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1

Reply to "Comment on two-phonon gamma-vibrational strength in osmium nuclei"  

SciTech Connect

The claim that the two-phonon gamma-vibrational configuration constitutes a major component for the I=4+ states in osmium nuclei is based on solid experimental evidence. A non-negligible two-quasiparticle or hexadecapole component must also exist in order to explain the data.

Wu, C.Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.B.; Simon, M.W.; Krueken, R.; Cooper, J.R.; Barton, C.J.; Beausang, C.W.; Bialik, C.; Caprio, M.A.; Casten, R.F.; Hecht, A.A.; Newman, H.; Novak, J.; Pietralla, N.; Zyromski, K.; Zamfir, N.V.

2002-09-03

2

Squeezed states in two-phonon devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

New variables called two-mode quadrature-phase amplitudes are used in order to analyze squeezing in two-phonon devices. The Fokker-Planck equation obtained for two-mode quasiprobability distributions presents a diffusion matrix independent of the non-linear coupling and with non-negative eigenvalues. Assuming that the initial state is a two-mode coherent state, the uncertainties in the two-mode quadrature-phase amplitudes have been obtained, and the dependence

L. Sainz de Los Terreros; P. García-Fernández; F. J. Bermejo

1988-01-01

3

Evolution of the Low-lying E1 Strength With Deformation  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of low-lying E1 strength is systematically analyzed in very neutron-rich Sn nuclei, beyond {sup 132}Sn until {sup 166}Sn, within the Relativistic Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation. The great neutron excess favors the appearance of a deformed ground state for {sup 142-162}Sn. The evolution of the low-lying strength in deformed nuclei is determined by the interplay of two factors, isospin asymmetry and deformation: while greater neutron excess increases the total low-lying strength, deformation hinders and spreads it. Very neutron rich deformed nuclei may not be as good candidates as spherical nuclei like {sup 132}Sn for the experimental study of low-lying E1 strength.

Arteaga, D. Pena; Khan, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Ring, P. [Physikdepartment, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748, Garching (Germany)

2009-08-26

4

Measurement of the E1 strength function of {sup 11}Be  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated the E1 strength function of {sup 11}Be by Coulomb excitation and measurement of the subsequent projectile photon decay. The photons were measured in a wall of BaF{sub 2} detectors. The authors have used the virtual photon method to extract the photoabsorption cross section and hence the dipole strength function. They compare the findings with sum rule predictions. This is a first example of techniques they will extend to heavier mass nuclei.

Varner, R.L.; Gan, N.; Beene, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Physics Div.]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1998-11-01

5

Precision Measurements of the B(E1) Strengths in 11Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic transition strength between the two bound states were measured in the one-neutron halo nucleus 11Be from Coulomb excitation on 196Pt at projectile energies of 1.727 and 2.086 MeV/nucleon at TRIUMF. A B(E1) strength of 0.102(2) e2fm2, deduced from the forward-scattering data, is consistent with previous Coulomb excitation measurements at intermediate projectile energies with a model-dependent analysis.

Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.; Summers, N. C.; Hackman, G.; Drake, T. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Chester, A.; Close, A.; Cline, D.; Cross, D. S.; Dunlop, R.; Finley, A.; Garnsworthy, A.; Hayes, A. B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Nano, T.; Navrátil, P.; Pearson, C. J.; Pore, J.; Starosta, K.; Thompson, I. J.; Voss, P.; Williams, S. J.; Wang, Z. M.

2014-09-01

6

Isoscalar E0, E1, and E2 strength in Ca-40  

E-print Network

The giant resonance region from 10 particles at small angles including 0 degrees. Strength corresponding to 97 +/- 11%, 108 +/- 12%, and 62 + 10-20 % of the isoscalar E0, E2, and E1 sum rules, respectively, was identified with centroids of 19...

Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW; Clark, HL.

2001-01-01

7

Transition probabilities and oscillator strengths of E1 transitions in Fe XII and Fe XIV  

SciTech Connect

Non-orthogonal orbitals in the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock approach are used to calculate line strengths, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for E1 transitions among the fine-structure levels of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}, 3s3p{sup 4}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}3d, 3s3p{sup 3}3d, 3p{sup 5} and 3s{sup 2}3p3d{sup 2} configurations in Fe XII and 3s{sup 2}3p, 3s3p{sup 2}, 3s{sup 2}3d, 3p{sup 3}, 3s3p3d, 3p{sup 2}3d, 3s3d{sup 2}, 3p3d{sup 2}, 3s{sup 2}4s, 3s{sup 2}4p, 3s3p4s and 3s{sup 2}4d configurations in Fe XIV. The lifetimes of excited levels belonging to these configurations of Fe XII and Fe XIV are also presented. An accurate representation of the levels has been obtained using spectroscopic and correlation radial functions. The wavefunctions exhibit large correlations and significant dependence of one-electron valence orbitals due to both the total and intermediate terms. The relativistic corrections are included through the one-body and two-body operators in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Progressively larger calculations are performed to check for important electron correlation contributions and for convergence of results. The atomic wavefunctions give excitation energies which are in close agreement with experiment. The present oscillator strengths and transition probabilities compare very well with previous large scale calculations. - Highlights: {yields} Fe XII and Fe XIV oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for E1 transitions. {yields} Energies and lifetimes of excited levels of Fe XII and Fe XIV. {yields} Multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations with non-orthogonal radial functions.

Tayal, S.S., E-mail: stayal@cau.edu

2011-09-15

8

Relativistic effects in E1 transition oscillator strengths along the Yb+ isoelectronic sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric dipole transition oscillator strengths have been computed for low-lying transitions in the Yb+ isoelectronic sequence (through Ra19 +) in fully relativistic and non-relativistic-limit approximations. Relativistic effects were carefully investigated and efforts were undertaken to establish systematic trends in relativistic contributions to oscillator strengths along the Yb+ isoelectronic sequence.

Migdalek, J.; Siegel, W.

2014-04-01

9

Effect of a magnetic field on the two-phonon Raman scattering in C. Faugeras,1  

E-print Network

by mechanical exfoliation of bulk graphite2 , by the decomposition of a SiC substrate at high temperatures,3Effect of a magnetic field on the two-phonon Raman scattering in graphene C. Faugeras,1 P. Kossacki spectrum of graphene (the two-phonon peak near 2700 cm-1) in an external magnetic field applied

Boyer, Edmond

10

Two-phonon coupling to the antiferromagnetic phase transition in multiferroic BiFeO3  

E-print Network

Two-phonon coupling to the antiferromagnetic phase transition in multiferroic BiFeO3 Mariola O with resonant enhancement of two-phonon Raman scattering is reported in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2829681 Multiferroics, specially materials that combine

Orenstein, Joe

11

Stokes suppression and supercontinuum generation by differential two-phonon excitation.  

PubMed

Stimulated Raman scattering driven by differential coupling of two phonon modes has been demonstrated. These phonon modes are coherently and strongly coupled by external fields via two-phonon excitation at the first Brillouin zone boundary. Up to 11th order of sidebands and a supercontinuum covering entire visible region have been observed. The original Stokes and anti-Stokes lines by the single-phonon stimulated Raman scattering were significantly suppressed. PMID:25401797

Nishioka, Hajime

2014-11-01

12

Two-phonon spin-lattice relaxation of rigid atomic clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin-phonon relaxation due to two-phonon processes of a spin cluster embedded in an elastic medium has been studied. For the case of uniaxial anisotropy, relaxation rates due to Raman processes and processes involving the emission of two phonons have been obtained. For a biaxial spin Hamiltonian, the rates of transitions between tunnel-split levels have been computed. By comparison with the rates of corresponding direct processes, we have established temperature ranges where the Raman mechanism dominates over the one-phonon decay mechanism.

Calero, C.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Garanin, D. A.

2006-09-01

13

Infrared Optical Absorption Due to One and Two Phonon Processes in Black Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a single crystal of black phosphorus, anisotropic absorption spectra due to the two-phonon summation process have been found in the wavenumber region from 300 to 900 cm-1. By an oblique incidence method, the dipole moment of an infrared active mode at 470 cm-1 has been confirmed to be in the z-direction of the crystal as predicted by Kaneta, Yoshida

Mikihiko Ikezawa; Yasuhiro Kondo; Ichimin Shirotani

1983-01-01

14

Covariant density functional theory with two-phonon coupling in nuclei  

SciTech Connect

A full description of excited states within the framework of density functional theory requires energy dependent self energies. We present a new class of many-body models. It allows a parameter free description of the fragmentation of nuclear states induced by mode coupling of two-quasiparticle and two-phonon configurations. The method is applied for an investigation of low-lying dipole excitations in Sn isotopes with large neutron excess.

Ring, P.; Litvinova, E.; Tselyaev, V. [Physik Department, Technische Universitat Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany) and State Key Lab Nucl. Phys. and Tech., School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nuclear Physics Department, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2012-10-20

15

Systematic study of low-lying E1 strength using the time-dependent mean field theory  

SciTech Connect

We carry out systematic investigation of electric dipole (E1) mode from light to heavy nuclei, using a new time-dependent mean field theory: the Canonical-basis Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (Cb-TDHFB) theory. The Cb-TDHFB in the three-dimensional coordinate space representation can deal with pairing correlation and any kind of deformation in the timedependent framework. We report the neutron-number dependence of the low-energy E1 mode for light (A > 40) and heavy isotopes (A < 100) around N= 82.

Ebata, S.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Inakura, T. [Center for Nuclear Study, Univ. of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033, Japan and Theoretical Nuclear Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi, 351-0198 (Japan); Theoretical Nuclear Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi, 351-0198 (Japan) and Center for Computational Sciences, Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, 305-8571 (Japan); Theoretical Nuclear Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi, 351-0198 (Japan)

2012-11-12

16

Analysis of two-phonon infrared spectral features of gallium arsenide and indium phosphide by first-principles calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a self-consistent calculation based on density functional perturbation theory to analyze the infrared spectral features of GaAs and InP arising from two-phonon processes. The features are identified and assigned the critical points in the first Brillouin zone. Distribution of the critical points is investigated. The analysis demonstrates that collections of phonons of wave vectors around symmetry points and along symmetry lines are responsible for strong infrared features in two-phonon processes.

Lin, Huang-Hsiang; Chung, Pei-Kang; Yen, Shun-Tung

2014-12-01

17

OPTICAL DATA PROCESSING: Two-dimensional image edge enhancement in the two-phonon diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest using the two-phonon Bragg scattering regime for two-dimensional image edge enhancement by means of acousto-optic (AO) diffraction on a single sound wave. Image edge enhancement is demonstrated in the first diffraction order by using an AO cell made of the TeO2 single crystal. To explain this effect, a three-dimensional model of AO interaction is proposed, which takes into account the angular selectivity of diffraction both in the plane of Bragg scattering and in the plane orthogonal to it.

Kotov, V. M.; Averin, S. V.; Shkerdin, G. N.; Voronko, A. I.

2010-06-01

18

Relativistic configuration-interaction oscillator strengths for lowest E1 transitions in silver and gold isoelectronic sequences  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic oscillator strengths are computed for ns{sub 1/2}-np{sub 1/2,3/2} transitions in silver and gold isoelectronic sequences employing configuration-interaction method with numerical Dirac-Fock wave functions generated with noninteger outermost core shell occupation number. This method is optimized to represent efficiently the core-valence electron correlation that is known to be important for transitions under consideration. The presented results are compared with our earlier data computed with core-valence correlation represented in the semiclassical core polarization picture within single configuration Dirac-Fock scheme as well as available experimental values.

Glowacki, Leszek; Migdalek, Jacek [Department of Computer Science and Computer Methods, Pedagogical University of Cracow, PodchoraPzych 2, 30-084 Krakow (Poland)

2009-10-15

19

Contributions of one- and two-phonon processes to the resistivity of tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a long-standing disagreement on the relative contribution of one-phonon (1P) and two-phonon (2P) scattering processes to the resistivity ? of tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) in the temperature range from 300 K down to 100 or 150 K. The group that believes 2P processes, in particular two-libron (2L) processes, determine ? has argued that their predominance is due to the fact that they cause a larger modulation of the transfer integral t than 1P processes. We have calculated 1/t times the first and second derivatives of t with respect to the displacements due to the basic external lattice modes; these are the quantities that enter into the resistivity. The calculations were done for the TCNQ chain, which contributes most of the conductivity of TTF-TCNQ. Using the resulting values, we find that the contribution of 2L, or indeed any 2P, modes to the resistivity of the TCNQ chain is negligible. The calculated coupling constants for 1P processes involving the external modes are large enough so that, in combination with the contribution of the internal modes, they could account for the observed ?. However, uncertainties due to probable mode mixing and the poorly known properties of the TTF chain are large enough so that it is possible that another scattering process contributes. A likely candidate for such a process is 1P-caused polarization-energy fluctuations. We present arguments to show that 2P contributions to the polarization-energy fluctuations should make little contribution to ?.

van Smaalen, Sander; Kommandeur, Jan; Conwell, Esther M.

1986-04-01

20

International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, VoL 5, No. 7, 1984 A CRITICAL POINT ANALYSIS OF TWO PHONON  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF TWO PHONON STRUCTURE IN THE FAR INFRARED DIELECTRIC RESPONSE OF GaAs A. Memon and D. B. Tanner~mo~ and Tanner The infrared lattice absorption arising from multi- phonon processes has been studied extensively

Tanner, David B.

21

Relaxation of the electron spin in quantum dots via one- and two-phonon processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied direct and Raman processes of the decay of electron spin states in a quantum dot via radiation of phonons corresponding to elastic twists. Universal dependence of the spin relaxation rate on the strength and direction of the magnetic field has been obtained in terms of the electron gyromagnetic tensor and macroscopic elastic constants of the solid.

Calero, C.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Garanin, D. A.

2007-09-01

22

Rotational character change of the one-phonon and two-phonon $\\gamma$ vibration in odd-$A$ nuclei  

E-print Network

\\item[Background] The $\\gamma$ vibration is the most typical low-lying collective motion prevailing the nuclear chart. But only few one-phonon rotational bands in odd-$A$ nuclei have been known. Furthermore, two-phonon states, even the band head, have been observed in a very limited number of nuclides not only of odd-$A$ but even-even. \\item[Purpose] Among them, that in $^{105}$Mo is unique in that Coriolis effects are expected to be stronger than in $^{103}$Nb and $^{105}$Nb on which theoretical studies were reported. Then the purpose of the present work is to study $^{105}$Mo paying attention to rotational character change of the one-phonon and two-phonon bands in comparison with the present author's previous studies on $^{103}$Nb and $^{105}$Nb. \\item[Method] The particle-vibration coupling model based on the cranking model and the random-phase approximation is used to calculate the vibrational states in rotating odd-$A$ nuclei. \\item[Results] The present model reproduces the observed yrast zero-phonon and...

Matsuzaki, Masayuki

2014-01-01

23

Strong fragmentation of low-energy electromagnetic excitation strength in $^{117}$Sn  

E-print Network

Results of nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments on $^{117}$Sn are reported. More than 50 $\\gamma$ transitions with $E_{\\gamma} < 4$ MeV were detected indicating a strong fragmentation of the electromagnetic excitation strength. For the first time microscopic calculations making use of a complete configuration space for low-lying states are performed in heavy odd-mass spherical nuclei. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data. It is concluded that although the E1 transitions are the strongest ones also M1 and E2 decays contribute substantially to the observed spectra. In contrast to the neighboring even $^{116-124}$Sn, in $^{117}$Sn the $1^-$ component of the two-phonon $[2^+_1 \\otimes 3^-_1]$ quintuplet built on top of the 1/2$^+$ ground state is proved to be strongly fragmented.

V. Yu. Ponomarev; J. Bryssinck; L. Govor; F. Bauwens; O. Beck; D. Belic; P. von Brentano; D. De Frenne; C. Fransen; R. -D. Herzberg; E. Jacobs; U. Kneissl; H. Maser; A. Nord; N. Pietralla; H. H. Pitz; V. Werner

1999-06-04

24

Analog E1 transitions and isospin mixing  

SciTech Connect

We investigate whether isospin mixing can be determined in a model-independent way from the relative strength of E1 transitions in mirror nuclei. The specific examples considered are the A=31 and A=35 mirror pairs, where a serious discrepancy between the strengths of 7/2{sup -}{yields}5/2{sup +} transitions in the respective mirror nuclei has been observed. A theoretical analysis of the problem suggests that it ought to be possible to disentangle the isospin mixing in the initial and final states given sufficient information on experimental matrix elements. With this in mind, we obtain a lifetime for the relevant 7/2{sup -} state in {sup 31}S using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. We then collate the available information on matrix elements to examine the level of isospin mixing for both A=31 and A=35 mirror pairs.

Pattabiraman, N. S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Bentley, M. A.; Wadsworth, R.; Lister, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Lotay, G.; Woods, P. J.; Krishichayan,; Isacker, P. Van [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); UGC-DAE CSR, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

2008-08-15

25

Shear Strength  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. John Atkinson, of the University of the West of England, developed a site for undergraduate students wanting to learn more about soil classification. His site addresses issues such as: shear strength, peak strength, and residual strength testing. Filled with charts, diagrams, statistics, the information is pertinent and easily understood by almost any audience.

Atkinson, John

2008-10-07

26

Strength Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

Londeree, Ben R.

1981-01-01

27

Monopole strength as a probe of nuclear shape mixing  

SciTech Connect

The monopole strength, MS, within a single set of nuclear shape excitations is compared with the MS between different shapes. After misconceptions are pointed out concerning the spin dependence of B(E2) values, MS properties are juxtaposed with gamma-ray and beta-decay properties of /sup 70/Se, /sup 96/Zr, /sup 102/Pd, and the N = 60 isotones to illustrate the utility of combined investigations and evidence is given for the observation of a two-phonon octupole multiplet. Finally, consideration is given to the dominance of the /sup 3/S/sub 1/ force in producing deformation in the N > 50 1g nuclei. 23 refs., 4 figs.

Meyer, R.A.

1987-08-17

28

Transitional $?$ strength in Cd isotopes  

E-print Network

The level densities and $\\gamma$-ray strength functions of $^{105,106,111,112}$Cd have been extracted from particle-$\\gamma$ coincidence data using the Oslo method. The level densities are in very good agreement with known levels at low excitation energy. The $\\gamma$-ray strength functions display no strong enhancement for low $\\gamma$ energies. However, more low-energy strength is apparent for $^{105,106}$Cd than for $^{111,112}$Cd. For $\\gamma$ energies above $\\approx$ 4 MeV, there is evidence for some extra strength, similar to what has been previously observed for the Sn isotopes. The origin of this extra strength is unclear; it might be due to $E1$ and $M1$ transitions originating from neutron skin oscillations or the spin-flip resonance, respectively.

A. C. Larsen; I. E. Ruud; A. Bürger; S. Goriely; M. Guttormsen; A. Görgen; T. W. Hagen; S. Harissopulos; H. T. Nyhus; T. Renstrøm; A. Schiller; S. Siem; G. M. Tveten; A. V. Voinov; M. Wiedeking

2013-10-26

29

Adenovirus E1A gene autorepression: revertants of an E1A promoter mutation encode altered E1A proteins  

SciTech Connect

Revertants have been isolated from Ad3hr15, a mutant of human adenovirus type 3 that carries a defective E1A promoter. Transcription of these revertant E1A genes is restored - from nil for Ad3hr15 mutant to levels exceeding that of the wild-type virus. The mutant Ad3hr15 virus and the revertants all have an aberrant E1A promoter that contains two short tandem duplications of viral DNA sequence. The E1A gene-coding region of the mutant is the same as that for wild-type adenovirus type 3, whereas the revertants are characterized by short in-frame deletions within the 5' exon region of their E1A genes. Location of these reverting, second-site deletions is discussed in relation to E1A gene autoregulation and the evolved diversity of E1A-related oncogenic potential among different human adenoviruses.

Larsen, P.L.; Tibbetts, C.

1987-12-01

30

Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase  

DOEpatents

The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol. 6 figs.

Thomas, S.R.; Laymon, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

1996-07-16

31

Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase  

DOEpatents

The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol.

Thomas, Steven R. (Denver, CO); Laymon, Robert A. (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

1996-01-01

32

Common Data Set 2012-2013 E1 Accelerated program  

E-print Network

Common Data Set 2012-2013 E1 E1 Accelerated program E1 Cooperative education program X E1 Cross-registration X E1 Distance learning X E1 Double major X E1 Dual enrollment E1 English as a Second Language (ESL study X E1 Internships X E1 Liberal arts/career combination X E1 Student-designed major E1 Study abroad

Heller, Barbara

33

Common Data Set 2010-11 E1 Accelerated program  

E-print Network

Common Data Set 2010-11 E1 E1 Accelerated program E1 Cooperative education program X E1 Cross-registration X E1 Distance learning X E1 Double major X E1 Dual enrollment E1 English as a Second Language (ESL study X E1 Internships X E1 Liberal arts/career combination X E1 Student-designed major E1 Study abroad

Heller, Barbara

34

Common Data Set 2008-09 E1 Accelerated program  

E-print Network

Common Data Set 2008-09 E1 E1 Accelerated program E1 Cooperative education program X E1 Cross-registration X E1 Distance learning X E1 Double major X E1 Dual enrollment E1 English as a Second Language (ESL study X E1 Internships E1 Liberal arts/career combination X E1 Student-designed major E1 Study abroad X

Heller, Barbara

35

Common Data Set 2011-2012 E1 Accelerated program  

E-print Network

Common Data Set 2011-2012 E1 E1 Accelerated program E1 Cooperative education program X E1 Cross-registration X E1 Distance learning X E1 Double major X E1 Dual enrollment E1 English as a Second Language (ESL study X E1 Internships X E1 Liberal arts/career combination X E1 Student-designed major E1 Study abroad

Heller, Barbara

36

Isoscalar electric multipole strength in C-12  

E-print Network

strength distributions were obtained. Strength was identified corresponding to 27+/-5, 78+/-9, and 51+/-7% of the isoscalar E0, E1, and E2 energy weighted sum rule (EWSR), respectively, with centroids of 21.9+/-0.3, 27.5+/-0.4, and 22.6+/-0.5 MeV and rms...

John, B.; Tokimoto, Y.; Lui, YW; Clark, HL; Chen, X.; Youngblood, David H.

2003-01-01

37

The isovector dipole strength in nuclei with extreme neutron excess  

E-print Network

The E1 strength is systematically analyzed in very neutron-rich Sn nuclei, beyond $^{132}$Sn until $^{166}$Sn, within the Relativistic Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation. The great neutron excess favors the appearance of a deformed ground state for $^{142-162}$Sn. The evolution of the low-lying strength in deformed nuclei is determined by the interplay of two factors, isospin asymmetry and deformation: while greater neutron excess increases the total low-lying strength, deformation hinders and spreads it. Very neutron rich deformed nuclei may not be as good candidates as stable spherical nuclei like $^{132}$Sn for the experimental study of low-lying E1 strength.

Daniel Pena Arteaga; E. Khan; Peter Ring

2008-12-10

38

The simplest Closed-form Description of Dipole Radiative Strength  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons of E1 photon strength calculations within the framework of the modified Lorentzian model are performed for spherical nuclei. Photoabsorption cross-sections are calculated and compared with experimental data to test the model.

Kulich, E.; Burmistrov, L. [Nuclear physics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University, Pr-t Akad. Glushkova, 2, k.11, 03022 Kiev (Ukraine)

2007-11-26

39

Genetic Polymorphism in CYP2E1: Population Distribution of CYP2E1 Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a key enzyme in the metabolic activation of a variety of toxicants including nitrosamines, benzene, vinyl chloride, and halogenated solvents such as trichloroethylene. CYP2E1 is also one of the enzymes that metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde, and is induced by recent ethanol ingestion. There is evidence that interindividual variability in the expression and functional activity of

Pat Neafsey; Gary Ginsberg; Dale Hattis; Douglas O. Johns; Kathryn Z. Guyton; Babasaheb Sonawane

2009-01-01

40

Isoscalar giant resonance strength in Si-28  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW C 76, 027304 (2007) Isoscalar giant resonance strength in 28Si D. H. Youngblood, Y.-W. Lui, and H. L. Clark Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA (Received 7 May 2007; published 28 August... angles including 0?. These studies have focused on obtaining the parameters of the GMR, and strength corresponding to 81 ? 10% of the isoscalar E0 EWSR has been identified. Strength corresponding only to 15 ? 4% of the isoscalar E1 EWSR and 68 ? 9...

Youngblood, David H.; Lui, Y. -W; Clark, H. L.

2007-01-01

41

Identification of the E1fE1k cholinesterase genotype.  

PubMed Central

A family segregating for the A, F, and K alleles at cholinesterase locus 1 is described. This work, undertaken after the proband suffered prolonged apnoea after the use of suxamethonium during the delivery of her third child, resulted in the identification of the E1fE1k genotype in her oldest son. PMID:3172151

Burgess, A M

1988-01-01

42

Why Strength Training?  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Activity Physical Activity Share Compartir Why strength training? Research has shown that strengthening exercises are both ... person's mental and emotional health. Benefits of Strength Training There are numerous benefits to strength training regularly, ...

43

“Bi-modal” isoscalar giant dipole strength in 58Ni  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength distribution of the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR) in 58Ni has been obtained over the energy range 10.5-49.5 MeV via extreme forward angle scattering (including 0°) of 386 MeV ? particles. We observe a “bi-modal” E1 strength distribution for the first time in an A<90 nucleus. The observed ISGDR strength distribution is in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a recent RPA calculation.

Nayak, B. K.; Garg, U.; Hedden, M.; Koss, M.; Li, T.; Liu, Y.; Madhusudhana Rao, P. V.; Zhu, S.; Itoh, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Takeda, H.; Uchida, M.; Yasuda, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hara, K.; Kawabata, T.; Akimune, H.; Harakeh, M. N.

2006-06-01

44

Philosophy 148: HW #4 Solutions (i) E1 Hempel-Confirms H. (E1 = Raa&Rab&Rba&Rbb)  

E-print Network

Philosophy 148: HW #4 Solutions Exercise 1 Part 1. (i) E1 Hempel-Confirms H. (E1 = Raa&Rab&Rba&Rbb) I = {a, b}, devI(H) = Raa&Rab&Rba&Rbb = E1. Therefore, E1 |= devI(H), so E1 directly Hempel-Confirms H, so it Hempel Confirms it. (ii) E2= does not Hempel-Confirm H.(E2 = Raa&Rab&Rba) I = {a, b}, dev

Fitelson, Branden

45

TRANSLATIONAL STRENGTHS AT  

E-print Network

TRANSLATIONAL STRENGTHS AT OHSU 2 0 1 3 Translational Strengths at OHSU (STINT) Conducted;2 OregOnCliniCalandTranslaTiOnalresearChinsTiTuTe ExEcutivE Summary Strengths in Translation at OHSU (STINT) In Spring of 2013, the OCTRI Office of Research Impact interviewed 51 OHSU translational

Chapman, Michael S.

46

The cyp2e1-humanized transgenic mouse: role of cyp2e1 in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

The cytochrome P450 (P450) CYP2E1 enzyme metabolizes and activates a wide array of toxicological substrates, including alcohols, the widely used analgesic acetaminophen, acetone, benzene, halothane, and carcinogens such as azoxymethane and dimethylhydrazine. Most studies on the biochemical and pharmacological actions of CYP2E1 are derived from studies with rodents, rabbits, and cultured hepatocytes; therefore, extrapolation of the results to humans can be difficult. Creating "humanized" mice by introducing the human CYP2E1 gene into Cyp2e1-null mice can circumvent this disadvantage. A transgenic mouse line expressing the human CYP2E1 gene was established. Western blot and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses revealed human CYP2E1 protein expression and enzymatic activity in the liver of CYP2E1-humanized mice. Treatment of mice with the CYP2E1 inducer acetone demonstrated that human CYP2E1 was inducible in this transgenic model. The response to the CYP2E1 substrate acetaminophen was explored in the CYP2E1-humanized mice. Hepatotoxicity, resulting from the CYP2E1-mediated activation of acetaminophen, was demonstrated in the livers of CYP2E1-humanized mice by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels, increased hepatocyte necrosis, and decreased P450 levels. These data establish that in this humanized mouse model, human CYP2E1 is functional and can metabolize and activate different CYP2E1 substrates such as chlorzoxazone, p-nitrophenol, acetaminophen, and acetone. CYP2E1-humanized mice will be of great value for delineating the role of human CYP2E1 in ethanol-induced oxidative stress and alcoholic liver damage. They will also function as an important in vivo tool for predicting drug metabolism and disposition and drug-drug interactions of chemicals that are substrates for human CYP2E1. PMID:15576447

Cheung, Connie; Yu, Ai-Ming; Ward, Jerrold M; Krausz, Kristopher W; Akiyama, Taro E; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Gonzalez, Frank J

2005-03-01

47

26 CFR 1.665(e)-1 - Preceding taxable year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Preceding taxable year. 1.665(e)-1 Section 1.665...Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.665(e)-1 Preceding taxable year. (a) Definition. For...

2011-04-01

48

26 CFR 1.665(e)-1 - Preceding taxable year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Preceding taxable year. 1.665(e)-1 Section 1.665...Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.665(e)-1 Preceding taxable year. (a) Definition. For...

2012-04-01

49

Common Data Set 2007-08 E1 Accelerated program  

E-print Network

/theater X F2 International Student Organization X F2 Jazz band F2 Literary magazine X F2 Marching band F2 Special housing for international students F4 Fraternity/sorority housing X F4 Cooperative housing F4-registration X E1 Distance learning X E1 Double major X E1 Dual enrollment E1 English as a Second Language (ESL

Heller, Barbara

50

From strength to strength: "inner strength" with immature ego states.  

PubMed

The ego-strengthening literature concentrates on the use of hypnotic techniques with the entire or total personality. Ego-state therapy conceptualizes the ego as a system of subpersonalities or ego states that have shifting energies. At any particular time the ego state with the most energy is dominant or executive. Any technique that can be used with an individual patient can also be used with an identified ego state. The "inner-strength" hypnotic technique has been used for ego strengthening and mobilization of inner resources. In this paper the "inner-strength" technique is used with ego states that have been identified as responsible for specific symptoms. We will discuss indications for the appropriate use of this technique in ego-state therapy and the mechanisms of its role in the resolution of symptoms in the cases presented. PMID:8480668

Frederick, C; McNeal, S

1993-04-01

51

E1-L2 activates both ubiquitin and FAT10.  

PubMed

Ubiquitination is catalyzed by a cascade of enzymes consisting of E1, E2, and E3. We report here the identification of an E1-like protein, termed E1-L2, that activates both ubiquitin and another ubiquitin-like protein, FAT10. Interestingly, E1-L2 can transfer ubiquitin to Ubc5 and Ubc13, but not Ubc3 and E2-25K, suggesting that E1-L2 may be specialized in a subset of ubiquitination reactions. E1-L2 forms a thioester with FAT10 in vitro, and this reaction requires the active-site cysteine of E1-L2 and the C-terminal diglycine motif of FAT10. Furthermore, endogenous FAT10 forms a thioester with E1-L2 in cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), which induce FAT10 expression. Silencing of E1-L2 expression by RNAi blocks the formation of FAT10 conjugates in cells. Deletion of E1-L2 in mice caused embryonic lethality, suggesting that E1-L2 plays an important role in embryogenesis. PMID:17889673

Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Sun, Qinmiao; Chen, Zhijian J

2007-09-21

52

Isovector dipole strength in nuclei with extreme neutron excess  

SciTech Connect

The E1 strength is systematically analyzed in very neutron-rich Sn nuclei, beyond {sup 132}Sn until {sup 166}Sn, within the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation. The great neutron excess favors the appearance of a deformed ground state for {sup 142-162}Sn. The evolution of the low-lying strength in deformed nuclei is determined by the interplay of two factors, isospin asymmetry and deformation: while greater neutron excess increases the total low-lying strength, deformation hinders and spreads it. Very neutron rich deformed nuclei may not be as good candidates as spherical nuclei like {sup 132}Sn for the experimental study of low-lying E1 strength.

Arteaga, D. Pena; Khan, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Ring, P. [Physikdepartment, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2009-03-15

53

Adenovirus E1A protein activates transcription of the E1A gene subsequent to transcription complex formation.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of transcriptional activation of the adenovirus E1A and E3 genes by E1A protein during infection was examined by using transcription-competition assays. Infection of HeLa cells with one virus led to inhibition of mRNA accumulation from a superinfecting virus. Synthesis of the E1A 289R protein by the first virus to infect reduced inhibition of transcription of the superinfecting virus, indicating that the E1A 289R protein was limiting for E1A-activated transcription. Infection with an E1A- virus, followed 6 h later by superinfection with a wild-type virus, led to preferential transcriptional activation of the E1A gene of the first virus, suggesting that a host transcription component(s) stably associated with the E1A promoter in the absence of E1A protein and that this complex was the substrate for transcriptional activation by E1A protein. The limiting host transcription component(s) bound to the E1A promoter to form a complex with a half-life greater than 24 h in the absence of E1A 289R protein, as demonstrated in a challenge assay with a large excess of superinfecting virus. In the presence of the E1A 289R protein, the E1A gene of the superinfecting virus was gradually activated with a reduction in E1A mRNA accumulation from the first virus. The kinetics of the activation suggest that this was due to an indirect effect rather than to destabilization of stable transcription complexes by the 289R protein. Images PMID:1825853

Schaack, J; Logan, J; Vakalopoulou, E; Shenk, T

1991-01-01

54

Effective-range approach and scaling laws for electromagnetic strength in neutron-halo nuclei.  

PubMed

We study low-lying multipole strength in neutron-halo nuclei. The strength depends only on a few low-energy constants: the neutron separation energy, the asymptotic normalization coefficient of the bound-state wave function, and the scattering length that contains the information on the interaction in the continuum. The shape of the transition probability shows a characteristic dependence on few scaling parameters and the angular momenta. The total E1 strength is related to the root-mean-square radius of the neutron wave function in the ground state and shows corresponding scaling properties. We apply our approach to the E1 strength distribution of 11Be. PMID:15524785

Typel, S; Baur, G

2004-10-01

55

Age and strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a Smedley hand dynamometer, muscular strength of 552 male industrial manual workers was measured. Results indicate that muscular strength shows an increase to the late twenties and a decline at an increasing rate from that age upward. Explanations of the findings, and the results of previous similar studies are given. 18 references.

M. Bruce Fisher; James E. Birren

1947-01-01

56

Some Characterizations of Euler Spirals in E_1^{3}  

E-print Network

In this study, some characterizations of Euler spirals in E_1^{3} have been presented by using their main property that their curvatures are linear. Moreover, discussing some properties of Bertrand curves and helices, the relationship between these special curves in E_1^{3} have been investigated with different theorems and examples. The approach we used in this paper is useful in understanding the role of Euler spirals in E_1^{3} in differential geometry.

Yayli, Yusuf

2012-01-01

57

Continued study of the parameterization of the El gamma-ray strength function  

SciTech Connect

The parameterization of the magnitude and the energy dependence of the E1 gamma-ray strength function for the calculation of neutron- and proton-induced capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is investigated. The energy-dependent Breit-Wigner (EDBW) is reparameterized incorporating a more general expression for the Breit-Wigner line shape. Evaluation of the reparameterized E1 gamma-ray strength function is discussed. (WHK)

Gardner, M.A.; Gardner, D.G.

1981-06-19

58

Crew Strength Training  

NASA Video Gallery

Train to develop your upper and lower body strength in your muscles and bones by performing body-weight squats and push-ups.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to...

59

Apple Strength Issues  

SciTech Connect

Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post-LEP apples seem to have been from a single batch of material. The pre-LEP apples of the weak strength and the post-LEP apples with even weaker strength could have been made of the same batch of material, and the small strength differential might be due to the difference in the induction heating system. If the pre-LEP apples with the lower strength and the post LEP apples are made from the same batch of material, their combined scatter of strength data would be wider and can be understood as a result of the additional processing steps of stress relief and induction heating as discussed.

Syn, C

2009-12-22

60

Resolvin E1 Regulates ADP Activation of Human Platelets  

PubMed Central

Objective Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived specialized pro-resolving mediator generated during resolution of acute inflammation. RvE1 exhibits potent organ-protective actions in vivo and acts on specific cell types including platelets. Here, we investigated the ability of RvE1 to regulate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) activation of platelets via specific receptors because RvE1 reduces platelet aggregation with certain agonists including ADP. Methods and Results RvE1 (0.1nM–100nM) incubated with platelets gave reduced ADP-stimulated P-selectin mobilization (IC50 ~1.6×10?12 M) and polymerized actin content compared to control platelets. RvE1 (1–100nM) did not stimulate or block intracellular calcium mobilization. Using a new P2Y12-?-arrestin-coupled cell system, ADP-activated P2Y12 with an EC50 of 5×10?6 M and RvE1 did not directly stimulate P2Y12 or block ADP-P2Y12 signals. In this system, another eicosanoid LTE4 (EC50 1.3×10?11 M) dose dependently activated P2Y12. When recombinant P2Y12-expressing cells were transiently transfected with an RvE1 receptor, human ChemR23 (present on human platelets), addition of RvE1 (0.1nM-10.0nM) blocked ADP signals (IC50 ~1.6×10?11 M) in P2Y12-ChemR23-expressing cells compared to mock transfections. Conclusions These results demonstrate that RvE1’s regulatory actions (i.e reducing ADP-stimulated P-selectin mobilization and actin polymerization) are hChemR23-dependent. Moreover, they document specific platelet actions of RvE1 selectively engaged with ADP-activated platelets that illuminate a new cellular mechanism and impact of omega-3 EPA that may contribute to both resolution of vascular inflammation and ADP-dependent platelet activation relevant in pathologic cardiovascular events. PMID:20702811

Fredman, Gabrielle; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Serhan, Charles N.

2010-01-01

61

Spin resonance strength calculations  

SciTech Connect

In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

Courant,E.D.

2008-10-06

62

26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

2010-04-01

63

Eur. Phys. J. E 1, 237248 (2000) THE EUROPEAN  

E-print Network

Eur. Phys. J. E 1, 237­248 (2000) THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL E c EDP Sciences Societ`a Italiana membrane. Following the pioneering work of Huang [5], a large body of work has been done on the physics

Sens, Pierre

64

26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

2011-04-01

65

26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

2012-04-01

66

26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.  

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

2014-04-01

67

26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

2013-04-01

68

High Strength Ferritic Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-strength ferritic alloy is described which is useful for fast reactor duct and cladding applications. An iron base contains from about 9% to about 13% by weight chromium, from about 4% to about 8% by weight molybdenum, from about 0.2% to about 0.8%...

W. C. Hagel, F. A. Smidt, M. K. Korenko

1977-01-01

69

Probe tests microweld strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

1965-01-01

70

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less

Martin Chaplin

2007-01-01

71

High Strength Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breaking strength of a real solid is not determined directly by the interatomic forces but by the properties of the imperfections that the solid contains. To be very strong a solid must resist both pltlstic yielding and brittle cracking. One material cannot normally resist both types of failure. Strong metals are designed to resist plastic yielding. Modern strong composite

A. Kelly

1967-01-01

72

A Two-Photon E1-M1 Optical Clock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovations in precision frequency measurement advance popular technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS), permit the testing of fundamental physics constants, and have the potential to measure local variations in gravity. Driving optical transitions for frequency measurement using an E1-M1 excitation scheme in a hot mercury (Hg) vapor cell is viable and could be the basis of a portable optical frequency standard with comparable accuracy to the most precise atomic clocks in the world. This dissertation explores the fundamental physics of the new E1-M1 method of high-precision frequency measurement in an optical, atomic clock and describes the construction of a high-power E1-M1 clock laser. The value of this new scheme compared to existing optical frequency standards is the simplicity and portability of the experimental setup. Such an optical frequency standard would permit frequency measurement in far-flung locations on earth and in space. Analysis of both the E1-M1 optical transition and thermal properties of the candidate clock atoms are presented. These models allow a stability estimate of an E1-M1 optical clock and recommend experimental settings to optimize the standard. The experimental work that has been performed in pursuit of observing the E1-M1 clock transition in Hg is also discussed. An optical clock operates by making a precision frequency measurement of a laser that has been brought into resonance with a clock atom's oscillator: a high quality atomic level transition. Group II type atoms, such as Hg, have the 1S0-3P0 transition that is an ideal basis for a clock. The E1-M1 excitation is performed by driving the two-photon allowed transition 1S0-3P1-3P0. This is in contrast to the single-photon E1 transition used in other systems. Single-photon schemes must use ultracold atoms to reduce atomic motion to attain high levels of accuracy. Driving the clock transition with a pair of degenerate counter-propagating photons in an E1-M1 scheme reduces Doppler broadening effects without the need for ultracold atoms. This allows frequency measurement to be performed at temperatures that produce large atomic number densities, increasing the statistical accuracy and portability of the E1-M1 system compared to cold systems.

Alden, Emily A.

73

Tensile Strength of Notched Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two postulates on the strength of notched laminated composites are compared to experimental data. The first concerns the use of the fracture strength of angle ply composites to estimate the fracture strength of lami nates of several angle plys. The second concerns a macromechanics ex planation of the notch size effect on static strength for circular notches. The results of

Thomas A. Cruse

1973-01-01

74

DprE1, a new taxonomic marker in mycobacteria.  

PubMed

Among the species of the Mycobacterium genus, more than 50 have been recognized as human pathogens. In spite of the different diseases caused by mycobacteria, the interspecies genetic similarity ranges from 94% to 100%, and for some species, this value is higher than in other bacteria. Consequently, it is important to understand the relationships existing among mycobacterial species. In this context, the possibility to use Mycobacterium tuberculosis dprE1 gene as new phylogenetic/taxonomic marker has been explored. The dprE1 gene codes for the target of benzothiazinones, belonging to a very promising class of antitubercular drugs. Mutations in cysteine 387 of DprE1 are responsible for benzothiazinone resistance. The DprE1 tree, obtained with 73 amino acid sequences of mycobacterial species, revealed that concerning the benzothiazinone sensitivity/resistance, it is possible to discriminate two clusters. To validate it, a concatamer obtained from the amino acid sequences of nine mycobacterial housekeeping genes was performed. The concatamer revealed that there is no separation between the benzothiazinone-susceptible and benzothiazinone-resistant species; consequently, this parameter is not linked to the phylogeny. DprE1 tree might represent a good taxonomic marker for the assignment of a mycobacterial isolate to a species. Moreover, the concatamer represents a good reference phylogeny for the Mycobacterium genus. PMID:24024613

Incandela, Maria Loreto; Perrin, Elena; Fondi, Marco; de Jesus Lopes Ribeiro, Ana Luisa; Mori, Giorgia; Moiana, Alessia; Gramegna, Maurizio; Fani, Renato; Riccardi, Giovanna; Pasca, Maria Rosalia

2013-11-01

75

Crew Strength Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will train to develop upper and lower body strength in their muscles and bones by performing body-weight squats and push-ups. Learners perform the exercises over time (week or month) and record and graph their observations. This activity simulates how astronauts must participate in strength training prior to missions in order to compensate for the weakening of muscles and bones in the reduced gravity environment of space. An embedded video on this page showcases the activity. Learners can complete this activity as part of NASA's Fit Explorer Challenge, in which learners train like astronauts, set goals, track their progress, and accumulate points to progress through Exploration Levels and earn certificates.

Center, Nasa J.

2012-06-26

76

Strength calculations on airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every strength calculation, including those on airplanes, must be preceded by a determination of the forces to be taken into account. In the following discussion, it will be assumed that the magnitudes of these forces are known and that it is only a question of how, on the basis of these known forces, to meet the prescribed conditions on the one hand and the practical requirements on the other.

Baumann, A

1925-01-01

77

Pygmy dipole strength in {sup 90}Zr  

SciTech Connect

The dipole response of the N=50 nucleus {sup 90}Zr was studied in photon-scattering experiments at the electron linear accelerator ELBE with bremsstrahlung produced at kinetic electron energies of 7.9, 9.0, and 13.2 MeV. We identified 189 levels up to an excitation energy of 12.9 MeV. Statistical methods were applied to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions and to correct the intensities of the ground-state transitions for their branching ratios. In this way we derived the photoabsorption cross section up to the neutron-separation energy. This cross section matches well the photoabsorption cross section obtained from ({gamma}, n) data and thus provides information about the extension of the dipole-strength distribution toward energies below the neutron-separation energy. An enhancement of E1 strength has been found in the range of 6 to 11 MeV. Calculations within the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model ascribe this strength to a vibration of the excessive neutrons against the N=Z neutron-proton core, giving rise to a pygmy dipole resonance.

Schwengner, R.; Rusev, G.; Benouaret, N.; Beyer, R.; Erhard, M.; Junghans, A. R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Nair, C.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A. [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Tsoneva, N. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, BAS, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grosse, E. [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Lenske, H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

2008-12-15

78

Acetaldehyde and parkinsonism: role of CYP450 2E1  

PubMed Central

The present review update the relationship between acetaldehyde (ACE) and parkinsonism with a specific focus on the role of P450 system and CYP 2E1 isozyme particularly. We have indicated that ACE is able to enhance the parkinsonism induced in mice by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a neurotoxin able to damage the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Similarly diethyldithiocarbamate, the main metabolite of disulfiram, a drug widely used to control alcoholism, diallylsulfide (DAS) and phenylisothiocyanate also markedly enhance the toxin-related parkinsonism. All these compounds are substrate/inhibitors of CYP450 2E1 isozyme. The presence of CYP 2E1 has been detected in the dopamine (DA) neurons of rodent Substantia Nigra (SN), but a precise function of the enzyme has not been elucidated yet. By treating CYP 2E1 knockout (KO) mice with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, the SN induced lesion was significantly reduced when compared with the lesion observed in wild-type animals. Several in vivo and in vitro studies led to the conclusion that CYP 2E1 may enhance the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice by increasing free radical production inside the dopaminergic neurons. ACE is a good substrate for CYP 2E1 enzyme as the other substrate-inhibitors and by this way may facilitate the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to toxic events. The literature suggests that ethanol and/or disulfiram may be responsible for toxic parkinsonism in human and it indicates that basal ganglia are the major targets of disulfiram toxicity. A very recent study reports that there are a decreased methylation of the CYP 2E1 gene and increased expression of CYP 2E1 mRNA in Parkinson's disease (PD) patient brains. This study suggests that epigenetic variants of this cytochrome contribute to the susceptibility, thus confirming multiples lines of evidence which indicate a link between environmental toxins and PD. PMID:23801948

Vaglini, Francesca; Viaggi, Cristina; Piro, Valentina; Pardini, Carla; Gerace, Claudio; Scarselli, Marco; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

2013-01-01

79

Na(+) transport, and the E(1)P-E(2)P conformational transition of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.  

PubMed Central

We have used admittance analysis together with the black lipid membrane technique to analyze electrogenic reactions within the Na(+) branch of the reaction cycle of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. ATP release by flash photolysis of caged ATP induced changes in the admittance of the compound membrane system that are associated with partial reactions of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Frequency spectra and the Na(+) dependence of the capacitive signal are consistent with an electrogenic or electroneutral E(1)P <--> E(2)P conformational transition which is rate limiting for a faster electrogenic Na(+) dissociation reaction. We determine the relaxation rate of the rate-limiting reaction and the equilibrium constants for both reactions at pH 6.2-8.5. The relaxation rate has a maximum value at pH 7.4 (approximately 320 s(-1)), which drops to acidic (approximately 190 s(-1)) and basic (approximately 110 s(-1)) pH. The E(1)P <--> E(2)P equilibrium is approximately at a midpoint position at pH 6.2 (equilibrium constant approximately 0.8) but moves more to the E(1)P side at basic pH 8.5 (equilibrium constant approximately 0.4). The Na(+) affinity at the extracellular binding site decreases from approximately 900 mM at pH 6.2 to approximately 200 mM at pH 8.5. The results suggest that during Na(+) transport the free energy supplied by the hydrolysis of ATP is mainly used for the generation of a low-affinity extracellular Na(+) discharge site. Ionic strength and lyotropic anions both decrease the relaxation rate. However, while ionic strength does not change the position of the conformational equilibrium E(1)P <--> E(2)P, lyotropic anions shift it to E(1)P. PMID:11053130

Babes, A; Fendler, K

2000-01-01

80

Multi-Laboratory Validation of Estrone (E1) ELISA Methods  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is a round-robin evaluation of commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technology to quantitatively or qualitatively measure the hormone estrone (E1) in combined animal feeding operation (CAFO) receiving streams. ELISA is meant to be a simpl...

81

Isoscalar giant resonance strength in {sup 24}Mg  

SciTech Connect

The giant resonance region from 9 MeV E1, E2, and E3 strength was identified from 9 MeV

Youngblood, D. H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Chen, X. F.; Clark, H. L. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

2009-12-15

82

Oscillator strengths and collision strengths for S III  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present calculation, in a close-coupled approximation for the energy range up to 1,000,000 K, yields collision strengths for the electron impact excitation of S III from the ground 3p2 3P state to the excited states 3s3p3 3D0, 3P0, 3S0, 3d 3D0, 3P0, and 4s 3P0. Also obtained are those transitions' oscillator strengths, and strengths for others involving 3p2 1D and 1S. Configuration-interaction target wave functions yielding oscillator strengths that are accurate to 20 percent are used in collision strength calculations.

Ho, Y. K.; Henry, R. J. W.

1984-01-01

83

Strength Training and Children's Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

Faigenbaum, Avery D.

2001-01-01

84

Strength Training for Young Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to serve as a resource for developing strength training programs for children. Chapter 1 uses research findings to explain why strength training is appropriate for children. Chapter 2 explains some of the important physiological concepts involved in children's growth and development as they apply to developing strength

Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

85

Bone strength and its determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a disease defined by decreased bone mass and alteration of microarchitecture which results in increased bone fragility and increased risk of fracture. The major complication of osteoporosis, i.e., fracture, is due to a lower bone strength. Thus, any treatment of osteoporosis implies an improvement in bone strength. Bone strength is determined by bone geometry, cortical thickness and porosity,

P. Ammann; R. Rizzoli

2003-01-01

86

Notched Strength of Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A macroscopic model for predicting the strength of a composite laminate containing a circular notch is introduced. A property, which quantifies the reduction in strength of a given composite material or laminate due to a circular notch, is proposed. The superposition of notched strength data for several important composite material systems and laminate stacking sequences is achieved through development of

R. Byron Pipes; Robert C. Wetherhold; John W. Gillespie

1979-01-01

87

The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone have been measured as a function of confining pressure and pore pressure. Both the fracture strength and the frictional strength obey the law of effective stress, that is, the strength is determined not by the confining pressure alone but by the difference between the confining pressure and the pore pressure. The fracture strength of the rock varies by as much as 20 per cent depending on the cement between the grains, but the frictional strength is independent of lithology. Over the range 0 2 kb, ??=0??5 + 0??6??n. This relationship also holds for other rocks such as gabbro, dunite, serpentinite, granite and limestone. ?? 1975.

Byerlee, J.D.

1975-01-01

88

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-print Network

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10

89

Cyclin E1 Is Amplified and Overexpressed in Osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is a genetically complex malignancy, predominantly afflicting the adolescent population and associated still with relatively poor long-term outcomes. Although there has been some improvement in the understanding of osteosarcoma biology, this has not yet translated particularly well into therapeutic advances. By using a whole-genome tiling path array for comparative genomic hybridization analysis, we sought to evaluate DNA copy number changes in 22 osteosarcoma tumor samples. Regions of most frequent gains or losses generated by Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer analysis were evaluated for genes of interest. Correlation of the copy number data with preexisting expression data for these genes yielded not only targets known to be important in osteosarcoma but also novel targets, notably cyclin E1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the findings. Overexpression of cyclin E1 has potential prognostic and therapeutic implications that are discussed herein. PMID:21458381

Lockwood, William W.; Stack, Deirdre; Morris, Thomas; Grehan, David; O'Keane, Conor; Stewart, Greg L.; Cumiskey, Joanna; Lam, Wan L.; Squire, Jeremy A.; Thomas, David M.; O'Sullivan, Maureen J.

2011-01-01

90

Two-photon E1-M1 optical clock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An allowed E1-M1 excitation scheme creates optical access to the 1S0?3P0 clock transition in group-II-type atoms. This method does not require the hyperfine mixing or application of an external magnetic field of other optical clock systems. The advantages of this technique include a Doppler-free excitation scheme and increased portability with the use of vapor cells. We will discuss technical mechanisms of a monochromatic excitation scheme for a hot E1-M1 clock and briefly discuss a bichromatic scheme to eliminate light shifts. We determine the optimal experimental parameters for Hg, Yb, Ra, Sr, Ba, Ca, Mg, and Be and calculate that neutral Hg has ideal properties for a hot, portable frequency standard.

Alden, E. A.; Moore, K. R.; Leanhardt, A. E.

2014-07-01

91

QM02 Strength Measurement  

SciTech Connect

In late April, Paul Emma reported that his orbit fitting program could find a reasonably good fit only if the strength of QM02 was changed from design value of -5.83 kG to -6.25 kG - a strength change of 7.3%. In late May, we made a focal length measurement of QM02 by turning off all focusing optics between YC07 and BPMS1 (in the spectrometer line) except for QM02 and adjusted the strength of QM02 so that vertical kicks by YC07 did not produce any displacements at BPMS1 (see Figure 1). The result was quoted in the LCLS elog was that QM02 appeared to 6% too weak, and approximately agreed with Paul's observation. The analysis used for the entry in the log book was based on the thin lens approximation and used the following numbers: Distance YC07 to QM02 - 5.128 m; Distance QM02 to BPMS1 - 1.778 m; and Energy - 135 MeV. These distances were computed from the X,Z coordinates given the on the large plot of the Injector on the wall of the control room. On review of the MAD output file coordinates, it seems that the distance used for QM02 to BPMS1 is not 1.778 m. The correct value is Distance, center of QM02 to BPMS1 - 1.845 m. There may be a typo on the wall chart values for the coordinates of BPMS1, or perhaps there was a misinterpretation of edge versus center of QM02. In any case, the effect of this change is that the thin lens estimate changes from 6% too weak to 9% too weak. At John Galayda's suggestion, we looked into the thin lens versus thick lens approximation. A Mathematica program was written to solve for the K value of the QM02, in the thick lens approximation, that provides point to point focusing from YC07 to BPMS1, and to compare this number with the value obtained using the thin lens approximation. The length of QM02 used in the thick lens calculation is the effective length determined by magnetic measurements of 0.108 m. The result of the Mathematica calculation is that the thin lens approximation predicts less magnet strength is required to produce the same focusing by about 1.3%. When both the distance correction and the thick lens approximation are taken into account, the result is: K{sub thick} - K{sub mm}/K{sub thick} = -7.6% where K{sub mm} is the value obtained from magnetic measurements and K{sub thick} is the value of K obtained from the focal length measurement in the thick lens approximation. That is, QM02 acts weaker than it was measured by magnetic measurements by 7.6%. This is remarkably close to Paul's original estimate. The unexpected weakness could in principle be due to several things: shorted turns, a current calibration error, magnetic measurement error; it could even be due to the presence of an gradient from QM01, which is of opposite sign and right next to QM02, despite it being set to zero current (although it was not DAC-zeroed). Plans have been implemented to remove and replace QM02 at the earliest ROD.

Welch, J; Wu, J.; /SLAC; ,

2010-11-24

92

Molecular dynamics simulations of CYP2E1.  

PubMed

CYP2E1, as a member of the cytochrome P450s (CYPs) super-family, is in charge of six percent drug metabolism involving a diversity of drugs distinct in structures and chemical properties, such as alcohols, monocyclic compounds (e.g., acetaminophen, benzene, p-nitrophenol), bicyclic heterocycles (e.g., coumarin, caffeine) and even fatty acids. The aromatic molecules form a vital species catalyzed by CYP2E1. To investigate the mechanism of metabolizing a diversity of aromatic molecules, five representative aromatic substrates were selected: (1) benzene, the non-polar simple ring; (2) aniline, the monocyclic substrate with smallest substitution on the phenyl ring; (3) acetaminophen, a large monocyclic substrate with highly active reactivity; (4) chlorzoxazone, and (5) theophylline, the bicyclic substrates with low or high catalytic activities. They were docked into X-ray structure of CYP2E1, after which all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of 5 ns were performed on each model. It was found that the active site interact with the aromatic substrates mainly through ?-? stacking, supplied by five hydrophobic phenylalanines in the active site. Our simulations also illustrated the specific movement of different kinds of aromatic substrates in the pocket. Small monocyclic substrates show highly frequent self-rotation and limited translation movement. Substrates with single catalytic position are less movable in the pocket than substrates with multiple products. All these findings are quite useful for understanding the catalytic mechanism of CYP2E1, stimulating novel strategies for conducting further mutagenesis studies for specific drug design. PMID:22385180

Li, Jue; Wei, Dong-Qing; Wang, Jing-Fang; Yu, Zheng-Tian; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2012-03-01

93

Factors influencing the strength differential of high strength steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature tensile and compressive true stress-true strain curves of various high strength steels (quenched and tempered\\u000a 4340 steel, 410 martensitic stainless steel, and H-11 steel; and aged 300-grade 18 Ni maraging steel) were analyzed to determine\\u000a the effect of the various microstructures, on what has been termed the strength differential (SD),i.e., the strength level difference between the tensile and

R. Chait

1972-01-01

94

Impact strength and indentation hardness of high-strength ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Hugoniot elastic limit and indentation hardness data are provided for selected high-strength ceramics AlN, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 4}C, SiC, TiB, Zr{sub 2}. Degree of correlation of the strength data by the two test methods is examined. Influence of reformation mechanism on strength measurement, including rate sensitivity, size scale and confining pressure, is discussed.

Grady, D.E.

1993-08-01

95

Study of gamma-ray strength functions  

SciTech Connect

The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

1980-08-07

96

Strength of Chemical Bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Students are not generally made aware of the extraordinary magnitude of the strengths of chemical bonds in terms of the forces required to pull them apart. Molecular bonds are usually considered in terms of the energies required to break them, and we are not astonished at the values encountered. For example, the Cl2 bond energy, 57.00 kcal/mole, amounts to only 9.46 x 10(sup -20) cal/molecule, a very small amount of energy, indeed, and impossible to measure directly. However, the forces involved in realizing the energy when breaking the bond operate over a very small distance, only 2.94 A, and, thus, f(sub ave) approx. equals De/(r - r(sub e)) must be very large. The forces involved in dissociating the molecule are discussed in the following. In consideration of average forces, the molecule shall be assumed arbitrarily to be dissociated when the atoms are far enough separated so that the potential, relative to that of the infinitely separated atoms, is reduced by 99.5% from the potential of the molecule at the equilibrium bond length (r(sub e)) for Cl2 of 1.988 A this occurs at 4.928 A.

Christian, Jerry D.

1973-01-01

97

mcg/kg/min: Alprostadil (PgE1)  

E-print Network

PICU/CVICU DRIPS mcg/kg/min: Alprostadil (PgE1) Range: 0.025-0.1 mcg/kg/min Amiodarone Range: kg 5-15 mcg/kg/min >50 kg 1 mg/min Cisatracurium Range: 0.5-4 mcg/kg/min Dobutamine Range: 3-10 mcg/kg/min Dopamine Range: 3-12 mcg/kg/min Epinephrine Range: 0.01-0.2 mcg/kg/min Esmolol Range: 50-400 mcg/kg/min

Kay, Mark A.

98

Crossover Analysis of CHANG'E-1 Laser Altimeter Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a preliminary result of crossover analysis and adjustment of Chang'E-1(CE-1) Laser Altimeter (LAM) data of the Moon for global and regional mapping applications. During the operation of Chang'E-1 from November 28, 2007 to December 4, 2008, the laser altimeter acquired 1400 orbital profiles with about 9.12 million altimetric points. In our experiment, we derived more than 1.38 million crossovers from 1395 ground tracks covering the entire lunar surface after eliminating outliers of orbits and altimetric points. A method of least-squares crossover adjustment with a series of basis functions of time (trigonometric functions and polynomials) is developed to reconcile the LAM data by minimizing the crossover residuals globally. The normal equations are very large but sparse; therefore they are stored and solved using sparse matrix technique. In a test area (0°N~60°N, 50°W~0°W), the crossover residuals are reduced from 62.1m to 32.8m, and the quality of the DEM generated from the adjusted LAM data is improved accordingly. We will optimize the method for the global adjustment to generate a high precision consistent global DEM, which can be used as absolute control for lunar mapping with orbital images.

Hu, W.; Yue, Z.; Di, K.

2011-08-01

99

Do You Have the Strength?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students squeeze a tennis ball to demonstrate the strength of the human heart. Working in teams, they think of ways to keep the heart beating if the natural mechanism were to fail. The goal of this activity is to get students to understand the strength and resilience of the heart.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory, University O.

2012-04-21

100

Micromechanical fracture strength of silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to test the statistical influence of some process and micromachining parameters on the fracture strength of silicon microelements, arrays of identical microsized cantilever beams were bulk micromachined in single-crystalline silicon wafers. The beams were exposed to various surface treatments (diamond polishing with different grades, oxidization, stripping of oxide) in different combinations. The influence on fracture strength was investigated

Fredric Ericson; Jan-Åke Schweitz

1990-01-01

101

The Ideal Strength of Diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present calculations of both the ideal shear and tensile strengths of diamond using pseudopotential density functional theory, within the local density approximation. Our calculations show a transition to a graphitic state under large shear stress, as has recently been seen in nanoindentation studies. We also compare the ideal shear strength with the maximum shear stress observed in diamond anvil cell experiments.

Roundy, David; Cohen, Marvin L.

2001-03-01

102

Strength and conditioning for triathletes.  

PubMed

Strength exercises for the knee, shoulder, and the core are essential to help prevent injuries to triathletes. This article will outline the most common exercises to strength the major joints and flexibility exercises to maintain range of motion of the joints. PMID:23147095

Day, Bruce; Johnson, Don

2012-12-01

103

Hydrate adhesive and tensile strengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the interaction between hydrates and minerals. In particular, hydrates prefer to nucleate on mineral surfaces, therefore, the hydrate-mineral adhesive strength and the tensile strength of the hydrate mass itself affect the mechanical response of hydrate-bearing sediments. In this study, ice and hydrates made with various guest molecules (CO2, CH4, and THF) are formed between mica and calcite substrates. Adhesive and tensile strengths are measured by applying an external pull-out force. Results show that tensile failure occurs in CO2 and CH4 hydrates when calcite is the substrate, while ice and all hydrates exhibit adhesive failure on mica. The debonding strength is higher when calcite substrates are involved rather than mica substrates. A nominal pull-out strength of 0.15 ± 0.03 MPa can be adopted for mechanical analyses of hydrate-bearing sediments.

Jung, J. W.; Santamarina, J. Carlos

2011-08-01

104

Reduction of benzene metabolism and toxicity in mice that lack CYP2E1 expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic CYP2E1 knockout mice (cyp2e1-\\/-) were used toinvestigate the involvement of CYP2E1 in the in vivo metabolism of benzene and in the development of benzene-induced toxicity. After benzene exposure, absence of CYP2E1 protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis of mouse liver samples. For the metabolism studies, male cyp2e1-\\/- and wild-type control mice were exposed to 200 ppm benzene, along

John L. Valentine; Susanna S.-T. Lee; Mark J. Seaton; Bahman Asgharian; Georgia Farris; J. Christopher Corton; Frank J. Gonzalez; Michele A. Medinsky

1996-01-01

105

Metabolism of prostaglandins A1 and E1 in man.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the in vivo whole blood metabolic clearance rates and sites of metabolism of prostaglandins A1 and E1 in man, constant infusions of the tritiated compounds were administered to normal subjects and to patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. The whole blood metabolic clearance rate of [3H]prostaglandin A1 in eight men was 5,003 +/- 864 liters/day (SD) or 2,546 +/- 513 liters/day per m2 (SD). Nonradioactive prostaglandin A1 was similarly infused in two subjects, and the metabolic clearance rates were determined, utilizing a specific radioimmunoassay. The clearance rates with this method correlated closely with those determined by the isotope infusions. Extraction studies of prostaglandin A1 showed that pulmonary, splanchnic, renal, and extremity perfusions resulted in 8.1 +/- 4.1, 56.1 +/- 10.1, 50.3 +/- 3.4, and 34.4 +/- 5.9% (SEM) removal, respectively. With [3H]=prostaglandin E1, the whole blood metabolic clearance rate was determined from the pulmonary artery concentration in three patients and averaged 4,832 +/- 1,518 liters/day (SD) or 2,686 +/- 654 liters/day per m2 (SD). Pulmonary extraction was 67.8 +/- 6.8% (SEM) and extremity removal averaged 6.6 +/- 4.9% (SEM). These results indicate that A prostaglandins are metabolized by several organs, such as the liver and kidney, and possibly by intravascular pathways as well. In man, the E prostaglandins are primarily metabolized by the lung, but extraction is not complete and approximately one-third may escape lung metabolism. Thus, these findings suggest that both E and A prostaglandins in the venous circulation may reach the systemic circulation in man. PMID:1202078

Golub, M; Zia, P; Matsuno, M; Horton, R

1975-01-01

106

Strength deterioration of high strength concrete in sulfate environment  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate in soil and groundwater may cause damage to the concrete in underground structures. In this paper, laboratory tests were performed to assess the damage of chemical attack by magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate on normal and high strength concretes. The selected solutions were pure water and 10% sulfate solutions (sodium and magnesium), which were determined by consideration of the soil environment in Korea. The parameters in experimental programs were water-binder ratio, silica fume content, and the compressive strength of concrete. Observed differences in the characteristics between normal and high strength concretes are discussed, and a scheme for maximizing the resistance of high strength concrete against various kinds of sulfates is suggested.

Park, Y.S.; Suh, J.K.; Lee, J.H.; Shin, Y.S.

1999-09-01

107

TOT: the association strength heuristic  

E-print Network

Three experiments were conducted to examine the effect of association strength on TOT (tip-of-the-tongue states) and recall. Two hundred nineteen undergraduate students studied pictures and names of 24 imaginary animals that were presented on a...

Choi, Hyun

2005-11-01

108

Conserving Self-Control Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals may be motivated to limit their use of self-control resources, especially when they have depleted some of that resource. Expecting to need self-control strength in the future should heighten the motivation to conserve strength. In 4 experiments, it was found that depleted participants who anticipated exerting self-control in the future performed more poorly in an intervening test of self-control

Mark Muraven; Dikla Shmueli; Edward Burkley

2006-01-01

109

Weld width indicates weld strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Width of butt weld in 2219-T87 aluminum has been found to be more reliable indicator of weld strength than more traditional parameters of power input and cooling rate. Yield stress and ultimate tensile strength tend to decrease with weld size. This conclusion supports view of many professional welders who give priority to weld geometry over welding energy or cooling rate as indicator of weld quality.

Nunes, A. C. J.; Novak, H. L.; Mcllwain, M. C.

1982-01-01

110

Strengths of Aboriginal Foster Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to identify the strengths of Aboriginal foster parents according to the foster parents themselves.\\u000a A total of 83 Aboriginal foster parents participated in over the phone interviews that included the question “What are the\\u000a main strengths you have as a foster parent?”. Responses to the questions were sorted by the participants and the sorted

Viktoria Ivanova; Jason Brown

2011-01-01

111

Polymer Welding: Strength Through Entanglements  

E-print Network

Large-scale simulations of thermal welding of polymers are performed to investigate the rise of mechanical strength at the polymer-polymer interface with the welding time. The welding process is in the core of integrating polymeric elements into devices as well as in thermal induced healing of polymers; processes that require development of interfacial strength equal to that of the bulk. Our simulations show that the interfacial strength saturates at the bulk shear strength much before polymers diffuse by their radius of gyration. Along with the strength increase, the dominant failure mode changes from chain pullout at the interface to chain scission as in the bulk. Formation of sufficient entanglements across the interface, which we track using a Primitive Path Analysis is required to arrest catastrophic chain pullout at the interface. The bulk response is not fully recovered until the density of entanglements at the interface reaches the bulk value. Moreover, the increase of interfacial strength before saturation is proportional to the number of interfacial entanglements between chains from opposite sides.

Ting Ge; Flint Pierce; Dvora Perahia; Gary S. Grest; Mark O. Robbins

2012-11-29

112

Differential Effects of Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanates on the Activities of Cytochrome P450 2E1 and the Mutant P450 2E1 T303A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of benzyl (BITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) on the activity of a P450 2E1 mutant where the conserved threonine at position 303 was replaced with an alanine residue (P450 2E1 T303A) were examined. PEITC inactivated the mutant enzyme with a KI of 1.6 ?M. PEITC also inactivated the wild-type P450 2E1 as efficiently with a KI of 2.7

Rosa L. Moreno; Theunis Goosen; Ute M. Kent; Fung-Lung Chung; Paul F. Hollenberg

2001-01-01

113

LEARNINGACTIVITY#2 Test the Strength of  

E-print Network

the factors that affect the tensile strength and the compressive strength of a structural member. n Design a testing program to determine the strength of structural members. n Determine the tensile strengthLEARNINGACTIVITY#2 Test the Strength of Structural Members Learning Activity #2: Overview

Bowen, James D.

114

Adenovirus-induced alterations of the cell growth cycle: a requirement for expression of E1A but not of E1B.  

PubMed Central

Mutants dl312, dl314, hr1, and hr3 with mutations in region E1A of adenovirus type 5 were defective for the induction of cell cycle abnormalities detectable by flow cytometry, cell DNA replication, thymidine kinase production, and chromosome aberrations and did not synthesize the viral DNA-binding protein (E2A) in rat cells. dl311, a leaky E1A mutant, induced cell cycle effects at high multiplicity in only one of three experiments, and synthesized the DNA-binding protein. hr7 (E1B) gave a wild-type response in all tests. dl313 was also positive in all tests, although it induced fewer polyploid cells than did wild-type virus, probably because of the leftward extension of the dl313 E1B deletion into E1A. sub315 and sub316, with mutations which also span the E1A-E1B border, synthesized DNA-binding protein, but caused no cell cycle alterations detectable by flow cytometry in rat or mouse cells. Although the participation of other viral early regions cannot be completely excluded, our results suggest that alteration of cell cycle progression is a direct effect of E1A unrelated to its control of other viral early regions, and may be the function of E1A in transformation. Images PMID:6823012

Braithwaite, A W; Cheetham, B F; Li, P; Parish, C R; Waldron-Stevens, L K; Bellett, A J

1983-01-01

115

Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is essential for acrylonitrile metabolism to cyanide: comparative studies using CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice.  

PubMed

Acrylonitrile (AN) is a rodent carcinogen and suspected human carcinogen. Metabolism of AN proceeds via conjugation with glutathione or epoxidation via cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) to cyanoethylene oxide (CEO). It was hypothesized that CEO metabolism via epoxide hydrolase (EH) is the primary pathway for cyanide formation. The objective of this work is to assess the enzymatic basis of metabolism to cyanide. Male wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice received 0, 2.5, 10, 20, or 40 mg of AN/kg by gavage, and cyanide was measured in blood and tissues. CYP2E1 and EH expression were assessed using Western blot analyses. Present results demonstrated that cyanide concentrations in blood and tissues of AN-treated wild-type mice were higher at 1 versus 3 h, increased in a dose-dependent manner, and were significantly higher in AN-treated versus vehicle-treated mice. In contrast, cyanide concentrations in the blood and tissues of AN-treated CYP2E1-null mice were not statistically different from those of vehicle-treated mice. Furthermore, this work showed that EH is expressed in CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice. In conclusion, under the current experimental conditions using CYP2E1-null mice, current work demonstrated for the first time that CYP2E1-mediated oxidation is a prerequisite for AN metabolism to cyanide. Since earlier studies showed that CYP2E1 is the only enzyme responsible for AN epoxidation, it is concluded that AN metabolism to CEO is a prerequisite for cyanide formation, and this pathway is exclusively catalyzed by CYP2E1. Finally, this work confirmed that cyanide plays an essential role in the causation of the acute toxicity/mortality of AN. PMID:12124309

Wang, Hongbing; Chanas, Brian; Ghanayem, Burhan I

2002-08-01

116

Estrogen Sulfotransferase/SULT1E1 Promotes Human Adipogenesis  

PubMed Central

Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST/SULT1E1) is known to catalyze the sulfoconjugation and deactivation of estrogens. The goal of this study is to determine whether and how EST plays a role in human adipogenesis. By using human primary adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and whole-fat tissues from the abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese and nonobese subjects, we showed that the expression of EST was low in preadipocytes but increased upon differentiation. Overexpression and knockdown of EST in ASCs promoted and inhibited differentiation, respectively. The proadipogenic activity of EST in humans was opposite to the antiadipogenic effect of the same enzyme in rodents. Mechanistically, EST promoted adipogenesis by deactivating estrogens. The proadipogenic effect of EST can be recapitulated by using an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist or ER? knockdown. In contrast, activation of ER in ASCs inhibited adipogenesis by decreasing the recruitment of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) onto its target gene promoters, whereas ER antagonism increased the recruitment of PPAR? to its target gene promoters. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between the expression of EST and body mass index (BMI), as well as a negative correlation between ER? expression and BMI. We conclude that EST is a proadipogenic factor which may serve as a druggable target to inhibit the turnover and accumulation of adipocytes in obese patients. PMID:24567372

Ihunnah, Chibueze A.; Wada, Taira; Philips, Brian J.; Ravuri, Sudheer K.; Gibbs, Robert B.; Kirisci, Levent; Rubin, J. Peter; Marra, Kacey G.

2014-01-01

117

Unusual dielectric strength of Debye relaxation in monohydroxy alcohols upon mixing.  

PubMed

The dielectric strength of the Debye relaxation in the binary mixtures of two isomeric monohydroxy alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-butanol (2E1B) and 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4M2P), is studied at low temperature near glass transition. Enhanced dielectric strength is exhibited in the mixtures, remarkably different from the mixing behaviors of the structural (?-) relaxation of generic liquids. A similar result is observed when analyzing the dielectric data of the binary mixtures of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol reported in an early study. The unusual behavior of the dielectric strength in the mixtures reveals a new feature of the Debye relaxation in monohydroxy alcohols. Yet, the calorimetric measurements of the glass transition temperature in 2E1B-4M2P mixtures show a distinct negative deviation from the ideal mixing law. The explanation of the Debye relaxation is discussed with the results. PMID:22913462

Gong, Hongxiang; Chen, Zeming; Bi, Dongyang; Sun, Mingdao; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Li-Min

2012-09-20

118

Improved Plant-based Production of E1 endoglucanase Using Potato: Expression Optimization and Tissue Targeting  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) gene expression in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was examined in this study, where the E1 coding sequence was transcribed under control of a leaf specific promoter (tomato RbcS-3C) or the Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of mannopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region). Average E1 activity in leaf extracts of potato transformants, in which E1 protein was targeted by a chloroplast signal peptide and an apoplast signal peptide were much higher than those by an E1 native signal peptide and a vacuole signal peptide. E1 protein accumulated up to 2.6% of total leaf soluble protein, where E1 gene was under control of the RbcS-3C promoter, alfalfa mosaic virus 5-untranslated leader, and RbcS-2A signal peptide. E1 protein production, based on average E1 activity and E1 protein accumulation in leaf extracts, is higher in potato than those measured previously in transgenic tobacco bearing the same transgene constructs. Comparisons of E1 activity, protein accumulation, and relative mRNA levels showed that E1 expression under control of tomato RbcS-3C promoter was specifically localized in leaf tissues, while E1 gene was expressed in both leaf and tuber tissues under control of Mac promoter. This suggests dual-crop applications in which potato vines serve as enzyme production `bioreactors' while tubers are preserved for culinary applications.

Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Thomas, S R.

2000-06-01

119

Information Content of the Low-Energy Electric Dipole Strength: Correlation Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Background: Recent experiments on the electric dipole (E1) polarizability in heavy nuclei have stimulated theoretical interest in the low-energy electric dipole strength, both isovector and isoscalar. Purpose: We study the information content carried by the electric dipole strength with respect to isovector and isoscalar indicators characterizing bulk nuclear matter and finite nuclei. To separate isoscalar and isovector modes, and low-energy strength and giant resonances, we analyze the E1 strength as a function of the excitation energy E and momentum transfer q. Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy density functionals, augmented by the random phase approximation, to compute the E1 strength and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables. Calculations are performed for the spherical, doubly magic nuclei 208Pb and 132Sn. Results: We demonstrate that E1 transition densities in the low-energy region below the giant dipole resonance exhibit appreciable state dependence and multinodal structures, which are fingerprints of weak collectivity. The correlation between the accumulated low-energy strength and the symmetry energy is weak, and dramatically depends on the energy cutoff assumed. On the other hand, a strong correlation is predicted between isovector indicators and the accumulated isovector strength at E around 20 MeV and momentum transfer q 0.65 fm 1. Conclusions: Momentum- and coordinate-space patterns of the low-energy dipole modes indicate a strong fragmentation into individual particle-hole excitations. The global measure of low-energy dipole strength correlates poorly with the nuclear symmetry energy and other isovector characteristics. Consequently, our results do not support the suggestion that there exists a collective pygmy dipole resonance, which is a strong indicator of nuclear isovector properties. By considering nonzero values of momentum transfer, one can isolate individual excitations and nicely separate low-energy excitations from the T=1 and T=0 giant collective modes. That is, measurements at q>0 may serve as a tool to correlate the E1 strength with certain bulk observables, such as incompressibility and symmetry energy.

Reinhard, P.-G. [Inst. fur Theoretische Physik II, Univ. Erlangen-Numberg, Germany; Nazarewicz, Witold [UTK/ORNL/University of Warsaw

2013-01-01

120

Mean-field analysis of ground state and low-lying electric dipole strength in $^{22}$C  

E-print Network

Properties of neutron-rich $^{22}$C are studied using the mean-field approach with Skyrme energy density functionals. Its weak binding and large total reaction cross section, which are suggested by recent experiments, are simulated by modifying the central part of Skyrme potential. Calculating $E1$ strength distribution by using the random-phase approximation, we investigate developments of low-lying electric dipole ($E1$) strength and a contribution of core excitations of $^{20}$C. As the neutron Fermi level approaches the zero energy threshold ($\\varepsilon_F >\\sim -1$ MeV), we find that the low-lying $E1$ strength exceeds the energy-weighted cluster sum rule, which indicates an importance of the core excitations with the $1d_{5/2}$ orbit.

Tsunenori Inakura; W. Horiuchi; Y. Suzuki; T. Nakatsukasa

2014-05-30

121

7 CFR 29.3061 - Strength (tensile).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.3061 Section 29...Foreign Type 93) § 29.3061 Strength (tensile). The stress a tobacco leaf can bear without tearing. Tensile strength is not an important...

2011-01-01

122

7 CFR 29.3061 - Strength (tensile).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.3061 Section 29...Foreign Type 93) § 29.3061 Strength (tensile). The stress a tobacco leaf can bear without tearing. Tensile strength is not an important...

2013-01-01

123

7 CFR 29.3061 - Strength (tensile).  

... 2014-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.3061 Section 29...Foreign Type 93) § 29.3061 Strength (tensile). The stress a tobacco leaf can bear without tearing. Tensile strength is not an important...

2014-01-01

124

7 CFR 29.3061 - Strength (tensile).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.3061 Section 29...Foreign Type 93) § 29.3061 Strength (tensile). The stress a tobacco leaf can bear without tearing. Tensile strength is not an important...

2010-01-01

125

7 CFR 29.3061 - Strength (tensile).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.3061 Section 29...Foreign Type 93) § 29.3061 Strength (tensile). The stress a tobacco leaf can bear without tearing. Tensile strength is not an important...

2012-01-01

126

26 CFR 1.149(e)-1 - Information reporting requirements for tax-exempt bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reporting requirements for tax-exempt bonds. 1.149(e)-1 Section 1...Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.149(e)-1 Information reporting requirements for tax-exempt bonds. (a) General rule....

2010-04-01

127

Neutralization of prostaglandin E1 intravenous solution reduces infusion phlebitis.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown moderate or severe phlebitis at the site of venipuncture in some patients who receiving prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) infusion therapy. Such phlebitis is sometimes severe enough to necessitate the cessation of PGE1 therapy. This study investigated how to continue PGE1 infusion therapy for 3 weeks with tolerable phlebitis. Although a 60 microg dose of PGE1 is usually dissolved in 500 mL of fluid to avoid phlebitis, we used 200 mL to prevent volume overload. This PGE1 solution was neutralized to pH 7.4 with 4 mL of 7% sodium bicarbonate. We examined the frequency and severity of phlebitis among patients who received a 2-h PGE1 infusion twice daily. Eighteen patients who were hospitalized for peripheral vascular disease between June 1998 and May 1999 were studied. All of them were men and their mean age was 63.3 +/- 8.9 years (range: 47-78 years). Fourteen patients had arteriosclerosis obliterans and four had Buerger's disease. When the severity of phlebitis was determined according to Dinley's criteria, two patients (11%) had grade 0, four patients (22%) had grade 1, eleven patients (61%) had grade 2, and one patient (6%) had grade 3 phlebitis. Usually, PGE1 infusion therapy is stopped when phlebitis reaches grade 4 or more, but there were no such cases in this study. We also found that aging was significantly correlated with a decrease in the severity of phlebitis (Spearman's rank correlation test: r = -0.545, p = 0.0193). PMID:10999612

Fujita, M; Hatori, N; Shimizu, M; Yoshizu, H; Segawa, D; Kimura, T; Iizuka, Y; Tanaka, S

2000-09-01

128

REHIRING Students or Hourly Wage Employees E1 and E1S Paper forms are being Phased Out -for rehiring, rate changes, termination, and  

E-print Network

REHIRING Students or Hourly Wage Employees E1 and E1S Paper forms are being Phased Out - for rehiring, rate changes, termination, and position changes. This change is effective August 16, 2012 of student and hourly employees. The new process utilizes existing functionality in Banner self

129

Oncolytic viral therapy by bladder instillation using an E1A, E1B double-restricted adenovirus in an orthotopic bladder cancer model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo investigate the therapeutic effect of AxdAdB-3, a double-restricted oncolytic adenovirus harboring a mutant E1A and an E1B-55KD deletion, on human bladder cancer cell lines and the SCID mouse model of orthotopic bladder cancer.

Hua Wang; Makoto Satoh; Hisashi Abe; Makoto Sunamura; Takuya Moriya; Shigeto Ishidoya; Seiichi Saito; Hirofumi Hamada; Yoichi Arai

2006-01-01

130

Oscillator strengths for Si II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New accurate results are presented for absorption oscillator strengths of Si II resonance lines. In these ab initio calculations, an extensive basis set of 67 electronic configuration are employed, including fine-structure states and relativistic effects in the Breit-Pauli approximation. For the strong Si II lines, good agreement is found with previous LS-coupling f-values of Dufton et al. (1983). Oscillator strengths of selected weaker lines disagree in some cases with empirically determined f-values by Shull, Snow, and York (1981) and by Van Buren (1986). The theoretical results are combined with curve-of-growth analyses of Copernicus and IUE data to yield a list of recommended Si II oscillator strengths consistent with the errors in both theoretical and observational analyses. These f-values have been used (Van Steenberg and Shull) for a Galactic survey of interstellar silicon abundances with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite.

Luo, Ding; Pradhan, Anil K.; Shull, J. Michael

1988-01-01

131

Strength gain through eccentric isotonic training without changes in clinical signs or blood markers  

PubMed Central

Background Localized exercises are widely used in rehabilitation processes. The predominant options are exercises with an emphasis on either concentric or eccentric contractions. Eccentric exercises promote greater strength gains compared to classical concentric stimuli, but can cause muscle damage. The aim of present study was to compare strength training composed of 10 sessions with progressive loads between groups with a predominance of concentric versus eccentric contraction through an analysis of isotonic strength, pressure pain threshold, creatine kinase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cortisol. Methods One hundred twenty male subjects were divided into four groups: C1 and E1 – single session of maximum strength with emphasis on concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively; C10 and E10 – 10 sessions with progressive loads from 80% to maximum strength with emphasis on concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Results Isotonic strength increased by 10% in E10 following the ten training sessions. C1 and E1 exhibited a lower pressure pain threshold 48 hours after the sessions in comparison to C10 and E10, respectively. Creatine kinase was increased in C1 in comparison to baseline, with significant differences (p???0.05) in comparison to E1 at 48 and 96 hours as well as C10 at 48, 72 and 96 hours. No significant differences were found in TNF-? or cortisol among the groups or evaluation times. Conclusion Eccentric contraction training promotes functional adaptation. Moreover, both concentric and eccentric contraction training have a protective effect on the muscle in relation to a single session of maximum strength exercise. Trial registration RBR-75scwh PMID:24261331

2013-01-01

132

Search for low lying dipole strength in the neutron rich nucleus $^{26}$Ne  

E-print Network

Coulomb excitation of the exotic neutron-rich nucleus $^{26}$Ne on a $^{nat}$Pb target was measured at 58 A.MeV in order to search for low-lying E1 strength above the neutron emission threshold. Data were also taken on an $^{nat}$Al target to estimate the nuclear contribution. The radioactive beam was produced by fragmentation of a 95 A.MeV $^{40}$Ar beam delivered by the RIKEN Research Facility. The set-up included a NaI gamma-ray array, a charged fragment hodoscope and a neutron wall. Using the invariant mass method in the $^{25}$Ne+n channel, we observe a sizable amount of E1 strength between 6 and 10 MeV. The reconstructed $^{26}$Ne angular distribution confirms its E1 nature. A reduced dipole transition probability of B(E1)=0.49$\\pm$0.16 $e^2fm^2$ is deduced. For the first time, the decay pattern of low-lying strength in a neutron-rich nucleus is obtained. The results are discussed in terms of a pygmy resonance centered around 9 MeV.

J. Gibelin; D. Beaumel; T. Motobayashi; N. Aoi; H. Baba; Y. Blumenfeld; Z. Elekes; S. Fortier; N. Frascaria; N. Fukuda; T. Gomi; K. Ishikawa; Y. Kondo; T. Kubo; V. Lima; T. Nakamura; A. Saito; Y. Satou; E. Takeshita; S. Takeuchi; T. Teranishi; Y. Togano; A. M. Vinodkumar; Y. Yanagisawa; K. Yoshida

2007-05-12

133

Precision measurement of the electromagnetic dipole strengths in Be11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic dipole strength in Be11 between the bound states has been measured using low-energy projectile Coulomb excitation at bombarding energies of 1.73 and 2.09 MeV/nucleon on a Pt196 target. An electric dipole transition probability B(E1;1/2-?1/2+)=0.102(2) e2fm was determined using the semi-classical code Gosia, and a value of 0.098(4) e2fm was determined using the Extended Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels method with the quantum mechanical code FRESCO. These extracted B(E1) values are consistent with the average value determined by a model-dependent analysis of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation measurements and are approximately 14% lower than that determined by a lifetime measurement. The much-improved precisions of 2% and 4% in the measured B(E1) values between the bound states deduced using Gosia and the Extended Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels method, respectively, compared to the previous accuracy of ˜10% will help in our understanding of and better improve the realistic inter-nucleon interactions.

Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.; Summers, N. C.; Hackman, G.; Drake, T. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Chester, A.; Close, A.; Cline, D.; Cross, D. S.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, A.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hayes, A. B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Nano, T.; Navrátil, P.; Pearson, C. J.; Pore, J.; Quaglioni, S.; Svensson, C. E.; Starosta, K.; Thompson, I. J.; Voss, P.; Williams, S. J.; Wang, Z. M.

2014-05-01

134

Tensile strength of hybrid composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approximate, statistical analysis for the tensile strength of unidirectional hybrid composite materials consisting of two-dimensional arrays of alternating low elongation and high elongation fibres in a common matrix. Expressions for ineffective length and fibre strain concentration factor in hybrid composites are developed. The analysis identifies a number of important material properties that affect the failure process

Carl Zweben; E. L du Pont de Nemours

1977-01-01

135

Cluster Validation By Prediction Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new quantity for assessing the number of groups orclusters in a dataset. The key idea is to view clustering as a supervisedclassication problem, in which we must also estimate the \\\\true"class labels. The resulting \\\\prediction strength" measure assesses howmany groups can be predicted from the data, and how well. In theprocess, we develop novel notions of bias

Robert Tibshirani; Guenther Walther; David Botstein; Patrick Brown

2001-01-01

136

Nanoscale Strength Measurements and Standards  

E-print Network

grips. The test specimen is diametrally compressed via instrumented indentation, or nanoindentationNanoscale Strength Measurements and Standards CERAMICS To develop new mechanical test structures device reliability. Test specimens include as-deposited thin films, in addition to theta and C

Perkins, Richard A.

137

Joint strength in RCS frames  

E-print Network

As part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) program ics. on composite and hybrid systems at Texas A&M University, the objective of this thesis is to investigate the joint strength in reinforced column-steel beam (RCS) special moment frames...

Kirby, Cynthia Dawn

2012-06-07

138

Measuring the strength of mice.  

PubMed

Kondziela devised the inverted screen test and published it in 1964. It is a test of muscle strength using all four limbs. Most normal mice easily score maximum on this task; it is a quick but insensitive gross screen, and the weights test described in this article will provide a finer measure of muscular strength. There are also several strain gauge-based pieces of apparatus available commercially that will provide more graded data than the inverted screen test, but their cost may put them beyond the reach of many laboratories which do not specialize in strength testing. Hence in 2000 a cheap and simple apparatus was devised by the author. It consists of a series of chain links of increasing length, attached to a "fur collector" a ball of fine wire mesh sold for preventing limescale build up in hard water areas. An accidental observation revealed that mice could grip these very tightly, so they proved ideal as a grip point for a weight-lifting apparatus. A common fault with commercial strength meters is that the bar or other grip feature is not thin enough for mice to exert a maximum grip. As a general rule, the thinner the wire or bar, the better a mouse can grip with its small claws. This is a pure test of strength, although as for any test motivational factors could potentially play a role. The use of scale collectors, however, seems to minimize motivational problems as the motivation appears to be very high for most normal young adult mice. PMID:23770643

Deacon, Robert M J

2013-01-01

139

Formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds during maturation of the Sindbis virus E1 glycoprotein.  

PubMed

The rigidly ordered icosahedral lattice of the Sindbis virus envelope is composed of a host-derived membrane bilayer in which the viral glycoproteins E1 and E2 reside. E1-E1 interactions stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bridges play a significant role in maintaining the envelope's structural integrity (R. P. Anthony and D. T. Brown, J. Virol. 65:1187-1194, 1991; R. P. Anthony, A. M. Paredes, and D. T. Brown, Virology 190:330-336, 1992). We have examined the acquisition of disulfide bridges within E1 during its maturation. Prior to exit from the endoplasmic reticulum, E1 folds via at least three intermediates, differing in the number and/or arrangement of their disulfides, into a single, compact form. This E1 species remains stable with respect to its disulfides until late in the secretory pathway, when E1 attains a metastable conformation. At this point, when appropriately triggered, intramolecular thiol-disulfide exchange reactions within E1 can occur, resulting in the generation of alternative E1 species. This metastable nature of mature E1 may have important implications for the mechanism of virus disassembly during the initial stages of the infection process (B. Abell and D. T. Brown, J. Virol. 67:5496-5501, 1993). PMID:8289384

Mulvey, M; Brown, D T

1994-02-01

140

Formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds during maturation of the Sindbis virus E1 glycoprotein.  

PubMed Central

The rigidly ordered icosahedral lattice of the Sindbis virus envelope is composed of a host-derived membrane bilayer in which the viral glycoproteins E1 and E2 reside. E1-E1 interactions stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bridges play a significant role in maintaining the envelope's structural integrity (R. P. Anthony and D. T. Brown, J. Virol. 65:1187-1194, 1991; R. P. Anthony, A. M. Paredes, and D. T. Brown, Virology 190:330-336, 1992). We have examined the acquisition of disulfide bridges within E1 during its maturation. Prior to exit from the endoplasmic reticulum, E1 folds via at least three intermediates, differing in the number and/or arrangement of their disulfides, into a single, compact form. This E1 species remains stable with respect to its disulfides until late in the secretory pathway, when E1 attains a metastable conformation. At this point, when appropriately triggered, intramolecular thiol-disulfide exchange reactions within E1 can occur, resulting in the generation of alternative E1 species. This metastable nature of mature E1 may have important implications for the mechanism of virus disassembly during the initial stages of the infection process (B. Abell and D. T. Brown, J. Virol. 67:5496-5501, 1993). Images PMID:8289384

Mulvey, M; Brown, D T

1994-01-01

141

BPV E1 protein alters the kinetics of cell cycle entry of serum starved mouse fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

A stable bovine papillomarvirus E1 expressing cell line (C2E1) was used to investigate the effects of E1 protein on the requirement for growth factors during serum-induced reentry from quiescence to proliferation. Flow cytometric bivariate DNA/PCNA analysis was utilized to study the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) concomitant with this transition. C2E1 cells, unlike the control cells (CNEO), were able to reenter the cell cycle when stimulated with low serum (1%). Stimulation with 10% serum revealed that C2E1 cells entered the first cell cycle faster than CNEO, indicating that E1 protein decreased the time of progression from GO state upon serum activation. It was also shown that PCNA expression started earlier in C2E1 cells than in CNEO cells after quiescent cells were stimulated with 10% serum. Addition of 1% serum was able to induce PCNA expression in C2E1 but not in CNEO cells in the first 24 h after stimulation. Using Triton X-100 treatment, it was found that the distribution between bound and unbound forms of PCNA was altered in E1-expressing cells compared to CNEO cells. Based on these results, it is suggested that E1 might possess mitogen-like properties. 30 refs., 4 figs.

Belyavskyi, M.; Miller, J.; Belyavskaya, E.; Wilson, V. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-11-01

142

Nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions in 44,45Sc  

E-print Network

The scandium isotopes 44,45Sc have been studied with the 45Sc(3He,alpha gamma)44Sc and 45Sc(3He,3He' gamma)45Sc reactions, respectively. The nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions have been extracted using the Oslo method. The experimental level densities are compared to calculated level densities obtained from a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. This model also gives information about the parity distribution and the number of broken Cooper pairs as a function of excitation energy. The experimental gamma-ray strength functions are compared to theoretical models of the E1, M1, and E2 strength, and to data from (gamma,n) and (gamma,p) experiments. The strength functions show an enhancement at low gamma energies that cannot be explained by the present, standard models.

A. C. Larsen; M. Guttormsen; R. Chankova; T. Loennroth; S. Messelt; F. Ingebretsen; J. Rekstad; A. Schiller; S. Siem; N. U. H. Syed; A. Voinov

2007-06-04

143

Nuclear level densities and {gamma}-ray strength functions in {sup 44,45}Sc  

SciTech Connect

The scandium isotopes {sup 44,45}Sc were studied with the {sup 45}Sc({sup 3}He, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 44}Sc and {sup 45}Sc({sup 3}He, {sup 3}He{sup '}{gamma}){sup 45}Sc reactions, respectively. The nuclear level densities and {gamma}-ray strength functions have been extracted using the Oslo method. The experimental level densities are compared to calculated level densities obtained from a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. This model also gives information about the parity distribution and the number of broken Cooper pairs as a function of excitation energy. The experimental {gamma}-ray strength functions are compared to theoretical models of the E1, M1, and E2 strength and to data from ({gamma}, n) and ({gamma},p) experiments. The strength functions show an enhancement at low {gamma} energies that cannot be explained by the present standard models.

Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Ingebretsen, F.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Chankova, R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Loennroth, T. [Department of Physics, Angstrombo Akademi University, FIN-20500 Angstrombo (Finland); Schiller, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Voinov, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States) and Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15

144

Nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions in 44,45Sc  

E-print Network

The scandium isotopes 44,45Sc have been studied with the 45Sc(3He,alpha gamma)44Sc and 45Sc(3He,3He' gamma)45Sc reactions, respectively. The nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions have been extracted using the Oslo method. The experimental level densities are compared to calculated level densities obtained from a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. This model also gives information about the parity distribution and the number of broken Cooper pairs as a function of excitation energy. The experimental gamma-ray strength functions are compared to theoretical models of the E1, M1, and E2 strength, and to data from (gamma,n) and (gamma,p) experiments. The strength functions show an enhancement at low gamma energies that cannot be explained by the present, standard models.

Larsen, A C; Chankova, R; Lönnroth, T; Messelt, S; Ingebretsen, F; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S; Syed, N U H; Voinov, A

2007-01-01

145

Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene.  

PubMed

We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime. PMID:18635798

Lee, Changgu; Wei, Xiaoding; Kysar, Jeffrey W; Hone, James

2008-07-18

146

Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m-1) and -690 N m-1, respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m-1 and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young’s modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = 2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of ?int = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.

Lee, Changgu; Wei, Xiaoding; Kysar, Jeffrey W.; Hone, James

2008-07-01

147

Compressive strength of carbon fibers  

SciTech Connect

Direct transverse compressive test of pitch-based carbon fibers was carried out on the single filament. The carbon fibers had randomly or radially orientation textures of graphite crystallite in the cross section. Both the transverse modulus and transverse compressive strength decreased with crystallite size increasing. There is little influence of orientation texture in cross section on the transverse modulus and transverse compressive strength. Fracture behavior was also observed under a scanning electron microscope from two directions. The fracture part was limited near the contact area of the punch for randomly oriented fibers, but the fracture of radially oriented fibers tend to be extended along the fiber axis. Fragment of fractured fiber with small crystallite was smaller. The fracture path in the cross section was run through the center of cross section and the edge of contact area with punch.

Sawada, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Nakanishi, Yoichiro [Government Industrial Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

1993-12-31

148

Strength loss in kraft pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unbleached kraft pulps from two U.S. mills were 21% and 26% weaker than comparable laboratory pulps from the same chip sources, when assessed as the tear index at a tensile index of 70 kN.m\\/kg. The phenomena involved were clarified by characterizing the differences between the mill and laboratory pulps in terms of fundamental fiber properties. All of the strength loss

Jose Iribarne

1999-01-01

149

The distribution of subjective memory strength: List strength and response bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of recognition memory assume that memory decisions are based partially on the subjective strength of the test item. Models agree that the subjective strength of targets increases with additional time for encoding however the origin of the subjective strength of foils remains disputed. Under the fixed strength assumption the distribution of memory strength for foils is invariant across experimental

Amy H. Criss

2009-01-01

150

Character strengths in the United Kingdom: The VIA Inventory of Strengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a classification of strengths, the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths, has done much to advance research into strengths of character. Using an Internet sample of 17,056 UK respondents, we present data on the character strengths of a large UK sample. Women typically scored higher on strengths than did men. However, four of the top five “signature

P. Alex Linley; John Maltby; Alex M. Wood; Stephen Joseph; Susan Harrington; Christopher Peterson; Martin E. P. Seligman

2007-01-01

151

An Interlaminar Tensile Strength Specimen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a technique to determine interlaminar tensile strength, sigma(sub 3c), of a fiber reinforced composite material using a curved beam. The specimen was a unidirectional curved beam, bent 90 deg, with straight arms. Attached to each arm was a hinged loading mechanism that was held by the grips of a tension testing machine. Geometry effects of the specimen, including the effects of loading arm length, inner radius, thickness, and width, were studied. The data sets fell into two categories: low strength corresponding to a macroscopic flaw related failure and high strength corresponding to a microscopic flaw related failure. From the data available, the specimen width and loading arm length had little effect on sigma(sub 3c). The inner radius was not expected to have a significant effect on sigma(sub 3c), but this conclusion could not be confirmed because of differences in laminate quality for each curve geometry. The thicker specimens had the lowest value of sigma(sub 3c) because of poor laminate quality.

Martin, Roderick H.; Jackson, Wade C.

1993-01-01

152

Functional relationship between parts of the replication region of plasmid ColE1.  

PubMed Central

The inhibition of plasmid ColE1 replication caused by a deletion of the ColE1 plasmid replication origin has been previously reported (T. Hashimoto-Gotoh and J. Inselburg, J. Bacteriol. 139:597-619). Evidence is presented showing that restoration of the deleted nucleotide sequence in the precise relationship it normally has to the rest of the replication region is essential for restoration of ColE1 replication capability to the deletion mutant. Images PMID:7009549

Inselburg, J

1980-01-01

153

Largazole and Its Derivatives Selectively Inhibit Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme (E1)  

PubMed Central

Protein ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of almost every aspect of eukaryotic cellular function; therefore, its destabilization is often observed in most human diseases and cancers. Consequently, developing inhibitors of the ubiquitination system for the treatment of cancer has been a recent area of interest. Currently, only a few classes of compounds have been discovered to inhibit the ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) and only one class is relatively selective in E1 inhibition in cells. We now report that Largazole and its ester and ketone analogs selectively inhibit ubiquitin conjugation to p27Kip1 and TRF1 in vitro. The inhibitory activity of these small molecules on ubiquitin conjugation has been traced to their inhibition of the ubiquitin E1 enzyme. To further dissect the mechanism of E1 inhibition, we analyzed the effects of these inhibitors on each of the two steps of E1 activation. We show that Largazole and its derivatives specifically inhibit the adenylation step of the E1 reaction while having no effect on thioester bond formation between ubiquitin and E1. E1 inhibition appears to be specific to human E1 as Largazole ketone fails to inhibit the activation of Uba1p, a homolog of E1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Moreover, Largazole analogs do not significantly inhibit SUMO E1. Thus, Largazole and select analogs are a novel class of ubiquitin E1 inhibitors and valuable tools for studying ubiquitination in vitro. This class of compounds could be further developed and potentially be a useful tool in cells. PMID:22279528

Nasveschuk, Christopher G.; Wang, Wei; Quade, Bettina; Zhang, Gan; Kuchta, Robert D.; Phillips, Andrew J.; Liu, Xuedong

2012-01-01

154

Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Human CYP2E1 by Diethyldithocarbamate  

PubMed Central

Although the ability of disulfiram to inactivate CYP2E1 has been known for more than 20 years, the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. A metabolite of disulfiram, diethyldithocarbamate (DDC), is converted by CYP2E1 to a reactive intermediate that subsequently inactivates the protein, leading to mechanism-based inactivation. Mass spectral analysis of the inactivated human 2E1 protein demonstrates that the inactivation is due to the formation of an adduct of the reactive metabolite of DDC with the apoprotein. These data, along with mass spectral analysis of a reactive intermediate trapped with GSH, indicate the involvement of a reactive intermediate with a molecular mass of 116 Da. Our results suggest that this binding involves formation of a disulfide bond with one of the eight cysteines in CYP2E1. The inactivation of wild-type CYP2E1 as well as two of its polymorphic mutants, CYP2E1*2 and CYP2E1*4, was also investigated. For wild-type CYP2E1, the KI was 12.2 ?M and the kinact was 0.02 min?1. The KI values for the two polymorphic mutants were 227.6 and 12.4 ?M for CYP2E1.2 and CYP2E1.4, and the kinact values were 0.0061 and 0.0187 min?1, respectively. These data indicate that DDC is a much less efficient inactivator of CYP2E1.2 than it is of either the wild-type or the CYP2E1.4 variant. PMID:20826547

Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Lin, Hsia-lien

2010-01-01

155

Effects of disulfide bridges glycoprotein E1 on fusogenic activity of Rubella virus.  

PubMed

Rubella virus (RUBV) infects cells via an acid-triggered membrane fusion process. RUBV virions contain two cysteine-rich glycoproteins, E2 and E1. The latter is believed to be involved in the membrane fusion. Using a recombinant plasmid containing RUBV E1 and E2, 11 of total 20 cysteines present in the ectodomain of wild type E1 were mutated to test their role in the fusion via the formation of disulfide bridges. The recombinant plasmids containing mutated E1 (Cys2-Cys20) or wild type (wt) E1 were expressed in BHK-21 cells. Their fusogenic and hemadsorption activities in addition to a potential of cell surface expression of E1 and E2 were assayed. The results showed that the fusogenic activity was lost in all tested mutants, while the hemadsorption activity and cell surface expression potential were affected differently in individual mutants. Since only the Cys5 and Cys8 mutations led to a reduction of both hemadsorption and cell surface expression, we assume that these mutations prevented the formation of the disulfide bridge, what led to a misfolding of E1 and consequently to a failure of recognition of E1 by E2. In conclusion, the disulfide bridges disrupted in all the tested mutants appear essential for the cell fusion, while only the disulfide bridge C(5)-C(8) seems to be crucial for the transport of E1 and E2 in the cell. PMID:19301948

Liu, X L; Wu, B; Zhang, W Q; Song, Y Y; Xu, H Z; Wang, G T; Wang, Z Y

2009-01-01

156

Inhibition of CYP3A, CYP1A and CYP2E1 activities by resveratrol and other non volatile red wine components.  

PubMed

Resveratrol (RESV), present at concentrations of about 10 microM in red wine, has been found to inhibit events associated with tumor initiation, promotion and progression. The mechanism involved could be the inhibition of activities catalyzed by cytochromes P450 (CYPs), which activate procarcinogens. This led us to investigate the inhibitory effect of RESV on CYP1A, CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzymatic activities and to compare it to that of non volatile compounds present in red wine. Red wine solids (RWS) were prepared by evaporating one volume of red wine to dryness followed by reconstitution with five volumes of buffer (20% natural strength). CYP activities were determined in microsomes from rat liver, human liver or cells containing cDNA-expressed CYPs. Testosterone, chlorzoxazone, and ethoxyresorufin were used as selective substrates for CYP3A, CYP2E1 and CYP1A1/1A2, respectively. RESV and RWS were found to be irreversible (probably mechanism-based) inhibitors for CYP3A4 and non competitive reversible inhibitors for CYP2E1. Their inhibitory potency was assessed using IC(50) values that were found within 4-150 microM for RESV and 0.3-9% natural strength for RWS. Non volatile compounds of other beverages such as white wine, grape juice or Xtra Old Cognac(R) displayed lower inhibitory effect on CYP activities than RWS. When considering the concentration of RESV in red wine (2 microM for 20% natural strength), it appears that RSW inhibitory effect was not only due to RESV, but also to other compounds whose identification would prove to be worthwhile because of their possible chemopreventive properties. PMID:11701226

Piver, B; Berthou, F; Dreano, Y; Lucas, D

2001-12-15

157

Sex steroid hormones regulate constitutive expression of Cyp2e1 in female mouse liver  

PubMed Central

CYP2E1 is of paramount toxicological significance because it metabolically activates a large number of low-molecular-weight toxicants and carcinogens. In this context, factors that interfere with Cyp2e1 regulation may critically affect xenobiotic toxicity and carcinogenicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of female steroid hormones in the regulation of CYP2E1, as estrogens and progesterone are the bases of contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy in menopausal women. Interestingly, a fluctuation in the hepatic expression pattern of Cyp2e1 was revealed in the different phases of the estrous cycle of female mice, with higher Cyp2e1 expression at estrus (E) and lower at methestrus (ME), highly correlated with that in plasma gonadal hormone levels. Depletion of sex steroids by ovariectomy repressed Cyp2e1 expression to levels similar to those detected in males and cyclic females at ME. Hormonal supplementation brought Cyp2e1 expression back to levels detected at E. The role of progesterone appeared to be more prominent than that of 17?-estradiol. Progesterone-induced Cyp2e1 upregulation could be attributed to inactivation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 signaling pathway. Tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen, repressed Cyp2e1 expression potentially via activation of the PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 and GH/STAT5b-linked pathways. The sex steroid hormone-related changes in hepatic Cyp2e1 expression were highly correlated with those observed in Hnf-1?, ?-catenin, and Srebp-1c. In conclusion, female steroid hormones are clearly involved in the regulation of CYP2E1, thus affecting the metabolism of a plethora of toxicants and carcinogenic agents, conditions that may trigger several pathologies or exacerbate the outcomes of various pathophysiological states. PMID:23548611

Cheng, Jie; Gonzalez, Frank J.

2013-01-01

158

Replication interference between human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 mediated by heterologous E1 helicases  

PubMed Central

Background Co-infection of multiple genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is commonly observed among women with abnormal cervical cytology, but how different HPVs interact with each other in the same cell is not clearly understood. A previous study using cultured keratinocytes revealed that genome replication of one HPV type is inhibited by co-existence of the genome of another HPV type, suggesting that replication interference occurs between different HPV types when co-infected; however, molecular mechanisms underlying inter-type replication interference have not been fully explored. Methods Replication interference between two most prevalent HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18, was examined in HPV-negative C33A cervical carcinoma cells co-transfected with genomes of HPV16 and HPV18 together with expression plasmids for E1/E2 of both types. Levels of HPV16/18 genome replication were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Physical interaction between HPV16/18 E1s was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation assays in the cell lysates. Results The replication of HPV16 and HPV18 genomes was suppressed by co-expression of E1/E2 of heterologous types. The interference was mediated by the heterologous E1, but not E2. The oligomerization domain of HPV16 E1 was essential for HPV18 replication inhibition, whereas the helicase domain was dispensable. HPV16 E1 co-precipitated with HPV18 E1 in the cell lysates, and an HPV16 E1 mutant Y379A, which bound to HPV18 E1 less efficiently, failed to inhibit HPV18 replication. Conclusions Co-infection of a single cell with both HPV16 and HPV18 results in replication interference between them, and physical interaction between the heterologous E1s is responsible for the interference. Heterooligomers composed of HPV16/18 E1s may lack the ability to support HPV genome replication. PMID:24456830

2014-01-01

159

Molecular genetic analysis of MSUD from India reveals mutations causing altered protein truncation affecting the C-termini of E1? and E1?.  

PubMed

Maple Syrup Urine Disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by reduced/absent activity of the branched chain ?-Ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex. Mutations in BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT, that encode important subunits of the enzyme complex namely E1?, E1?, and E2, are the primary cause for the disease. We have performed the first molecular genetic analysis of MSUD from India on nine patients exhibiting classical MSUD symptoms. BCKDHA and BCKDHB mutations were identified in four and five patients, respectively including seven novel mutations namely the BCKDHA c.1249delC, c.1312T>C, and c.1561T>A and the BCKDHB c.401T>A, c.548G>A, c.964A>G, and c.1065delT. The BCKDHB c.970C>T (p.R324X) mutation was shown to trigger nonsense mediated decay-based degradation of the transcript. Seven of the total 11 mutations resulted in perturbations in the E1? or E1? C-termini either through altered termination or through an amino acid change; these are expected to result in disruption of E1 enzyme complex assembly. Our study has therefore revealed that BCKDHA and BCKDHB mutations might be primarily responsible for MSUD in the Indian population. PMID:22593002

Bashyam, Murali D; Chaudhary, Ajay K; Sinha, Manjari; Nagarajaram, H A; Devi, A Radha Rama; Bashyam, Leena; Reddy, E Chandrakanth; Dalal, Ashwin

2012-10-01

160

Yield Strength of bcc Tantalum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined the quasi-static yield strength of bcc tantalum at room temperature and pressures up to 60 GPa, using two independent methods with the diamond-anvil cell. In the first method, synchrotron x-ray diffraction patterns of samples having varying degrees of hydrostaticity yield results that are consistent with theoretically predicted values. Radial pressure gradients, determined from ruby flourescence in the second method, compare well with the diffraction results. In addition, the equation of state of tantalum obtained in the present study can be compared to previously published static - as well as shock-compression results in order to distinguish pressure from strain-rate and temperature effects.

Nguyen, Jeffrey H.; Kruger, Michael B.; Caldwell, Wendell A.; Benedetti, Laura Robin; Chen, Bin; Jeanloz, Raymond; Holmes, Neil C.

1998-03-01

161

14 CFR 31.27 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.27 Strength...load attachment points and members. (c) An ultimate free-fall drop test must be made of the basket,...

2013-01-01

162

14 CFR 31.27 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.27 Strength...load attachment points and members. (c) An ultimate free-fall drop test must be made of the basket,...

2010-01-01

163

14 CFR 31.27 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.27 Strength...load attachment points and members. (c) An ultimate free-fall drop test must be made of the basket,...

2011-01-01

164

14 CFR 31.27 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.27 Strength...load attachment points and members. (c) An ultimate free-fall drop test must be made of the basket,...

2012-01-01

165

Mechanical bone strength in the proximal tibia  

E-print Network

Six bone slices from one canine tibia were tested by compressive load to determine the ultimate strength as a function of distance from the knee. Both the ultimate compressive strength and overall modulus of elasticity of tibial bone increased...

Prommin, Danu

2012-06-07

166

Strength training for children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Strength, or resistance, training for young athletes has become one of the most popular and rapidly evolving modes of enhancing athletic performance. Early studies questioned both the safety and the effectiveness of strength training for young athletes, but current evidence indicates that both children and adolescents can increase muscular strength as a consequence of strength training. This increase in strength is largely related to the intensity and volume of loading and appears to be the result of increased neuromuscular activation and coordination, rather than muscle hypertrophy. Training-induced strength gains are largely reversible when the training is discontinued. There is no current evidence to support the misconceptions that children need androgens for strength gain or lose flexibility with training. Given proper supervision and appropriate program design, young athletes participating in resistance training can increase muscular strength and do not appear to be at any greater risk of injury than young athletes who have not undergone such training. PMID:11174161

Guy, J A; Micheli, L J

2001-01-01

167

46 CFR 163.003-17 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strength. 163.003-17 Section 163.003-17...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-17 Strength. (a) Each pilot ladder must...

2011-10-01

168

46 CFR 163.003-17 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Strength. 163.003-17 Section 163.003-17...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-17 Strength. (a) Each pilot ladder must...

2013-10-01

169

46 CFR 163.003-17 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strength. 163.003-17 Section 163.003-17...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-17 Strength. (a) Each pilot ladder must...

2012-10-01

170

Strength distribution in commercial silicon carbide materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four-point flexural strength testing has been conducted in order to establish the baseline strength and reliability of four different commercial SiC types, in conjunction with reliable Weibull modulus values. Average strength of the samples ranged from 380 to 482 MPa at room temperature and 307 to 470 MPa at 1370 C. The strength scatter reflects the effect of flaw variability, which must be minimized to improve reliability in sintered SiC.

Dutta, Sunil

1988-01-01

171

Bonded joint strength - Static versus fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adhesives are commonly characterized only by their static strength even though they are used in structural joints that are subjected to fatigue loads. This paper reviews the relationship between static and fatigue strength for four different specimen types: single-lap-shear, edge-delamination, double cantilever beam, and cracked-lap-shear. It was found that the ratio of static strength to fatigue strength varied from 2.3 to 4.7, depending on the adhesive and specimen configuration.

Johnson, W. S.; Mall, S.

1984-01-01

172

2006LANDESBIOSCIENCE.DONOTDISTRIBUTE. e1 Autophagy 2007;Vol.3Issue3  

E-print Network

© 2006LANDESBIOSCIENCE.DONOTDISTRIBUTE. e1 Autophagy 2007;Vol.3Issue3 Addendum AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Autophagy [Autophagy3:3,e1-e3,EPUBAheadofPrint:http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/autophagy accepted: 12/14/06 This manuscript has been published online, prior to printing for Autophagy, Volume 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

2007LANDESBIOSCIENCE.DONOTDISTRIBUTE. e1 Autophagy 2007;Vol.3Issue5  

E-print Network

© 2007LANDESBIOSCIENCE.DONOTDISTRIBUTE. e1 Autophagy 2007;Vol.3Issue5 Research Paper Listeria monocytogenes Evades Killing by Autophagy During Colonization of Host Cells [Autophagy3:5,e1-e10,EPUBAheadofPrint:http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/autophagy/abstract.php?id=4450;September/October2007

Higgins, Darren

174

26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1... § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan. (a) General rule. For...the regulations thereunder, the term “church plan” means a plan established and...

2010-04-01

175

26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.  

...2014-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1... § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan. (a) General rule. For the...the regulations thereunder, the term “church plan” means a plan established and...

2014-04-01

176

26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2011-04-01 true Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1... § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan. (a) General rule. For the...the regulations thereunder, the term “church plan” means a plan established and...

2012-04-01

177

26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1... § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan. (a) General rule. For the...the regulations thereunder, the term “church plan” means a plan established and...

2013-04-01

178

26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1... § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan. (a) General rule. For the...the regulations thereunder, the term “church plan” means a plan established and...

2011-04-01

179

An Efficient Strategy for the Acquisition of Weak Galileo E1 OS Signals  

E-print Network

An Efficient Strategy for the Acquisition of Weak Galileo E1 OS Signals Myriam Foucras 1, 2 the process which needs the most resources. Moreover, acquiring of weak Galileo E1 OS signals is a real in the development of a GPS/Galileo software receiver. Olivier JULIEN is the head of the Signal Processing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 -rz Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics  

E-print Network

Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 - rz Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics (iCFD) 424512.0 E, 5 sp / 3 sw 1. Introduction; Fluid dynamics (lecture 1 of 5) Ron Zevenhoven Ã?bo to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 - rz april 2013 Ã?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering

Zevenhoven, Ron

181

Climate strength – How leaders form consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research further develops the theories concerning climate strength in organizations. Climate strength is a measure for within-group variability in climate perceptions. We studied groups in 3 military fighting brigades, using a validated military safety-climate questionnaire to check the relationship between safety climate strength and two possible antecedents: leadership (transformational and passive), and interaction with group members (military cohesion). Statistical

Gil Luria

2008-01-01

182

Shell Formation and Bone Strength Laying Hens  

E-print Network

Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age, Daidzein and Exogenous Estrogen Cover aquarelle: E. Spörndly-Nees #12;Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age as well as an economical problem. Parallel with reduced shell quality the bone strength declines

183

Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength

Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

2009-01-01

184

Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel  

SciTech Connect

The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

Soto, Koji

2002-08-15

185

Oxidative stress mediated toxicity exerted by ethanol-inducible CYP2E1  

SciTech Connect

Induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol is one of the central pathways by which ethanol generates a state of oxidative stress in hepatocytes. To study the biochemical and toxicological actions of CYP2E1, our laboratory established HepG2 cell lines which constitutively overexpress CYP2E1 and characterized these cells with respect to ethanol toxicity. Addition of ethanol or an unsaturated fatty acid such as arachidonic acid or iron was toxic to the CYP2E1-expressing cells but not control cells. This toxicity was associated with elevated lipid peroxidation and could be prevented by antioxidants and inhibitors of CYP2E1. Apoptosis occurred in the CYP2E1-expressing cells exposed to ethanol, arachidonic acid, or iron. Removal of GSH caused a loss of viability in the CYP2E1-expressing cells even in the absence of added toxin or pro-oxidant. This was associated with mitochondrial damage and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Low concentrations of iron and arachidonic acid synergistically interacted with CYP2E1 to produce cell toxicity, suggesting these nutrients may act as priming or sensitizing agents to alcohol-induced liver injury. Surprisingly, CYP2E1-expressing cells had elevated GSH levels, due to transcriptional activation of glutamate cysteine ligase. Similarly, levels of catalase, alpha-, and microsomal glutathione transferase were also increased, suggesting that upregulation of these antioxidant genes may reflect an adaptive mechanism to remove CYP2E1-derived oxidants. Using co-cultures, interaction between CYP2E1-derived diffusible mediators to activate collagen production in hepatic stellate cells was found. While it is likely that several mechanisms contribute to alcohol-induced liver injury, the linkage between CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, stellate cell activation, and GSH homeostasis may contribute to the toxic action of ethanol on the liver. HepG2 cell lines overexpressing CYP2E1 may be a valuable model to characterize the biochemical and toxicological properties of CYP2E1.

Wu Defeng [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cederbaum, Arthur I. [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: arthur.cederbaum@mssm.edu

2005-09-01

186

Effect of Tensile Strength by Variations in Peel Strength in Laminated Film for Liquid Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good tensile strength of a laminated film for packaging is an indispensable property in preventing leakage. It is known that the peel strength between laminated film layers is closely related to the tensile strength of the film. In this study, we have measured the tensile strength for various peel strengths of two kinds of three layered laminated film; Nylon + Aluminum + Polyethylene and Nylon + Polyester + Polyethylene. These films have two peel layers, so we escalated one peel strength and fix another one. Then we found that the peel strength between the sealant and the boundaries strongly influences the tensile strength. About Nylon + Polyester + Polyethylene film, we researched applied amount of adhesive and observed cross section of specimen at measurement of peel strength. Then we found that there is difference in specimen condition at measurement of peel strength, and examined about relationship of peel strength and stiffness of specimen.

Machida, Yukihiko; Shimamoto, Akira; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Futase, Katsunori

187

[Cytochrome P4502E1. Polymorphism, physiological function, regulation, and role in pathology].  

PubMed

The role of cytochrome P4502E1 in metabolism of substances, polymorphism, ways of the expression regulation, change of activity in pathological condition is considered in the review. Cytochrome P4502E1 catalyzed first two reactions of acetone transformation in the lactic acid, ethanol oxidation, metabolism of fatty acids and their hydroperoxides. Cytochrome P4502E1 dependent metabolism of xenobiotics in many cases results in formation of toxic intermediates and radicals of oxygen. Regulation of cytochrome P4502E1 expression includes transcriptional mechanisms and substrate stabilization of its molecule. The enzyme activity grows in alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, obesity, steatohepatitis, administration of acetone, alcohols and is connected with intensification of toxicity of paracetamol, halothane, benzene, tetrachlororomethane and others xenobiotics. Such inhibitors of cytochrome P4502E1 as dialyl sulphide, disulfiram have hepatoprotective action. PMID:16100894

Pentiuk, O O; Kachula, S O; Herych, O Kh

2004-01-01

188

Hedgehog pathway antagonist 5E1 binds hedgehog at the pseudo-active site.  

PubMed

Proper hedgehog (Hh) signaling is crucial for embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with several types of cancer. The monoclonal antibody 5E1 is a Hh pathway inhibitor that has been extensively used to elucidate vertebrate Hh biology due to its ability to block binding of the three mammalian Hh homologs to the receptor, Patched1 (Ptc1). Here, we engineered a murine:human chimeric 5E1 (ch5E1) with similar Hh-binding properties to the original murine antibody. Using biochemical, biophysical, and x-ray crystallographic studies, we show that, like the regulatory receptors Cdon and Hedgehog-interacting protein (Hhip), ch5E1 binding to Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is enhanced by calcium ions. In the presence of calcium and zinc ions, the ch5E1 binding affinity increases 10-20-fold to tighter than 1 nm primarily because of a decrease in the dissociation rate. The co-crystal structure of Shh bound to the Fab fragment of ch5E1 reveals that 5E1 binds at the pseudo-active site groove of Shh with an epitope that largely overlaps with the binding site of its natural receptor antagonist Hhip. Unlike Hhip, the side chains of 5E1 do not directly coordinate the Zn(2+) cation in the pseudo-active site, despite the modest zinc-dependent increase in 5E1 affinity for Shh. Furthermore, to our knowledge, the ch5E1 Fab-Shh complex represents the first structure of an inhibitor antibody bound to a metalloprotease fold. PMID:20504762

Maun, Henry R; Wen, Xiaohui; Lingel, Andreas; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Lazarus, Robert A; Scales, Suzie J; Hymowitz, Sarah G

2010-08-20

189

Folding of Hepatitis C Virus E1 Glycoprotein in a Cell-Free System  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins, E1 and E2, form noncovalent heterodimers and are leading candidate antigens for a vaccine against HCV. Studies in mammalian cell expression systems have focused primarily on E2 and its folding, whereas knowledge of E1 folding remains fragmentary. We used a cell-free in vitro translation system to study E1 folding and asked whether the flanking proteins, Core and E2, influence this process. We translated the polyprotein precursor, in which the Core is N-terminal to E1, and E2 is C-terminal, and found that when the core protein was present, oxidation of E1 was a slow, E2-independent process. The half-time for E1 oxidation was about 5 h in the presence or absence of E2. In contrast with previous reports, analysis of three constructs of different lengths revealed that the E2 glycoprotein undergoes slow oxidation as well. Unfolded or partially folded E1 bound to the endoplasmic reticulum chaperones calnexin and (with lower efficiency) calreticulin, whereas no binding to BiP/GRP78 or GRP94 could be detected. Release from calnexin and calreticulin was used to assess formation of mature E1. When E1 was expressed in the absence of Core and E2, its oxidation was impaired. We conclude that E1 folding is a process that is affected not only by E2, as previously shown, but also by the Core. The folding of viral proteins can thus depend on complex interactions between neighboring proteins within the polyprotein precursor. PMID:11602760

Merola, Marcello; Brazzoli, Michela; Cocchiarella, Fabienne; Heile, Jens M.; Helenius, Ari; Weiner, Amy J.; Houghton, Michael; Abrignani, Sergio

2001-01-01

190

Molecular mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity mediated by CYP2E1  

SciTech Connect

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 was suggested to be the major enzyme involved in trichloroethylene (TRI) metabolism and TRI-induced hepatotoxicity, although the latter molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The involvement of CYP2E1 in TRI-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying molecular mechanism were studied by comparing hepatotoxicity in cyp2e1{sup +/+} and cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice. The mice were exposed by inhalation to 0 (control), 1000, or 2000 ppm of TRI for 8 h a day, for 7 days, and TRI-hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histopathology. Urinary metabolites of trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were considerably greater in cyp2e1{sup +/+} compared to cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice, suggesting that CYP2E1 is the major P450 involved in the formation of these metabolites. Consistent with elevated plasma ALT and AST activities, cyp2e1{sup +/+} mice in the 2000 ppm group showed histopathological inflammation. TRI significantly upregulated PPAR{alpha}, which might function to inhibit NF{kappa}B p50 and p65 signalling. In addition, TRI-induced NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA, and significantly positive correlation between NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA expression and plasma ALT activity levels were observed, suggesting the involvement of p52 in liver inflammation. Taken together, the current study directly demonstrates that CYP2E1 was the major P450 involved in the first step of the TRI metabolism, and the metabolites produced may have two opposing roles: one inducing hepatotoxicity and the other protecting against the toxicity. Intermediate metabolite(s) from TRI to chloral hydrate produced by CYP2E1-mediated oxidation may be involved in the former, and TCA in the latter.

Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat; Kamijima, Michihiro; Yamada, Naoyasu; Ito, Yuki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Nakamura, Daichi; Okamura, Ai; Ichihara, Gaku [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Aoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Aging and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J. [Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Nakajima, Tamie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)], E-mail: tnasu23@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

2008-09-15

191

Resveratrol Downregulates Cyp2e1 and Attenuates Chemically Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in SD Rats  

PubMed Central

Cyp2e1 plays an important role in chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Resveratrol (REV) is known to prevent diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, but its effects on this process induced by DEN and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and the role of Cyp2e1 remain unclear. In this study, glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci were used as a marker of hepatocarcinogenesis. REV or diallyl disulfide (DADS, an inhibitor of Cyp2e1) significantly reduced both the area and number of GST-P-positive foci induced by DEN and 2-AAF. Treatment with REV or DADS also markedly decreased the expression of Cyp2e1 in the rat liver. By immunohistochemical staining of serial liver sections, we found that the expression of Cyp2e1 in GST-P-positive foci showed three distinct patterns: decreased in GST-P foci, increased in GST-P foci when compared with surrounding liver tissue and mixed type. The number of GST-P foci with increased Cyp2e1 expression was greater than the number of GST-P foci with decreased Cyp2e1. Protein levels of GST-P and Cyp2e1 were also higher in foci compared with surrounding liver tissue. REV or DADS significantly reduced the expression of GST-P and Cyp2e1 in both foci and surrounding liver tissue. Taken together, these results suggested that REV has a significant inhibitory effect on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis, which may be attributed to downregulation of Cyp2e1. PMID:24526811

Wu, Xiongfei; Li, Chenggang; Xing, Guozhen; Qi, Xinming; Ren, Jin

2013-01-01

192

Adenovirus E1A proteins inhibit activation of transcription by p53.  

PubMed Central

p53 stimulates the transcription of a number of genes, such as MDM2, Waf1, and GADD45. We and others have shown previously that this activity of p53 can be inhibited by adenovirus type 2 or 12 large E1B proteins. Here we show that the adenovirus E1A proteins also can repress the stimulation of transcription by p53, both in transient transfections and in stably transfected cell lines. The inhibition by E1A occurs without a significant effect on the DNA-binding capacity of p53. Furthermore, the activity of a fusion protein containing the N-terminal part of p53 linked to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain can be suppressed by E1A. This indicates that E1A affects the transcription activation domain of p53, although tryptic phosphopeptide mapping revealed that the level of phosphorylation of this domain does not change significantly in E1A-expressing cell lines. Gel filtration studies, however, showed p53 to be present in complexes of increased molecular weight as a result of E1A expression. Apparently, E1A can cause increased homo- or hetero-oligomerization of p53, which might result in the inactivation of the transcription activation domain of p53. Additionally, we found that transfectants stably expressing E1A have lost the ability to arrest in G1 after DNA damage, indicating that E1A can abolish the normal biological function of p53. PMID:8628276

Steegenga, W T; van Laar, T; Riteco, N; Mandarino, A; Shvarts, A; van der Eb, A J; Jochemsen, A G

1996-01-01

193

Photon Strength Functions below GDER Maximum: Present Status and Outlook  

SciTech Connect

Existing experimental data on {gamma} decay of energy levels in medium-weight and heavy nuclei at excitation energies well above the pairing gap indicate that the role of nuclear structure effects is small and that this decay is largely governed by the extreme statistical model. Specifically, in line with the validity of Brink hypothesis and the paradigm of photon strength, the average properties of the {gamma} decay can be described by a set of photon strength functions (PSFs) for individual multipolarities and by the level density function. PSFs are directly related to the photoabsorption cross sections {sigma}{sub {gamma}}{sub abs}. It is well known that in the case of E1 radiation this cross section is dominated by the giant dipole electric resonance. However the size of {sigma}{sub {gamma}}{sub abs.} and its {gamma}-ray energy dependence at energies below the neutron threshold are known rather poorly. In the case of higher multipolarities (M1, E2,...) the present knowledge about their roles is much worse. Available information on E1 and M1 PSFs obtained from various kinds of experiments in the {gamma}-ray energy region of interest will be discussed within the widely used models. It will be shown that none of them seems to be able to describe PSFs reasonably for a broad range of nuclei. Emphasis will be also laid on the properties of the scissors mode and other possible resonance-like structures in PSFs at energies below about 10 MeV. Perspectives of further studies of PSFs will be outlined.

Krticka, Milan [Charles University in Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

2009-01-28

194

Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not. Another approach, in addition to differentiation between various cure conditions, may even provide information with respect to the bond strength. Several technical papers were published during the course of this research and a summary is presented in the Ph.D. dissertation of Tobias P. Berndt, a graduate student financially supported by this NASA Grant.

2000-01-01

195

Neural network analysis of strength and ductility of welding alloys for high strength low  

E-print Network

and the weld cooling rate. The outputs consisted of the yield and ultimate tensile strengths, elongation 550 ­ 690 MPa yield strength steels for surface ships and submarines. The objective of the programmeNeural network analysis of strength and ductility of welding alloys for high strength low alloy

Cambridge, University of

196

Correlation between microstructure and yield strength of a high-strength cold rolled enameling steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop strategies for modifying the enameling steel chemical composition and processing to minimize yield strength reduction during the enamel-fire anneal (EFA), the reasons for yield strength reduction of a high strength cold rolled enameling steel were studied by combining experiments and thermodynamic calculations. The yield strength reductions were evaluated from the primary strengthening mechanism using existing empirical relationships that

M Jiang; F J Zheng; X F Huang; T Dai; B W Krakauer; M F Zhu

2012-01-01

197

Application of reliability and fiber probabilistic strength distribution concepts to composite vessel burst strength design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite pressure vessel design approach that is based on reliability and probabilistic fiber strength distribution concepts is discussed. The method is based on the fiber strain-strength interference reliability theory. The way in which fiber strength distribution parameters generated by two tensile tests of impregnated carbon fiber strands can be used in pressure vessel strength design is examined. It is

David Cohen

1992-01-01

198

The Strengths Assessment Inventory: Reliability of a New Measure of Psychosocial Strengths for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new measure, the Strengths Assessment Inventory-Youth self-report (SAI-Y), was recently developed to assess the strengths of children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 years. The SAI-Y differs from similar measures in that it provides a comprehensive assessment of strengths that are intrinsic to the individual as well as strengths

Brazeau, James N.; Teatero, Missy L.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Blanchette, Loretta R.

2012-01-01

199

Chang’E-1 precision orbit determination and lunar gravity field solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present results assessing the role of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) tracking data through precision orbit determination (POD) during the check-out phase for Chang'E-1, and the lunar gravity field solution CEGM-01 based on the orbital tracking data acquired during the nominal phase of the mission. The POD of Chang'E-1 is performed using S-band two-way Range and Range Rate (R&RR) data, together with VLBI delay and delay rate observations. The role of the VLBI data in the POD of Chang'E-1 is analyzed, and the resulting orbital accuracies are estimated for different solution strategies. The final orbital accuracies proved that the VLBI tracking data can improve the Chang'E-1 POD significantly. Consequently, CEGM-01 based on six-month tracking data during Chang'E-1 nominal mission phase is presented, and the accuracy of the model is assessed by means of the gravity field power spectrum, admittance and coherence between gravity and topography, lunar surface gravity anomaly and POD for both Chang'E-1 and Lunar Prospector (LP). Our analysis indicates that CEGM-01 has significant improvements over a prior model (i.e. GLGM-2), and shows the potential of Chang'E-1 tracking data in high resolution lunar gravity field model solution by combining with SELENE and LP tracking data.

Jianguo, Yan; Jinsong, Ping; Fei, Li; Jianfeng, Cao; Qian, Huang; Lihe, Fung

2010-07-01

200

[Effects of disulfide bridges in glycoprotein E1 on the membrane fusion activity of rubella virus].  

PubMed

To reveal the effects of disulfide bridges in rubella virus glycoprotein E1 on the membrane fusion activity, the recombinant plasmid pBSK-SPE2E1 and site-directed mutagenesis to mutate 11 cysteines individually in the ectodomain of E1 to remove a disulfide bridge from the wild-type E1 were constructed. All mutants and the wild-type plasmid were expressed on BHK-21 cell. Giemsa Staining was used to show the polykaryon formed in the transfected BHK-21 cells. The cell surface expression efficiency of the plasmids was assayed with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Hemadsorption was performed to detect the receptor recognition activity of the recombinant plasmids. The results showed that all the 10 disulfide bridges in the ectodomain of E1 played an important role in the process of the membrane fusion. The removal of any disulfide bridge resulted in the loss of the fusion activity. The disulfide formed by the 5th and the 8th cysteine might be critical for the interaction of E1 and E2. While the disulfide bridges formed by the 3rd, the 4th, and the 13th might influence the membrane fusion activity of E1 directly. PMID:19678563

Liu, Xiao-Li; Wu, Bing; Wang, Zhi-Yu

2009-03-01

201

The rubella virus E2 and E1 spike glycoproteins are targeted to the Golgi complex  

PubMed Central

Rubella virus (RV) has been reported to bud from intracellular membranes in certain cell types. In this study the intracellular site of targeting of RV envelope E2 and E1 glycoproteins has been investigated in three different cell types (CHO, BHK-21 and Vero cells) transfected with a cDNA encoding the two glycoproteins. By indirect immunofluorescence, E2 and E1 were localized to the Golgi region of all three cell types, and their distribution was disrupted by treatment with BFA or nocodazole. Immunogold labeling demonstrated that E2 and E1 were localized to Golgi cisternae and indicated that the glycoproteins were distributed across the Golgi stack. Analysis of immunoprecipitates obtained from stably transfected CHO cells revealed that E2 and E1 become endo H resistant and undergo sialylation without being transported to the cell surface. Transport of RV glycoproteins to the Golgi complex was relatively slow (t1/2 = 60-90 min). Coprecipitation experiments indicated that E2 and E1 form a heterodimer in the RER. E1 was found to fold much more slowly than E2, suggesting that the delay in transport of the heterodimer to the Golgi may be due to the slow maturation of E1 in the ER. These results indicate that RV glycoproteins behave as integral membrane proteins of the Golgi complex and thus provide a useful model to study targeting and turnover of type I membrane proteins in this organelle. PMID:8468347

1993-01-01

202

568. Comparison of Antigen-Specific Immune Responses Elicited by Recombinant Simian Adenoviral Vectors with Deletions in Either E1, or E1\\/E3, or E1\\/E4 Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication-defective adenoviral vectors based on human serotype 5 (H5) have emerged as very effective vaccine carriers. However, the neutralizing antibodies to AdH5 vector by previous natural infections will very likely impair its vaccine efficacy. Therefore, our lab developed replication-defective simian adenoviral C7 vectors to circumvent interference by pre-existing immunity to human AdH5. Early regions of AdH5 genome, including E1, E3,

Yan Zhi; Gary P. Kobinger; Heather Jordan; Guangping Gao; James M. Wilson

2004-01-01

203

Microscopic nature of the photon strength function: stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes  

E-print Network

The pygmy-dipole resonances and photon strength functions in stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes are calculated within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite fermi systems which includes the QRPA and phonon coupling effects and uses the known Skyrme forces SLy4. The pygmy dipole resonance in $^{72}Ni$ is predicted with the mean energy of 12.4 MeV and the energy-weighted sum rule exhausting 25.6\\% of the total strength. The microscopically obtained photon E1 strength functions are used to calculate nuclear reaction properties, i.e the radiative neutron capture cross section, gamma-ray spectra, and average radiative widths. Our main conclusion is that in all these quantities it is necessary to take the phonon coupling effects into account.

Achakovskiy, Oleg; Goriely, Stephane; Kamerdzhiev, Sergei; Krewald, Siegfried; Voitenkov, Dmitriy

2014-01-01

204

Strain rate, temperature, and humidity on strength and moduli of a graphite/epoxy composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an experimental study of the influence of strain rate, temperature and humidity on the mechanical behavior of a graphite/epoxy fiber composite are presented. Three principal strengths (longitudinal, transverse and shear) and four basic moduli (E1, E2, G12 and U12) of a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite were followed as a function of strain rate, temperature and humidity. Each test was performed at a constant tensile strain rate in an environmental chamber providing simultaneous temperature and humidity control. Prior to testing, specimens were given a moisture preconditioning treatment at 60 C. Values for the matrix dominated moduli and strength were significantly influenced by both environmental and rate parameters, whereas the fiber dominated moduli were not. However, the longitudinal strength was significantly influenced by temperature and moisture content. A qualitative explanation for these observations is presented.

Lifshitz, J. M.

1981-01-01

205

Development of predictive equations for lifting strengths.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine relationship between lifting strengths of male and female subjects and body posture, type of lift (stoop or squat) and velocity of lift. Thirty normal young adults (18 males and 12 females) volunteered for the study. All subjects were required to perform a total of 56 tasks. Of these, 28 were stoop lifts and 28 were squat lifts. In each of the categories of stoop and squat lifts, the strengths were tested in standard posture, isokinetic (linear velocity of 500 mm/s), and isometric modes at half, three-quarters and full horizontal individual reach distances in sagittal, 30 degrees lateral and 60 degrees lateral planes. The strengths were measured using a static dynamic strength tester with a load cell and an IBM microcomputer with an A/D card. The peak and average strength values were extracted and statistically compared across conditions and gender (ANOVA). Finally a multiple regression analysis was carried out to predict strength as a function of reach, posture and velocity of lift. The ANOVA revealed a highly significant effect of gender, reach, plane and velocity (p < 0.01). All regression equations (108) were significant (p < 0.01), and more than 70% of variance in lifting strength was accounted for by the anthropometric variables and sagittal plane strength values. Such an established relationship allows one to predict the human lifting strength capabilities for industrial application based on simple anthropometric and strength characteristics. PMID:15677035

Kumar, S

1995-10-01

206

26 CFR 1.501(e)-1 - Cooperative hospital service organizations.  

... 2013-04-01 true Cooperative hospital service organizations. 1.501(e...Organizations § 1.501(e)-1 Cooperative hospital service organizations. (a) General...controlling section under which a cooperative hospital service organization can qualify...

2014-04-01

207

26 CFR 301.6229(e)-1 - Information with respect to unidentified partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Information with respect to unidentified partner. 301.6229(e)-1 Section 301.6229...1 Information with respect to unidentified partner. (a) In general. A partner who is not properly identified on the...

2010-04-01

208

26 CFR 301.6229(e)-1 - Information with respect to unidentified partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Information with respect to unidentified partner. 301.6229(e)-1 Section 301.6229...1 Information with respect to unidentified partner. (a) In general. A partner who is not properly identified on the...

2012-04-01

209

26 CFR 301.6229(e)-1 - Information with respect to unidentified partner.  

...false Information with respect to unidentified partner. 301.6229(e)-1 Section 301.6229...1 Information with respect to unidentified partner. (a) In general. A partner who is not properly identified on the...

2014-04-01

210

26 CFR 301.6229(e)-1 - Information with respect to unidentified partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Information with respect to unidentified partner. 301.6229(e)-1 Section 301.6229...1 Information with respect to unidentified partner. (a) In general. A partner who is not properly identified on the...

2011-04-01

211

26 CFR 301.6229(e)-1 - Information with respect to unidentified partner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Information with respect to unidentified partner. 301.6229(e)-1 Section 301.6229...1 Information with respect to unidentified partner. (a) In general. A partner who is not properly identified on the...

2013-04-01

212

26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

2013-04-01

213

26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

2010-04-01

214

26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

2011-04-01

215

26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

2012-04-01

216

26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.  

...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

2014-04-01

217

Ber e 1 protein: the versatile major allergen from Brazil nut seeds.  

PubMed

Due mainly to its extremely high content of sulphur amino acids, Ber e 1 protein, the major allergen from Brazil nut, has attracted much scientific and press attention. Ber e 1 was the main target protein in early biotechnology transgenic work, in early processing studies of plant storage proteins, in plant vacuolar targeting studies and as the main protein in early nutritional supplementation experiments. Ber e 1 was also one of the first food allergens to be unintentionally transferred from one plant to another and was involved in the first reported case of systemic allergic reaction caused by a food allergen transferred in semen. In this review, many of the Ber e 1 unique biotechnological and structural functions are discussed with a particular emphasis on its use as model protein for studies of intrinsic allergenicity of food proteins. PMID:22187079

Alcocer, Marcos; Rundqvist, Louise; Larsson, Göran

2012-04-01

218

17 CFR 270.30e-1 - Reports to stockholders of management companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reports to stockholders of management companies. 270.30e-1...Reports to stockholders of management companies. (a) Every registered management company shall transmit...bold-face type: “Important Notice Regarding...

2010-04-01

219

Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus hirae Strain INF E1 Isolated from Cultured Milk  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome of Enterococcus hirae INF E1, found as a contaminant in cultured milk and studied for its ability to metabolize milk fat globule membrane glycoconjugates. PMID:25035319

?stlie, Hilde M.; Skeie, Siv B.

2014-01-01

220

Natural history of the E1-like superfamily: implication for adenylation, sulfur transfer, and ubiquitin conjugation.  

PubMed

The E1-like superfamily is central to ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation, biosynthesis of cysteine, thiamine, and MoCo, and several secondary metabolites. Yet, its functional diversity and evolutionary history is not well understood. We develop a natural classification of this superfamily and use it to decipher the major adaptive trends occurring in the evolution of the E1-like superfamily. Within the Rossmann fold, E1-like proteins are closest to NAD(P)/FAD-dependent dehydrogenases and S-AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases. Hence, their phosphotransfer activity is an independent catalytic "invention" with respect to such activities seen in other Rossmannoid folds. Sequence and structure analysis reveals a striking diversity of residues and structures involved in adenylation, sulfotransfer, and substrate binding between different E1-like families, allowing us to predict previously uncharacterized functional adaptations. E1-like proteins are fused to several previously undetected domains, such as a predicted sulfur transfer domain containing a novel superfamily of the TATA-binding protein fold, different types of catalytic domains, a novel winged helix-turn-helix domain and potential adaptor domains related to Ub conjugation. On the basis of these fusions, we develop a generalized model for the linking of E1 catalyzed adenylation/thiolation with further downstream reactions. This is likely to involve a dynamic interplay between the E1 active sites and diverse fused C-terminal domains. We also predict participation of E1-like domains in previously uncharacterized bacterial secondary metabolism pathways, new cysteine biosynthesis systems, such as those associated with archaeal O-phosphoseryl tRNA, metal-sulfur cluster assembly (e.g., in nitrogen fixation) and Ub-conjugation. Evolutionary reconstructions suggest that the last universal common ancestor contained a single E1-like domain possessing both phosphotransfer and thiolating activities and participating in multiple sulfotransfer reactions. The E1-like superfamily subsequently expanded to include 26 families clustering into three major radiations. These are broadly involved in Ub activation, cofactor and cysteine biosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In light of this, we present evidence that in eukaryotes other E1-like enzymes such as Urm1 were independently recruited for Ubl conjugation, probably functioning without conventional E2-like enzymes. PMID:19089947

Burroughs, A Maxwell; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Aravind, L

2009-06-01

221

The involvement of cytochrome P4502E1 in 2-bromoethanol-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

The cytotoxicity of 2-bromoethanol towards hepatocytes isolated from rats was concentration-dependent (EC(50)100 mu M, 2 hr). Bromoacetaldehyde was more toxic (EC(50)60 mu M, 2 hr) and bromoacetic acid was less toxic (EC(50)150 mu M, 2 hr). Glutathione (GSH) depletion occurred before cytotoxicity ensued and GSH depleted hepatocytes were more susceptible to 2-bromoethanol. Lipid peroxidation increased steadily 1 hr after 2-bromoethanol addition and antioxidants, iron chelators or hypoxia prevented 2-bromoethanol induced lipid peroxidation and cell lysis. Alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors, methyl pyrazole or dimethyl sulfoxide only partly prevented 2-bromoethanol induced GSH depletion, lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity. However, cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) inhibitors/substrates were more effective at preventing 2-bromoethanol-induced GSH depletion, lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity suggesting that 2-bromoethanol is mostly metabolically activated by CYP2E1. Also, hepatocytes isolated from CYP2E1 induced rats were more susceptible to 2-bromoethanol and hepatocytes isolated from rats pretreated with carbon disulfide to inactivate CYP2E1 were more resistant to 2-bromoethanol treatment. Formation of S-(formylmethyl)glutathione during 2-bromoethanol metabolism by microsomal mixed function oxidase in the presence of GSH was also prevented by cytochrome P4502E1 inhibitors/substrates or by Anti-Rat CYP2E1. Furthermore, aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors-cyanamide or chloral hydrate increased 2-bromoethanol dependent hepatocyte susceptibility. This suggests that 2-bromoethanol is preferably metabolised by CYP2E1 dependent monoxygenase to form 2-bromoacetaldehyde which causes cell lysis as a result of GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation. PMID:8861782

Khan, S; Sood, C; O'Brien, P J

1996-04-01

222

Resolvin E1 regulates osteoclast fusion via DC-STAMP and NFATc1  

PubMed Central

Interactions between the immune and skeletal systems in inflammatory bone diseases are well appreciated, but the underlying molecular mechanisms that coordinate the resolution phase of inflammation and bone turnover have not been unveiled. Here we investigated the direct actions of the proresolution mediator resolvin E1 (RvE1) on bone-marrow-cell-derived osteoclasts in an in vitro murine model of osteoclast maturation and inflammatory bone resorption. Investigation of the actions of RvE1 treatment on the specific stages of osteoclast maturation revealed that RvE1 targeted late stages of osteoclast maturation to decrease osteoclast formation by 32.8%. Time-lapse vital microscopy and migration assays confirmed that membrane fusion of osteoclast precursors was inhibited. The osteoclast fusion protein DC-STAMP was specifically targeted by RvE1 receptor binding and was down-regulated by 65.4%. RvE1 did not affect the induction of the essential osteoclast transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) or its nuclear translocation; however, NFATc1 binding to the DC-STAMP promoter was significantly inhibited by 60.9% with RvE1 treatment as shown in electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Our findings suggest that proresolution mediators act directly on osteoclasts, in addition to down-regulation of inflammation, providing a novel mechanism for modulating osteoclast signaling in osteolytic inflammatory disease.—Zhu, M., Van Dyke, T. E., Gyurko, R. Resolvin E1 regulates osteoclast fusion via DC-STAMP and NFATc1. PMID:23629863

Zhu, Min; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Gyurko, Robert

2013-01-01

223

CYP2E1-mediated mechanism of anti-genotoxicity of the broccoli constituent sulforaphane  

Microsoft Academic Search

^To whom requests for reprints should be addressed The broccoli constituent sulforaphane (l-isothiocyanate-4- methylsulfinylbutane) has previously been shown to protect rats against 9,10-dimethyl-lr2-benz(a)anthracene tumori- genesis, thought to be due, at least in part, to induction of phase II detoxificatio n. We investigated the ability of sulforaphane to also inhibit the phase I enzyme cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is

Silvia Barcelo; John M. Gardiner; Andreas Gescher; J. Kevin Chipmanw

1996-01-01

224

Resveratrol Stimulates the Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional and pharmacological factors are needed to prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age. The chemical compounds that act on bone metabolism as nutrients in food, however, are poorly understood. The effect of resveratrol, a natural phytoestrogen, on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells was studied. Resveratrol dose-dependently increased DNA synthesis (10?9?10?7M) of MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition,

Kenichi Mizutani; Katsumi Ikeda; Yasuhiro Kawai; Yukio Yamori

1998-01-01

225

Viral E1 and E2 Proteins Support Replication of Homologous and Heterologous Papillomaviral Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown that E1 and E2 proteins of human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) were essential to support the replication of the homologous viral origin (ori) in a transient replication assay, similar to reports on bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1). Unexpectedly, matched or even mixed combinations of E1 and E2 proteins from HPV-11 or BPV-1 replicated either ori in human,

Cheng-Ming Chiang; Mart Ustav; Arne Stenlund; Thau F. Ho; Thomas R. Broker; Louise T. Chow

1992-01-01

226

The rubella virus E2 and E1 spike glycoproteins are targeted to the Golgi complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubella virus (RV) has been reported to bud from intracellular membranes in certain cell types. In this study the intracellular site of targeting of RV envelope E2 and E1 glycoproteins has been inves- tigated in three different cell types (CHO, BHK-21 and Vero cells) transfected with a cDNA encoding the two glycoproteins. By indirect immunofluorescence, E2 and E1 were localized

Tom C. Hobman; Luann Woodward; Marilyn Gist Farquhar

1993-01-01

227

CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid  

SciTech Connect

Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. -- Highlights: ? Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ? Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ? Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ? Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2013-01-15

228

Cyclin E1 Regulates Kv2.1 Channel Phosphorylation and Localization in Neuronal Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Kv2.1 is a major delayed rectifying K+ channel normally localized to highly phosphorylated somatodendritic clusters in neurons. Excitatory stimuli induce calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation and dispersal of Kv2.1 clusters, with a concomitant hyperpolarizing shift in the channel's activation kinetics. We showed previously that sublethal ischemia, which renders neurons transiently resistant to excitotoxic cell death, can also induce Zn2+-dependent changes in Kv2.1 localization and activation kinetics, suggesting that activity-dependent modifications of Kv2.1 may contribute to cellular adaptive responses to injury. Recently, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) was shown to phosphorylate Kv2.1, with pharmacological Cdk5 inhibition being sufficient to decluster channels. In another study, cyclin E1 was found to restrict neuronal Cdk5 kinase activity. We show here that cyclin E1 regulates Kv2.1 cellular localization via inhibition of Cdk5 activity. Expression of cyclin E1 in human embryonic kidney cells prevents Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of Kv2.1, and cyclin E1 overexpression in rat cortical neurons triggers dispersal of Kv2.1 channel clusters. Sublethal ischemia in neurons induces calcineurin-dependent upregulation of cyclin E1 protein expression and cyclin E1-dependent Kv2.1 channel declustering. Importantly, overexpression of cyclin E1 in neurons is sufficient to reduce excitotoxic cell death. These results support a novel role for neuronal cyclin E1 in regulating the phosphorylation status and localization of Kv2.1 channels, a likely component of signaling cascades leading to ischemic preconditioning. PMID:24647953

Shah, Niyathi H.; Schulien, Anthony J.; Clemens, Katerina; Aizenman, Talia D.; Hageman, Thomas M.; Wills, Zachary P.

2014-01-01

229

Unexpected structure for the N-terminal domain of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major health problem worldwide. HCV entry into host cells and membrane fusion are achieved by two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2. We report here the 3.5-Å resolution crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the HCV E1 ectodomain, which reveals a complex network of covalently linked intertwined homodimers that do not harbour the expected truncated class II fusion protein fold. PMID:25224686

El Omari, Kamel; Iourin, Oleg; Kadlec, Jan; Sutton, Geoff; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Stuart, David I.

2014-01-01

230

Isolation, identification and characterization of cadmium-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain E 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain E1 with resistance to 18 mmol\\/L cadmium (Cd), isolated from Cd-contaminated soil was identified by morphological observation,\\u000a biochemical and physiological characterization and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The resistance to heavy metals Cd, Cu, Co,\\u000a Mn, Pb, Zn and 12 antibiotics was examined. The ability of removing Cd from solution was studied. The characterizations show\\u000a that strain E1 is affiliated

Xiao-xi Zeng; Jian-xin Tang; Xue-duan Liu; Pei Jiang

2009-01-01

231

Structural Dissection of a Gating Mechanism Preventing Misactivation of Ubiquitin by NEDD8s E1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-translational covalent modification by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) is a major eukaryotic mechanism for regulating protein function. In general, each UBL has its own E1 that serves as the entry point for a cascade. The E1 first binds the UBL and catalyzes adenylation of the UBL's C-terminus, prior to promoting UBL transfer to a downstream E2. Ubiquitin's Arg 72,

Judith Souphron; M. Brett Waddell; Amir Paydar; Z. Tokgöz-Gromley; Martine F. Roussel; Brenda A. Schulman

2008-01-01

232

Unexpected structure for the N-terminal domain of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major health problem worldwide. HCV entry into host cells and membrane fusion are achieved by two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2. We report here the 3.5-Å resolution crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the HCV E1 ectodomain, which reveals a complex network of covalently linked intertwined homodimers that do not harbour the expected truncated class II fusion protein fold. PMID:25224686

El Omari, Kamel; Iourin, Oleg; Kadlec, Jan; Sutton, Geoff; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M; Stuart, David I

2014-01-01

233

Neutrophil function in peripheral arterial occlusive disease: the effects of prostaglandin E1.  

PubMed

The role of polymorph nuclear neutrophils (PMN) in limb ischemia and reperfusion has been recognized only in recent years. The present study aimed to investigate the systemic and local (in femoral venous blood) effects of intra-arterially or intravenously applied prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on systemic and ischemia-induced local changes in neutrophil function. Thirty patients with intermittent claudication were randomly assigned to intra-arterial or intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E1 (10 microg i.a. or 15 microg i.v. over 30 min). Prior to infusion femoral arterial and venous blood samples were obtained from the predominantly affected leg under resting conditions and immediately after a 3-min period of ischemia induced by suprasystolic thigh compression. After 24 h additional blood samples were obtained at baseline, following infusion of prostaglandin E1, and again after another 3-min period of ischemia following the prostaglandin E1 infusion. Intra-arterially administered prostaglandin E1 caused an increase in the PMN count by 3.5 +/- 2% (p<0.05) and a decrease in free oxygen radical production by 13 +/- 8% (p<0.05) measured by whole blood chemiluminescence. Additionally, a trend for lower PMN filterabilities (9 +/- 12%, NS) was observed. Intra-arterially infused prostaglandin E1 significantly reduced the ischemia-induced decrease in neutrophil filterability (arterial and venous blood difference after ischemia -- control: 22 +/- 17% (p<0.05); IA PGE1: 8 +/- 11% (NS), each compared to baseline). Intravenously administered prostaglandin E1 showed similar systemic effects as the intra-arterial application, but did not affect the ischemia-induced changes in neutrophil filterability. In conclusion, prostaglandin E1 reduces PMN activation in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. PMID:9892509

Weiss, T; Eckstein, H; Weiss, C; Diehm, C

1998-01-01

234

Strength training in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Strength is the ability to exert muscular force against resistance. It is a fundamental requirement of most daily physical activities of children and of adults. Strength training is the use of progressive resistance exercise methods specifically to increase strength. Strength training for children and adolescents is not without risk. Proven medical concerns relate to back, shoulder, and other joint injuries and to hypertension and related diseases. However, the rate of injury is probably rather low, comparable to many youthful activities that are considered safe. Also, the incidence and severity of injury can probably be minimized by adherence to the guidelines presented. Children may be expected to become stronger with appropriate training. Increased strength can enhance their performance in those athletic activities in which strength, power, or speed are required. It may reduce the incidence and severity of overuse injury in sport. However, it cannot reasonably be expected to protect against serious, acute injury in sport. PMID:2216562

Webb, D R

1990-10-01

235

Adenovirus E1B 55-Kilodalton Oncoprotein Inhibits p53 Acetylation by PCAF  

PubMed Central

The adenovirus E1B 55-kDa protein binds to cellular tumor suppressor p53 and inactivates its transcriptional transactivation function. p53 transactivation activity is dependent upon its ability to bind to specific DNA sequences near the promoters of its target genes. It was shown recently that p53 is acetylated by transcriptional coactivators p300, CREB bidning protein (CBP), and PCAF and that acetylation of p53 by these proteins enhances p53 sequence-specific DNA binding. Here we show that the E1B 55-kDa protein specifically inhibits p53 acetylation by PCAF in vivo and in vitro, while acetylation of histones and PCAF autoacetylation is not affected. Furthermore, the DNA-binding activity of p53 is diminished in cells expressing the E1B 55-kDa protein. PCAF binds to the E1B 55-kDa protein and to a region near the C terminus of p53 encompassing Lys-320, the specific PCAF acetylation site. We further show that the E1B 55-kDa protein interferes with the physical interaction between PCAF and p53, suggesting that the E1B 55-kDa protein inhibits PCAF acetylase function on p53 by preventing enzyme-substrate interaction. These results underscore the importance of p53 acetylation for its function and suggest that inhibition of p53 acetylation by viral oncoproteins prevent its activation, thereby contributing to viral transformation. PMID:10891493

Liu, Yue; Colosimo, April L.; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Liao, Daiqing

2000-01-01

236

Arm lift strength in work space.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine arm strength values for isometric and isokinetic efforts around the human trunk. Thirty-eight normal young adults (20 male and 18 female) performed a total of 19 tasks. These consisted of one self-selected optimum posture with upright stance and elbows bent at 90 degrees , designated as standard posture for isometric test. In addition, isometric testing was done sagittally symmetrical 30 degrees and 60 degrees lateral planes at half-, three-quarters- and full-reach distances at knuckle height. The isokinetic tests were done between knuckle height and shoulder height in postures identical to isometric tests. The sequence of these tasks was randomised. The peak strength in standard posture was invariably lower than the peak strength at half-reach in isometric condition in all three planes for both sexes with the exception of one condition among females (60 degrees lateral plane, half-reach isometric). Peak and average arm lift strengths of males were significantly higher than those of females (p < 0.01) and ranged between 44% and 71%. For both sexes isometric strength was significantly higher than isokinetic strength (p < 0.01). The peak and average strengths in the sagittal plane were invariably higher than those of asymmetric postures, with one exception among females. With increasing reach distance the strength declined significantly for all conditions among both genders (p < 0.01). The ANOVA showed that the gender, mode of lifting, postural symmetry and reach of lifting, in addition to affecting the peak and average strength individually (p < 0.01), had significant 2-way and 3-way interactions (p < 0.01). All strength values were inter-correlated (p < 0.01). The regressions predicting peak and average strengths from anthropometric characteristics and sagittal plane strengths accounted for 63% to 89% of all variance and were highly significant (p < 0.01). PMID:15676830

Kumar, S

1991-10-01

237

Strength development of fly ash concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressive strength developed by concretes containing fly ash up to 80% of the cementitious fraction is presented. The effects\\u000a of mix design technique, quantity of cement in the mix and the curing period on the strength development of fly ash concrete\\u000a are also included. A comparison of the rate of strength development of the control and fly ash concretes is

M. K. Gopalan; M. N. Haque

1986-01-01

238

Ceramic granule strength variability and compaction behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diametral compression strength distributions and the compaction behavior and of irregular shape 150--200 μm ceramic granules and uniform-size 210 μm glass spheres were measured to determine how granule strength variability relates to compaction behavior of granular assemblies. High variability in strength, represented by low Weibull modulus values (m<3) was observed for ceramic granules having a distribution of sizes and shapes,

S. J. Glass; K. G. Ewsuk; M. J. Readey

1995-01-01

239

Handgrip strength at midlife and familial longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low handgrip strength has been linked with premature mortality in diverse samples of middle-aged and elderly subjects. The\\u000a value of handgrip strength as marker of “exceptional” human longevity has not been previously explored. We postulated that\\u000a the genetic influence on extreme survival might also be involved in the muscular strength determination pathway. Therefore,\\u000a the objective of this study was to

Carolina H. Y. Ling; Anton J. M. de Craen; P. Eline Slagboom; Rudi G. J. Westendorp; Andrea B. Maier

240

Shell structure and shell strength in Cirripedes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressive and adhesive strengths of 7 barnacles endemic to Bombay shore were ascertained by using Instron universal testing\\u000a machine. The adhesive strengths of balanid species settled on man-made materials like bakelite, asbestos, perspex, rubber,\\u000a glass and teflon were determined. The adhesion on teflon was found to be the poorest. Comments are made on the compressive\\u000a strengths of barnacles and their

A A Karande; M Udhayakumar

1989-01-01

241

14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...24 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The maximum stresses developed in the...

2011-01-01

242

14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...24 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The maximum stresses developed in the...

2010-01-01

243

14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...24 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The maximum stresses developed in the...

2013-01-01

244

14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.  

...24 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The maximum stresses developed in the...

2014-01-01

245

14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...24 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The maximum stresses developed in the...

2012-01-01

246

Strength Training in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Context: Strength training in children, in combination with plyometric and/or agility training, has become an increasingly popular tactic for athletes to gain a competitive edge during the off-season. The present review clarifies some common myths associated with strength training in children, and it outlines the most current recommendations. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies on strength training in children and adolescents were reviewed (search results included studies indexed in PubMed and MEDLINE from 1980 through 2008). Also reviewed were recommendations from consensus guidelines and position statements applicable to strength training in youth. Results: Children can improve strength by 30% to 50% after just 8 to 12 weeks of a well-designed strength training program. Youth need to continue to train at least 2 times per week to maintain strength. The case reports of injuries related to strength training, including epiphyseal plate fractures and lower back injuries, are primarily attributed to the misuse of equipment, inappropriate weight, improper technique, or lack of qualified adult supervision. Conclusion: Youth—athletes and nonathletes alike—can successfully and safely improve their strength and overall health by participating in a well-supervised program. Trained fitness professionals play an essential role in ensuring proper technique, form, progression of exercises, and safety in this age group. PMID:23015875

Dahab, Katherine Stabenow; McCambridge, Teri Metcalf

2009-01-01

247

49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell...

2011-10-01

248

49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell...

2013-10-01

249

49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell...

2012-10-01

250

49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell...

2010-10-01

251

Maple syrup urine disease in Mennonites. Evidence that the Y393N mutation in E1 alpha impedes assembly of the E1 component of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex.  

PubMed Central

Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) in Mennonites is associated with homozygosity for a T to A transversion in the E1 alpha gene of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. This causes a tyrosine to asparagine substitution at position 393 (Y393N). To assess the functional significance of this missense mutation, we have carried out transfection studies using E1 alpha-deficient MSUD lymphoblasts (Lo) as a host. The level of E1 beta subunit is also greatly reduced in Lo cells. Efficient episomal expression in lymphoblasts was achieved using the EBO vector. The inserts employed were chimeric bovine-human cDNAs which encode mitochondrial import competent E1 alpha subunit precursors. Transfection with normal E1 alpha cDNA into Lo cells restored decarboxylation activity of intact cells. Western blotting showed that both E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits were markedly increased. Introduction of Y393N mutant E1 alpha cDNA failed to produce any measurable decarboxylation activity. Mutant E1 alpha subunit was expressed at a normal level, however, the E1 beta subunit was undetectable. These results provide the first evidence that Y393N mutation is the cause of MSUD. Moreover, this mutation impedes the assembly of E1 alpha with E1 beta into a stable alpha 2 beta 2 structure, resulting in the degradation of the free E1 beta subunit. Images PMID:1885764

Fisher, C R; Chuang, J L; Cox, R P; Fisher, C W; Star, R A; Chuang, D T

1991-01-01

252

Adenovirus E1A Recruits the Human Paf1 Complex To Enhance Transcriptional Elongation  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT During infection by human adenovirus (HAdV), the proteins encoded by the early region 1A (E1A) gene bind and appropriate components of the cellular transcriptional machinery to activate the transcription of viral early genes. Previously, we identified roles for the human Bre1 (hBre1) and hPaf1 complexes in E1A-mediated transcriptional activation of HAdV early genes. Here we show that E1A binds hBre1 directly and that this complex targets the hPaf1 complex via the Rtf1 subunit. Depletion of hPaf1 reduces E1A-dependent activation of transcription from the E2e, E3, and E4 viral transcription units, and this does not result from a reduced ability of RNA polymerase II to be recruited to the promoter-proximal regions of these genes. In contrast, depletion of hPaf1 reduces the occupancy of RNA polymerase II across these transcription units. This is accompanied by reductions in the level of H3K36 trimethylation, a posttranslational histone modification associated with efficient transcriptional elongation, and the number of full-length transcripts from these genes. Together, these results indicate that E1A uses hBre1 to recruit the hPaf1 complex in order to optimally activate viral early transcription by enhancing transcriptional elongation. IMPORTANCE This work provides the mechanism by which the hPaf1 complex contributes to E1A-dependent activation of early gene transcription. The work also demonstrates that E1A induces gene expression by stimulating transcriptional elongation, in addition to its better-characterized effects on transcriptional initiation. PMID:24600005

Fonseca, Gregory J.; Cohen, Michael J.

2014-01-01

253

Acetylation of adenovirus E1A regulates binding of the transcriptional corepressor CtBP  

PubMed Central

Adenovirus E1A mediates its effects on cellular transformation and transcription by interacting with critical cellular proteins involved in cell growth and differentiation. The amino terminus of E1A binds to CBP/p300 and associated histone acetyltransferases such as P/CAF. The carboxyl terminus binds to the carboxyl-terminal binding protein (CtBP), which associates with histone deacetylases. We show that 12S E1A can be acetylated by p300 and P/CAF and map one of the acetylation sites to Lys-239. This Lys residue is adjacent to the consensus CtBP binding motif, PXDLS. Mutation of Lys-239 to Gln or Ala blocks CtBP binding in vitro and disrupts the E1A–CtBP interaction in vivo. Peptide competition assays demonstrated that the interaction of E1A with CtBP is also blocked by Lys-239 acetylation. Supporting a functional role for Lys-239 in CtBP binding, mutation of this residue to Ala decreases the ability of E1A to block cAMP-regulated enhancer (CRE)-binding protein (CREB)-stimulated gene expression. Finally, we demonstrate that Lys-239 is acetylated in cells by using an antibody directed against an acetyl-Lys-239 E1A peptide. CtBP interacts with a wide variety of other transcriptional repressors through the PXDLS motif, and, in many instances, this motif is followed by a Lys residue. We suggest that acetylation of this residue by histone acetyltransferases, and the consequent disruption of repressor complexes, might be a general mechanism for gene activation. PMID:11114158

Zhang, Qinghong; Yao, Hong; Vo, Ngan; Goodman, Richard H.

2000-01-01

254

Effect of reinforcement corrosion on bond strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of reinforcement corrosion on the bond strength between steel and concrete was investigated. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete elements, including the ultimate bond strength, free-end slip, and the modes of failure in precracking, cracking and postcracking stages was studied. Also, the effect of different crack widths and the rib profile degradation for various degrees of corrosion on

Abdullah A. Almusallam; Ahmad S. Al-Gahtani; Abdur Rauf Aziz; Rasheeduzzafar

1996-01-01

255

Giant monopole strength in Ni-58  

E-print Network

The strength distribution of the giant monopole resonance in Ni-58 has been measured from E-x = 10 to 35 MeV using small-angle scattering of 240-MeV alpha particles. E0 strength corresponding to 74(-12)(+22)% of the E0 EWSR was found between E...

Lui, YW; Clark, HL; Youngblood, David H.

2000-01-01

256

Rest Interval between Sets in Strength Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strength training has become one of the most popular physical activities for increasing characteristics such as absolute muscular strength, endurance, hypertrophy and muscular power. For efficient, safe and effective training, it is of utmost importance to understand the interaction among training vari- ables, which might include the intensity, number of sets, rest interval between sets, exercise modality and velocity of

Belmiro Freitas de Salles; Roberto Simão; Fabrõ ´ cio Miranda; Jefferson da Silva Novaes; Adriana Lemos; Jeffrey M. Willardson

2009-01-01

257

Early strength behavior of fly ash concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength of concrete at early ages has assumed a considerable significance in recent years due to the several specific requirements of the modern construction industry, like the early striking of forms, early transfer of prestress etc. However, fly ash concretes are known to have a lower early age strength and there have been many efforts to predict and\\/or to

K. G. Babu; G. S. N. Rao

1994-01-01

258

49 CFR 238.215 - Rollover strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Rollover strength. 238.215 Section 238...Equipment § 238.215 Rollover strength. (a) Each passenger...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the critical...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the...

2013-10-01

259

49 CFR 238.415 - Rollover strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Rollover strength. 238.415 Section 238...Equipment § 238.415 Rollover strength. (a) Each passenger car...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the critical...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the...

2011-10-01

260

49 CFR 238.215 - Rollover strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Rollover strength. 238.215 Section 238...Equipment § 238.215 Rollover strength. (a) Each passenger...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the critical...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the...

2012-10-01

261

49 CFR 238.415 - Rollover strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Rollover strength. 238.415 Section 238...Equipment § 238.415 Rollover strength. (a) Each passenger car...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the critical...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the...

2012-10-01

262

Static Material Strength Determined Using a DAC  

SciTech Connect

By measuring sample thickness and pressure gradient using x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction, respectively, the accurate static yield strengths of Ta and Fe were determined at high pressure. This improved method has several advantages over other similar methods to quantitatively determine static material strength.

Cynn, H; Evans, W; Klepeis, J P; Lipp, M; Liermann, P; Yang, W

2009-06-04

263

49 CFR 238.215 - Rollover strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Rollover strength. 238.215 Section 238...Equipment § 238.215 Rollover strength. (a) Each passenger...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the critical...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the...

2011-10-01

264

49 CFR 238.415 - Rollover strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Rollover strength. 238.415 Section 238...Equipment § 238.415 Rollover strength. (a) Each passenger car...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the critical...condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the...

2013-10-01

265

Yield strength of molybdenum at high pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the diamond anvil cell technology, the pressure gradient approach is one of the three major methods in determining the yield strength for various materials at high pressures. In the present work, by in situ measuring the thickness of the sample foil, we have improved the traditional technique in this method. Based on this modification, the yield strength of molybdenum

Qiumin Jing; Yan Bi; Qiang Wu; Fuqian Jing; Zhigang Wang; Jian Xu; Sheng Jiang

2007-01-01

266

Constraint correction of high strength steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a practical procedure for application of constraint correction of high strength steels and its weldments. Tests have been carried out on single edge notch bend (SENB) specimens with shallow and deep notch and SENT (single edge notch tensile) specimen with shallow notch, to cover the constraint effect. The yield strength of the material was 700 MPa. In

Christian Thaulow; Erling Østby; Bård Nyhus; Zhiliang L. Zhang; Bjørn Skallerud

2004-01-01

267

Environmental cracking of high-strength steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental cracking of two high-strength steels (250 maraging steel and AISI 4130) was studied under sustained load conditions. Maraging steel was found to be more susceptible to cracking at the same fraction of the corresponding yield strength (the critical flaw was smaller by a factor of five). Cathodic charging gave rise to considerably higher crack growth rates, presumably due to

A. Ashur; I. E. Klein; J. Sharon

1995-01-01

268

Concerning the glass fiber strength distribution function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical strength distribution functions of glass monofilaments of various composition are considered. On the basis of the experimental data it is shown that the fiber strength distributions can be described by a three-parameter function of the Weibull type.

S. L. Roginskii; V. S. Strelyaev; L. L. Sachkovskaya

1970-01-01

269

14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fatigue strength. 23.627 Section 23.627...Design and Construction § 23.627 Fatigue strength. The structure must be...concentration where variable stresses above the fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal...

2011-01-01

270

14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fatigue strength. 23.627 Section 23.627...Design and Construction § 23.627 Fatigue strength. The structure must be...concentration where variable stresses above the fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal...

2013-01-01

271

14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fatigue strength. 23.627 Section 23.627...Design and Construction § 23.627 Fatigue strength. The structure must be...concentration where variable stresses above the fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal...

2014-01-01

272

14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fatigue strength. 23.627 Section 23.627...Design and Construction § 23.627 Fatigue strength. The structure must be...concentration where variable stresses above the fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal...

2012-01-01

273

VARK Learning Styles Strengths and Study Strategies  

E-print Network

Prefers to do rather than watch or listen Need to do, move, or touch Learn best with hands-on approachVARK Learning Styles Strengths and Study Strategies Learning Style Strengths Study Strategies demonstrations Finds it easy to learn through descriptions Uses lists to keep up and organize thoughts

Kasman, Alex

274

Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…

Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.

2003-01-01

275

The Tensile Strength of Liquid Nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile strength of liquids has been a puzzling subject. On the one hand, the classical nucleation theory has met great success in predicting the nucleation rates of superheated liquids. On the other hand, most of reported experimental values of the tensile strength for different liquids are far below the prediction from the classical nucleation theory. In this study, homogeneous

Jian Huang

1992-01-01

276

The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His presentation shows…

Peterson, Christopher

2013-01-01

277

Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

Ball, Robert

2003-01-01

278

46 CFR 160.017-17 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strength. 160.017-17 Section 160.017-17...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING...EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-17 Strength. (a) Each chain ladder must...

2011-10-01

279

46 CFR 160.017-17 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Strength. 160.017-17 Section 160.017-17...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING...EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-17 Strength. (a) Each chain ladder must...

2013-10-01

280

46 CFR 160.017-17 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strength. 160.017-17 Section 160.017-17...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING...EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-17 Strength. (a) Each chain ladder must...

2012-10-01

281

Oblique impact simulations of high strength agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of particle compounds like concrete particles can be considered as a model material of high strength agglomerates. It is necessary to investigate and understand fracture behaviour of these agglomerates in order to avoid breakage during storage, handling and transportation. The aim of the research is to examine the comminution behaviour of high strength agglomerates during oblique impact loadings.A

Manoj Khanal; Jürgen Tomas

2009-01-01

282

A comparison of strength and muscle endurance in strength-trained and untrained women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Muscular strength and fatigability of strength-trained (ST) and untrained (UT) women were compared during a 6-min bout of maximal rhythmic exercise involving the elbow flexor muscles given at a rate of 30 contractions · min–1. Fifteen ST and 15 UT subjects, aged 18–34 years and pair-matched for body size, were tested for differences in initial strength, final strength, absolute endurance,

Heidi A. Huczel; David H. Clarke

1992-01-01

283

Polymorphisms of E1 and GIGANTEA in wild populations of Lotus japonicus.  

PubMed

In plants, timing of flowering is an essential factor that controls the survival rates of descendants. The circadian clock genes E1 and GIGANTEA (GI) play a central role in transmitting signals to FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in leguminous plants. Lotus japonicus is a wild Japanese species that ranges from northern Hokkaido to the southern Ryukyus and exhibits a wide range in terms of the time between seeding and first flowering. In this study, we first identified LjGI and analyzed polymorphisms of LjE1 and LjGI among wild populations covering the entire distribution range of this species in Japan. LjGI had a coding sequence (CDS) length of 3495 bp and included 14 exons. The homologies of DNA and amino acid sequences between LjGI and GmGI were 89 and 88 % (positive rate was 92 %), respectively. LjE1 harbored five nucleic acid changes in a 552 bp CDS, all of which were nonsynonymous; four of the changes were located in the core function area. LjE1 alleles exhibited partial north-south differentiation and non-neutrality. In contrast, the LjGI harbored one synonymous and one nonsynonymous change. Thus, our study suggests that LjE1 may be involved in the control of flowering times, whereas LjGI may be under strong purifying selection. PMID:25117507

Wakabayashi, Tomomi; Oh, Hana; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Harada, Kyuya; Sato, Shusei; Ikeda, Hajime; Hiroaki, Setoguchi

2014-11-01

284

Mutational analysis of the adenovirus E1a gene: the role of transcriptional regulation in transformation.  

PubMed Central

To determine whether the transcription regulatory activities of the adenoviral E1a gene play a role in its ability to transform primary cells we have constructed an extensive series of mutations within the E1a gene. The mutants have been characterized for their ability to transactivate the adenoviral early promoters, repress the transcriptional stimulation of the polyoma virus enhancer, establish primary baby rat kidney cells in culture and cooperate with the activated Ha-ras oncogene in morphologically transforming these cells. The mutant phenotypes reveal that: (i) the two transcription regulatory activities of E1a are separable since essential protein domains map within different regions of the protein; (ii) transactivation is unlikely to contribute significantly to E1a-mediated transformation since several isolated mutants lost the ability to transactivate but were nevertheless efficient at transformation; and (iii) both establishment and oncogene cooperation are linked to enhancer repression suggesting that E1a transforms cells by the repression of a cellular enhancer. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:2820718

Schneider, J F; Fisher, F; Goding, C R; Jones, N C

1987-01-01

285

Expression and Characterization of Acidothermus celluloyticus E1 Endoglucanase in Transgenic Duckweed Lemna minor 8627  

SciTech Connect

Endoglucanase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was expressed cytosolically under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic duckweed, Lemna minor 8627 without any obvious observable phenotypic effects on morphology or rate of growth. The recombinant enzyme co-migrated with the purified catalytic domain fraction of the native E1 protein on western blot analysis, revealing that the cellulose-binding domain was cleaved near or in the linker region. The duckweed-expressed enzyme was biologically active and the expression level was up to 0.24% of total soluble protein. The endoglucanase activity with carboxymethylcellulose averaged 0.2 units mg protein{sup -1} extracted from fresh duckweed. The optimal temperature and pH for E1 enzyme activity were about 80 C and pH 5, respectively. While extraction with HEPES (N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N{prime}-[2-ethanesulfonic acid]) buffer (pH 8) resulted in the highest recovery of total soluble proteins and E1 enzyme, extraction with citrate buffer (pH 4.8) at 65 C enriched relative amounts of E1 enzyme in the extract. This study demonstrates that duckweed may offer new options for the expression of cellulolytic enzymes in transgenic plants.

Sun, Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Himmel, M. E.; Skory, C. D.; Adney, W. S.; Thomas, S. R.; Tisserat, B.; Nishimura, Y.; Yamamoto, Y. T.

2007-01-01

286

Investigation of indazole unbinding pathways in CYP2E1 by molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Human microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) can oxidize not only low molecular weight xenobiotic compounds such as ethanol, but also many endogenous fatty acids. The crystal structure of CYP2E1 in complex with indazole reveals that the active site is deeply buried into the protein center. Thus, the unbinding pathways and associated unbinding mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations combined with steered molecular dynamics and potential of mean force calculations were performed to identify the possible unbinding pathways in CYP2E1. The results show that channel 2c and 2a are most likely the unbinding channels of CYP2E1. The former channel is located between helices G and I and the B-C loop, and the latter resides between the region formed by the F-G loop, the B-C loop and the ?1 sheet. Phe298 and Phe478 act as the gate keeper during indazole unbinding along channel 2c and 2a, respectively. Previous site-directed mutagenesis experiments also supported these findings. PMID:22442693

Shen, Zhonghua; Cheng, Feixiong; Xu, You; Fu, Jing; Xiao, Wen; Shen, Jie; Liu, Guixia; Li, Weihua; Tang, Yun

2012-01-01

287

Structural Insights into E1-Catalyzed Ubiquitin Activation and Transfer to Conjugating Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) are conjugated to their targets by specific cascades involving three classes of enzymes, E1, E2, and E3. Each E1 adenylates the C terminus of its cognate Ubl, forms a E1{approx}Ubl thioester intermediate, and ultimately generates a thioester-linked E2{approx}Ubl product. We have determined the crystal structure of yeast Uba1, revealing a modular architecture with individual domains primarily mediating these specific activities. The negatively charged C-terminal ubiquitin-fold domain (UFD) is primed for binding of E2s and recognizes their positively charged first a helix via electrostatic interactions. In addition, a mobile loop from the domain harboring the E1 catalytic cysteine contributes to E2 binding. Significant, experimentally observed motions in the UFD around a hinge in the linker connecting this domain to the rest of the enzyme suggest a conformation-dependent mechanism for the transthioesterification function of Uba1; however, this mechanism clearly differs from that of other E1 enzymes.

Lee,I.; Schindelin, H.

2008-01-01

288

Cooperative effects for CYP2E1 differ between styrene and its metabolites  

PubMed Central

Cooperative interactions are frequently observed in the metabolism of drugs and pollutants by cytochrome P450s; nevertheless, the molecular determinants for cooperativity remain elusive. Previously, we demonstrated that steady-state styrene metabolism by CYP2E1 exhibits positive cooperativity.We hypothesized that styrene metabolites have lower affinity than styrene toward CYP2E1 and limited ability to induce cooperative effects during metabolism. To test the hypothesis, we determined the potency and mechanism of inhibition for styrene and its metabolites toward oxidation of 4-nitrophenol using CYP2E1 Supersomes® and human liver microsomes.Styrene inhibited the reaction through a mixed cooperative mechanism with high affinity for the catalytic site (67 ?M) and lower affinity for the cooperative site (1100 ?M), while increasing substrate turnover at high concentrations. Styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol possessed similar affinity for CYP2E1. Styrene oxide behaved cooperatively like styrene, but 4-vinylphenol decreased turnover at high concentrations. Styrene glycol was a very poor competitive inhibitor. Among all compounds, there was a positive correlation with binding and hydrophobicity.Taken together, these findings for CYP2E1 further validate contributions of cooperative mechanisms to metabolic processes, demonstrate the role of molecular structure on those mechanisms and underscore the potential for heterotropic cooperative effects between different compounds. PMID:23327532

Hartman, Jessica H.; Boysen, Gunnar; Miller, Grover P.

2014-01-01

289

[Development of a radioligand assay for quantifying specific prostaglandin E1 binding in ischemic ulcers].  

PubMed

Ulcers of the lower extremities are of immense socioeconomical importance. Prevention and therapy of these trophic lesion are hence of great interest. In granulation tissue of ischemic ulcers Laser Doppler flow was previously shown to be higher compared to that in ischemic/adjacent skin or in ulcer without granulation tissue. Intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E1 significantly increased Laser Doppler flow. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis whether the increased baseline and prostaglandin E1-stimulated perfusion of granulation tissue is due to an increased number of prostaglandin E1-receptors in granulation tissue. Therefore, a radioligand binding assay was developed. In an initial pilot study the density of the prostaglandin E1-receptors in granulation tissue of ulcers was compared to that in ischemic/adjacent skin in 8 patients suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease requiring debridement or amputation of limbs because of ischemic lesions. The amount of specific binding sites detected was not significantly different between granulation tissue and ischemic/adjacent ulcer tissue. However it cannot be excluded that a possible difference might be detectable with more sensitive assays. In the future we hope to establish a more sensitive assay in order to be able to answer the initial question, whether there is a difference concerning the density of prostaglandin E1 receptor sites in granulation tissue and ischemic/adjacent skin. PMID:11261265

Alt, E

2000-01-01

290

The character strengths of class clowns  

PubMed Central

Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of “identified as a class clown,” “comic talent,” “disruptive rule-breaker,” and “subversive joker.” Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors “identified as the class clown” and “comic talent” were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (“disruptive rule-breaker,” “subversive joker”) were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers. PMID:25324796

Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

2014-01-01

291

The character strengths of class clowns.  

PubMed

Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers. PMID:25324796

Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

2014-01-01

292

The relationship between tensile strength and flexure strength in fiber-reinforced composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile data on unidirectional composites generated from a flexure test usually yield a higher strength than observed from a standard tensile coupon. According to a statistical-strength theory based on a Weibull distribution, the presence of a stress gradient in the flexure-test results in an apparent increase in tensile strength as compared to the tensile test under uniform stress. In the

J. M. Whitney; M. Knight

1980-01-01

293

Correlation of Yield Strength and Tensile Strength with Hardness for Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardness values as well as yield and tensile strength values were compiled for over 150 nonaustenitic, hypoeutectoid steels having a wide range of compositions and a variety of microstructures. The microstructures include ferrite, pearlite, martensite, bainite, and complex multiphase structures. The yield strength of the steels ranged from approximately 300 MPa to over 1700 MPa. Tensile strength varied over the

E. J. Pavlina; C. J. van Tyne

2008-01-01

294

The acute effects intensity and volume of strength training on running performance.  

PubMed

Strength training has been shown to cause acute detrimental effects on running performance. However, there is limited investigation on the effect of various strength training variables, whilst controlling eccentric contraction velocity, on running performance. The present study examined the effects of intensity and volume (i.e. whole body vs. lower body only) of strength training with slow eccentric contractions on running economy (RE) [i.e. below anaerobic threshold (AT)] and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) (i.e. above AT) 6 hours post. Fifteen trained and moderately endurance trained male runners undertook high-intensity whole body (HW), high-intensity lower body only (HL) and low-intensity whole body (LW) strength training sessions with slow eccentric contractions (i.e. 1:4 second concentric-to-eccentric contraction) in random order. Six hours following each strength training session, a RE test with TTE was conducted. The results showed that HW, HL and LW sessions had no effect on RE and that LW session had no effect on TTE (P ? 0.05). However, HW and HL sessions significantly reduced TTE (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that a 6-hour recovery period following HW, HL and LW sessions may minimize attenuation in endurance training performance below AT, although caution should be taken for endurance training sessions above AT amongst trained and moderately endurance trained runners. PMID:24533516

Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen Bede

2014-01-01

295

Effect of microfibrillar collagen on growth and differentiation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of microfibrillar collagen on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells was studied using MC3T3-E1\\u000a (E1) cells. In order to achieve direct contact of microfibrillar collagen with E1 cells, they were embedded in denatured collagen\\u000a gel, and DNA content, [3H] thymidine incorporation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and45Ca accumulation were examined after long-term culture. Microfibrillar collagen embedded with E1 cells increased

Shigeyuki Tsukagoshi; Toshio Matsurnoto; Shun-ici Harada; Etsuro Ogata

1992-01-01

296

Human Cytochrome P450 2E1: Functional Comparison to Cytochrome 2A13 and 2A6  

E-print Network

in activity from the CYP2E1 wild type enzyme. However, in contrast to previous literature reports [4], both CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 were observed to metabolize both CYP2E1 substrates pNP and CZN with catalytic efficiencies equal to or greater than CYP2E1...

Blevins, Melanie

2008-05-05

297

Inhibitory potency of 4-carbon alkanes and alkenes toward CYP2E1 activity.  

PubMed

CYP2E1 has been implicated in the bioactivation of many small molecules into reactive metabolites which form adducts with proteins and DNA, and thus a better understanding of the molecular determinants of its selectivity are critical for accurate toxicological predictions. In this study, we determined the potency of inhibition of human CYP2E1 for various 4-carbon alkanes, alkenes and alcohols. In addition, known CYP2E1 substrates and inhibitors including 4-methylpyrazole, aniline, and dimethylnitrosamine were included to determine their relative potencies. Of the 1,3-butadiene-derived metabolites studied, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene was the strongest inhibitor with an IC50 of 110 ?M compared to 1700 ?M and 6600 ?M for 1,2-butenediol and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, respectively. Compared to known inhibitors, inhibitory potency of 3,4-epoxy-1-butene is between 4-methylpyrazole (IC50 = 1.8 ?M) and dimethylnitrosamine (IC50 = 230 ?M). All three butadiene metabolites inhibit CYP2E1 activity through a simple competitive mechanism. Among the 4-carbon compounds studied, the presence and location of polar groups seems to influence inhibitory potency. To further examine this notion, the investigation was extended to include structurally and chemically similar analogues, including propylene oxide and various butane alcohols. Those results demonstrated preferential recognition of CYP2E1 toward the type and location of polar and hydrophobic structural elements. Taken together, CYP2E1 metabolism may be modified in vivo by exposure to 4-carbon compounds, such as drugs, and nutritional constituents, a finding that highlights the complexity of exposure to mixtures. PMID:24561005

Hartman, Jessica H; Miller, Grover P; Boysen, Gunnar

2014-04-01

298

Bacteriocin synthesis in uropathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli: colicin E1 is a potential virulence factor  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteriocin production is an important characteristic of E. coli strains of human origin. To date, 26 colicin and 9 microcin types have been analyzed on a molecular level allowing molecular detection of the corresponding genes. The production incidence of 29 bacteriocin types and E. coli phylogroups were tested in a set of 361 E. coli strains isolated from human urinary tract infections (UTI) and in 411 control strains isolated from feces of patients without bacterial gut infection. Results Production of 17 and 20 individual bacteriocin types was found in the UTI and control strains, respectively. Microcin H47 encoding determinants were found more often among UTI strains compared to controls (37.9% and 27.0% respectively, p = 0.02) and strains producing microcin H47 belonged predominantly to phylogroup B2 when compared to other bacteriocin producers (67.4% and 36.7%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Producers of 3 or more identified bacteriocin types were more common in the UTI group (20.0% compared to 12.4% in controls, p = 0.03). In the UTI strains, there was a markedly higher number of those producing colicin E1 compared to controls (22.1% to 10.2%, respectively, p = 0.0008). Moreover, colicin E1 production was more common in the UTI bacteriocinogenic strains with multi-producer capabilities. As shown by Southern blotting, pColE1 DNA was not recognized by the ColIa probe and vice versa suggesting that pColE1 was independently associated with pColIa in UTI strains. Conclusion E. coli strains isolated from human urinary tract infections showed increased incidence of microcin H47 and colicin E1 production, respectively. Moreover, colicin E1 itself appears to be a potentially important virulence factor of certain uropathogenic E. coli strains. PMID:21078157

2010-01-01

299

A bilateral antidiuresis to renal artery infusion of prostaglandin E1 in dogs treated with phenylbutazone  

PubMed Central

1. In acute experiments, high levels of endogenous prostaglandins, provoked by operative stress, could obscure or alter the actions of infused prostaglandins on the kidney. For this reason we decided to compare the effects of infusing prostaglandin E1 into the renal artery of the dog before and after the administration of phenylbutazone, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor. 2. Infusion of prostaglandin E1 into the left renal artery of the pre-phenylbutazone treated dog undergoing a mannitol diuresis increased renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate and the excretion of salt and water. The findings are in general agreement with those reported by others. 3. Following phenylbutazone administration the vascular and saluretic actions of prostaglandin E1 were unchanged but a reduced diuretic effect was observed. The response to a low dose of prostaglandin E1 (0·05 ?g/min) was reduced from 1·46 ± 0·15 to 0·96 ± 0·16 ml./min (P < 0·001) and the response to a high dose (0·5 ?g/min) from 1·82 ± 0·19 to 0·99 ± 0·31 ml./min (P < 0·002). 4. A significantly less dilute urine was excreted during prostaglandin infusion in the dog after phenylbutazone treatment than before. The reduction in the diuretic response was of the same order as the decrease in the free water clearance response, while the increase in osmolar clearance was unchanged. 5. In water-loaded dogs treated with phenylbutazone, infusion of prostaglandin E1 into the left renal artery had a biphasic effect on urine output from the left kidney. An initial diuretic response to a low dose of prostaglandin E1 disappeared with the infusion of higher doses, and antidiuresis developed in the immediate post-infusion period. 6. As prostaglandin was infused into the left kidney progressive antidiuresis was seen in the non-infused right kidney. 7. It is concluded that endogenous prostaglandins do not obscure or alter the vascular and saluretic actions of intrarenal prostaglandin E1. The findings question the proposed link between the vascular and saluretic actions of this compound. 8. It is suggested that the reduced diuretic effect of prostaglandin E1 in series no. 1, and the antidiuresis in the water-loaded dogs, are caused by the release of endogenous ADH. It is further suggested that phenylbutazone unmasks this release by removing the endogenous prostaglandins. If these deductions are correct, the findings support the anti-ADH role assigned to endogenous prostaglandins by Anderson, Berl, McDonald & Schrier (1975). PMID:702355

Hall, W. J.; Hensey, O. J.; O'Neill, P.; Sheehan, J. D.

1978-01-01

300

Geometry and gravity influences on strength capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strength, defined as the capability of an individual to produce an external force, is one of the most important determining characteristics of human performance. Knowledge of strength capabilities of a group of individuals can be applied to designing equipment and workplaces, planning procedures and tasks, and training individuals. In the manned space program, with the high risk and cost associated with spaceflight, information pertaining to human performance is important to ensuring mission success and safety. Knowledge of individual's strength capabilities in weightlessness is of interest within many areas of NASA, including workplace design, tool development, and mission planning. The weightless environment of space places the human body in a completely different context. Astronauts perform a variety of manual tasks while in orbit. Their ability to perform these tasks is partly determined by their strength capability as demanded by that particular task. Thus, an important step in task planning, development, and evaluation is to determine the ability of the humans performing it. This can be accomplished by utilizing quantitative techniques to develop a database of human strength capabilities in weightlessness. Furthermore, if strength characteristics are known, equipment and tools can be built to optimize the operators' performance. This study examined strength in performing a simple task, specifically, using a tool to apply a torque to a fixture.

Poliner, Jeffrey; Wilmington, Robert P.; Klute, Glenn K.

1994-01-01

301

Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

Ratigan, Joe L. (Rapid City, SD)

1984-01-01

302

Modeling strength data for CREW CHIEF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force has developed CREW CHIEF, a computer-aided design (CAD) tool for simulating and evaluating aircraft maintenance to determine if the required activities are feasible. CREW CHIEF gives the designer the ability to simulate maintenance activities with respect to reach, accessibility, strength, hand tool operation, and materials handling. While developing the CREW CHIEF, extensive research was performed to describe workers strength capabilities for using hand tools and manual handling of objects. More than 100,000 strength measures were collected and modeled for CREW CHIEF. These measures involved both male and female subjects in the 12 maintenance postures included in CREW CHIEF. The data collection and modeling effort are described.

Mcdaniel, Joe W.

1990-01-01

303

Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus is described for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

Ratigan, J.L.

1982-05-28

304

Teaching, Learning and Culture P a g e | 1 External Review  

E-print Network

Teaching, Learning and Culture P a g e | 1 External Review 2010 Volume 1: Executive Summary Texas A&M University College of Education & Human Development Department of Teaching, Learning Dr. Cynthia Boettcher, Associate Department Head Teaching, Learning and Culture External

305

26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...administrative proceeding is mailed to the tax matters partner with respect to any...

2013-04-01

306

26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...administrative proceeding is mailed to the tax matters partner with respect to any...

2012-04-01

307

26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...administrative proceeding is mailed to the tax matters partner with respect to any...

2014-04-01

308

Identification and Mechanistic Studies of a Novel Ubiquitin E1 Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is important for a diverse number of cellular processes ranging from cell signaling to development. Disruption of the ubiquitin pathway occurs in a variety of human diseases, including several cancers and neurological disorders. Excessive proteolysis of tumor suppressor proteins, such as p27, occurs in numerous aggressive human tumors. To discover small-molecule inhibitors that potentially prevent p27 degradation, we developed a series of screening assays, including a cell-based screen of a small-molecule compound library and two novel nucleotide exchange assays. Several small-molecule inhibitors, including NSC624206, were identified and subsequently verified to prevent p27 ubiquitination in vitro. The mechanism of NSC624206 inhibition of p27 ubiquitination was further unraveled using the nucleotide exchange assays and shown to be due to antagonizing ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1). We determined that NSC624206 and PYR-41, a recently reported inhibitor of ubiquitin E1, specifically block ubiquitin-thioester formation but have no effect on ubiquitin adenylation. These studies reveal a novel E1 inhibitor that targets a specific step of the E1 activation reaction. NSC624206 could, therefore, be potentially useful for the control of excessive ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in vivo. PMID:22274912

Ungermannova, Dana; Parker, Seth J.; Nasveschuk, Christopher G.; Chapnick, Douglas A.; Phillips, Andrew J.; Kuchta, Robert D.; Liu, Xuedong

2012-01-01

309

Lecture 11 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Weinan E1,2  

E-print Network

Lecture 11 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Weinan E1,2 and Tiejun Li2 1 Department of Mathematics@pku.edu.cn No.1 Science Building, 1575 #12;Examples Fast Fourier Transform Applications Outline Examples Fast Fourier Transform Applications #12;Examples Fast Fourier Transform Applications Signal processing

Li, Tiejun

310

P a g e | 1 Last Revised: 3.14.2012 Furman University  

E-print Network

P a g e | 1 Last Revised: 3.14.2012 Furman University Office 365 iPhone Mail Setup 1. Open your Safari web browser on your iPhone and navigate to the following site: (http the "Install Now" button. #12;P a g e | 2 Last Revised: 3.14.2012 Furman University Office 365 iPhone Mail

311

26 CFR 1.665(e)-1A - Preceding taxable year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Preceding taxable year. 1.665(e)-1A Section 1...net income made in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1974, any taxable year of...can be “preceding taxable years.” See § 1.688(a)-1A(c)....

2012-04-01

312

26 CFR 1.665(e)-1A - Preceding taxable year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Preceding taxable year. 1.665(e)-1A Section 1...net income made in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1974, any taxable year of...can be “preceding taxable years.” See § 1.688(a)-1A(c)....

2011-04-01

313

Replication of colicin E1 plasmid DNA added to cell extracts.  

PubMed Central

Closed-circular DNA of colicin E1 plasmid can undergo a round of semiconservative replication when added to an extract of Escherichia coli. Extracts of cells that do not carry the plasmid are able to perform complete replication of the plasmid. Replication requires de novo RNA synthesis but not protein synthesis. PMID:1093162

Tomizawa, J I; Sakakibara, Y; Kakefuda, T

1975-01-01

314

Merging of E2 and E1cb Reaction Mechanisms: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining the results of kinetic measurements with DFT calculations we provide a clear-cut evidence of the merging between the E2 and E1cb reaction mechanisms for a large series of leaving groups. Our results solve a long-debated issue in chemical reactivity with profound implications both

Edoardo Mosconi; Filippo De Angelis; Leonardo Belpassi; Francesco Tarantelli; Sergio Alunni

2009-01-01

315

Intramolecular Diels-Alder Cyclizations of (E)-1-Nitro-1,7,9-decatrienes  

E-print Network

Intramolecular Diels-Alder Cyclizations of (E)-1-Nitro-1,7,9-decatrienes: Synthesis of the AB Ring has been applied to the synthesis of the AB ring system of norzoanthamine. The intramolecular Diels-Alder the thermal intermolecular Diels-Alder reactions of nitroalkenes with dienes have been widely studied,2

Williams, David R.

316

Stereoselective synthesis of the CDE ring system of antitumor saponin scillascilloside E-1.  

PubMed

A stereoselective synthesis of the CDE ring portion of the antitumor saponin scillascilloside E-1 has been achieved, utilizing an Ireland-Claisen rearrangement to construct the contiguous tetrasubstituted stereocenters at C13 and C17 simultaneously and intramolecular nitrile oxide cycloaddition to form the five-membered ring as key steps. PMID:24650121

Akahori, Yoshihiro; Yamakoshi, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Shunichi; Nakamura, Seiichi

2014-04-01

317

P a g e | 1 SFU Marine Vessel Registration, Insurance & Operations Guide  

E-print Network

P a g e | 1 SFU Marine Vessel Registration, Insurance & Operations Guide Table of Contents Last...................................................................................................................................... 8 #12;P a g e | 2 Operation of SFU marine vessels ...........................................................................10 #12;P a g e | 3 This document was last updated March 2012. Please advise Risk Management of any

318

Assessment of quantitative models for plasmid ColE1 copy number control.  

PubMed

Two quantitative models of plasmid ColE1 copy number control are compared with respect to mathematical logic of derivation and application to experimental observations. Explanatory background material and clarifications are supplied for selected aspects of each model. Contrasting features are emphasized and experiments are suggested to distinguish between predictions of the models. PMID:7537828

Merlin, S; Polisky, B

1995-04-28

319

Prepared by the Office of the President. This replaces E1.203 dated April 1983.  

E-print Network

working environment. IV. POLICY AND PROCEDURAL GUIDELINES ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT A. Policy. It is the policy`I EXECUTIVE POLICY - ADMINISTRATION July 1991 p 1 of 5 E1.203 Sexual Harassment Policy and Procedural, and applicants for employment or admission against sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is a form of sex

Wang, Yuqing

320

Inhibition and induction of cytochrome P4502E1-catalyzed oxidation by isoniazid in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of isoniazid administration on the cytochrome P4502E1—catalyzed elimination of chlorzoxazone and acetaminophen. Isoniazid, 300 mg daily, was administered for 7 days to a group of 10 volunteer slow acetylators. Acetaminophen, 500 mg, and chlorzoxazone, 750 mg, were administered on separate occasions before isoniazid, during the period of isoniazid administration, and after the discontinuation of isoniazid. Isoniazid

Resa Zand; Sidney D Nelson; John T Slattery; Kenneth E Thummel; Thomas F Kalhorn; Stephen P Adams; James M Wright

1993-01-01

321

Precise orbit determination of Smart-1 and Chang'E-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Smart-1 was tracked by Chinese VLBI network and USB stations from 28 May, 2006 to 2 June, 2006 as a test for Chinese deep space network tracking ability, precise orbit determination was processed combining VLBI delay, delay rate and Doppler data. The reaction wheel unloadings were considered in long arc orbit determination, it showed good consistency with reconstructed orbit provided by ESA, the strategy used in smart-1 was used in Chang'E-1 precise orbit determination. Chang'E-1 was launched at 24 Oct, 2007, one of the main scientific objections is to map the lunar surface and get 3-D lunar topography model by satellite laser altimetry. The precise orbit determination of Chang'E-1 was realized by combining VLBI and USB data using GEODYNII/SOVLE software of GSFC/NASA/USA (Rowland,1997; Ullman,1994),, the frequently reaction wheel unloadings are considered in order to get high accuracy and continuous orbit, which can attribute to the laser altimetry data process and possible lunar gravity field recovery. Keywords: smart-1, Chang'E-1, precise orbit determination, reaction wheel unloading

Jianguo, Yan; Ping, Jing-Song; Li, Fei

322

26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...administrative proceeding is mailed to the tax matters partner with respect to any...

2011-04-01

323

26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...administrative proceeding is mailed to the tax matters partner with respect to any...

2010-04-01

324

CYP2E1 is not involved in early alcohol-induced liver injury  

E-print Network

CYP2E1 is not involved in early alcohol-induced liver injury HIROSHI KONO,1 BLAIR U. BRADFORD,1 alcohol-induced liver injury. Am. J. Physiol. 277 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 40): G1259­ G1267, 1999- induced liver injury (ALI) research. Much of what has been learned to date involves inhibitors

Omiecinski, Curtis

325

E1.5-0032-02 SEARCHING FOR LIFE WITH THE TERRESTRIAL PLANET  

E-print Network

requires access to space, making the search for life within our solar system and beyond a quest that only1 E1.5-0032-02 SEARCHING FOR LIFE WITH THE TERRESTRIAL PLANET FINDER: LAGRANGE POINT OPTIONS ABSTRACT Whether life exists beyond Earth is a fundamental question. To answer this and related questions

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

326

P a g e | 1 Interannual and Seasonal Variations of Kuroshio Transport East of Taiwan1  

E-print Network

at this important choke point between subtropical and tropical29 western North Pacific is poorly understood. JohnsP a g e | 1 Interannual and Seasonal Variations of Kuroshio Transport East of Taiwan1 inferred from and ocean velocity data to study the interannual10 and seasonal variations of the Kuroshio transport off

327

A Novel Computationally Efficient Galileo E1 OS Acquisition Method for GNSS Software Receiver  

E-print Network

A Novel Computationally Efficient Galileo E1 OS Acquisition Method for GNSS Software Receiver Technologies, in Toulouse, France working on the development of a GPS/Galileo software receiver. Olivier JULIEN is involved in the main European GNSS projects: EGNOS and GALILEO. He is the founder manager of ABBIA GNSS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

328

Innate immunity and cell death in alcoholic liver disease: Role of cytochrome P4502E1  

PubMed Central

Ethanol-induced liver injury is a complex process dependent upon the interaction of multiple cell types in the liver, as well as activation of the innate immune response. Increased expression of CYP2E1 in response to high concentrations of ethanol leads to greater production of cytotoxic ethanol metabolites, which in turn contribute to production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and ultimately, cell death. Necroptotic hepatocyte cell death in response to ethanol is mediated via a CYP2E1-dependent expression of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3), a key component of the necroptosome. In response to alarmins released during ethanol-induced necroptosis, the innate immune response is activated. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory multikine involved in many disease processes, is an essential component to this response to injury. MIF expression is increased during ethanol exposure via a CYP2E1-dependent pathway, likely contributing to an exacerbated innate immune response and chronic inflammation after chronic ethanol. This review will discuss the complex interactions between CYP2E1-dependent expression of RIP3 and MIF in the pathophysiology of chronic ethanol-induced liver injury.

Barnes, Mark A.; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Nagy, Laura E.

2014-01-01

329

Prepared by the Office of the President. This replaces E1.203 dated April 2001.  

E-print Network

of sexual harassment. There are two kinds of sexual harassment: quid pro quo and hostile environment. A _______________________________________________________________________ P 1 of 7 E1.203 Policy on Sexual Harassment and Related Conduct I. INTRODUCTION This policy reflects the University of Hawai`i's systemwide commitment to eliminate sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is a form

Wang, Yuqing

330

Monitoring frictional strength with acoustic wave transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We monitored acoustic transmissivity of a frictional interface during laboratory experiments where complex slip history was imposed. Frictional strength, which was also tracked continuously, showed complex changes due to various causes such as aging of the interface in quasi-stationary contact and slip weakening that began with miniscule pre-failure slip. Albeit such complexity, acoustic transmissivity was found to be a unique function of frictional strength throughout the experiment. This suggests that acoustic transmissivity reflects the resultant changes in load-supporting contact population that governs the frictional strength of the moment, not the external conditions that have altered contact state. This simple non-destructive acoustic measurement, which can be applied remotely and continuously, is therefore a robust technique to monitor frictional strength.

Nagata, Kohei; Nakatani, Masao; Yoshida, Shingo

2008-03-01

331

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

Wilborn, Colin

332

High strength concrete provides joint protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a joint fill material applied on the 24-in. pipe used by Iroquois Gas Transmission Project for its 26-mile Long Island Sound crossing which provides effective joint protection. The 3.35-in. joint fill, made of high instant strength concrete, met stringent requirements for both strength and weight coating, and is environmentally clean to protect the sensitive marine ecosystem. The offshore section, from Bridgeport, Conn., to Long Island, was laid by McDermott, Inc. The high instant strength concrete supplied joint strength and protection during the laying operation, and on the barge itself, where pipe joints are most vulnerable to damage. With joint fill density the same as the concrete already on the pipe, the submerged weight was uniform along the entire length of the marine line, for an essentially seamless coating.

Pool, P. (Offshore Joint Services, Houston, TX (US))

1991-12-01

333

Impact Strength of Glass and Glass Ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bar impact tests, using the techniques described elsewhere in this symposium, were used to measure compressive and tensile strengths of borosilicate glass, soda lime glass, and glass ceramic. The glass ceramic was 25% crystalline spinel, furnished by Corning, Inc. There are two measures of compressive strength: the peak stress that can be transmitted in unconfined compression and the steady-state strength. For both glasses, these values were similar, being about 1.8 and 1.5 GPa, respectively. The glass ceramic was almost 50% stronger. Tensile failure in the glass and glass ceramic takes places via surface flaws, and thus tensile strength is an extrinsic---as opposed to intrinsic---property.

Bless, Stephan; Tolman, John

2009-06-01

334

Fatigue Strength of Airplane and Engine Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report was undertaken to give a brief summary of the laws governing the fatigue stresses and of the most important strength coefficients necessary for the correct dimensioning of the structural members.

Matthaes, Kurt

1934-01-01

335

Multiscale strength homogenization : application to shale nanoindentation  

E-print Network

Shales are one of the most encountered materials in sedimentary basins. Because of their highly heterogeneous nature, their strength prediction for oil and gas exploitation engineering has long time been an enigma. In this ...

Gathier, Benjamin

2008-01-01

336

FPSO global strength and hull optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global strength is a significant item for floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) design, and steel weight plays an important role in the building costs of FPSO. It is the main task to consider and combine these two aspects by optimizing hull dimensions. There are many optional methods for the global strength analysis. A common method is to use the ABS FPSO Eagle software to analyze the global strength including the rule check and direct strength analysis. And the same method can be adopted for the FPSO hull optimization by changing the depth. After calculation and optimization, the results are compared and analyzed. The results can be used as a reference for the future design or quotation purpose.

Ma, Junyuan; Xiao, Jianhua; Ma, Rui; Cao, Kai

2014-03-01

337

Cavitation Strength of Liquids with Large Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cavitation strength of liquids has been studied at atmospheric pressure by applying tensile stress pulses of duration up to 3 ?s and amplitude up to 20 MPa within the temperature range from room temperature to the temperature of explosive boiling-up of the liquid. At high temperatures, where in absolute value the tensile strength does not exceed 1-2 times the critical pressure, agreement between classical nucleation theory and experiment is observed within the experimental error. With a decrease of the temperature the tensile strength of the liquid increases, but the experimental values of the breaking strength are lower than those predicted from theory. The dependence of the degree of discrepancy between theory and experiment on the number of atoms in the molecules of the liquids investigated is shown.

Vinogradov, Vladimir E.; Pavlov, Pavel A.

2013-09-01

338

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength\\u000a and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement\\u000a for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor\\u000a does one depend on the other. Strength

Colin Wilborn

2008-01-01

339

IMPACT STRENGTH OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC  

SciTech Connect

Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

Bless, S.; Tolman, J. [Institute for Advanced Technology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78759 (United States)

2009-12-28

340

Residual Strength of Clays at High Suctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on the residual shear strength of a plastic clay (Boom clay) under high suction. The device, an\\u000a adaptation of Bromhead ring shear apparatus to allow for suction control during shearing, is first described and the experimental\\u000a procedure detailed. Then, results of shear strength measured under a suction equal to 70 MPa, several vertical stresses and

Jean Vaunat; Vladimir Merchán; Enrique Romero; Jubert Pineda

341

Impact Strength of Glass and Glass Ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

2009-12-01

342

Fixation strength of meniscal repair devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to measure and compare the ultimate failure strengths and cyclic fatigue strengths of currently available meniscal suturing devices. No statistically significant difference in failure load was found between a vertical loop suture (mean 46.3 N), a horizontal mattress suture (52.5 N), the T-fix Device® (47.5 N), and the 16-mm (39.2 N) and 13-mm (32.8

J. Bellemans; H. Vandenneucker; L. Labey; R. Van Audekercke

2002-01-01

343

Fetal MRI at Higher Field Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While fetal MRI has become a routine method at field strengths up to 1.5 T, the use of higher field strength is at an early\\u000a stage. A higher signal-to-noise ratio is accompanied by a higher energy deposition. In addition, parameters of sequences have\\u000a to be adjusted to achieve useful contrasts. Susceptibility effects and certain artifacts that increase with higher field

Andreas Stadlbauer; Daniela Prayer

344

High-Hot-Strength Ceramic Fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous fibers consisting of laminae of alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet offer exceptionally high strength, resistance to creep, and chemical stability at high temperatures. These fibers exceed tensile strength of sapphire fibers. Leading candidates for reinforcement of intermetallic-matrix composites in exhaust nozzles of developmental high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Other applications are in aerospace, automotive, chemical-process, and power-generation industries.

Sayir, Ali; Matson, Lawrence E.

1994-01-01

345

Description of dipole strength in heavy nuclei in conformity with their quadrupole degrees of freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conformity to new findings about the widespread occurrence of triaxiality arguments are given in favor of a description of the giant dipole resonance in heavy nuclei by the sum of three Lorentzians. This TLO parameterization allows a strict use of resonance widths ? in accordance to the theoretically founded power law relation to the resonance energy. No additional variation of ? with the photon energy and no violation of the sum rule are necessary to obtain a good agreement to nuclear photo-effect, photon scattering and radiative capture data. Photon strength other than E1 has a small effect, but the influence of the level density on photon emission probabilities needs further investigation.

Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Schramm, G.

2012-02-01

346

Peptide immunogen mimicry of putative E1 glycoprotein-specific epitopes in hepatitis C virus.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for most cases of acute and chronic non-A and non-B hepatitis with serious consequences that may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma. The putative envelope glycoproteins (E1 and E2) of HCV probably play a role in the pathophysiology of the virus. In order to map the immunodominant domains of the E1 glycoprotein, two epitopes from amino acid residues 210 to 223 (P1) and 315 to 327 (P2) were predicted from the HCV sequence. Immunization of mice with the synthetic peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin induced an antibody response, and the antisera immunoprecipitated the E1 glycoprotein (approximately 33 kDa) of HCV expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus. A panel of HCV-infected human sera was also tested with the synthetic peptides by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for epitope-specific responses. Of 38 infected serum samples, 35 (92.1%) demonstrated a spectrum of reactivity to the P2 peptide. On the other hand, only 17 of 38 (44.7%) serum samples were reactive to the P1 peptide. Strains of HCV exhibit a striking genomic diversity. The predicted P1 epitope showed localization in the sequence-variable region, and the P2 epitope localized in a highly conserved domain. Results from this study suggest that the E1 glycoprotein of HCV contains at least two potential antigenic epitopes. Synthetic peptides corresponding to these epitopes and antisera to these peptides may serve as the monospecific immunological reagents to further determine the role of E1 glycoprotein in HCV infection. Images PMID:8207814

Ray, R; Khanna, A; Lagging, L M; Meyer, K; Choo, Q L; Ralston, R; Houghton, M; Becherer, P R

1994-01-01

347

Nanoporous Metal - Combining Strength and Porosity  

SciTech Connect

Recent nanomechanical tests on submicron metal columns and wires have revealed a dramatic increase in yield strength with decreasing sample size. This effect seems to be related to the increased strength observed in metals on decreasing grain size or film thickness, and has been explained by a dislocation nucleation/activation controlled plasticity regime in small sample volumes. The question arises whether one can utilize this new size effect to design materials with improved bulk properties. Here, we demonstrate that nanoporous metal foams can be envisioned as a three-dimensional network of ultrahigh-strength nanocolumns/wires, thus bringing together two seemingly conflicting properties: high strength and high porosity. Specifically, we studied the mechanical properties of nanoporous (np) Au using a combination of nanoindentation and column microcompression tests, as well as supplemental molecular dynamics simulations. We find that np-Au can be as strong as bulk Au, despite being a highly porous material, and that the ligaments in np-Au approach the theoretical yield strength of Au. The combination of high yield strength and high porosity can be used to design a new generation of energy absorbing materials for various engineering applications.

Biener, J; Hodge, A M; Hayes, J R; Volkert, C A; Zepeda-Ruiz, L A; Hamza, A V; Abraham, F F

2006-05-17

348

Strength functions for fragmented doorway states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling a strongly excited "doorway state" to weak "hallway states" distributes its strength into micro-resonances seen in differential cross sections taken with very good energy resolution. The distribution of strength is shown to be revealed by reduced widths of the K-matrix rather than by the imaginary part of poles of the S-matrix. Different strength functions (SF) constructed by averaging the K-matrix widths are then investigated to determine their dependences on energy and on parameters related to averages of microscopic matrix elements. A new sum rule on the integrated strength of these SF is derived and used to show that different averaging procedures actually distribute the strength differently. Finally, it is shown that the discontinuous summed strength defines spreading parameters for the doorway state only in strong coupling, where it approximates the indefinite integral of the continuous SF of MacDonald-Mekjian-Kerman-De Toledo Piza. A new method of "parametric continuation" is used to relate a discontinuous sliding box-average, or a finite sum, of discrete terms to a continuous function.

MacDonald, William M.

1980-04-01

349

Strength functions for fragmented doorway states  

SciTech Connect

Coupling a strongly excited ''doorway state'' to weak ''hallway states'' distributes its strength into micro-resonances seen in differential cross sections taken with very good energy resolution. The distribution of strength is shown to be revealed by reduced widths of the K-matrix rather than by the imaginary part of poles of the S-matrix. Different strength functions (SF) constructed by averaging the K-matrix widths are then investigated to determine their dependences on energy and on parameters related to averages of microscopic matrix elements. A new sum rule on the integrated strength of these SF is derived and used to show that different averaging procedures actually distribute the strength differently. Finally, it is shown that the discontinuous summed strength defines spreading parameters for the doorway state only in strong coupling, where it approximates the idefinite integral of the continuous SF of MacDonald-Mekjian-Kerman-De Toledo Piza. A new method of ''parametric continuation'' is used to relate a discontinuous sliding box-average, or a finite sum, of discrete terms to a continous function.

MacDonald, W.M.

1980-04-01

350

Dynamic effective shear strength of saturated sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic effective shear strength of saturated sand under cyclic loading is discussed in this paper. The discussion includes the transient time dependency behaviors based on the analysis of the results obtained in conventional cyclic triaxial tests and cyclic torsional shear triaxial tests. It has been found that the dynamic effective shear strength is composed of effective frictional resistance and viscous resistance, which are characterized by the strain rate dependent feature of strength magnitude, the coupling of consolidation stress with cyclic stress and the dependency of time needed to make the soil strength sufficiently mobilized, and can also be expressed by the extended Mohr-Coulomb's law. The two strength parameters of the dynamic effective internal frictional angle ?d and the dynamic viscosity coefficient ? are determined. The former is unvaried for different number of cyclic loading, dynamic stress form and consolidation stress ratio. And the later is unvaried for the different dynamic shear strain ratedot ? _t developed during the sand liquefaction, but increases with the increase of initial density of sand. The generalization of dynamic effective stress strength criterion in the 3-dimensional effective stress space is studied in detail for the purpose of its practical use.

Shengjun, Shao; Dingyi, Xie

2002-08-01

351

Formation of 13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin E1 during intravenous infusions of prostaglandin E1 in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease.  

PubMed

Formation of 13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin (PG) E1 during intravenous infusions of PGE1 in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease was investigated. Using both high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) combined with radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography/triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) basal levels of 13,14-dihydro-PGE1 were found to be close to or below the detection limits of the assay methods. Levels of the PGE1 metabolite increased significantly during the infusion periods and decreased after their end. Since 13,14-dihydro-PGE1, in contrast to its precursors 15-keto-PGE1 and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGE1, is biologically active, its formation could contribute to the beneficial effects of PGE1 administered intravenously in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. PMID:1852896

Peskar, B A; Hesse, W H; Rogatti, W; Diehm, C; Rudofsky, G; Schweer, H; Seyberth, H W

1991-03-01

352

Notched Strength Allowables and Inplane Shear Strength of AS4/VRM-34 Textile Laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Notched and unnotched strength allowables were developed for a textile composite to provide input data to analytical structural models based on the Pultruded Rod Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. Filled-hole tensile strength, filled-hole compressive strength, and inplane shear strength along stitch lines have been measured. The material system evaluated in this study is based on warp-knitted preforms of AS4 carbon fibers and VRM-34 epoxy resin, which have been processed via resin infusion and oven curing. All specimens were tested in as-fabricated (dry) condition. Filled-hole strengths were evaluated with and without through-thickness stitching. The effects of scaling on filled-hole tensile strength were evaluated by testing specimens in two widths, but with identical width / hole-diameter ratios. Inplane shear specimens were stitched in two configurations, and two specimen thicknesses were tested for each stitch configuration.

Grenoble, Ray W.; Johnston, William M.

2013-01-01

353

The effect of mineral bond strength and adsorbed water on fault gouge frictional strength  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent studies suggest that the tendency of many fault gouge minerals to take on adsorbed or interlayer water may strongly influence their frictional strength. To test this hypothesis, triaxial sliding experiments were conducted on 15 different single-mineral gouges with various water-adsorbing affinities. Vacuum dried samples were sheared at 100 MPa, then saturated with water and sheared farther to compare dry and wet strengths. The coefficients of friction, ?, for the dry sheet-structure minerals (0.2-0.8), were related to mineral bond strength, and dropped 20-60% with the addition of water. For non-adsorbing minerals (? = 0.6-0.8), the strength remained unchanged after saturation. These results confirm that the ability of minerals to adsorb various amounts of water is related to their relative frictional strengths, and may explain the anomalously low strength of certain natural fault gouges.

Morrow, C.A.; Moore, D.E.; Lockner, D.A.

2000-01-01

354

Effect of strength and proprioception training on eversion to inversion strength ratios in subjects with unilateral functional ankle instability * Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the effect of six weeks of strength and proprioception training on eversion to inversion isokinetic strength ratios (E\\/I ratios) in subjects with unilateral functional ankle instability. Methods: Thirty eight subjects were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: strength train- ing (S); proprioception training (P); strength + proprioception training (B); control (C). Isokinetic strength was tested

T W Kaminski; B D Buckley; M E Powers; T J Hubbard; C Ortiz

2003-01-01

355

Correlation of Yield Strength and Tensile Strength with Hardness for Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardness values as well as yield and tensile strength values were compiled for over 150 nonaustenitic, hypoeutectoid steels\\u000a having a wide range of compositions and a variety of microstructures. The microstructures include ferrite, pearlite, martensite,\\u000a bainite, and complex multiphase structures. The yield strength of the steels ranged from approximately 300 MPa to over 1700 MPa.\\u000a Tensile strength varied over the range of

E. J. Pavlina; C. J. Van Tyne

2008-01-01

356

Differences in Tongue Strength Across Age and Gender: Is There a Diminished Strength Reserve?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum tongue strength was investigated and compared to mean swallowing pressure elicited by the anterior tongue to calculate\\u000a the percentage of maximum tongue strength used during swallowing in 96 participants with normal swallowing, divided into three\\u000a 20-year age groups. The purposes of this investigation were to investigate normal swallowing physiology and to determine whether\\u000a tongue strength reserves diminished according to

Scott R. Youmans; Gina L. Youmans; Julie A. G. Stierwalt

2009-01-01

357

Chimeric Derivatives of Hepatitis B Virus Core Particles Carrying Major Epitopes of the Rubella Virus E1 Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Three variants of the major rubella virus (RV) E1 protein virus-neutralizing epitope from position 214 to 285 were exposed on the hepatitis B virus (HBV) C-terminally truncated core (HBc?) in a virus-like particle (VLP) vector and were produced in Escherichia coli. All three chimeras demonstrated VLPs in bacterial cell lysates, but only HBc?-E1(245-285) demonstrated the correct VLP structure after purification. The other chimeras, HBc?-E1(214-285) and HBc?-E1(214-240), appeared after purification as non-VLP aggregates of 100 to 900 nm in diameter according to dynamic light scattering data. All three variants possessed the intrinsic antigenic activity of RV E1, since they were recognized by natural human anti-RV E1 antibodies and induced an anti-RV E1 response in mice. HBc?-E1(214-240) and HBc?-E1(245-285) can be regarded as prototypes for a putative RV vaccine because they were able to induce antibodies recognizing natural RV E1 protein in RV diagnostic kits. PMID:24006140

Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Petraityte, Rasa; Sominskaya, Irina; Ose, Velta; Lieknina, Ilva; Bogans, Janis; Sasnauskas, Kestutis

2013-01-01

358

Role of an adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor in E1A-mediated coordinate gene control.  

PubMed Central

A product of the adenovirus gene E1A is responsible for the stimulation of transcription from six viral promoters as well as at least two cellular promoters. We have detected a HeLa cell factor, termed E2 promoter binding factor (E2F), that appears to mediate the transcriptional stimulation of the viral E2 promoter. Competition experiments revealed that E2F did not recognize and bind to the E1B, E3, E4, or major late promoter sequences. Furthermore, three additional promoters stimulated by E1A, heat shock protein 70, beta-globin, and early simian virus 40, do not bind E2F. In contrast, the factor does recognize sequences in the E1A enhancer, and within the E1A enhancer are duplicated binding sites for E2F. Finally, a single E2F binding site from the E1A enhancer can confer increased transcription to a mouse beta-globin promoter, dependent on the action of the E1A gene product. This stimulation requires binding of E2F since methylation of the binding site, which blocks binding in vitro, reduces transcription stimulation in vivo. We, therefore, conclude that E2F is likely to be responsible for the E1A-mediated stimulation of the E1A gene as well as the E2 gene but is not involved in the activation of the other E1A-inducible promoters. Images PMID:2951737

Kovesdi, I; Reichel, R; Nevins, J R

1987-01-01

359

Polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 and GSTM1 Genes as Possible Protection Factors for Leprosy Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The CYP2E1 and GSTM1 genes encode metabolic enzymes that have key functions in drug modification and elimination. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the possible effects of CYP2E1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms in 71 leprosy patients and in 110 individuals from the general population. The GSTM1*0 null allele and INDEL CYP2E1*1D mutant genotypes were analyzed by conventional PCR, while CYP2E1 SNPs (1053C>T, 1293G>C and 7632T>A) were determined by RT-PCR. In leprosy patients, the GSTM1*0 and CYP2E1*5 alleles and the combined alleles GSTM1*0/CYP2E1*6 and GSTM1*0/CYP2E1*5 were significantly related to a baciloscopic index (BI) (BI<3), while the CYP2E1*6 allele was related to a better clinical evolution in the leprosy spectrum. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, GSTM1*0, CYP2E1*5 and CYP2E1*6 may be possible protection factors for leprosy patients. PMID:23077626

Pinto, Pablo; Salgado, Claudio Guedes; Santos, Ney; Alencar, Dayse O.; Santos, Sidney; Hutz, Mara H.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea

2012-01-01

360

CYP2E1 immunoglobulin G4 subclass antibodies after desflurane anesthesia  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate CYP2E1 IgG4 autoantibody levels and liver biochemical markers in adult patients after anesthesia with desflurane. METHODS: Forty patients who were > 18 years old and undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with desflurane were studied. Alpha-glutathione-S-transferase (?GST) and IgG4 antibodies against CYP2E1 were measured preoperatively and 96 h postoperatively, as well as complete blood count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), international normalized ratio (INR), aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (SGPT), g-glutamyl-transpeptidase (gGT), alkaline phosphatase, total serum proteins, albumin and bilirubin. A separate group of 8 patients who received regional anesthesia was also studied for calibration of the methodology used for CYP2E1 IgG4 and ?GST measurements. Student’s t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison of the continuous variables, and Fisher’s exact test was used for the categorical variables. All tests were two-tailed, with statistical significance set as P < 0.05. RESULTS: None of the patients developed postoperative liver dysfunction, and all patients were successfully discharged from the hospital. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding liver function tests (SGOT, SGPT, ?GT, bilirubin, INR), ?GST and CYP2E1 IgG4, before and after exposure to desflurane. After dividing patients into two subgroups based on whether or not they had received general anesthesia in the past, no significant difference in the levels of CYP2E1 IgG4 was observed at baseline or 96 h after desflurane administration (P = 0.099 and P = 0.051, respectively). Alpha-GST baseline levels and levels after the intervention also did not differ significantly between these two subgroups (P > 0.1). The mean ?GST differences were statistically elevated in men by 2.15 ng/mL compared to women when adjusted for BMI, duration of anesthesia, number of times anesthesia was administered previously and length of hospital stay. No significant difference was observed between patients who received desflurane and those who received regional anesthesia at any time point. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in CYP2E1 IgG4 or ?GST levels after desflurane exposure; further research is required to investigate their role in desflurane-induced liver injury. PMID:24868327

Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Michalopoulos, George; Matsota, Paraskevi; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Riga, Maria; Nakou, Maria; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

2014-01-01

361

Shear Strength Behavior of Human Trabecular Bone  

PubMed Central

The shear strength of human trabecular bone may influence overall bone strength under fall loading conditions and failure at bone-implant interfaces. Here, we sought to compare shear and compressive yield strengths of human trabecular bone and elucidate the underlying failure mechanisms. We analyzed 54 specimens (5-mm cubes), all aligned with the main trabecular orientation and spanning four anatomic sites, 44 different cadavers, and a wide range of bone volume fraction (0.06–0.38). Micro-CT-based non-linear finite element analysis was used to assess the compressive and shear strengths and the spatial distribution of yielded tissue; the tissue-level constitutive model allowed for kinematic non-linearity and yielding with strength asymmetry. We found that the computed values of both the shear and compressive strengths depended on bone volume fraction via power law relations having an exponent of 1.7 (R2=0.95 shear; R2=0.97 compression). The ratio of shear to compressive strengths (mean ± SD, 0.44 ± 0.16) did not depend on bone volume fraction (p=0.24) but did depend on microarchitecture, most notably the intra-trabecular standard deviation in trabecular spacing (R2=0.23, p<0.005). For shear, the main tissue-level failure mode was tensile yield of the obliquely oriented trabeculae. By contrast, for compression, specimens having low bone volume fraction failed primarily by large-deformation-related tensile yield of horizontal trabeculae and those having high bone volume failed primarily by compressive yield of vertical trabeculae. We conclude that human trabecular bone is generally much weaker in shear than compression at the apparent level, reflecting different failure mechanisms at the tissue level. PMID:22884967

Sanyal, Arnav; Gupta, Atul; Bayraktar, Harun H.; Kwon, Ronald Y.; Keaveny, Tony M.

2012-01-01

362

Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength  

PubMed Central

Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N?55), “low extraversion” (E<45), and “low conscientiousness” (C<45) have been associated with multiple risky health behaviors but have not been investigated with regards to muscle strength. Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate associations between individual and combined typologies consisting of high N, low E, and low C and muscle strength, and whether physical activity and body mass index act as mediators. Method This cross-sectional study includes 1,220 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results High N was found among 18%, low E among 31%, and low C among 26% of the sample. High levels of N, particularly when combined with either low E or low C, were associated with lower muscle strength compared with having only one or none of these personality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

2011-01-01

363

Advances in Paediatric Strength Assessment: Changing Our Perspective on Strength Development  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of the age and sex associated changes in strength during childhood and adolescence is relatively limited compared to other physiological parameters. However, those studies available on the age and sex associated change in strength are relatively consistent, especially for the lower limbs. Caution must be taken when transferring this knowledge to other muscle joints as the development in strength appears to be both muscle action and joint specific. Strength appears to increase in both boys and girls until about the age of 14 y where it begins to plateau in girls and a spurt is evident in boys. By 18 y there are few overlaps in strength between boys and girls. The exact age in which sex differences become apparent appears to be both muscle group and muscle action specific and there is a suggestion that sex differences in upper body strength occur earlier than lower body strength. What is less clear is the complex factors that contribute to the production of strength during childhood and adolescence. There are few well controlled longitudinal studies that have concurrently examined the influence of known variables using appropriate statistical techniques. Most studies have shown that maturation does not exert an independent effect when other factors, such as stature and body mass are accounted for. Also, the assumption that muscle cross-sectional area is the most important parameter in strength production does not hold when examined with other known variables. Consistently, stature appears to play a key role in strength development and this may be attributed to the strength spurt that has been linked to peak height velocity, and the muscle moment arm. Advances in technology have provided us with more accurate techniques to examine these explanatory variables but the complex interaction of neural, mechanical and muscular remains to be clearly identified from well controlled longitudinal studies. Key pointsThe age associated development in strength is attributable to changes in growth and maturation. Sex differences appear at around 14y and very few girls out perform boys in strength tests at 18y.Stature and mass appear to be important explanatory variables in the development of muscle strength. PHV is a particularly important time for maximal gains in strength during childhood.The muscle moment arm is possibly the most important factor in the development of muscle strength with age but further longitudinal studies using MRI are needed. PMID:24149415

Croix, Mark De Ste

2007-01-01

364

Correlation between the quenching of total GT+ strength and the increase of E2 strength  

E-print Network

Relations between the total beta+ Gamow-Teller (GT+) strength and the E2 strength are further examined. It is found that in shell-model calculations for N=Z nuclei, in which changes in deformation are induced by varying the single-particle energies, the total GT+ or GT- strength decreases monotonically with increasing values of the B(E2) from the ground state to the first excited J=2+ state. Similar trends are also seen for the double GT transition amplitude (with some exceptions) and for the spin part of the total M1 strength as a function of B(E2).

N. Auerbach; D. C. Zheng; L. Zamick; B. A. Brown

1993-01-21

365

Steady-state and transient Zener parameters in viscoplasticity: Drag strength versus yield strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hypothesis is put forth which enables the viscoplastician to formulate a theory of viscoplasticity that reduces, in closed form, to the classical theory of creep. This hypothesis is applied to a variety of drag and yield strength models. Because of two theoretical restrictions that are a consequence of this hypothesis, three different yield strength models and one drag strength model are shown to be theoretically admissible. One of these yield strength models is selected as being the most appropriate representation for isotropic hardening.

Freed, A. D.; Walker, K. P.

1990-01-01

366

High-Strength Bolt Corrosion Fatigue Life Model and Application  

PubMed Central

The corrosion fatigue performance of high-strength bolt was studied. Based on the fracture mechanics theory and the Gerberich-Chen formula, the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture crack model and the fatigue life model were established. The high-strength bolt crack depth and the fatigue life under corrosion environment were quantitatively analyzed. The factors affecting high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life were discussed. The result showed that the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture biggest crack depth reduces along with the material yield strength and the applied stress increases. The material yield strength was the major factor. And the high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life reduced along with the increase of material strength, the applied stress or stress amplitude. The stress amplitude influenced the most, and the material yield strength influenced the least. Low bolt strength and a low stress amplitude level could extend high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life. PMID:25152916

Hui-li, Wang; Si-feng, Qin

2014-01-01

367

High-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life model and application.  

PubMed

The corrosion fatigue performance of high-strength bolt was studied. Based on the fracture mechanics theory and the Gerberich-Chen formula, the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture crack model and the fatigue life model were established. The high-strength bolt crack depth and the fatigue life under corrosion environment were quantitatively analyzed. The factors affecting high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life were discussed. The result showed that the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture biggest crack depth reduces along with the material yield strength and the applied stress increases. The material yield strength was the major factor. And the high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life reduced along with the increase of material strength, the applied stress or stress amplitude. The stress amplitude influenced the most, and the material yield strength influenced the least. Low bolt strength and a low stress amplitude level could extend high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life. PMID:25152916

Hui-li, Wang; Si-feng, Qin

2014-01-01

368

The Development and Initial Validation of the Preschool Strengths Inventory  

E-print Network

) was given to parents (N = 302) of preschool-aged children. An exploratory factor analysis showed five factors best represented the data, which included Strengths of Agreeableness, Strengths of Extraversion/Openness, Strengths of Conscientiousness, Leadership...

Owens, Rhea Lillian

2011-08-31

369

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2011-10-01

370

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2012-10-01

371

49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher...testing that the rivet material used is of such quality...higher allowable shearing strength. Inspection and...

2011-10-01

372

49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher...testing that the rivet material used is of such quality...higher allowable shearing strength. Inspection and...

2012-10-01

373

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2013-10-01

374

49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher...testing that the rivet material used is of such quality...higher allowable shearing strength. Inspection and...

2013-10-01

375

Nuclear deformation and neutron excess as competing effects for pygmy dipole strength  

E-print Network

The electromagnetic dipole strength below the neutron-separation energy has been studied for the xenon isotopes with mass numbers A = 124, 128, 132, and 134 in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using the ELBE bremsstrahlung facility at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the HIgS facility at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory Durham. The systematic study gained new information about the influence of the neutron excess as well as of nuclear deformation on the strength in the region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The results are compared with those obtained for the chain of molybdenum isotopes and with predictions of a random-phase approximation in a deformed basis. It turned out that the effect of nuclear deformation plays a minor role compared with the one caused by neutron excess. A global parametrization of the strength in terms of neutron and proton numbers allowed us to derive a formula capable of predicting the summed E1 strengths in the pygmy region for a wide mass range of nuclides.

R. Massarczyk; R. Schwengner; F. Dönau; S. Frauendorf; M. Anders; D. Bemmerer; R. Beyer; C. Bhatia; E. Birgersson; M. Butterling; Z. Elekes; A. Ferrari; M. E. Gooden; R. Hannaske; A. R. Junghans; M. Kempe; J. H. Kelley; T. Kögler; A. Matic; M. L. Menzel; S. Müller; T. P. Reinhardt; M. Röder; G. Rusev; K. D. Schilling; K. Schmidt; G. Schramm; A. P. Tonchev; W. Tornow; A. Wagner

2013-11-08

376

$E1-E2$ interference in the Coulomb dissociation of $^8$B  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects arising out of the $E1 - E2$ interference in the Coulomb dissociation of $^8$B at beam energies below and around 50 MeV/nucleon. The theory has been formulated within a first order semiclassical scheme of Coulomb excitation, in which both the ground state and the continuum state wave functions of $^8$B enter as inputs. We find that the magnitude of the interference could be large in some cases. However, there are some specific observables which are free from the effects of the $E1 - E2$ interference, which is independent of the models used to describe the structure of $^8$B. This will be useful for the analysis of the breakup data in relation to the extraction of the astrophysical factor $S_{17}(0)$.

P. Banerjee; R. Shyam

2000-08-14

377

Ginkgolic acid inhibits protein SUMOylation by blocking formation of the E1-SUMO intermediate.  

PubMed

Protein modification by small ubiquitin-related modifier proteins (SUMOs) controls diverse cellular functions. Dysregulation of SUMOylation or deSUMOylation processes has been implicated in the development of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, no small-molecule inhibiting protein SUMOylation has been reported so far. Here, we report inhibition of SUMOylation by ginkgolic acid and its analog, anacardic acid. Ginkgolic acid and anacardic acid inhibit protein SUMOylation both in vitro and in vivo without affecting in vivo ubiquitination. Binding assays with a fluorescently labeled probe showed that ginkgolic acid directly binds E1 and inhibits the formation of the E1-SUMO intermediate. These studies will provide not only a useful tool for investigating the roles of SUMO conjugations in a variety of pathways in cells, but also a basis for the development of drugs targeted against diseases involving aberrant SUMOylation. PMID:19246003

Fukuda, Isao; Ito, Akihiro; Hirai, Go; Nishimura, Shinichi; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Saitoh, Hisato; Kimura, Ken-Ichi; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Yoshida, Minoru

2009-02-27

378

[Mechanisms of action of prostaglandin E1 in therapy of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases].  

PubMed

Mode of action of prostaglandin E1 in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Prostaglandin E1 has been used for the first time in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease 30 years ago. Although widely used, the exact mechanism of the known beneficial effects is not completely understood. A strong vasodilation is induced after intra-arterial administration of PGE1, but is not seen, when PGE1 is intravenously infused. Because of the clinical efficacy of intravenously given PGE1, vasodilation is not considered as important mode of action. Many effects of PGE1 has been described on cellular factors in the blood, hemostasis and fibrinolysis and endothelium. Some of these effects are discussed. PMID:14694766

Weiss, Th

2003-11-01

379

Tensile & shear strength of porous dust agglomerates  

E-print Network

Context.Within the sequential accretion scenario of planet formation, planets are build up through a sequence sticking collisions. The outcome of collisions between porous dust aggregates is very important for the growth from very small dust particles to planetesimals. In this work we determine the necessary material properties of dust aggregates as a function the porosity. Aims: Continuum models such as SPH that are capable of simulating collisions of macroscopic dust aggregates require a set of material parameters. Some of them such as the tensile and shear strength are ?difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments. The aim of this work is to determine these parameters from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. Methods: We simulate the behavior of porous dust aggregates using a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains that includes adhesion forces, rolling, twisting, and sliding. Using different methods of preparing the samples we study the strength behavior of our samples with varying porosity and coordination number of the material. Results: For the tensile strength, we can reproduce data from laboratory experiments very well. For the shear strength, there are no experimental data available. The results from our simulations differ significantly from previous theoretical models, which indicates that the latter might not be sufficient to describe porous dust aggregates. Conclusions: We have provided functional behavior of tensile and shear strength of porous dust aggregates as a function of the porosity that can be directly applied in continuum simulations of these objects in planet formation scenarios.

Alexander Seizinger; Roland Speith; Wilhelm Kley

2013-08-23

380

(Finite) statistical size effects on compressive strength  

PubMed Central

The larger structures are, the lower their mechanical strength. Already discussed by Leonardo da Vinci and Edmé Mariotte several centuries ago, size effects on strength remain of crucial importance in modern engineering for the elaboration of safety regulations in structural design or the extrapolation of laboratory results to geophysical field scales. Under tensile loading, statistical size effects are traditionally modeled with a weakest-link approach. One of its prominent results is a prediction of vanishing strength at large scales that can be quantified in the framework of extreme value statistics. Despite a frequent use outside its range of validity, this approach remains the dominant tool in the field of statistical size effects. Here we focus on compressive failure, which concerns a wide range of geophysical and geotechnical situations. We show on historical and recent experimental data that weakest-link predictions are not obeyed. In particular, the mechanical strength saturates at a nonzero value toward large scales. Accounting explicitly for the elastic interactions between defects during the damage process, we build a formal analogy of compressive failure with the depinning transition of an elastic manifold. This critical transition interpretation naturally entails finite-size scaling laws for the mean strength and its associated variability. Theoretical predictions are in remarkable agreement with measurements reported for various materials such as rocks, ice, coal, or concrete. This formalism, which can also be extended to the flowing instability of granular media under multiaxial compression, has important practical consequences for future design rules. PMID:24733930

Weiss, Jérôme; Girard, Lucas; Gimbert, Florent; Amitrano, David; Vandembroucq, Damien

2014-01-01

381

The strength anisotropia of sea ice  

SciTech Connect

The hydraulic-engineering structure calculations of sea ice formation force require the sea ice strength data. The strength characteristics values and the types of sea ice formations in view of water depth define the type and the design of future structures in each particular region of supposed construction. The most objective information on the sea ice physical and technical properties can be obtained by field investigations ad the existing methods of their calculations refer to a great number of errors. The accumulated bank of data on studying the sea ice formation strength properties show one that ice as a natural material is of great crystalline structure variety. The level ice fields have a number of particularities. The crystal sizes increase in ice thickness. The crystals consist of fresh-water thin plates 0.5--0.6 mm in thickness oriented by pickle-water interlayers. Difference in thickness of the sea ice cover structure is one of the main causes of the changes strength characteristics layer. Besides that the sea ice strength depends upon the destroying force direction in reference to crystal orientation which characterizes the sea ice anisotropia as a material.

Evdokimov, G.N.; Rogachko, S.I. [Moscow State Univ. of Civil Engineering (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

382

Isoscalar E0 strength in ^12C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our earlier work on isoscalar E0 strength in ^12C 14.5± 4% of the energy weighted sum rule was located. Considering the isoscalar E0 strengths located in ^16O and ^24Mg are 48% and 72%, respectively, the above seems to be a small percentage. In the early work on ^12C the spectrum subtraction technique was used to highlight the E0 strength, however, this technique is sensitive to experimental background and the presence of other multipolarities. Also the analysis was performed by deformed potential calculations using ^28Si parameters. This may distort the strength distribution, therefore, we obtained new data on 240 MeV ? particle elastic scattering and inelastic scattering to ^12C states, 4.439 MeV 2^+, 7.655 MeV 0^+, and 9.641 MeV 3^-, from ?_c.m.= 3^o to 48^o and the folding potential parameters were determined. These parameters were used in the slice analysis for determining the E0 strength. The experiment was performed at the Texas A&M K500 superconducting cyclotron using the multipole-dipole-multipole(MDM) spectrometer. The experimental technique and the results from the analysis will be presented in detail.

John, Bency; Tokimoto, Y.; Clark, H. L.; Lui, Y.-W.; Youngblood, D. H.

2001-10-01

383

(Finite) statistical size effects on compressive strength.  

PubMed

The larger structures are, the lower their mechanical strength. Already discussed by Leonardo da Vinci and Edmé Mariotte several centuries ago, size effects on strength remain of crucial importance in modern engineering for the elaboration of safety regulations in structural design or the extrapolation of laboratory results to geophysical field scales. Under tensile loading, statistical size effects are traditionally modeled with a weakest-link approach. One of its prominent results is a prediction of vanishing strength at large scales that can be quantified in the framework of extreme value statistics. Despite a frequent use outside its range of validity, this approach remains the dominant tool in the field of statistical size effects. Here we focus on compressive failure, which concerns a wide range of geophysical and geotechnical situations. We show on historical and recent experimental data that weakest-link predictions are not obeyed. In particular, the mechanical strength saturates at a nonzero value toward large scales. Accounting explicitly for the elastic interactions between defects during the damage process, we build a formal analogy of compressive failure with the depinning transition of an elastic manifold. This critical transition interpretation naturally entails finite-size scaling laws for the mean strength and its associated variability. Theoretical predictions are in remarkable agreement with measurements reported for various materials such as rocks, ice, coal, or concrete. This formalism, which can also be extended to the flowing instability of granular media under multiaxial compression, has important practical consequences for future design rules. PMID:24733930

Weiss, Jérôme; Girard, Lucas; Gimbert, Florent; Amitrano, David; Vandembroucq, Damien

2014-04-29

384

Strength Weakening by Nanocrystals in Ceramic Materials  

SciTech Connect

A key question in nanomechanics concerns the grain size effects on materials' strength. Correct solution to this question is critical to design and tailor the properties of materials for particular applications. The full map of grain sizes-hardness/yield stress relationship in metals has been built. However, for ceramic materials, the similar studies and understandings are really lacking. Here we employed a novel technique to comparatively study the mechanical features of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with different crystallite sizes. On the basis of peak profile analysis of the X-ray diffraction data, we determined yield strength for nanocrystalline and bulk TiO2. Our results reveal a remarkable reduction in yield strength as the grain size decreases from 30-40 {mu}m to 10 nm, providing the only evidence of a strength weakening by nanocrystals relative to their bulk counterparts. This finding infers an inverse Hall-Petch effect, the first of its kind for ceramic materials, and a dramatic strength weakening after the breakdown of classic Hall-Petch relation below a characteristic grain size.

Wang,Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Y.

2007-01-01

385

Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.  

SciTech Connect

Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

Appelhans, Leah

2013-08-01

386

How to Scale Down Postsynaptic Strength  

PubMed Central

Synaptic scaling is a form of synaptic plasticity that contributes to the homeostatic regulation of neuronal activity both in vitro and in vivo, by bidirectionally and proportionally adjusting postsynaptic AMPA receptor (AMPAR) abundance to compensate for chronic perturbations in activity. This proportional regulation of synaptic strength allows synaptic scaling to normalize activity without disrupting the synapse-specific differences in strength thought to underlie memory storage, but how such proportional scaling of synaptic strength is accomplished at the biophysical level is unknown. Here we addressed this question in cultured rat visual cortical pyramidal neurons. We used photoactivation and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of fluorescently tagged AMPAR to show that scaling down, but not up, decreases the steady-state accumulation of synaptic AMPAR by increasing the rate at which they unbind from and exit the postsynaptic density (Koff). This increase in Koff was not diffusion limited, was independent of AMPAR endocytosis, and was prevented by a scaffold manipulation that specifically blocks scaling down, suggesting that it is accomplished through enhanced dissociation of AMPAR from synaptic scaffold tethers. Finally, simulations show that increasing Koff decreases synaptic strength multiplicatively, by reducing the fractional occupancy of available scaffold “slots.” These data demonstrate that scaling down is accomplished through a regulated increase in Koff, which in turn reduces the fractional occupancy of synaptic scaffolds to proportionally reduce synaptic strength. PMID:23926271

Tatavarty, Vedakumar; Sun, Qian

2013-01-01

387

A controlled trial of prostaglandin E1 precursor in chronic neuroleptic resistant schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postulated deficiency of prostaglandin E1 series (PGE1) in schizophrenia has been investigated in a controlled therapeutic trial. Twenty-one inpatients with a schizophrenic illness resistant to neuroleptic drug treatments were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions in a blind controlled trial of dihomo-gammalinolenic acid (DHLA), a PGE1 precursor. Patients received depot neuroleptic medication and DHLA capsules, placebo depot

K. S. Vaddadi; C. J. Gilleard; R. H. S. Mindham; Richard Butler

1986-01-01

388

Instantaneous ?-determination without Cd-cover in the 1\\/E 1+? epithermal neutron spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is developed for instantaneous ?-determination in the 1\\/E1+? epithermal neutron spectrum. It is based on coirradiation of three bare resonance detectors, followed by gamma-counting on\\u000a a calibrated Ge(Li)-detector. The technique is applied in two channels of the Thetis reactor (Gent) and the results are critically\\u000a compared with those obtained by other methods.

F. De Corte; L. Moens; A. Simonits; A. De Wispelaere; J. Hoste

1979-01-01

389

Comparison between prostaglandin E1 and epoprostenol (prostacyclin) in infants after heart surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the dose response characteristics of prostaglandin E1 and epoprostenol (prostacyclin) and directly to compare their effectiveness as pulmonary vasodilators in infants with pulmonary hypertension. DESIGN--A crossover design with each patient receiving both drugs in random order. SETTING--Infants were studied in the intensive care unit while they were sedated, paralysed, and ventilated. PATIENTS--Twenty infants who had undergone corrective cardiac

J Kermode; W Butt; F Shann

1991-01-01

390

E1 Ubiquitin-Activating Enzyme UBA1 Plays Multiple Roles throughout C. elegans Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly-ubiquitination of target proteins typically marks them for destruction via the proteasome and provides an essential mechanism for the dynamic control of protein levels. The E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme lies at the apex of the ubiquitination cascade, and its activity is necessary for all subsequent steps in the reaction. We have isolated a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Caenorhabditis elegans uba-1 gene,

Madhura Kulkarni; Harold E. Smith

2008-01-01

391

Induction of DNA synthesis and apoptosis in cardiac myocytes by E1A oncoprotein  

PubMed Central

Beginning during the second half of gestation, increasing numbers of cardiac myocytes withdraw from the cell cycle such that DNA synthesis is no longer detectable in these cells by neonatal day 17 in vivo. The mechanisms that exclude these and other terminally differentiated cells from the cell division cycle are poorly understood. To begin to explore the molecular basis of the barrier to G1/S progression in cardiac myocytes, we used adenoviruses to express wild-type and mutant E1A proteins in primary cultures from embryonic day 20 rats. While most of these cardiac myocytes are ordinarily refractory to DNA synthesis, even in the presence of serum growth factors, expression of wild-type E1A stimulates DNA synthesis in up to 94% or almost all successfully transduced cells. Rather than complete the cell cycle, however, these cells undergo apoptosis. Apoptosis is limited to those cells that engage in DNA synthesis, and the kinetics of the two processes suggest that DNA synthesis precedes apoptosis. Mutations in E1A that disable it from binding Rb and related pocket proteins have little effect on its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in cardiac myocytes. In contrast, mutants that are defective in binding the cellular protein p300 stimulate DNA synthesis 2.4-4.1-fold less efficiently, even in the context of retained E1A pocket protein binding. In the absence of ElA pocket protein binding, the usual situation in the cell, loss of p300 binding severely decreases the ability of ElA to stimulate DNA synthesis. These results suggest that the barrier to G1/S progression in cardiac myocytes is mediated. at least in part, by the same molecules that gate the G1/S transition in actively cycling cells, and that p300 or related family members play an important role in this process. PMID:8609165

1996-01-01

392

Compatibility analysis between LightSquared signals and L1\\/E1 GNSS reception  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results showing the impact of the proposed LightSquared Long Term Evolution (LTE) signals on reception of both Global Positioning System (GPS) and Galileo civil signals in the L1\\/E1 band. A model for determining the impact of the interfering signal on the victim Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers is also provided and this model is validated

Cillian O'Driscoll; Marco Rao; Daniele Borio; Eduardo Cano; Joaquim Fortuny; Frederic Bastide; Dominic Hayes

2012-01-01

393

Voltage-dependent, monomeric channel activity of colicin E1 in artificial membrane vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The dependence of colicin channel activity on membrane potential and peptide concentration was studied in large unilamellar vesicles using colicin E1, its COOH-terminal thermolytic peptide and other channel-forming colicins. Channel activity was assayed by release of vesicle-entrapped chloride, and could be detected at a peptide: lipid molar ratio as low as 10?7. The channel activity was dependent on the

Arnold A. Peterson; William A. Cramer

1987-01-01

394

Characterization of prostaglandin E 1 transport by rat renal cortical slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) transport in rat kidney. [3H]PGE1 administered intravenously was accumulated most abundantly in the renal cortex. Infusion of probenecid and bromcresol green (BCG) decreased [3H]PGE1 accumulation in the renal cortex after injection of [3H]PGE1. To further investigate PGE1 transport in the kidney, [3H]PGE1 uptake by renal cortical slices was examined.

Junya Nagai; Reishi Nasu; Teruo Murakami; Mikihisa Takano

2005-01-01

395

Ultrasound associated uptake of chitosan nanoparticles in MC3T3-E1 cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chitosan is a natural linear polysaccharide that has been well known for its applications in drug delivery system due to its unique physicochemical and biological properties. However, challenges still remain for it to become a fully realized therapeutic agent. In this study, we investigated the uptake of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) under the ultrasound stimulation, using a model cell culture system (MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts). The CNP were fabricated by an ionic gelation method and were lyophilized prior to characterization and delivery to cells. Particle size and zeta potential were measured using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS); the efficiency of chitosan complexation was measured using the ninhydrin assay. Cytotoxicity was examined by neutral red assay within 48 hours after delivery. The effect of ultrasound (US) on the efficiency of nanoparticle delivery to the MC3T3-E1 cells was examined at 1MHz and at either 1 or 2 W/cm2. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated-CNP were used to visualize the internalized particles within the cytosol. The uptake of FITC-CNP exhibits a dose and time dependent effect, a strong FITC fluorescence was detected at the concentration of 500microg/mL under fluorescence microscope. Ultrasound assisted uptake of FITC-CNP performed a significant positive effect at 2W/cm2 with 60s of ultrasound exposure time. CNP displayed a slightly decrease in cell viability from 25microg/mL to 100microg/mL, while higher concentration of CNP facilitates the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Less than 10% of reduction in cell viability was observed for US at 1W/cm2 and 2W/cm2 with 30s and 60s of exposure time, which suggest a mild effect of US to MC3T3-E1 cell line.

Wu, Junyi

396

Expression of lysyl oxidase isoforms in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covalent intermolecular cross-linking of collagen is initiated by the action of lysyl oxidase (LOX) on the telopeptidyl lysine and hydroxylysine residues. Recently, several LOX isoforms, i.e., LOX-like proteins 1–4 (LOXL1–4), have been identified but their specific tissue distribution and functions are still largely unknown. In this study, mRNA expression of LOX and LOXL1–4 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was screened by

Phimon Atsawasuwan; Yoshiyuki Mochida; Duenpim Parisuthiman; Mitsuo Yamauchi

2005-01-01

397

cDNA sequence, deduced amino acid sequence, predicted gene structure and chemical regulation of mouse Cyp2e1.  

PubMed Central

The cDNA encoding the mouse Cyp2e1 protein has been isolated and sequenced, and shown to share 92%, 79%, 80% and 79% sequence similarity over the coding region with rat, human, rabbit 1 and rabbit 2 CYP2E1 cDNA sequences respectively. The predicted Cyp2e1 protein contains 493 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 56781 Da. The protein contains many features common to other cytochrome P450s, including a potentially phosphorylatable serine residue at position 129 within a canonical cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase site. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA prepared from C57BL/6 and DBA/2N mice suggests the presence of only a single Cyp2e1 gene. The Cyp2e1 gene was isolated and its organization was established by PCR using oligonucleotides to its predicted intron/exon boundaries. These results showed that the mouse Cyp2e1 gene is approx. 11,000 bp in length and has a similar structure to the human and rat CYP2E1 genes. Cyp2e1 protein expression was studied in a variety of tissues and a sexual dimorphism in its levels in some tissues was noted. Acetone treatment induced the Cyp2e1 protein in all of the tissues studied in both sexes, but this Cyp2e1 protein induction was not accompanied by an increase in Cyp2e1 mRNA levels. Indeed, mRNA levels were seen to be decreased on treatment, suggesting that acetone administration affects either mRNA translation efficiency or protein stability. Of a wide range of drugs known to modify other cytochrome P450 levels only diethylnitrosamine had a significant effect on Cyp2e1, causing a decrease in protein levels. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1536649

Freeman, J E; Stirling, D; Russell, A L; Wolf, C R

1992-01-01

398

Resolvin E1 Regulates Inflammation at the Cellular and Tissue Level and Restores Tissue Homeostasis In Vivo1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is a potent proresolving mediator of inflammation derived from omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid that acts locally to stop leukocyte recruitment and promote resolution. RvE1 displays potent counter-regulatory and tissue-protective actions in vitro and in vivo. Periodontal disease is a local inflammatory disease initiated by bacteria characterized by neutrophil- mediated tissue injury followed by development of a chronic immune

Hatice Hasturk; Alpdogan Kantarci; Emilie Goguet-Surmenian; Amanda Blackwood; Chris Andry; Charles N. Serhan; Thomas E. Van Dyke

399

Grip strength of Texas Special Olympians.  

PubMed

Little is known about the physical fitness parameters of individuals who participate in the Special Olympics. The purpose of this study was to assess the grip strength of 104 Special Olympians participating in the winter Olympic Games. Men were significantly stronger than women across age groups 20 to 59 yr. Women's right hands were stronger than their left, while the opposite was true for men, despite the fact that 78.8% of the subjects reported right hand dominance. Mean right and left grip strengths were 25-40% less than the 1985 normative data of Mathiowetz, et al. by age groups. Special Olympian men and women have grip strengths comparable to elderly people rather than age-matched men and women. PMID:16826668

O'Connell, Janelle K; Rutland, Marsha K; O'Connell, Dennis G

2006-04-01

400

Development of high strength, high temperature ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement in the high-pressure turbopumps, both fuel and oxidizer, in the Space Shuttle main engine were considered. The operation of these pumps is limited by temperature restrictions of the metallic components used in these pumps. Ceramic materials that retain strength at high temperatures and appear to be promising candidates for use as turbine blades and impellers are discussed. These high strength materials are sensitive to many related processing parameters such as impurities, sintering aids, reaction aids, particle size, processing temperature, and post thermal treatment. The specific objectives of the study were to: (1) identify and define the processing parameters that affect the properties of Si3N4 ceramic materials, (2) design and assembly equipment required for processing high strength ceramics, (3) design and assemble test apparatus for evaluating the high temperature properties of Si3N4, and (4) conduct a research program of manufacturing and evaluating Si3N4 materials as applicable to rocket engine applications.

Hall, W. B.

1982-01-01

401

Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes an experimental program conducted to investigate production techniques and mechanical properties of high strength concrete in general and to provide recommendations for using these concretes in manufacturing precast/prestressed bridge girders. Test variables included total amount and composition of cementitious material (portland cement, fly ash, and silica fume), type and brand of cement, type of silica fume (dry densified and slurry), type and brand of high-range water-reducing admixture, type of aggregate, aggregate gradation, maximum aggregate size, and curing. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of these variables on changes in compressive strength and modulus of elasticity over time, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, creep, shrinkage, and absorption potential (as an indirect indicator of permeability). Also investigated were the effects of test parameters such as mold size, mold material, and end condition. Over 6,300 specimens were cast from approximately 140 mixes over a period of 3 years.

Mokhtarzadeh, Alireza

402

U-Groove aluminum weld strength improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Though butt-welds are among the most preferred joining methods in aerostructures, their strength dependence on inelastic mechanics is generally the least understood. This study investigated experimental strain distributions across a thick aluminum U-grooved weld and identified two weld process considerations for improving the multipass weld strength. The extreme thermal expansion and contraction gradient of the fusion heat input across the groove tab thickness produces severe peaking, which induces bending under uniaxial loading. The filler strain-hardening decreased with increasing filler pass sequence, producing the weakest welds on the last pass side. Current welding schedules unknowingly compound these effects which reduce the weld strength. A depeaking index model was developed to select filler pass thicknesses, pass numbers, and sequences to improve depeaking in the welding process. The intent is to combine the strongest weld pass side with the peaking induced bending tension to provide a more uniform stress and stronger weld under axial tensile loading.

Verderaime, V.; Vaughan, R.

1996-01-01

403

U-groove aluminum weld strength improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Though butt-welds are among the most preferred joining methods in aerostructures, their strength dependence on inelastic mechanics is generally the least understood. This study investigated experimental strain distributions across a thick aluminum U-grooved weld and identified two weld process considerations for improving the multipass weld strength. The extreme thermal expansion and contraction gradient of the fusion heat input across the groove tab thickness produces severe peaking which induces bending under uniaxial loading. The filler strain-hardening deceased with increasing filler pass sequence, producing the weakest welds on the last pass side. Current welding schedules unknowingly compound these effects which reduce the weld strength. A de-peaking index model was developed to select filler pass thicknesses, pass numbers, and sequences to improve de-peaking in the welding process. Intent is to combine the strongest weld pass side with the peaking induced bending tension to provide a more uniform stress and stronger weld under axial tensile loading.

Verderaime, V.; Vaughan, R.

1995-01-01

404

Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams, ternary additions to liquid or solid components should be considered as means to impart desired properties to amalgams.

Grugel, Richard

2008-01-01

405

Early neural responses to strength training.  

PubMed

The neural adaptations that accompany strength training have yet to be fully determined. Here we sought to address this topic by testing the idea that strength training might share similar mechanisms with some forms of motor learning. Since ballistic motor learning is accompanied by a shift in muscle twitches induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) toward the training direction, we sought to investigate if these changes also occur after single isometric strength training sessions with various contraction duration and rate of force development characteristics (i.e., brief or sustained ballistic contractions or slow, sustained contractions). Twitch force resultant vectors and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by TMS were measured before and after single sessions of strength training involving the forearm muscles. Participants (n = 12) each performed three training protocols (each consisting of 4 sets of 10 repetitions) and served as their own control in a counterbalanced order. All three training protocols caused a significant (P < 0.05) shift in TMS-induced twitch force resultant vectors toward the training direction, followed by a gradual shift back toward the pretraining direction. The strongest effect was found when training involved both ballistic and sustained force components. There were no large or consistent changes in the direction of twitches evoked by motor nerve stimulation for any of the three training protocols. We suggest that these early neural responses to strength training, which share similar corticospinal changes to motor learning, might reflect an important process that precedes more long-term neural adaptation that ultimately enhance strength. PMID:21551014

Selvanayagam, Victor S; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J

2011-08-01

406

The E1 Protein of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Is Dispensable for Maintenance Replication of the Viral Genome  

PubMed Central

Papillomavirus genomes are thought to be amplified to about 100 copies per cell soon after infection, maintained constant at this level in basal cells, and amplified for viral production upon keratinocyte differentiation. To determine the requirement for E1 in viral DNA replication at different stages, an E1-defective mutant of the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) genome featuring a translation termination mutation in the E1 gene was used. The ability of the mutant HPV16 genome to replicate as nuclear episomes was monitored with or without exogenous expression of E1. Unlike the wild-type genome, the E1-defective HPV16 genome became established in human keratinocytes only as episomes in the presence of exogenous E1 expression. Once established, it could replicate with the same efficiency as the wild-type genome, even after the exogenous E1 was removed. However, upon calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation, once again amplification was dependent on exogenous E1. These results demonstrate that the E1 protein is dispensable for maintenance replication but not for initial and productive replication of HPV16. PMID:22238312

Egawa, Nagayasu; Nakahara, Tomomi; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Narisawa-Saito, Mako; Yugawa, Takashi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Yamato, Kenji; Natori, Yukikazu

2012-01-01

407

Characterization of papillomavirus E1 helicase mutants defective for interaction with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9  

SciTech Connect

The E1 helicase from BPV and HPV16 interacts with Ubc9 to facilitate viral genome replication. We report that HPV11 E1 also interacts with Ubc9 in vitro and in the yeast two-hybrid system. Residues in E1 involved in oligomerization (353-435) were sufficient for binding to Ubc9 in vitro, but the origin-binding and ATPase domains were additionally required in yeast. Nuclear accumulation of BPV E1 was shown previously to depend on its interaction with Ubc9 and sumoylation on lysine 514. In contrast, HPV11 and HPV16 E1 mutants defective for Ubc9 binding remained nuclear even when the SUMO pathway was inhibited. Furthermore, we found that K514 in BPV E1 and the analogous K559 in HPV11 E1 are not essential for nuclear accumulation of E1. These results suggest that the interaction of E1 with Ubc9 is not essential for its nuclear accumulation but, rather, depends on its oligomerization and binding to DNA and ATP.

Fradet-Turcotte, Amelie [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal and Department of Biochemistry, University of Montreal, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, H2W 1R7 (Canada); Brault, Karine; Titolo, Steve [Department of Biological Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd., Laval, Quebec, H7S 2G5 (Canada); Howley, Peter M. [Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Archambault, Jacques, E-mail: jacques.archambault@ircm.qc.c [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal and Department of Biochemistry, University of Montreal, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, H2W 1R7 (Canada)

2009-12-20

408

PP2A-B55? Antagonizes Cyclin E1 Proteolysis and Promotes its Dysregulation in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cyclin E1 regulates the initiation of S phase in cellular division. However, in many cancers cyclin E1 is aberrantly overexpressed and this molecular phenotype correlates with increased tumor aggressiveness and poor patient survival. The molecular cause(s) of cyclin E1 abnormalities in cancers is poorly understood. Here, we show cyclin E1 overexpression in cancer is promoted by dysregulation of the protein phosphatase PP2A-B55?. PP2A-B55? targets the N- and C-terminal phosphodegrons of cyclin E1 for dephosphorylation, thus protecting it from degradation mediated by the SCFFbxw7 ubiquitin ligase. Augmented B55? expression stabilizes cyclin E1 and promotes its overexpression in cancer-derived cell lines and breast tumors. Conversely, B55? ablation enforces the degradation of cyclin E1 and inhibits cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, PP2A-B55? promotes cyclin E1 overexpression by antagonizing its degradation and its inhibition could represent a therapeutic mechanism for abrogating cyclin E1 function in cancers. PMID:24509904

Tan, YingMeei; Sun, Dahui; Jiang, Weijian; Klotz-Noack, Kathleen; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Wohlschlegel, James; Widschwendter, Martin; Spruck, Charles

2014-01-01

409

Sindbis Virus Glycoprotein E1 Is Divided into Two Discrete Domains at Amino Acid 129 by Disulfide Bridge Connections  

PubMed Central

The E1 membrane glycoprotein of Sindbis virus contains structural and functional domains, which are conformationally dependent on the presence of intramolecular disulfide bridges (B. A. Abell and D. T. Brown, J. Virol. 67:5496–5501, 1993; R. P. Anthony, A. M. Paredes, and D. T. Brown, Virology 190:330–336, 1992). We have examined the disulfide bonds in E1 and have determined that the E1 membrane glycoprotein contains two separate sets of interconnecting disulfide linkages, which divide the protein into two domains at amino acid 129. These separate sets of disulfides may stabilize and define the structural and functional regions of the E1 protein. PMID:10982379

Phinney, Brett S.; Brown, Dennis T.

2000-01-01

410

Sindbis virus glycoprotein E1 is divided into two discrete domains at amino acid 129 by disulfide bridge connections.  

PubMed

The E1 membrane glycoprotein of Sindbis virus contains structural and functional domains, which are conformationally dependent on the presence of intramolecular disulfide bridges (B. A. Abell and D. T. Brown, J. Virol. 67:5496-5501, 1993; R. P. Anthony, A. M. Paredes, and D. T. Brown, Virology 190:330-336, 1992). We have examined the disulfide bonds in E1 and have determined that the E1 membrane glycoprotein contains two separate sets of interconnecting disulfide linkages, which divide the protein into two domains at amino acid 129. These separate sets of disulfides may stabilize and define the structural and functional regions of the E1 protein. PMID:10982379

Phinney, B S; Brown, D T

2000-10-01

411

Ethanol induction of CYP2A5: role of CYP2E1-ROS-Nrf2 pathway.  

PubMed

Chronic ethanol consumption was previously shown to induce CYP2A5 in mice, and this induction of CYP2A5 by ethanol was CYP2E1 dependent. In this study, the mechanisms of CYP2E1-dependent ethanol induction of CYP2A5 were investigated. CYP2E1 was induced by chronic ethanol consumption to the same degree in wild-type (WT) mice and CYP2A5 knockout (Cyp2a5 (-/-)) mice, suggesting that unlike the CYP2E1-dependent ethanol induction of CYP2A5, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is not CYP2A5 dependent. Microsomal ethanol oxidation was about 25% lower in Cyp2a5 (-/-) mice compared with that in WT mice, suggesting that CYP2A5 can oxidize ethanol although to a lesser extent than CYP2E1 does. CYP2A5 was induced by short-term ethanol consumption in human CYP2E1 transgenic knockin (Cyp2e1 (-/-) KI) mice but not in CYP2E1 knockout (Cyp2e1 (-/-)) mice. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was also induced by acute ethanol in Cyp2e1 (-/-) KI mice but not in Cyp2e1 (-/-) mice. Ethanol induction of CYP2A5 in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2 (-/-)) mice was lower compared with that in WT mice, whereas CYP2E1 induction by ethanol was comparable in WT and Nrf2 (-/-) mice. Antioxidants (N-acetyl-cysteine and vitamin C), which blocked oxidative stress induced by chronic ethanol in WT mice and acute ethanol in Cyp2e1 (-/-) KI mice, also blunted the induction of CYP2A5 and Nrf2 by ethanol but not the induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol. These results suggest that oxidative stress induced by ethanol via induction of CYP2E1 upregulates Nrf2 activity, which in turn regulates ethanol induction of CYP2A5. Results obtained from primary hepatocytes, mice gavaged with binge ethanol or fed chronic ethanol, show that Nrf2-regulated ethanol induction of CYP2A5 protects against ethanol-induced steatosis. PMID:22552773

Lu, Yongke; Zhang, Xu Hannah; Cederbaum, Arthur I

2012-08-01

412

Modeling of Advanced High Strength Steels with the realistic microstructure–strength relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work is to consider the first-order effects of the realistic microstructure morphology in the macroscale modeling of the multiphase Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). Instead of using constitutive equations at macroscale, the strength–microstructure relationship is studied in the forms of micromechanical and multiscale models that do not make considerable simplifications with regard to the microscale geometry

S. A. Asgari; P. D. Hodgson; C. Yang; B. F. Rolfe

2009-01-01

413

Burst Strength of Tubing and Casing Based on Twin Shear Unified Strength Theory  

PubMed Central

The internal pressure strength of tubing and casing often cannot satisfy the design requirements in high pressure, high temperature and high H2S gas wells. Also, the practical safety coefficient of some wells is lower than the design standard according to the current API 5C3 standard, which brings some perplexity to the design. The ISO 10400: 2007 provides the model which can calculate the burst strength of tubing and casing better than API 5C3 standard, but the calculation accuracy is not desirable because about 50 percent predictive values are remarkably higher than real burst values. So, for the sake of improving strength design of tubing and casing, this paper deduces the plastic limit pressure of tubing and casing under internal pressure by applying the twin shear unified strength theory. According to the research of the influence rule of yield-to-tensile strength ratio and mechanical properties on the burst strength of tubing and casing, the more precise calculation model of tubing-casing's burst strength has been established with material hardening and intermediate principal stress. Numerical and experimental comparisons show that the new burst strength model is much closer to the real burst values than that of other models. The research results provide an important reference to optimize the tubing and casing design of deep and ultra-deep wells. PMID:25397886

Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Kuanhai; Sun, Yongxing; Zeng, Dezhi; Liu, Wanying; Kong, Xiangwei; Singh, Ambrish

2014-01-01

414

Effect of hydrogen on the yield strength and ultimate strength of iron differing in dispersity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was of interest to determine the effect of hydrogen on the yield strength and ultimate strength of Armco iron differing in dispersity in uniaxial tension. The tests were made on flat samples 3 mm wide, 12 mm long, and 0.8 mm thick, with different grain sizes. The grain sizes were varied by means of recrystallization annealing in vacuum at

F. Po Yanchishin; N. Ya. Yaremchenko; M. M. Shved

1975-01-01

415

The Hen's egg: Variation in tensile strength of shell material and its relationship with shearing strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile strength of egg?shell material is believed to play an important role in determining whether or not a shell will crack when exposed to an environmental insult. Experiments are described in which shell tensile strength was measured. It is concluded that: i. the force required to produce tensile failure did not vary linearly with the width of the piece

T. C. Carter

1971-01-01

416

Dynamic tensile strength of lunar rock types  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic tensile strength of four rocks are determined. A flat plate impact experiment is employed to generate approximately one-microsecond-duration tensile stress pulses in rock samples by superposing rarefaction waves to induce fracture. It is noted that the effect of chemical weathering and other factors has not been explicitly studied. The given tensile strengths are based on a series of experiments on each rock where determination of incipient spallation is made by terminal microscopic examination. The data are generally consistent with previous determinations, at least one of which was for a significantly chemically altered but physically coherent rock.

Cohn, S. N.; Ahrens, T. J.

1981-01-01

417

Electrical Strength of Multilayer Vacuum Insulators  

SciTech Connect

The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

Harris, J R; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Caporaso, G J

2008-07-01

418

Effect of space flight on bone strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To test the possibility that spaceflight has a deleterious effect on bone mechanical properties, femur breaking strength by torsional loading in rats that had been flown for 19 days aboard Cosmos 936 was determined. The results showed that femurs from flight rats were less stiff than the flight controls, and failed under torsion at a lower torque and energy of absorption. The defect was corrected following space flight and could be prevented during space flight by centrifuging the rats at 1 x g. Altered bone geometry due to inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface provides the most likely explanation for the decrease in bone strength during spaceflight.

Spengler, D. M.; Morey, E. R.; Carter, D. R.; Turner, R. T.; Baylink, D. J.

1982-01-01

419

The undrained strength – liquidity index relationship  

E-print Network

is approximately 1m2/s2. As soil density decreases with increasing water content, a soil with a high wL will exhibit a lower strength at liquid limit than those soils with lower liquid limits. 2.2 The Fall Cone Test The fall cone test, developed by John... of undrained shear strength (cf. Figure 5 and 8). 6.3 Effect of mineralogy Muir Wood (1990) postulated that RMW depends on the activity of the clay mineral present. This suggestion was based on analysis of data from Dumbleton & West (1970) where...

Vardanega, P. J.; Haigh, S. K.

2014-04-14

420

Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of temperature, hydrogen pressure, stress intensity, and yield strength on the kinetics of gaseous hydrogen assisted crack propagation in 18Ni maraging steels were investigated experimentally. It was found that crack growth rate as a function of stress intensity was characterized by an apparent threshold for crack growth, a stage where the growth rate increased sharply, and a stage where the growth rate was unchanged over a significant range of stress intensity. Cracking proceeded on load application with little or no detectable incubation period. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased with increasing yield strength.

Gangloff, R. P.; Wei, R. P.

1977-01-01

421

Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors. Chapter 1 reviews the mechanical properties of ultrahigh strength steels and the physical metallurgy of AerMet 100. It also describes the fracture mechanisms of steel, i.e. ductile microvoid coalescence, brittle transgranular cleavage, and intergranular separation. Chapter 2 examines the strength-toughness relationship for three heats of AerMet 100. A wide variation of toughness is obtained at the same strength level. The toughness varies despite the fact that all heat fracture in the ductile fracture mode. The difference originates from the inclusion content. Lower inclusion volume fraction and larger inclusion spacing gives rise to a greater void growth factor and subsequently a higher fracture toughness. The fracture toughness value, JIc, is proportional to the particle spacing of the large non-metallic inclusions. Chapter 3 examines the ductile-brittle transition of AerMet 100 and the effect of a higher austenitization temperature, using the Charpy V-notch test. The standard heat treatment condition of AerMet 100 shows a gradual ductile-brittle transition due to its fine effective grain size. Austenitization at higher temperature increases the prior austenite grain size and packet size, leading to a steeper transition at a higher temperature. Both transgranular cleavage and intergranular separation are observed in the brittle fracture mode. Chapter 4 examines the effect of inclusion content, prior austenite grain size, and the amount of austenite on the strength-toughness relationship. The highest toughness is achieved by low inclusion content, small prior austenite grain size, and a small content of stable austenite. The low inclusion content increases the strain at the fracture. The reduction in prior austenite grain size prevents the fast unstable crack propagation by cleavage. And the stable austenite decreases the strength of the intergranular separation at the prior austenite grain boundary, which provides the stress relief at the crack tip.

Sato, Koji

2002-01-01

422

Determinants of forearm strength in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Bone strength at the ultradistal radius, quantified by micro-finite element modeling, can be predicted by variables obtained\\u000a from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans. The specific formula for this bone strength surrogate\\u000a (?555.2?+?8.1?×?[trabecular vBMD]?+?19.6?×?[cortical area]?+?4.2?×?[total cross-sectional area]) should be validated and tested\\u000a in fracture risk assessment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  The purpose of this study was to identify key determinants of ultradistal radius (UDR)

L. J. Melton; B. L. Riggs; R. Müller; S. J. Achenbach; D. Christen; E. J. Atkinson; S. Amin; S. Khosla

423

Unexpected shear strength change in magnetorheological fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart materials of magnetorheological (MR) fluids could be turned from a liquid state into a solid state, which solidification extent or shear strength often increases monotonically with the applied magnetic field. In this study, the shear stress of a dilute MR fluid decreased with increasing applied magnetic field at a constant shear rate. The dynamic shear stress was significantly higher than the stable counterpart at medium magnetic fields. They are ascribed to the slow particle structure transformation. A higher shear rate and particle volume fraction could reduce the transient time and the shear strength difference.

Tian, Yu; Chen, KaiKai; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang

2014-09-01

424

pH-metric log P. 6. Effects of sodium, potassium, and N-CH3-D-glucamine on the octanol-water partitioning of prostaglandins E1 and E2.  

PubMed

The pH-dependent octanol-water partition behavior of prostaglandins (Pg) E1 and E2 was studied by an automated potentiometric titration method. In 0.15 M KCl at 25 degrees C, the log P values of PgE1 and PgE2 are 3.20 +/- 0.02 and 2.90 +/- 0.02, respectively. The partition parameter also was determined in 0.15 M NaCl, 0.10 M NaCl, and 0.0003 M KCl for PgE1; no ionic strength dependence was observed. In contrast, the Pg anion partitioning, described by the extraction constant, log Ke (= [X+Pg-]OCT/[X+]AQ[Pg-]AQ, where X = Na or K), showed dependence on the nature and concentration of the background salt. For PgE1, the log Ke values are 0.50 +/- 0.08 (0.15 M KCl), 0.18 +/- 0.16 (0.15 M NaCl), 0.86 +/- 0.08 (0.10 M NaCl), and 1.80 +/- 0.09 (0.0003 M KCl); for PgE2, the log Ke value is 0.20 +/- 0.29. The extraction of the Pg anion into octanol by N-methyl-D-glucamine (glucamine) was also studied. In 0.15 M KCl, the log Ke value is 1.82 +/- 0.07. The extraction of the prostaglandin-glucamine complex into octanol maximizes at about pH 8.8. Due to the low aqueous solubility of the prostaglandins, the aqueous pKa values were determined by extrapolation from methanol-water solutions by the Yasuda-Shedlovsky technique. The Debye-Hückel theory was applied to predict the ionic strength dependence of the octanol-water ion-pair extraction constants (log Ke). PMID:7658338

Avdeef, A; Box, K J; Takács-Novák, K

1995-05-01

425

Role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced circadian gene-mediated intestinal hyperpermeability.  

PubMed

We have shown that alcohol increases Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro by inducing the expression of redox-sensitive circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 and that these proteins are necessary for alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. We hypothesized that alcohol metabolism by intestinal Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) could alter circadian gene expression (Clock and Per2), resulting in alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. In vitro Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were exposed to alcohol, and CYP2E1 protein, activity, and mRNA were measured. CYP2E1 expression was knocked down via siRNA and alcohol-induced hyperpermeability, and CLOCK and PER2 protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells were also treated with alcohol or H?O? with or without N-acetylcysteine (NAC) anti-oxidant, and CLOCK and PER2 proteins were measured at 4 or 2 h. In vivo Cyp2e1 protein and mRNA were also measured in colon tissue from alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol increased CYP2E1 protein by 93% and enzyme activity by 69% in intestinal cells in vitro. Alcohol feeding also increased mouse colonic Cyp2e1 protein by 73%. mRNA levels of Cyp2e1 were not changed by alcohol in vitro or in mouse intestine. siRNA knockdown of CYP2E1 in Caco-2 cells prevented alcohol-induced hyperpermeability and induction of CLOCK and PER2 proteins. Alcohol-induced and H?O?-induced increases in intestinal cell CLOCK and PER2 were significantly inhibited by treatment with NAC. We concluded that our data support a novel role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability via a mechanism involving CYP2E1-dependent induction of oxidative stress and upregulation of circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2. PMID:23660503

Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Shaikh, Maliha; Tang, Yueming; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

2013-07-15

426

Adenovirus type 5 early region 4 is responsible for E1A-induced p53-independent apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

In the absence of E1B, the 289- and 243-residue E1A products of human adenovirus type 5 induce p53-dependent apoptosis. However, our group has shown recently that the 289-residue E1A protein is also able to induce apoptosis by a p53-independent mechanism (J. G. Teodoro, G. C. Shore, and P. E. Branton, Oncogene 11:467-474, 1995). Preliminary results suggested that p53-independent cell death required expression of one or more additional adenovirus early gene products. Here we show that both the E1B 19-kDa protein and cellular Bcl-2 inhibit or significantly delay p53-independent apoptosis. Neither early region E2 or E3 appeared to be necessary for such cell death. Analysis of a series of E1A mutants indicated that mutations in the transactivation domain and other regions of E1A correlated with E1A-mediated transactivation of E4 gene expression. Furthermore, p53-deficient human SAOS-2 cells infected with a mutant which expresses E1B but none of the E4 gene products remained viable for considerably longer times than those infected with wild-type adenovirus type 5. In addition, an adenovirus vector lacking both E1 and E4 was unable to induce DNA degradation and cell killing in E1A-expressing cell lines. These data showed that an E4 product is essential for E1A-induced p53-independent apoptosis. PMID:8709247

Marcellus, R C; Teodoro, J G; Wu, T; Brough, D E; Ketner, G; Shore, G C; Branton, P E

1996-01-01

427

Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength  

DOEpatents

A silicon nitride ceramic is disclosed comprising: (a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, (b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and (c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa. 4 figs.

Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Willkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L.

1996-11-05

428

Tensile strength of wet granula materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dimensionless tensile strength ?d\\/? of wet granular materials with saturation levels in the plateau region of the pendular state was correlated with the void fraction of the agglomerate. The correlation fitted well with experimental measurements carried out on glass beads of diameter 93 ?m and with literature data, and was an improvement over the traditional Rumpf model. The tensile

Patrice Pierrat; Hugo S. Caram

1997-01-01

429

Orthogonal Arrays of Strength two and three  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthogonal arrays can be regarded as natural generalizations of orthogonal Latin squares, and are useful in various problems of experimental design. In this paper the known upper bounds for the maximum possible number of constraints for arrays of strength 2 and 3 have been improved, and certain methods for constructing these arrays have been given.

R. C. Bose; K. A. Bush

1952-01-01

430

Weight Training for Strength and Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

431

Strength and toughness of barium titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of processing variables on the mechanical and electrical properties of holmium-doped barium titanate ceramics with a positive temperature coefficient of resistance has been investigated. This paper contains details of the tests used to measure the mechanical properties of ceramics prepared using four compositional mixes. Two methods of measuring strength were used: diametral compression of disc samples and four-point

J. M. Blamey; T. V. Parry

1993-01-01

432

Wood Structure and Adhesive Bond Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the literature on the bonding of wood and other lignocellulosic materials has concentrated on traditional adhesion theories. This has led to misconceptions because wood is a porous material on both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. A better understanding of wood bonding can be developed by investigating the theories of adhesion and bond strength, taking into consideration the unusual

Charles R. Frihart

433

Internal and Interface Shear Strength of  

E-print Network

is suitable for quantification of the effects of normal stress during shearing, normal stress during hydration. This report investigates the mechanical behavior of GCLs by providing a state-of-the-art review of internal proposed to address the effect of shear strength variability and field loading conditions on the stability

Zornberg, Jorge G.

434

Determinants of eggshell strength in endangered raptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared eggshell strength in a group of falcon taxa including the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus), the red shaheen falcon (F. peregrinus babylonicus), the saker falcon (F. cherrug), the gyr falcon (F. rusticolus) and some interspecific and intraspecific hybrids. Our results showed that smaller falcons (o1,000 g) of the peregrine group have eggshells that are significantly softer ( x

Aurora M. Castilla; Anthony Herrel; Stefan Van Dongen; Naoki Furio; Juan José Negro

2009-01-01

435

Welding high-strength aluminum alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Handbook has been published which integrates results of 19 research programs involving welding of high-strength aluminum alloys. Book introduces metallurgy and properties of aluminum alloys by discussing commercial alloys and heat treatments. Several current welding processes are reviewed such as gas tungsten-arc welding and gas metal-arc welding.

Parks, P. G.; Hoppes, R. V.; Hasemeyer, E. A.; Masubuchi, K.

1974-01-01

436

Micromechanical strength theory of hybrid composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite materials containing two or more types of fibers in a common matrix are called hybrid composites. Hybrid composites are attractive because tailoring of materials is easier than non-hybrid composites, and they are now widely used including aircraft, sports goods, and so on. This paper first reviews the research works on micromechanical strength of composites including hybrid composites. Next, stress

Hiroshi Fukuda

1991-01-01

437

Micromechanical modeling of composite compressive strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite compressive failure is studied using a micromechanical (beam-on-elastic foundation) model, and the stiffness of the foundation is determined through an elasticity solution of the foundation model problem. An explicit expression has been derived for evaluation of composite longitudinal compressive strengths (CLCS). It is found that this expression predicts relatively lower CLCS compared to classical models and closely matches some

Yong L. Xu; Kenneth L. Reifsnider

1993-01-01

438

Micromechanical Modeling of Composite Compressive Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite compressive failure is studied using a micromechanical (beam-on-elastic foundation) model, and the stiffness of the foundation is determined through an elasticity solution of the foundation model problem. An explicit expression has been derived for evaluation of composite longitudinal compressive strengths (CLCS). It is found that this expression predicts relatively lower CLCS compared to classical models, and closely matches some

Yong Li Xu; Kenneth L. Reifsnider

1993-01-01

439

Giant monopole resonance strength in Si-28  

E-print Network

The giant resonance region in Si-28 was studied with inelastic scattering of 240 MeV alpha particles at small angles including 0 degrees. The giant resonance peak extended from E-x=12 MeV to 35 MeV and E0 strength corresponding to 54 +/- 6...

Youngblood, David H.; Clark, HL; Lui, YW.

1998-01-01

440

Room temperature creep of high strength steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The room-temperature creep behavior of three high strength steels has been investigated. Several parameters such as creep stress, loading rate, stress history and heat treatment has been altered and their influence on the low temperature creep has been reported. The primary creep in all three alloys agreed well with the logarithmic creep law and the creep mechanism has been identified

A. Oehlert; A. Atrens

1994-01-01

441

Instructional Theories: Maximizing Their Strengths for Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly explores the philosophical underpinnings and point of view of several instructional theories/positions (behavioral, cognitive information processing, cognitive inquiry, and humanism) by examining goals, instructional procedures and strategies, and assessment and evaluation methods. A way to maximize the strengths of these theories for…

Martin, Barbara L.; Driscoll, Marcy P.

1984-01-01

442

Electrostatic precipitator having high strength discharge electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed an electrostatic precipitator with a discharge electrode having dimensional and configuration characteristics which provide high field strength and high current density particularly in a wet electrostatic precipitator. The round cylindrical collector tube of length (L) and with an inner diameter (D) has a coaxially positioned discharge electrode having an electrode supporting mast of a diameter from 0.25

E. Bakke; H. P. Willett

1983-01-01

443

DRAINED RESIDUAL STRENGTH OF COHESIVE SOILSa  

E-print Network

have preparcd an important paper on the drained residual shear strength of cohesive soil. The authors, and depends only on thc size, shape, and mineralogical composition of the constituent particles. The authors' correlation (Fig. 4) attempts to account for the size, shape, and mineralogical composition of the constituent

444

Compacted Soil Liner Interface Strength Importance  

E-print Network

Case Study Compacted Soil Liner Interface Strength Importance Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 ; Hangseok interface is not the geomembrane (GM)/compacted low-permeability soil liner (LPSL) but a soil�soil interface moisture content should be controlled so it does not exceed the specified value, for example 3�4% wet

445

Innovative Degree Programs Matched to City Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, IUPUI has steadily acquired a considerable national reputation as an up-and-coming university. Some of the reasons for this recognition include the RISE Initiative and the large number of innovative degree programs recently started at IUPUI based on campus strengths and the priorities of the city of Indianapolis. Some specific…

Sukhatme, Uday

2011-01-01

446

Research Article Ionic strength effects on electrophoretic  

E-print Network

. The degree of dissociation of such analytes is typically a function of their dissociation constants (p and ion dissociation constants (e.g. pKa values). Several experimental studies have underlinedKa), local pH and local ionic strength. The degree of dissociation determines the degree of ionization (or

Santiago, Juan G.

447

Multimodal metadata fusion using causal strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a probabilistic framework that uses influence diagrams to fuse metadata of multiple modalities for photo annotation. We fuse contextual information (location, time, and camera parameters), visual content (holistic and local perceptual features), and semantic ontology in a synergistic way. We use causal strengths to encode causalities between variables, and between variables and semantic labels. Through analytical and empirical

Yi Wu; Edward Y. Chang; Belle L. Tseng

2005-01-01

448

Structure and Strength in Causal Induction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a framework for the rational analysis of elemental causal induction--learning about the existence of a relationship between a single cause and effect--based upon causal graphical models. This framework makes precise the distinction between causal structure and causal strength: the difference between asking whether a causal relationship…

Griffiths, Thomas L.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

2005-01-01

449

Gamow-Teller strength of Mg-26  

E-print Network

We have measured cross sections for (d,He-2)-induced reactions on Mg-26 at an energy of E(d)=125.2 MeV. The measured Gamow-Teller strength is significantly smaller than that inferred from (p,n) reactions. We demonstrate that beta(+) Gamow...

Xu, HM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Ajupova, G. K.; Kokenge, B.; Lui, YW.

1996-01-01

450

High-temperature strength of sapphire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sapphire Statistical Characterization and Risk Reduction Program tested approximately 1500 4-point flexure bars with different crystal orientations at different temperatures to establish a mechanical strength database for engineering design. Sapphire coupons were selected to represent surfaces on two different missile windows and a missile dome. Sapphire was obtained from the same suppliers used for the windows or dome and,

Daniel C. Harris

2000-01-01

451

Glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes controls synaptic strength  

E-print Network

Glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes controls synaptic strength Pascal Jourdain1,6, Linda H we show that glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes of the rat hippocampal dentate molecular layer. The effect is mediated by ifenprodil-sensitive NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors and involves an increase

Newman, Eric A.

452

High strength high modulus ceramic fiber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low cost method was developed for producing high strength, high modulus, continuous ceramic oxide fibers. Process transforms inexpensive metallic salts into syrup-like liquids that can be fiberized at room temperatures. Resulting salt fibers are then converted to oxides by calcination at relatively low temperatures.

Fetterolf, R. N.

1972-01-01

453

Caring For You--Our Greatest Strength  

E-print Network

this abbreviated version of our Benefits Guide a useful tool for learning more about SwRI. Leave PERSONAL LEAVECaring For You-- Our Greatest Strength Southwest Research Institute's (SwRI®) benefits programRI service, increasing to 20 days (four weeks) per year for employees with more than 15 years of service

Chapman, Clark R.

454

SF STATE Extended Learning CORE STRENGTHS  

E-print Network

Psychology and Coaching Evidence-based practices and experiential learning that you can immediately apply of the stages of behavioral change through an evidence-based model. They also learn and practice coaching skillsSF STATE Extended Learning 2013/2014 CORE STRENGTHS COACHING SKILLS Practical Applications

455

Achieved Relative Intervention Strength: Models and Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines a method of determining the achieved relative strength (ARS) of an intervention by calculating the extent to which core intervention components are present in both the treatment and control condition. Using data from several examples the authors demonstrate how to calculate ARS indices, and subsequently how to incorporate them…

Hulleman, Chris S.; Cordray, David S.

2010-01-01

456

PREDICTING TIE STRENGTH WITH SOCIAL MEDIA  

E-print Network

PREDICTING TIE STRENGTH WITH SOCIAL MEDIA Eric Gilbert & Karrie Karahalios University of Illinois, STRUCTURAL, EMOTIONAL SUPPORT and SOCIAL DISTANCE. As manifested in social media, can these dimensions on social media? R1. R2. #12;THE DATA overview 2,184 assessed friendships from 35 university students

Karahalios, Karrie G.

457

Postactivation Potentiation Biases Maximal Isometric Strength Assessment  

PubMed Central

Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6?±?55.7?N·m versus 248.9?±?55.1?N·m), RTD (746?±?152?N·m·s?1versus 727?±?158?N·m·s?1), and RMS (59.1?±?12.2% RMSMAX??versus 54.8?±?9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373?±?1200?ms versus 2784?±?1226?ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables. PMID:25133157

Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpcao, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sergio

2014-01-01

458

Experimental oscillator strengths in Th II  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured radiative lifetimes of ten Th II levels by using the laser-induced fluorescence technique and branching fractions with Fourier transform spectroscopy. By combining the new branching fractions with a total of 23 lifetimes, from the present work and from measurements by Simonsen et al. (\\\\cite{Simonsen}), absolute oscillator strengths for 180 lines have been derived. Some of these new

H. Nilsson; Z. G. Zhang; H. Lundberg; S. Johansson; B. Nordström

2002-01-01

459

Tensile strength of dentin after bleaching treatment.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of dentin are changed after bleaching, although the effects of the bleaching conditions on the tensile strength of dentin have not been determined. In the current study, a tensile test of bovine dentin was conducted after bleaching and the effects of the bleaching conditions were investigated, including the number of bleaching times, the location where the bleaching agent was applied, and the kind of illumination. The weight of organic content in dentin before and after application of the agent was also measured. The results showed that the tensile strengths did not change after three times office bleaching procedure, and the location where the bleaching agent was applied, the kind of bleaching agent and the kind of illumination did not have influence on the tensile strength. On the other hand, organic component in dentin significantly decreased after application of the agent (p<0.05). Since the bleaching agent would potentially affect tensile strength with deterioration of collagen matrix, the frequency of bleaching treatment should be minimized in clinical use. PMID:19845163

Tamura, Tomohiro; Tonami, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Mataki, Shiro; Araki, Kouji; Kurosaki, Norimasa

2008-03-01

460

Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength  

DOEpatents

A silicon nitride ceramic comprising: a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa.

Pujari, Vimal K. (Northboro, MA); Tracey, Dennis M. (Medfield, MA); Foley, Michael R. (Oxford, MA); Paille, Norman I. (Oxford, MA); Pelletier, Paul J. (Millbury, MA); Sales, Lenny C. (Grafton, MA); Willkens, Craig A. (Sterling, MA); Yeckley, Russell L. (Oakham, MA)

1996-01-01

461

Democratic Strength and Terrorism: An Economic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much literature about the economic effects of terrorism in democratic countries, but this literature often considers democracy to be a binary variable. This paper sought to explore how the effects might differ depending on the strength of a democracy. In the end, I found that the numbers of attacks and the effects of those attacks do not

Brian P Winter

2011-01-01

462

Biaxial strength of multilaminated extracellular matrix scaffolds.  

PubMed

Xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) can be harvested and configured to function as a bioscaffold for tissue and organ reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the ECM vary depending upon the tissue from which it is harvested. Likewise, the manufacturing steps required to develop ECMs into medical grade devices will affect the surface morphology and the mechanical properties of the bioscaffold; important properties for constructive tissue remodeling. The present study compared the ball-burst strength of five different ECM scaffolds before and after treatment with peracetic acid (PAA): porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS), porcine urinary bladder submucosa (UBS), porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM), a composite of UBS + UBM, and canine stomach submucosa (SS). This study also compared the mechanical properties of 2- and 4-layer ECM scaffolds. Results showed 2-layer SS devices had the highest ball-burst value of all 2-layer ECM devices. Moreover, all 4-layer ECM devices had similar ball-burst strength except for 4-layer UBM devices which was the weakest. PAA-treatment decreased the ball-burst strength of SS and increased the ball-burst strength of UBS 2-layer devices. This study showed the material properties of the ECM scaffolds could be engineered to mimic those of native soft tissues (i.e. vascular, musculotendinous, etc) by varying the number of layers and modifying the disinfection/sterilization treatments used for manufacturing. PMID:14741600

Freytes, Donald O; Badylak, Stephen F; Webster, Thomas J; Geddes, Leslie A; Rundell, Ann E

2004-05-01

463

Al Roy: The First Modern Strength Coach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a historical perspective through the story of Alvin Roy, the first modern strength coach. Roy went against the common belief in the 1950s that weight lifting made athletes slow and bulky. When the football coaches at Istrouma High School in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, allowed him to set up and supervise a weight-training program,…

Todd, Terry

2008-01-01

464

The Brittle Strength of Orthotropic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenomenological fracture condition is proposed for ortho tropic brittle materials. It contains nine material parameters and can account for widely differing compressive and tensile strengths in various directions. The proposed fracture condition is devel oped, purely on formal grounds, by borrowing features of the Mises-Schleicher isotropic yield condition and Hill's orthotropic yield condition. Comparison with experimental data on a

Oscar Hoffman

1967-01-01

465

Measuring the Tensile Strength of B/AL Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed nondestructive technique correlates damping measurements with material strength. Increasing axial damping and decreasing axial tensile strength are observed after 1-hour treatment of B/AL composites containing about 50 percent fiber. Damping was measured in vacuum at frequencies near 2,000 Hz, and tensile strength was normalized by maximum strength observed before thermally induced degradation.

Dicarlo, J. A.

1983-01-01

466

Bond strength versus dentine structure: A modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bond strengths of a hypothetical hydrophilic dentine-bonding agent were calculated as a function of dentine depth and resin strength to evaluate the importance of several variables in a simple model. The tested hypothesis was that the total bond strength was the sum of the strengths of resin tags, hybrid layer and surface adhesion. Each of these three variables has a

D. H. Pashley; B. Ciucchi; H. Sano; R. M. Carvalho; C. M. Russell

1995-01-01

467

Men and Art Therapy: A Connection through Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inquiry examines the strengths of male art therapists and art therapy students using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) survey that measures character strengths. Among this sample of 21 men, two signature strengths emerged most often and had the highest total scores: "curiosity and interest in the world" and "appreciation of…

Riddle, Jeremy A.; Michel Riddle, Heather

2007-01-01

468

High strength concrete containing natural pozzolan and silica fume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various combinations of a local natural pozzolan and silica fume were used to produce workable high to very high strength mortars and concretes with a compressive strength in the range of 69–110 MPa. The mixtures were tested for workability, density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity. The results of this study suggest that certain natural pozzolan–silica fume

M. J Shannag

2000-01-01

469

Yield Strength Ratio and Liquefaction Analysis of Slopes and Embankments  

E-print Network

Yield Strength Ratio and Liquefaction Analysis of Slopes and Embankments Scott M. Olson, A.M.ASCE,1 in ground subjected to a static shear stress, i.e., sloping ground, using the yield strength ratio, su(yield and standard penetration resistances. These yield strength ratios and previously published liquefied strength