7. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Asa H.; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  8. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth.

    PubMed

    Barber, Asa H; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M

    2015-04-01

    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  9. The dividing strength of lightweight aggregate concrete and the packing strength of light?weight aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsong Yen

    1998-01-01

    The strength of lightweight aggregate concrete depends basically on the mortar strength and the packing strength of lightweight coarse aggregate. The former can be adequately estimated based on the water\\/cement ratio, but there has been no appropriate method to determine the latter. In this study, a series of experiments were carried out to explore a method to evaluate the packing

  10. Influence of Muscle Strength on Bone Strength during Childhood and Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Schönau; E. Werhahn; U. Schiedermaier; E. Mokow; H. Schiessl; K. Scheidhauer; D. Michalk

    1996-01-01

    In connection with the prevention of osteoporosis, paediatrics is challenged with ensuring the optimal formation of the skeletal system with maximal bone strength during childhood and youth. Biomechanical use represents the most important stimulus for activating the skeletal system. The measurement of muscle strength (grip strength) in 97 females aged 3-62 years and 71 males aged 3-61 years showed an

  11. The character strengths of class clowns

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of “identified as a class clown,” “comic talent,” “disruptive rule-breaker,” and “subversive joker.” Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors “identified as the class clown” and “comic talent” were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (“disruptive rule-breaker,” “subversive joker”) were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers. PMID:25324796

  12. Mapping strengths into virtues: the relation of the 24 VIA-strengths to six ubiquitous virtues

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Proyer, René T.

    2015-01-01

    The Values-in-Action-classification distinguishes six core virtues and 24 strengths. As the assignment of the strengths to the virtues was done on theoretical grounds it still needs empirical verification. As an alternative to factor analytic investigations the present study utilizes expert judgments. In a pilot study the conceptual overlap among five sources of knowledge (strength’s name including synonyms, short definitions, brief descriptions, longer theoretical elaborations, and item content) about a particular strength was examined. The results show that the five sources converged quite well, with the short definitions and the items being slightly different from the other. All strengths exceeded a cut-off value but the convergence was much better for some strengths (e.g., zest) than for others (e.g., perspective). In the main study 70 experts (from psychology, philosophy, theology, etc.) and 41 laypersons rated how prototypical the strengths are for each of the six virtues. The results showed that 10 were very good markers for their virtues, nine were good markers, four were acceptable markers, and only one strength failed to reach the cut-off score for its assigned virtue. However, strengths were often markers for two or even three virtues, and occasionally they marked the other virtue more strongly than the one they were assigned to. The virtue prototypicality ratings were slightly positively correlated with higher coefficients being found for justice and humanity. A factor analysis of the 24 strengths across the ratings yielded the six factors with an only slightly different composition of strengths and double loadings. It is proposed to adjust either the classification (by reassigning strengths and by allowing strengths to be subsumed under more than one virtue) or to change the definition of certain strengths so that they only exemplify one virtue. The results are discussed in the context of factor analytic attempts to verify the structural model. PMID:25954222

  13. The Role of Polyunsaturated ?-3 Fatty Acid Eicosapentaenoic Acid–Derived Resolvin E1 (RvE1) in Bone Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Gyurko, Robert; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is a recently discovered lipid-derived mediator that is endogenously synthesized from the polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid. RvE1 is locally generated in response to inflammation where it enhances the resolution phase of inflammation by diminishing neutrophil chemotaxis and by enhancing nonphlogistic macrophage-directed clearance of apoptotic neutrophils. RvE1 was also found to be effective in preventing and restoring bone loss in the inflammatory bone disease periodontitis. This review examines experimental evidence on RvE1's actions in bone. Current data indicate that in addition to anti-inflammatory actions, RvE1 also directly acts on bone cells and promotes bone preservation. PMID:24941160

  14. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-driven oncolytic adenovirus with E1B-19 kDa and E1B-55 kDa gene deletions.

    PubMed

    Doloff, Joshua C; Waxman, David J; Jounaidi, Youssef

    2008-12-01

    We constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Adeno-hTERT-E1A, with deletions of the viral E1B, E3A, and E3B regions and insertion of a human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter-driven early viral 1A (E1A) cassette that confers high transcriptional activity in multiple human tumor cell lines. The oncolytic potential of Adeno-hTERT-E1A was characterized in comparison with that of the E1B-55 kDa- and E3B-region-deleted oncolytic adenovirus ONYX-015. Tumor cells infected with Adeno-hTERT-E1A expressed dramatically higher levels of E1A oncoprotein, underwent enhanced lysis, and displayed an earlier and higher apoptotic index than cells infected with ONYX-015. Despite the increase in virus-induced apoptotic death, Adeno-hTERT-E1A replicated and produced functional progeny leading to viral spread, but with reduced efficiency compared with ONYX-015, in particular in A549 cells. Virus-induced E1A expression, host cell apoptosis, viral hexon protein production, and DNA synthesis were markedly reduced in primary human hepatocytes after infection with Adeno-hTERT-E1A as compared with ONYX-015. The strong oncolytic activity of Adeno-hTERT-E1A in tumor cell culture translated into superior antitumor activity in vivo in an MDA-MB-231 solid tumor xenograft model. Adeno-hTERT-E1A thus has strong therapeutic potential and an improved safety profile compared with ONYX-015, which may lead to reduced toxicity in the clinic. PMID:18771358

  15. Conformational anti-cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) auto-antibodies contribute to necro-inflammatory injury in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Sutti, S; Vidali, M; Mombello, C; Sartori, M; Albano, E

    2010-10-01

    Circulating auto-antibodies against cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) have been observed in a significant fraction of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study investigated the clinical significance of these auto-antibodies in relation to their antigen specificity. The presence of anti-CYP2E1 IgG was investigated in 137 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven CHC. Anti-CYP2E1 IgG above control threshold levels was detected in 52 (38%) subjects. By combined immunoprecipitation and western blotting, we observed that among anti-CYP2E1 IgG-positive sera, 23 (44%) were unreactive towards denaturated CYP2E1, indicating a prevalent recognition of conformational CYP2E1 antigens. Conformational anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies were unrelated to circulating gamma-globulins, alcohol intake or infection by specific HCV genotypes. The presence of anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies was associated with an 11-fold (OR 10.9 95%CI 1.4-86.6 P = 0.008) increased prevalence of necro-inflammatory grading ? 4 (Ishack's criteria) and 4-fold (OR 4.0; 95%CI 1.3-11-7: P = 0.014) increased prevalence of fibrosis staging ? 2, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed conformational anti-CYP2E1 IgG (P = 0.005) and age (P = 0.033) as independent predictors of necro-inflammatory grading ? 4. The development of anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies targeting conformational CYP2E1 epitopes is associated with more severe liver damage in CHC. PMID:20738774

  16. Sources of strength-training information and strength-training behavior among Japanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2014-07-01

    The promotion of strength training is now recognized as an important component of public health initiatives for older adults. To develop successful communication strategies to increase strength-training behavior among older adults, the identification of effective communication channels to reach older adults is necessary. This study aimed to identify the information sources about strength training that were associated with strength-training behaviors among Japanese older adults. The participants were 1144 adults (60-74 years old) randomly sampled from the registry of residential addresses. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The independent variables were sources of strength-training information (healthcare providers, friends, families, radio, television, newspapers, newsletters, posters, books, magazines, booklets, the Internet, lectures, other sources), and the dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential relationships. After adjusting for demographic factors and all other information sources, strength-training information from healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet were positively related to regular strength-training behavior. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of strength-training behavior and the means of successful communication directed at increasing strength training among older adults. The results suggest that healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet are effective methods of communication for increasing strength-training behaviors among older adults. PMID:24997193

  17. in2p3-00145687,version1-11May2007 Search for low lying dipole strength in the neutron rich nucleus 26

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    in2p3-00145687,version1-11May2007 1 Search for low lying dipole strength in the neutron rich Coulomb excitation of the exotic neutron-rich nucleus 26 Ne on a nat Pb target was mea- sured at 58 A.MeV in order to search for low-lying E1 strength above the neutron emission threshold. Data were also taken

  18. Relationship among fatigue strength, mean grain size and compressive strength of a rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.

    1988-10-01

    Fatigue tests carried on three sets of samples having different mean grain sizes revealed that fatigue strength is a function of mean grain size of the rock. Samples having smaller grain size show higher value of fatigue strength. Graywacke samples from Flagstaff formation having mean grain sizes of 1.79 mm, 1.35 mm and 0.93 mm showed fatigue strengths of 87%, 88.25% and 89.1% respectively. Since the mean uniaxial compressive strength also varied with varying grain size, i. e. higher mean strength value for samples having finer grain size; the fatigue strength of a rock also shows a converse relation with mean uniaxial compressive strength.

  19. Serum autoantibodies against cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) predict severity of necroinflammation of recurrent hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, C; Vidali, M; Donato, M F; Sutti, S; Occhino, G; Ivaldi, A; Arosio, E; Agnelli, F; Rossi, G; Colombo, M; Albano, E

    2009-03-01

    We previously reported that autoantibodies against cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) are frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C. As autoimmune reactions are increasingly detected after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), this study investigates prevalence and significance of anti-CYP2E1 autoantibodies in 46 patients with post-OLT recurrent hepatitis C. IgG against recombinant human CYP2E1 above the control threshold was detected in 19 out 46 (41%) sera collected immediately before OLT and in 15 out 46 (33%) sera collected at the time of the 12 months follow-up liver biopsy. Although anti-CYP2E1 reactivity was not modified by OLT, the patients with persistently elevated anti-CYP2E1 IgG (n = 12; 26%) showed significantly higher prevalence of recurrent hepatitis with severe necroinflammation and fibrosis than those persistently negative or positive only either before or after OLT. Moreover, the probability of developing severe necroinflammation was significantly higher in persistently anti-CYP2E1-positive subjects. Multivariate regression and Cox analysis confirmed that the persistence of anti-CYP2E1 IgG, together with a history of acute cellular rejection and donor age >50 years, was an independent risk factor for developing recurrent hepatitis C with severe necroinflammation. We propose that autoimmune reactions involving CYP2E1 might contribute to hepatic damage in a subgroup of transplanted patients with recurrent hepatitis C. PMID:19191768

  20. Improved Plant-based Production of E1 endoglucanase Using Potato: Expression Optimization and Tissue Targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Thomas, S R.

    2000-06-01

    Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) gene expression in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was examined in this study, where the E1 coding sequence was transcribed under control of a leaf specific promoter (tomato RbcS-3C) or the Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of mannopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region). Average E1 activity in leaf extracts of potato transformants, in which E1 protein was targeted by a chloroplast signal peptide and an apoplast signal peptide were much higher than those by an E1 native signal peptide and a vacuole signal peptide. E1 protein accumulated up to 2.6% of total leaf soluble protein, where E1 gene was under control of the RbcS-3C promoter, alfalfa mosaic virus 5-untranslated leader, and RbcS-2A signal peptide. E1 protein production, based on average E1 activity and E1 protein accumulation in leaf extracts, is higher in potato than those measured previously in transgenic tobacco bearing the same transgene constructs. Comparisons of E1 activity, protein accumulation, and relative mRNA levels showed that E1 expression under control of tomato RbcS-3C promoter was specifically localized in leaf tissues, while E1 gene was expressed in both leaf and tuber tissues under control of Mac promoter. This suggests dual-crop applications in which potato vines serve as enzyme production `bioreactors' while tubers are preserved for culinary applications.

  1. Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Ratigan, J.L.

    1982-05-28

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

  2. Obi-Wan Adobe: Engineering for Strength

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students conduct an experiment to determine how varying the composition of a construction material affects its strength. They make several adobe bricks with differing percentages of sand, soil, fibrous material and water. They test the bricks for strength by dropping them onto a concrete surface from progressively greater heights. Students graph the experiment results and use what they learn to design their own special mix that maximizes the bricks' strength. During the course of the experiment, students learn about variables (independent, dependent, control) and the steps of the engineering design process.

  3. Evaluation of laser spallation as a technique for measurement of cell adhesion strength.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, Elizabeth; Shim, Jaewoo; Gupta, Vijay; Wu, Ben

    2007-09-15

    Cell adhesion to material surfaces is one of the fundamental phenomena of cellular response to implanted devices. Controlling the strength, dynamics, and mechanics of cell adhesion offer opportunities for designing novel biomaterials for tissue engineering and biotechnology. Many techniques have been developed for the purpose of quantifying various types of cell-biomaterial interaction. One method to evaluate cell affinity for a biomaterial is to measure the stress required to remove adherent cells from the material. This study investigates the possibility of using laser spallation, a technique previously developed for measuring the tensile strength of thin film interfaces, for evaluation of initial cell attachment strength. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts were cultured on fibronectin-coated polystyrene, a surface known to engage cells in receptor mediated adhesion, and untreated polystyrene, which elicit nonspecific adhesion mechanisms during early stages of cell attachment. The laser spallation technique effectively detached cells from polymer substrates and also distinguished relative cell adhesion strengths to surfaces with known differences in cell binding affinities. Scanning electron micrographs determined that cell detachment resulting from laser spallation left a cleaner surface than jet impingement, possibly suggesting a more complete detachment mechanism. Absolute values of adhesion strengths determined by laser spallation were significantly higher than those found using jet impingement, a previously reported hydrodynamic technique. PMID:17335015

  4. Estrogen Sulfotransferase/SULT1E1 Promotes Human Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ihunnah, Chibueze A.; Wada, Taira; Philips, Brian J.; Ravuri, Sudheer K.; Gibbs, Robert B.; Kirisci, Levent; Rubin, J. Peter; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST/SULT1E1) is known to catalyze the sulfoconjugation and deactivation of estrogens. The goal of this study is to determine whether and how EST plays a role in human adipogenesis. By using human primary adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and whole-fat tissues from the abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese and nonobese subjects, we showed that the expression of EST was low in preadipocytes but increased upon differentiation. Overexpression and knockdown of EST in ASCs promoted and inhibited differentiation, respectively. The proadipogenic activity of EST in humans was opposite to the antiadipogenic effect of the same enzyme in rodents. Mechanistically, EST promoted adipogenesis by deactivating estrogens. The proadipogenic effect of EST can be recapitulated by using an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist or ER? knockdown. In contrast, activation of ER in ASCs inhibited adipogenesis by decreasing the recruitment of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) onto its target gene promoters, whereas ER antagonism increased the recruitment of PPAR? to its target gene promoters. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between the expression of EST and body mass index (BMI), as well as a negative correlation between ER? expression and BMI. We conclude that EST is a proadipogenic factor which may serve as a druggable target to inhibit the turnover and accumulation of adipocytes in obese patients. PMID:24567372

  5. FPSO global strength and hull optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junyuan; Xiao, Jianhua; Ma, Rui; Cao, Kai

    2014-03-01

    Global strength is a significant item for floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) design, and steel weight plays an important role in the building costs of FPSO. It is the main task to consider and combine these two aspects by optimizing hull dimensions. There are many optional methods for the global strength analysis. A common method is to use the ABS FPSO Eagle software to analyze the global strength including the rule check and direct strength analysis. And the same method can be adopted for the FPSO hull optimization by changing the depth. After calculation and optimization, the results are compared and analyzed. The results can be used as a reference for the future design or quotation purpose.

  6. Range resolution of unequal strength targets

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Blair D.

    This paper examines the problem of resolving targets whose amplitudes may differ. A common metric used for resolution that assumes targets of equal strength is modified for the subject scenario. An expression for range ...

  7. 46 CFR 116.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable...

  8. 46 CFR 127.420 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.420 Strength. Each window or porthole, and its means of attachment to the hull or the deckhouse, must...

  9. 46 CFR 127.420 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.420 Strength. Each window or porthole, and its means of attachment to the hull or the deckhouse, must...

  10. 46 CFR 177.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable...

  11. 46 CFR 177.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable...

  12. 46 CFR 116.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable...

  13. 46 CFR 116.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable...

  14. 46 CFR 177.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable...

  15. 46 CFR 127.420 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.420 Strength. Each window or porthole, and its means of attachment to the hull or the deckhouse, must...

  16. 46 CFR 116.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable...

  17. 46 CFR 177.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable...

  18. 46 CFR 177.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable...

  19. 46 CFR 116.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable...

  20. 46 CFR 127.420 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.420 Strength. Each window or porthole, and its means of attachment to the hull or the deckhouse, must...

  1. 46 CFR 127.420 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.420 Strength. Each window or porthole, and its means of attachment to the hull or the deckhouse, must...

  2. Assessing Soil Strength From Geophysical Surveys 

    E-print Network

    Khan, Rehan

    2014-04-24

    A study is presented to develop framework for correlating sand strength (friction angle) to geophysical measurements, primarily shear wave and body wave velocities. Triaxial tests accompanied by wave velocity measurements ...

  3. Impact Strength of Glass and Glass Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, Stephan; Tolman, John

    2009-06-01

    Bar impact tests, using the techniques described elsewhere in this symposium, were used to measure compressive and tensile strengths of borosilicate glass, soda lime glass, and glass ceramic. The glass ceramic was 25% crystalline spinel, furnished by Corning, Inc. There are two measures of compressive strength: the peak stress that can be transmitted in unconfined compression and the steady-state strength. For both glasses, these values were similar, being about 1.8 and 1.5 GPa, respectively. The glass ceramic was almost 50% stronger. Tensile failure in the glass and glass ceramic takes places via surface flaws, and thus tensile strength is an extrinsic---as opposed to intrinsic---property.

  4. Multiscale strength homogenization : application to shale nanoindentation

    E-print Network

    Gathier, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Shales are one of the most encountered materials in sedimentary basins. Because of their highly heterogeneous nature, their strength prediction for oil and gas exploitation engineering has long time been an enigma. In this ...

  5. Induction of mesenchymal cell phenotypes in lung epithelial cells by adenovirus E1A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Behzad; K. Morimoto; J. Gosselink; J. Green; J. C. Hogg; S. Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation is now recognised as an important feature of tissue remodelling. The present report concerns the role of adenovirus infection in inducing this transformation in an animal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Guinea pig primary peripheral lung epithelial cells (PLECs) transfected with adenovirus E1A (E1A-PLECs) were compared to guinea pig normal lung fibroblasts (NLFs) transfected with E1A (E1A-NLFs).

  6. Adenovirus-Mediated Expression of CYP2E1 Produces Liver Toxicity in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingxiang Bai; Arthur I. Cederbaum

    2006-01-01

    InductionofcytochromeP4502E1byethanolisbelievedtobeone of the central pathways by which ethanol generates a state of oxidative stress and causes hepatotoxicity. In order to evaluate the biochemical and toxicological actions of CYP2E1 and its sensitiza- tion of hepatotoxin-induced injury, an adenovirus which can mediate overexpression of CYP2E1 was constructed. Injecting this virus into mice through the tail vein elevated CYP2E1 protein and activity twofold

  7. Determining functionally important amino acid residues of the E1 protein of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surendra S. Negi; Andrey A. Kolokoltsov; Catherine H. Schein; Robert A. Davey; Werner Braun

    2006-01-01

    A new method for predicting interacting residues in protein complexes, InterProSurf, was applied to the E1 envelope protein of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEEV). Monomeric and trimeric models of VEEV-E1 were constructed with our MPACK program, using the crystal structure of the E1 protein of Semliki forest virus as a template. An alignment of the E1 sequences from representative alphavirus sequences

  8. Intrinsic disorder in the common N-terminus of human adenovirus 5 E1B-55K and its related E1BN proteins indicated by studies on E1B-93R.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Timo; Scholz, Roland; Spoerner, Michael; Schumann, Frank; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Dobner, Thomas

    2011-09-30

    The E1B transcription unit of human adenovirus encodes at least five different proteins generated by alternative splicing of a common E1B precursor mRNA. E1B-156R, -93R and -84R contain individual carboxy termini but share a common amino terminus. To acquire data on the structure of the amino terminus we performed biophysical analyses on E1B-93R. We show that E1B-93R is mostly unstructured and fulfills the criteria of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). The intrinsic disorder in the amino terminus of these proteins is evolutionary conserved in all seven human adenovirus species. As IDPs comprise a rapidly growing family of proteins which, despite their lack of a well defined structure, often fulfill essential regulatory functions, the observations described here might open up a new avenue for the understanding of the regulation and functions of E1B proteins, in particular the multifunctional E1B-55K oncoprotein. PMID:21851959

  9. Impact Strength of Glass and Glass Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-01

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  10. Gamow-Teller strength at high excitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Bertsch; I. Hamamoto

    1982-01-01

    A perturbative calculation is reported for the mixing of Gamow-Teller strength with two-particle two-hole configurations at high excitation energies. We find that roughly 50% of the Gamow-Teller strength is shifted into the region of 10--45 MeV excitation for the nucleus ⁹°Zr. This would explain a substantial part of the continuum background seen in the 200 MeV (p,n) reaction.

  11. Strength properties of diamond-metal strip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Sorokin

    1977-01-01

    1.It has been established that the principal factors determining the strength of 40-to 80-µ-thick diamond-metal strip with a copper-tin-nickel binder after strengthening consisting of quenching, plastic working, and aging are the diamond powder concentration and strip thickness.2.It is shown that the strength of metal strip containing a diamond powder without a metal coating can be calculated with the equations proposed

  12. IMPACT STRENGTH OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J. [Institute for Advanced Technology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78759 (United States)

    2009-12-28

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  13. High-Hot-Strength Ceramic Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayir, Ali; Matson, Lawrence E.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous fibers consisting of laminae of alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet offer exceptionally high strength, resistance to creep, and chemical stability at high temperatures. These fibers exceed tensile strength of sapphire fibers. Leading candidates for reinforcement of intermetallic-matrix composites in exhaust nozzles of developmental high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Other applications are in aerospace, automotive, chemical-process, and power-generation industries.

  14. Strength of a Ceramic Sectored Flexure Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Duffy, Stephen F [ORNL; Baker, E. H. [Connecticut Reserve Technologies, LLC, Cleveland, OH; Swab, Jeffrey J [ORNL; Champoux, Gregory J [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    A new test specimen, defined here as the "sectored flexure strength specimen", was developed to measure the strength of ceramic tubes specifically for circumstances when flaws located at the tube's outer diameter are the strength-limiter and subjected to axial tension. The understanding of such strength-limitation is relevant for when ceramic tubes are subjected to bending or when the internal temperature is hotter than the tube's exterior (e.g., heat exchangers). The specimen is both economically and statistically attractive because eight specimens (eight in the case of this project - but the user is not necessarily limited to eight) were extracted out of each length of tube. An analytic expression for maximum or failure stress, and relationships portraying effective area and effective volume as a function of Weibull modulus were developed. Lastly, it was proven from the testing of two ceramics that the sectored flexure specimen was very effective at producing failures caused by strength-limiting flaws located on the tube's original outer diameter. Keywords: ceramics, strength, sectored flexure specimen, effective area, effective volume, finite-element analysis, Weibull distribution, and fractography.

  15. [Measuring the handgrip strength of geriatric patients].

    PubMed

    Kerckhofs, A G M; Vandewoude, M F J; Mudde, A N

    2014-09-01

    The handgrip strength of geriatric patients can be measured when the patient is hospitalized. This article elaborates on the intrinsic and extrinsic factors which have a direct or indirect influence on handgrip strength. For the best results the tests need to be taken in the best circumstances with attention to individual differences and the age of the patient. Handgrip strength as determination of biological vitality is a key concept. Besides the physical characteristics there are many psychological factors (cognition, psyching-up, test attitude…) influencing the results. These are barely mentioned or not mentioned at all in the usual procedures. Research of handgrip strength testing theories is mostly focused on young, healthy adults and less on elderly patients. The main goal of this article is stimulating experimental research on the measurement of handgrip strength with elderly people and involving them more actively with the procedure. It is not enough to acquire insight in function and predicting characteristics of handgrip strength. Next to the aiming for the best test performance is 'working interactively with elderly patients' a goal on itself in the modern vision of health care. PMID:24827615

  16. Identification of a nuclear export signal sequence for bovine papillomavirus E1 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rosas-Acosta, German; Wilson, Van G., E-mail: wilson@medicine.tamhsc.edu

    2008-03-30

    Recent studies have demonstrated nuclear export by papillomavirus E1 proteins, but the requisite export sequence(s) for bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E1 were not defined. In this report we identify three functional nuclear export sequences (NES) present in BPV E1, with NES2 being the strongest in reporter assays. Nuclear localization of BPV1 E1 was modulated by over- or under-expression of CRM1, the major cellular exportin, and export was strongly reduced by the CRM1 inhibitor, Leptomycin B, indicating that E1 export occurs primarily through a CRM1-dependent process. Consistent with the in vivo functional results, E1 bound CRM1 in an in vitro pull-down assay. In addition, sumoylated E1 bound CRM1 more effectively than unmodified E1, suggesting that E1 export may be regulated by SUMO modification. Lastly, an E1 NES2 mutant accumulated in the nucleus to a greater extent than wild-type E1, yet was defective for viral origin replication in vivo. However, NES2 exhibited no intrinsic replication defect in an in vitro replication assay, implying that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling may be required to maintain E1 in a replication competent state.

  17. Electron Demagnetization and Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in ?e ? 1 Plasmas: Theory and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Mozer, F. S.

    2005-05-01

    Abrupt, intense bipolar and unipolar electric spikes with E > 100mV/m surveyed over 3 years of Polar data (Mozer et al 2005) have been organized to answer the limited question: can they be involved in the local demagnetization of thermal electrons? We determine a lower bound on the electric strength sufficient to cause non-gyrotropic effects on the electron pressure tensor of the form E>E*=B{we}/{8c Im}, where B is the ambient magnetic field strength, we=?2kTe/me, c is the speed of light, and Im is an electron velocity space weighted average displacement along the electric field while transiting the layer (assumed localized with a scale ? x=a ?e, where ?e is the electron thermal gyroradius). The variation of Im as a function of a for equal mean energy Maxwellian and more typical ? distributions seen in the Earth's magnetosphere provides strong evidence that the surveyed electric field spikes are generally smaller than E* (assuming ? 1), although 23% (n=57) exceed E* . Only 11% (n=6) of the bipolar class exceed E* ; the frequency of occurrence distribution for the bipolar class of spikes is peaked at 0.1E*. The unipolar occurrence is flat below E*, but has a significant 26% subgroup (n=51) that exceed E* . While E* does not depend on the ambient density, the occurrence distribution of all demagnetizing events is well organized by the ratio ?=?De/?e=&Omegace/?pe, residing almost exclusively in the regime ? <1. Spikes with E < E* generally occur with ? >1 . All the electrostatic spike events surveyed occur in the regime 10-8??e?3×10-2. The demagnetizing events of either class occupy the more restricted low beta regime 10-3??e?3×10-2. Because these demagnetizing events occur in ?e ? 1 they would not, however, be considered unmagnetized at current channels as thin as the electron skin depth, de, since for such current channels ?e ? ?e-1/2de ? de. As a group the subset of unipolar events with E > E* are consistently understood as sites where the electron pressure tensor could become deformed from cylindrical symmetry by electric field enhancement in layers with scale sizes up to the local thermal electron's gyroradius. Such a deformation is critical for a viable mechanism that supports collisionless reconnection. After selecting events as demagnetizing based on the size of the relevant forces and work done, the geophysical locale of their detection has been investigated. Previously, all E spikes in this survey were found near the invariant latitudes ? of the earth's magnetic cusps but at all magnetic local times. The demagnetizing events identified here via E* are strongly organized at magnetic local noon (with a secondary, much shallower maximum at local magnetic midnight), occur preferentially at orbit apogee, and without significant preference for the magnetic latitude of the spacecraft. These geophysical organizations are consistent with the demagnetizing E spikes as indices of ongoing, collisionless reconnection in low ?e regimes at the earth's subsolar magnetopause. The identification of this sub-class of electric spikes at low ?e with E>E* widens the observed venues in the E and B fields where topology changing departures from ideal MHD should be anticipated in collisionless astrophysical plasmas.

  18. Notched Strength Allowables and Inplane Shear Strength of AS4/VRM-34 Textile Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenoble, Ray W.; Johnston, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Notched and unnotched strength allowables were developed for a textile composite to provide input data to analytical structural models based on the Pultruded Rod Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. Filled-hole tensile strength, filled-hole compressive strength, and inplane shear strength along stitch lines have been measured. The material system evaluated in this study is based on warp-knitted preforms of AS4 carbon fibers and VRM-34 epoxy resin, which have been processed via resin infusion and oven curing. All specimens were tested in as-fabricated (dry) condition. Filled-hole strengths were evaluated with and without through-thickness stitching. The effects of scaling on filled-hole tensile strength were evaluated by testing specimens in two widths, but with identical width / hole-diameter ratios. Inplane shear specimens were stitched in two configurations, and two specimen thicknesses were tested for each stitch configuration.

  19. Identification of the Jpi=1- two-phonon state of 88Sr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Pietralla; V. N. Litvinenko; S. Hartman; F. F. Mikhailov; I. V. Pinayev; G. Swift; M. W. Ahmed; J. H. Kelley; S. O. Nelson; R. Prior; K. Sabourov; A. P. Tonchev; H. R. Weller

    2002-01-01

    The linearly polarized gamma-ray beam produced by the HIgammaS facility has been used to determine the parity of two previously known dipole excitations in 88Sr. The azimuthal asymmetry of gamma rays produced in the process of nuclear resonance fluorescence indicated that the dipole state at 4.742 MeV, recently discussed as a new form of M1 excitation, is in fact a

  20. Residual strength of hybrid-fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Chen; Juanyu Liu

    2004-01-01

    Residual strengths of high-strength concrete (HSC) and hybrid-fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete (HFRHSC) after exposure to high temperatures were investigated in the paper. The results showed that normal HSC is prone to spalling after exposure to high temperatures, and its first spalling occurs when the temperature approaches 400 °C. For HSC reinforced by high melting point fibers, the first spalling occurs when

  1. Finding Your Unique Strengths: Book Review of StrengthsFinder 2.0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saundra Shillingstad

    2012-01-01

    StrengtbsFinder 2.0 is a book based on more than 40 years of research by Tom Rath and a team of scientists at Gallup, the renowned research-based, performance-management consulting company. In 1998 the researchers at Gallup created the 6rst online Strengths Finder essessment. In 200lGallup included the Ârst edidon of Strengths Finder with the bestseller Now, Discover Your Strengths (Buckingham &

  2. Advances in Paediatric Strength Assessment: Changing Our Perspective on Strength Development

    PubMed Central

    Croix, Mark De Ste

    2007-01-01

    Our knowledge of the age and sex associated changes in strength during childhood and adolescence is relatively limited compared to other physiological parameters. However, those studies available on the age and sex associated change in strength are relatively consistent, especially for the lower limbs. Caution must be taken when transferring this knowledge to other muscle joints as the development in strength appears to be both muscle action and joint specific. Strength appears to increase in both boys and girls until about the age of 14 y where it begins to plateau in girls and a spurt is evident in boys. By 18 y there are few overlaps in strength between boys and girls. The exact age in which sex differences become apparent appears to be both muscle group and muscle action specific and there is a suggestion that sex differences in upper body strength occur earlier than lower body strength. What is less clear is the complex factors that contribute to the production of strength during childhood and adolescence. There are few well controlled longitudinal studies that have concurrently examined the influence of known variables using appropriate statistical techniques. Most studies have shown that maturation does not exert an independent effect when other factors, such as stature and body mass are accounted for. Also, the assumption that muscle cross-sectional area is the most important parameter in strength production does not hold when examined with other known variables. Consistently, stature appears to play a key role in strength development and this may be attributed to the strength spurt that has been linked to peak height velocity, and the muscle moment arm. Advances in technology have provided us with more accurate techniques to examine these explanatory variables but the complex interaction of neural, mechanical and muscular remains to be clearly identified from well controlled longitudinal studies. Key pointsThe age associated development in strength is attributable to changes in growth and maturation. Sex differences appear at around 14y and very few girls out perform boys in strength tests at 18y.Stature and mass appear to be important explanatory variables in the development of muscle strength. PHV is a particularly important time for maximal gains in strength during childhood.The muscle moment arm is possibly the most important factor in the development of muscle strength with age but further longitudinal studies using MRI are needed. PMID:24149415

  3. Effects of Strength Training on Strength Development and Joint Position Sense in Functionally Unstable Ankles

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Carrie L.; Moore, Josef H.; Arnold, Brent L.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of ankle-strengthening exercises on joint position sense and strength development in subjects with functionally unstable ankles. Design and Setting: Subjects were randomly assigned to a training or control group. The training group participated in a 6-week strength-training protocol using rubber tubing 3 times a week throughout the training period. The control group did not participate in the strength-training protocol. Subjects: Twenty healthy college students (10 females, 10 males, age = 20.6 ± 2.23 years; ht = 176.40 ± 7.14 cm; wt = 74.18 ± 10.17 kg) with a history of functional ankle instability volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements: We pretested and posttested dorsiflexor and evertor isometric strength with a handheld dynamometer and collected joint position sense (JPS) data at 20° for inversion and plantar flexion and at 10° for eversion and dorsiflexion. Results: Statistical tests for strength and JPS revealed significant group-by-time interactions for dorsiflexion strength, eversion strength, inversion JPS, and plantar flexion JPS. Simple main-effects testing revealed improvements in training group strength and JPS at posttesting. There were no significant effects for eversion JPS, but the group main effect for dorsiflexion JPS was significant, with the experimental group having better scores than the control group. Conclusions: Ankle-strengthening exercises improved strength, inversion JPS, dorsiflexion JPS, and plantar flexion JPS in subjects with functionally unstable ankles. Imagesp311-a PMID:16558526

  4. Steady-state and transient Zener parameters in viscoplasticity: Drag strength versus yield strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    A hypothesis is put forth which enables the viscoplastician to formulate a theory of viscoplasticity that reduces, in closed form, to the classical theory of creep. This hypothesis is applied to a variety of drag and yield strength models. Because of two theoretical restrictions that are a consequence of this hypothesis, three different yield strength models and one drag strength model are shown to be theoretically admissible. One of these yield strength models is selected as being the most appropriate representation for isotropic hardening.

  5. Dynamic strength of molecular adhesion bonds.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, E; Ritchie, K

    1997-01-01

    In biology, molecular linkages at, within, and beneath cell interfaces arise mainly from weak noncovalent interactions. These bonds will fail under any level of pulling force if held for sufficient time. Thus, when tested with ultrasensitive force probes, we expect cohesive material strength and strength of adhesion at interfaces to be time- and loading rate-dependent properties. To examine what can be learned from measurements of bond strength, we have extended Kramers' theory for reaction kinetics in liquids to bond dissociation under force and tested the predictions by smart Monte Carlo (Brownian dynamics) simulations of bond rupture. By definition, bond strength is the force that produces the most frequent failure in repeated tests of breakage, i.e., the peak in the distribution of rupture forces. As verified by the simulations, theory shows that bond strength progresses through three dynamic regimes of loading rate. First, bond strength emerges at a critical rate of loading (> or = 0) at which spontaneous dissociation is just frequent enough to keep the distribution peak at zero force. In the slow-loading regime immediately above the critical rate, strength grows as a weak power of loading rate and reflects initial coupling of force to the bonding potential. At higher rates, there is crossover to a fast regime in which strength continues to increase as the logarithm of the loading rate over many decades independent of the type of attraction. Finally, at ultrafast loading rates approaching the domain of molecular dynamics simulations, the bonding potential is quickly overwhelmed by the rapidly increasing force, so that only naked frictional drag on the structure remains to retard separation. Hence, to expose the energy landscape that governs bond strength, molecular adhesion forces must be examined over an enormous span of time scales. However, a significant gap exists between the time domain of force measurements in the laboratory and the extremely fast scale of molecular motions. Using results from a simulation of biotin-avidin bonds (Izrailev, S., S. Stepaniants, M. Balsera, Y. Oono, and K. Schulten. 1997. Molecular dynamics study of unbinding of the avidin-biotin complex. Biophys. J., this issue), we describe how Brownian dynamics can help bridge the gap between molecular dynamics and probe tests. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:9083660

  6. Ceramic granule strength variability and compaction behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Readey, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    Diametral compression strength distributions and the compaction behavior and of irregular shape 150--200 {mu}m ceramic granules and uniform-size 210 {mu}m glass spheres were measured to determine how granule strength variability relates to compaction behavior of granular assemblies. High variability in strength, represented by low Weibull modulus values (m<3) was observed for ceramic granules having a distribution of sizes and shapes, and for uniform-size glass spheres. Compaction pressure data were also analyzed using a Weibull distribution function, and the results were very similar to those obtained from the diametral compression strength tests for the same material. This similarity suggests that it may be possible to model granule compaction using a weakest link theory, whereby an assemblage of granules is viewed as the links of a chain, and failure of the weakest granule (i.e., the weakest link) leads to rearrangement and compaction. Additionally, with the use of Weibull statistics, it appears to be possible to infer the variability in strength of individual granules from a simple pressure compaction test, circumventing the tedious task of testing individual granules.

  7. (Finite) statistical size effects on compressive strength.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jérôme; Girard, Lucas; Gimbert, Florent; Amitrano, David; Vandembroucq, Damien

    2014-04-29

    The larger structures are, the lower their mechanical strength. Already discussed by Leonardo da Vinci and Edmé Mariotte several centuries ago, size effects on strength remain of crucial importance in modern engineering for the elaboration of safety regulations in structural design or the extrapolation of laboratory results to geophysical field scales. Under tensile loading, statistical size effects are traditionally modeled with a weakest-link approach. One of its prominent results is a prediction of vanishing strength at large scales that can be quantified in the framework of extreme value statistics. Despite a frequent use outside its range of validity, this approach remains the dominant tool in the field of statistical size effects. Here we focus on compressive failure, which concerns a wide range of geophysical and geotechnical situations. We show on historical and recent experimental data that weakest-link predictions are not obeyed. In particular, the mechanical strength saturates at a nonzero value toward large scales. Accounting explicitly for the elastic interactions between defects during the damage process, we build a formal analogy of compressive failure with the depinning transition of an elastic manifold. This critical transition interpretation naturally entails finite-size scaling laws for the mean strength and its associated variability. Theoretical predictions are in remarkable agreement with measurements reported for various materials such as rocks, ice, coal, or concrete. This formalism, which can also be extended to the flowing instability of granular media under multiaxial compression, has important practical consequences for future design rules. PMID:24733930

  8. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  9. 47 CFR 27.55 - Power strength limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Section 27.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.55 Power strength limits. (a) Field strength...

  10. 47 CFR 27.55 - Power strength limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Section 27.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.55 Power strength limits. (a) Field strength...

  11. Constraining nuclear photon strength functions by the decay properties of photo-excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaak, J.; Savran, D.; Krti?ka, M.; Ahmed, M. W.; Beller, J.; Fiori, E.; Glorius, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Scheck, M.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Silva, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zweidinger, M.

    2013-12-01

    A new approach for constraining the low-energy part of the electric dipole Photon Strength Function (E1-PSF) is presented. Experiments at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup and the High Intensity ??-Ray Source have been performed to investigate the decay properties of 130Te between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV excitation energy. In particular, the average ?-ray branching ratio to the ground state and the population intensity of low-lying excited states have been studied. A comparison to the statistical model shows that the latter is sensitive to the low-energy behavior of the E1-PSF, while the average ground state branching ratio cannot be described by the statistical model in the energy range between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV.

  12. Experimental constraints on the ?-ray strength function in 90Zr using partial cross sections of the 89Y (p , ?)90Zr reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netterdon, L.; Endres, A.; Goriely, S.; Mayer, J.; Scholz, P.; Spieker, M.; Zilges, A.

    2015-05-01

    Partial cross sections of the 89Y (p , ?)90Zr reaction have been measured to investigate the ?-ray strength function in the neutron-magic nucleus 90Zr. For five proton energies between Ep = 3.65 MeV and Ep = 4.70 MeV, partial cross sections for the population of seven discrete states in 90Zr have been determined by means of in-beam ?-ray spectroscopy. Since these ?-ray transitions are dominantly of E1 character, the present measurement allows an access to the low-lying dipole strength in 90Zr. A ?-ray strength function based on the experimental data could be extracted, which is used to describe the total and partial cross sections of this reaction by Hauser-Feshbach calculations successfully. Significant differences with respect to previously measured strength functions from photoabsorption data point towards deviations from the Brink-Axel hypothesis relating the photo-excitation and de-excitation strength functions.

  13. Early strength behavior of fly ash concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, K.G.; Rao, G.S.N. (Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Ocean Engineering Centre)

    1994-01-01

    The strength of concrete at early ages has assumed a considerable significance in recent years due to the several specific requirements of the modern construction industry, like the early striking of forms, early transfer of prestress etc. However, fly ash concretes are known to have a lower early age strength and there have been many efforts to predict and/or to improve this in recent years, so that these concretes can be utilized appropriately. Thus a quantitative understanding of the early age strength behavior of fly ash concretes will help in designing the concrete for any specific requirement. This investigation, assumed on the most recent results available, predicts the same through the efficiency concepts at the different percentages of fly ash replacement.

  14. Influence of corrosion on brazed joints' strength.

    PubMed

    Angelini, E; Pezzoli, M; Rosalbino, F; Zucchi, F

    1991-02-01

    The influence of corrosion on the bond strength of different brazed joints commonly used in dentistry has been investigated by means of accelerated immersion tests in artificial saliva buffered at pH 2, and in Ringer's solution, both kept at 37 degrees C. Two Co-Cr base metal alloys were brazed with a gold and a non-precious alloy. After 60 days' immersion the tensile strength of the samples brazed with the gold alloy was dramatically reduced because of galvanic corrosion phenomena. The bond strength of the specimens brazed with the non-precious alloy was largely unaffected. Corrosion products rich in nickel were detected. The electrochemical characterization of the base metal alloys and brazing materials was performed by means of polarization curves in the two media investigated. High short circuit currents were only produced with the gold brazing materials. PMID:1673131

  15. Giant monopole resonance strength in Si-28 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Clark, HL; Lui, YW.

    1998-01-01

    V with (m3 /m1)1/2521.2 MeV, which is quite consistent with the trend @2# for heavier nuclei. Lui et al. @6# studied 28Si with inelastic scattering of a particles of E a ?129 MeV including scattering to 0?, where monopole strength is enhanced... and reported 66% of the E0 570556-2813/98/57~3!/1134~11!/$15.00 e strength in 28Si Clark, and Y.-W. Lui , College Station, Texas 77843 r 1997! inelastic scattering of 240 MeV a particles at small d from Ex512 MeV to 35 MeV and E0 strength y weighted sum...

  16. Strength function under the absorbing boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, M.; Otani, R.; Ito, M.

    2014-12-01

    The strength function of the linear response by the external field is calculated in the formalism of the absorbing boundary condition (ABC). The dipole excitation of a schematic two-body system is treated in the present study. The extended completeness relation, which is assumed on the analogy of the formulation in the complex scaling method (CSM), is applied to the calculation of the strength function. The calculation of the strength function is successful in the present formalism and hence, the extended completeness relation seems to work well in the ABC formalism. The contributions from the resonance and the non-resonant continuum is also analyzed according to the decomposition of the energy levels in the extended completeness relation.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were determined. All of the gloves that are approved for glovebox use and listed in the glovebox procurement specification met the tensile and elongation requirements. The Viton{reg_sign} compound gloves are not listed in the specification, but exhibited lower tensile strengths than permissible based on the Butyl rubber requirements. Piercan Polyurethane gloves were the thinnest samples and exhibited the highest tensile strength of the materials tested.

  18. Locking mechanism strength of absorbable ligating devices.

    PubMed

    Hay, D L; von Fraunhofer, J A; Chegini, N; Masterson, B J

    1988-03-01

    The locking mechanism strengths of the absorbable Absolok and Lactomer ligating clips and the absorbable Lactomer staple have been determined following implantation in an animal model. Three sizes of each type of clip and the single size of staple were enclosed in open mesh nylon pouches and implanted subcutaneously in rabbits for periods of 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days before tensile testing of the lock mechanisms. No change in the lock mechanism strength was detected for the Absolok clips before 21 days. The Lactomer clips and staples, however, showed significant decrease in lock mechanism strength within 7 days of implantation, this loss increasing with longer implantation times. A proportion of all the devices were found to have dissolved to an extent that precluded testing at 21 and 28 days. The findings indicate that the lock mechanisms of absorbable ligating clips differ significantly in their short-term (30 days) durability. PMID:3360813

  19. Correlation of the Texas Cone Penetrometer Test with soil shear strength 

    E-print Network

    Duderstadt, Franklin J

    1977-01-01

    and laboratory invest1gations were conducted to obtain the data necessary to develop the correlations. The f1rst phase of the study dealt with cohesive soils. Field 1nvest1gations for cohesive so1ls included e1ght borings taken at five different sites where... the Texas Cone Penetrometer Test was conducted and undisturbed so11 samples were obtained. The Texas Triaxial Test and the ASTM Triax1al Test were used in the laboratory 1nvestigation to obtain soil shear strength. Soils were classified and grouped...

  20. Shear strength properties of wet granular materials.

    PubMed

    Richefeu, Vincent; El Youssoufi, Moulay Saïd; Radjaï, Farhang

    2006-05-01

    We investigate shear strength properties of wet granular materials in the pendular state (i.e., the state where the liquid phase is discontinuous) as a function of water content. Sand and glass beads were wetted and tested in a direct shear cell and under various confining pressures. In parallel, we carried out three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations by using an explicit equation expressing capillary force as a function of interparticle distance, water bridge volume, and surface tension. We show that, due to the peculiar features of capillary interactions, the major influence of water content over the shear strength stems from the distribution of liquid bonds. This property results in shear strength saturation as a function of water content. We arrive at the same conclusion by a microscopic analysis of the shear strength. We propose a model that accounts for the capillary force, the granular texture, and particle size polydispersity. We find fairly good agreement of the theoretical estimate of the shear strength with both experimental data and simulations. From numerical data, we analyze the connectivity and anisotropy of different classes of liquid bonds according to the sign and level of the normal force as well as the bond direction. We find that weak compressive bonds are almost isotropically distributed whereas strong compressive and tensile bonds have a pronounced anisotropy. The probability distribution function of normal forces is exponentially decreasing for strong compressive bonds, a decreasing power-law function over nearly one decade for weak compressive bonds, and an increasing linear function in the range of tensile bonds. These features suggest that different bond classes do not play the same role with respect to the shear strength. PMID:16802930

  1. Vocational Psychology: Using One of Counseling Psychology's Strengths to Foster Human Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine; Woodson, Shelley Janiczek

    2006-01-01

    At several points in the history of their field, counseling psychologists have emphasized that fostering human strengths is part of their mission. Vocational psychology is an area of counseling psychology that has focused consistently on human strengths. In keeping with the Major Contribution's theme, this article examines the following: (a)…

  2. Character Strengths in Israel: Hebrew Adaptation of the VIA Inventory of Strengths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hadassah Littman-Ovadia; Shiri Lavy

    2011-01-01

    The Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) has been extensively used to assess character strengths. We adapted a Hebrew translation and analyzed its psychometric properties and associations with life satisfaction, personality traits, and positive and negative affect, and examined its factorial structure in 635 Israeli adults. Results indicated the following: (1) All 24 subscales had satisfactory reliabilities (?s >

  3. Resolvin E1-induced intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes resolution of inflammation through LPS detoxification.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Eric L; MacManus, Christopher F; Kominsky, Douglas J; Keely, Simon; Glover, Louise E; Bowers, Brittelle E; Scully, Melanie; Bruyninckx, Walter J; Colgan, Sean P

    2010-08-10

    Resolvin-E1 (RvE1) has been demonstrated to promote inflammatory resolution in numerous disease models. Given the importance of epithelial cells to coordination of mucosal inflammation, we hypothesized that RvE1 elicits an epithelial resolution signature. Initial studies revealed that the RvE1-receptor (ChemR23) is expressed on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and that microarray profiling of cells exposed to RvE1 revealed regulation of inflammatory response gene expression. Notably, RvE1 induced intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI) expression and significantly enhanced epithelial ALPI enzyme activity. One role recently attributed to ALPI is the detoxification of bacterial LPS. In our studies, RvE1-exposed epithelia detoxified LPS (assessed by attenuation of NF-kappaB signaling). Furthermore, in epithelial-bacterial interaction assays, we determined that ALPI retarded the growth of Escherichia coli. To define these features in vivo, we used a murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis. Compared with vehicle controls, administration of RvE1 resulted in significant improvement of disease activity indices (e.g., body weight, colon length) concomitant with increased ALPI expression in the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, inhibition of ALPI activity resulted in increased severity of colitis in DSS-treated animals and partially abrogated the protective influence of RvE1. Together, these data implicate a previously unappreciated role for ALPI in RvE1-mediated inflammatory resolution. PMID:20660763

  4. Adenovirus E1A proteins are closely associated with chromatin in productively infected and transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Maurice; Panesar, Ninder K; Loewenstein, Paul M

    2008-02-01

    The adenovirus E1A 243R oncoprotein encodes a potent transcription-repression function within the N-terminal 80 amino acids. Our proposed model of E1A repression predicts that E1A interacts with important cellular proteins on chromatin. Consistent with this idea, we report here that E1A proteins from in vivo formaldehyde cross-linked 293 cells are closely associated with chromatin even after several stringent purification steps including double isopycnic CsCl density gradient centrifugation and size exclusion chromatography. Likewise, E1A proteins expressed from virus during productive infection of HeLa cells are closely associated with chromatin starting at early times after infection. No other adenoviral proteins are necessary for E1A 243R protein to associate with chromatin. Analyses of chromatin from HeLa cells infected with adenovirus vectors expressing E1A 243R protein with deletions in different E1A functional domains indicate that sequences within the E1A N-terminal repression domain are needed for the majority of E1A's interactions with chromatin. PMID:18036630

  5. Determinants of forearm strength in postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Melton; B. L. Riggs; R. Müller; S. J. Achenbach; D. Christen; E. J. Atkinson; S. Amin; S. Khosla

    Summary  Bone strength at the ultradistal radius, quantified by micro-finite element modeling, can be predicted by variables obtained\\u000a from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans. The specific formula for this bone strength surrogate\\u000a (?555.2?+?8.1?×?[trabecular vBMD]?+?19.6?×?[cortical area]?+?4.2?×?[total cross-sectional area]) should be validated and tested\\u000a in fracture risk assessment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  The purpose of this study was to identify key determinants of ultradistal radius (UDR)

  6. Giant monopole strength in Ni-58 

    E-print Network

    Lui, YW; Clark, HL; Youngblood, David H.

    2000-01-01

    the spectrum from the present work is shown by the solid line. Giant monopole Y.-W. Lui, H. L. Clark Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University ~Received 3 November 1999 The strength distribution of the giant monopole resonanc MeV using small... choice. Unfortunately the E2 strength has no such unique signature and the continuum @1# D. H. Youngblood, H. L. Clark, and Y.-W. Lui, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1429 ~1996!. @2# G. R. Satchler and Dao T. Khoa, Phys. Rev. C 55, 285 ~1997!. @3# D. H...

  7. Electrical Strength of Multilayer Vacuum Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Caporaso, G J

    2008-07-01

    The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

  8. Ensuring the strength of rolled metal

    SciTech Connect

    Belen`kii, D.M.; Beskopyl`nyi, A.N. [State Academy of Construction, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation)

    1995-02-01

    A new approach to ensuring the strength of a material is considered. Strength is considered as the unity of the stress-strain state resulting from external factors and the material resistance to this state. The material resistance is characterized by the random vector of mechanical properties determined by tensile impact toughness, fatigue, crack resistance, etc. testings. The method of impact indentation of a conical indenter in the material and recording of the parameters of the impact indentation curve is proposed to determine this vector. This principle is used to develop equipment allowing the determination of the mechanical properties of steels.

  9. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-01-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable. PMID:11394483

  10. The Crinkling Strength and the Bending Strength of Round Aircraft Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgood, William R

    1938-01-01

    The upper limit of the column strength of structural members composed of thin material is the maximum axial stress such members can carry when short enough to fail locally, by crinkling. This stress is a function of the mechanical properties of the material and of the geometrical shape of the cross section. The bending strength, as measured by the modulus of rupture, of structural members is also a function of these same variables. Tests were made of round tubes of chromium-molybdenum steel and of duralumin to determine the crinkling strengths and the bending strengths in terms of the specified yield strength and the ratio of diameter to thickness. Empirical formulas are given relating these quantities.

  11. Oscillator strengths and collision strengths for S II. [atomic spectra of Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Y. K.; Henry, R. J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations are presented of the collision strengths for electron impact excitation of S II from the ground 3s(2)3p(3)(4)S0 state to excited states 3s3p(4)(4)p, 3s(2(3p(2)4s(4)P, and 3s(2)3p(2)3d(4)P. The collision strengths are calculated in a close-coupling approximate ion for the energy range up to 10 to the 6th K. In addition, oscillator strengths are given for these transitions, as well as for some UV lines which have lower states 3s(2)3p(3)(2)D(O) and 3s(2)3p(3)(2)P(0). The calculation of the collision strengths involves the use of configuration interaction target wave functions which give oscillator strengths accurate to 30 percent in most cases.

  12. Analysis of the glycosylation sites of hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E1 and the influence of E1 glycans on the formation of the HCV glycoprotein complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Christophe Meunier; Anne Fournillier; Annie Cahour; Laurence Cocquerel; Jean Dubuisson; Czeslaw Wychowski

    1999-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome encodes two membrane-associated envelope glycoproteins (E1 and E2), which are released from the viral polyprotein precursor by host signal peptidase cleavages. These glycoproteins interact to form a noncovalent heterodimeric complex, which is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. HCV glycoproteins, E1 and E2, are heavily modified by N- linked glycosylation. A recent study has revealed

  13. Stereoselective preparation of (E)-(1,2-difluoro-1,2-ethenediyl) bis[tributylstannane] and stereospecific synthesis of (E)-1,2-difluorostilbenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qibo; Burton, Donald J

    2002-05-01

    [reaction: see text]. The novel bisstannane (E)-(1,2-difluoro-1,2-ethenediyl) bis[tributylstannane] 2 was stereoselectively prepared in a high overall yield through a sequential synthetic route from chlorotrifluoroethylene 1. The synthetic application of this novel bisstannane 2 was exemplified in the Pd(PPh3)4/CuI-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with aryl iodides, yielding (E)-1,2-difluorostilbenes 3 in moderate to high yields. PMID:11975609

  14. A Quantitative Analysis of Countries' Research Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Anurag; Brazer, S. David; Gupta, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study employed a multidimensional analysis to evaluate transnational patterns of scientific research to determine relative research strengths among widely varying nations. Findings from this study may inform national policy with regard to the most efficient use of scarce national research resources, including government and private funding.…

  15. Determinants of eggshell strength in endangered raptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurora M. Castilla; Anthony Herrel; Stefan Van Dongen; Naoki Furio; Juan José Negro

    2009-01-01

    We compared eggshell strength in a group of falcon taxa including the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus), the red shaheen falcon (F. peregrinus babylonicus), the saker falcon (F. cherrug), the gyr falcon (F. rusticolus) and some interspecific and intraspecific hybrids. Our results showed that smaller falcons (o1,000 g) of the peregrine group have eggshells that are significantly softer ( x

  16. Gamow-Teller strength of Mg-26

    E-print Network

    Xu, HM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Ajupova, G. K.; Kokenge, B.; Lui, YW.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured cross sections for (d,He-2)-induced reactions on Mg-26 at an energy of E(d)=125.2 MeV. The measured Gamow-Teller strength is significantly smaller than that inferred from (p,n) reactions. We demonstrate that beta(+) Gamow...

  17. Anchor bolt behavior and strength during earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Klingner, R.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Graves, H.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Seismic Qualification Utility Group (SQUG), a utility group, has developed a Generic Implementation Plant (GIP) including criteria and walkdown procedures that will be used to resolve the concerns of USI A-46. Following NRC approach of the GIP, each utility will conduct a walkdown of its nuclear facilities using the GIP criteria and procedures. The criteria and procedures specified for anchorage walkdown in the GIP contain specific information relating to bolt strength under dynamic conditions. The GIP including criteria and walkdown procedures has been reviewed and accepted by the NRC. However, very little test data are available regarding the behavior and strength of anchor bolts under dynamic conditions (cyclic loads) to validate the criteria in the GIP. It is usually assumed that behavior and strength of anchor bolts under static loads do not differ much from that of earthquake conditions. The adequacy of this assumption has never been adequately verified. The goal of this contract is to verify, by testing, the adequacy of the assumption used in the U.S. nuclear power plant designs that the behavior and strength of anchor bolts (cast-in-place, expansion and bearing-type undercut) and their supporting concrete under seismic loads do not differ significantly from those for static conditions.

  18. Structure and Strength in Causal Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Thomas L.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2005-01-01

    We present a framework for the rational analysis of elemental causal induction--learning about the existence of a relationship between a single cause and effect--based upon causal graphical models. This framework makes precise the distinction between causal structure and causal strength: the difference between asking whether a causal relationship…

  19. The Strength of Weak Terrorist Ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Kennedy; Gabriel Weimann

    2011-01-01

    The current age of technology, mass communication, and globalization makes networks analysis an especially useful tool for understanding cell-based terrorism. Some concepts from traditional networks analysis may be especially relevant. The Strength of Weak Ties hypothesis (SWT) is particularly promising and will be used here to demonstrate the usability of traditional networks analysis for studying modern terrorism. The findings suggest

  20. Relationship between Dental Occlusion and Arm Strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyn HngTho; Ngô Thanh Hoàn; Nguyn H. M. Tâm

    2010-01-01

    It has been thought that imbalance in the jaws may cause loss in arm strength. However to the best of our knowl- edge there has been no study on this topic. In this pilot study we quantified this phenomenon. A pool of 34 healthy subjects (ages from 19 to 21 years old; average age: 19.8±0.9 years old) participated in this

  1. The strength and dilatancy of sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Bolton

    1986-01-01

    Extensive data of the strength and dilatancy of 17 sands in axisymmetric or plane strain at different densities and confining pressures are collated. The critical state angle of shearing resistance of soil which is shearing at con- stant volume is principally a function of mineralogy and can readily be determined experimentally within a margin of about l\\

  2. Glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes controls synaptic strength

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    control of synaptic activity via exocytosis of glutamate from astrocytes. Brain communication viaGlutamate exocytosis from astrocytes controls synaptic strength Pascal Jourdain1,6, Linda H we show that glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes of the rat hippocampal dentate molecular layer

  3. The Bearing Strength of Fiber Metal Laminates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. J. Van Rooijen; J. Sinke; T. J. De Vries; S. Van Der Zwaag

    2006-01-01

    The bearing strength, in particular the edge distance sensitivity, of several fiber metal laminates of the GLARE family is experimentally evaluated. The behavior of the fiber layer is investigated in detail to obtain a better understanding of its failure mode. Parallel with these experiments, the bearing behavior is studied using a finite element (FE) model. The plasticity in the metal

  4. Wood Structure and Adhesive Bond Strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Frihart

    Much of the literature on the bonding of wood and other lignocellulosic materials has concentrated on traditional adhesion theories. This has led to misconceptions because wood is a porous material on both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. A better understanding of wood bonding can be developed by investigating the theories of adhesion and bond strength, taking into consideration the unusual

  5. Measuring Strength at Ultrahigh Strain Rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy J. Vogler; Tracy John

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The use of uniaxial strain ramp loading experiments to measure strength at extremely high strain rates is discussed. The technique\\u000a is outlined and issues associated with it are examined. Results for 6061-T6 aluminum are presented that differ from the conventional\\u000a view of strain rate sensitivity in aluminum alloys.

  6. A model to quantify wastewater odor strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence C. C. Koe; N. C. Tan

    1988-01-01

    A method of quantifying the odor strength of wastewater samples has been investigated. Wastewater samples from two locations of a wastewater treatment plant were collected and subjected to air stripping. The off-gas odor concentration was measured by a dynamic olfactometer at various time intervals. Applying a first order model to the decay of odorous substances in the wastewater under air

  7. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-20

    We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.

  8. Dynamic strength of uranium at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretsky, E.; Herrmann, B.; Shvarts, D.

    2006-08-01

    Unalloyed uranium (PU) and uranium-0.78 wt% Ti alloy (UT) were studied in VISAR-monitored planar impact experiments with initial sample temperatures ranged from 27circC to 860circC. The recorded waveforms was used for obtaining the stress-strain ? (\\varepsilon ) and deviator stress-strain s(\\varepsilon) diagrams, the conventional elastic limit Y0.2, and the spall strength of the alloys at different testing temperatures. The strengths Y0.2 of both the materials stay almost constant up to the temperature of ? -? transformation, increase strongly in the ?-phase domain, and abruptly drop above the temperature of ? -? transformation. The temperature dependences of the spall strength of alloys differ from those of the compressive strengths indicating the prevailing role of the void nucleation (over the void growth) in the spallation process. The most striking finding of the work is the existence of beta-uranium at pressures some 3 GPa higher than that permitted thermodynamically. The life time and the borders of existence of this non-equilibrium phase are unknown and should be determined in future.

  9. Control of Synaptic Strength by Glial TNFalpha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric C. Beattie; David Stellwagen; Wade Morishita; Jacqueline C. Bresnahan; Byeong Keun Ha; Mark Von Zastrow; Michael S. Beattie; Robert C. Malenka

    2002-01-01

    Activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy in the brain contributes to neural circuit development and experience-dependent plasticity. Although glia are affected by activity and ensheathe synapses, their influence on synaptic strength has largely been ignored. Here, we show that a protein produced by glia, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), enhances synaptic efficacy by increasing surface expression of AMPA receptors. Preventing the

  10. Preparation of high strength macroporous hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    PubMed

    Swain, S K; Bhattacharyya, S

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder was prepared from CaNO3·4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 by wet-chemical method and has phase stable up to 1250 °C. High strength macroporous HAp-naphthalene (HN) and HAp-naphthalene-benzene (HNB) scaffolds were fabricated by adapting sintering method. The resulting HAp scaffolds have porosity about 60 vol.% with compressive strength of ~11 MPa and average pore diameter in the range of ~125 ?m. The incorporation of benzene in HN scaffold reduces the strength whereas enhanced both the porosity and pore size distribution. XRD, FTIR, SEM and mercury porosimeter techniques were used to study the phase purity, morphology, pore size and pore size distribution of scaffold. The study compared the effect of concentration of naphthalene on strength, porosity and pore size distribution on both HN and HNB scaffold. In-vitro bioactivity studies on HN and HNB scaffolds show the nucleation of spherical carbonated apatite particles on the surface in SBF solution. PMID:25428044

  11. Dielectric strength of condensed cryogenic helium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Belevtsev

    1993-01-01

    The quantitative theory of the intrinsic dielectric strength of condensed helium under cryogenic temperatures is considered. It is based on examining the electron impact multiplication process in this medium in a strong electric field. The method of the electron kinetic Boltzmann equation is used to calculate the impact ionization coefficients and other related transport quantities. These quantities have been used

  12. Scattering strength of a gelidium biomass bottom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Carbó; Adriana C. Molero

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory water tank measurements of the scattering coefficient have been achieved in a thick layer of Gelidium seaweed covering a sandy bottom. As a result of the reduced vertical cross-section and the high water content of this seaweed, the acoustical impedance is very close to the water impedance and the target strength of each individual seaweed frond is very weak.

  13. Strength reliability of statically indeterminate heterogeneous beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Altus; Sefi Givli

    2003-01-01

    The strength reliability of linearly elastic (up to failure) beams, made from random heterogeneous microstructures is studied, based on the weakest link approach. Heterogeneity is confined to the longitudinal direction. The problem is statically indeterminate, and the local stress at each point in any cross section is a function of the stiffness morphology of the whole beam. External loading is

  14. Components of the Creep Strength of Welds

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    ://www.msm.cam.ac.uk ABSTRACT Modern power plant steels and welding alloys, designed to resist creep deforma- tion at high in determining the ultimate creep properties. In this work, we have used a combination of models and a knowledge of the mechanical properties and microstructure, to factorise the long#21;term creep rupture strength

  15. Biaxial strength of multilaminated extracellular matrix scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Freytes, Donald O; Badylak, Stephen F; Webster, Thomas J; Geddes, Leslie A; Rundell, Ann E

    2004-05-01

    Xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) can be harvested and configured to function as a bioscaffold for tissue and organ reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the ECM vary depending upon the tissue from which it is harvested. Likewise, the manufacturing steps required to develop ECMs into medical grade devices will affect the surface morphology and the mechanical properties of the bioscaffold; important properties for constructive tissue remodeling. The present study compared the ball-burst strength of five different ECM scaffolds before and after treatment with peracetic acid (PAA): porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS), porcine urinary bladder submucosa (UBS), porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM), a composite of UBS + UBM, and canine stomach submucosa (SS). This study also compared the mechanical properties of 2- and 4-layer ECM scaffolds. Results showed 2-layer SS devices had the highest ball-burst value of all 2-layer ECM devices. Moreover, all 4-layer ECM devices had similar ball-burst strength except for 4-layer UBM devices which was the weakest. PAA-treatment decreased the ball-burst strength of SS and increased the ball-burst strength of UBS 2-layer devices. This study showed the material properties of the ECM scaffolds could be engineered to mimic those of native soft tissues (i.e. vascular, musculotendinous, etc) by varying the number of layers and modifying the disinfection/sterilization treatments used for manufacturing. PMID:14741600

  16. Assessment of respiratory muscle function and strength.

    PubMed Central

    Syabbalo, N.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of respiratory muscle strength is useful in order to detect respiratory muscle weakness and to quantify its severity. In patients with severe respiratory muscle weakness, vital capacity is reduced but is a non-specific and relatively insensitive measure. Conventionally, inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength has been assessed by maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures sustained for 1 s (PImax and PEmax) during maximal static manoeuvre against a closed shutter. However, PImax and PEmax are volitional tests, and are poorly reproducible with an average coefficient of variation of 25%. The sniff manoeuvre is natural and probably easier to perform. Sniff pressure, and sniff transdiaphragmatic pressure are more reproducible and useful measure of diaphragmatic strength. Nevertheless, the sniff manoeuvre is also volition-dependent, and submaximal efforts are most likely to occur in patients who are ill or breathless. Non-volitional tests include measurements of twitch oesophageal, gastric and transdiaphragmatic pressure during bilateral electrical and magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation. Electrical phrenic nerve stimulation is technically difficult and is also uncomfortable and painful. Magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation is less painful and transdiaphragmatic pressure is reproducible in normal subjects. It is a relatively easy test that has the potential to become a widely adopted method for the assessment of diaphragm strength. The development of a technique to measure diaphragmatic sound (phonomyogram) during magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation opens the way for noninvasive assessment of diaphragmatic function. PMID:9683973

  17. Al Roy: The First Modern Strength Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Terry

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a historical perspective through the story of Alvin Roy, the first modern strength coach. Roy went against the common belief in the 1950s that weight lifting made athletes slow and bulky. When the football coaches at Istrouma High School in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, allowed him to set up and supervise a weight-training program,…

  18. Innovative Degree Programs Matched to City Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhatme, Uday

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, IUPUI has steadily acquired a considerable national reputation as an up-and-coming university. Some of the reasons for this recognition include the RISE Initiative and the large number of innovative degree programs recently started at IUPUI based on campus strengths and the priorities of the city of Indianapolis. Some specific…

  19. Expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase E1 in transgenic tobacco: biochemical characteristics and physiological effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziyu Dai; Brian S. Hooker; Daniel B. Anderson; Steven R. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The expression of the Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase E1 gene in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was examined in this study, where E1 coding sequence was transcribed under the control of a leaf specific Rubisco small subunit promoter (tomato RbcS-3C). Targeting the E1 protein to the chloroplast was established using a chloroplast transit peptide of Rubisco small subunit protein (tomato RbcS-2A) and

  20. Modulation of PI3K\\/Akt pathway by E1a mediates sensitivity to cisplatin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Guinea Viniegra; Javier Hernández Losa; Victor Javier Sánchez-Arévalo; Carlos Parada Cobo; Victor Manuel Fernández Soria; Santiago Ramón y Cajal; Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms implicated in the induction of chemo sensitivity by adenovirus E1a gene expression, we decided to investigate which signal transduction pathways could be affected by the E1a gene in Human Normal Fibroblast (IMR90). No effect was observed in SAPK pathways (p38MAPK and JNK), but E1a was able to affect the Akt activation mediated by

  1. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Human CYP2E1 by Diethyldithocarbamate

    PubMed Central

    Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Lin, Hsia-lien

    2010-01-01

    Although the ability of disulfiram to inactivate CYP2E1 has been known for more than 20 years, the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. A metabolite of disulfiram, diethyldithocarbamate (DDC), is converted by CYP2E1 to a reactive intermediate that subsequently inactivates the protein, leading to mechanism-based inactivation. Mass spectral analysis of the inactivated human 2E1 protein demonstrates that the inactivation is due to the formation of an adduct of the reactive metabolite of DDC with the apoprotein. These data, along with mass spectral analysis of a reactive intermediate trapped with GSH, indicate the involvement of a reactive intermediate with a molecular mass of 116 Da. Our results suggest that this binding involves formation of a disulfide bond with one of the eight cysteines in CYP2E1. The inactivation of wild-type CYP2E1 as well as two of its polymorphic mutants, CYP2E1*2 and CYP2E1*4, was also investigated. For wild-type CYP2E1, the KI was 12.2 ?M and the kinact was 0.02 min?1. The KI values for the two polymorphic mutants were 227.6 and 12.4 ?M for CYP2E1.2 and CYP2E1.4, and the kinact values were 0.0061 and 0.0187 min?1, respectively. These data indicate that DDC is a much less efficient inactivator of CYP2E1.2 than it is of either the wild-type or the CYP2E1.4 variant. PMID:20826547

  2. Cytochrome P4502E1 genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer in a Taiwanese population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Li Wang; Huei Lee; Kuo-Wen Chen; Kan-Jen Tsai; Chih-Yi Chen; Pinpin Lin

    1999-01-01

    Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in metabolic activation of carcinogenic nitrosamines, benzene and low molecular weight halogenated hydrocarbons. In this study, we assessed the association between CYP2E1 RsaI and DraI genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer in a Taiwanese population. The RsaI genotype distribution was significantly different between 119 lung cancer patients and 231 non-cancer controls. The homozygote variants of RsaI

  3. Improved parameterization of Antarctic krill target strength models

    E-print Network

    Stanton, Tim

    Improved parameterization of Antarctic krill target strength models Gareth L. Lawson,a Peter H of Antarctic krill target strength and predictions using theoretical scattering models. These differences of orientations resulted in predictions of target strength consistent with in situ measurements of target strength

  4. Infusing Cultural Competence and Advocacy into Strength-Based Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim; McAuliffe, Garett; Craigen, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Strength-based counseling represents a welcome shift from prevailing deficit perspectives. However, the literature often treats enhancing strengths as an acultural concept, minimizing or ignoring the essential role of culture in forming and defining strengths. Integrating cultural competence and advocacy into strength-based practice is examined as…

  5. Methodology to assay CYP2E1 mixed function oxidase catalytic activity and its induction

    PubMed Central

    Cederbaum, Arthur I.

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase enzymes are the major catalysts involved in drug metabolism. There are many forms of P450. CYP2E1 metabolizes many toxicologically important compounds including ethanol and is active in generating reactive oxygen species. Since several of the contributions in the common theme series “Role of CYP2E1 and Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress in the Hepatotoxic Actions of Alcohol” discuss CYP2E1, this methodology review describes assays on how CYP2E1 catalytic activity and its induction by ethanol and other inducers can be measured using substrate probes such as the oxidation of para-nitrophenol to para-nitrocatechol and the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Approaches to validate that a particular reaction e.g. oxidation of a drug or toxin is catalyzed by CYP2E1 or that induction of that reaction is due to induction of CYP2E1 are important and specific examples using inhibitors of CYP2E1, anti-CYP2E1 IgG or CYP2E1 knockout and knockin mice will be discussed. PMID:25454746

  6. Stereochemical assignment, antiinflammatory properties, and receptor for the omega-3 lipid mediator resolvin E1

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Makoto; Bianchini, Francesca; Aliberti, Julio; Sher, Alan; Chiang, Nan; Hong, Song; Yang, Rong; Petasis, Nicos A.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2005-01-01

    The essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) present in fish oils displays beneficial effects in a range of human disorders associated with inflammation including cardiovascular disease. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), a new bioactive oxygenated product of EPA, was identified in human plasma and prepared by total organic synthesis. Results of bioaction and physical matching studies indicate that the complete structure of RvE1 is 5S,12R,18R-trihydroxy-6Z,8E,10E,14Z,16E-EPA. At nanomolar levels, RvE1 dramatically reduced dermal inflammation, peritonitis, dendritic cell (DC) migration, and interleukin (IL) 12 production. We screened receptors and identified one, denoted earlier as ChemR23, that mediates RvE1 signal to attenuate nuclear factor–?B. Specific binding of RvE1 to this receptor was confirmed using synthetic [3H]-labeled RvE1. Treatment of DCs with small interference RNA specific for ChemR23 sharply reduced RvE1 regulation of IL-12. These results demonstrate novel counterregulatory responses in inflammation initiated via RvE1 receptor activation that provide the first evidence for EPA-derived potent endogenous agonists of antiinflammation. PMID:15753205

  7. Stereochemical assignment, antiinflammatory properties, and receptor for the omega-3 lipid mediator resolvin E1.

    PubMed

    Arita, Makoto; Bianchini, Francesca; Aliberti, Julio; Sher, Alan; Chiang, Nan; Hong, Song; Yang, Rong; Petasis, Nicos A; Serhan, Charles N

    2005-03-01

    The essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) present in fish oils displays beneficial effects in a range of human disorders associated with inflammation including cardiovascular disease. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), a new bioactive oxygenated product of EPA, was identified in human plasma and prepared by total organic synthesis. Results of bioaction and physical matching studies indicate that the complete structure of RvE1 is 5S,12R,18R-trihydroxy-6Z,8E,10E,14Z,16E-EPA. At nanomolar levels, RvE1 dramatically reduced dermal inflammation, peritonitis, dendritic cell (DC) migration, and interleukin (IL) 12 production. We screened receptors and identified one, denoted earlier as ChemR23, that mediates RvE1 signal to attenuate nuclear factor-kappaB. Specific binding of RvE1 to this receptor was confirmed using synthetic [(3)H]-labeled RvE1. Treatment of DCs with small interference RNA specific for ChemR23 sharply reduced RvE1 regulation of IL-12. These results demonstrate novel counterregulatory responses in inflammation initiated via RvE1 receptor activation that provide the first evidence for EPA-derived potent endogenous agonists of antiinflammation. PMID:15753205

  8. Prostaglandin E1 transport into rat intestinal cryptic cell line IEC-6.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kohji; Mabashi, Kumiko; Horie, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Administration of antitumor drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate to rats causes intestinal injury. The intestinal injury was reported to be prevented by coadministration of prostaglandin E1 analogues to rats. IEC-6 cell is a useful in vitro model to study the cytoprotective effect in enterocytes, For its purpose, it is important to know whether or not prostaglandins are taken up into IEC-6 cells. The transport of prostaglandin E1 into IEC-6 cells was investigated, using [3H]-prostaglandin E1. Prostaglandin E1 was found to be transported into IEC-6 cells by the passive diffusion mechanism. PMID:18426083

  9. Hugoniot and strength behavior of silicon carbide.

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Dandekar, Dattatraya Purushottam (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD); Vogler, Tracy John; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra

    2005-07-01

    The shock behavior of two varieties of the ceramic silicon carbide was investigated through a series of time-resolved plate impact experiments reaching stresses of over 140 GPa. The Hugoniot data obtained are consistent for the two varieties tested as well as with most data from the literature. Through the use of reshock and release configurations, reloading and unloading responses for the material were found. Analysis of these responses provides a measure of the ceramic's strength behavior as quantified by the shear stress and the strength in the Hugoniot state. While previous strength measurements were limited to stresses of 20-25 GPa, measurements were made to 105 GPa in the current study. The initial unloading response is found to be elastic to stresses as high as 105 GPa, the level at which a solid-to-solid phase transformation is observed. While the unloading response lies significantly below the Hugoniot, the reloading response essentially follows it. This differs significantly from previous results for B{sub 4}C and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The strength of the material increases by about 50% at stresses of 50-75 GPa before falling off somewhat as the phase transformation is approached. Thus, the strength behavior of SiC in planar impact experiments could be characterized as metal-like in character. The previously reported phase transformation at {approx}105 GPa was readily detected by the reshock technique, but it initially eluded detection with traditional shock experiments. This illustrates the utility of the reshock technique for identifying phase transformations. The transformation in SiC was found to occur at about 104 GPa with an associated volume change of about 9%.

  10. EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED MUSIC ON MAXIMAL BENCH PRESS STRENGTH AND STRENGTH ENDURANCE.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Michele, Rocco Di; Merni, Franco

    2015-06-01

    -Listening to music during strength workouts has become a very common practice. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of listening to self-selected music on strength performances. Thirty-one resistance-trained men (M age = 24.7 yr., SD = 5.9; M height = 178.7 cm, SD = 4.7; M body mass = 83.54 kg, SD = 12.0) were randomly assigned to either a Music group (n = 19) or to a Control group (n = 12). Both groups took part in two separate sessions; each session consisted in a maximal strength test (1-RM) and a strength-endurance test (repetitions to failure at 60% 1-RM) using the bench press exercise. The music group listened to music in the second assessment session, while the control group performed both tests without music. Listening to music induced a significant increase of strength endurance performance and no effects on maximal strength. These findings have implications for the use of music during strength workouts. PMID:26106802

  11. Investigation of factors influencing stalk strength in sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Richie, William Eldridge

    1988-01-01

    and observed lodging susceptibilities. . . 32 4 Significant correlations between stalk strength measurements. . . 33 5 Grouping of cultivars based on strength measurements. . . 35 6 Correlation coefficients between strength measurements and strength... wall fractions in rind stalk material compared to that in total stalk material (R/T). 44 14 Ratios of cell wall fractions in pith stalk material compared to that in total stalk material (P/T). , . 45 15 Significant correlations between strength...

  12. Isoscalar and neutron modes in the E1 spectra of Ni isotopes and the relevance of shell effects and the continuum

    E-print Network

    Papakonstantinou, P; Roth, R

    2015-01-01

    We study theoretically the electric dipole transitions of even Ni isotopes at low energies, using the self-consistent quasi-particle random-phase approximation (RPA) with the D1S Gogny interaction and a continuum-RPA model with the SLy4 Skyrme force. We analyze isoscalar states, isovector states, and the dipole polarizability. We define a reference value for the polarizability, to remove a trivial dependence on the mass number. We compare our results with data and other calculations, with a focus on collective states, shell effects, and threshold transitions. Our results support the presence of a strong isoscalar transition, with little or moderate E1 strength, as a universal feature of ordinary nuclei. In moderately neutron-rich Ni isotopes, namely 68Ni and neighboring isotopes, this transition is found bimodal due to couplings with surface neutrons. An adequate treatment of the continuum states appears essential for describing suprathreshold E1 strength, especially beyond 68Ni. Very exotic isotopes (N>50) a...

  13. Comparison of the strength and durability performance of normal- and high-strength pozzolanic concretes at elevated temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Sun Poon; Salman Azhar; Mike Anson; Yuk-Lung Wong

    2001-01-01

    The strength and durability performance of normal- and high-strength pozzolanic concretes incorporating silica fume, fly ash, and blast furnace slag was compared at elevated temperatures up to 800°C. The strength properties were determined using an unstressed residual compressive strength test, while durability was investigated by rapid chloride diffusion test, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and crack pattern observations. It was found

  14. Effect of OrientationEffect of Orientation on Pinon Pin--bearing Strength for Boltedbearing Strength for Bolted

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Toby

    for Boltedbearing Strength for Bolted Connections in Pultruded JointsConnections in Pultruded Joints Behrouz Zafari. BearingBearing StrengthStrength andand Bolted ConnectionsBolted Connections 2 · Strength variation;6/19/2012 2 Distinct modes of failure (single-bolted connections) PlatePlate--toto--plateplate Resistances

  15. Achievable field strength in reverberation chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eulig, N.; Enders, A.; Krauthäuser, H. G.; Nitsch, J.

    2003-05-01

    Feldvariable Kammern (FVK, engl.: modestirred- chamber) werden unter anderem für EMV-Störfestigkeitsprüfungen verwendet. Ein häufig genanntes Argument, das die Einführung dieser Kammern als normgerechte Prüfumgebung vorantreiben soll, ist eine hohe Feldstärke, die im Vergleich zu anderen Testumgebungen mit relativ moderaten HF-Leistungen erreicht werden kann. Besonders für sicherheitskritische Geräte, wie Komponenten aus der Avionik- oder KFZ-Industrie, sind heutzutage Testfeldstärken von mehreren 100 V/m notwendig. Derart hohe Feldstärken können in Umgebungen, die ein ebenes Wellenfeld erzeugen oder nachbilden, nur mit großen HFLeistungen generiert werden. Durch die Resonanzeigenschaften einer FVK können demgegenüber mit sehr viel weniger Leistung und damit Verstärkeraufwand vergleichbare Werte der Feldstärke erzeugt werden. Allerdings sinkt mit zunehmendem Volumen die erreichbare Feldstärke bei gleicher Speiseleistung. Idealerweise sollen Feldvariable Kammern bei möglichst niedrigen Frequenzen für EMVTests nutzbar sein, was jedoch ein großes Kammervolumen erfordert. Das Problem, bei niedrigen Frequenzen hohe Feldstärken erzeugen zu können, relativiert deshalb den Vorteil von FVKn gegenüber bekannten Testumgebungen bei niedrigen Testfrequenzen. Der Posterbeitrag erläutert, welche Feldstärken in verschieden großen Feldvariablen Kammern beim Einspeisen einer bestimmten hochfrequenten Leistung erreicht werden können. Anhand dieser Ergebnisse wird aufgezeigt, oberhalb welcher Grenzfrequenz eine Anwendung von FVKn nur sinnvoll erscheint. Mode-stirred chambers (MSCs) can be used for radiated immunity tests in EMC testing. Advantageous compared to conventional test methods is the high field strength which can here be generated with less RF-Power. This point is often the main argument for pushing the standardization of MSCs as an other EMC testing environment. Especially for safety-critical electronic equipment like avionic or automotive systems, immunity tests with field strengths of several 100 V/m are necessary. Such high field strengths can only be generated with substantial RF power and therefore expensive amplifiers if the test is performed in an environment with plane waves. Due to resonance effects in mode-stirred chambers, comparable values of the field strength can there be obtained with significantly less power. In these chambers the field strength declines with increasing volume for a constant input power. As an ideal testing environment a mode-stirred chamber should also work at low frequencies which requires a large volume, however. Hence there is a contradiction between generating high level field strengths on the one hand and obtaining a lowest usable frequency of several 10 MHz on the other. This relativizes the advantage of generating high field strengths with less power if the chamber is supposed to work down to low frequencies. This article deals with the field strengths that can be obtained in mode-stirred chambers with a certain size. Data of different mode-stirred chambers are compared. From this a frequency limit can be derived, above which the use a mode-stirred chamber for achieving high field strengths seems meaningful only.

  16. Adenovirus E1A Oncogene Induces Rereplication of Cellular DNA and Alters DNA Replication Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Ghata; Leo, Elisabetta; Setty, Saayi Krushna Gadham; Pommier, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The oncogenic property of the adenovirus (Ad) transforming E1A protein is linked to its capacity to induce cellular DNA synthesis which occurs as a result of its interaction with several host proteins, including pRb and p300/CBP. While the proteins that contribute to the forced induction of cellular DNA synthesis have been intensively studied, the nature of the cellular DNA replication that is induced by E1A in quiescent cells is not well understood. Here we show that E1A expression in quiescent cells leads to massive cellular DNA rereplication in late S phase. Using a single-molecule DNA fiber assay, we studied the cellular DNA replication dynamics in E1A-expressing cells. Our studies show that the DNA replication pattern is dramatically altered in E1A-expressing cells, with increased replicon length, fork velocity, and interorigin distance. The interorigin distance increased by about 3-fold, suggesting that fewer DNA replication origins are used in E1A-expressing cells. These aberrant replication events led to replication stress, as evidenced by the activation of the DNA damage response. In earlier studies, we showed that E1A induces c-Myc as a result of E1A binding to p300. Using an antisense c-Myc to block c-Myc expression, our results indicate that induction of c-Myc in E1A-expressing cells contributes to the induction of host DNA replication. Together, our results suggest that the E1A oncogene-induced cellular DNA replication stress is due to dramatically altered cellular replication events and that E1A-induced c-Myc may contribute to these events. PMID:23740993

  17. Code provisions for high strength concrete strength-temperature relationship at elevated temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long T. Phan; Nicholas J. Carino

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results of experiments, conducted at NIST and elsewhere, to measure compressive strength of concrete at\\u000a elevated temperature. The paper compares the test data with existing design rules and recommendations to assess their applicability\\u000a to HSC. Based on the compiled data, the paper proposes new strength-temperature relationship for HSC and discusses the need\\u000a for standardizing the test procedure

  18. Prediction of splitting tensile strength from the compressive strength of concrete using GEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Metin Hakan Severcan

    Splitting tensile strength is one of the important mechanical properties of concrete that is used in structural design. In\\u000a this paper, it is aimed to propose formulation for predicting cylinder splitting tensile strength of concrete by using gene\\u000a expression programming (GEP). The database used for training, testing, and validation sets of the GEP models is obtained from\\u000a the literature. The

  19. Improved detection of submaximum effort in upper extremity strength and strength-endurance performance testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loarn D. Robertson; Gary R. Brodowicz; Albert R. Swafford

    1997-01-01

    This study was a continuation of 2 investigations into methods used to help discriminate between maximum and submaximum effort\\u000a in maximal power grip (strength), and repeated maximal power grip (strength-endurance). The purpose was to identify valid\\u000a discriminator variables, which in combination would improve the detection of submaximum effort over single discriminator variables.\\u000a Three discriminator variables were identified for power grip

  20. Resolvin E1 and chemokine-like receptor 1 mediate bone preservation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Faibish, Dan; Fredman, Gabrielle; Herrera, Bruno S; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Gyurko, Robert

    2013-01-15

    The polyunsaturated ?-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid-derived resolvin E1 (RvE1) enhances resolution of inflammation, prevents bone loss, and induces bone regeneration. Although the inflammation-resolving actions of RvE1 are characterized, the molecular mechanism of its bone-protective actions are of interest. To test the hypothesis that receptor-mediated events impact bone changes, we prepared transgenic mice overexpressing the RvE1 receptor chemokine-like receptor 1 (chemR23) on leukocytes. In zymosan-initiated peritonitis, neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration in response to RvE1 was limited requiring log order lower doses in chemR23tg mice. Ligature-induced alveolar bone loss was diminished in chemR23tg mice. Local RvE1 treatment of uniform craniotomy in the parietal bone significantly accelerated regeneration of the bone defect. In in vitro bone cultures, RvE1 significantly enhanced expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) without inducing change in receptor activator of NF-?B ligand levels, whereas the osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 remained unchanged. These results indicate that RvE1 modulates osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling by direct actions on bone, rescuing OPG production and restoring a favorable receptor activator of NF-?B ligand/OPG ratio, in addition to known anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions. PMID:23241890

  1. Stereochemical assignment, antiinflammatory properties, and receptor for the omega-3 lipid mediator resolvin E1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Arita; Francesca Bianchini; Julio Aliberti; Alan Sher; Nan Chiang; Song Hong; Rong Yang; Nicos A. Petasis; Charles N. Serhan

    The essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) present in fish oils displays beneficial effects in a range of human disorders associated with inflammation including cardiovascular disease. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), a new bioactive oxygenated product of EPA, was identified in human plasma and prepared by total organic synthesis. Results of bioaction and physical matching studies indicate that the complete structure of

  2. Resolvin E1 and Chemokine-like Receptor 1 ChemR23 Mediate Bone Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; Faibish, Dan; Fredman, Gabrielle; Herrera, Bruno S.; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Gyurko, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The polyunsaturated ?-3 fatty acid EPA-derived resolvin E1 (RvE1) enhances resolution of inflammation, prevents bone loss and induces bone regeneration. While the inflammation-resolving actions of RvE1 are characterized, molecular mechanism of its bone-protective actions are of interest. To test the hypothesis that receptor-mediated events impact bone changes, we prepared transgenic mice over expressing the RvE1 receptor chemR23 on leukocytes. In zymosan-initiated peritonitis, neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration in response to RvE1 was limited requiring log order lower doses in chemR23tg mice. Ligature-induced alveolar bone loss was diminished in chemR23tg mice. Local RvE1 treatment of uniform craniotomy in the parietal bone significantly accelerated regeneration of the bone defect. In in vitro bone cultures, RvE1 significantly enhanced expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) without inducing change in RANKL levels, while the osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RunX2) remained unchanged. These results indicate that RvE1 modulates osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling by direct actions on bone, rescuing OPG production and restoring a favorable RANKL/OPG ratio, in addition to known anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. PMID:23241890

  3. Olive cultivar origin is a major cause of polymorphism for Ole e 1 pollen allergen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AbdelMounim Hamman-Khalifa; Antonio Jesús Castro; José Carlos Jiménez-López; María Isabel Rodríguez-García; Juan Alché

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pollens from different olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars have been shown to differ significantly in their content in Ole e 1 and in their overall allergenicity. This allergen is, in addition, characterized by a high degree of polymorphism in its sequence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the putative presence of divergences in Ole e 1 sequences

  4. Alumina strength degradation in the elastic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, M.D.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1997-08-01

    Measurements of Kanel et. al. [1991] have suggested that deviatoric stresses in glasses shocked to nearly the Hugoniot Elastic limit (HEL) relax over a time span of microseconds after initial loading. Failure (damage) waves have been inferred on the basis of these measurements using time-resolved manganin normal and transverse stress gauges. Additional experiments on glass by other researchers, using time-resolved gauges, high-speed photography and spall strength determinations have also lead to the same conclusions. In the present study the authors have conducted transmitted-wave experiments on high-quality Coors AD995 alumina shocked to roughly 5 and 7 GPa (just below or at the HEL). The material is subsequently reshocked to just above its elastic limit. Results of these experiments do show some evidence of strength degradation in the elastic regime.

  5. Estimating the magnetic field strength from magnetograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Martínez González, M. J.; Manso Sainz, R.

    2015-05-01

    A properly calibrated longitudinal magnetograph is an instrument that measures circular polarization and gives an estimation of the magnetic flux density in each observed resolution element. This usually constitutes a lower bound of the field strength in the resolution element, given that it can be made arbitrarily large as long as it occupies a proportionally smaller area of the resolution element and/or becomes more transversal to the observer while still produce the same magnetic signal. However, we know that arbitrarily stronger fields are less likely - hG fields are more probable than kG fields, with fields above several kG virtually absent - and we may even have partial information about their angular distribution. Based on a set of sensible considerations, we derive simple formulae based on a Bayesian analysis to give an improved estimation of the magnetic field strength for magnetographs.

  6. Missing and Quenched Gamow Teller Strength

    E-print Network

    E. Caurier; A. Poves; A. P. Zuker

    1994-01-14

    Gamow-Teller strength functions in full $(pf)^{8}$ spaces are calculated with sufficient accuracy to ensure that all the states in the resonance region have been populated. Many of the resulting peaks are weak enough to become unobservable. The quenching factor necessary to bring into agreement the low lying observed states with shell model predictions is shown to be due to nuclear correlations. To within experimental uncertainties it is the same that is found in one particle transfer and (e,e') reactions. Perfect consistency between the observed $^{48}Ca(p,n)^{48}Sc$ peaks and the calculation is achieved by assuming an observation threshold of 0.75\\% of the total strength, a value that seems typical in several experiments

  7. Dynamic Strength of Tantalum under impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glam, Benny; Werdiger, Meir; Pistinner, Shlomi

    2013-06-01

    Plane impact experiments of double shock and shock-rarefaction in Tantalum were carried out in a gas gun. VISAR diagnostics has been implemented to measure the particle velocity and the free surface velocity. The VISAR information was utilized to study the dynamic strength of Tantalum under compression and tension. The pressure in the experiments was below 35 GPa. In this pressure range the dominant mechanism is expected to be dislocation motion. A 1-d hydrodynamic code was used in order to match various strength models. As expected, both the Johnson-Cook and the Guinan-Steinberg models do not reproduce the experimental results. Therefore in this paper we compare the Zerilli-Armstrong model which has been recently calibrated at strain rate of 6 x 103 s-1 using the split Kowalsky-Hopkinson bar to our experimental results at strain rate of 106 s-1.

  8. Strength of Footing with Punching Shear Preventers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Moon, Jiho; Park, Keum-Sung; Bae, Kyu-Woong

    2014-01-01

    The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested. PMID:25401141

  9. Strength of footing with punching shear preventers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Moon, Jiho; Park, Keum-Sung; Bae, Kyu-Woong

    2014-01-01

    The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested. PMID:25401141

  10. High-strength concrete for Peacekeeper facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucier, K. L.

    1984-03-01

    An investigation is described which was conducted to determine the processes and techniques required to produce portland-cement concrete with a compressive strength of 15,000 psi or greater using conventional concreting methods and equipment, and to develop physical property data on the mixtures. It was permitted that special materials and admixtures be used, but a requirement was set that the aggregates and cements be selected from those available in the Cheyenne, Wyoming, area. Results indicated that it is feasible to achieve the 15,000-psi compressive strengths but that workability may decrease over a 2-hour period, and this latter development should be studied under job conditions. It is recommended that: (1) all materials and procedures to be used on a specific project be tested in the laboratory for basic property information, and (2) selected mixtures be tested in the field under expected environmental conditions prior to actual job use.

  11. Rock strength under confined shock conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, C.H.

    1982-10-01

    This report addresses the laboratory measurements of the static strength of rock needed to simulate the response of rock to an underground explosion. The approach is to identify the variables that affect the strength of rock and to discuss each effect in terms of the underlying processes that cause it. Most of the report is the result of a literature review, although some new analyses and concepts are presented. Attention is directed at three basic rock types: low porosity brittle rock such as granodiorite, high porosity brittle rock such as volcanic tuff, and a rock that may be ductile under the relevant conditions, salt. These three rock types are sufficiently different that somewhat different constitutive laws may have to be used to model their behavior.

  12. Ambient temperature fracture strength of pure alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Nguyen, N.Q.

    1990-12-19

    The fracture of alumina copper-vapor laser tubes has led to great interest in the mechanical properties of pure alumina ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the Copper Laser Program. In particular, knowledge of the fracture strength of the alumina used to make these tubes is required at temperatures ranging from ambient to 1500{degree}C. The purpose of the work reported here was to confirm that the fracture strength data reasonably well describe the behavior of the alumina used in the Copper Laser Program. The goal was to make this investigation with the minimum of effort and cost. To this end, only ambient temperature tests were planned.

  13. High Strength, Molecularly Thin Nanoparticle Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, K. Michael; Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Lane, J. Matthew D.; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-12-01

    The unique strength observed in molecular thin films consisting of assemblies of nanoparticles encoded with short organic chains opens an intriguing new realm of controllable materials. Here the fundamental mechanisms underlying this unique mechanical strength are probed by molecular dynamics simulations. Using nanoparticles encoded with short hydrocarbon chains, we show that the mechanical response and failure of single nanoparticle thick membranes depend on subtle changes of the coating. Extremely high moduli were observed in agreement with experiment. We calculate Young's modulus for the membrane system based on properties of the individual components and find that ligand end-group interactions explain the observed changes in mechanical properties. Specifically, for dodecanethiol chains on 6 nm diameter gold cores, Young's modulus is 2.5 GPa for CH3 terminated chains and increases by 50% when end groups are replaced by COOH.

  14. Strength of Multiple Parallel Biological Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Sulchek, T A; Friddle, R W; Noy, A

    2005-12-07

    Multivalent interactions play a critical role in a variety of biological processes on both molecular and cellular levels. We have used molecular force spectroscopy to investigate the strength of multiple parallel peptide-antibody bonds using a system that allowed us to determine the rupture forces and the number of ruptured bonds independently. In our experiments the interacting molecules were attached to the surfaces of the probe and sample of the atomic force microscope with flexible polymer tethers, and unique mechanical signature of the tethers determined the number of ruptured bonds. We show that the rupture forces increase with the number of interacting molecules and that the measured forces obey the predictions of a Markovian model for the strength of multiple parallel bonds. We also discuss the implications of our results to the interpretation of force spectroscopy measurements in multiple bond systems.

  15. Strength of Polysilicon for MEMS Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; LaVan, David A.

    1999-07-20

    The safe, secure and reliable application of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) devices requires knowledge about the distribution in material and mechanical properties of the small-scale structures. A new testing program at Sandia is quantifying the strength distribution using polysilicon samples that reflect the dimensions of critical MEMS components. The strength of polysilicon fabricated at Sandia's Microelectronic Development Laboratory was successfully measured using samples 2.5 microns thick, 1.7 microns wide with lengths between 15 and 25 microns. These tensile specimens have a freely moving hub on one end that anchors the sample to the silicon die and allows free rotation. Each sample is loaded in uniaxial tension by pulling laterally with a flat tipped diamond in a computer-controlled Nanoindenter. The stress-strain curve is calculated using the specimen cross section and gage length dimensions verified by measuring against a standard in the SEM.

  16. Effect of an external magnetic field on the determination of E1M1 two-photon decay rates in Be-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumer, Jon; Li, Wenxian; Bernhardt, Dietrich; Li, Jiguang; Schippers, Stefan; Brage, Tomas; Jönsson, Per; Hutton, Roger; Zou, Yaming

    2013-08-01

    In this work we report on ab initio theoretical results for the magnetic-field-induced 2s2p3P0?2s21S0 E1 transition for ions in the beryllium isoelectronic sequence between Z=5 and 92. It has been proposed that the rate of the E1M1 two-photon transition 2s2p3P0?2s21S0 can be extracted from the lifetime of the 3P0 state in Be-like ions with zero nuclear spin by employing resonant recombination in a storage ring. This experimental approach involves a perturbing external magnetic field. The effect of this field needs to be evaluated in order to properly extract the two-photon rate from the measured decay curves. The magnetic-field-induced transition rates are carefully evaluated, and it is shown that, with a typical storage-ring field strength, it is dominant or of the same order as the E1M1 rate for low- and mid-Z ions. Results for several field strengths and ions are presented, and we also give a simple Z-dependent formula for the rate. We estimate the uncertainties of our model to be within 5% for low- and mid-Z ions and slightly larger for more highly charged ions. Furthermore we evaluate the importance of including both perturber states, 3P1 and 1P1, and it is shown that excluding the influence of the 1P1 perturber overestimates the rate by up to 26% for the mid-Z ions.

  17. Oxidative stress mediated toxicity exerted by ethanol-inducible CYP2E1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Defeng [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cederbaum, Arthur I. [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: arthur.cederbaum@mssm.edu

    2005-09-01

    Induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol is one of the central pathways by which ethanol generates a state of oxidative stress in hepatocytes. To study the biochemical and toxicological actions of CYP2E1, our laboratory established HepG2 cell lines which constitutively overexpress CYP2E1 and characterized these cells with respect to ethanol toxicity. Addition of ethanol or an unsaturated fatty acid such as arachidonic acid or iron was toxic to the CYP2E1-expressing cells but not control cells. This toxicity was associated with elevated lipid peroxidation and could be prevented by antioxidants and inhibitors of CYP2E1. Apoptosis occurred in the CYP2E1-expressing cells exposed to ethanol, arachidonic acid, or iron. Removal of GSH caused a loss of viability in the CYP2E1-expressing cells even in the absence of added toxin or pro-oxidant. This was associated with mitochondrial damage and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Low concentrations of iron and arachidonic acid synergistically interacted with CYP2E1 to produce cell toxicity, suggesting these nutrients may act as priming or sensitizing agents to alcohol-induced liver injury. Surprisingly, CYP2E1-expressing cells had elevated GSH levels, due to transcriptional activation of glutamate cysteine ligase. Similarly, levels of catalase, alpha-, and microsomal glutathione transferase were also increased, suggesting that upregulation of these antioxidant genes may reflect an adaptive mechanism to remove CYP2E1-derived oxidants. Using co-cultures, interaction between CYP2E1-derived diffusible mediators to activate collagen production in hepatic stellate cells was found. While it is likely that several mechanisms contribute to alcohol-induced liver injury, the linkage between CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, stellate cell activation, and GSH homeostasis may contribute to the toxic action of ethanol on the liver. HepG2 cell lines overexpressing CYP2E1 may be a valuable model to characterize the biochemical and toxicological properties of CYP2E1.

  18. Sex Differences in Tibial Bone Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Torikoshi, S.; Hutchinson, K. J.; Hargens, Alan R.; Steele, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an instrument (MRTA or Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer) that measures bending stiffness (EI) non-Invasively to evaluate the strength of the tibia, a long bone in the weightbearing skeleton highly vulnerable to mineral loss during space flight. In healthy men, we found asymmetry in EI consistent with the bone's support function (L greater than R). In this study, we analyzed EI in women and compared the results to those in men.

  19. Strengths-Based Development in Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Kaiser; Randall P. White

    2009-01-01

    Right now the American ethos is primed for finding a quick-fix leader. The economy stinks. We're in a leadership crisis. We're looking for answers. In the work place, people constantly bend and flex in new directions—a response to changing technologies, merging businesses, stiff competition, and an uncertain economy. We're seeking relief. So when a new movement—like the strengths movement—comes along,

  20. Tensile strength of dried gelcast green bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, S.D.; Omatete, O.O.; Walls, C.A.; Barker, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    Ceramic green bodies were prepared by three different techniques, dry pressing, slip casting, and gelcasting. The tensile strength of the green bodies was measured using a diametral compression test. It was found that the gelcast samples were from 2 to 20 times stronger than the conventionally formed green bodies. SEM examination of the gelcast samples revealed a homogeneous, brittle fracture surface indicating a very uniform distribution of the binder and excellent dispersion of the ceramic powder.

  1. Shear adhesion strength of aligned electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Najem, Johnny F; Wong, Shing-Chung; Ji, Guang

    2014-09-01

    Inspiration from nature such as insects' foot hairs motivates scientists to fabricate nanoscale cylindrical solids that allow tens of millions of contact points per unit area with material substrates. In this paper, we present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive shear adhesive laminates. By using aligned electrospun nylon-6, we create dry adhesives, as a succession of our previous work on measuring adhesion energies between two single free-standing electrospun polymer fibers in cross-cylinder geometry, randomly oriented membranes and substrate, and peel forces between aligned fibers and substrate. The synthetic aligned cylindrical solids in this study are electrically insulating and show a maximal Mode II shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm(2) on a glass slide. This measured value, for the purpose of comparison, is 270% of that reported from gecko feet. The Mode II shear adhesion strength, based on a commonly known "dead-weight" test, is 97-fold greater than the Mode I (normal) adhesion strength of the same. The data indicate a strong shear binding on and easy normal lifting off. Anisotropic adhesion (Mode II/Mode I) is pronounced. The size and surface boundary effects, crystallinity, and bending stiffness of fibers are used to understand these electrospun nanofibers, which vastly differ from otherwise known adhesive technologies. The anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to a decreasing fiber diameter and an optimized laminate thickness, which, in turn, influences the bending stiffness and solid-state "wettability" of points of contact between nanofibers and surface asperities. PMID:25105533

  2. Hydrogen embrittlement of high strength pipeline steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hardie; E. A. Charles; A. H. Lopez

    2006-01-01

    A comparison was made between three API grade pipeline steels (X60, X80 and the X100 grade) from the point of view of their susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. The main aim was to determine whether the development of higher strength materials led to greater susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. This was achieved by straining at 2.8×10?5s?1 after cathodic charging. The results showed

  3. Oscillator strengths for singly ionized oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?. Ate?; G. Tekeli; G. Çelik; E. Akin; M. Taser

    2009-01-01

    The electric dipole oscillator strengths for multiplet and \\u000a individual lines between some doublet and quartet levels have been \\u000a calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model theory (WBEPMT) \\u000a in singly ionized oxygen. We employed both numerical Coulomb approximation \\u000a (NCA) wave functions and numerical non-relativistic Hartree-Fock (NRHF) wave \\u000a functions for expectation values of radii in determination of parameters. \\u000a The calculated oscillator

  4. Strength, Deformation and Fracture in Metallic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xun Wendy

    An understanding of the mechanics of nanoscale metals and semiconductors is necessary for the safe and prolonged operation of nanostructured devices from transistors to nanowire- based solar cells to miniaturized electrodes. This is a fascinating but challenging pursuit because mechanical properties that are size-invariant in conventional materials, such as strength, ductility and fracture behavior, can depend critically on sample size when materials are reduced to sub-micron dimensions. In this thesis, the effect of nanoscale sample size, microstructure and structural geometry on mechanical strength, deformation and fracture are explored for several classes of solid materials. Nanocrystalline platinum nano-cylinders with diameters of 60 nm to 1 ?m and 12 nm sized grains are fabricated and tested in compression. We find that nano-sized metals containing few grains weaken as sample diameter is reduced relative to grain size due to a change from deformation governed by internal grains to surface grain governed deformation. Fracture at the nanoscale is explored by performing in-situ SEM tension tests on nanocrystalline platinum and amorphous, metallic glass nano-cylinders containing purposely introduced structural flaws. It is found that failure location, mechanism and strength are determined by the stress concentration with the highest local stress whether this is at the structural flaw or a microstructural feature. Principles of nano-mechanics are used to design and test mechanically robust hierarchical nanostructures with structural and electrochemical applications. 2-photon lithography and electroplating are used to fabricate 3D solid Cu octet meso-lattices with micron-scale features that exhibit strength higher than that of bulk Cu. An in-situ SEM lithiation stage is developed and used to simultaneously examine morphological and electrochemical changes in Si-coated Cu meso-lattices that are of interest as high energy capacity electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

  5. High-strength chromium--molybdenum rails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. E. Smith; J. M. Jr. Sawhill; W. W. Cias; G. T. Eldis

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted with the aim of developing an as-rolled rail of over 100 ksi (689 N\\/mm²) yield strength. A series of compositions providing both pearlitic and bainitic microstructures was evaluated. A fine pearlitic structure was developed in a 0.73 percent C -- 0.83 percent Mn -- 0.16 percent Si -- 0.75 percent Cr -- 0.21 percent Mo

  6. Zinc alloy enhances strength and creep resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Machler, M. [Fisher Gauge Ltd., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Fishercast Div.

    1996-10-01

    A family of high-performance ternary zinc-copper-aluminum alloys has been developed that provides higher strength, hardness, and creep resistance than the traditional zinc-aluminum alloys Zamak 3, Zamak 5, and ZA-8. Designated ACuZinc, mechanical properties comparable to those of more expensive materials make it suitable for high-load applications and those at elevated temperatures. This article describes the alloy`s composition, properties, and historical development.

  7. Joint strength of laser-welded titanium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Liu; I Watanabe; K Yoshida; M Atsuta

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the joint strength of titanium laser-welding using several levels of laser output energy [current (A)].Methods: Cast titanium plates (0.5×3.0×40 and 1.0×3.0×40mm3) were prepared and perpendicularly cut at the center of the plate. After the cut halves were fixed in a jig, they were laser-welded using a Nd: YAG laser at several

  8. Single pellet crush strength testing of catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Brienza, P.K. (Engelhard Corp., Seneca, SC (USA))

    1988-09-01

    ASTM D-32 Committee on Catalysts has developed a standard test method for single pellet crush strength for formed catalyst shapes. This standard was issued under the fixed designation D 4179. The method is applicable to regular catalyst shapes such as tablets and spheres. Extrudates, granular materials, and other irregular shapes are excluded. The committee continues to work on the development of a method for the single pellet crush testing of extrudates.

  9. ZERODUR: deterministic approach for strength design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing request for zero expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR substrates being capable of enduring higher operational static loads or accelerations. The integrity of structures such as optical or mechanical elements for satellites surviving rocket launches, filigree lightweight mirrors, wobbling mirrors, and reticle and wafer stages in microlithography must be guaranteed with low failure probability. Their design requires statistically relevant strength data. The traditional approach using the statistical two-parameter Weibull distribution suffered from two problems. The data sets were too small to obtain distribution parameters with sufficient accuracy and also too small to decide on the validity of the model. This holds especially for the low failure probability levels that are required for reliable applications. Extrapolation to 0.1% failure probability and below led to design strengths so low that higher load applications seemed to be not feasible. New data have been collected with numbers per set large enough to enable tests on the applicability of the three-parameter Weibull distribution. This distribution revealed to provide much better fitting of the data. Moreover it delivers a lower threshold value, which means a minimum value for breakage stress, allowing of removing statistical uncertainty by introducing a deterministic method to calculate design strength. Considerations taken from the theory of fracture mechanics as have been proven to be reliable with proof test qualifications of delicate structures made from brittle materials enable including fatigue due to stress corrosion in a straight forward way. With the formulae derived, either lifetime can be calculated from given stress or allowable stress from minimum required lifetime. The data, distributions, and design strength calculations for several practically relevant surface conditions of ZERODUR are given. The values obtained are significantly higher than those resulting from the two-parameter Weibull distribution approach and no longer subject to statistical uncertainty.

  10. Strength and barrier properties of MFC films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Syverud; Per Stenius

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of microfibrillar cellulose (MFC) films by filtration on a polyamide filter cloth, in a dynamic sheet former\\u000a and as a surface layer on base paper is described. Experimental evidence of the high tensile strength, density and elongation\\u000a of films formed by MFC is given. Typically, a MFC film with basis weight 35 g\\/m2 had tensile index 146 ± 18 Nm\\/g and elongation

  11. Residual strength of thin panels with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madenci, Erdogan

    1994-01-01

    The previous design philosophies involving safe life, fail-safe and damage tolerance concepts become inadequate for assuring the safety of aging aircraft structures. For example, the failure mechanism for the Aloha Airline accident involved the coalescence of undetected small cracks at the rivet holes causing a section of the fuselage to peel open during flight. Therefore, the fuselage structure should be designed to have sufficient residual strength under worst case crack configurations and in-flight load conditions. Residual strength is interpreted as the maximum load carrying capacity prior to unstable crack growth. Internal pressure and bending moment constitute the two major components of the external loads on the fuselage section during flight. Although the stiffeners in the form of stringers, frames and tear straps sustain part of the external loads, the significant portion of the load is taken up by the skin. In the presence of a large crack in the skin, the crack lips bulge out with considerable yielding; thus, the geometric and material nonlinearities must be included in the analysis for predicting residual strength. Also, these nonlinearities do not permit the decoupling of in-plane and out-of-plane bending deformations. The failure criterion combining the concepts of absorbed specific energy and strain energy density addresses the aforementioned concerns. The critical absorbed specific energy (local toughness) for the material is determined from the global specimen response and deformation geometry based on the uniaxial tensile test data and detailed finite element modeling of the specimen response. The use of the local toughness and stress-strain response at the continuum level eliminates the size effect. With this critical parameter and stress-strain response, the finite element analysis of the component by using STAGS along with the application of this failure criterion provides the stable crack growth calculations for residual strength predictions.

  12. ZERODUR: bending strength data for etched surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Leys, Antoine; Carré, Antoine; Kerz, Franca; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In a continuous effort since 2007 a considerable amount of new data and information has been gathered on the bending strength of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR®. By fitting a three parameter Weibull distribution to the data it could be shown that for homogenously ground surfaces minimum breakage stresses exist lying much higher than the previously applied design limits. In order to achieve even higher allowable stress values diamond grain ground surfaces have been acid etched, a procedure widely accepted as strength increasing measure. If surfaces are etched taking off layers with thickness which are comparable to the maximum micro crack depth of the preceding grinding process they also show statistical distributions compatible with a three parameter Weibull distribution. SCHOTT has performed additional measurement series with etch solutions with variable composition testing the applicability of this distribution and the possibility to achieve further increase of the minimum breakage stress. For long term loading applications strength change with time and environmental media are important. The parameter needed for prediction calculations which is combining these influences is the stress corrosion constant. Results from the past differ significantly from each other. On the basis of new investigations better information will be provided for choosing the best value for the given application conditions.

  13. Response strength in multiple schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A.

    1974-01-01

    In several different experiments, pigeons were trained with one schedule or condition of food reinforcement for pecking in the presence of one key color, and a different schedule or condition in the presence of a second key color. After responding in both of these multiple schedule components stabilized, response-independent food was presented during dark-key periods between components, and the rates of pecking in both schedule components decreased. The decrease in responding relative to baseline depended on the frequency, magnitude, delay, or response-rate contingencies of reinforcement prevailing in that component. When reinforcement was terminated, decreases in responding relative to baseline rates were ordered in the same way as with response-independent food. The relations between component response rates were power functions. Internal consistencies in the data, in conjunction with parallel findings in the literature, suggest that the concept of response strength summarizes the effects of diverse procedures, where response strength is identified with relative resistance to change. The exponent of the power function relating response rates may provide the basis for scaling response strength. PMID:16811752

  14. U-Groove Aluminum Weld Strength Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.; Vaughan, R.

    1997-01-01

    Though butt-welds are among the most preferred joining methods in aerostructures, their strength dependence on inelastic mechanics is generally the least understood. This study investigated experimental strain distributions across a thick aluminum U-grooved weld and identified two weld process considerations for improving the multipass weld strength. One is the source of peaking in which the extreme thermal expansion and contraction gradient of the fusion heat input across the groove tab thickness produces severe angular distortion that induces bending under uniaxial loading. The other is the filler strain hardening decreasing with increasing filler pass sequences, producing the weakest welds on the last weld pass side. Both phenomena are governed by weld pass sequences. Many industrial welding schedules unknowingly compound these effects, which reduce the weld strength. A depeaking index model was developed to select filler pass thickness, pass numbers, and sequences to improve depeaking in the welding process. The result was to select the number and sequence of weld passes to reverse the peaking angle such as to combine the strongest weld pass side with the peaking induced bending tension component side to provide a more uniform stress and stronger weld under axial tensile loading.

  15. Dielectric strength of irradiated fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, Karl; Weber, Harald W.; Hastik, Ronald; Hauser, Hans; Gerstenberg, Heiko

    2001-05-01

    The insulation system for the toroidal field model coil of international thermonuclear experimental reactor is a fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) laminate, which consists of a combined Kapton/R-glass-fiber reinforcement tape, vacuum-impregnated with an epoxy DGEBA system. Pure disk-shaped laminates, disk-shaped FRP/stainless-steel sandwiches, and conductor insulation prototypes were irradiated at 5 K in a fission reactor up to a fast neutron fluence of 10 22 m -2 ( E>0.1 MeV) to investigate the radiation induced degradation of the dielectric strength of the insulation system. After warm-up to room temperature, swelling, weight loss, and the breakdown strength were measured at 77 K. The sandwich swells by 4% at a fluence of 5×10 21 m -2 and by 9% at 1×10 22 m -2. The weight loss of the FRP is 2% at 1×10 22 m -2. The dielectric strength remained unchanged over the whole dose range.

  16. Selective activation of microglia facilitates synaptic strength.

    PubMed

    Clark, Anna K; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J; Malcangio, Marzia; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2015-03-18

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1? from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  17. Selective Activation of Microglia Facilitates Synaptic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anna K.; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J.; Malcangio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1? from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  18. Post impact compressive strength in composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuts, Edvins; Sandhu, Raghbir S.; Daniels, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the plan, equipment, procedures, and findings of an experimental investigation of the tolerance to low velocity impact of a graphite epoxy (AS4/3501-6) and graphite bismaleimide (M6/CYCOM3100) advanced composites. The applied impacts were governed by the Air Force Guide Specification 87221. Specimens of each material system having a common nominal layup (10% 0 deg; 80% +/-45 deg; 10% 90 deg), a common 7 inch (17.78 cm) by 10 inch (25.40 cm) size, five different thicknesses (9, 26, 48, 74, and 96 plies), and ambient moisture content were impacted and strength tested at room temperature. Damaged areas and post impact compression strengths (PICS) were among the most significant findings obtained. While the undamaged per ply compression strength of both materials is a strong function of laminate thickness, the per ply PICS is not. The average difference in per ply PICS between the two material systems is about seven percent. Although a smaller percentage of the applied kinetic energy was absorbed by the Gr/BMI than by the Gr/Epoxy composites, larger damaged areas were produced in the Gr/BMI than in Gr/Epoxy. Within the limitations of this investigation, the Gr/BMI system seems to offer no advantage in damage tolerance over the Gr/Epoxy system examined.

  19. Bacterial cellulose gels with high mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Numata, Yukari; Sakata, Tadanori; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Tajima, Kenji

    2015-02-01

    A composite structure was formed between polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and bacterial cellulose (BC) gels swollen in polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a solvent (BC/PEG gel) to improve the mechanical strength of the gels. The mechanical strength under compression and the rheostatic properties of the gels were evaluated. The compression test results indicated that the mechanical strength of the gels depended on the weight percent of cross-linked PEGDA in the gel, the chain length between the cross-linking points, and the cross-linking density of PEGDA polymers. The PEGDA polymers around the cellulose fibers were resistant to pressure; thus, the BC/PEG-PEGDA gel was stronger than the BC/PEG gel under compression. The results of transmittance measurements and thermomechanical analysis showed that the rheostatic properties of the gels were retained even after composite structure formation. BC/PEG-PEGDA gels, which are expected to be biocompatible, may be useful for clinical applications as a soft material. PMID:25492172

  20. Surface bond strength in nickel based alloys.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Ganesh; Padmanabhan, T V; Ariga, Padma; Joshi, Shalini; Bhuminathan, S; Vijayaraghavan, Vasantha

    2013-12-01

    Bonding of ceramic to the alloy is essential for the longevity of porcelain fused to metal restorations. Imported alloys used now a days in processing them are not economical. So this study was conducted to evaluate and compare the bond strength of ceramic material to nickel based cost effective Nonferrous Materials Technology Development Center (NFTDC), Hyderabad and Heraenium S, Heraeus Kulzer alloy. An Instron testing machine, which has three-point loading system for the application of load onto the specimen was utilized for analyzing bond strength of both alloys. Student t test was conducted and t value obtained was 0.644, and the mean value of flexural bond strength of indigenous alloy is 81.75 with standard deviation of 12.25 and of imported alloy is 84.42 with standard deviation of 10.35, indicating that there was no significant difference between the two alloys. Due to ever increasing cost of imported non-precious alloy the need for a cost-effective replacement was fulfilled by indigenous NFTDC alloy. PMID:24431791

  1. Characterization of pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole induction of cytochrome P4502E1 in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Cederbaum, A I

    1994-07-01

    Pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole induce cytochrome P4502E1 (P4502E1) in the liver. It is not known whether induction occurs in nonhepatic tissue such as kidney and lung. Rats were treated with saline, pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole and assayed for the activity and content of P4502E1 and mRNA in liver, lung and kidney. Treatment with these agents resulted in increases in P4502E1 content as detected by immunoblots in liver and kidney, but not lung, microsomes. Oxidation of relatively specific substrates for P4502E1 was also significantly increased with liver and kidney microsomes after pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole treatment. P4502E1 mRNA levels in liver, kidney and lung were not increased by treatment with pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole. Associated with the induction of P4502E1 was an elevated production of reactive oxygen intermediates such as superoxide radical and H2O2 by kidney and liver, but not lung. microsomes. Lipid peroxidation induced by CCI4 was also increased with kidney microsomes after treatment with pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole. Anti-P4502E1 IgG inhibited the increased oxidation of substrates and the increased production of H2O2 by the kidney microsomes found after treatment with pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole. These results show that pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole, which induce P4502E1 in liver, are also effective in inducing this enzyme in the kidney, whereas the lung is not sensitive to induction by these agents. The mechanism of induction of kidney P4502E1, similarly to that of liver, appears to reflect a post-transcriptional effect-probably stabilization of the protein against degradation. PMID:8035340

  2. Role of CYP2E1 in thioacetamide-induced mouse hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Jin Seok; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Morimura, Keiichirou; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan; Chusiri, Yaowares [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J. [Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 37, Room 3106, NCI-Bethesda, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Fukushima, Shoji [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: s-fukushima@jisha.or.jp

    2008-05-01

    Previous experiments showed that treatment of mice and rats with thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver cell damage, fibrosis and/or cirrhosis, associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of hepatic stellate cells. Some experiments suggest that CYP2E1 may be involved in the metabolic activation of TAA. However, there is no direct evidence on the role of CYP2E1 in TAA-mediated hepatotoxicity. To clarify this, TAA-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated using Cyp2e1-null mice. Male wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice were treated with TAA (200 mg/kg of body weight, single, i.p.) at 6 weeks of age, and hepatotoxicity examined 24 and 48 h after TAA treatment. Relative liver weights of Cyp2e1-null mice were significantly different at 24 h compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in Cyp2e1-null mice were significantly different at both time points compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Histopathological examination showed Cyp2e1-null mice represented no hepatototoxic lesions, in clear contrast to severe centriobular necrosis, inflammation and hemorrhage at both time points in wild-type mice. Marked lipid peroxidation was also only limited to wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Similarly, TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression in Cyp2e1-null mice did not significantly differ from the control levels, contrasting with the marked alteration in wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Western blot analysis further revealed no increase in iNOS expression in Cyp2e1-null mice. These results reveal that CYP2E1 mediates TAA-induced hepatotoxicity in wild-type mice as a result of increased oxidative stress.

  3. Regulation of the 26S proteasome by adenovirus E1A

    PubMed Central

    Turnell, Andrew S.; Grand, Roger J.A.; Gorbea, Carlos; Zhang, Xian; Wang, Wenlan; Mymryk, Joe S.; Gallimore, Phillip H.

    2000-01-01

    We have identified the N-terminus of adenovirus early region 1A (AdE1A) as a region that can regulate the 26S proteasome. Specifically, in vitro and in vivo co-precipitation studies have revealed that the 19S regulatory components of the proteasome, Sug1 (S8) and S4, bind through amino acids (aa) 4–25 of Ad5 E1A. In vivo expression of wild-type (wt) AdE1A, in contrast to the N-terminal AdE1A mutant that does not bind the proteasome, reduces ATPase activity associated with anti-S4 immunoprecipitates relative to mock-infected cells. This reduction in ATPase activity correlates positively with the ability of wt AdE1A, but not the N-terminal deletion mutant, to significantly reduce the ability of HPV16 E6 to target p53 for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. AdE1A/proteasomal complexes are present in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, suggesting that AdE1A interferes with both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteasomal degradation. We have also demonstrated that wt AdE1A and the N-terminal AdE1A deletion mutant are substrates for proteasomal-mediated degradation. AdE1A degradation is not, however, mediated through ubiquitylation, but is regulated through phosphorylation of residues within a C-terminal PEST region (aa 224–238). PMID:10970867

  4. Molecular mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity mediated by CYP2E1

    SciTech Connect

    Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat; Kamijima, Michihiro; Yamada, Naoyasu; Ito, Yuki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Nakamura, Daichi; Okamura, Ai; Ichihara, Gaku [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Aoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Aging and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J. [Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Nakajima, Tamie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)], E-mail: tnasu23@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2008-09-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 was suggested to be the major enzyme involved in trichloroethylene (TRI) metabolism and TRI-induced hepatotoxicity, although the latter molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The involvement of CYP2E1 in TRI-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying molecular mechanism were studied by comparing hepatotoxicity in cyp2e1{sup +/+} and cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice. The mice were exposed by inhalation to 0 (control), 1000, or 2000 ppm of TRI for 8 h a day, for 7 days, and TRI-hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histopathology. Urinary metabolites of trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were considerably greater in cyp2e1{sup +/+} compared to cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice, suggesting that CYP2E1 is the major P450 involved in the formation of these metabolites. Consistent with elevated plasma ALT and AST activities, cyp2e1{sup +/+} mice in the 2000 ppm group showed histopathological inflammation. TRI significantly upregulated PPAR{alpha}, which might function to inhibit NF{kappa}B p50 and p65 signalling. In addition, TRI-induced NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA, and significantly positive correlation between NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA expression and plasma ALT activity levels were observed, suggesting the involvement of p52 in liver inflammation. Taken together, the current study directly demonstrates that CYP2E1 was the major P450 involved in the first step of the TRI metabolism, and the metabolites produced may have two opposing roles: one inducing hepatotoxicity and the other protecting against the toxicity. Intermediate metabolite(s) from TRI to chloral hydrate produced by CYP2E1-mediated oxidation may be involved in the former, and TCA in the latter.

  5. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Iman; Feizi, Hossein; Hasan-khali, Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for designing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population. Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females) aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis. Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively. Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population. PMID:26000246

  6. Serial isometric contractions under imposed myotatic stretch conditions in high-strength and low-strength men.

    PubMed

    Kamen, G

    1979-05-18

    The immediate effects of an imposed myotatic stretch on knee extensor force were studied in 12 high-strength and 12 low-strength men. Under nonfatigued pre-exercise conditions, significant tension increases of 6.5% for the high-strength group and 11.0% for low-strength subjects were observed as a result of the imposed stretch. An exercise treatment involving 28 serial isometic contractions, each of 5 s duration, with an intertrial rest period of 10 s was administered. This fatiguing exercise resulted in significant decrements in strength on the order of 28.0% and 18.5% for the high-strength and low-strength groups, respectively. A Similar treatment which included a 1 s imposed myotatic stretch during each trial resulted in a greater strength decrement for the low-strength group (26.4%) than for the high-strength subjects (15.0%). A neural factor involving the stretch reflex is tentatively suggested as a plausible explanation accounting for the observation that high-strength subjects fatigue faster than low-strength subjects under conditions of isometric exercise, while low-strength subjects fatigue faster than high-strength individuals in isometric exercise which is performed with an imposed stretch. PMID:467414

  7. Strength analysis of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Oishi, M. (Toray Research Center, Inc., Otsu, Shiga 520 (JP)); Masaki, T.; Nakayama, S.; Mizushina, M. (Toray Industries, Inc., Otsu, Shiga 520 (JP))

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports the tensile strength of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} polycrystals (Y-TZP) measured by a newly developed tensile testing method with a rectangular bar. The tensile strength of Y-TZP was lower than that of the three-point bend strength, and the shape of the tensile strength distribution was quite different from that of the three-point bend strength distribution. It was difficult to predict the distribution curve of the tensile strength using the data of the three-point bend strength by one-modal Weibull distribution. The distribution of the tensile strength was analyzed by two- or three-modal Weibull distribution coupled with an analysis of fracture origins. The distribution curve of the three-point bend strength which was estimated by multimodal Weibull distribution agreed favorably with that of the measured three-point bend strength values. A two-modal Weibull distribution function was formulated approximately from the distributions of the tensile and three-point bend strengths, and the estimated two-modal Weibull distribution function for the four-point bend strength agreed well with the measured four-point bend strength.

  8. Candida albicans Modulates Host Defense by Biosynthesizing the Pro-Resolving Mediator Resolvin E1

    PubMed Central

    Haas-Stapleton, Eric J.; Lu, Yan; Hong, Song; Arita, Makoto; Favoreto, Silvio; Nigam, Santosh; Serhan, Charles N.; Agabian, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans that resides commensally on epithelial surfaces, but can cause inflammation when pathogenic. Resolvins are a class of anti-inflammatory lipids derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that attenuate neutrophil migration during the resolution phase of inflammation. In this report we demonstrate that C. albicans biosynthesizes resolvins that are chemically identical to those produced by human cells. In contrast to the trans-cellular biosynthesis of human Resolvin E1 (RvE1), RvE1 biosynthesis in C. albicans occurs in the absence of other cellular partners. C. albicans biosynthesis of RvE1 is sensitive to lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 monoxygenase inhibitors. We show that 10nM RvE1 reduces neutrophil chemotaxis in response to IL-8; 1nM RvE1 enhanced phagocytosis of Candida by human neutrophils, as well as intracellular ROS generation and killing, while having no direct affect on neutrophil motility. In a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, RvE1 stimulated clearance of the fungus from circulating blood. These results reveal an inter-species chemical signaling system that modulates host immune functions and may play a role in balancing host carriage of commensal and pathogenic C. albicans. PMID:18091990

  9. Resolvin E1 promotes mucosal surface clearance of neutrophils: a new paradigm for inflammatory resolution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Eric L; Louis, Nancy A; Tomassetti, Sarah E; Canny, Geraldine O; Arita, Makoto; Serhan, Charles N; Colgan, Sean P

    2007-10-01

    Migration of neutrophils (PMN) across epithelia is a pathological hallmark of numerous mucosal diseases. Whereas lesions at mucosal surfaces are generally self-limiting, endogenous mechanisms of resolution are incompletely understood. Previous studies revealed that resolvins directly act on PMN to attenuate transendothelial migration, less is known about the influence of resolvins on PMN-epithelial interactions and whether they act on epithelia. We studied the dynamics of resolvin E1 (RvE1) actions on leukocyte transepithelial migration. PMN exposure to RvE1 or chemerin (peptide agonist of ChemR23) reduced transepithelial migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, activation of epithelial ChemR23 promoted apical clearance of PMN. A nonbiased screen of known PMN ligands expressed on epithelial cells in response to RvE1 revealed selective induction of CD55, an apically expressed antiadhesive molecule. CD55 promoter analysis demonstrated that both RvE1 and chemerin activate the CD55 promoter. Inhibition of CD55 by neutralizing antibody prevented RvE1-dependent augmentation of apical PMN clearance. Taken together these findings implicate a "two-hit" model of inflammatory resolution, whereby activation of the PMN RvE1 receptor attenuates transepithelial migration and subsequent actions on the epithelium promote CD55-dependent clearance of PMN across the epithelial cell surface promoting active inflammatory resolution. PMID:17496159

  10. Roles for APIS and the 20S proteasome in adenovirus E1A-dependent transcription

    PubMed Central

    Rasti, Mozhgan; Grand, Roger J A; Yousef, Ahmed F; Shuen, Michael; Mymryk, Joe S; Gallimore, Phillip H; Turnell, Andrew S

    2006-01-01

    We have determined distinct roles for different proteasome complexes in adenovirus (Ad) E1A-dependent transcription. We show that the 19S ATPase, S8, as a component of 19S ATPase proteins independent of 20S (APIS), binds specifically to the E1A transactivation domain, conserved region 3 (CR3). Recruitment of APIS to CR3 enhances the ability of E1A to stimulate transcription from viral early gene promoters during Ad infection of human cells. The ability of CR3 to stimulate transcription in yeast is similarly dependent on the functional integrity of yeast APIS components, Sug1 and Sug2. The 20S proteasome is also recruited to CR3 independently of APIS and the 26S proteasome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that E1A, S8 and the 20S proteasome are recruited to both Ad early region gene promoters and early region gene sequences during Ad infection, suggesting their requirement in both transcriptional initiation and elongation. We also demonstrate that E1A CR3 transactivation and degradation sequences functionally overlap and that proteasome inhibitors repress E1A transcription. Taken together, these data demonstrate distinct roles for APIS and the 20S proteasome in E1A-dependent transactivation. PMID:16763564

  11. Determining functionally important amino acid residues of the E1 protein of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Negi, Surendra S; Kolokoltsov, Andrey A; Schein, Catherine H; Davey, Robert A; Braun, Werner

    2006-09-01

    A new method for predicting interacting residues in protein complexes, InterProSurf, was applied to the E1 envelope protein of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEEV). Monomeric and trimeric models of VEEV-E1 were constructed with our MPACK program, using the crystal structure of the E1 protein of Semliki forest virus as a template. An alignment of the E1 sequences from representative alphavirus sequences was used to determine physical chemical property motifs (likely functional areas) with our PCPMer program. Information on residue variability, propensity to be in protein interfaces, and surface exposure on the model was combined to predict surface clusters likely to interact with other viral or cellular proteins. Mutagenesis of these clusters indicated that the predictions accurately detected areas crucial for virus infection. In addition to the fusion peptide area in domain 2, at least two other surface areas play an important role in virus infection. We propose that these may be sites of interaction between the E1-E1 and E1-E2 subdomains of the envelope proteins that are required to assemble the functional unit. The InterProSurf method is, thus, an important new tool for predicting viral protein interactions. These results can aid in the design of new vaccines against alphaviruses and other viruses. PMID:16607494

  12. E1DS: catalytic site prediction based on 1D signatures of concurrent conservation.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ting-Ying; Chang, Darby Tien-Hao; Chen, Chien-Yu; Weng, Yi-Zhong; Hsu, Chen-Ming

    2008-07-01

    Large-scale automatic annotation of protein sequences remains challenging in postgenomics era. E1DS is designed for annotating enzyme sequences based on a repository of 1D signatures. The employed sequence signatures are derived using a novel pattern mining approach that discovers long motifs consisted of several sequential blocks (conserved segments). Each of the sequential blocks is considerably conserved among the protein members of an EC group. Moreover, a signature includes at least three sequential blocks that are concurrently conserved, i.e. frequently observed together in sequences. In other words, a sequence signature is consisted of residues from multiple regions of the protein sequence, which echoes the observation that an enzyme catalytic site is usually constituted of residues that are largely separated in the sequence. E1DS currently contains 5421 sequence signatures that in total cover 932 4-digital EC numbers. E1DS is evaluated based on a collection of enzymes with catalytic sites annotated in Catalytic Site Atlas. When compared to the famous pattern database PROSITE, predictions based on E1DS signatures are considered more sensitive in identifying catalytic sites and the involved residues. E1DS is available at http://e1ds.ee.ncku.edu.tw/ and a mirror site can be found at http://e1ds.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/. PMID:18524800

  13. New Accurate Oscillator Strengths and Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for N1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tayal, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The nonorthogonal orbitals technique in a multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock approach is used to calculate oscillator strengths and transition probabilities of N(I) lines. The relativistic effects are allowed by means of Breit-Pauli operators. The length and velocity forms of oscillator strengths show good agreement for most transitions. The B-spline R-matrix with pseudostates approach has been used to calculate electron excitation collision strengths and rates. The nonorthogonal orbitals are used for an accurate description of both target wave functions and the R-matrix basis functions. The 24 spectroscopic bound and autoionizing states together with 15 pseudostates are included in the close-coupling expansion. The collision strengths for transitions between fine-structure levels are calculated by transforming the LS-coupled K-matrices to K-matrices in an intermediate coupling scheme. Thermally averaged collision strengths have been determined by integrating collision strength over a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies over a temperature range suitable for the modeling of astrophysical plasmas. The oscillator strengths and thermally averaged collision strengths are presented for transitions between the fine-structure levels of the 2s(sup 2)p(sup 3) (sup 4)S(sup 0), (sup 2)D(sup 0), (sup 2)P(sup 0), 2s2p(sup 4) (sup 4)P, 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3s (sup 4)P, and (sup 2)P terms and from these levels to the levels of the 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3p (sup 2)S(sup 0), (sup 4)D(sup 0), (sup 4)P(sup 0), (sup 4)S(sup 0), (sup 2)D(sup 0), (sup 2)P(sup 0),2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3s(sup 2)D, 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)4s(sup 4)P, (sup 2)P, 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3d(sup 2)P, (sup 4)F,(sup 2)F,(sup 4)P, (sup 4)D, and (sup 2)D terms. Thermally averaged collision strengths are tabulated over a temperature range from 500 to 50,000 K.

  14. Influence of strength and flexibility training, combined or isolated, on strength and flexibility gains.

    PubMed

    Leite, Thalita; de Souza Teixeira, Arlindo; Saavedra, Francisco; Leite, Richard D; Rhea, Matthew R; Simão, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the strength and flexibility gains after 12 weeks of strength and flexibility training (FLEX), isolated or combined. Twenty-eight trained women (age = 46 ± 6.52 years; body mass = 56.8 ± 5.02 kg; height = 162 ± 5.58 cm; mean ± SD) were randomly divided into 4 groups: strength training (ST) (n = 7), FLEX (n = 7), combination of strength and flexibility (ST + FLEX) (n = 7), and combination of flexibility and strength (FLEX + ST) (n = 7). All groups were assessed before and after training for the sit and reach test, goniometry, and 10 repetition maximum in bench press (BP) and leg press (LP) exercises. The training protocol for all groups included training sessions on alternate days and was composed of 8 exercises performed at periodized intensities. The FLEX consisted of dynamic stretching performed for a total duration of 60 minutes. The results demonstrated significant strength gains in all groups in the LP exercise (FLEX: p = 0.0187; ST: p = 0.0001; FLEX + ST: p = 0.0034; ST + FLEX: p = 0.0021). All groups except the FLEX improved in BP strength (FLEX: p = 0.1757; ST: p = 0.0001; FLEX + ST: p = 0.0017; ST + FLEX: p = 0.0035). Statistical analyses did not show significant differences between groups; however, effect sizes demonstrated slightly different treatment effects for each group. Largest treatment effects were calculated for the ST group (LP: 2.72; BP: 1.25) and the lowest effects in the FLEX group (LP: 0.41; BP: -0.06). Both combination groups demonstrated lower effect sizes for both LP and BP as compared with the ST group. No significant differences in flexibility were seen in any group, in any of the comparisons (p > 0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that combining strength and FLEX is not detrimental to flexibility development; however, combined training may slightly reduce strength development, with little influence of order in which these exercises are performed. PMID:25268286

  15. Functional Mapping of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E1 Cistron?

    PubMed Central

    Lace, Michael J.; Anson, James R.; Turek, Lubomir P.; Haugen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Replication of the double-stranded, circular human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes requires the viral DNA replicase E1. Here, we report an initial characterization of the E1 cistron of HPV type 16 (HPV-16), the most common oncogenic mucosal HPV type found in cervical and some head and neck cancers. The first step in HPV DNA replication is an initial burst of plasmid viral DNA amplification. Complementation assays between HPV-16 genomes carrying mutations in the early genes confirmed that the expression of E1 was necessary for initial HPV-16 plasmid synthesis. The major early HPV-16 promoter, P97, was dispensable for E1 production in the initial amplification because cis mutations inactivating P97 did not affect the trans complementation of E1? mutants. In contrast, E1 expression was abolished by cis mutations in the splice donor site at nucleotide (nt) 226, the splice acceptor site at nt 409, or a TATAA box at nt 7890. The mapping of 5? mRNA ends using rapid amplification of cDNA ends defined a promoter with a transcription start site at HPV-16 nt 14, P14. P14-initiated mRNA levels were low and required intact TATAA (7890). E1 expression required the HPV-16 keratinocyte-dependent enhancer, since cis mutations in its AP-2 and TEF-1 motifs abolished the ability of the mutant genomes to complement E1? genomes, and it was further modulated by origin-proximal and -distal binding sites for the viral E2 gene products. We conclude that P14-initiated E1 expression is critical for and limiting in the initial amplification of the HPV-16 genome. PMID:18753208

  16. Involvement of CYP 2E1 enzyme in ovotoxicity caused by 4-vinylcyclohexene and its metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Rajapaksa, Kathila S. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., 4122, Tucson, AZ 85724-5051 (United States); Cannady, Ellen A. [Department of Drug Disposition, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285 (United States); Sipes, I. Glenn [Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724-5050 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., 4122, Tucson, AZ 85724-5051 (United States)]. E-mail: hoyer@u.arizona.edu

    2007-06-01

    4-Vinylcyclohexene (VCH) is bioactivated by hepatic CYP 2A and 2B to a monoepoxide (VCM) and subsequently to an ovotoxic diepoxide metabolite (VCD). Studies suggest that the ovary can directly bioactivate VCH via CYP 2E1. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of ovarian CYP 2E1 in VCM-induced ovotoxicity. Postnatal day 4 B6C3F{sub 1} and CYP 2E1 wild-type (+/+) and null (-/-) mouse ovaries were cultured (15 days) with VCD (30 {mu}M), 1,2-VCM (125-1000 {mu}M), or vehicle. Twenty-eight days female CYP 2E1 +/+ and -/- mice were dosed daily (15 days; ip) with VCH, 1,2-VCM, VCD or vehicle. Following culture or in vivo dosing, ovaries were histologically evaluated. In culture, VCD decreased (p < 0.05) primordial and primary follicles in ovaries from all three groups of mice. 1,2-VCM decreased (p < 0.05) primordial follicles in B6C3F{sub 1} and CYP 2E1 +/+ ovaries, but not in CYP 2E1 -/- ovaries in culture. 1,2-VCM did not affect primary follicles in any group of mouse ovaries. Conversely, following in vivo dosing, primordial and primary follicles were reduced (p < 0.05) by VCD and VCM in CYP2E1 +/+ and -/-, and by VCH in +/+ mice. The data demonstrate that, whereas in vitro ovarian bioactivation of VCM requires CYP 2E1 enzyme, in vivo CYP 2E1 plays a minimal role. Thus, the findings support that hepatic metabolism dominates the contribution made by the ovary in bioactivation of VCM to its ovotoxic metabolite, VCD. This study also demonstrates the use of a novel ovarian culture system to evaluate ovary-specific metabolism of xenobiotics.

  17. Heterogeneous deformation and mechanical strength of materials - Approach to the theoretical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, H.; Fujita, N.

    2002-01-01

    Grain size in polycrystalline materials was changed from larger than phi 10 mum to smaller than phi 10 nm, and the effects of both grain size and strain rate on the strength has been investigated from a view point of heterogeneous deformation. Grains of phi10 nm or less in size were obtained by crystallization of amorphous alloys. The experimental results are summarized as follows: (a) Heterogeneous deformation is effectively suppressed when grain size decreases smaller than about phi0.1 mum. As a result, the strength remarkably increases in this grain size range, and takes the maximum value when grains of phi10 nm in size are homogeneously formed, (b) When grain size becomes smaller than phi10 nm, those ultrafine grains are embedded into the amorphous matrix, and the strength decreases with increasing volume fraction of amorphous phase. (c) Heterogeneous deformation is also effectively suppressed by increasing strain rate in general as well as decreasing grain size. The maximum strength obtained experimentally is compared with the theoretical strengths estimated under various conditions.

  18. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) regulates the response to oxidative stress and migration of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are a class of heme-containing enzymes involved in phase I metabolism of a large number of xenobiotics. The CYP family member CYP2E1 metabolises many xenobiotics and pro-carcinogens, it is not just expressed in the liver but also in many other tissues such as the kidney, the lung, the brain, the gastrointestinal tract and the breast tissue. It is induced in several pathological conditions including cancer, obesity, and type II diabetes implying that this enzyme is implicated in other biological processes beyond its role in phase I metabolism. Despite the detailed description of the role of CYP2E1 in the liver, its functions in other tissues have not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of CYP2E1 in breast carcinogenesis. Methods Cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by H2DCFDA (2 2.9.2 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) staining and autophagy was assessed by tracing the cellular levels of autophagy markers using western blot assays. The endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were detected by luciferase assays reflecting the splicing of mRNA encoding the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcription factor and cell migration was evaluated using the scratch wound assay. Gene expression was recorded with standard transcription assays including luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Ectopic expression of CYP2E1 induced ROS generation, affected autophagy, stimulated endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibited migration in breast cancer cells with different metastatic potential and p53 status. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that CYP2E1 gene expression is under the transcriptional control of the p53 tumor suppressor. Conclusions These results support the notion that CYP2E1 exerts an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, provide a potential link between ethanol metabolism and breast cancer and suggest that progression, and metastasis, of advanced stages of breast cancer can be modulated by induction of CYP2E1 activity. PMID:24207099

  19. Role of cytochrome P-450 2E1 in methacrylonitrile metabolism and disposition.

    PubMed

    Ghanayem, B I; Sanders, J M; Chanas, B; Burka, L T; Gonzalez, F J

    1999-05-01

    Methacrylonitrile (MAN) is a widely used aliphatic nitrile and is structurally similar to the known rat carcinogen and suspected human carcinogen acrylonitrile (AN). There is evidence that AN is metabolized via the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2E1. Recently, we identified two biliary conjugates originating from the interaction of MAN and its epoxide with glutathione. Mercapturic acids formed via the degradation of the two conjugates were also identified in rat and mouse urine. Additionally, a significant portion of MAN was eliminated in the expired air as CO2 (formed via the epoxide pathway) and unchanged MAN. The objective of the present work was to determine whether CYP2E1 is involved in the oxidative metabolism of MAN as was suggested for AN. 2-14C-MAN was administered to CYP2E1-null or wild-type mice by gavage at 12 mg/kg. Although total urinary and fecal excretion of MAN-derived radioactivity was slightly different in CYP2E1-null versus wild-type mice, the ratio of mercapturic acids originating from the epoxide-glutathione versus MAN-glutathione conjugates were lower in urine of CYP2E1-null mice than in that of wild-type animals. Exhalation of MAN-derived organic volatiles (primarily parent MAN) was 12- and 42-fold greater in female and male CYP2E1-null mice than in wild-type mice, respectively. Additionally, exhalation of CO2 derived from metabolism of MAN via the CYP2E1 pathway was 3- to 5-fold greater in wild-type than in CYP2E1-null animals. Although these data indicate that CYP2E1 is the principal enzyme responsible for the oxidative metabolism of MAN, other cytochrome P-450 enzymes may be involved. Assessment of MAN metabolism in CYP2E1-null mice pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole (CYP inhibitor) resulted in a further decrease in oxidative metabolites of MAN. Comparison of the tissue concentrations of MAN-derived radioactivity in mouse tissues revealed that MAN-derived radioactivity is generally higher in wild-type > CYP2E1-null mice > CYP2E1-null mice pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole, suggesting a direct relationship between MAN oxidative metabolism and the half-life of MAN and/or its metabolites in various tissues. It is therefore concluded that MAN oxidative metabolites such as the epoxide intermediate have greater reactivity than parent MAN. PMID:10215687

  20. 47 CFR 18.305 - Field strength limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...field strength levels of emissions which lie outside the... Operating frequency RF Power generated by equipment...Industrial heaters and RF stabilized arc welders...field strength limits for RF lighting devices shall...to plot the radiation pattern, to...

  1. 47 CFR 18.305 - Field strength limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...field strength levels of emissions which lie outside the... Operating frequency RF Power generated by equipment...Industrial heaters and RF stabilized arc welders...field strength limits for RF lighting devices shall...to plot the radiation pattern, to...

  2. 47 CFR 18.305 - Field strength limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...field strength levels of emissions which lie outside the... Operating frequency RF Power generated by equipment...Industrial heaters and RF stabilized arc welders...field strength limits for RF lighting devices shall...to plot the radiation pattern, to...

  3. Hi-Strength 90 Spray Adhesive Product Description

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    ______________________________________________________________________________ Product Description An industrial grade spray adhesive that is typically used for bonding HPL to wood 3MTM Scotch-WeldTM Hi-Strength 90 Cylinder Spray Adhesive 3MTM Hi-Strength 90 Spray Adhesive (Bulk

  4. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  5. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29... Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  6. Target strength measurements of Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community animals

    E-print Network

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

    Target strength measurements of Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community animals Kelly J. Benoit the envelope of the received echoes directly into a computer was used to measure the ex situ target strength TS

  7. Modelling of Microstructure in Novel High Strength Steel Welds

    E-print Network

    Rees, Gethin Iorwerth

    1993-01-26

    of a weld microstructure. (Ja' The contribution of martensite to the yield strength of a weld microstructure. (Jmic The microstructural contribution to the strength of acicular ferrite. T I-' Athermal component of the flow stress for interface...

  8. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405 Section...Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To...car shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 57.19021 Section 57.19021 ...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 57.19021 Section 57.19021 ...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section 56.19021 ...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 75.1431 Section 75.1431 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 77.1431 Section 77.1431 Mineral...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section 56.19021 ...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 77.1431 Section 77.1431 Mineral...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 75.1431 Section 75.1431 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal...

  17. High Strength Composite Conductors 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    High Strength Composite Conductors 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR-Award 0654118 Magnet is marked by a rectangle. #12;High Strength Composite Conductors 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR

  18. The Genetic Architecture of Maize Stalk Strength

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Jason A.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.; De Leon, Natalia; McMullen, Michael D.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Stalk strength is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Strong stalks reduce lodging and maximize harvestable yield. Studies show rind penetrometer resistance (RPR), or the force required to pierce a stalk rind with a spike, is a valid approximation of strength. We measured RPR across 4,692 recombinant inbreds (RILs) comprising the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel derived from crosses of diverse inbreds to the inbred, B73. An intermated B73×Mo17 family (IBM) of 196 RILs and a panel of 2,453 diverse inbreds from the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) were also evaluated. We measured RPR in three environments. Family-nested QTL were identified by joint-linkage mapping in the NAM panel. We also performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) in each panel. Broad sense heritability computed on a line means basis was low for RPR. Only 8 of 26 families had a heritability above 0.20. The NCRPIS diversity panel had a heritability of 0.54. Across NAM and IBM families, 18 family-nested QTL and 141 significant GWAS associations were identified for RPR. Numerous weak associations were also found in the NCRPIS diversity panel. However, few were linked to loci involved in phenylpropanoid and cellulose synthesis or vegetative phase transition. Using an identity-by-state (IBS) relationship matrix estimated from 1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and RPR measures from 20% of the NAM panel, genomic prediction by GBLUP explained 64±2% of variation in the remaining RILs. In the NCRPIS diversity panel, an IBS matrix estimated from 681,257 SNPs and RPR measures from 20% of the panel explained 33±3% of variation in the remaining inbreds. These results indicate the high genetic complexity of stalk strength and the potential for genomic prediction to hasten its improvement. PMID:23840585

  19. Frictional Strength of Hayward Fault Gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C.; Moore, D.; Lockner, D.

    2007-12-01

    A recent 3-D geologic model of the Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay Region shows that a number of different rock units are juxtaposed across the fault surface as a result of lateral displacement. The fault gouge formed therein is likely a mixture of these various rock types. To better model the mechanical behavior of the Hayward fault, which is known to both creep and have large earthquakes, frictional properties of mixtures of the principal rock types were determined in the laboratory. Room temperature triaxial shearing tests were conducted on binary and ternary mixtures of Great Valley Sequence graywacke, Franciscan jadeite-bearing metagraywacke, Franciscan pumpellyite-bearing metasandstone, Franciscan melange matrix, serpentinite and two-pyroxene gabbro. The gouge samples were crushed and sieved (<150 ?m grains), then applied in a 1-mm layer between saw-cut sliding blocks. Each sample assemblage was saturated and sheared at constant pore water pressure of 1 MPa and normal stress of 51 MPa. Coefficients of friction, ?, ranged from a low of 0.38 for the serpentinite to a maximum of 0.85 for the gabbro. While the serpentinite and the Franciscan melange matrix were relatively weak, all other rock types obeyed Byerlee's Law. The friction coefficient of mixtures could be reliably predicted by a simple average based on dry weight percent of the end member strengths. This behavior is in contrast to some mixtures of common gouge materials such as montmorillonite+quartz, which exhibit non- linear frictional strength trends with varying weight percent of constituents. All materials tested except serpentinite were velocity strengthening, therefore promoting creeping behavior. The addition of serpentinite decreased a-b values of the gouge and increased the characteristic displacement, dc, of strength evolution. Because temperature strongly influences the mechanical properties of fault gouge as well as speeding chemical reactions between the constituents, elevated temperature experiments simulating deeper seismogenic regions of the Hayward fault are planned for the near future.

  20. Constant strength fuel-fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Vaseen, V.A.

    1980-03-25

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use.

  1. High-strength austenitic stainless steel tubing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Swindeman; P. J. Maziasz

    1991-01-01

    Developmental steels were investigated that were basically 14%Cr- 16%Ni-2%Mo-Fe with V, Ti, and Nb additions. Commercial steels of current interest include Esshete 1250 [1], 17-14CuMo [2], Sumitomo St3Cu{reg_sign} [3-4], and Sandvik 12R72HV{reg_sign}, which is similar to Din 1.4970 [5]. The investigation included fabricability, creep- and stress-rupture strength, and exploratory tests regarding creep-crack growth, fatigue, and weldability. Testing temperatures were in

  2. High-strength austenitic stainless steel tubing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Swindeman; P. J. Maziasz

    1991-01-01

    Developmental steels were investigated that were basically 14%Cr- 16%Ni-2%Mo-Fe with V, Ti, and Nb additions. Commercial steels of current interest include Esshete 1250 (1), 17-14CuMo (2), Sumitomo St3Cu{reg sign} (3-4), and Sandvik 12R72HV{reg sign}, which is similar to Din 1.4970 (5). The investigation included fabricability, creep- and stress-rupture strength, and exploratory tests regarding creep-crack growth, fatigue, and weldability. Testing temperatures

  3. Boron aluminum crippling strength shows improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, O. R.; Bohlmann, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental program directed toward improving boron aluminum crippling strength. Laminate changes evaluated were larger filament diameter, improved processing, shape changes, adding steel-aluminum cross plies, reduced filament volume in corners, adding boron aluminum angle plies, and using titanium interleaves. Filament diameter and steel-aluminum cross plies have little effect on crippling. It is shown that better processing combined with appropriate shape changes improved crippling over 50 percent at both room temperature and 600 F. Tests also show that crippling improvements ranging from 20 to 40 percent are achieved using angle plies and titanium interleaves.

  4. Isoscalar giant resonance strength in (24)Mg 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, Y. -W; Chen, X. F.; Clark, H. L.

    2009-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 80, 064318 (2009) Isoscalar giant resonance strength in 24Mg D. H. Youngblood, Y.-W. Lui, X. F. Chen,* and H. L. Clark Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA (Received 13 November 2009... for the individual 0556-2813/2009/80(6)/064318(5) 064318-1 ?2009 The American Physical Society YOUNGBLOOD, LUI, CHEN, AND CLARK PHYSICAL REVIEW C 80, 064318 (2009) 24Mg(?,?') E?=240 MeV 0 10 20 30 40 0 20 40 60 0 20 40 60 0 20 40 60 Ex(MeV) d2...

  5. Hydrodynamic compressibility of high-strength ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    In this study we have developed the techniques to investigate the hydrodynamic response of high-strength ceramics by mixing these powders with copper powder, preparing compacts, and performing shock compression tests on these mixtures. Hydrodynamics properties of silicon carbide, titanium diboride, and boron carbide to 30 GPa were examined by this method, and hydrodynamic compression data for these ceramics have been determined. We have concluded, however, that the measurement method is sensitive to sample preparation and uncertainties in shock wave measurements. Application of the experimental technique is difficult and further efforts are needed.

  6. Electromagnetic Dipole Strength in Transitional Nuclei

    E-print Network

    S. Q. Zhang; I. Bentley; S. Brant; F. Dönau; S. Frauendorf; B. Kämpfer; R. Schwengner; A. Wagner

    2008-08-19

    Electromagnetic dipole absorption cross-sections of transitional nuclei with large-amplitude shape fluctuations are calculated in a microscopic way by introducing the concept of Instantaneous Shape Sampling. The concept bases on the slow shape dynamics as compared to the fast dipole vibrations. The elctromagnetic dipole strength is calculated by means of RPA for the instantaneous shapes, the probability of which is obtained by means of IBA. Very good agreement with the experimental absorption cross sections near the nucleon emission threshold is obtained.

  7. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, V.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Humby, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Rusev, G.; Beller, J.; Bernards, C.; Crider, B. P.; Isaak, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Löher, B.; Peters, E. E.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Yates, S. W.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-05-01

    A series of photon scattering experiments has been performed on the double-beta decay partners 76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  8. Dynamic Strength of Metals in Shock Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, A; Reisman, D B; Wolfer, W G

    2005-11-09

    It is shown that the Hugoniot and the critical shear stress required to deform a metal plastically in shock compression can be obtained directly from molecular dynamics simulations without recourse to surface velocity profiles, or to details of the dislocation evolution. Specific calculations are shown for aluminum shocked along the [100] direction, and containing an initial distribution of microscopic defects. The presence of such defects has a minor effect on the Hugoniot and on the dynamic strength at high pressures. Computed results agree with experimental data.

  9. Analysis of multifractal strengths in game behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Cheol-Hwan; Lee, Dong-In; Kim, Kyungsik

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study the multifractal structure and its property from the number of end stones, which means the number of stones on the board at the end of a game, in the Baduk game. We mainly estimate the generalized Hurst exponent, the Renyi exponent, and the singularity spectrum for the time-series data of the number of end stones via multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. For three segments, we mainly simulate and analyze the multifractal strength in Baduk games with four players. Particularly, the results obtained for games with four players are compared to each other and analyzed in detail.

  10. Climate strength: a new direction for climate research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Schneider; Amy Nicole Salvaggio; Montse Subirats

    2002-01-01

    Climate strength was conceptualized within D. Chan's (1998) discussion of compositional models and the concept of culture strength from the organizational culture literature. Climate strength was opera- tionalized in terms of within-group variability in climate perceptions—the less within-group variability, the stronger the climate. The authors studied climate strength in the context of research linking employee service climate perceptions to customer

  11. Additional water use influencing strength and fluidity of recycled concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue-bing Zhang; Zhi Fang; Shou-chang Deng; Ke Cheng; Yin-hui Qin

    2008-01-01

    Through adding different additional water use, the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and fluidity of recycled\\u000a concrete of three aggregate combination forms were studied by experiment respectively. The experimental results show that\\u000a with the increase of adding additional water use, the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of recycled coarse\\u000a aggregate concrete decrease, but that of recycled fine aggregate concrete

  12. Indicators propose and analysis on national logistics competitive strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Geng; Weizhong Zhou

    2010-01-01

    In the context of international financial crisis and logistics adjustment and revitalization plan, how to enhance national logistics competitive strength has become an urgent problem to be solved for government macro-management department. To enhance national logistics competitive strength, we need to evaluate and keep abreast of status of it. To evaluate national logistics competitive strength, we must build indicators system

  13. 47 CFR 90.771 - Field strength limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Field strength limits. 90...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...Systems § 90.771 Field strength limits...licensees agree to the higher field strength. (c) EA...minimize interference at or near their EA and REAG...

  14. 47 CFR 90.771 - Field strength limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Field strength limits. 90...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...Systems § 90.771 Field strength limits...licensees agree to the higher field strength. (c) EA...minimize interference at or near their EA and REAG...

  15. 47 CFR 90.771 - Field strength limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Field strength limits. 90...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...Systems § 90.771 Field strength limits...licensees agree to the higher field strength. (c) EA...minimize interference at or near their EA and REAG...

  16. 47 CFR 90.771 - Field strength limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Field strength limits. 90...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...Systems § 90.771 Field strength limits...licensees agree to the higher field strength. (c) EA...minimize interference at or near their EA and REAG...

  17. Weibull analysis of the mechanical strength of silica gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Duffours; F. Pernot; T. Woignier; A. Alaoui; J. Phalippou

    1994-01-01

    Since gels are typically brittle materials, reliable analyses are essential to determine the strength distribution. The mechanical strength of silica gels has been measured by the three point bending technique. Based on the Weibull function, the statistical analysis allows determination of the Weibull modulus (m), which characterizes the strength distribution and the flaw size effect.

  18. Autism severity and muscle strength: A correlation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet K. Kern; David A. Geier; James B. Adams; Melissa R. Troutman; Georgia Davis; Paul G. King; John L. Young; Mark R. Geier

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between muscle strength, as measured by hand grip strength, and autism severity, as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Thirty-seven (37) children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were evaluated using the CARS and then tested for hand muscle strength using a hand grip dynamometer. Statistical analysis was then conducted

  19. Low-energy behavior of $E2$ strength functions

    E-print Network

    R. Schwengner

    2014-11-04

    Electric quadrupole strength functions have been deduced from averages of a large number of $E2$ transition strengths calculated within the shell model for the nuclides $^{94}$Mo and $^{95}$Mo. These strength functions are at variance with phenomenological approximations as provided by the Reference Input Parameter Library RIPL-3 for calculations of reaction rates on the basis of the statistical model.

  20. A General Theory of Strength for Anisotropic Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. Tsai; Edward M. Wu

    1971-01-01

    An operationally simple strength criterion for anisotropic materials is developed from a scalar function of two strength tensors. Differing from existing quadratic approximations of failure surfaces, the present theory satisfies the invariant requirements of coordinate transforma tion, treats interaction terms as independent components, takes into account the difference in strengths due to positive and negative stresses, and can be specialized

  1. Autism Severity and Muscle Strength: A Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Troutman, Melissa R.; Davis, Georgia; King, Paul G.; Young, John L.; Geier, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between muscle strength, as measured by hand grip strength, and autism severity, as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Thirty-seven (37) children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were evaluated using the CARS and then tested for hand muscle strength using a hand grip…

  2. MEASUREMENTS OF FISH TARGET STRENGTH: A REVIEW RICHARD H. LOVE'

    E-print Network

    MEASUREMENTS OF FISH TARGET STRENGTH: A REVIEW RICHARD H. LOVE' ABSTRACT The concept of target is in an acoustic region in which the target strength varies widely with fish size and aspect and acoustic frequency, (2) the major contributors to target strength in this region have been determined to be the swim

  3. Transaction-Based Link Strength Prediction in a Social Network

    E-print Network

    Schulte, Oliver

    Transaction-Based Link Strength Prediction in a Social Network Hassan Khosravi School of Computer a related problem, link strength prediction: how to assign ratings or strengths to friendship links. A basic for learning latent factors that predict values in the target rating matrix. Multiple- matrix factorization can

  4. Strength Training. Rationale for Current Guidelines for Adult Fitness Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenbaum, Matthew S.; Pollock, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    Strength training is an effective method of developing musculoskeletal strength and is often prescribed for fitness, health, and for prevention and rehabilitation of orthopedic injuries. This paper describes and presents a rationale for the population-specific strength training guidelines established by major health organizations. (SM)

  5. Strength of Si Wafers with Microcracks: A Theoretical Model (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Rupnowski, P.; Sopori, B.

    2008-05-01

    A new analytical expression that takes into account the surface, edge, and bulk properties of a wafer has been proposed to describe the strength of the brittle materials. A new proposed fracture-mechanics numerical simulation successfully predicted the strength of the cast silicon wafers. It has been shown that the predicted wafer strength distribution agrees well with the available experimental results.

  6. [On fatigue bending strength of PMMA-specimen (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rojczyk, M; Rojczyk-Pflüger, J

    1980-01-01

    The fatigue response of PMMA-specimen was tested under cyclic bending of 1.5 Hz in a particularly designed testing device. Specimen were tested that a "Wöhler" curve and the corresponding fatigue strength could be evaluated. The fatigue strength was reached after a comparatively short time and ranged in the order of 33 per cent of static breaking strength. PMID:7447658

  7. Greater strengths of character and recovery from illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Peterson; Martin E. P. Seligman

    2006-01-01

    How are character strengths related to recovery? A retrospective web-based study of 2087 adults found small but reliable associations between a history of physical illness and the character strengths of appreciation of beauty, bravery, curiosity, fairness, forgiveness, gratitude, humor, kindness, love of learning, and spirituality. A history of psychological disorder and the character strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, curiosity,

  8. Evaluation of In-Place Strength of Concrete By

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Evaluation of In-Place Strength of Concrete By The Break-Off Method By Tarun Naik Ziad Salameh Amr Hassaballah #12;Evaluation of In-Place Strength of Concrete By The Break-Off Method By Tarun R. Naik Associate............................16 l.3.2 Concrete Strength..........................17 l.3.3 Age

  9. Testing the Shear Strength of Gummy Bear Mountain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amanda Keen-Zebert

    Students do background reading from the text on physical weathering and the components of shear strength. Students write hypotheses about the shear strength of different sizes and shapes of gummy candy. The students then uses simple experiments to demonstrate and test the shear strength of the candy types.

  10. Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.

    Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

  11. Evaluation and Research on Green Strength of Reverse Logistics System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Zeng; Wei Yu

    2009-01-01

    Based on characteristics of reverse logistics system and combined with the concept of green manufacturing and design, in this paper, the concept of green strength is put forward, the evaluation index system of green strength of reverse logistics is established, and green strength of reverse logistics is comprehensively evaluated by means of two-level fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, which has a

  12. The yield strength of subliquidus basalts — experimental results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R Hoover; K. V Cashman; M Manga

    2001-01-01

    Yield strength is an important property of particle–fluid suspensions. In basaltic lavas that crystallize during flow emplacement, the onset of yield strength may result in threshold transitions in flow behavior and flow surface morphology. However, yield strength–crystallinity relations are poorly known, particularly in geologic suspensions, where difficulties of experimental and field measurements have limited data acquisition in the subliquidus temperature

  13. Measures of Strength and Fitness for Older Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Wayne H.; Hiebert, Lujean M.

    The overall strength of the musculature does not require testing of large numbers of muscle groups and can be accomplished from three or four tests. Small batteries of strength tests have been devised to predict total strength. The best combination of tests for males are thigh flexors, leg extensors, arm flexors, and pectoralis major. The battery…

  14. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

  15. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

  16. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

  17. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...true Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

  18. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

  19. 40 CFR Figure E-1 to Subpart E of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation Testing Checklist E Figure E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  20. 40 CFR Figure E-1 to Subpart E of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation Testing Checklist E Figure E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  1. 40 CFR Figure E-1 to Subpart E of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation Testing Checklist E Figure E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  2. 40 CFR Figure E-1 to Subpart E of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation Testing Checklist E Figure E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  3. 40 CFR Figure E-1 to Subpart E of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designation Testing Checklist E Figure E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  4. Information Technology Security Training Requirements Appendix E --Training Cross Reference E-1

    E-print Network

    Information Technology Security Training Requirements APPENDIX E Appendix E -- Training Cross Reference E-1 #12;Information Technology Security Training Requirements Appendix E -- Training Cross Reference E-2 #12;Information Technology Security Training Requirements APPENDIX E -- JOB FUNCTION

  5. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

  10. Photophoretic strength on chondrules. 1. Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Loesche, Christoph; Wurm, Gerhard; Teiser, Jens [Faculty of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Friedrich, Jon M. [Department of Chemistry, Fordham University, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States); Bischoff, Addi, E-mail: christoph.loesche@uni-due.de [Institut für Planetologie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Photophoresis is a physical process that transports particles in optically thin parts of protoplanetary disks, especially at the inner edge and at the optical surface. To model the transport and resulting effects in detail, it is necessary to quantify the strength of photophoresis for different particle classes as a fundamental input. Here, we explore photophoresis for a set of chondrules. The composition and surface morphology of these chondrules were measured by X-ray tomography. Based on the three-dimensional models, heat transfer through illuminated chondrules was calculated. The resulting surface temperature map was then used to calculate the photophoretic strength. We found that irregularities in particle shape and variations in composition induce variations in the photophoretic force. These depend on the orientation of a particle with respect to the light source. The variation of the absolute value of the photophoretic force on average over all chondrules is 4.17%. The deviation between the direction of the photophoretic force and illumination is 3.°0 ± 1.°5. The average photophoretic force can be well approximated and calculated analytically assuming a homogeneous sphere with a volume equivalent mean radius and an effective thermal conductivity. We found an analytic expression for the effective thermal conductivity. The expression depends on the two main phases of a chondrule and decreases with the amount of fine-grained devitrified, plagioclase-normative mesostasis up to factor of three. For the chondrule sample studied (Bjurböle chondrite), we found a dependence of the photophoretic force on chondrule size.

  11. Determinants of eggshell strength in endangered raptors.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Aurora M; Herrel, Anthony; Van Dongen, Stefan; Furio, Naoki; Negro, Juan José

    2009-04-01

    We compared eggshell strength in a group of falcon taxa including the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus), the red shaheen falcon (F. peregrinus babylonicus), the saker falcon (F. cherrug), the gyr falcon (F. rusticolus) and some interspecific and intraspecific hybrids. Our results showed that smaller falcons (<1,000 g) of the peregrine group have eggshells that are significantly softer (x=13.3 N) and thinner (x=0.26 mm) (n=107 eggs) than larger falcons (>1,000 g) of the gyr-saker group (x=20.8 N and 0.39 mm, respectively, n=81 eggs). We found a significant positive correlation between egg hardness and eggshell thickness. Linear mixed models showed that clutches from heavier females consisted of larger and harder eggs with thicker shells and thicker egg membranes. Eggs produced by older females and eggs laid later in the laying sequence were relatively smaller and softer and had relatively thin egg membranes and eggshells. Individual females, irrespective of their age, contributed significantly to the observed variation in egg strength. Egg size and hardness of hybrid eggs were similar to that of the pure species suggesting that hybridization does not affect eggshell hardness or thickness. Our study provides quantitative evidence of several factors, other than levels of contamination, which may affect eggshell thickness and hardness in falcons. PMID:19267399

  12. The strength of the sun's polar fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Scherrer, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic field strength within the polar caps of the sun is an important parameter for both the solar activity cycle and for our understanding of the interplanetary magnetic field. Measurements of the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field generally yield 0.1 to 0.2 mT near times of sunspot minimum. This paper reports measurements of the polar fields made at the Stanford Solar Observatory using the Fe I line at 525.02 nm. It is found that the average flux density poleward of 55 deg latitude is about 0.6 mT peaking to more than 1 mT at the pole and decreasing to 0.2 mT at the polar cap boundary. The total open flux through either polar cap thus becomes about 3 x 10 to the 14th Wb. It is also shown that observed magnetic field strengths vary as the line-of-sight component of nearly radial fields.

  13. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Strength 1902-1906

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Cliver, E. W.

    2006-05-01

    Using geomagnetic measurements made by Robert F. Scott at Discovery Hut in the Antarctic polar cap 1902- 1903 and by Roald Amundsen at Gjøahavn in the Arctic polar cap 1903-1906 we determine the strength of the cross polar cap equivalent current. This quantity is controlled by the interplanetary electric field, E, (essentially the product VB of solar wind speed V and IMF strength B). Comparison with modern data from contemporary polar cap stations at similar latitudes and locations and from spacecraft yields the conversion factor from the variation measured on the ground to the electric field E. Our geomagnetic activity indices IDV and IHV measure B and BV22, respectively, thus allowing both B and V to be determined since at least 1882. Their product VB agrees well with VB determined from the early polar cap data, providing an important independent confirmation of the validity of all three methods. We find that B during 1902-1906 was ~6 nT, comparable to present day values ~100 years later.

  14. Prediction of the interplanetary magnetic field strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xuepu; Hoeksema, J. Todd

    1995-01-01

    A new model of the coronal and interplanetary magnetic field can predict both the interplanetary magnetic field strength and its polarity from measurements of the photospheric magnetic field. The model includes the effects of the large-scale horizontal electric currents flowing in the inner corona, of the warped heliospheric current sheet in the upper corona, and of volume currents flowing in the region where the solar wind plasma totally controls the magnetic field. The model matches the MHD solution for a simple dipole test case better than earlier source surface and current sheet models. The strength and polarity of the radial interplanetary magnetic field component predicted for quiet time samples in each year from 1977 to 1986 agree with observations made near the Earth's orbit better than the hybrid MHD-source surface model (Wang and Sheeley, 1988). The results raise the question of whether coronal holes are the only solar source of the interplantary magnetic field in the solar wind. If some interplanetary flux originates outside coronal holes, the model can match the observed field using the accepted 1.8 saturation correction factor for lambda 5250 A magnetograph observations. Requiring open flux to come exclusively from coronal holes requires and additional factor of two.

  15. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N?=?72) and non-autistic participants (N?=?72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  16. Salt-saturated concrete strength and permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments applicable to the use of salt-saturated concrete as a seal material for a transuranic waste repository have been completed. Nitrogen gas permeability measurements were made using a flexible-wall permeameter, a confining pressure of 1 MPa, and gas pressure gradients ranging from 0.3 MPa to 0.75 MPa. Results show that salt-saturated concrete has very low intrinsic permeability with values ranging from 9.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}22} m{sup 2} to 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} m{sup 2}. Strength and deformation characteristics were investigated under conditions of triaxial compression with confining pressures ranging from 0 to 15 MPa using either axial strain-rate or axial stress-rate control and show that the failure strength of concrete increases with confining pressure which can be adequately described through pressure-sensitive failure criteria. Axial, radial, and volumetric strains were also measured during each test and these data were used to determine elastic properties. Experimental results are applicable in the design and analysis of scale-related functions and apply to other concrete structures subjected to compressive loadings such as dams and prestressed structural members.

  17. Natural history of the E1-like superfamily: implication for adenylation, sulfur transfer and ubiquitin conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.

    2009-01-01

    The E1-like superfamily is central to ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation, biosynthesis of cysteine, thiamine and MoCo and several secondary metabolites. Yet, its functional diversity and evolutionary history is not well-understood. We develop a natural classification of this superfamily and use it to decipher the major adaptive trends occurring in the evolution of the E1-like superfamily. Within the Rossmann fold, E1-like proteins are closest to NAD(P)/FAD-dependent dehydrogenases and S-AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases. Hence, their phosphotransfer activity is an independent catalytic “invention” with respect to such activities seen in other Rossmannoid folds. Sequence and structure analysis reveals a striking diversity of residues and structures involved in adenylation, sulfotransfer and substrate-binding between different E1-like families, allowing us to predict previously uncharacterized functional adaptations. E1-like proteins are fused to several previously undetected domains, such as a predicted sulfur transfer domain containing a novel superfamily of the TATA-binding protein fold, different types of catalytic domains, a novel winged helix-turn-helix domain and potential adaptor domains related to Ub conjugation. Based on these fusions we develop a generalized model for the linking of E1 catalyzed adenylation/thiolation with further down-stream reactions. This is likely to involve a dynamic interplay between the E1 active sites and diverse fused C-terminal domains. We also predict participation of E1-like domains in previously uncharacterized bacterial secondary metabolism pathways, new cysteine biosynthesis systems, such as those associated with archaeal O-phosphoseryl tRNA, metal-sulfur cluster assembly (e.g. in nitrogen fixation) and Ub-conjugation. Evolutionary reconstructions suggest that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) contained a single E1-like domain possessing both phosphotransfer and thiolating activities and participating in multiple sulfotransfer reactions. The E1-like superfamily subsequently expanded to include 26 families clustering into three major radiations. These are broadly involved in ubiquitin activation, cofactor and cysteine biosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In light of this we present evidence that in eukaryotes other E1-like enzymes, such as Urm1, were independently recruited for Ubl conjugation, probably functioning without conventional E2-like enzymes. PMID:19089947

  18. CYP2E1-catalyzed oxidation contributes to the sperm toxicity of 1-bromopropane in mice.

    PubMed

    Garner, C Edwin; Sloan, C; Sumner, S C J; Burgess, J; Davis, J; Etheridge, A; Parham, A; Ghanayem, B I

    2007-03-01

    1-bromopropane (1-BrP) induces dose- and time-dependent reproductive organ toxicity and reduced sperm motility in rodents. The contribution of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) to both 1-BrP metabolism and the induction of male reproductive toxicity was investigated using wild-type (WT) and Cyp2e1-/- mice. In gas uptake inhalation studies, the elimination half-life of [1,2,3-(13)C]-1-BrP was longer in Cyp2e1-/- mice relative to WT (3.2 vs. 1.3 h). Urinary metabolites were identified by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. The mercapturic acid of 1-bromo-2-hydroxypropane (2OHBrP) was the major urinary metabolite in WT mice, and products of conjugation of 1-BrP with glutathione (GSH) were insignificant. The ratio of GSH conjugation to 2-hydroxylation increased 5-fold in Cyp2e1-/- mice relative to WT. After 1-BrP exposure, hepatic GSH was decreased by 76% in WT mice vs. 47% in Cyp2e1-/- mice. Despite a 170% increase in 1-BrP exposure in Cyp2e1-/- vs. WT mice, sperm motility in exposed Cyp2e1-/- mice did not change relative to unexposed matched controls. This suggests that metabolites produced through CYP2E1-mediated oxidation may be responsible for 1-BrP-induced sperm toxicity. Both 1-BrP and 2OHBrP inhibited the motility of sperm obtained from WT mice in vitro. However, only 2OHBrP reduced the motility of sperm obtained from Cyp2e1-/- mice in vitro, suggesting that conversion of parent compound to 2OHBrP within the spermatozoa may contribute, at least in part, to reduced motility. Overall, these data suggest that metabolism of 1-BrP is mediated in part by CYP2E1, and activation of 1BrP via this enzyme may contribute to the male reproductive toxicity of this chemical. PMID:17093198

  19. Chemical and Photochemical Modification of Colicin E1 and Gramicidin A in Bilayer Lipid Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Sobko; M. A. Vigasina; T. I. Rokitskaya; E. A. Kotova; S. D. Zakharov; W. A. Cramer; Y. N. Antonenko

    2004-01-01

    Chemical modification and photodynamic treatment of the colicin E1 channel-forming domain (P178) in vesicular and planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) was used to elucidate the role of tryptophan residues in colicin E1 channel activity. Modification of colicin tryptophan residues by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), as judged by the loss of tryptophan fluorescence, resulted in complete suppression of wild-type P178 channel activity in

  20. Unexpected structure for the N-terminal domain of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Kamel; Iourin, Oleg; Kadlec, Jan; Sutton, Geoff; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Stuart, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major health problem worldwide. HCV entry into host cells and membrane fusion are achieved by two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2. We report here the 3.5-Å resolution crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the HCV E1 ectodomain, which reveals a complex network of covalently linked intertwined homodimers that do not harbour the expected truncated class II fusion protein fold. PMID:25224686

  1. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. -- Highlights: ? Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ? Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ? Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ? Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  2. CYP2E1 genotype and isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in patients treated for latent tuberculosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Vuilleumier; Michel F. Rossier; Alberto Chiappe; Florence Degoumois; Pierre Dayer; Bernadette Mermillod; Laurent Nicod; Jules Desmeules; Denis Hochstrasser

    2006-01-01

    Objective   To determine whether pharmacogenetic tests such as N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) genotyping are useful in identifying patients prone to antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in a cosmopolite population.Methods  In a prospective study we genotyped 89 patients treated with isoniazid (INH) for latent tuberculosis. INH-induced hepatitis (INH-H) or elevated liver enzymes including hepatitis (INH-ELE) was diagnosed based on the clinical

  3. The dynamics of E1A in regulating networks and canonical pathways in quiescent cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Eudes Dazard; Keman Zhang; Jingfeng Sha; Omar Yasin; Linda Cai; Chien Nguyen; Mrinal Ghosh; Jennifer Bongorno; Marian L Harter

    2011-01-01

    Background  Adenoviruses force quiescent cells to re-enter the cell cycle to replicate their DNA, and for the most part, this is accomplished\\u000a after they express the E1A protein immediately after infection. In this context, E1A is believed to inactivate cellular proteins\\u000a (e.g., p130) that are known to be involved in the silencing of E2F-dependent genes that are required for cell cycle

  4. CYP2E1-dependent benzene toxicity: the role of extrahepatic benzene metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Bernauer; Bärbel Vieth; Rainer Ellrich; Barbara Heinrich-Hirsch; Gerd-Rüdiger Jänig; Ursula Gundert-Remy

    1999-01-01

    Benzene, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is haematotoxic and myelotoxic. As has been shown earlier, cytochrome P450\\u000a 2E1 (CYP2E1)-dependent metabolism is a prerequisite for the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of benzene, but which of the benzene\\u000a metabolites produces toxicity is still unknown. The observed differences between the toxicity of benzene and that of phenol,\\u000a a major metabolite of benzene, could be

  5. Functional processing and secretion of Chikungunya virus E1 and E2 glycoproteins in insect cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. H. Metz; C. Geertsema; Byron E. Martina; Paulina Andrade; J. Heldens; Oers van M. M; R. W. Goldbach; J. M. Vlak; G. P. Pijlman

    2011-01-01

    Background - Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the processing of envelope proteins E1 and E2 and to develop a CHIKV subunit vaccine, C-terminally his-tagged E1 and E2

  6. Functional processing and secretion of Chikungunya virus E1 and E2 glycoproteins in insect cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Metz; C. Geertsema; B. E. E. Martina; P. Andrade; J. G. M. Heldens; Oers van M. M; J. M. Vlak; G. P. Pijlman

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the processing of envelope proteins E1 and E2 and to develop a CHIKV subunit vaccine, C-terminally his-tagged E1 and E2 envelope

  7. Structure-function analysis of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Aparajita; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Fadra, Numrah; Goldman, Radoslav; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Mazumder, Raja

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in humans. The envelope proteins of HCV are potential candidates for vaccine development. The absence of three-dimensional (3D) structures for the functional domain of HCV envelope proteins [E1.E2] monomer complex has hindered overall understanding of the virus infection, and also structure-based drug design initiatives. In this study, we report a 3D model containing both E1 and E2 proteins of HCV using the recently published structure of the core domain of HCV E2 and the functional part of E1, and investigate immunogenic implications of the model. HCV [E1.E2] molecule is modeled by using aa205-319 of E1 to aa421-716 of E2. Published experimental data were used to further refine the [E1.E2] model. Based on the model, we predict 77 exposed residues and several antigenic sites within the [E1.E2] that could serve as vaccine epitopes. This study identifies eight peptides which have antigenic propensity and have two or more sequentially exposed amino acids and 12 singular sites are under negative selection pressure that can serve as vaccine or therapeutic targets. Our special interest is 285FLVGQLFTFSPRRHW299 which has five negatively selected sites (L286, V287, G288, T292, and G303) with three of them sequential and four amino acids exposed (F285, L286, T292, and R296). This peptide in the E1 protein maps to dengue envelope vaccine target identified previously by our group. Our model provides for the first time an overall view of both the HCV envelope proteins thereby allowing researchers explore structure-based drug design approaches. PMID:25245635

  8. Serial isometric contractions under imposed myotatic stretch conditions in high-strength and low-strength men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Kamen

    1979-01-01

    Summary  The immediate effects of an imposed myotatic stretch on knee extensor force were studied in 12 high-strength and 12 low-strength men. Under nonfatigued pre-exercise conditions, significant tension increases of 6.5% for the high-strength group and 11.0% for low-strength subjects were observed as a result of the imposed stretch. An exercise treatment involving 28 serial isometric contractions, each of 5 s

  9. Resolvin E1: a novel lipid mediator in the resolution of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Hisada, Takeshi; Aoki, Haruka; Mori, Masatomo

    2008-11-01

    Evaluation of: Haworth O, Cernadas M, Yong R, Serhan CN, Levy BD. Resolvin E1 regulates interleukin 23, interferon-gamma and lipoxin A(4) to promote the resolution of allergic airway inflammation. Nat. Immunol. 9(8), 873-879 (2008). Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is an endogenous lipid mediator that was first found in exudates from murine dorsal pouches during the resolution phase upon treatment with aspirin and eicosapentaenoic acid. Intravenous administration of RvE1 during the challenge phase by antigen aerosol clearly dampens the development of allergic airway inflammation. Its administration in the resolution phase also improves airway hyper-reactivity and promotes the resolution of inflammation in the murine model of asthma. RvE1 decreases IL-23, IL-6 and IL-17, which are involved in maintaining inflammation, and increases counter-regulatory IFN-gamma and lipoxin A(4) in the lung. RvE1 and its putative receptor, ChemR23, might open a new avenue in the design of resolution-targeted therapies to control bronchial asthma. PMID:20477116

  10. Specific uptake of radioiodinated fragment E1 by venous thrombi in pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, L C; Olexa, S A; Malmud, L S; Budzynski, A Z

    1983-01-01

    Fragment E1, a product of plasmic digestion of cross-linked fibrin, binds specifically in vitro to polymerized fibrin but not to fibrinogen. Purified human Fragment E1 was radiolabeled with 125I or 131I by the Iodogen technique. The uptake of radioiodinated Fragment E1 in vitro into forming or preformed clots was demonstrated. Animal biodistribution studies of radioiodinated Fragment E1 showed its rapid removal from the circulation; radioactive catabolites did not reside long in any organ and were excreted in the urine. The uptake in vivo was evaluated in pigs with preexisting venous thrombi of various ages from 1 h up to 5 d at the time of intravenous systemic injection of the tracer. Radioiodinated fibrinogen was also injected into the same animals to compare the uptake of the two tracers. Thrombus-to-blood ratios for Fragment E1 averaged 43:1 (range 10-108) and 29:1 (range 8-107) in thrombi 1-6 h and 1-5 d old, respectively. In contrast, mean thrombus-to-blood ratios for fibrinogen were, in the same time intervals, 26:1 (range 17-41) and 2:1 (range 0.5-3.9), respectively. It is concluded that radioiodinated Fragment E1 is a specific marker of thrombi in vivo: its uptake by fresh thrombi is better than that of labeled fibrinogen and, in contrast to radioiodinated fibrinogen, this fragment is incorporated into old thrombi as well. PMID:6643683

  11. Influences of span and wrist posture on peak chuck pinch strength and time needed to reach peak strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuh-Chuan Shih; Yu-Chin Ou

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of pinch strength is useful in alleviating carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), and when peak strength is reached (denoted as TMVC), may be a useful and interesting index for evaluating strength generation and the relationship between resistance and response time. This paper intends to investigate the effects of pinch span and wrist posture on how much time is required to

  12. Probabilistic simulation of uncertainties in composite uniaxial strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Stock, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    Probabilistic composite micromechanics methods are developed that simulate uncertainties in unidirectional fiber composite strengths. These methods are in the form of computational procedures using composite mechanics with Monte Carlo simulation. The variables for which uncertainties are accounted include constituent strengths and their respective scatter. A graphite/epoxy unidirectional composite (ply) is studied to illustrate the procedure and its effectiveness to formally estimate the probable scatter in the composite uniaxial strengths. The results show that ply longitudinal tensile and compressive, transverse compressive and intralaminar shear strengths are not sensitive to single fiber anomalies (breaks, intergacial disbonds, matrix microcracks); however, the ply transverse tensile strength is.

  13. Strength properties and durability aspects of high strength concrete using Korean metakaolin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Sam Kim; Sang-Ho Lee; Han-Young Moon

    2007-01-01

    Metakaolin is a cementitious material used as admixture to produce high strength concrete. In Korea, the utilization of this material remained mainly limited to fireproof walls but began recently to find applications as a replacement for silica fume in the manufacture of high performance concrete.In order to evaluate and compare the mechanical properties and durability of concrete using metakaolin, the

  14. A fracture criterion for the notch strength of high strength steels in the presence of hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayas, C.; Deshpande, V. S.; Fleck, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    High strength steels can suffer from a loss of ductility when exposed to hydrogen, and this may lead to sudden failure. The hydrogen is either accommodated in the lattice or is trapped at defects, such as dislocations, grain boundaries and carbides. The challenge is to identify the effect of hydrogen located at different sites upon the drop in tensile strength of a high strength steel. For this purpose, literature data on the failure stress of notched and un-notched steel bars are re-analysed; the bars were tested over a wide range of strain rates and hydrogen concentrations. The local stress state at failure has been determined by the finite element (FE) method, and the concentration of both lattice and trapped hydrogen is predicted using Oriani's theory along with the stress-driven diffusion equation. The experimental data are rationalised in terms of a postulated failure locus of peak maximum principal stress versus lattice hydrogen concentration. This failure locus is treated as a unique material property for the given steel and heat treatment condition. We conclude that the presence of lattice hydrogen increases the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement whereas trapped hydrogen has only a negligible effect. It is also found that the observed failure strength of hydrogen charged un-notched bars is less than the peak local stress within the notched geometries. Weakest link statistics are used to account for this stressed volume effect.

  15. Development and Validation of a Measure of Interpersonal Strengths: The Inventory of Interpersonal Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Robert L.; Rogers, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    An Inventory of Interpersonal Strengths (IIS) was developed and validated in a series of large college student samples. Based on interpersonal theory and associated methods, the IIS was designed to assess positive characteristics representing the full range of interpersonal domains, including those generally thought to have negative qualities…

  16. Gain in strength and muscular balance after balance training.

    PubMed

    Heitkamp, H C; Horstmann, T; Mayer, F; Weller, J; Dickhuth, H H

    2001-05-01

    The isolated effect of balance training on muscle strength of the flexors and extensors of the knee, without accompanying strength training, has not been addressed in the past. Effects of a balance training program alone were compared to a strength training program. Balance and strength training were performed by 15 persons each for 6 weeks including 12 training units of 25 min. Balance training was performed on instability training devices such as rolling board, mini trampoline and large rubber ball. The 15 persons of the strength training group trained on machines for leg curls and on leg presses for 25 min per unit. Measurements for balance were performed with one-leg balance on a narrow edge and a tilting stabilometer for 30 s; maximum isometric strength was measured using an isokinetic device for each leg separately. The muscular balance between dominant and non-dominant leg was calculated. Strength gain was similar for the flexors and extensors in both groups. One-leg balance improved after balance training (P< 0.01) with a 100% increase over the strength training group (P < 0.05) and the stabilometer test for each person in the balance (P < 0.01), but not in the strength training group. In the balance group the initial difference between right and left diminished. The results indicate balance training to be effective for gain in muscular strength, and secondly, in contrast to strength training, equalisation of muscular imbalances may be achieved after balance training. PMID:11414672

  17. Factors Contributing to Chronic Ankle Instability: A Strength Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Hartsell, Heather D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the concept of dynamic ankle stability and closely critique the relevant research over the past 50+ years focusing on strength as it relates to those with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Data Sources: We reviewed the literature regarding the assessment of strength related to CAI. We searched MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science from 1950 through 2001 using the key words functional ankle instability, chronic ankle instability, strength, ankle stability, chronic ankle dysfunction, and isokinetics. Data Synthesis: An overview of dynamic stability in the ankle is established, followed by a comprehensive discussion involving the variables used to assess ankle strength. Additionally, a historical look at deficits in muscular stability leading to CAI is provided, and a compilation of numerous contemporary approaches examining strength as it relates to CAI is presented. Conclusions/Recommendations: Although strength is an important consideration during ankle rehabilitation, deficits in ankle strength are not highly correlated with CAI. More contemporary approaches involving the examination of reciprocal muscle-group ratios as a measure of strength have recently been investigated and offer an insightful, albeit different, avenue for future exploration. Evidence pertaining to the effects of strength training on those afflicted with CAI is lacking, including what, if any, implication strength training has on the various measures of ankle strength. PMID:12937561

  18. Multivariate analysis in the maximum strength performance.

    PubMed

    de Souza, E O; Tricoli, V; Paulo, A C; Silva-Batista, C; Cardoso, R K; Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V N; Laurentino, G; Neves-Jr, M; Aihara, A Y; Ugrinowitsch, C

    2012-12-01

    This study performed an exploratory analysis of the anthropometrical and morphological muscle variables related to the one-repetition maximum (1RM) performance. In addition, the capacity of these variables to predict the force production was analyzed. 50 active males were submitted to the experimental procedures: vastus lateralis muscle biopsy, quadriceps magnetic resonance imaging, body mass assessment and 1RM test in the leg-press exercise. K-means cluster analysis was performed after obtaining the body mass, sum of the left and right quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (?CSA), percentage of the type II fibers and the 1RM performance. The number of clusters was defined a priori and then were labeled as high strength performance (HSP1RM) group and low strength performance (LSP1RM) group. Stepwise multiple regressions were performed by means of body mass, ?CSA, percentage of the type II fibers and clusters as predictors' variables and 1RM performance as response variable. The clusters mean ± SD were: 292.8 ± 52.1 kg, 84.7 ± 17.9 kg, 19249.7 ± 1645.5 mm(2) and 50.8 ± 7.2% for the HSP1RM and 254.0 ± 51.1 kg, 69.2 ± 8.1 kg, 15483.1 ± 1104.8mm(2) and 51.7 ± 6.2%, for the LSP1RM in the 1RM, body mass, ?CSA and muscle fiber type II percentage, respectively. The most important variable in the clusters division was the ?CSA. In addition, the ?CSA and muscle fiber type II percentage explained the variance in the 1RM performance (Adj R2=0.35, p=0.0001) for all participants and for the LSP1RM (Adj R2=0.25, p=0.002). For the HSP1RM, only the ?CSA was entered in the model and showed the highest capacity to explain the variance in the 1RM performance (Adj R2=0.38, p=0.01). As a conclusion, the muscle CSA was the most relevant variable to predict force production in individuals with no strength training background. PMID:22895875

  19. Self-perceived strengths among people who are homeless

    PubMed Central

    Tweed, Roger G.; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Lehman, Darrin R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined self-perceived strengths among 116 people who were homeless. Those who had experienced a longer period of current homelessness tended to report fewer personal strengths (r = ?0.23). Nonetheless, in spite of their marginalized position in society, the vast majority of participants (114 out of 116) perceived personal strengths. A prior diagnosis with mental illness was not associated with the number of strengths reported, but self-perception of strengths was associated with altruistic orientation. The Values in Action (VIA) taxonomy of character strengths captured many of the responses generated by this population. The most frequently mentioned character categories included social intelligence, kindness, persistence, authenticity and humour. The most frequently mentioned other strengths included personal skills (e.g. music, sports), job skills, intelligence and education. The results have relevance for efforts to build self-perceptions that facilitate escape from homelessness. PMID:23173008

  20. Performance of An Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, S.C.; DeHart, T.E.; Kangas, K.W.; /STI Optronics, Bellevue; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic CL and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic CL stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic CL. Calibration procedures as well as CL measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

  1. Human cells arrest in S phase in response to adenovirus 12 E1A.

    PubMed

    Grand, R J; Ibrahim, A P; Taylor, A M; Milner, A E; Gregory, C D; Gallimore, P H; Turnell, A S

    1998-05-10

    It has previously been shown that following viral infection, Ad5 E1A induces cell cycle progression of quiescent rodent cells, leading to DNA synthesis and mitosis. Here we have examined the effect of Ad12 E1A on the cell cycle characteristics of human cells. Human tumor (A549, KB, and HeLa) cells were infected with Ad12 d/620, a mutant virus which has a lesion in the E1B gene and essentially expresses only E1A. These infected cells progressed from being largely in G1 into S phase, where they arrested. Even up to 96 h postinfection (p.i.) the cells remained blocked in S phase. DNA synthesis did, however, proceed in Ad12 d/620-infected cells, giving rise to multiple copies of cellular DNA. Similar results were obtained when primary human skin fibroblasts were infected, although the polyploidy was less marked. The expression of cyclins A, B1, and E in the tumor cells increased appreciably in response to E1A. In contrast, there was a dramatic reduction in the levels of cyclin D1 and D3. Increases in cyclin D1 expression could be detected at very late times p.i. In those cell lines expressing low levels of cdc2 and cdk2 an appreciable increase in expression was seen soon after Ad12 E1A could be detected. The elevated levels of cyclins A, B1, and E were associated with increased protein kinase activity directed against histone H1. An increase in cyclin D1-associated kinase activity against Rb1 was also observed at late times. This deregulation of the cell cycle was not solely dependent on E1A inactivation of Rb, since similar effects were seen in Ad12 d/620-infected retinoblastoma (Y-79) cells, implicating p107 and p130 in E1A-mediated changes in cell cycle progression. We propose that the E1A-induced levels of cyclins A, B1, and E by Ad12 E1A in human cells may lead to an uncoupling of S phase from cell cycle progression. PMID:9601504

  2. CYP2E1 potentiates binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness, steatohepatitis and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Banerjee, Atrayee; Jang, Sehwan; Yoo, Seong-Ho; Yun, Jun-Won; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) contributes to increased oxidative stress and steatosis in chronic alcohol-exposure models. However, its role in binge ethanol-induced gut leakiness and hepatic injury is unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the role of CYP2E1 in binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and the mechanisms of steatohepatitis. Female wild-type (WT) and Cyp2e1-null mice were treated with three doses of binge ethanol (WT-EtOH or Cyp2e1-null-EtOH) (6 g/kg oral gavage at 12-h intervals) or dextrose (negative control). Intestinal histology of only WT-EtOH exhibited epithelial alteration and blebbing of lamina propria while liver histology obtained at 6 h after the last ethanol dose showed elevated steatosis with scattered inflammatory foci. These were accompanied by increased levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic enterobacteria and triglycerides. All these changes including the intestinal histology and hepatic apoptosis, determined by TUNEL assay, were significantly reversed when WT-EtOH mice were treated with the specific inhibitor of CYP2E1 chlormethiazole and the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine, both of which suppressed the oxidative markers including intestinal CYP2E1. WT-EtOH also exhibited elevated amounts of serum TNF-?, hepatic cytokines, CYP2E1 and lipid peroxidation with decreased levels of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and suppressed aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activity. Increased hepatocyte apoptosis with elevated levels of pro-apoptotic proteins and decreased levels of active (phosphorylated) p-AKT, p-AMPK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-?), all of which are involved in fat metabolism and inflammation, were observed in WT-EtOH. These changes were significantly attenuated in the corresponding Cyp2e1-null-EtOH mice. These data indicate that both intestinal and hepatic CYP2E1 induced by binge alcohol seem critical in the binge alcohol-mediated increased nitroxidative stress, gut leakage, endotoxemia, and altered fat metabolism, and inflammation, contributing to hepatic apoptosis and steatohepatitis. PMID:24064383

  3. Cytochrome p450 2E1 polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cardia cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lin; Zheng, Zong-Li; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes have recently been shown to affect susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) enzyme catalyzes the metabolism of many procarcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines and related compounds. The gene coding for this enzyme is polymorphic and thus may play a role in gastric cardia cancer (GCC) etiology. In this hospital-based case-control study, we evaluate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and the risk of GCC. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 159 histologically confirmed GCC cases identified via hospital cancer registry and surgical records at five hospitals in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China, between April and November 2001. Controls were 192 patients admitted to the same hospitals for nonmalignant conditions. The genotypes of CYP2E1 were detected by a PCR-based RFLP assay. The odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression analyses and were adjusted for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: The distribution of three genotypes of CYP2E1 in GCC cases and controls was significantly different (?2 = 16.04, P<0.01). The frequency of the CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotype in GCC cases and controls was 60.4% and 40.1%, respectively. The CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotype was associated with an increased risk for GCC (the adjusted (OR) was 2.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.52-3.70). Subjects who carried the CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotype and were habitual smokers were at a significantly higher risk of developing GCC (OR = 4.68, 95%CI: 2.19-10.04) compared with those who had the CYP2E1 (c1/c2 or c2/c2) genotype and did not smoke. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the CYP2E1 genotype may influence individual susceptibility to development of GCC, and that the risk increases significantly in smokers. PMID:15793883

  4. Diabetes mellitus increases the in vivo activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zaiqi; Hall, Stephen D; Maya, Juan F; Li, Lang; Asghar, Ali; Gorski, J C

    2003-01-01

    Aim Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is thought to activate a number of protoxins, and has been implicated in the development of liver disease. Increased hepatic expression of CYP2E1 occurs in rat models of diabetes but it is unclear whether human diabetics display a similar up-regulation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that human diabetics experience enhanced CYP2E1 expression. Methods The pharmacokinetics of a single dose of chlorzoxazone (500 mg), used as an index of hepatic CYP2E1 activity, was determined in healthy subjects (n = 10), volunteers with Type I (n = 13), and Type II (n = 8) diabetes mellitus. Chlorzoxazone and 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone in serum and urine were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression of CYP2E1 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was quantified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results The mean ± s.d. (90% confidence interval of the difference) chlorzoxazone area under the plasma concentration-time curve was significantly (P ? 0.05) reduced in obese Type II diabetics (15.7 ± 11.3 µg h ml?1; 9, 22) compared with healthy subjects (43.5 ± 16.9 µg h ml?1; 16, 40) and Type I diabetics (32.8 ± 9.2 µg h ml?1; 9, 25). There was a significant two-fold increase in the oral clearance of chlorzoxazone in obese Type II diabetics compared with healthy volunteers and Type I diabetics. The protein binding of chlorzoxazone was not significantly different between the three groups. In contrast, Type 1 diabetics and healthy volunteers demonstrated no difference in the oral clearance of chlorzoxazone. The urinary recovery of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone as a percentage of the administered dose was not different between healthy, Type I and obese Type II diabetics. The elimination half-life of chlorzoxazone did not differ between the three groups. CYP2E1 mRNA was significantly elevated in Type I and obese Type II diabetics compared with healthy volunteers. The oral clearance of chlorzoxazone, elimination half-life, Tmax, and Cmax were not significantly influenced by weight, body mass index, serum glucose, serum cholesterol, or glycosylated haemoglobin. Conclusions There was a marked increase in hepatic CYP2E1 activity in obese Type II diabetics as assessed by chlorzoxazone disposition. Increased expression of CYP2E1 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was found in both types of diabetes mellitus. Adverse hepatic events associated with Type II diabetes may be in part a result of enhanced CYP2E1 expression and activity. PMID:12534643

  5. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  6. Biomineral Structure and Strength of Barnacle Exoskeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    Studying the construction of organic-inorganic compound structures through biomineralization is potentially very useful. During biomineral formation, organisms restructure naturally occurring minerals in conjunction with their own organically produced minerals to create new structures. While there is extensive knowledge about material properties and structure of the raw minerals themselves, insight into how specific biomineral structures and compounds contribute to an object's mechanical properties is lacking. In this study, the exoskeletons of barnacles from the genus Balanus were examined, both for their physical structure (how they're put together) and for their mechanical properties (strength, hardness, and elasticity). Scanning electron microscopy produced close-up, detailed images of the inner shell structure to determine what type of structure barnacles build during exoskeleton formation. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to map the elemental components of the shells. Nanoindentation tested the mechanical properties of these mapped structures to determine how certain characteristics of the exoskeleton contribute to its mechanical properties.

  7. Resonance strengths of the 34S + ? reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, P. D.; Connolly, Devin; Greife, Uwe; Hager, Ulrike; Ilyushkin, Sergey; Buchmann, Lothar; Christian, Greg; D'Auria, John; Davids, Barry; Fallis, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Dave; Martin, Lars; Ruiz, Chris; Chen, Alan; Setoodehnia, Kiana; Akers, Charles; Fulton, Brian; Laird, Alison; Erikson, Luke

    2014-09-01

    Late in their evolution, particularly massive stars undergo a stage of explosive oxygen burning. The free ?-particle density will rapidly increase and initiate a network of reactions among nuclides ranging from 28Si to 40Ca. Next there will be a abrupt rise in the abundances of 34S and 38Ar where the small excess of neutrons reside. The final abundances of nuclei in this mass region depend on the reaction cross sections involving these two nuclei. Currently there are large discrepancies in the strengths of the 34S + ? resonances in the energy range of interest for this astrophysical environment. A new measurement was performed at DRAGON to resolve these discrepancies. Preliminary data will be shown and tentative results discussed.

  8. Memory strength and specificity revealed by pupillometry

    PubMed Central

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.; Hout, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Voice-specificity effects in recognition memory were investigated using both behavioral data and pupillometry. Volunteers initially heard spoken words and nonwords in two voices; they later provided confidence-based old/new classifications to items presented in their original voices, changed (but familiar) voices, or entirely new voices. Recognition was more accurate for old-voice items, replicating prior research. Pupillometry was used to gauge cognitive demand during both encoding and testing: Enlarged pupils revealed that participants devoted greater effort to encoding items that were subsequently recognized. Further, pupil responses were sensitive to the cue match between encoding and retrieval voices, as well as memory strength. Strong memories, and those with the closest encoding-retrieval voice matches, resulted in the highest peak pupil diameters. The results are discussed with respect to episodic memory models and Whittlesea’s (1997) SCAPE framework for recognition memory. PMID:22019480

  9. Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

  10. Adiabatic connection at negative coupling strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, Michael [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Gori-Giorgi, Paola [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France); Theoretische Chemie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1083, NL-1081HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    The adiabatic connection of density functional theory (DFT) for electronic systems is generalized here to negative values of the coupling strength alpha (with attractive electrons). In the extreme limit alpha->-infinity a simple physical solution is presented and its implications for DFT (as well as its limitations) are discussed. For two-electron systems (a case in which the present solution can be calculated exactly), we find that an interpolation between the limit alpha->-infinity and the opposite limit of infinitely strong repulsion (alpha->+infinity) yields a rather accurate estimate of the second-order correlation energy E{sub c}{sup GL2}[rho] for several different densities rho, without using virtual orbitals. The same procedure is also applied to the Be isoelectronic series, analyzing the effects of near degeneracy.

  11. Strength measurements of The Geysers reservoir rock

    SciTech Connect

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1980-09-01

    Rock samples taken from two outcrops and cores from well bores at the Geysers geothermal field were tested at temperatures and pressures similar to those found in the field. Both intact cylinders and cylinders containing 30/sup 0/ sawcuts were deformed at confining pressures of 200 to 1000 bars, pore pressure of 30 bars, and temperatures of 150 to 250/sup 0/C. Constant strain rate tests gave a coefficient of friction of 0.68. Friction was independent of rock type, temperature and strain rate. Most cores taken from the producing zone were highly fractured. For this reason, intact samples were rarely 50% stronger than the frictional strength. At 500 bars confining pressure, P wave velocity of 6.2 km/sec was measured for a sample taken from an outcrop. Porosities and permeabilities were also measured.

  12. Permanent-magnet multipole with adjustable strength

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, K.

    1982-09-20

    Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling there between. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

  13. Strength and fracture of model composites

    SciTech Connect

    Botsis, J.; Beldica, C.; Zhao, D. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Composites materials, e.g., metal, ceramic, polymer and concrete, reinforced with long aligned fibers have shown significant promise in the design of many advanced structural systems. Thus, understanding strength and fracture behavior of these materials has been the subject of intense investigation in the past several years. As an effort to gain further understanding of the mechanical response of these materials, we carry out coordinated experimental and analytical research related to strength, fracture evolution and scale effects as a function of fiber spacing and fiber type in model composites systems. The composite specimens consist of an epoxy matrix and one or more layers of long aligned glass, Kevlar or optical fibers that are equally spaced. Fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed on different specimen geometries and with various fiber spacing and applied loads. In single edge notched specimens with one layer of fibers, crack speed reaches a steady mode of propagation when {sigma}{sub c}{lambda}{sup 1/2}={kappa} is satisfied. The same mode of propagation is reached for the debonding along fibers in the bridging zone. The crack opening displacement at a fiber location and the corresponding debonding are linearly related. In compact tension specimens, with three layers of fibers, crack arrest is always observed. Within the resolution of the observations, no fiber fracture is observed in the bridging zone. The total stress intensity factors or energy release rates are calculated using appropriate Green functions. The steady crack speed and the rate of debonding seem to have a similar power dependence on stress level. With the proposed methodology, different levels of description can be introduced one step at a time and the level of interaction between the various mechanisms be controlled. Results from such studies can provide an important supplement to efforts aimed at a predicting the response of composite materials.

  14. Strength and failure of cemented granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topin, V.; Delenne, J.-Y.; Radja?, F.; Brendel, L.; Mabille, F.

    2007-08-01

    Cemented granular materials (CGMs) consist of densely packed solid particles and a pore-filling solid matrix sticking to the particles. We use a sub-particle lattice discretization method to investigate the particle-scale origins of strength and failure properties of CGMs. We show that jamming of the particles leads to highly inhomogeneous stress fields. The stress probability density functions are increasingly wider for a decreasing matrix volume fraction, the stresses being more and more concentrated in the interparticle contact zones with an exponential distribution as in cohesionless granular media. Under uniaxial loading, pronounced asymmetry can occur between tension and compression both in strength and in the initial stiffness as a result of the presence of bare contacts (with no matrix interposed) between the particles. Damage growth is analyzed by considering the evolution of stiffness degradation and the number of broken bonds in the particle phase. A brutal degradation appears in tension as a consequence of brittle fracture in contrast to the more progressive nature of damage growth in compression. We also carry out a detailed parametric study in order to assess the combined influence of the matrix volume fraction and particle-matrix adherence. Three regimes of crack propagation can be distinguished corresponding to no particle damage, particle abrasion and particle fragmentation, respectively. We find that particle damage scales well with the relative toughness of the particle-matrix interface with respect to the particle toughness. This relative toughness is a function of both matrix volume fraction and particle-matrix adherence and it appears therefore to be the unique control parameter governing transition from soft to hard behavior.

  15. How to play to your strengths.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Morgan; Spreitzer, Gretchen; Dutton, Jane; Quinn, Robert; Heaphy, Emily; Barker, Brianna

    2005-01-01

    Most feedback accentuates the negative. During formal employee evaluations, discussions invariably focus on "opportunities for improvement," even if the overall evaluation is laudatory. No wonder most executives--and their direct reports--dread them. Traditional, corrective feedback has its place, of course; every organization must filter out failing employees and ensure that everyone performs at an expected level of competence. But too much emphasis on problem areas prevents companies from reaping the best from their people. After all, it's a rare baseball player who is equally good at every position. Why should a natural third baseman labor to develop his skills as a right fielder? This article presents a tool to help you understand and leverage your strengths. Called the Reflected Best Self (RBS) exercise, it offers a unique feedback experience that counterbalances negative input. It allows you to tap into talents you may or may not be aware of and so increase your career potential. To begin the RBS exercise, you first need to solicit comments from family, friends, colleagues, and teachers, asking them to give specific examples of times in which those strengths were particularly beneficial. Next, you need to search for common themes in the feedback, organizing them in a table to develop a clear picture of your strong suits. Third, you must write a self-portrait--a description of yourself that summarizes and distills the accumulated information. And finally, you need to redesign your personal job description to build on what you're good at. The RBS exercise will help you discover who you are at the top of your game. Once you're aware of your best self, you can shape the positions you choose to play--both now and in the next phase of your career. PMID:15697115

  16. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. PMID:23142471

  17. Two Mutations Impair the Stability and Function of Ubiquitin-Activating Enzyme (E1)

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Taotao; Chen, Shuyang; Sang, Nianli

    2011-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination plays critical roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes including cell proliferation, signal transduction, oncogenesis and hypoxic response. TS20 is a Balb3T3-derived cell line in which ubiquitination is inhibited by restrictive temperature. While TS20 has been used to elucidate the degradation of many important proteins including p53, p27, HIF-1? and ornithine decarboxylase, the molecular basis of its temperature sensitivity has not been fully determined. We cloned full-length E1 cDNA from TS20. Sequencing analysis revealed two point mutations (nt736G to A and nt2313G to C) that lead to substitution of aa189A to T and aa714W to C, respectively. Transient transfection assays revealed that mutant E1 was less stable than its wild-type counterpart, and restrictive temperature (39°C) accelerated its degradation. Under permissive temperature, reverting aa714C to W significantly improved E1 stability and activity. Under restrictive temperature, reverting of both substitutions was required to fully restore E1 stability. Similar results were observed when the mutants were expressed in non-TS20 cells, indicating the mutations are sufficient for its temperature sensitive degradation observed in TS20 cells. Functionally, reverting aa714C to W was sufficient to facilitate the monoubiquitination of H2A and to support TS20 growth at 39°C. It also significantly improved the ubiquitination-dependent disposal of HIF-1?. Our data conclusively demonstrate that mutations introgenic to UVBE1 cause E1 instability, which leads to deficiency of E1 function. Our data establish the molecular basis for unambiguous interpretation of experimental data based on TS20 cells, and provide new insight into the structural determinants of E1 stability. PMID:21678405

  18. Coulomb Excitation with CARIBU Beams: Octupole Strength in 144Ba Measured with GRETINA and CHICO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Brian; Zhu, Shaofei; ANL, LBNL, LLNL, Rochester, Florida St, Liverpool, Maryland, Notre Dame, Ohio,; W. Scotland Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The neutron-rich barium isotopes sit in one of the few mass regions on the nuclear chart observed to display octupole correlations. These isotopes are challenging to study since they lie far from stability and are thus difficult to produce in large quantities. In particular, this region is interesting for studying the evolution of octupole correlations since the enhancement of the E1 strength drops by an order of magnitude from 144Ba to 146Ba, where shell corrections appear to play a significant role. To provide unambiguous insight into the octupole correlations, B(E3) strengths have been measured using Coulomb excitation of 144Ba beams at 650 MeV on a 1 mg/cm2 208Pb target. This experiment represents the first successful measurement utilizing re-accelerated CARIBU beams combined with the ?-ray tracking array GRETINA and the auxiliary charged-particle detector CHICO2. Preliminary results from the experiment will be presented. The neutron-rich barium isotopes sit in one of the few mass regions on the nuclear chart observed to display octupole correlations. These isotopes are challenging to study since they lie far from stability and are thus difficult to produce in large quantities. In particular, this region is interesting for studying the evolution of octupole correlations since the enhancement of the E1 strength drops by an order of magnitude from 144Ba to 146Ba, where shell corrections appear to play a significant role. To provide unambiguous insight into the octupole correlations, B(E3) strengths have been measured using Coulomb excitation of 144Ba beams at 650 MeV on a 1 mg/cm2 208Pb target. This experiment represents the first successful measurement utilizing re-accelerated CARIBU beams combined with the ?-ray tracking array GRETINA and the auxiliary charged-particle detector CHICO2. Preliminary results from the experiment will be presented. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL), DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL, GRETINA), DOE DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), and NSF.

  19. Comparative study of Weibull characteristic strength and mean strength of GPCs to confirm the minimum number of samples needed for confident strength reporting.

    PubMed

    Mehrvar, Cina; Curran, Declan J; Alhalawani, Adel M F; Boyd, Daniel; Towler, Mark

    2015-03-01

    This short communication determines the strength of two glass polyalkenoate cements that differ from each other through the composition of their glass phase. Sample sets of n=5, 10, 20 and 30 were formulated and tested in biaxial flexure. The derived mean for each sample set was compared against the Weibull characteristic strength. The mean and corresponding characteristic strength show a maximum percentage difference 10.1%, and the 95% confidence intervals calculated from the mean data encompass the corresponding characteristic strength down to a sample set of n=5. This suggests that, for brittle materials such as glass polyalkenoate cements, it is acceptable to test only five samples of each material in biaxial flexure and the resultant 95% confidence intervals will encompass the corresponding Weibull characteristic strength of the material. PMID:25553555

  20. Adenovirus E1A proteins regulate phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klemm, D J; Colton, L A; Ryan, S; Routes, J M

    1996-04-01

    Recently, Kalvakolanu et al. (Kalvakolanu, D. V. R., Liu, J., Hanson, R. W., Harter, M. L., and Sen, G. C. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 2530-2536) showed that E1A inhibited the basal and cAMP-stimulated transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). This inhibition was mediated by the conserved region 1 (CR1) domain of E1A, which has been shown by other laboratories to bind to the cellular transcriptional adaptor proteins, p300 and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP). The PEPCK gene promoter contains a functional cAMP-response element, through which CREB and, therefore, CBP modulate transcription, and a consensus p300 DNA binding sequence is also present in a distal protein binding site of the promoter. We hypothesized that E1A might inhibit PEPCK gene transcription by binding to p300 and/or CBP. Surprisingly, we found that E1A consistently stimulated basal transcription from the PEPCK promoter in transfection assays in adenovirus (Ad)-infected HepG2 hepatoma cells or E1A-expressing, stably transfected 3T3 fibroblasts and nuclear run-on assays in Ad-infected H4IIE hepatoma cells. E1A also enhanced the stimulation of PEPCK gene transcription by Bt2cAMP. In transfection assays, wild type Ad5 expressing both 243R and 289R forms of E1A or a mutant virus expressing the 289R form alone stimulated transcription from the PEPCK promoter by approximately 5-fold 20 h postinfection. However, no stimulation was observed in cells infected with a virus expressing either the 243R protein alone or a 289R protein from which conserved region 3 (CR3) was mutated. Mutation or deletion of CR1 of E1A had no significant effect on transcription from the PEPCK promoter. Mutations within conserved region 2 (CR2) of E1A that inhibit the binding of E1A to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) further enhanced the stimulation of transcription from the PEPCK promoter by 2 3-fold compared with wild type E1A. These findings suggested that the normal function of pRb is to stimulate PEPCK gene transcription, and that this process is inhibited by the binding of E1A to pRb. This hypothesis was confirmed by overexpressing pRb in HepG2 cells, which stimulated transcription from the PEPCK promoter. Our findings indicate that Ad E1A regulates PEPCK gene transcription through a stimulatory mechanism involving CR3, and by attenuating a stimulatory effect of pRb through CR2. PMID:8626493

  1. Hamstrings strength imbalance in professional football (soccer) players in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ardern, Clare L; Pizzari, Tania; Wollin, Martin R; Webster, Kate E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the isokinetic thigh muscle strength profile of professional male football players in Australia. Concentric (60° and 240°·s(-1)) and eccentric (30° and 120°·s(-1)) hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic strength was measured with a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. The primary variables were bilateral concentric and eccentric hamstring and quadriceps peak torque ratios, concentric hamstring-quadriceps peak torque ratios, and mixed ratios (eccentric hamstring 30°·s(-1) ÷ concentric quadriceps 240°·s(-1)). Hamstring strength imbalance was defined as deficits in any 2 of: bilateral concentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, bilateral eccentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, concentric hamstring-quadriceps ratio <0.47, and mixed ratio <0.80. Fifty-five strength tests involving 42 players were conducted. Ten players (24%) were identified as having hamstring strength imbalance. Athletes with strength imbalance had significantly reduced concentric and eccentric bilateral hamstring peak torque ratios at all angular velocities tested; and reduced eccentric quadriceps peak torque (30°·s(-1)) in their stance leg, compared with those without strength imbalance. Approximately, 1 in 4 players had preseason hamstring strength imbalance; and all strength deficits were observed in the stance leg. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings strength imbalance may impact in-season football performance and could have implications for the future risk of injury. PMID:25426513

  2. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jimin; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-01-01

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. PMID:24725935

  3. Adenovirus E1A proteins stimulate inositol phospholipid metabolism in PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shiroki, K; Yamakawa, A; Shibata, M; Takenawa, T; Sugano, S; Nomoto, A

    1992-01-01

    To study the influence of nuclear oncogenes on inositol phospholipid metabolism, we examined the various parameters of inositol phospholipid metabolism in PC12 cells expressing adenovirus type 12 or adenovirus type 5 E1A. Although the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate content was increased only slightly, the diacylglycerol content was 2.4-fold higher in E1A-expressing PC12 cells. Furthermore, we found that the activity of phospholipase C, one of the key enzymes in inositol phospholipid metabolism, was increased at least five- to eightfold. Diacylglycerol kinase activity in the membrane fraction was 10 to 15% of that in parental PC12 cells. Overall protein kinase C activities in E1A-expressing PC12 cells were decreased, but the activity of membrane-bound protein kinase C was significantly increased. These observations clearly indicate that inositol phospholipid metabolism is stimulated in cells producing E1A and suggest that nuclear oncogene E1A has the ability to stimulate inositol phospholipid metabolism. Images PMID:1326659

  4. Olive cultivar origin is a major cause of polymorphism for Ole e 1 pollen allergen

    PubMed Central

    Hamman-Khalifa, AbdelMounim; Castro, Antonio Jesús; Jiménez-López, José Carlos; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2008-01-01

    Background Pollens from different olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars have been shown to differ significantly in their content in Ole e 1 and in their overall allergenicity. This allergen is, in addition, characterized by a high degree of polymorphism in its sequence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the putative presence of divergences in Ole e 1 sequences from different olive cultivars. Results RNA from pollen individually collected from 10 olive cultivars was used to amplify Ole e 1 sequences by RT-PCR, and the sequences were analyzed by using different bioinformatics tools. Numerous nucleotide substitutions were detected throughout the sequences, many of which resulted in amino acid substitutions in the deduced protein sequences. In most cases variability within a single variety was much lower than among varieties. Key amino acid changes in comparison with "canonical" sequences previously described in the literature included: a) the substitution of C19-relevant to the disulphide bond structure of the protein-, b) the presence of an additional N-glycosylation motif, and c) point substitutions affecting regions of Ole e 1 already described like relevant for the immunogenicity/allergenicity of the protein. Conclusion Varietal origin of olive pollen is a major factor determining the diversity of Ole e 1 variants. We consider this information of capital importance for the optimal design of efficient and safe allergen formulations, and useful for the genetic engineering of modified forms of the allergen among other applications. PMID:18218146

  5. Activation of the human beta interferon gene by the adenovirus type 12 E1B gene

    SciTech Connect

    Shiroki, K.; Toth, M.

    1988-01-01

    The transcription of endogenous beta interferon mRNA was activated in human embryo kidney (HEK) cells infected with adenovirus 12 (Ad12) but was activated only inefficiently or not at all in HEK cells infected with Ad5 and rc-1 (Ad5 dl312 containing the Ad12 E1A region). The analysis with Ad12 mutants showed that Ad12 E1B products, especially the 19K protein, were important for the expression of the endogenous beta interferon gene and Ad12 E1A products were not involved in the expression. The expression of exogeneously transfected pIFN-CAT (a hybrid plasmid having the human beta interferon promoter fused with the CAT gene) was activated in HEK and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells infected with either Ad12 or Ad5. The analysis of cotransfection of CEF cells with pIFN-CAT and plasmids containing fragments of Ad12 or Ad5 DNA showed that Ad12 or Ad5 E1B (possibly the 19K protein) was and E1A was not involved in the expression of the exogenous pIFN-CAT.

  6. 2-carboxyquinoxalines kill mycobacterium tuberculosis through noncovalent inhibition of DprE1.

    PubMed

    Neres, João; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Gadupudi, Ramakrishna; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Mori, Giorgia; Venturelli, Alberto; Savina, Svetlana; Makarov, Vadim; Kolly, Gaelle S; Molteni, Elisabetta; Binda, Claudia; Dhar, Neeraj; Ferrari, Stefania; Brodin, Priscille; Delorme, Vincent; Landry, Valérie; de Jesus Lopes Ribeiro, Ana Luisa; Farina, Davide; Saxena, Puneet; Pojer, Florence; Carta, Antonio; Luciani, Rosaria; Porta, Alessio; Zanoni, Giuseppe; De Rossi, Edda; Costi, Maria Paola; Riccardi, Giovanna; Cole, Stewart T

    2015-03-20

    Phenotypic screening of a quinoxaline library against replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis led to the identification of lead compound Ty38c (3-((4-methoxybenzyl)amino)-6-(trifluoromethyl)quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid). With an MIC99 and MBC of 3.1 ?M, Ty38c is bactericidal and active against intracellular bacteria. To investigate its mechanism of action, we isolated mutants resistant to Ty38c and sequenced their genomes. Mutations were found in rv3405c, coding for the transcriptional repressor of the divergently expressed rv3406 gene. Biochemical studies clearly showed that Rv3406 decarboxylates Ty38c into its inactive keto metabolite. The actual target was then identified by isolating Ty38c-resistant mutants of an M. tuberculosis strain lacking rv3406. Here, mutations were found in dprE1, encoding the decaprenylphosphoryl-d-ribose oxidase DprE1, essential for biogenesis of the mycobacterial cell wall. Genetics, biochemical validation, and X-ray crystallography revealed Ty38c to be a noncovalent, noncompetitive DprE1 inhibitor. Structure-activity relationship studies generated a family of DprE1 inhibitors with a range of IC50's and bactericidal activity. Co-crystal structures of DprE1 in complex with eight different quinoxaline analogs provided a high-resolution interaction map of the active site of this extremely vulnerable target in M. tuberculosis. PMID:25427196

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of cytochrome P450 2E1 in human pulmonary carcinoma and normal bronchial tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Kivist; H. Kroemer; A. Linder; G. Friedel; P. Beaune; C. Belloc; P. Fritz

    1995-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme but data concerning its extrahepatic expression are few. CYP2E1 can metabolically activate many procarcinogens and therefore its presence in the lung might play a role in bioactivation of procarcinogens, so we studied the expression and localization of CYP2E1 in primary pulmonary carcinomas and surrounding normal bronchial tissue from 28 patients. Seromucous

  8. Characterization of the interaction between the NIMA-related kinase Nek9 and adenovirus E1A proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Pelka

    2007-01-01

    Nek9 is a NIMA-related protein kinase that was found to interact with adenovirus E1A proteins in vivo. Nek9 binds to E1A via a region between the kinase domain and the RCC1-like domain of Nek9, with residues 347-379 being critical for the interaction. The region on Nek9 bound by E1A also functions as a kinase regulatory domain and binding by E1A

  9. Residual Strength Analyses of Monolithic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott (Technical Monitor); Ambur, Damodar R. (Technical Monitor); Seshadri, B. R.; Tiwari, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    Finite-element fracture simulation methodology predicts the residual strength of damaged aircraft structures. The methodology uses the critical crack-tip-opening-angle (CTOA) fracture criterion to characterize the fracture behavior of the material. The CTOA fracture criterion assumes that stable crack growth occurs when the crack-tip angle reaches a constant critical value. The use of the CTOA criterion requires an elastic- plastic, finite-element analysis. The critical CTOA value is determined by simulating fracture behavior in laboratory specimens, such as a compact specimen, to obtain the angle that best fits the observed test behavior. The critical CTOA value appears to be independent of loading, crack length, and in-plane dimensions. However, it is a function of material thickness and local crack-front constraint. Modeling the local constraint requires either a three-dimensional analysis or a two-dimensional analysis with an approximation to account for the constraint effects. In recent times as the aircraft industry is leaning towards monolithic structures with the intention of reducing part count and manufacturing cost, there has been a consistent effort at NASA Langley to extend critical CTOA based numerical methodology in the analysis of integrally-stiffened panels.In this regard, a series of fracture tests were conducted on both flat and curved aluminum alloy integrally-stiffened panels. These flat panels were subjected to uniaxial tension and during the test, applied load-crack extension, out-of-plane displacements and local deformations around the crack tip region were measured. Compact and middle-crack tension specimens were tested to determine the critical angle (wc) using three-dimensional code (ZIP3D) and the plane-strain core height (hJ using two-dimensional code (STAGS). These values were then used in the STAGS analysis to predict the fracture behavior of the integrally-stiffened panels. The analyses modeled stable tearing, buckling, and crack branching at the integral stiffener using different values of critical CTOA for different material thicknesses and orientation. Comparisons were made between measured and predicted load-crack extension, out-of-plane displacements and local deformations around the crack tip region. Simultaneously, three-dimensional capabilities to model crack branching and to monitor stable crack growth of multiple cracks in a large thick integrally-stiffened flat panels were implemented in three-dimensional finite element code (ZIP3D) and tested by analyzing the integrally-stiffened panels tested at Alcoa. The residual strength of the panels predicted from STAGS and ZP3D code compared very well with experimental data. In recent times, STAGS software has been updated with new features and now one can have combinations of solid and shell elements in the residual strength analysis of integrally-stiffened panels.

  10. Regulation of the effects of CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress by JNK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Schattenberg, Jörn M.; Czaja, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to cellular oxidative stress that underlies a variety of forms of hepatocyte injury and death including that from alcohol. Although ROS can induce cell damage through direct effects on cellular macromolecules, the injurious effects of ROS are mediated largely through changes in signal transduction pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In response to alcohol, hepatocytes have increased levels of the enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) which generates an oxidant stress that promotes the development of alcoholic steatosis and liver injury. These effects are mediated in large part through overactivation of JNK that alters cell death pathways. Targeting the JNK pathway or its downstream effectors may be a useful therapeutic approach to the oxidative stress generated by CYP2E1 in alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25462060

  11. Binding of ColE1-kan Plasmid DNA by Tobacco Protoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Lowell D.

    1979-01-01

    Protoplasts prepared from cultured tobacco cells were treated with ColE1-kan plasmid DNA, a hybrid of ColE1 and pSC105 plasmids bearing a gene for kanamycin resistance. The conditions employed permitted the uptake or irreversible binding of 2.9% of the added DNA in acid-insoluble form. Upon commencement of division, the treated cells were plated in agar medium containing kanamycin and differentiating hormones. Plantlets or shoots obtained as presumptive transformants were further tested on kanamycin medium by subculturing small leaf pieces. No evidence was obtained for expression of the kanamycin resistance gene of ColE1-kan in tobacco tissue. PMID:16660791

  12. Cytochrome P450 2E1 potentiates ethanol induction of hypoxia and HIF-1? in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wu, Defeng; Yang, Lili; Gan, Lixia; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2013-10-01

    Ethanol induces hypoxia and elevates HIF-1? in the liver. CYP2E1 plays a role in the mechanisms by which ethanol generates oxidative stress, fatty liver, and liver injury. This study evaluated whether CYP2E1 contributes to ethanol-induced hypoxia and activation of HIF-1? in vivo and whether HIF-1? protects against or promotes CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in vitro. Wild-type (WT), CYP2E1-knock-in (KI), and CYP2E1 knockout (KO) mice were fed ethanol chronically; pair-fed controls received isocaloric dextrose. Ethanol produced liver injury in the KI mice to a much greater extent than in the WT and KO mice. Protein levels of HIF-1? and downstream targets of HIF-1? activation were elevated in the ethanol-fed KI mice compared to the WT and KO mice. Levels of HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2, which promotes HIF-1? degradation, were decreased in the ethanol-fed KI mice in association with the increases in HIF-1?. Hypoxia occurred in the ethanol-fed CYP2E1 KI mice as shown by an increased area of staining using the hypoxia-specific marker pimonidazole. Hypoxia was lower in the ethanol-fed WT mice and lowest in the ethanol-fed KO mice and all the dextrose-fed mice. In situ double staining showed that pimonidazole and CYP2E1 were colocalized to the same area of injury in the hepatic centrilobule. Increased protein levels of HIF-1? were also found after acute ethanol treatment of KI mice. Treatment of HepG2 E47 cells, which express CYP2E1, with ethanol plus arachidonic acid (AA) or ethanol plus buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), which depletes glutathione, caused loss of cell viability to a greater extent than in HepG2 C34 cells, which do not express CYP2E1. These treatments elevated protein levels of HIF-1? to a greater extent in E47 cells than in C34 cells. 2-Methoxyestradiol, an inhibitor of HIF-1?, blunted the toxic effects of ethanol plus AA and ethanol plus BSO in the E47 cells in association with inhibition of HIF-1?. The HIF-1? inhibitor also blocked the elevated oxidative stress produced by ethanol/AA or ethanol/BSO in the E47 cells. These results suggest that CYP2E1 plays a role in ethanol-induced hypoxia, oxidative stress, and activation of HIF-1? and that HIF-1? contributes to CYP2E1-dependent ethanol-induced toxicity. Blocking HIF-1? activation and actions may have therapeutic implications for protection against ethanol/CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress, steatosis, and liver injury. PMID:23669278

  13. Strength training: what the team physician needs to know.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Phillip; Gentry, Mike

    2005-12-01

    Strength training has become an integral part of preparing for and participating in sports. Strength is one of the four components of athleticism, along with power, speed, and agility. Optimal strength training and conditioning workouts are best directed by a coach with formal training in this discipline. Unfortunately, many high school and some college programs do not have access to certified strength and conditioning coaches. This task often falls to the individual sport coaches and medical staff (athletic trainers and physicians). In this article we present a framework for practical strength training knowledge including the concepts of specificity, prioritization, periodization, and progressive overload. We also discuss concepts of the sports medicine team and its approach to training and conditioning. This framework will give physicians and other athletic heath care providers the basic information needed to design and implement a safe and effective strength training program. PMID:16282031

  14. Bending Fatigue Strength of Austempered Ductile Iron Spur Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Masashi; Tamura, Ryo; Inoue, Katsumi; Narita, Yukihito

    This paper deals with an experimental evaluation of bending fatigue strength for austempered ductile iron (ADI) spur gears. The module is 2.5 and the number of teeth is 26 in the test gears. The material of the test gears corresponds to Japan Industrial Standard (JIS) FCAD1100-15. Some gears are processed by one of two types of fine particle bombarding (FPB). The surface roughness is slightly increased by FPB. The obtained strengths are 623 MPa for the as-austempered gears, and 1011 and 1085 MPa for the gears after FPB. The strength is expressed by the fillet stress level, which is calculated by FEM. The strength of a gear with the same dimensions made of carburized SCr420H alloy steel is 1205 MPa, and the strength of the ADI gear is approximately half that of the carburized steel gear. The FPB process has a significant effect on the ADI gear, improving its strength by 62-74%.

  15. Compressive Strength of Stainless-Steel Sandwiches at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathauser, Eldon E.; Pride, Richard A.

    1959-01-01

    Experimental results are presented from crippling tests of stainless-steel sandwich specimens in the temperature range from 80 F to 1,200 F. The specimens included resistance-welded 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with single-corrugated cores, type 301 stainless-steel sandwiches with double-corrugated cores, and brazed 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with honeycomb cores. The experimental strengths are compared with predicted buckling and crippling strengths. The crippling strengths were predicted from the calculated maximum strength of the individual plate elements of the sandwiches and from a correlation procedure which gives the elevated-temperature crippling strength when the experimental room-temperature crippling strengths are known. Photographs of some of the tested specimens are included to show the modes of failure.

  16. Investigation of xenobiotics metabolism, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity using Cyp2e1(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Ghanayem, Burhan I; Hoffler, Undi

    2007-10-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) comprise a number of enzyme subfamilies responsible for the oxidative metabolism of a wide range of therapeutic agents, environmental toxicants, mutagens, and carcinogens. In particular, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is implicated in the oxidative bioactivation of a variety of small hydrophobic chemicals including a number of epoxide-forming drugs and environmentally important toxicants including urethane, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, vinyl chloride, styrene, 1-bromopropane, trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, acetaminophen, and butadiene. Until recently, chemical modulators (inducers and inhibitors) were used in order to characterize the enzymatic basis of xenobiotic metabolism and the relationships between CYP-mediated bioactivation and chemical-induced toxicity/carcinogenicity. With the advent of genetically engineered knockout mice, the ability to evaluate the roles of specific CYPs in the metabolism of xenobiotics has become more attainable. The main focus of the current review is to present studies that characterized the enzymatic, metabolic, and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of various xenobiotics using Cyp2e1-/- mice. Data presented in this review demonstrated that the most comprehensive studies using Cyp2e1-/- mice, encompassing the entire paradigm of metabolism to toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity were possible when a substrate was primarily metabolized via CYP2E1 (e.g. urethane and acrylamide). In contrast, when multiple CYP enzymes were prevalent in the oxidation of a particular substrate (e.g.: trichloroethylene, methacrylonitrile, crotononitrile), investigating the relationships between oxidative metabolism and biological activity became more complicated and required the use of chemical modulators. In conclusion, the current review showed that Cyp2e1-/- mice are a valuable animal model for the investigation of the metabolic and molecular basis of toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of xenobiotics. PMID:17979661

  17. Strength and conditioning practices of National Hockey League strength and conditioning coaches.

    PubMed

    Ebben, William P; Carroll, Ryan M; Simenz, Christopher J

    2004-11-01

    This study describes the results of a survey of the practices of National Hockey League strength and conditioning (NHL S&C) coaches. The response rate was 76.6% (23 of 30). This survey examines (a) background information, (b) physical testing, (c) flexibility development, (d) speed development, (e) plyometrics, (f) strength/power development, (g) unique aspects, and (h) comments. Results indicate, in part, that coaches assess an average of 7.2 parameters of fitness, with tests of strength and power being the most common. All coaches used a variety of flexibility-development strategies. Results reveal that 21 of 23 (91.3%) of NHL S&C coaches follow a periodization model (PM). Of the coaches who follow a PM, 21 of 21 (100%) indicated that their athletes used Olympic-style lifts, and 21 of 21 coaches (100%) trained athletes with plyometric exercises. For those who used plyometrics with their athletes, 17 of 21 (80.1%) reported no plyometric-related injuries in the past year. Coaches who report they did not follow a PM also did not use Olympic-style lifts, plyometrics, or speed development strategies, such as assisted, resisted, or interval training, with their athletes. Finally, coaches reported that the squat and their variations, as well at the Olympic-style lifts and its variations, were most frequently used with their athletes. The survey serves as a review, as well as a source of applied information and new ideas. PMID:15574099

  18. Strength and conditioning practices of Major League Baseball strength and conditioning coaches.

    PubMed

    Ebben, William P; Hintz, Marilyn J; Simenz, Christopher J

    2005-08-01

    This study describes the results of a survey of the practices of Major League Baseball strength and conditioning (MLB S&C) coaches. The response rate was 70.0% (21 of 30). This survey examines (a) background information, (b) physical testing, (c) flexibility development, (d) speed development, (e) plyometrics, (f) strength/power development, (g) unique aspects, and (h) comments. Results indicate, in part, that coaches assess an average of 3.6 parameters of fitness, with body composition testing being the most commonly assessed parameter. All coaches use a variety of flexibility development strategies. All coaches use speed development strategies, with form running drills being the most common. Twenty of 21 (95.2%) coaches employ plyometric exercises with their athletes. Eighteen of 21 (85.7%) of MLB S&C coaches follow a periodization model (PM). Five of 21 coaches (23.8%) indicated that their athletes use Olympic-style lifts. The squat and its variations and the lunge and its variations were most frequently identified as the first and second most important exercises used to train the athletes. This survey provides detailed information about strength and conditioning practices at the most competitive level of baseball and serves as a review, as well as a source of applied information and new ideas. PMID:16095401

  19. Use of recycled concrete aggregate in high-strength concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Limbachiya; T. Leelawat; R. K. Dhir

    2000-01-01

    The results of a test programme to study the use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) in high-strength, 50 N\\/mm2 or greater, concrete are described. The effects of coarse RCA content on the ceiling strength, bulk engineering and durability\\u000a properties of such concretes have been established. The results showed that up to 30% coarse RCA had no effect on concrete\\u000a strength,

  20. Properties of cold-rolled high-strength steel sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Toda; H. Gondoh; H. Takechi; H. Masui

    1976-01-01

    For high-strength steel sheets, a new concept has become necessary,viz, the relation between strength and formability. When the relation between tensile strength and elongation is appraised for\\u000a ranking in terms of the strengthening mechanism, it is found that the substitutional solid-solution hardening type is excellent\\u000a and the precipitation hardening type is inferior. In batch annealing, the phosphorus-added aluminum-killed steel sheets