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1

Photon scattering off 52Cr: Two-phonon E1 strength at the N = 28 shell closure?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a natCr(?,?') experiment at the S-DALINAC are reported for energies up to 7 MeV utilizing a Euroball Cluster detector. The excitation of a J=1 state at 5544 keV is observed which is believed to belong to 52Cr because of the strength of the signal and the large natural abundance. By a variety of empirical arguments a quadrupole-octupole-coupled two-phonon 1- character is suggested for this transition. Quasiparticle random-phase-approximation (QRPA) calculations are able to reproduce the energy and B(E1) transition strength remarkably well. The underlying microscopic structure is suggested to be more complex than a pure two-phonon picture. Furthermore, the calculations indicate a pure neutron (2p3/2-1 2p1/2) magnetic dipole structure for an excitation experimentally seen at 5098 keV which would provide a direct measure of ground-state correlations in 52Cr.

Enders, J.; von Brentano, P.; Eberth, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Huxel, N.; Lenske, H.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Nicolay, N.; Pietralla, N.; Prade, H.; Reif, J.; Richter, A.; Schlegel, C.; Schwengner, R.; Skoda, S.; Thomas, H. G.; Wiedenhöver, I.; Winter, G.; Zilges, A.

1998-06-01

2

Closed-Form E1 Radiative Strength Functions for Gamma-Decay and Photoabsorption  

SciTech Connect

Photoabsorption cross sections and {gamma}-decay strength functions are calculated and compared with experimental data to test simple phenomenological models of E1 gamma-strength description in the middle-weight and heavy atomic nuclei. Radiative strength functions with energy asymmetric shape are recommended for overall estimation of averaged gamma-strengths. Systematics for giant dipole resonance (GDR) parameters are given.

Plujko, Vladimir A.; Kadenko, Igor M.; Kulich, Elizaveta V.; Gorbachenko, Oleksandr M. [Nuclear Physics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University, Pr. Acad. Glushkova, 2, bldg. 11, 03022 Kyiv (Ukraine)

2009-01-28

3

Relativistic two-phonon model for the low-energy nuclear response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-phonon version of the relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation introduces a new class of many-body models for nuclear structure calculations based on the covariant energy density functional. As a fully consistent extension of the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation, the relativistic two-phonon model implies fragmentation of nuclear states over two-quasiparticle and two-phonon configurations coupled to each other. In particular, we show how the lowest two-phonon 1? state, identified as a member of the [2+?3?] quintuplet, emerges from the coherent two-quasiparticle pygmy dipole mode in vibrational nuclei. The inclusion of the two-phonon configurations into the model space allows a quantitative description of the positions and the reduced transition probabilities of the lowest 1? states in tin isotopes 112,116,120,124Sn as well as the low-energy fraction of the dipole strength below the giant dipole resonance without any adjustment procedures. The model is applied to the low-lying dipole strength in neutron-rich 68,70,72Ni isotopes. Recent experimental data for 68Ni are reproduced fairly well.

Litvinova, Elena; Ring, Peter; Tselyaev, Victor

2013-10-01

4

Evolution of the Low-lying E1 Strength With Deformation  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of low-lying E1 strength is systematically analyzed in very neutron-rich Sn nuclei, beyond {sup 132}Sn until {sup 166}Sn, within the Relativistic Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation. The great neutron excess favors the appearance of a deformed ground state for {sup 142-162}Sn. The evolution of the low-lying strength in deformed nuclei is determined by the interplay of two factors, isospin asymmetry and deformation: while greater neutron excess increases the total low-lying strength, deformation hinders and spreads it. Very neutron rich deformed nuclei may not be as good candidates as spherical nuclei like {sup 132}Sn for the experimental study of low-lying E1 strength.

Arteaga, D. Pena; Khan, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Ring, P. [Physikdepartment, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748, Garching (Germany)

2009-08-26

5

Discovery of low-lying E1 and M1 strengths in {sup 232}Th  

SciTech Connect

Properties of low-energy dipole states in {sup 232}Th have been investigated with the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique. The present work used monoenergetic {gamma}-ray beams at energies of 2-4 MeV from the high-intensity {gamma}-ray source at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Over 40 transitions corresponding to deexcitation to the ground state and first excited state were observed for the first time. Excitation energies, integrated cross sections, decay widths, branching ratios, and transition strengths for those states in {sup 232}Th were determined and compared with quasiparticle random-phase-approximation calculations. A large number of E1 transitions were observed for the first time in actinide nuclei with summed strength of 3.28(69)x10{sup -3} e{sup 2} fm{sup 2}. The observed summed M1 strength of 4.26(63){mu}{sub N}{sup 2} is in good agreement with the other actinides and with the systematics of the scissors mode in deformed rare-earth nuclei.

Adekola, A. S.; Hammond, S. L.; Hill, A.; Karwowski, H. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Angell, C. T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Howell, C. R.; Kwan, E. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kelley, J. H. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2011-03-15

6

A NOTE ON TWO-PHONON COHERENT ANTISTOKES RAMAN SCATTERING  

SciTech Connect

Difference-frequency mixing of two pump waves can in principle excite two coherent phonon waves via the parametric process. Only when the phonon excitation is small, can the nonlinear susceptibility of two-phonon coherent antiStokes Raman scattering be described as proportional to the product of two Raman tensors.

Shen, Y.R.

1980-04-01

7

Ultranarrow Optical Absorption and Two-Phonon Excitation Spectroscopy of Cu2O Paraexcitons in a High Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that in a magnetic field B the otherwise forbidden lowest exciton in Cu2O (paraexciton of Gamma2+ symmetry) gives rise to a narrow absorption line of 80 neV at a temperature of 1.2 K. The B2 dependence of the field-induced oscillator strength and the low energy shift DeltaE with increasing field strength are measured. From two-phonon excitation spectroscopy measurements

Jan Brandt; Dietmar Fröhlich; Christian Sandfort; Manfred Bayer; Heinrich Stolz; Nobuko Naka

2007-01-01

8

ON THE QUESTIONS OF THE NUCLEAR LEVEL DENSITY AND THE E1 PHOTON STRENGTH FUNCTIONS  

SciTech Connect

New results were derived from average level spacings of neutron resonances for the spin dispersion parameter of the nuclear level density, which demonstrated the influence of shell effects, as well as the interplay of nucleon pairing correlations for nuclei in the mass range from {sup 29}Si to {sup 241}Pu. The volume and surface components of the nuclear level density parameter, as well as the shell-damping factor, were determined as, a{sub v} = 0.076 {+-} 0.009 MeV{sup {minus}1} , a{sub s} = 0.180 {+-} 0.047 MeV{sup {minus}1}, and y{sub 0} = 0.047 {+-} 0.04 MeV{+-}, respectively. The effective nucleon mass at the Fermi surface is derived as m*/m = 1.09 {+-} 0.13. New evidence is presented for a dipole-quadrupole interaction term in the primary E1 transitions of average resonance capture data. This evidence is obtained by testing a proposed generalized Landau Fermi liquid model for spherical and deformed nuclei, which includes the effect of the dipole-quadrupole interaction. The Landau-Migdal interaction constant and the effective nucleon mass, are determined as F{sub 0}{prime} = 1.49 {+-} 0.08, and m*/m=1.04 {+-} 0.07, respectively.

MUGHABGHAB,S.F.; DUNFORD,C.L.

1999-11-15

9

Ultranarrow optical absorption and two-phonon excitation spectroscopy of Cu2O paraexcitons in a high magnetic field.  

PubMed

We show that in a magnetic field B the otherwise forbidden lowest exciton in Cu2O (paraexciton of Gamma(2)(+) symmetry) gives rise to a narrow absorption line of 80 neV at a temperature of 1.2 K. The B2 dependence of the field-induced oscillator strength and the low energy shift DeltaE with increasing field strength are measured. From two-phonon excitation spectroscopy measurements we derive by a merely kinematical analysis a very reliable value for the paraexciton mass. A blueshift and a broadening of the absorption line are observed for increasing excitation intensity. These observations are discussed in connection with a Bose-Einstein condensation of paraexcitons in Cu2O. PMID:18233254

Brandt, Jan; Fröhlich, Dietmar; Sandfort, Christian; Bayer, Manfred; Stolz, Heinrich; Naka, Nobuko

2007-11-19

10

Theory of two-phonon Raman scattering in transition metals and compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theory is presented which can explain the unusually strong two-phonon Raman scattering observed in transition metals such as Ta and in transition-metal compounds such as TiN, TaC, and NbSe2. It expands upon a model calculation for layered compounds by Maldague and Tsang and is based on the notion that the same strong d-electron-phonon scattering processes that produce phonon anomalies in these materials can make important contributions to the two-phonon Raman scattering amplitude. These may dominate the usual contributions, even in resonance, because interband photon resonances are expected to be severely broadened in transition metals and compounds. The resulting two-phonon scattering amplitude is closely related to the size and shape of the phonon anomaly, and in some simple cases the two quantities are approximately proportional to one another. An extension of the theory to three-phonon Raman scattering is also included.

Klein, M. V.

1981-10-01

11

Systematic study of low-lying E1 strength using the time-dependent mean field theory  

SciTech Connect

We carry out systematic investigation of electric dipole (E1) mode from light to heavy nuclei, using a new time-dependent mean field theory: the Canonical-basis Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (Cb-TDHFB) theory. The Cb-TDHFB in the three-dimensional coordinate space representation can deal with pairing correlation and any kind of deformation in the timedependent framework. We report the neutron-number dependence of the low-energy E1 mode for light (A > 40) and heavy isotopes (A < 100) around N= 82.

Ebata, S.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Inakura, T. [Center for Nuclear Study, Univ. of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033, Japan and Theoretical Nuclear Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi, 351-0198 (Japan); Theoretical Nuclear Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi, 351-0198 (Japan) and Center for Computational Sciences, Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, 305-8571 (Japan); Theoretical Nuclear Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi, 351-0198 (Japan)

2012-11-12

12

One and two-phonon Raman scattering from hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films  

Microsoft Academic Search

One- and two-phonon Raman scattering from intrinsic and boron as well as phosphorus doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique were investigated. With regard to one-phonon Raman measurements of intrinsic films, redshifts attending by asymmetrical broadening of one-phonon transverse optical (TO) mode with diminishing mean dimension of Si nanocrystals can be ascribed to incorporating

Wensheng Wei

2007-01-01

13

One and two-phonon mixed-symmetry states in 94Mo in high-resolution electron and proton scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution inelastic electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC and proton scattering experiments at iThemba LABS permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2+ states of the nucleus 94Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2+

H. Fujita; N. T. Botha; O. Burda; J. Carter; R. W. Fearick; S. V. Förtsch; C. Fransen; M. Kuhar; A. Lenhardt; P. von Neumann-Cosel; R. Neveling; N. Pietralla; V. Yu. Ponomarev; A. Richter; O. Scholten; E. Sideras-Haddad; F. D. Smit; J. Wambach

2007-01-01

14

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of two-phonon complexes in diamond.  

PubMed

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) associated with the second-order Raman process has been confirmed in diamond. Frequency dependence of CARS was analyzed using two-color synchronously-generated picosecond pulses. Resonance enhancement of chi((3)) was observed at an energy shift corresponding to the overtone Sigma branch (K point) phonon, as well as the fundamental Raman-active Gamma((25+)) phonon. The excitation spectrum of CARS at the two-phonon resonance region showed dispersive dependence, reflecting the interference of resonant CARS and nonresonant four-wave mixing scattering. PMID:19997312

Kuroda, Takashi; Zhokhov, Peter A; Watanabe, Kenji; Zheltikov, Aleksey M; Sakoda, Kazuaki

2009-11-01

15

Two-dimensional image edge enhancement in the two-phonon diffraction  

SciTech Connect

We suggest using the two-phonon Bragg scattering regime for two-dimensional image edge enhancement by means of acousto-optic (AO) diffraction on a single sound wave. Image edge enhancement is demonstrated in the first diffraction order by using an AO cell made of the TeO{sub 2} single crystal. To explain this effect, a three-dimensional model of AO interaction is proposed, which takes into account the angular selectivity of diffraction both in the plane of Bragg scattering and in the plane orthogonal to it. (optical data processing)

Kotov, V M; Averin, S V; Shkerdin, G N; Voronko, A I [V.A.Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Fryazino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

2010-06-23

16

Two phonon pair breaking in superfluid {sup 3}He-B  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on pulsed zero sound experiments in the B-phase of {sup 3}He down to 0.6 mK. The investigated pressure and frequency range was 5 to 16 bar and 10 to 70 MHz, respectively. The dissipated energy during the sound pulses was between 0.4 to 90 nJ. The resolution in damping was about {Delta}{alpha} {approximately} 0.1 cm{sup {minus}1}. Within the range of their experimental parameters they never observed two phonon absorption resulting from non-linear coupling of zero sound to the J = 2{sup +} mode. However, with pulses of single frequency {omega} a new peak structure was found at temperatures corresponding to {Delta}(T) = {Dirac_h}{omega}. This behavior is attributed to pair breaking by two phonons of the same energy. The attenuation increased with increasing pulse power, but also depended on pulse duration. In addition to that, they found at all pressures and frequencies an unreproducible attenuation structure close to the position of the J = 2{sup +} mode. 5 refs., 2 figs.

Peters, J.; Eska, G. [Univ. Bayreuth (Germany)

1992-11-01

17

Structure in E1 strength distribution built on the 15.1 MeV T=1 state in {sup 12}C  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of the giant electric dipole resonance built on the isobaric analog state in the self-conjugate even-even nucleus {sup 12}C is reported covering a wide excitation energy range. This is done using the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}) reaction leading to the 15.1 MeV T=1 state in {sup 12}C over a proton energy range of 7 to 24.5 MeV. Two resonances of 1.3 and 2 MeV widths are observed at excitation energies of 24.4 and 28.8 MeV superimposed on a smoothly varying cross section. The {gamma} transitions from both the resonances are assigned E1 multipolarity. The structured T=0 component of the E1 strength distribution is thus very different from that built on the first T=1 state in the neighboring nucleus {sup 14}N and those built on the ground states of {sup 12}C and {sup 14}C.

Chakrabarty, D. R.; Datar, V. M.; Rout, P. C. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumar, Suresh; MirguBle, E. T.; Mitra, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Nanal, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

2008-05-15

18

Raman lasing and cascaded coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of a two-phonon Raman band.  

PubMed

Raman lasing of a two-phonon Raman band in the anti-Stokes side is demonstrated. Two femtosecond light pulses with identical wavelengths are irradiated onto a SrTiO3 crystal in a cross-beam configuration. Under low excitation power, several wave-mixing signals with identical wavelengths are emitted. When the power exceeds a critical value, cascaded coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals are emitted, the frequency step of which is coincident with that of the strongest two-phonon Raman band of 2TO2. PMID:16642152

Jun-ichi, Takahashi; Keisuke, Mano; Toshirou, Yagi

2006-05-15

19

Identification of band structures and proposed one- and two-phonon {gamma}-vibrational bands in {sup 105}Mo  

SciTech Connect

High-spin band structures in neutron-rich {sup 105}Mo have been investigated by measuring prompt {gamma} rays emitted by the spontaneous fission fragments of {sup 252}Cf with the Gammasphere detector array. The yrast band has been confirmed and five new collective bands are observed. The three bands based on the 246.3-, 332.0-, and 310.0-keV levels are proposed as the single-neutron excitation bands built on the 3/2{sup +}[411], 1/2{sup +}[411], and 5/2{sup +}[413] Nilsson orbitals, respectively. The other two bands with band head levels at 870.5 and 1534.6 keV are candidates for one-phonon K=9/2 and two-phonon K=13/2 {gamma}-vibrational bands, respectively. Systematic comparison of these bands with bands in neighboring nuclei are discussed.

Ding, H. B.; Che, X. L.; Chen, Y. J.; Li, M. L. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhu, S. J. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hwang, J. K.; Li, K.; Goodin, C. T. [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Luo, Y. X. [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rasmussen, J. O.; Lee, I. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2006-11-15

20

SEARCH FOR TWO-PHONON OCTUPOLE VIBRATIONAL BANDS IN 88, 89, 92, 93, 94, 96Sr AND 95, 96, 97, 98Zr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several new gamma transitions were identified in 94Sr, 93Sr, 92Sr, 96Zr and 97Zr from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Excited states in 88, 89, 92, 94, 96Sr and 95, 96, 97, 98Zr were reanalyzed and reorganized to propose the new two-phonon octupole vibrational states and bands. The spin and parity of 6+ are assigned to a 4034.5 keV state in 94Sr and 3576.4 keV state in 98Zr. These states are proposed as the two-phonon octupole vibrational states along with the 6+ states at 3483.4 keV in 96Zr, at 3786.0 keV in 92Sr and 3604.2 keV in 96Sr. The positive parity bands in 88, 94, 96Sr and 96, 98Zr are the first two-phonon octupole vibrational bands based on a 6+ state assigned in spherical nuclei. It is thought that in 94, 96Sr and 96, 98Zr a 3- octupole vibrational phonon is weakly coupled to an one-phonon octupole vibrational band to make the two-phonon octupole vibrational band. Also, the high spin states of odd-A95Zr and 97Zr are interpreted to be generated by the neutron 2d5/2 hole and neutron 1g7/2 particle, respectively, weakly coupled to one- and two-phonon octupole vibrational bands of 96Zr. The high spin states of odd-A87Sr are interpreted to be caused by the neutron 1g9/2 hole weakly coupled to 3- and 5- states of 88Sr. New one- and two-POV bands in 95, 97Zr and 87, 89Sr are proposed, for the first time, in the present work.

Hwang, J. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Brewer, N. T.; Wang, E. H.; Luo, Y. X.; Zhu, S. J.

2012-09-01

21

Oscillator Strengths and Predissociation Rates for Rydberg Transitions in 12C16O, 13C16O, and 13C18O Involving the E 1?, B 1?+, and W 1? States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the processes controlling the interstellar CO abundance and the ratio of its isotopologues is photodissociation. Accurate oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for Rydberg transitions are needed for modeling this process. We present results on absorption from the E 1?-X 1?+ (1-0) and B 1?+-X 1?+ (6-0) bands at 1051 and 1002 Å, respectively, and the vibrational progression W 1?-X 1?+ (v'-0) bands with v'=0-3 at 972, 956, 941, and 925 Å, respectively. The corresponding spectra were acquired at the high resolution (R~30,000) SU5 beam line at the Super ACO Synchrotron in Orsay, France. Spectra were obtained for the 12C16O, 13C 16O, and 13C18O isotopologues. These represent the most complete set of measurements available. Comparison is made with earlier results, both empirical and theoretical. While earlier determinations of oscillator strengths based on absorption from synchrotron radiation tend to be somewhat smaller than ours, the suite of measurements from a variety of techniques agree for the most part, considering the mutual uncertainties. For the bands studied here, their relative weakness, or their significant line widths arising from predissociation, minimizes potential problems from large optical depths at line center in absorption measurements. Predissociating line widths could generally be extracted from the spectra thanks to the profile simulations used in the analysis. In many cases, these simulations allowed us to consider e and f parity levels separately and to determine the dependence of the width on rotational quantum number, J. Our results are consistent with earlier determinations, especially the widths inferred from laser experiments.

Eidelsberg, M.; Sheffer, Y.; Federman, S. R.; Lemaire, J. L.; Fillion, J. H.; Rostas, F.; Ruiz, J.

2006-08-01

22

A likely extremely strong E1 transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is predicted from the measured radiative width of the 22+ state of 14C that the E1 transition strength from the state should exceed the old Recommended upper limit (RUL). Calculations in connection with this problem have been surveyed. It is suggested to measure the partial radiative widths to identify this prediction.

Ho, Yukun

1987-02-01

23

Weighted f-values, A-values, and line strengths for the E1 transitions among 3d{sup 6}, 3d{sup 5}4s, and 3d{sup 5}4p levels of Fe III  

SciTech Connect

Weighted oscillator strengths, weighted radiative rates, and line strengths for all the E1 transitions between 285 fine-structure levels belonging to the 3d{sup 6}, 3d{sup 5}4s, and 3d{sup 5}4p configurations of Fe III are presented, in ascending order of wavelength. Calculations have been undertaken using the general configuration interaction (CI) code CIV3. The large configuration set is constructed by allowing single and double replacements from any of 3d{sup 6}, 3d{sup 5}4s, 3d{sup 5}4p, and 3d{sup 5}4d configurations to nl orbitals with n{<=}5,l{<=}3 as well as 6p. Additional selective promotions from 3s and 3p subshells are also included in the CI expansions to incorporate the important correlation effects in the n=3 shell. Results of some strong transitions between levels of 3d{sup 6}, 3d{sup 5}4s, and 3d{sup 5}4p configurations are also presented and compared with other available calculations. It is found that large disagreements occur in many transitions among the existing calculations.

Deb, Narayan C. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hibbert, Alan [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.hibbert@qub.ac.uk

2009-03-15

24

Analog E1 transitions and isospin mixing  

SciTech Connect

We investigate whether isospin mixing can be determined in a model-independent way from the relative strength of E1 transitions in mirror nuclei. The specific examples considered are the A=31 and A=35 mirror pairs, where a serious discrepancy between the strengths of 7/2{sup -}{yields}5/2{sup +} transitions in the respective mirror nuclei has been observed. A theoretical analysis of the problem suggests that it ought to be possible to disentangle the isospin mixing in the initial and final states given sufficient information on experimental matrix elements. With this in mind, we obtain a lifetime for the relevant 7/2{sup -} state in {sup 31}S using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. We then collate the available information on matrix elements to examine the level of isospin mixing for both A=31 and A=35 mirror pairs.

Pattabiraman, N. S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Bentley, M. A.; Wadsworth, R.; Lister, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Lotay, G.; Woods, P. J.; Krishichayan,; Isacker, P. Van [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); UGC-DAE CSR, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

2008-08-15

25

Adenovirus E1A gene autorepression: revertants of an E1A promoter mutation encode altered E1A proteins  

SciTech Connect

Revertants have been isolated from Ad3hr15, a mutant of human adenovirus type 3 that carries a defective E1A promoter. Transcription of these revertant E1A genes is restored - from nil for Ad3hr15 mutant to levels exceeding that of the wild-type virus. The mutant Ad3hr15 virus and the revertants all have an aberrant E1A promoter that contains two short tandem duplications of viral DNA sequence. The E1A gene-coding region of the mutant is the same as that for wild-type adenovirus type 3, whereas the revertants are characterized by short in-frame deletions within the 5' exon region of their E1A genes. Location of these reverting, second-site deletions is discussed in relation to E1A gene autoregulation and the evolved diversity of E1A-related oncogenic potential among different human adenoviruses.

Larsen, P.L.; Tibbetts, C.

1987-12-01

26

Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase  

DOEpatents

The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol. 6 figs.

Thomas, S.R.; Laymon, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

1996-07-16

27

Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase  

DOEpatents

The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol.

Thomas, Steven R. (Denver, CO); Laymon, Robert A. (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

1996-01-01

28

Shear Strength  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. John Atkinson, of the University of the West of England, developed a site for undergraduate students wanting to learn more about soil classification. His site addresses issues such as: shear strength, peak strength, and residual strength testing. Filled with charts, diagrams, statistics, the information is pertinent and easily understood by almost any audience.

Atkinson, John

2008-10-07

29

Cleavage map of colicin E1 plasmid  

Microsoft Academic Search

COLICIN E1 plasmid (colE1) is a closed circular DNA molecule with a molecular weight of 4.2 × 106 (ref. 1). ColE1 DNA has extensively been used as a molecular vehicle for cloning and amplification of DNA in genetic engineering2,3. In order to expand such investigations, it is useful to make a cleavage map ordering colEl DNA pieces produced by bacterial

Atsuhiro Oka; Mituru Takanami

1976-01-01

30

The ?-ray Strength Function in Nuclear Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-ray strength function is a key statistical nuclear ingredient to the s-, r- and p-process nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. It has recently become apparent that extra ?-ray strengths that appear near neutron threshold on top of the low-energy tail of GDR play an important role in neutron capture and photodisintegration. We discuss extra ?-ray strengths of pigmy E1 and giant M1 nature based on the latest experimental photoneutron cross sections measured with laser Compton scattering ?-rays.

Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

2009-05-01

31

Dipole strength distribution in 56Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic dipole transitions in 56Fe were measured in photon-scattering experiments with a linearly polarized photon beam. The parity quantum numbers of the excited dipole states were determined by the intensity asymmetry of resonantly scattered ? rays with respect to the polarization plane of the incident photon beam. While the summed magnetic dipole (M1) strength was determined as ?B(M1)?=3.52(17) ?N2 at excitation energies between 7 and 10 MeV, the summed electric dipole (E1) strength below 10 MeV was obtained as ?B(E1)?=78.0(15)×10-3 e2 fm2. The observed M1 strength was compared with shell-model predictions in the pf shell using the GXPF1J and KB3G effective interactions. In addition, the E1 strength was compared with random-phase approximation calculations with the Skyrme interaction.

Shizuma, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Ohgaki, H.; Toyokawa, H.; Komatsubara, T.; Kikuzawa, N.; Inakura, T.; Honma, M.; Nakada, H.

2013-02-01

32

ColE1 copy number mutants.  

PubMed Central

A deletion mutant of the colicin E1-derived plasmid, pDMS6642, exhibited an approximately fourfold increase in copy number. We subsequently isolated hydroxylamine-induced mutants of that plasmid that had a further increase in copy number. Analysis of them suggests that the increased copy number of pDMS6642 is associated with transcriptional readthrough from a Tn3 transposon into the region of ColE1 containing information that influences plasmid replication. The hydroxylamine mutation in one copy number mutant appeared to increase the plasmid copy number by stimulating readthrough transcription from the Tn3 transposon into the ColE1 replication control region, whereas the other hydroxylamine mutation acts by another mechanism.

Schmidt, L; Inselburg, J

1982-01-01

33

Spaghetti Strength  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 7 of the PDF, learners explore how engineers characterize building materials. Learners test the strength of spaghetti and determine how the number of spaghetti strands affects the strength of a bundle of spaghetti. Use this activity to chemical bonds, mechanical testing, and engineering. Note: The pasta strands can be dipped in water and stuck together to more closely mimic the layers within a piece of plywood. More information about this can be found at the top of page 7, directly underneath the cartoon image. Safety note: Do not eat or drink any of the materials in this activity.

Society, American C.

2011-01-01

34

Vector expression of adenovirus type 5 E1a proteins: evidence for E1a autoregulation.  

PubMed Central

We transiently expressed adenovirus type C E1a proteins in wild-type or mutant form from plasmid vectors which have different combinations of E1a and simian virus 40 enhancer elements and which contain the DNA replication origin of SV40 and can replicate in COS 7 cells. We measured the levels of E1a mRNA encoded by the vectors and the transition regulation properties of the protein products. Three vectors encoded equivalent levels of E1a mRNA in COS 7 cells: (i) a plasmid encoding the wt 289-amino acid E1a protein (this complemented the E1a deletion mutant dl312 for early region E2a expression under both replicative and nonreplicative conditions); (ii) a vector for the wt 243-amino acid E1a protein (this complemented dl312 weakly and only under conditions of high multiplicities of dl312); (iii) a mutant, pSVXL105, in which amino acid residues-38 through 44 of the 289-amino acid E1a protein (which includes two highly conserved residues) are replaced by 3 novel amino acids (this also complemented dl312 efficiently). A fourth vector, mutant pSVXL3 with which linker substitution shifts the reading frame to encode a truncated 70-amino acid fragment from the amino terminus of the 289-amino acid protein, was unable to complement dl312. Surprisingly, pSVXL3 overexpressed E1a mRNA approximately 30-fold in COS 7 cells in comparison with the other vectors. The pSVXL3 overexpression could be reversed by cotransfection with a wt E1a vector. We suggest that wt E1a proteins regulate the levels of their own mRNAs through the recently described transcription repression functions of the 289- and 243-amino acid E1a protein products and that pSVXL3 fails to autoregulate negatively. Images

Smith, D H; Kegler, D M; Ziff, E B

1985-01-01

35

Anaerobic control of colicin E1 production.  

PubMed Central

Expression of the cea gene, which is carried by the ColE1 plasmid and which encodes colicin E1, was found to be greatly increased when the cells were grown anaerobically. By using cea-lacZ fusions to quantitate expression, aerobic levels were found to be only a few percent of the anaerobic levels. The anaerobic increase in expression was observed both in protein and in operon fusions, indicating that its regulation occurred at the level of transcription. It was also found to require a functional fnr gene and to occur when the cea-lacZ fusion was present as a single copy in the bacterial chromosome instead of in the multicopy ColE1 plasmid. Anaerobic expression was regulated by the SOS response and catabolite repression as is aerobic expression. The start site of the mRNA produced under anaerobic conditions was mapped by primer extension and found to be the same as the start for mRNA produced under aerobic conditions. These observations show that the cea gene is anaerobically regulated and that the Fnr protein is a positive regulator of transcription of this gene. Images

Eraso, J M; Weinstock, G M

1992-01-01

36

Prostaglandin E1 in hand angiography  

SciTech Connect

Prostaglandin E1 (PG1) is a rapid, potent vasodilator which, when infused into the arterial system in low doses by bolus injection, has no significant systemic effects and has a relatively long duration of action. Sixty-three hand angiograms were done on 55 patients, comparing PGE1 to tolazoline and to angiograms done with no vasodilation. There was no significant difference between PGE1 and tolazoline in digital artery opacification; however, venous opacification was very significantly better with PGE1. PGE1 should be a drug of choice in hand angiography.

Levy, J.M.; Joseph, R.B.; Bodell, L.S.; Nykamp, P.W.; Hessel, S.J.

1983-11-01

37

Application of Strength Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the various strength qualities (maximum strength, high- and low-load speed strength, reactive strength, rate of force development, and skill performance), noting why a training program design based on strength diagnosis can lead to greater efficacy and better performance gains for the athlete. Examples of tests used to assess strength

Newton, Robert U.; Dugan, Eric

2002-01-01

38

Systematics and fragmentation of low-lying electric dipole strength  

SciTech Connect

We report on systematic investigations of low-lying electric dipole (E1) strength in atomic nuclei. Using the method of real photon scattering the dipole response of all stable N = 82 isotones has been measured with high resolution. In all cases a resonance like structure of E1 strength is observed in the energy region 5-8 MeV, which shows a strong fragmentation. The total integrated strength increases towards the proton poorer isotones, indicating a dependence of the total strength on the neutron-to-proton ratio. The experimental results are compared to microscopic calculations within the Quasi-particle Phonon Model (QPM). By including complex configurations of up to three phonons the calculation is able to reproduce also the fragmentation of the E1 strength and is in good agreement with the experimental observation.

Savran, D.; Fritzsche, M.; Mueller, S.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Sonnabend, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Endres, J.; Hasper, J.; Zilges, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany)

2009-01-28

39

'Dirac Fock + core-polarization' calculations of E1 transitions in the francium isoelectronic sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some E1 transitions in the francium isoelectronic sequence are computed in the 'Dirac-Fock + core-polarization' approximation, where core-valence electron correlation is treated in a semiclassical core-polarization picture. The obtained ionization energies and oscillator strengths are tested versus very accurate many-body perturbation treatment (MBPT) theoretical results published recently as well as versus available experimental data. The role of core-valence correlation (core

Jacek Migdalek; Agnieszka Glowacz-Proszkiewicz

2007-01-01

40

Evidence for the two-body nature of the E1 transition operator in the sdf-interacting boson model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new absolute transition rates are reported for the nucleus144Sm following an ( ?, ?') Coulomb excitation study. They are B(E3; 3-? 0+)=(38±3) W.u. and B(E1;3- ? 2+)=(2.8±0.4)×10-3 W.u. This large E1 matrix element, along with the previously known B(E1; 1- ?+) value support the interpretation of the 1- state in this nucleus as 2-phonon 2+ × 3- excitation. In the frame of the IBM-1 + f-boson model we show the need for a two-body term in the E1 transition operator. Estimates for the strengths of the one and two-body parts of the E1 transition operator are obtained from these experimental data.

Barfield, A. F.; von Brentano, P.; Dewald, A.; Zell, K. O.; Zamfir, N. V.; Bucurescu, D.; Iva?cu, M.; Scholten, O.

1989-03-01

41

CYP2E1 and oxidative liver injury by alcohol.  

PubMed

Ethanol-induced oxidative stress seems to play a major role in mechanisms by which ethanol causes liver injury. Many pathways have been suggested to contribute to the ability of ethanol to induce a state of oxidative stress. One central pathway seems to be the induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) by ethanol. CYP2E1 metabolizes and activates many toxicological substrates, including ethanol, to more reactive, toxic products. Levels of CYP2E1 are elevated under a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions and after acute and chronic alcohol treatment. CYP2E1 is also an effective generator of reactive oxygen species such as the superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide and, in the presence of iron catalysts, produces powerful oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical. This review article summarizes some of the biochemical and toxicological properties of CYP2E1 and briefly describes the use of cell lines developed to constitutively express CYP2E1 and CYP2E1 knockout mice in assessing the actions of CYP2E1. Possible therapeutic implications for treatment of alcoholic liver injury by inhibition of CYP2E1 or CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress will be discussed, followed by some future directions which may help us to understand the actions of CYP2E1 and its role in alcoholic liver injury. PMID:18078827

Lu, Yongke; Cederbaum, Arthur I

2007-11-17

42

Strength Modeling Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force...

N. I. Badler P. Lee S. Wong

1985-01-01

43

Activation of adenovirus 5 E1A transcription by region E1B in transformed primary rat cells.  

PubMed Central

The human adenovirus 5 E1A region can immortalize primary cultures of baby rat kidney cells, but requires the presence of the E1B region for complete oncogenic transformation. One of the effects of the E1B region in the transformation process is the activation of E1A expression. We have investigated the mechanism of this stimulation of E1A expression using nuclear run-on assays with nuclei from Ad5 E1A- and Ad5 E1-transformed cells. It was found that E1B enhances E1A at the level of transcription-initiation. This activation is mainly observed when the E1A and E1B regions are integrated simultaneously into the cellular genome and only minimally when these genes are integrated separately, strongly suggesting that a close physical linkage of these regions is essential for the observed effect. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

Jochemsen, A G; Peltenburg, L T; te Pas, M F; de Wit, C M; Bos, J L; van der Eb, A J

1987-01-01

44

Strength Reduction via SSAPRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present techniques that allow strength reduction to be performed concurrently with partial redundancy elimination in the SSAPRE framework. By sharing the characteristics inherent to SSAPRE, the resulting strength reduction algorithm exhibits many interesting attributes. We compare various aspects of the new strength reduction algorithm with previous strength reduction algorithms. We also outline and discuss our implementation of the closely

Robert Kennedy; Fred C. Chow; Peter Dahl; Shin-ming Liu; Raymond Lo; Mark Streich

1998-01-01

45

Functional interactions between YY1 and adenovirus E1A.  

PubMed Central

YY1 is a C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor that is a member of the human GLl-Kruppel family of proteins. YY1 represses transcription when bound upstream of transcription initiation sites. The repression can be relieved by adenovirus E1A and activation of target genes occurs. We have mapped the repression domain of YY1 to the C-terminal region, overlapping its DNA binding domain. We have also identified an activation domain within the first 69 amino acids of YY1. The YY1 C-terminal region is involved in physical interactions with E1A and is functionally necessary for YY1 to respond to E1A. This suggests that relief of YY1 repression by E1A involves YY1-E1A physical interactions. Although not involved in interactions with E1A, the N-terminal activation domain is also necessary for YY1 to respond to E1A. Presumably, under repressing conditions, the activation domain is masked by the conformation of YY1, but is released upon binding of E1A and is required to subsequently activate transcription. Consistent with this hypothesis, an ATF-2-YY1 chimeric protein containing the activation domain of ATF-2 and the C-terminal two-thirds of YY1 is still a potent repressor. Unlike the mutant YY1 lacking its own N-terminal activation domain, the chimeric protein is fully responsive to E1A. Images

Lee, J S; See, R H; Galvin, K M; Wang, J; Shi, Y

1995-01-01

46

A New Measurement of the E1 Component of the ^12C(,)^16O Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Durin the past few years we have been involved in a measurement of the E1 component of the ^12C(,)^16O reaction. Using a new approach with a set of high acceptance ionization chambers, we have measured the beta-delayed alpha decay in ^16N. The subthreshold 1^- state, which dominates the S-factor S(E1) at astrophysical energies, produces a small interference peak in the alpha spectrum, whose strength is sensitive to S(E1). The data have been analyzed using extrapolations obtained from R-matrix theory. The results from two independent runs will be presented and compared to previous experiments. The contributions from systematic uncertainties as well as the sensitivity of S(E1) to various R-matrix parameters will be discussed. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics Division, under contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38 and by the NSF Grant No. PHY-02-16783 (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics).

Tang, X. D.; Notani, M.; Rehm, K. E.; Ahmad, I.; Greene, J.; Hecht, A. A.; Henderson, D.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jiang, C. L.; Moore, E. F.; Patel, N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Schiffer, J. P.; Sinha, S.; Paul, M.; Jisonna, L.; Segel, R. E.; Brune, C.; Champagne, A.; Wuosmaa, A.

2006-10-01

47

New Insights into FoxE1 Functions: Identification of Direct FoxE1 Targets in Thyroid Cells  

PubMed Central

Background FoxE1 is a thyroid-specific forkhead transcription factor essential for thyroid gland development, as well as for the maintenance of the thyroid differentiated state in adults. FoxE1 recognizes and binds to a short DNA sequence present in thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroperoxidase (Tpo) promoters, but FoxE1 binding to regulatory regions other than Tg and Tpo promoters remains almost unexplored. Improving knowledge of the regulatory functions of FoxE1 is necessary to clarify its role in endocrine syndromes and cancer susceptibility. Methodology/Principal Finding In order to further investigate downstream FoxE1 targets, we performed a genome-wide expression screening after knocking-down FoxE1 and obtained new insights into FoxE1 transcriptional networks in thyroid follicular cells. After validation, we confirmed Adamts9, Cdh1, Duox2 and S100a4 as upregulated genes and Casp4, Creld2, Dusp5, Etv5, Hsp5a, Nr4a2 and Tm4sf1 as downregulated genes when FoxE1 was silenced. In promoter regions of putative FoxE1-regulated genes and also in the promoters of the classical thyroid genes Nis, Pax8 and Titf1, we performed an in silico search of the FoxE1 binding motif that was in close proximity to the NF1/CTF binding sequence, as previously described for other forkhead factors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we detected specific in vivo FoxE1 binding to novel regulatory regions in two relevant thyroid genes, Nis and Duox2. Moreover, we demonstrated simultaneous binding of FoxE1 and NF1/CTF to the Nis upstream enhancer region, as well as a clear functional activation of the Nis promoter by both transcription factors. Conclusions/Significance In search for potential downstream mediators of FoxE1 function in thyroid cells, we identified two novel direct FoxE1 target genes. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence regarding the implication of Nis and Duox2 in executing the transcriptional program triggered by FoxE1. Furthermore, this study points out the important role of FoxE1 in the regulation of a large number of genes in thyroid cells.

Fernandez, Lara P.; Lopez-Marquez, Aristides; Martinez, Angel M.; Gomez-Lopez, Gonzalo; Santisteban, Pilar

2013-01-01

48

CYP2E1 Metabolism of Styrene Involves Allostery  

PubMed Central

We are the first to report allosterism during styrene oxidation by recombinant CYP2E1 and human liver microsomes. At low styrene concentrations, oxidation is inefficient because of weak binding to CYP2E1 (Ks = 830 ?M). A second styrene molecule then binds CYP2E1 with higher affinity (Kss = 110 ?M) and significantly improves oxidation to achieve a kcat of 6.3 nmol · min?1 · nmol CYP2E1?1. The transition between these metabolic cycles coincides with reported styrene concentrations in blood from exposed workers; thus, this CYP2E1 mechanism may be relevant in vivo. Scaled modeling of the in vitro-positive allosteric mechanism for styrene metabolism to its in vivo clearance led to significant deviations from the traditional model based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Low styrene levels were notably much less toxic than generally assumed. We interrogated the allosteric mechanism using the CYP2E1-specific inhibitor and drug 4-methylpyrazole, which we have shown binds two CYP2E1 sites. From the current studies, styrene was a positive allosteric effector on 4-methylpyrazole binding, based on a 10-fold increase in 4-methylpyrazole binding affinity from Ki 0.51 to Ksi 0.043 ?M. The inhibitor was a negative allosteric effector on styrene oxidation, because kcat decreased 6-fold to 0.98 nmol · min?1 · nmol CYP2E1?1. Consequently, mixtures of styrene and other molecules can induce allosteric effects on binding and metabolism by CYP2E1 and thus mitigate the efficiency of their metabolism and corresponding effects on human health. Taken together, our elucidation of mechanisms for these allosteric reactions provides a powerful tool for further investigating the complexities of CYP2E1 metabolism of drugs and pollutants.

Hartman, Jessica H.; Boysen, Gunnar

2012-01-01

49

Flexibility and Muscular Strength.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

Liemohn, Wendell

1988-01-01

50

Strength Training for Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

2001-01-01

51

High-Strength Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent steel developments indicate that strength and toughness requirements for 150 ksi yield-strength steel essentially have been met, that the requirements for the 200 ksi yield-strength steel are a near-term probability, and that the requirements for t...

T. P. Groeneveld

1967-01-01

52

Resolvin E1 Receptor Activation Signals Phosphorylation and Phagocytosis*  

PubMed Central

Resolvins are endogenous lipid mediators that actively regulate the resolution of acute inflammation. Resolvin E1 (RvE1; (5S,12R,18R)-trihydroxy-6Z,8E,10E,14Z,16E-eicosapentaenoic acid) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediator derived from eicosapentaenoic acid that regulates leukocyte migration and enhances macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils to resolve inflammation. In the inflammatory milieu, RvE1 mediates counter-regulatory actions initiated via specific G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we have identified RvE1-specific signaling pathways initiated by the RvE1 receptor ChemR23. RvE1 stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that was both ligand- and receptor-dependent. RvE1 regulated Akt phosphorylation in a time (0–15 min)- and dose-dependent (0.01–100 nm) manner in human ChemR23-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. RvE1 stimulated phosphorylation of both Akt and a 30-kDa protein, a downstream target of Akt, identified using a phospho-Akt substrate antibody. The 30-kDa protein was identified as ribosomal protein S6, a translational regulator, and its phosphorylation was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (wortmannin) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) but not by a p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Ribosomal protein S6 is a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway as well as the Raf/ERK pathway. In ChemR23-expressing differentiated HL60 cells, RvE1 also stimulated the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. In addition, RvE1 enhanced phagocytosis of zymosan A by human macrophages, which are inhibited by PD98059 and rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor). These results indicate that RvE1 initiates direct activation of ChemR23 and signals receptor-dependent phosphorylation. These phosphorylation-signaling pathways identified for RvE1 receptor-ligand interactions underscore the importance of endogenous pro-resolving agonists in resolving acute inflammation.

Ohira, Taisuke; Arita, Makoto; Omori, Kazuhiro; Recchiuti, Antonio; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Serhan, Charles N.

2010-01-01

53

Resolvin E1 receptor activation signals phosphorylation and phagocytosis.  

PubMed

Resolvins are endogenous lipid mediators that actively regulate the resolution of acute inflammation. Resolvin E1 (RvE1; (5S,12R,18R)-trihydroxy-6Z,8E,10E,14Z,16E-eicosapentaenoic acid) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediator derived from eicosapentaenoic acid that regulates leukocyte migration and enhances macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils to resolve inflammation. In the inflammatory milieu, RvE1 mediates counter-regulatory actions initiated via specific G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we have identified RvE1-specific signaling pathways initiated by the RvE1 receptor ChemR23. RvE1 stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that was both ligand- and receptor-dependent. RvE1 regulated Akt phosphorylation in a time (0-15 min)- and dose-dependent (0.01-100 nm) manner in human ChemR23-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. RvE1 stimulated phosphorylation of both Akt and a 30-kDa protein, a downstream target of Akt, identified using a phospho-Akt substrate antibody. The 30-kDa protein was identified as ribosomal protein S6, a translational regulator, and its phosphorylation was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (wortmannin) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) but not by a p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Ribosomal protein S6 is a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway as well as the Raf/ERK pathway. In ChemR23-expressing differentiated HL60 cells, RvE1 also stimulated the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. In addition, RvE1 enhanced phagocytosis of zymosan A by human macrophages, which are inhibited by PD98059 and rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor). These results indicate that RvE1 initiates direct activation of ChemR23 and signals receptor-dependent phosphorylation. These phosphorylation-signaling pathways identified for RvE1 receptor-ligand interactions underscore the importance of endogenous pro-resolving agonists in resolving acute inflammation. PMID:19906641

Ohira, Taisuke; Arita, Makoto; Omori, Kazuhiro; Recchiuti, Antonio; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Serhan, Charles N

2009-11-11

54

Isovector dipole strength in nuclei with extreme neutron excess  

SciTech Connect

The E1 strength is systematically analyzed in very neutron-rich Sn nuclei, beyond {sup 132}Sn until {sup 166}Sn, within the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation. The great neutron excess favors the appearance of a deformed ground state for {sup 142-162}Sn. The evolution of the low-lying strength in deformed nuclei is determined by the interplay of two factors, isospin asymmetry and deformation: while greater neutron excess increases the total low-lying strength, deformation hinders and spreads it. Very neutron rich deformed nuclei may not be as good candidates as spherical nuclei like {sup 132}Sn for the experimental study of low-lying E1 strength.

Arteaga, D. Pena; Khan, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Ring, P. [Physikdepartment, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2009-03-15

55

Origin of Replication of Colicin E1 Plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cleavage maps of colicin E1 plasmid DNA and its smaller derivative, pNT1 DNA, were constructed by using restriction endonucleases. The nucleotide sequence of a region that contains the origin of replication was determined. The site of the nucleotide from which DNA replication is initiated was determined with 6S L-fragments, the DNA fragment first made on colicin E1 plasmid DNA. The

Jun-Ichi Tomizawa; Haruo Ohmori; Robert E. Bird

1977-01-01

56

Cytochrome P-450 2E1 in Rat Liver Peroxisomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P-450 containing enzymes, known to be present in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, catalyze the oxidation of various compounds. In this study we have used highly purified peroxisomes (>95%) to provide evidence by analytical cell fractionation, enzyme activity, Western blot, and immunocytochemical analysis that cytochrome P-450 2E1 (Cyp 2E1) is present in peroxisomes. Similar specific activities of aniline hydroxylase,

Kalipada Pahan; Brian T Smith; Avtar K Singh; Inderjit Singh

1997-01-01

57

Electron demagnetization and collisionless magnetic reconnection in {beta}{sub e}<<1 plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Abrupt, intense electric field enhancements (EFEs) with E>100 mV/m surveyed over 3 years of NASA's Polar spacecraft data are used to illustrate the occurrence and locales of nonguiding center demagnetization of thermal electrons in strongly inhomogeneous electric fields. A lower bound E*(a) on the perpendicular electric strength sufficient to cause nongyrotropic effects on the electron pressure tensor is determined for EFE thickness {delta}x=a{rho}{sub e}. Minimum E*(a) occurs when a{approx_equal}1. Of 258 observed EFEs, 15.3% (39) are demagnetizing (DEFEs) with E{>=}E*(1). DEFEs occur within 3x10{sup -5}{<=}{beta}{sub e}{<=}3x10{sup -1}, while EFEs are found as low as {beta}{sub e}=10{sup -8}. While E*(1) does not depend on the ambient density, the DEFEs are organized by the density-dependent inequality {lambda}{sub De}/{rho}{sub e}<1 and are consistently understood as sites where the electron pressure tensor could become agyrotropic, enabling collisionless magnetic reconnection. The geophysical locales of the demagnetizing EFEs are not random, always occurring within magnetic cusp invariant latitudes, strongly concentrated at noon magnetic local times and at orbit apogee near the nominal magnetopause.

Scudder, J.D.; Mozer, F.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240 (United States); Space Science Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2005-09-15

58

Effective-range approach and scaling laws for electromagnetic strength in neutron-halo nuclei.  

PubMed

We study low-lying multipole strength in neutron-halo nuclei. The strength depends only on a few low-energy constants: the neutron separation energy, the asymptotic normalization coefficient of the bound-state wave function, and the scattering length that contains the information on the interaction in the continuum. The shape of the transition probability shows a characteristic dependence on few scaling parameters and the angular momenta. The total E1 strength is related to the root-mean-square radius of the neutron wave function in the ground state and shows corresponding scaling properties. We apply our approach to the E1 strength distribution of 11Be. PMID:15524785

Typel, S; Baur, G

2004-09-29

59

From strength to strength: "inner strength" with immature ego states.  

PubMed

The ego-strengthening literature concentrates on the use of hypnotic techniques with the entire or total personality. Ego-state therapy conceptualizes the ego as a system of subpersonalities or ego states that have shifting energies. At any particular time the ego state with the most energy is dominant or executive. Any technique that can be used with an individual patient can also be used with an identified ego state. The "inner-strength" hypnotic technique has been used for ego strengthening and mobilization of inner resources. In this paper the "inner-strength" technique is used with ego states that have been identified as responsible for specific symptoms. We will discuss indications for the appropriate use of this technique in ego-state therapy and the mechanisms of its role in the resolution of symptoms in the cases presented. PMID:8480668

Frederick, C; McNeal, S

1993-04-01

60

Impotence evaluated by the use of prostaglandin E1  

SciTech Connect

We screened 80 patients at our hospital for the differential diagnosis of impotence using intracavernous injection of prostaglandin E1 (20 micrograms). The rate of positive response was 78.8 per cent (63 patients). Neither systemic reactions nor priapism occurred. However, a considerable incidence (23.8 per cent, 19 of 80 patients) of tolerable injection pain was encountered. The 133-xenon penile washout study was conducted routinely in impotent men for hemodynamic evaluation of penile vascularity. In 80 patients a positive correlation between the response of intracavernous prostaglandin E1 injection and the result of the washout study was found (r equals 0.381, p less than 0.0002). We selected 14 subjects randomly to receive additional intravenous infusions of prostaglandin E1 (6 ampules, 120 micrograms total) for 3 days, after which another 133-xenon washout study was done. The washout studies before and after intravenous prostaglandin E1 infusion were compared, and 10 patients (71.4 per cent) appeared to obtain improvement in half-time clearance and penile blood flow. However, only 3 patients noticed improvement subjectively. We suggest that prostaglandin E1 could be a desirable alternative for the diagnosis and treatment of impotence.

Hwang, T.I.; Yang, C.R.; Wang, S.J.; Chang, C.L.; Tzai, T.S.; Chang, C.H.; Wu, H.C.

1989-06-01

61

Acetaldehyde and parkinsonism: role of CYP450 2E1  

PubMed Central

The present review update the relationship between acetaldehyde (ACE) and parkinsonism with a specific focus on the role of P450 system and CYP 2E1 isozyme particularly. We have indicated that ACE is able to enhance the parkinsonism induced in mice by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a neurotoxin able to damage the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Similarly diethyldithiocarbamate, the main metabolite of disulfiram, a drug widely used to control alcoholism, diallylsulfide (DAS) and phenylisothiocyanate also markedly enhance the toxin-related parkinsonism. All these compounds are substrate/inhibitors of CYP450 2E1 isozyme. The presence of CYP 2E1 has been detected in the dopamine (DA) neurons of rodent Substantia Nigra (SN), but a precise function of the enzyme has not been elucidated yet. By treating CYP 2E1 knockout (KO) mice with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, the SN induced lesion was significantly reduced when compared with the lesion observed in wild-type animals. Several in vivo and in vitro studies led to the conclusion that CYP 2E1 may enhance the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice by increasing free radical production inside the dopaminergic neurons. ACE is a good substrate for CYP 2E1 enzyme as the other substrate-inhibitors and by this way may facilitate the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to toxic events. The literature suggests that ethanol and/or disulfiram may be responsible for toxic parkinsonism in human and it indicates that basal ganglia are the major targets of disulfiram toxicity. A very recent study reports that there are a decreased methylation of the CYP 2E1 gene and increased expression of CYP 2E1 mRNA in Parkinson's disease (PD) patient brains. This study suggests that epigenetic variants of this cytochrome contribute to the susceptibility, thus confirming multiples lines of evidence which indicate a link between environmental toxins and PD.

Vaglini, Francesca; Viaggi, Cristina; Piro, Valentina; Pardini, Carla; Gerace, Claudio; Scarselli, Marco; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

2013-01-01

62

Strength of inorganic glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents information on the following topics: a look at the history of glass strength; atomistic theory of fracture; surface chemistry in relation to the strength and fracture of silicate glasses; high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic localized loading of some oxide glasses; a correction for measurements of contact area using Newton's rings; envionmentally enhanced crack growth; fatigue in

Kurkjian

1985-01-01

63

Strength of Character  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strength of character is clearly a good quality to possess, but what, exactly, does it involve? Would a person with great strength of character ever be disturbed by events in the external world, or experience a loss of tranquility? Would she ever succumb to her emotions, or be overwhelmed by the intensity of her feelings? Or would the person with

Margaret R. Holmgren

2004-01-01

64

Environmental Testing of Xm10E1 Catapult.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty XM10E1 Catapults were loaded and assembled. The catapults were installed and instrumented aboard the B-47 in May 1962 for one thru three summer exposure to elevated temperature and solar radiation. A partial sample of the catapults was withdrawn fr...

F. W. Iaconelli

1965-01-01

65

Radiative strength functions in odd-A spherical nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative strength functions for the partial ?-transitions from neutron resonances to the ground and low-lying states of odd-A spherical nuclei are calculated within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The fragmentation of one-quasiparticle and quasiparticle-plus-phonon states is calculated. This allowed one to calculate ?-transitions between the one-quasi-particle components (valence transitions) and ?-transitions between the quasiparticle-plus-phonon and one-quasiparticle components of the wave functions. The energy dependence of the strength functions C(E1, ?) and C(M1, ?) is calculated near the neutron binding energy Bn for 55Fe and 59, 61Ni. The corresponding experimental data are described qualitatively. The contribution of the valence E1 transitions to the strength function is shown to be from 20% to 90%, and M1 transitions about 1%. The influence of the M1 giant resonance is important for M1 transition probabilities.

Soloviev, V. G.; Stoyanov, Ch.

1982-07-01

66

Distribution of Radiative Strength in GD-156, 157 and 158 Nuclei.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution of E1 and M1 strength in (156,157,158) Gd compound nuclei has been studied. The authors compare several formulations of strength functions to average resonance capture and/or photoabsorption data. Further they use these prescriptions in c...

J. Kopecky M. Uhl R. E. Chrien

1992-01-01

67

The Adenovirus E1A Proteins Induce Apoptosis, which is Inhibited by the E1B 19-kDa and Bcl2 Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperation between the adenovirus E1A and E1B oncogenes is required for transformation of primary quiescent rodent cells. Although expression of E1A alone will stimulate cell proliferation sufficient to initiate transformed focus formation, proliferation fails to be sustained and foci degenerate. Coexpression of either the 19-kDa or 55-kDa E1B oncoproteins with E1A permits high-frequency transformation by overcoming this cytotoxic response. Without

Lakshmi Rao; Michael Debbas; Peter Sabbatini; David Hockenbery; Stanley Korsmeyer; Eileen White

1992-01-01

68

Strength Distribution in Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tensile strength distributions are studied in four papers samples that exhibit a variety of brittle-to-ductile properties. 1005 tensile specimens were measured in each case. The standard Gumbel and Weibull distributions, and a recently proposed double exp...

M. J. Korteoja L. I. Salminen K. J. Niskanen M. Alava

1997-01-01

69

Hoodia Maximum Strength  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... reviewed your web site at the Internet address http://www.life-all.com and has determined that the product “Hoodia Maximum Strength” is promoted ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

70

Electron impact collision strengths in Sn XXIII  

SciTech Connect

The energy levels, multipole (E1, M1, E2, and M2) transition rates, and electron-impact collision strengths are calculated for Sn XXIII. The data refer to 107 fine-structure levels belonging to the configurations (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4l, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}4l, and 3s3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}4l(l = s, p, d, and f). The collision strengths are calculated with a 20-collision-energy grid in terms of the energy of the scattered electron between 37.5 and 8436 eV by using the distorted-wave approximation. Effective collision strengths are obtained at five electron temperatures, T{sub e} (eV) = 193.89, 387.78, 581.67, 775.57, and 969.46, by integrating the collision strengths over a Maxwellian electron distribution.

Liang, Y.Q. [School of Logistics, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China)], E-mail: yaqiongliang@hotmail.com; Zhong, J.Y. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2008-11-15

71

Cavernous auto-injection therapy with prostaglandin E1.  

PubMed

During 1990-1992, 176 consecutive patients (aged 18-83 years, mean 53 years) with erectile dysfunction were personally investigated by the author in the private office setting at Eira Hospital. Pharmacotesting with 20 micrograms prostaglandin was positive in 89 of 138 patients (64%) tested. Eleven per cent of the patients complained of pain during erection. Of 131 patients, who initially were offered auto-injections as a primary treatment modality, 99 (76%) began the therapy. Seventy-four per cent of the patients continued auto-injections after three months. The overall efficacy of prostaglandin E1 to induce adequate erections for sexual intercourse was estimated to be 71%. One prolonged erection without medical intervention and no penile fibrotic lesions were recorded. In conclusion, cavernous auto-injection therapy with prostaglandin E1 is a well accepted, effective and safe treatment alternative in psychogenic as well as organic impotence. Every impotent patient should be informed of this therapy. PMID:8291874

Nisén, H

1993-01-01

72

E1 radiation decay of isobaric analog resonances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of the shell-optical model a quantitative interpretation for partial E1 radiation widths of isobaric analog resonances (IAR) has been proposed for near-magic nuclei over a wide atomic mass range. Spin-flip transitions as well as non-spin-flip ones are considered. A dependence of polarization effects on the spin-isospin part of the quasiparticle effective interaction is cleared up for transitions

V. G. Guba; O. A. Rumyantsev; M. G. Urin

1988-01-01

73

Molecular dynamics simulations of CYP2E1.  

PubMed

CYP2E1, as a member of the cytochrome P450s (CYPs) super-family, is in charge of six percent drug metabolism involving a diversity of drugs distinct in structures and chemical properties, such as alcohols, monocyclic compounds (e.g., acetaminophen, benzene, p-nitrophenol), bicyclic heterocycles (e.g., coumarin, caffeine) and even fatty acids. The aromatic molecules form a vital species catalyzed by CYP2E1. To investigate the mechanism of metabolizing a diversity of aromatic molecules, five representative aromatic substrates were selected: (1) benzene, the non-polar simple ring; (2) aniline, the monocyclic substrate with smallest substitution on the phenyl ring; (3) acetaminophen, a large monocyclic substrate with highly active reactivity; (4) chlorzoxazone, and (5) theophylline, the bicyclic substrates with low or high catalytic activities. They were docked into X-ray structure of CYP2E1, after which all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of 5 ns were performed on each model. It was found that the active site interact with the aromatic substrates mainly through ?-? stacking, supplied by five hydrophobic phenylalanines in the active site. Our simulations also illustrated the specific movement of different kinds of aromatic substrates in the pocket. Small monocyclic substrates show highly frequent self-rotation and limited translation movement. Substrates with single catalytic position are less movable in the pocket than substrates with multiple products. All these findings are quite useful for understanding the catalytic mechanism of CYP2E1, stimulating novel strategies for conducting further mutagenesis studies for specific drug design. PMID:22385180

Li, Jue; Wei, Dong-Qing; Wang, Jing-Fang; Yu, Zheng-Tian; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2012-03-01

74

Strengths of Gamma-Ray Transitions in A = 5-44 Nuclei, IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strengths of ?-ray transitions in A = 5-44 nuclei are discussed and classified according to character: electric (E) or magnetic (M), multipolarity (L), and isospin retardation (isoscalar, IS, or isovector, IV). All transitions are listed which have strength errors below 50%, but of the very abundant E1IV, E1IS, E2IS, and M1IV transitions, only about the 5% strongest transitions are given. Because the total number of transitions has increased considerably from that in a previous review (4261 compared to 2419 in 1979) recommended upper limits (RUL) for ?-ray strengths could be derived with more confidence.

Endt, P. M.

1993-09-01

75

Spin resonance strength calculations  

SciTech Connect

In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

Courant,E.D.

2008-10-06

76

Octupole deformation in sup 221 Fr; E1 transition rates  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data following the alpha decay of{sup 225}Ac are interpreted in terms of a spectroscopy in {sup 221}Fr consistent with octupole deformation. However, the measured E1 transition probabilities suggest that the low lying bands in {sup 221}Fr are considerably more mixed than in nuclei with slightly higher mass number. It is suggested that this mixing of states in {sup 221}Fr is indicative of the partial collapse of Nilsson-like orbitals into more degenerate shell model orbitals.

Liang, C.F.; Peghaire, A. (Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, Bat. 104-91406 Campus Orsay (FR)); Sheline, R.K. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (USA))

1990-07-10

77

M1 ? Strength for Zirconium Nuclei in the Photoneutron Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Zr91, Zr92, and Zr94 near the neutron separation energy with quasimonochromatic ? rays. The data exhibit some extra components around the neutron threshold. A coherent analysis of the photoneutron data for Zr92 together with the neutron capture on Zr91 based on the microscopic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov plus quasiparticle random-phase approximation model for the E1 strength has revealed the presence of an M1 resonance at 9 MeV. The microscopic approach systematically shows the same M1 strength in the photoneutron cross section for Zr91 and Zr94. The total M1 strength is about 75% larger than the strength predicted by the systematics, being qualitatively consistent with the giant M1 resonance observed in the inelastic proton scattering.

Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Kondo, T.; Kaihori, T.; Makinaga, A.; Goko, S.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Harano, H.; Hohara, S.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Péru, S.; Koning, A. J.

2008-04-01

78

Gender Differences in Strength.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This investigation examined gender differences of 103 physically active men and women in upper and lower body strength as a function of lean body weight and the distribution of muscle and subcutaneous fat in the upper and lower limbs. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)|

Heyward, Vivian H.; And Others

1986-01-01

79

Measuring muscle strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamometer that can be held in the hand and that was designed to measure muscle strength in a simple way in the range 2–5 of the MRC scale, was tested in order to establish to what extent differences in results can be attributed to the observer, the subject and replication. Observers learned the technique quickly and their results agreed

R. J. O. van der Ploeg; H. J. G. H. Oosterhuis; J. Reuvekamp

1984-01-01

80

High Strength Ceramics Bearings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rotordynamics-Seal Research is currently performing on a 6 month contract to develop high strength ceramic bearings using a new low cost process. This effort consists of development of a ceramic bearing design, fabrication, and testing of the bearing in a...

J. K. Scharrer

1997-01-01

81

Preadolescent Strength Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Physical educators must teach preadolescents about safe and realistic strength-training methods commensurate with their needs and physical capabilities. The risk of injuries can be reduced by setting prudent goals, using equipment tailored to the age level, and educating students about their unique growth state. (PP)|

Smith, Timothy K.

1984-01-01

82

High strength composites evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A high-strength, thick-section, graphite/epoxy composite was identified. The purpose of this development effort was to evaluate candidate materials and provide LANL with engineering properties. Eight candidate materials (Samples 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, and 1700) were chosen for evaluation. The Sample 1700 thermoplastic material was the strongest overall.

Marten, S.M.

1992-02-01

83

Gender Differences in Strength.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined gender differences of 103 physically active men and women in upper and lower body strength as a function of lean body weight and the distribution of muscle and subcutaneous fat in the upper and lower limbs. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

Heyward, Vivian H.; And Others

1986-01-01

84

Strength of corundum concretes  

SciTech Connect

This article uses ultrasonic, acoustic emission, and mechanical procedures to comparatively test the strength properties of corundum-reinforced concrete refractories used in furnace liners in the face of thermal and corrosive factors with an eye toward enhancing their service life and reducing the heat and material losses in the furnaces which utilize them.

Usatikov, I.F.; Gal'chenko, T.G.; Karaulov, A.G.; Degtyareva, E.V.; Gogotsi, G.A.; Grushevskii, Ya.L.; Galenko, V.I.

1987-01-01

85

Operator strength reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operator strength reduction is a technique that improves compiler-generated code by reformulating certain costly computations in terms of less expensive ones. A common case arises in array addressing expressions used in loops. The compiler can replace the sequence of multiplies generated by a direct translation of the address expression with an equivalent sequence of additions. When combined with linear function

Keith D. Cooper; L. Taylor Simpson; Christopher A. Vick

2001-01-01

86

Dipole strength functions in the actinide mass region  

SciTech Connect

We have calculated a number of neutron- and photon-induced reactions for the actinide nuclei /sup 232/Th, /sup 238/U, and /sup 237/Np. By fitting average resonance capture (ARC) measurements and total neutron capture data, we deduced absolute dipole strength functions for /sup 233/Th and /sup 239/U. We have found that the M1/E1 ratio is the same as in the /sup 176/Lu case, but the total transition strength was larger by about 27%. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Hoff, R.W.

1987-07-15

87

Tumorigenicity and adenovirus-transformed cells: Collagen interaction and cell surface laminin are controlled by the serotype origin of the E1A and E1B genes  

SciTech Connect

A library of cells transformed with recombinant adenoviruses was used to study tumorigenicity and interaction with extracellular matrix. Cells expressing the complete E1 region of highly oncogenic adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) are tumorigenic, adhere preferentially to type IV collagen, and express cell surface laminin. Weakly tumorigenic cells, which express the E1A oncogene of Ad12 and the E1B genes of Ad5, also attach preferentially to type IV collagen but do not contain laminin on their surface. Cells which express the E1A oncogene of Ad5 and the E1B genes of Ad12 are nontumorigenic and do not preferentially attach to type IV versus type I collagen but have laminin on their surface. There is no significant difference in the amounts of laminin secreted into the culture medium among cells expressing the E1B genes of Ad5 or Ad12. In vitro assays show that cells which express the E1B genes of Ad12, irrespective of the origin of the E1A genes, can bind three times more exogenously added {sup 125}I-laminin than cells expressing the E1B genes of nononcogenic Ad5. The interaction of adenovirus-transformed cells with collagen is controlled by the serotype origin of the E1A oncogene, whereas cell surface laminin is controlled by the serotype origin of the E1B genes.

Bober, F.J.; Birk, D.E.; Raska, K. Jr. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Shenk, T. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway (USA))

1988-02-01

88

Is Comet C/1853 E1 (Secchi) extrasolar?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comet C/1853 E1 (Secchi) has a hyperbolic orbit with eccentricity 1.01060 and perihelion outside of the Earth's orbit. Integrating the orbit with barycentric coordinates backwards to 50 000 AU, the approximate edge of the Oort cloud, shows that the orbit remains hyperbolic. This is still true even if plutoids additional to Pluto are included in the integration. Nor does including Galactic tidal and disc effects and possible nongravitational forces change the orbit to a high eccentricity ellipse. Although certain factors, such as unknown massive plutoids, gravitational effects by interstellar gas clouds, or unmodelled nongravitational forces operating on the comet, could change this situation, the tentative conclusion that the origin of this comet is extrasolar remains the one most consistent with the observations.

Branham, R. L., Jr.

2012-02-01

89

Cisplatin-Induced Hepatotoxicity Is Enhanced by Elevated Expression of Cytochrome P450 2E1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the possible potentiation of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was examined both in vitro and in vivo. Transfected HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 (E47 cells) and not expressing CYP2E1 (C34 cells) were used as an in vitro model, and mice drinking 2% acetone for 7 days to induce CYP2E1 were used as an in vivo model.

Yongke Lu; Arthur I. Cederbaum

2006-01-01

90

High-strength materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alloying and heat treatment can be used individually or in combination to increase the strength of ferrous materials. Steels\\u000a can also be subjected to controlled hot-working and cooling, which is known as thermomechanical rolling. The purpose of this\\u000a is to achieve a low final hot-working temperature, which is out of the question for die forging because it would overload\\u000a the

Hans Berns; Werner Theisen

91

Bone strength: current concepts.  

PubMed

Bones serve several mechanical functions, including acoustic amplification in the middle ear, shielding vital organs from trauma, and serving as levers for muscles to contract against. Bone is a multiphase material made up of a tough collagenous matrix intermingled with rigid mineral crystals. The mineral gives bone its stiffness. Without sufficient mineralization, bones will plastically deform under load. Collagen provides toughness to bone making it less brittle so that it better resists fracture. Bone adapts to mechanical stresses largely by changing its size and shape, which are major determinants of its resistance to fracture. Tissue is added in regions of high mechanical stress providing an efficient means for improving bone strength. Experiments have shown that small additions of bone mineral density (BMD) (5-8%) caused by mechanical loading can improve bone strength by over 60% and extend bone fatigue life by 100-fold. Consequently, it is clear that bone tissue possesses a mechanosensing apparatus that directs osteogenesis to where it is most needed for improving bone strength. The biological processes involved in bone mechanotransduction are poorly understood and further investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved might uncover drug targets for osteoporosis. Several pathways are emerging from current research, including membrane ion channels, ATP signaling, second messengers, such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide, insulin-like growth factors, and Wnt signaling. PMID:16831941

Turner, Charles H

2006-04-01

92

Human adenovirus 2 E1B-19K and E1B-53K tumor antigens: antipeptide antibodies targeted to the NH2 and COOH termini.  

PubMed Central

The human adenovirus 2 (Ad2) transforming region is located in the left 11.1% of the viral genome and encodes two early transcription units, E1A and E1B. Based on the amino acid sequence deduced from the Ad2 E1B DNA sequence (Gingeras et al., J. Biol. Chem. 257:13475-13491, 1982), we have prepared antibodies against synthetic peptides, 8 to 16 amino acids in length, encoded at the NH2 and COOH termini of the major E1B-19K and E1B-53K tumor antigens. The antipeptide antibodies immunoprecipitated the targeted E1B-19K or E1B-53K tumor antigens from extracts of Ad2-infected cells. The specificity of the peptide competition studies. Antipeptide antibodies directed to the NH2 and COOH termini immunoprecipitated the E1B-19K and E1B-53K tumor antigens from two Ad2-transformed rat cell lines, F17 and F4, providing evidence that identical tumor antigens are synthesized in Ad2-infected and Ad2-transformed cells. These results show that the E1B-19K and E1B-53K T antigens are not processed proteolytically at either the NH2 or COOH terminus. Our data provide strong evidence at the protein level that the E1B-19K and E1B-53K tumor antigens partially overlap in DNA sequence, with the E1B-19K initiating translation at the first ATG at nucleotide 1711 in translation reading frame 1 and the E1B-53K tumor antigen initiating translation at the second ATG at nucleotide 2016 in reading frame 3. This confirms the results of others on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of E1B-19K and theoretical deductions based on the DNA sequence. Our findings prove that the large E1B-53K T antigen initiates translation at the second ATG at nucleotide 2016 and not at equally plausible initiation codons located farther downstream at nucleotides 2202 and 2235. Thus, the E1B-53K T antigen is another example of a protein which initiates translation at an internal ATG rather than at the 5'-proximal ATG. Images

Green, M; Brackmann, K H; Lucher, L A; Symington, J S; Kramer, T A

1983-01-01

93

Prepubescent Strength Training. Some Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the careful supervision of a trained fitness professional, the benefits of prepubescent strength training (improved strength, power, muscular endurance, bone density) outweigh the risks (acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries). (CB)

Priest, Joe W.; Holshouser, Richard S.

1987-01-01

94

Prepubescent Strength Training. Some Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Under the careful supervision of a trained fitness professional, the benefits of prepubescent strength training (improved strength, power, muscular endurance, bone density) outweigh the risks (acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries). (CB)|

Priest, Joe W.; Holshouser, Richard S.

1987-01-01

95

Properties of Rat Cells Transformed by DMA Plasmids Containing Adenovirus Type 12 E1 DNA or Specific Fragments of the E1 Region: Comparison of Transforming Frequencies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe for the first time the transformation of normal rat cells by DMA equivalent to adenovirus type 12 Early Region 1 (E1A). This DMA was 30-fold less efficient at transfor mation than DMA encoding the entire E1 region. Those estab lished lines expressing a full complement of adenovirus type 12 E1 proteins were phenotypically indistinguishable from

Phillip H. Gallimore; Philip J. Byrd; Joanne L. Whittaker; Roger J. A. Grand

96

Strength Training for Young Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to serve as a resource for developing strength training programs for children. Chapter 1 uses research findings to explain why strength training is appropriate for children. Chapter 2 explains some of the important physiological concepts involved in children's growth and development as they apply to developing strength

Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

97

Strength Training and Children's Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

Faigenbaum, Avery D.

2001-01-01

98

Sequence-independent autoregulation of the adenovirus type 5 E1A transcription unit.  

PubMed Central

The adenovirus E1A gene is known to be autoregulated at the level of transcription. Autoregulation was found to be mediated by products of the E1A 13S mRNA, which induced a fivefold increase in E1A transcription rate. Deletion analysis suggested that the autoregulation did not require any specific sequence in the E1A transcriptional control region. This conclusion was reinforced by the demonstration that a cellular alpha-globin gene substituted for the E1A gene on the adenovirus chromosome was also positively regulated by E1A gene products. Images

Hearing, P; Shenk, T

1985-01-01

99

The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone have been measured as a function of confining pressure and pore pressure. Both the fracture strength and the frictional strength obey the law of effective stress, that is, the strength is determined not by the confining pressure alone but by the difference between the confining pressure and the pore pressure. The fracture strength of the rock varies by as much as 20 per cent depending on the cement between the grains, but the frictional strength is independent of lithology. Over the range 0 2 kb, ??=0??5 + 0??6??n. This relationship also holds for other rocks such as gabbro, dunite, serpentinite, granite and limestone. ?? 1975.

Byerlee, J. D.

1975-01-01

100

The adenovirus E1A proteins induce apoptosis, which is inhibited by the E1B 19-kDa and Bcl-2 proteins.  

PubMed Central

Cooperation between the adenovirus E1A and E1B oncogenes is required for transformation of primary quiescent rodent cells. Although expression of E1A alone will stimulate cell proliferation sufficient to initiate transformed focus formation, proliferation fails to be sustained and foci degenerate. Coexpression of either the 19-kDa or 55-kDa E1B oncoproteins with E1A permits high-frequency transformation by overcoming this cytotoxic response. Without E1B 19-kDa protein expression, however, transformants remain susceptible to induction of cell death. Rapid loss of viability is coincident with nucleolytic cleavage of DNA in intranucleosomal regions and chromatin condensation, hallmarks of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Furthermore, overexpression of a known suppressor of apoptosis, the Bcl-2 protooncogene, can rescue E1A-induced focus degeneration. Thus E1A-dependent stimulation of cell proliferation is accompanied by apoptosis and thereby insufficient to singly induce transformation. High-frequency transformation requires a second function encoded by the E1B 19-kDa protein to block apoptosis. Images

Rao, L; Debbas, M; Sabbatini, P; Hockenbery, D; Korsmeyer, S; White, E

1992-01-01

101

Cooperative binding of EF-1A to the E1A enhancer region mediates synergistic effects on E1A transcription during adenovirus infection.  

PubMed Central

A cellular nuclear factor, EF-1A, binds to a sequence motif which is repeated in the adenovirus type 5 E1A transcriptional control region. Previous genetic analyses demonstrated that two of these binding sites are predominant functional elements of the E1A enhancer region in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that the cooperative binding of EF-1A to neighboring sites in the E1A enhancer region results in a synergistic activation of E1A transcription in infected cells. Images

Bruder, J T; Hearing, P

1991-01-01

102

Proteins of the PIAS family enhance the sumoylation of the papillomavirus E1 protein*  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The E1 protein, a papillomavirus (PV)-encoded origin-binding helicase essential for PV DNA replication, is post-translationally modified by sumoylation. As this modification is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the bovine PV E1 (BPV E1), factors modulating the sumoylation of E1 could ultimately alter the outcome of a papillomavirus infection. Therefore, we systematically tested the known sumoylation enhancing factors (E3 SUMO ligases), namely RanBP2 and PIAS family proteins, to determine their ability to bind to E1 and stimulate its sumoylation, using in vitro assays. We found that RanBP2 bound to BPV E1 but failed to bind to the E1 from a human PV (HPV11 E1), and lacked any sumoylation enhancing activity for both BPV E1 and HPV11 E1. In contrast, proteins of the PIAS family (except for PIASy) bound to both BPV E1 and HPV11 E1 and stimulated their sumoylation, with PIASx? (Miz1) exerting the largest stimulatory effect. The structural integrity of the RING finger domain of the PIAS proteins was required for their E3 SUMO ligase activity on PV E1 sumoylation, but was dispensable for their PV E1 binding activity. Furthermore, the sumoylation enhancing activity exerted by the PIAS proteins on BPV E1 was more pronounced than on HPV11 E1, and appeared to favor SUMO1 versus SUMO2 as the SUMO modifier. Altogether, this study identifies PIAS proteins as possible modulators of PV E1 sumoylation during papillomavirus infections.

Rosas-Acosta, German; Wilson, Van G.

2012-01-01

103

Improved Plant-based Production of E1 endoglucanase Using Potato: Expression Optimization and Tissue Targeting  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) gene expression in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was examined in this study, where the E1 coding sequence was transcribed under control of a leaf specific promoter (tomato RbcS-3C) or the Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of mannopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region). Average E1 activity in leaf extracts of potato transformants, in which E1 protein was targeted by a chloroplast signal peptide and an apoplast signal peptide were much higher than those by an E1 native signal peptide and a vacuole signal peptide. E1 protein accumulated up to 2.6% of total leaf soluble protein, where E1 gene was under control of the RbcS-3C promoter, alfalfa mosaic virus 5-untranslated leader, and RbcS-2A signal peptide. E1 protein production, based on average E1 activity and E1 protein accumulation in leaf extracts, is higher in potato than those measured previously in transgenic tobacco bearing the same transgene constructs. Comparisons of E1 activity, protein accumulation, and relative mRNA levels showed that E1 expression under control of tomato RbcS-3C promoter was specifically localized in leaf tissues, while E1 gene was expressed in both leaf and tuber tissues under control of Mac promoter. This suggests dual-crop applications in which potato vines serve as enzyme production `bioreactors' while tubers are preserved for culinary applications.

Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Thomas, S R.

2000-06-01

104

Cell-based analysis of Chikungunya virus E1 protein in membrane fusion  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya fever is a pandemic disease caused by the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). E1 glycoprotein mediation of viral membrane fusion during CHIKV infection is a crucial step in the release of viral genome into the host cytoplasm for replication. How the E1 structure determines membrane fusion and whether other CHIKV structural proteins participate in E1 fusion activity remain largely unexplored. Methods A bicistronic baculovirus expression system to produce recombinant baculoviruses for cell-based assay was used. Sf21 insect cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses bearing wild type or single-amino-acid substitution of CHIKV E1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) were employed to investigate the roles of four E1 amino acid residues (G91, V178, A226, and H230) in membrane fusion activity. Results Western blot analysis revealed that the E1 expression level and surface features in wild type and mutant substituted cells were similar. However, cell fusion assay found that those cells infected by CHIKV E1-H230A mutant baculovirus showed little fusion activity, and those bearing CHIKV E1-G91D mutant completely lost the ability to induce cell-cell fusion. Cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses of CHIKV E1-A226V and E1-V178A mutants exhibited the same membrane fusion capability as wild type. Although the E1 expression level of cells bearing monomeric-E1-based constructs (expressing E1 only) was greater than that of cells bearing 26S-based constructs (expressing all structural proteins), the sizes of syncytial cells induced by infection of baculoviruses containing 26S-based constructs were larger than those from infections having monomeric-E1 constructs, suggesting that other viral structure proteins participate or regulate E1 fusion activity. Furthermore, membrane fusion in cells infected by baculovirus bearing the A226V mutation constructs exhibited increased cholesterol-dependences and lower pH thresholds. Cells bearing the V178A mutation exhibited a slight decrease in cholesterol-dependence and a higher-pH threshold for fusion. Conclusions Cells expressing amino acid substitutions of conserved protein E1 residues of E1-G91 and E1-H230 lost most of the CHIKV E1-mediated membrane fusion activity. Cells expressing mutations of less-conserved amino acids, E1-V178A and E1-A226V, retained membrane fusion activity to levels similar to those expressing wild type E1, but their fusion properties of pH threshold and cholesterol dependence were slightly altered.

2012-01-01

105

Study of gamma-ray strength functions  

SciTech Connect

The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

1980-08-07

106

Expression and Characterization of Rubella Virus Glycoprotein E1 in Yeast Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To express E1 glycoprotein of rubella virus (RuV) strain JR23 in yeast and develop a diagnostic assay using expressed E1 protein as coating antigen in comparison with other diagnostic assays. Methods: cDNA of E1 open reading frame of RuV was PCR amplified using plasmid pMD18-T-E1 as template and cloned into plasmid pBluscriptII SK+. After being confirmed by PCR, restriction

Hongling Wen; Zhiyu Wang

2005-01-01

107

High strength ferritic alloy  

DOEpatents

A high-strength ferritic alloy useful for fast reactor duct and cladding applications where an iron base contains from about 9% to about 13% by weight chromium, from about 4% to about 8% by weight molybdenum, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight niobium, from about 0.1% to about 0.3% by weight vanadium, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight silicon, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight manganese, a maximum of about 0.05% by weight nitrogen, a maximum of about 0.02% by weight sulfur, a maximum of about 0.02% by weight phosphorous, and from about 0.04% to about 0.12% by weight carbon.

Hagel, William C. (Ann Arbor, MI); Smidt, Frederick A. (Springfield, VA); Korenko, Michael K. (Richland, WA)

1977-01-01

108

Test of gamma-ray strength functions in nuclear reaction model calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of models for E1 and M1 gamma-ray strength functions on the results of nuclear model calculations of total average radiation widths, radiative capture cross sections, and gamma-ray spectra has been studied. We considered strength functions that reproduce photoabsorption and\\/or average resonance data but significantly differ from each other at low gamma-ray energies. As the calculated quantities critically depend

J. Kopecky; M. Uhl

1990-01-01

109

Analyses of Disulfides Present in the Rubella Virus E1 Glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of Rubella virus contains the glycoproteins E1 and E2. The E1 protein induces neutralizing antibodies and has been implicated in the process of recognition of cellular receptors. To gain information on the structural organization of the E1 protein we have analyzed the disulfide bonds present within this molecule. The reactivity of the protein with radioactively labeled iodoacetic acid

Christof Gros; Monica Linder; Gisela Wengler; Gerd Wengler

1997-01-01

110

Investigation of low-lying electric dipole strength in the semimagic nucleus {sup 44}Ca  

SciTech Connect

The dipole-strength distribution in the semimagic nucleus {sup 44}Ca has been measured up to 10 MeV excitation energy in photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung and monoenergetic 100% linearly polarized photon beams. The combination of both measurements allows a clear determination of spin and parity quantum numbers of the excited states as well as absolute cross sections and transition probabilities. The results show that the majority of the dipole strength in {sup 44}Ca below 10 MeV is due to E1 transitions while M1 strength plays only a minor role. The experimental results are compared to the strength in the neighboring doubly magic nuclei {sup 40,48}Ca and to microscopic calculations within the extended theory of finite Fermi systems in order to investigate the evolution of the low-lying E1 strength in this isotopic chain. Both, experiment and calculations, show a nontrivial dependence of the total E1 strength as a function of the neutron number.

Isaak, J.; Fritzsche, M.; Hartmann, T.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Sonnabend, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Savran, D. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Galaviz, D. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, University of Lisbon, P-1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Kamerdzhiev, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249033 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Kelley, J. H. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States); Zilges, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany)

2011-03-15

111

Identification of 2-piperidone as a biomarker of CYP2E1 activity through metabolomic phenotyping.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a key enzyme in the metabolic activation of many low molecular weight toxicants and also an important contributor to oxidative stress. A noninvasive method to monitor CYP2E1 activity in vivo would be of great value for studying the role of CYP2E1 in chemical-induced toxicities and stress-related diseases. In this study, a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach was used to identify a metabolite biomarker of CYP2E1 through comparing the urine metabolomes of wild-type (WT), Cyp2e1-null, and CYP2E1-humanized mice. Metabolomic analysis with multivariate models of urine metabolites revealed a clear separation of Cyp2e1-null mice from WT and CYP2E1-humanized mice in the multivariate models of urine metabolomes. Subsequently, 2-piperidone was identified as a urinary metabolite that inversely correlated to the CYP2E1 activity in the three mouse lines. Backcrossing of WT and Cyp2e1-null mice, together with targeted analysis of 2-piperidone in mouse serum, confirmed the genotype dependency of 2-piperidone. The accumulation of 2-piperidone in the Cyp2e1-null mice was mainly caused by the changes in the biosynthesis and degradation of 2-piperidone because compared with the WT mice, the conversion of cadaverine to 2-piperidone was higher, whereas the metabolism of 2-piperidone to 6-hydroxy-2-piperidone was lower in the Cyp2e1-null mice. Overall, untargeted metabolomic analysis identified a correlation between 2-piperidone concentrations in urine and the expression and activity of CYP2E1, thus providing a noninvasive metabolite biomarker that can be potentially used in to monitor CYP2E1 activity. PMID:23811823

Cheng, Jie; Chen, Chi; Kristopher, Krausz W; Manna, Soumen K; Scerba, Mike; Friedman, Fred K; Luecke, Hans; Idle, Jeffrey R; Gonzalez, Frank J

2013-06-28

112

946. Combined E1B-Mutant Adenovirus and Radiotherapy Generates Synergistic AntiTumor Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenovirus (Ad) has been genetically modified to exhibit various functions. The replication competent adenovirus is exemplary, being used as an effective anti-tumor agent in cancer gene therapy. Two E1B-mutant adenovirus strains, Ad-?E1B, Ad-?E1B55, have been previously developed, both of which undergo selective replication in cancer cells, ultimately killing them. The E1B 55kDa-deleted adenovirus Ad-?E1B55 replicates selectively in tumor cells with

Jaesung Kim; Jung-Hee Choi; Jing-Hua Huang; Pyung Hwan Kim; Beom-Seok Suh; Jin-Sil Seong; Chae-Ok Yun

2004-01-01

113

Resistance to Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice Which Lack CYP2E1 Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

CYP2E1 knockout mice (cyp2e1?\\/?) were used to investigate the involvement of CYP2E1 in the development of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Malecyp2e1?\\/?and wild-type (cyp2e1+\\/+) mice were given a single ip injection of 1 ml\\/kg (=1.59 g\\/kg) CCl4and 24 h later liver injury was assessed by elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histopathology. No significant increases

Felice W.-Y. Wong; W.-Y. Chan; Susanna S.-T. Lee

1998-01-01

114

Partite expression of the bovine papillomavirus E1 open reading frame in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Six recombinants were constructed which expressed portions of the bovine papillomavirus E1 open reading frame as OmpF/E1/beta-galactosidase tribrid fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Rabbit sera containing E1-specific antibodies were generated against five of these six fusion proteins (which together constitute 74% of the full-length E1 open reading frame). The individual fusion proteins and their cognate antisera will be useful reagents for defining the structure and function of the BPV E1 protein(s). PMID:1309664

Wilson, V G; Ludes-Meyers, J

1992-01-01

115

Search for M1 strength  

SciTech Connect

Current knowledge of M1 transition strength in nuclei is reviewed by studying selected examples. Attention is focussed primarily on inelastic electron scattering, but information obtained using other techniques is also discussed. It appears that the utility of (e,e') as a spectroscopic tool for determining M1 strength is mainly restricted to nuclei with A < 100. For nuclei below A approx. = 40, the total measured M1 strength is in good accord with detailed shell model estimates, however heavier nuclei show a strength deficit in comparison with model predictions.

Hicks, R.S.; Peterson, G.A.

1982-01-01

116

Functional diversity of E1A gene autoregulation among human adenoviruses.  

PubMed Central

Autoregulation of the adenovirus E1A gene involves its constitutive expression and positively and negatively regulated transcription. Dissection of this process will identify basal-level cis elements and autoregulatory targets of the E1A promoter and functional domains within the trans-acting E1A gene products. In this report, the DNA sequence of the human subgroup B adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) E1A gene is presented and compared with that of the E1A genes of similar and distantly related human adenoviruses. The cDNA forms of the Ad3 E1A gene, corresponding to two major early mRNA species, are cloned, sequenced, and subcloned into plasmid expression vectors. Cotransfections of cell cultures are performed with Ad5 or Ad3 E1A gene expression plasmids and a reporter gene under control of the Ad5 or Ad3 E1A promoter. The Ad5 and Ad3 E1A promoters are similarly repressed by either serotype's 12S cDNA gene products. The Ad3 E1A promoter responds much more strongly than the Ad5 E1A promoter to transactivation by 13S cDNA gene products. In contrast, the 13S cDNA gene of Ad5 has greater transactivation activity than that of Ad3. Experiments with missense mutations of the Ad5 E1A gene indicate that transactivation of the Ad5 E1A promoter is weak, just reversing or balancing negative autorepression. Single amino acid substitutions in the conserved, repressive functional domain 2 of the E1A gene modulate transactivating activity that is usually associated with the separate and distal conserved functional domain 3. These results suggest a strong structure-function relationship influenced by the variable sequences separating these conserved domains. Images

Cogan, J D; Jones, S N; Hall, R K; Tibbetts, C

1992-01-01

117

Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

Wilmore, Jack H.

118

Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize…

Wilmore, Jack H.

119

Maximum Strength and Strength Training - A Relationship to Endurance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endurance can be defined as the ability to maintain or to repeat a given force or power output. The sport performance-endurance relationship is a multi-factorial concept. However, evidence indicates that maximum strength is a major component. Conceptually, endurance is a continuum. The literature indicates that (a) maximum strength is moderately to strongly related to endurance capabilities and associated factors, a

Michael H. Stone; William A Sands; Kyle C Pierce; Robert U Newton; G Gregory Haff; Jon Carlock

2006-01-01

120

Factors affecting grip strength testing.  

PubMed

The rodent grip strength test was developed decades ago and is a putative measure of muscular strength. This test has been included in the functional observational battery (FOB) to screen for neurobehavioral toxicity, and changes in grip strength have been interpreted as evidence of motor neurotoxicity. Despite its widespread use, questions remain about what the grip strength test actually measures. In this study, potential confounders of the grip strength test were identified and tested, including operational parameters, disruption of peripheral sensory function and changes in body weight. Operational parameters (sampling rate, system type and trial angle but not trial speed) had dramatic effects on grip strength data. Doxorubicin (DX, 10 mg/kg iv) was used to cause sensory impairment. It decreased forelimb and hindlimb grip strength (by 27% and 32%, respectively, compared with controls), an effect that was correlated with degeneration of peripheral and central sensory components (distal tibial and sural nerves, dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord and dorsal, but not ventral, spinal roots). Feed restriction-induced loss of body weight (26% compared with controls) and muscle mass (20% compared with controls) reversibly decreased both forelimb and hindlimb grip strength (18% and 17%, respectively, compared with controls). Ignoring these confounding factors could potentially lead to increased data variability and inconsistency within single studies, across studies and in historical control data sets. To assist in data interpretation and evaluation of grip strength results, it is suggested that exact conditions of application of the test be reported in greater detail. Furthermore, given that the grip strength test can be influenced by factors other than true muscular strength, use of the term grip performance is proposed to better reflect the apical nature of this test. PMID:12972067

Maurissen, Jacques P J; Marable, Brian R; Andrus, Amanda K; Stebbins, Kenneth E

121

Continued Study of the Parameterization of the El gamma-Ray Strength Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The parameterization of the magnitude and the energy dependence of the E1 gamma-ray strength function for the calculation of neutron- and proton-induced capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is investigated. The energy-dependent Breit-Wigne...

M. A. Gardner D. G. Gardner

1981-01-01

122

Photoneutron cross sections for 118--124Sn and the ?-ray strength function method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoneutron cross sections were measured for 118Sn, 119Sn, 120Sn, 122Sn, and 124Sn near neutron threshold with quasi-monochromatic laser-Compton scattering ? rays. A systematic analysis of the present photoneutron data and existing neutron-capture data is made using the ?-ray strength function on the basis of the HFB + QRPA model of E1 strength supplemented with a pygmy dipole resonance, which was deduced from a previous study on 116Sn and 117Sn. Radiative neutron capture cross sections for two radioactive nuclei, 121Sn and 123Sn, are deduced through the ?-ray strength function method.

Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Kamata, M.; Akimune, H.; Kondo, T.; Itoh, O.; Iwamoto, C.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

2011-11-01

123

BPV E1 protein alters the kinetics of cell cycle entry of serum starved mouse fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

A stable bovine papillomarvirus E1 expressing cell line (C2E1) was used to investigate the effects of E1 protein on the requirement for growth factors during serum-induced reentry from quiescence to proliferation. Flow cytometric bivariate DNA/PCNA analysis was utilized to study the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) concomitant with this transition. C2E1 cells, unlike the control cells (CNEO), were able to reenter the cell cycle when stimulated with low serum (1%). Stimulation with 10% serum revealed that C2E1 cells entered the first cell cycle faster than CNEO, indicating that E1 protein decreased the time of progression from GO state upon serum activation. It was also shown that PCNA expression started earlier in C2E1 cells than in CNEO cells after quiescent cells were stimulated with 10% serum. Addition of 1% serum was able to induce PCNA expression in C2E1 but not in CNEO cells in the first 24 h after stimulation. Using Triton X-100 treatment, it was found that the distribution between bound and unbound forms of PCNA was altered in E1-expressing cells compared to CNEO cells. Based on these results, it is suggested that E1 might possess mitogen-like properties. 30 refs., 4 figs.

Belyavskyi, M.; Miller, J.; Belyavskaya, E.; Wilson, V. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-11-01

124

Formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds during maturation of the Sindbis virus E1 glycoprotein.  

PubMed Central

The rigidly ordered icosahedral lattice of the Sindbis virus envelope is composed of a host-derived membrane bilayer in which the viral glycoproteins E1 and E2 reside. E1-E1 interactions stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bridges play a significant role in maintaining the envelope's structural integrity (R. P. Anthony and D. T. Brown, J. Virol. 65:1187-1194, 1991; R. P. Anthony, A. M. Paredes, and D. T. Brown, Virology 190:330-336, 1992). We have examined the acquisition of disulfide bridges within E1 during its maturation. Prior to exit from the endoplasmic reticulum, E1 folds via at least three intermediates, differing in the number and/or arrangement of their disulfides, into a single, compact form. This E1 species remains stable with respect to its disulfides until late in the secretory pathway, when E1 attains a metastable conformation. At this point, when appropriately triggered, intramolecular thiol-disulfide exchange reactions within E1 can occur, resulting in the generation of alternative E1 species. This metastable nature of mature E1 may have important implications for the mechanism of virus disassembly during the initial stages of the infection process (B. Abell and D. T. Brown, J. Virol. 67:5496-5501, 1993). Images

Mulvey, M; Brown, D T

1994-01-01

125

Resolvin E1-induced intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes resolution of inflammation through LPS detoxification  

PubMed Central

Resolvin-E1 (RvE1) has been demonstrated to promote inflammatory resolution in numerous disease models. Given the importance of epithelial cells to coordination of mucosal inflammation, we hypothesized that RvE1 elicits an epithelial resolution signature. Initial studies revealed that the RvE1-receptor (ChemR23) is expressed on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and that microarray profiling of cells exposed to RvE1 revealed regulation of inflammatory response gene expression. Notably, RvE1 induced intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI) expression and significantly enhanced epithelial ALPI enzyme activity. One role recently attributed to ALPI is the detoxification of bacterial LPS. In our studies, RvE1-exposed epithelia detoxified LPS (assessed by attenuation of NF-?B signaling). Furthermore, in epithelial-bacterial interaction assays, we determined that ALPI retarded the growth of Escherichia coli. To define these features in vivo, we used a murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis. Compared with vehicle controls, administration of RvE1 resulted in significant improvement of disease activity indices (e.g., body weight, colon length) concomitant with increased ALPI expression in the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, inhibition of ALPI activity resulted in increased severity of colitis in DSS-treated animals and partially abrogated the protective influence of RvE1. Together, these data implicate a previously unappreciated role for ALPI in RvE1-mediated inflammatory resolution.

Campbell, Eric L.; MacManus, Christopher F.; Kominsky, Douglas J.; Keely, Simon; Glover, Louise E.; Bowers, Brittelle E.; Scully, Melanie; Bruyninckx, Walter J.; Colgan, Sean P.

2010-01-01

126

The Strength of Adhesive Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main rules pertaining to the strength of adhesive joints are: (1) This strength is a mechanical (or rheological) property. The local stress which causes the extension of a pre-existing crack can be determined only if the stress pattern in the whole adhint is known and the intensification of stress at flaws is taken into account. (2) The rupture occurs

J. J. Bikerman

1972-01-01

127

Atomistic Measures of Materials Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the role of atomistic simula- tions in multiscale modeling of mechanical behavior of stressed solids. Theoretical strength is defined through modes of structural instability which, in the long wave- length limit, are specified by criteria involving elastic stiffness coefficients and the applied stress; more gen- erally, strength can be characterized by the onset of soft vibrational modes in

Ju Li; Sidney Yip

128

Do You Have the Strength?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students squeeze a tennis ball to demonstrate the strength of the human heart. Working in teams, they think of ways to keep the heart beating if the natural mechanism were to fail. The goal of this activity is to get students to understand the strength and resilience of the heart.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

129

Critical role of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in the development of high fat-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity contributes to oxidative stress. However, CYP2E1 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of high-fat mediated nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Thus, the role of CYP2E1 in high-fat mediated NASH development was evaluated. Methods Male wild-type (WT) and Cyp2e1-null mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% energy-derived) or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% energy-derived) for 10 weeks. Liver histology and tissue homogenates were examined for various parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation. Results Liver histology showed that only WT mice fed a HFD developed NASH despite increased steatosis in both WT and Cyp2e1-null mice fed HFD. Markers of oxidative stress such as elevated CYP2E1 activity and protein amounts, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, nitration, and glycation with increased phospho-JNK were all markedly elevated only in the livers of HFD-fed WT mice. Furthermore, while the levels of inflammation markers osteopontin and F4/80 were higher in HFD-fed WT mice, TNF? and MCP-1 contents were lower compared to the corresponding LFD-fed WT. Finally, only HFD-fed WT mice exhibited increased insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Conclusions These data suggest that CYP2E1 is critically important in NASH development by promoting oxidative/nitrosative stress, protein modifications, inflammation and insulin resistance.

Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Banerjee, Atrayee; Yoo, Seong-Ho; Jang, Sehwan; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Song, Byoung-Joon

2012-01-01

130

Hydrate adhesive and tensile strengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the interaction between hydrates and minerals. In particular, hydrates prefer to nucleate on mineral surfaces, therefore, the hydrate-mineral adhesive strength and the tensile strength of the hydrate mass itself affect the mechanical response of hydrate-bearing sediments. In this study, ice and hydrates made with various guest molecules (CO2, CH4, and THF) are formed between mica and calcite substrates. Adhesive and tensile strengths are measured by applying an external pull-out force. Results show that tensile failure occurs in CO2 and CH4 hydrates when calcite is the substrate, while ice and all hydrates exhibit adhesive failure on mica. The debonding strength is higher when calcite substrates are involved rather than mica substrates. A nominal pull-out strength of 0.15 ± 0.03 MPa can be adopted for mechanical analyses of hydrate-bearing sediments.

Jung, J. W.; Santamarina, J. Carlos

2011-08-01

131

Strength properties of fly ash based controlled low strength materials.  

PubMed

Controlled low strength material (CLSM) is a flowable mixture that can be used as a backfill material in place of compacted soils. Flowable fill requires no tamping or compaction to achieve its strength and typically has a load carrying capacity much higher than compacted soils, but it can still be excavated easily. The selection of CLSM type should be based on technical and economical considerations for specific applications. In this study, a mixture of high volume fly ash (FA), crushed limestone powder (filler) and a low percentage of pozzolana cement have been tried in different compositions. The amount of pozzolana cement was kept constant for all mixes as, 5% of fly ash weight. The amount of mixing water was chosen in order to provide optimum pumpability by determining the spreading ratio of CLSM mixtures using flow table method. The shear strength of the material is a measure of the materials ability to support imposed stresses on the material. The shear strength properties of CLSM mixtures have been investigated by a series of laboratory tests. The direct shear test procedure was applied for determining the strength parameters Phi (angle of shearing resistance) and C(h) (cohesion intercept) of the material. The test results indicated that CLSM mixtures have superior shear strength properties compared to compacted soils. Shear strength, cohesion intercept and angle of shearing resistance values of CLSM mixtures exceeded conventional soil materials' similar properties at 7 days. These parameters proved that CLSM mixtures are suitable materials for backfill applications. PMID:17331642

Türkel, S

2007-02-03

132

Immunogenicity of the E1E2 proteins of hepatitis C virus expressed by recombinant adenoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E1 and E2 proteins of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are believed to be the viral envelope glycoproteins that are major candidate antigens for HCV vaccine development. We reported previously that the replication-competent recombinant adenovirus encoding core-E1-E2 genes of HCV (Ad\\/HCV) produces serologically reactive E1 and E2 proteins forming a heterodimer in substantial amounts. Here, we examined immunogenicity of the

Young Rim Seong; Seeyoung Choi; Jong-Seok Lim; Chan-Hee Lee; Chong-Kyo Lee; Dong-Soo Im

2001-01-01

133

Cytochrome P450 2E1 genetic polymorphism and gastric cancer in Changle, Fujian Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Genetic polymorphism in enzymes of carcinogen metabolism has been found to have the influence on the susceptibility to cancer. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is considered to play an important role in the metabolic a ctivation of procarcinogens such as N- nitrosoamines and low molecular weight organi c compounds. The purpose of this study is to determine whether CYP450 2E1

Lin Cai; Shun-Zhang Yu; Zuo-Feng Zhang

2001-01-01

134

HEPATITIS C VIRUS E1 ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN INTERACTS WITH APOLIPOPROTEINS IN FACILITATING ENTRY INTO HEPATOCYTES  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, display distinct reactivity to different cell surface molecules. In this study, we characterized the interaction of E1 and E2 with apolipoproteins in facilitating virus entry. The results suggested a higher neutralization of VSV/HCV E1-G pseudotype infectivity by antibodies to apolipoprotein E (ApoE) than apolipoprotein B (ApoB), with VSV/HCV E2-G pseudotype infectivity remaining largely unaffected. Neutralization of cell culture grown HCV infectivity by antiserum to ApoE, and to a lesser extent by ApoB, further verified their involvement in virus entry. HCV E1, but not E2, displayed binding with ApoE and ApoB by ELISA. Binding of E1 with apolipoproteins were further supported by coimmunoprecipitation from human hepatocytes expressing E1. Rabbit antiserum to a selected E1 ectodomain derived peptide displayed ~50% neutralization of E1-G pseudotype infectivity. Furthermore, E1 ectodomain derived synthetic peptides significantly inhibited the interaction of E1 with both the apolipoproteins. Investigation on the role of LDL-R as a hepatocyte surface receptor for virus entry suggested a significant reduction in E1-G pseudotype plaque numbers (~70%) by inhibiting LDL-R ligand binding activity using human proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and platelet factor-4 (PF4), while they had a minimal inhibitory effect on E2-G pseudotype. Conclusion Together, the results suggested an association between HCV E1 and apolipoproteins, which may facilitate virus entry through LDL-R into mammalian cells.

Mazumdar, Budhaditya; Banerjee, Arup; Meyer, Keith; Ray, Ranjit

2011-01-01

135

Distinct and redundant functions of cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 in development and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly conserved E-type cyclins are core components of the cell cycle machinery, facilitating the transition into S phase through activation of the cyclin dependent kinases, and assembly of pre-replication complexes on DNA. Cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 are assumed to be functionally redundant, as cyclin E1-\\/- E2-\\/- mice are embryonic lethal while cyclin E1-\\/- and E2-\\/- single knockout mice

C ELIZABETH Caldon; Elizabeth A Musgrove

2010-01-01

136

PDH E 1 ? deficiency with novel mutations in two patients with Leigh syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Most cases of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) deficiency are attributable to mutations in the PDHA1 gene which encodes the E1? subunit, with few cases of mutations in the genes for E3, E3BP (E3 binding protein), E2 and E1-phosphatase being reported. Only seven patients with deficiency of the E1? subunit have been described, with mutations in the PDHB gene in six

E. Quintana; J. A. Mayr; M. T. García Silva; M. A. Tortoledo; S. Moliner; L. Ozaez; M. Lluch; A. Cabello; J. R. Ricoy; J. Koch; A. Ribes; W. Sperl; P. Briones

137

Improved plant-based production of E1 endoglucanase using potato: expression optimization and tissue targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) gene expression in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was examined in this study, where the E1 coding sequence was transcribed under control of a leaf specific promoter (tomato RbcS-3C) or the Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of mannopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region). Average E1 activity in leaf extracts

Ziyu Dai; Brian S. Hooker; Daniel B. Anderson; Steven R. Thomas

2000-01-01

138

Glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus expressed in insect cells protects swine from hog cholera.  

PubMed Central

The processing and protective capacity of E1, an envelope glycoprotein of hog cholera virus (HCV), were investigated after expression of different versions of the protein in insect cells by using a baculovirus vector. Recombinant virus BacE1[+] expressed E1, including its C-terminal transmembrane region (TMR), and generated a protein which was similar in size (51 to 54 kDa) to the size of E1 expressed in swine kidney cells infected with HCV. The protein was not secreted from the insect cells, and like wild-type E1, it remained sensitive to endo-beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase H (endo H). This indicates that E1 with a TMR accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum or cis-Golgi region of the cell. In contrast, recombinant virus BacE1[-], which expressed E1 without a C-terminal TMR, generated a protein that was secreted from the cells. The fraction of this protein that was found to be cell associated had a slightly lower molecular mass (49 to 52 kDa) than wild-type E1 and remained endo H sensitive. The high-mannose units of the secreted protein were trimmed during transport through the exocytotic pathway to endo H-resistant glycans, resulting in a protein with a lower molecular mass (46 to 48 kDa). Secreted E1 accumulated in the medium to about 30 micrograms/10(6) cells. This amount was about 3-fold higher than that of cell-associated E1 in BacE1[-] and 10-fold higher than that of cell-associated E1 in BacE1[+]-infected Sf21 cells. Intramuscular vaccination of pigs with immunoaffinity-purified E1 in a double water-oil emulsion elicited high titers of neutralizing antibodies between 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination at the lowest dose tested (20 micrograms). The vaccinated pigs were completely protected against intranasal challenge with 100 50% lethal doses of HCV strain Brescia, indicating that E1 expressed in insect cells is an excellent candidate for development of a new, safe, and effective HCV subunit vaccine. Images

Hulst, M M; Westra, D F; Wensvoort, G; Moormann, R J

1993-01-01

139

HPV E1 Up-regulates Replication-related Biochemistries of AAV Rep78†  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV) E1 protein provides helper function for the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) life cycle. E1 is the replication protein of HPV, analogous to AAV Rep78, but without the endonuclease/covalent attachment activity of Rep78. Previously we have shown that E1 and Rep78 interact in vitro. Here we investigated E1’s effects on Rep78 interaction with AAV’s inverted terminal repeat (ITR) DNA in vitro, using purified Rep78 and E1 proteins from bacteria. E1 enhanced Rep78-ITR binding, ATPase activity, Rep78-ITR covalent linkage and Rep78-ITR-endonuclease activity (central to AAV replication). These enhancements occurred in a dose-dependent manner whenever assayed. However, overall Rep78-plus-E1 helicase activity was lower than Rep78’s helicase activity. These data suggest that E1’s broad-based helper function for the AAV life cycle (AAV DNA, mRNA, and protein levels are up-regulated by E1) is likely through its ability to enhance Rep78’s critical replication-required biochemistries on ITR DNA.

Bandyopadhyay, Sarmistha; Cao, Maohua; Liu, Yong; Hermonat, Paul L.

2010-01-01

140

CYP2E1--biochemical and toxicological aspects and role in alcohol-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to play a major role in mechanisms by which ethanol causes liver injury. Many pathways have been suggested to contribute to the ability of ethanol to induce a state of oxidative stress. One central pathway appears to be the induction of the CYP2E1 form of cytochrome P450 enzymes by ethanol. CYP2E1 is of interest because of its ability to metabolize and activate many toxicological substrates, including ethanol, to more reactive toxic products. Levels of CYP2E1 are elevated under a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and after acute and chronic alcohol treatment. CYP2E1 is also an effective generator of reactive oxygen species such as the superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide, and in the presence of iron catalysts, it produces powerful oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical. This review article summarizes some of the biochemical and toxicological properties of CYP2E1, and briefly describes the use of HepG2 cell lines developed to constitutively express the human CYP2E1 in assessing the actions of CYP2E1. Regulation of CYP2E1 is quite complex and will be briefly reviewed. Future directions in research, which may help clarify the actions of CYP2E1 and its role in alcoholic liver injury, are suggested. PMID:16878272

Cederbaum, Arthur I

2006-07-01

141

Requirements for E1A dependent transcription in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background The human adenovirus type 5 early region 1A (E1A) gene encodes proteins that are potent regulators of transcription. E1A does not bind DNA directly, but is recruited to target promoters by the interaction with sequence specific DNA binding proteins. In mammalian systems, E1A has been shown to contain two regions that can independently induce transcription when fused to a heterologous DNA binding domain. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, each of these regions of E1A also acts as a strong transcriptional activator. This allows yeast to be used as a model system to study mechanisms by which E1A stimulates transcription. Results Using 81 mutant yeast strains, we have evaluated the effect of deleting components of the ADA, COMPASS, CSR, INO80, ISW1, NuA3, NuA4, Mediator, PAF, RSC, SAGA, SAS, SLIK, SWI/SNF and SWR1 transcriptional regulatory complexes on E1A dependent transcription. In addition, we examined the role of histone H2B ubiquitylation by Rad6/Bre1 on transcriptional activation. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that the two activation domains of E1A function via distinct mechanisms, identify new factors regulating E1A dependent transcription and suggest that yeast can serve as a valid model system for at least some aspects of E1A function.

Yousef, Ahmed F; Brandl, Christopher J; Mymryk, Joe S

2009-01-01

142

Information Content of the Low-Energy Electric Dipole Strength: Correlation Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Background: Recent experiments on the electric dipole (E1) polarizability in heavy nuclei have stimulated theoretical interest in the low-energy electric dipole strength, both isovector and isoscalar. Purpose: We study the information content carried by the electric dipole strength with respect to isovector and isoscalar indicators characterizing bulk nuclear matter and finite nuclei. To separate isoscalar and isovector modes, and low-energy strength and giant resonances, we analyze the E1 strength as a function of the excitation energy E and momentum transfer q. Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy density functionals, augmented by the random phase approximation, to compute the E1 strength and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables. Calculations are performed for the spherical, doubly magic nuclei 208Pb and 132Sn. Results: We demonstrate that E1 transition densities in the low-energy region below the giant dipole resonance exhibit appreciable state dependence and multinodal structures, which are fingerprints of weak collectivity. The correlation between the accumulated low-energy strength and the symmetry energy is weak, and dramatically depends on the energy cutoff assumed. On the other hand, a strong correlation is predicted between isovector indicators and the accumulated isovector strength at E around 20 MeV and momentum transfer q 0.65 fm 1. Conclusions: Momentum- and coordinate-space patterns of the low-energy dipole modes indicate a strong fragmentation into individual particle-hole excitations. The global measure of low-energy dipole strength correlates poorly with the nuclear symmetry energy and other isovector characteristics. Consequently, our results do not support the suggestion that there exists a collective pygmy dipole resonance, which is a strong indicator of nuclear isovector properties. By considering nonzero values of momentum transfer, one can isolate individual excitations and nicely separate low-energy excitations from the T=1 and T=0 giant collective modes. That is, measurements at q>0 may serve as a tool to correlate the E1 strength with certain bulk observables, such as incompressibility and symmetry energy.

Reinhard, P.-G. [Inst. fur Theoretische Physik II, Univ. Erlangen-Numberg, Germany; Nazarewicz, Witold [UTK/ORNL/University of Warsaw

2013-01-01

143

Temperature Dependence of the AlN E1(To) Phonon Decay, Thermal Expansion and Strain Effect in AlN/Sapphire by Infrared Reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared reflectivity measurement is carried out for AlN films on sapphire substrates. The frequencies of the symmetry optical phonon E1(TO) in the temperature range from 77 K to 500 K are reported by fitting the experimental reflectivity with the classical multi-oscillators model. Taking the lattice thermal expansion and Klemens process of the phonon decay into account, along with the strain effect introduced by thermal mismatch between the film and the substrate, the temperature effect on the frequency of the optical phonon E1(TO) is revealed. It is shown that the shift of frequency is mainly attributed to the decay process while the strain effect induced by thermal mismatch plays a non-negligible role in the outcomes of the strength and damping parameters.

Zhou, Shu-Tong; Yu, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Bo

2013-09-01

144

Lifetime of the K{sup pi} = 8{sup -} isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus, {sup 174}Er and N = 106 E1 systematics.  

SciTech Connect

Chopped-beam techniques and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy with Gammasphere have been used to measure the lifetime of the 1112-keV 8{sup -} isomeric state in {sup 174}Er. The value obtained of {tau} = 5.8(4) s corresponds to a reduced hindrance of f{sub {nu}} = 98 for the 163-keV E1 transition to the 8{sup +} state of the ground-state band, in good agreement with the systematics of the corresponding E1 strengths in the N = 106 isotones. The K-mixing in the 8{sup -} states is calculated in the context of the particle-rotor model and used to extract the underlying reduced hindrances.

Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Australian National Univ.; RIKEN; Univ. of Maryland

2009-06-01

145

Lifetime of the K{sup {pi}}=8{sup -} isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 174}Er, and N=106 E1 systematics  

SciTech Connect

Chopped-beam techniques and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy with Gammasphere have been used to measure the lifetime of the 1112-keV 8{sup -} isomeric state in {sup 174}Er. The value obtained of {tau}=5.8(4) s corresponds to a reduced hindrance of f{sub {nu}}=98 for the 163-keV E1 transition to the 8{sup +} state of the ground-state band, in good agreement with the systematics of the corresponding E1 strengths in the N=106 isotones. The K-mixing in the 8{sup -} states is calculated in the context of the particle-rotor model and used to extract the underlying reduced hindrances.

Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J. [Department of Nuclear Physics, R. S. Phys. S. E, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Kondev, F. G.; Chiara, C. J. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Watanabe, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Stefanescu, I. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2009-06-15

146

Nrf2 and Antioxidant Defense Against CYP2E1 Toxicity.  

PubMed

The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of important cytoprotective enzymes. Induction of cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1) is one of the central pathways by which ethanol generates oxidative stress. CYP2E1 can be induced by ethanol and several low molecular weight chemicals such as pyrazole. The chapter discusses biochemical and toxicological effects of CYP2E1 and the effects of Nrf2 in modulating these actions of CYP2E1.Besides ethanol, CYP2E1 metabolizes and activates many other important toxicological compounds. One approach to try to understand basic effects and actions of CYP2E1 was to establish HepG2 cell lines that constitutively express human CYP2E1. Ethanol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron were toxic to the HepG2 cells which express CYP2E1 (E47 cells) but not control C34HepG2 cells which do not express CYP2E1.Toxicity was associated with enhanced oxidant stress and could be prevented by antioxidants and potentiated if glutathione (GSH) was removed. The E47 cells had higher GSH levels and a Twofold increase in catalase, cytosolic and microsomal glutathione transferase, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) than control HepG2 cells due to activation of their respective genes. These activations were prevented by antioxidants, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by CYP2E1 were responsible for the up-regulation of these antioxidant genes. This upregulation of antioxidant genes may reflect an adaptive mechanism to remove CYP2E1-derived oxidants. Increases in Nrf2 protein and mRNA were observed in livers of chronic alcohol-fed mice or rats and of pyrazole-treated rats or mice, conditions known to elevate CYP2E1. E47 cells showed increased Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression compared with control HepG2 C34 cells. Upregulation of antioxidant genes in E47 cells is dependent on Nrf2 and is prevented by siRNA-Nrf2. Blocking Nrf2 by siRNA-Nrf2 decreases GSH and increases ROS and lipid peroxidation, resulting in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and loss of cell viability of E47 cells but not C34 cells. Nrf2 is activated and levels of Nrf2 protein and mRNA are increased when CYP2E1 is elevated. These results suggest that Nrf2 plays a key role in the adaptive response against increased oxidative stress caused by CYP2E1 in the HepG2 cells. PMID:23400918

Cederbaum, Arthur I

2013-01-01

147

Ethanol consumption by the nursing mother induces cytochrome P-4502E1 in neonatal rat liver.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P-4502E1 (P-4502E1) is not present in fetal rat liver because activation of the gene occurs shortly after birth. Ethanol is an inducer of P-4502E1 in adult rats. Studies were carried out to evaluate whether transplacental induction of P-4502E1 by ethanol can occur after oral consumption of ethanol by the pregnant mother. Because ethanol can be excreted in breast milk, the possible induction of P-4502E1 in neonatal liver when ethanol was consumed during the gestational and neonatal period by the mother was also determined. Pregnant rats received control or an ethanol-containing liquid diet starting on the 9th day of gestation and were killed on the 17th day or 21st day, of gestation or allowed to deliver. The rats continued on their respective diets for the first 2 weeks of the neonatal period. P-4502E1 messenger RNA (mRNA), protein or catalytic activity was not detectable in fetal liver and was not induced in the fetuses from the ethanol-consuming mothers. Transplacental induction of P-4502E1 by ethanol did not occur in this model. Induction by ethanol of P-4502E1 protein and catalytic activity but not mRNA occurred in maternal liver. P-4502E1 mRNA, protein and catalytic activity were detected shortly after birth and increased over the 2-week neonatal period. The P-4502E1 content and oxidation of p-nitrophenol or dimethylnitrosamine by hepatic microsomes from neonates of mothers consuming the ethanol diet were increased 2- to 3-fold compared with controls however, P-4502E1 mRNA levels were not elevated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8229787

Wu, D; Cederbaum, A I

1993-10-01

148

Ubiquitin-dependent Proteasomal Degradation of Human Liver Cytochrome P450 2E1  

PubMed Central

Human liver CYP2E1 is a monotopic, endoplasmic reticulum-anchored cytochrome P450 responsible for the biotransformation of clinically relevant drugs, low molecular weight xenobiotics, carcinogens, and endogenous ketones. CYP2E1 substrate complexation converts it into a stable slow-turnover species degraded largely via autophagic lysosomal degradation. Substrate decomplexation/withdrawal results in a fast turnover CYP2E1 species, putatively generated through its futile oxidative cycling, that incurs endoplasmic reticulum-associated ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation (UPD). CYP2E1 thus exhibits biphasic turnover in the mammalian liver. We now show upon heterologous expression of human CYP2E1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that its autophagic lysosomal degradation and UPD pathways are evolutionarily conserved, even though its potential for futile catalytic cycling is low due to its sluggish catalytic activity in yeast. This suggested that other factors (i.e. post-translational modifications or “degrons”) contribute to its UPD. Indeed, in cultured human hepatocytes, CYP2E1 is detectably ubiquitinated, and this is enhanced on its mechanism-based inactivation. Studies in Ubc7p and Ubc5p genetically deficient yeast strains versus corresponding isogenic wild types identified these ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes as relevant to CYP2E1 UPD. Consistent with this, in vitro functional reconstitution analyses revealed that mammalian UBC7/gp78 and UbcH5a/CHIP E2-E3 ubiquitin ligases were capable of ubiquitinating CYP2E1, a process enhanced by protein kinase (PK) A and/or PKC inclusion. Inhibition of PKA or PKC blocked intracellular CYP2E1 ubiquitination and turnover. Here, through mass spectrometric analyses, we identify some CYP2E1 phosphorylation/ubiquitination sites in spatially associated clusters. We propose that these CYP2E1 phosphorylation clusters may serve to engage each E2-E3 ubiquitination complex in vitro and intracellularly.

Wang, YongQiang; Guan, Shenheng; Acharya, Poulomi; Koop, Dennis R.; Liu, Yi; Liao, Mingxiang; Burlingame, Alma L.; Correia, Maria Almira

2011-01-01

149

CYP2E1: biochemistry, toxicology, regulation and function in ethanol-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to play a major role in mechanisms by which ethanol causes liver injury. Many pathways have been suggested to contribute to the ability of ethanol to induce a state of oxidative stress. One central pathway appears to be the induction of the CYP2E1 form of cytochrome P450 enzymes by ethanol. CYP2E1 is of interest because of its ability to metabolize and activate many toxicological substrates, including ethanol, to more reactive, toxic products. Levels of CYP2E1 are elevated under a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and after acute and chronic alcohol treatment. CYP2E1 is also an effective generator of reactive oxygen species such as the superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide, and in the presence of iron catalysts, produces powerful oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical. This Review Article summarizes some of the biochemical and toxicological properties of CYP2E1, and briefly describes the use of HepG2 cell lines developed to constitutively express the human CYP2E1 in assessing the actions of CYP2E1. Regulation of CYP2E1 is quite complex and will be briefly reviewed. Possible therapeutic implications for treatment of alcoholic liver injury by inhibition of CYP2E1 or CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress will be discussed, followed by some future directions which may help to understand the actions of CYP2E1 and its role in alcoholic liver injury. PMID:14527082

Kessova, Irina; Cederbaum, Arthur I

2003-09-01

150

Identifying Strengths within Alternative Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acknowledges and shares some insights into the education systems of the United Kingdom and Russia, identifying the positive attributes. Concludes that there are noticeable strengths in the systems and in the teachers of both countries. (ASK)

Stokoe, Rob; Illushin, Leonid

1998-01-01

151

Welding High-Strength Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent studies of the developments in welding steels with yield strengths greater than 150 KSI have included low-alloy martensitic steels, medium-alloy martensitic steels, nickel maraging steels, and bainitic steels. Only weldments from medium-alloy marte...

P. A. Kammer D. C. Martin

1966-01-01

152

Strengths of Aboriginal Foster Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to identify the strengths of Aboriginal foster parents according to the foster parents themselves.\\u000a A total of 83 Aboriginal foster parents participated in over the phone interviews that included the question “What are the\\u000a main strengths you have as a foster parent?”. Responses to the questions were sorted by the participants and the sorted

Viktoria Ivanova; Jason Brown

2011-01-01

153

Residual strength of maraging steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface crack tension (SCT) specimens of 18 Ni 1800 MPa grade maraging steel (parent metal and welded) were used to evaluate\\u000a the residual strength in 0.015 and 0.03m wide panels. For 0.03 m wide panels which satisfy infinite plate condition up to\\u000a 0.006 m surface crack length, the residual strength variation between minimum and maximum crack sizes lie within 5%

V. Diwakar; S. Arumugham; T. S. Lakshmanan; B. K. Sarkar

1989-01-01

154

World strength map: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rheology and strength of the Earth's lithosphere have been debated since the beginning of the last century, when the concept of a strong lithosphere overlying viscous asthenosphere was introduced. The issue of strength of the lithospheric plates and their spatial and temporal variations is important for many geodynamic applications. For rocks with given mineralogical composition and microstructure, temperature is one of the most important parameters controlling rheology. We present the first world strength map obtained from global thermal and crustal models. Temperature estimates for the deeper horizons of the lithosphere, where the heat transport is mostly conductive, requires a precise knowledge of many crustal parameters (mainly thermal conductivity and heat production), which are extremely uncertain. Therefore, we use a combination of indirect approaches, such as seismic tomography and geothermal analysis. Furthermore, we implement a global crustal model on the base of previous compilations. Lithology of the upper and lower crust was classified based on tectonic maps of the World in agreement with the previous study of Tesauro et al. (2009). The results show a good correspondence between strength values and geological features. We observe some general tendency for old cratons and areas affected by the Tertiary volcanism, characterized by high and low strength values, respectively. At the same time, relevant differences in the strength distribution between similar structures are found.

Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.; Mooney, Walter

2010-05-01

155

26 CFR 1.6050E-1 - Reporting of State and local income tax refunds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Reporting of State and local income tax refunds. 1.6050E-1 ...6050E-1 Reporting of State and local income tax refunds. (a) Applicability...payments of refunds of State or local income taxes or allows credits or...

2013-04-01

156

Stereochemical assignment, antiinflammatory properties, and receptor for the omega-3 lipid mediator resolvin E1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) present in fish oils displays beneficial effects in a range of human disorders associated with inflammation including cardiovascular disease. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), a new bioactive oxygenated product of EPA, was identified in human plasma and prepared by total organic synthesis. Results of bioaction and physical matching studies indicate that the complete structure of

Makoto Arita; Francesca Bianchini; Julio Aliberti; Alan Sher; Nan Chiang; Song Hong; Rong Yang; Nicos A. Petasis; Charles N. Serhan

157

FOXO3a-Dependent Mechanism of E1A-Induced Chemosensitization.  

PubMed

Gene therapy trials in human breast, ovarian, and head and neck tumors indicate that adenovirus E1A can sensitize cancer cells to the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo. Resistance to paclitaxel has been reported to occur in cells expressing low levels of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a. In this article, we report that FOXO3a is critical for E1A-mediated chemosensitization to paclitaxel. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FOXO3a abolished E1A-induced sensitivity to paclitaxel. Mechanistic investigations indicated that E1A indirectly stabilized FOXO3a by acting at an intermediate step to inhibit a ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis pathway involving the E3 ligase ?TrCP and the FOXO3a inhibitory kinase IKK?. E1A derepressed this inhibitory pathway by stimulating expression of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)/C protein phosphatases, which by binding to the TGF-?-activated kinase TAK1, inhibited its ability to activate IKK? and, thereby, to suppress ?TrCP-mediated degradation of FOXO3a. Thus, by stimulating PP2A/C expression, E1A triggers a signaling cascade that stabilizes FOXO3a and mediates chemosensitization. Our findings provide a leap forward in understanding paclitaxel chemosensitization by E1A, and offer a mechanistic rational to apply E1A gene therapy as an adjuvant for improving therapeutic outcomes in patients receiving paclitaxel treatment. PMID:21911455

Su, Jen-Liang; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Chang, Yi-Wen; Hou, Chao-Feng; Lee, Dung-Fang; Ko, How-Wen; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Ying-Nai; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Poshen B; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Bast, Robert C; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Hung, Mien-Chie

2011-09-12

158

Effect and mitigation of narrowband interference on Galileo E1 signal acquisition and tracking accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present an interference impact assessment in the context of Global Navigation Satellite systems (GNSS), focusing on the new modulation based on the Multiple Binary Offset Carrier (MBOC) scheme that will be used for Galileo E1 civil signal. Simulation results are presented and discussed in order to perform the analysis of Galileo E1 civil

Jie Zhang; Elena-Simona Lohan

2011-01-01

159

Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro of the synthetic peptide D4E1.  

PubMed

Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of a synthetic peptide, D4E1, is documented in this paper. D4E1 inhibited the growth of several fungal phytopathogens belonging to four classes-Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes, and Oomycetes, and two bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum race 18. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of D4E1 required to completely inhibit the growth of all fungi studied ranged from 4.67 to 25 microM. Fungal pathogens highly sensitive to D4E1 include Thielaviopsis basicola, Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium moniliforme, Phytophthora cinnamomi, and Phytophthora parasitica. Comparatively, the least sensitive fungal pathogens were Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum destructivum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The two bacterial pathogens, P. syringae pv. tabaci and X. campestris pv. malvacearum race 18, were most sensitive to D4E1 with MIC values of 2.25 and 1.25 microM, respectively. Microscopic analysis of D4E1 effects on fungal morphology of Aspergillus flavus and R. solani revealed abnormal hyphal growth and discontinuous cytoplasm. After 8 h of exposure to 25 microM D4E1, A. flavus spore germination was reduced by 75%. The suitability of peptide D4E1 to enhance disease resistance in transgenic crop plants is discussed. PMID:11409968

Rajasekaran, K; Stromberg, K D; Cary, J W; Cleveland, T E

2001-06-01

160

Structural stability and domain organization of colicin E1 1 1 Edited by B. Holland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic properties, stability, and structure of the toxin-like molecule colicin E1 were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism to determine the number of structurally independent domains, and the interdomain interactions necessary for colicin import into the Escherichia coli cell. Analysis of denaturation profiles of the 522 residue colicin E1, together with fragments of 342 and 178 residues that

Yuri V. Griko; Stanislav D. Zakharov; William A. Cramer

2000-01-01

161

26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1... § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan. (a) General rule. For...the regulations thereunder, the term âchurch planâ means a plan established and...

2009-04-01

162

26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1... § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan. (a) General rule. For the...the regulations thereunder, the term âchurch planâ means a plan established and...

2013-04-01

163

26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1... § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan. (a) General rule. For...the regulations thereunder, the term âchurch planâ means a plan established and...

2010-04-01

164

Olive cultivar origin is a major cause of polymorphism for Ole e 1 pollen allergen  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pollens from different olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars have been shown to differ significantly in their content in Ole e 1 and in their overall allergenicity. This allergen is, in addition, characterized by a high degree of polymorphism in its sequence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the putative presence of divergences in Ole e 1 sequences

AbdelMounim Hamman-Khalifa; Antonio Jesús Castro; José Carlos Jiménez-López; María Isabel Rodríguez-García; Juan Alché

2008-01-01

165

Pollen from Different Olive Tree Cultivars Contains Varying Amounts of the Major Allergen Ole e 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Commercial olive pollen from uncertain cultivar origin is the common material used for clinical and biological studies. We aimed to assess the putative heterogeneity of olive cultivars with regard to the presence of the major pollen allergen Ole e 1 and to determine whether these differences have clinical relevance. Methods: The Ole e 1 content of several cultivars was

Antonio Jesús Castro; Juan de Dios Alché; Julián Cuevas; Pedro José Romero; Víctor Alché; María Isabel Rodríguez-García

2003-01-01

166

Tumor Suppression and Sensitization to Taxol Induced Apoptosis of E1A In Breast Cancer Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project is to study the molecular mechanisms underlying E1A's proapoptotic effect and anti-tumor activity and to dissect the functional domains of El A that are critical for its antitumor activity. Because a phase I E1A gene therapy pr...

Y. Liao

2004-01-01

167

Earthquake stress drop and laboratory-inferred interseismic strength recovery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determine the scaling relationships between earthquake stress drop and recurrence interval tr that are implied by laboratory-measured fault strength. We assume that repeating earthquakes can be simulated by stick-slip sliding using a spring and slider block model. Simulations with static/kinetic strength, time-dependent strength, and rate- and state-variable-dependent strength indicate that the relationship between loading velocity and recurrence interval can be adequately described by the power law VL ??? trn, where n=-1. Deviations from n=-1 arise from second order effects on strength, with n>-1 corresponding to apparent time-dependent strengthening and n<-1 corresponding to weakening. Simulations with rate and state-variable equations show that dynamic shear stress drop ????d scales with recurrence as d????d/dlntr ??? ??e(b-a), where ??e is the effective normal stress, ??=??/??e, and (a-b)=d??ss/dlnV is the steady-state slip rate dependence of strength. In addition, accounting for seismic energy radiation, we suggest that the static shear stress drop ????s scales as d????s/dlntr ??? ??e(1+??)(b-a), where ?? is the fractional overshoot. The variation of ????s with lntr for earthquake stress drops is somewhat larger than implied by room temperature laboratory values of ?? and b-a. However, the uncertainty associated with the seismic data is large and the discrepancy between the seismic observations and the rate of strengthening predicted by room temperature experiments is less than an order of magnitude. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

Beeler, N. M.; Hickman, S. H.; Wong, T. -F.

2001-01-01

168

Identification of domains of the HPV11 E1 protein required for DNA replication in vitro.  

PubMed

The HPV E1 and E2 proteins along with cellular factors, are required for replication of the viral genome. In this study we show that in vitro synthesized HPV11 E1 can support DNA replication in a cell-free system and is able to cooperate with E2 to recruit the host polymerase alpha primase to the HPV origin in vitro. Deletion analysis revealed that the N-terminal 166 amino acids of E1, which encompass a nuclear localization signal and a cyclin E-binding motif, are dispensable for E1-dependent DNA replication and for recruitment of pol alpha primase to the origin in vitro. A shorter E1 protein lacking the N-terminal 190 amino acids supported cell-free DNA replication at less than 25% the efficiency of wild-type E1 and was active in the pol alpha primase recruitment assay. An even shorter E1 protein lacking a functional DNA-binding domain due to a truncation of the N-terminal 352 amino acids was inactive in both assays despite the fact that it retains the ability to associate with E2 or pol alpha primase in the absence of ori DNA. We provide additional functional evidence that E1 interacts with pol alpha primase through the p70 subunit of the complex by showing that p70 can be recruited to the HPV origin by E1 and E2 in vitro, that the domain of E1 (amino acids 353-649) that binds to pol alpha primase in vitro is the same as that needed for interaction with p70 in the yeast two-hybrid system, and that exogenously added p70 competes with the interaction between E1 and pol alpha primase and inhibits E1-dependent cell-free DNA replication. On the basis of these results and the observation that pol alpha primase competes with the interaction between E1 and E2 in solution, we propose that these three proteins assemble at the origin in a stepwise process during which E1, following its interaction with E2, must bind to DNA prior to interacting with pol alpha primase. PMID:10873756

Amin, A A; Titolo, S; Pelletier, A; Fink, D; Cordingley, M G; Archambault, J

2000-06-20

169

Oxidative stress mediated toxicity exerted by ethanol-inducible CYP2E1  

SciTech Connect

Induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol is one of the central pathways by which ethanol generates a state of oxidative stress in hepatocytes. To study the biochemical and toxicological actions of CYP2E1, our laboratory established HepG2 cell lines which constitutively overexpress CYP2E1 and characterized these cells with respect to ethanol toxicity. Addition of ethanol or an unsaturated fatty acid such as arachidonic acid or iron was toxic to the CYP2E1-expressing cells but not control cells. This toxicity was associated with elevated lipid peroxidation and could be prevented by antioxidants and inhibitors of CYP2E1. Apoptosis occurred in the CYP2E1-expressing cells exposed to ethanol, arachidonic acid, or iron. Removal of GSH caused a loss of viability in the CYP2E1-expressing cells even in the absence of added toxin or pro-oxidant. This was associated with mitochondrial damage and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Low concentrations of iron and arachidonic acid synergistically interacted with CYP2E1 to produce cell toxicity, suggesting these nutrients may act as priming or sensitizing agents to alcohol-induced liver injury. Surprisingly, CYP2E1-expressing cells had elevated GSH levels, due to transcriptional activation of glutamate cysteine ligase. Similarly, levels of catalase, alpha-, and microsomal glutathione transferase were also increased, suggesting that upregulation of these antioxidant genes may reflect an adaptive mechanism to remove CYP2E1-derived oxidants. Using co-cultures, interaction between CYP2E1-derived diffusible mediators to activate collagen production in hepatic stellate cells was found. While it is likely that several mechanisms contribute to alcohol-induced liver injury, the linkage between CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, stellate cell activation, and GSH homeostasis may contribute to the toxic action of ethanol on the liver. HepG2 cell lines overexpressing CYP2E1 may be a valuable model to characterize the biochemical and toxicological properties of CYP2E1.

Wu Defeng [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cederbaum, Arthur I. [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: arthur.cederbaum@mssm.edu

2005-09-01

170

New Protein Vector ApE1 for Targeted Delivery of Anticancer Drugs  

PubMed Central

A new chimeric gene ApE1 encoding the receptor-binding domain of the human alpha-fetoprotein fused to a sequence of 22 glutamic acid residues was constructed. A new bacterial producer strain E. coli SHExT7 ApE1 was selected for ApE1 production in a soluble state. A simplified method was developed to purify ApE1 from bacterial biomass. It was shown that the new vector protein selectively interacts with AFP receptors on the tumor cell surface and can be efficiently accumulated in tumor cells. In addition, ApE1 was shown to be stable in storage and during its chemical modification. An increased number of carboxyl groups in the molecule allows the production of cytotoxic compound conjugates with higher drug-loading capacity and enhanced tumor targeting potential.

Pozdniakova, N. V.; Gorokhovets, N. V.; Gukasova, N. V.; Bereznikova, A. V.; Severin, E. S.

2012-01-01

171

New protein vector ApE1 for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.  

PubMed

A new chimeric gene ApE1 encoding the receptor-binding domain of the human alpha-fetoprotein fused to a sequence of 22 glutamic acid residues was constructed. A new bacterial producer strain E. coli SHExT7 ApE1 was selected for ApE1 production in a soluble state. A simplified method was developed to purify ApE1 from bacterial biomass. It was shown that the new vector protein selectively interacts with AFP receptors on the tumor cell surface and can be efficiently accumulated in tumor cells. In addition, ApE1 was shown to be stable in storage and during its chemical modification. An increased number of carboxyl groups in the molecule allows the production of cytotoxic compound conjugates with higher drug-loading capacity and enhanced tumor targeting potential. PMID:22649278

Pozdniakova, N V; Gorokhovets, N V; Gukasova, N V; Bereznikova, A V; Severin, E S

2012-05-09

172

Biophysical characterization of the fusogenic region of HCV envelope glycoprotein E1.  

PubMed

We have studied the binding and interaction of the peptide E1(FP) with various model membranes. E1(FP) is derived from the amino acid segment 274-291 of the hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1, which was previously proposed to host the peptide responsible for fusion to target membranes. In the present study we addressed the changes which take place upon E1(FP) binding in both the peptide and the phospholipid bilayer, respectively, through a series of complementary experiments. We show that peptide E1(FP) binds to and interacts with phospholipid model membranes, modulates the polymorphic phase behavior of membrane phospholipids, is localized in a shallow position in the membrane and interacts preferentially with cholesterol. The capability of modifying the biophysical properties of model membranes supports its role in HCV-mediated membrane fusion and suggests that the mechanism of membrane fusion elicited by class I and II fusion proteins might be similar. PMID:19698697

Pérez-Berná, Ana J; Pabst, Georg; Laggner, Peter; Villalaín, José

2009-08-19

173

Molecular mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity mediated by CYP2E1  

SciTech Connect

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 was suggested to be the major enzyme involved in trichloroethylene (TRI) metabolism and TRI-induced hepatotoxicity, although the latter molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The involvement of CYP2E1 in TRI-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying molecular mechanism were studied by comparing hepatotoxicity in cyp2e1{sup +/+} and cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice. The mice were exposed by inhalation to 0 (control), 1000, or 2000 ppm of TRI for 8 h a day, for 7 days, and TRI-hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histopathology. Urinary metabolites of trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were considerably greater in cyp2e1{sup +/+} compared to cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice, suggesting that CYP2E1 is the major P450 involved in the formation of these metabolites. Consistent with elevated plasma ALT and AST activities, cyp2e1{sup +/+} mice in the 2000 ppm group showed histopathological inflammation. TRI significantly upregulated PPAR{alpha}, which might function to inhibit NF{kappa}B p50 and p65 signalling. In addition, TRI-induced NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA, and significantly positive correlation between NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA expression and plasma ALT activity levels were observed, suggesting the involvement of p52 in liver inflammation. Taken together, the current study directly demonstrates that CYP2E1 was the major P450 involved in the first step of the TRI metabolism, and the metabolites produced may have two opposing roles: one inducing hepatotoxicity and the other protecting against the toxicity. Intermediate metabolite(s) from TRI to chloral hydrate produced by CYP2E1-mediated oxidation may be involved in the former, and TCA in the latter.

Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat; Kamijima, Michihiro; Yamada, Naoyasu; Ito, Yuki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Nakamura, Daichi; Okamura, Ai; Ichihara, Gaku [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Aoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Aging and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J. [Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Nakajima, Tamie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)], E-mail: tnasu23@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

2008-09-15

174

Role of CYP2E1 in thioacetamide-induced mouse hepatotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Previous experiments showed that treatment of mice and rats with thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver cell damage, fibrosis and/or cirrhosis, associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of hepatic stellate cells. Some experiments suggest that CYP2E1 may be involved in the metabolic activation of TAA. However, there is no direct evidence on the role of CYP2E1 in TAA-mediated hepatotoxicity. To clarify this, TAA-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated using Cyp2e1-null mice. Male wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice were treated with TAA (200 mg/kg of body weight, single, i.p.) at 6 weeks of age, and hepatotoxicity examined 24 and 48 h after TAA treatment. Relative liver weights of Cyp2e1-null mice were significantly different at 24 h compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in Cyp2e1-null mice were significantly different at both time points compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Histopathological examination showed Cyp2e1-null mice represented no hepatototoxic lesions, in clear contrast to severe centriobular necrosis, inflammation and hemorrhage at both time points in wild-type mice. Marked lipid peroxidation was also only limited to wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Similarly, TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression in Cyp2e1-null mice did not significantly differ from the control levels, contrasting with the marked alteration in wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Western blot analysis further revealed no increase in iNOS expression in Cyp2e1-null mice. These results reveal that CYP2E1 mediates TAA-induced hepatotoxicity in wild-type mice as a result of increased oxidative stress.

Kang, Jin Seok; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Morimura, Keiichirou; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan; Chusiri, Yaowares [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J. [Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 37, Room 3106, NCI-Bethesda, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Fukushima, Shoji [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: s-fukushima@jisha.or.jp

2008-05-01

175

Alcohol steatosis and cytotoxicity: the role of cytochrome P4502E1 and autophagy.  

PubMed

The goal of the current study was to evaluate whether CYP2E1 plays a role in binge-ethanol induced steatosis and if autophagy impacts CYP2E1-mediated hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress and fatty liver formation produced by ethanol. Wild type (WT), CYP2E1 knockin (KI) and CYP2E1 knockout (KO) mice were gavaged with 3g/kg body wt ethanol twice a day for four days. This treatment caused fatty liver, elevation of CYP2E1 and oxidative stress in WT and KI mice but not KO mice. Autophagy was impaired in ethanol-treated KI mice compared to KO mice as reflected by a decline in the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and lower total LC-3 and Beclin-1 levels coupled to increases in P62, pAKT/AKT and mTOR. Inhibition of macroautophagy by administration of 3-methyladenine enhanced the binge ethanol hepatotoxicity, steatosis and oxidant stress in CYP2E1 KI, but not CYP2E1 KO mice. Stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin blunted the elevated steatosis produced by binge ethanol. Treatment of HepG2 E47 cells which express CYP2E1 with 100mM ethanol for 8 days increased fat accumulation and oxidant stress but decreased autophagy. Ethanol had no effect on these reactions in HepG2 C34 cells which do not express CYP2E1. Inhibition of autophagy elevated ethanol toxicity, lipid accumulation and oxidant stress in the E47, but not C34 cells. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, and CYP2E1 inhibitor chlormethiazole blunted these effects of ethanol. These results indicate that CYP2E1 plays an important role in binge ethanol-induced fatty liver. We propose that CYP2E1-derived reactive oxygen species inhibit autophagy, which subsequently causes accumulation of lipid droplets. Inhibition of autophagy promotes binge ethanol induced hepatotoxicity, steatosis and oxidant stress via CYP2E1. PMID:22819980

Wu, Defeng; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Richard; Yang, Lili; Cederbaum, Arthur I

2012-07-20

176

Strengths use, self-concordance and well-being: Implications for Strengths Coaching and Coaching Psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emphasis of the coaching psychology and positive psychology movements has been strengths and well- being. This study examined two generic aspects of strengths - strengths knowledge and strengths use, together with organismic valuing, and their relations with subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and subjective vitality. Theory suggests that people who know their strengths, use their strengths, and follow the directions

Reena Govindji; P. Alex Linley

2007-01-01

177

Chang’E-1 precision orbit determination and lunar gravity field solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present results assessing the role of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) tracking data through precision orbit determination (POD) during the check-out phase for Chang’E-1, and the lunar gravity field solution CEGM-01 based on the orbital tracking data acquired during the nominal phase of the mission. The POD of Chang’E-1 is performed using S-band two-way Range and Range Rate (R&RR) data, together with VLBI delay and delay rate observations. The role of the VLBI data in the POD of Chang’E-1 is analyzed, and the resulting orbital accuracies are estimated for different solution strategies. The final orbital accuracies proved that the VLBI tracking data can improve the Chang’E-1 POD significantly. Consequently, CEGM-01 based on six-month tracking data during Chang’E-1 nominal mission phase is presented, and the accuracy of the model is assessed by means of the gravity field power spectrum, admittance and coherence between gravity and topography, lunar surface gravity anomaly and POD for both Chang’E-1 and Lunar Prospector (LP). Our analysis indicates that CEGM-01 has significant improvements over a prior model (i.e. GLGM-2), and shows the potential of Chang’E-1 tracking data in high resolution lunar gravity field model solution by combining with SELENE and LP tracking data.

Jianguo, Yan; Jinsong, Ping; Fei, Li; Jianfeng, Cao; Qian, Huang; Lihe, Fung

2010-07-01

178

Characterization of in vivo functions of Nicotiana benthamiana RabE1.  

PubMed

We characterized the gene expression, subcellular localization, and in vivo functions of a Nicotiana benthamiana small GTPase belonging to the RabE family, designated NbRabE1. The NbRabE1 promoter drove strong ?-glucuronidase reporter expression in young tissues containing actively dividing cells and in stomata guard cells. GFP fusion proteins of NbRabE1 and its dominant-negative and constitutively active mutants were all localized to the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane but showed different affinities for membrane attachment. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbRabE1 resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes, including growth arrest, premature senescence, and abnormal leaf development. At the cellular level, the leaves in which NbRabE1 was silenced contained abnormal stomata that lacked pores or contained incomplete ventral walls, suggesting that NbRabE1 deficiency leads to defective guard cell cytokinesis. Ectopic expression of the dominant-negative mutant of NbRabE1 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in retardation of shoot and root growth accompanied by defective root hair formation. These developmental defects are discussed in conjunction with proposed functions of RabE GTPases in polarized secretory vesicle trafficking. PMID:23001196

Ahn, Chang Sook; Han, Jeong-A; Pai, Hyun-Sook

2012-09-22

179

Intranuclear location of the adenovirus type 5 E1B 55-kilodalton protein.  

PubMed Central

The intracellular location of the adenovirus type 5 E1B 55-kilodalton (kDa) protein, particularly the question of whether it is associated with nuclear pore complexes, was examined. Fractionation of adenovirus type 5-infected HeLa cell nuclei by an established procedure (N. Dwyer and G. Blobel, J. Cell. Biol. 70:581-591, 1976) yielded one population of E1B 55-kDa protein molecules released by digestion of nuclei with RNase A and a second population recovered in the pore complex-lamina fraction. Free and E1B 55-kDa protein-bound forms of the E4 34-kDa protein (P. Sarnow, C. A. Sullivan, and A. J. Levine, Virology 120:387-394, 1982) were largely recovered in the pore complex-lamina fraction. Nevertheless, the association of E1B 55-kDa protein molecules with this nuclear envelope fraction did not depend on interaction of the E1B 55-kDa protein with the E4 34-kDa protein. Comparison of the immunofluorescence patterns observed with antibodies recognizing the E1B 55-kDa protein or cellular pore complex proteins and of the behavior of these viral and cellular proteins during in situ fractionation suggests that the E1B 55-kDa protein does not become intimately or stably associated with pore complexes in adenovirus-infected cells. Images

Smiley, J K; Young, M A; Flint, S J

1990-01-01

180

A bovine papillomavirus E1-related protein binds specifically to bovine papillomavirus DNA.  

PubMed Central

The E1 open reading frame of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) was expressed as a RecA-E1 fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The bacterially expressed RecA-E1 protein exhibited sequence-specific DNA binding activity; strong binding to the region from nucleotides 7819 to 93 on the BPV genome (designated region A) and weak binding to the adjacent region from nucleotides 7457 to 7818 (region B) were observed. The interaction between the BPV-derived RecA-E1 protein and region A appeared to be highly specific for BPV DNA, as no comparable binding was detected with heterologous papillomavirus DNAs. Binding to region A was eliminated by digestion of region A at the unique HpaI site, which suggests that the RecA-E1 binding site(s) was at or near the HpaI recognition sequence. Binding to region B but not region A was observed when nuclear extracts from ID13 cells were used as a source of E1 proteins. The absence of region A binding by ID13 extracts may reflect a negative regulation of E1 DNA binding activity. Images

Wilson, V G; Ludes-Meyers, J

1991-01-01

181

Resolvin E1 inhibits neuropathic pain and spinal cord microglial activation following peripheral nerve injury.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence indicates that activation of spinal cord microglia plays an important role in the genesis of neuropathic pain. Resolvin E1 (E1) is derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and exhibits potent anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution, and anti-nociceptive effects. We further examined whether RvE1 could reduce neuropathic pain and modulate spinal cord microglial activation. Intrathecal pre-treatment of RvE1 (100 ng) daily for 3 days partially prevented the development of nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia and up-regulation of IBA-1 (microglial marker) and TNF-? in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Furthermore, intrathecal post-treatment of RvE1 (100 ng), 3 weeks after nerve injury, transiently reduced mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Finally, RvE1 blocked lipopolisaccharide-induced microgliosis and TNF-? release in primary micoglial cultures. Our data suggest that RvE1 may attenuate neuropathic pain via inhibiting microglial signaling. Targeting the anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators may offer new options for preventing and treating neuropathic pain. PMID:22878925

Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Berta, Temugin; Ji, Ru-Rong

2012-08-10

182

Involvement of CYP 2E1 enzyme in ovotoxicity caused by 4-vinylcyclohexene and its metabolites  

SciTech Connect

4-Vinylcyclohexene (VCH) is bioactivated by hepatic CYP 2A and 2B to a monoepoxide (VCM) and subsequently to an ovotoxic diepoxide metabolite (VCD). Studies suggest that the ovary can directly bioactivate VCH via CYP 2E1. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of ovarian CYP 2E1 in VCM-induced ovotoxicity. Postnatal day 4 B6C3F{sub 1} and CYP 2E1 wild-type (+/+) and null (-/-) mouse ovaries were cultured (15 days) with VCD (30 {mu}M), 1,2-VCM (125-1000 {mu}M), or vehicle. Twenty-eight days female CYP 2E1 +/+ and -/- mice were dosed daily (15 days; ip) with VCH, 1,2-VCM, VCD or vehicle. Following culture or in vivo dosing, ovaries were histologically evaluated. In culture, VCD decreased (p < 0.05) primordial and primary follicles in ovaries from all three groups of mice. 1,2-VCM decreased (p < 0.05) primordial follicles in B6C3F{sub 1} and CYP 2E1 +/+ ovaries, but not in CYP 2E1 -/- ovaries in culture. 1,2-VCM did not affect primary follicles in any group of mouse ovaries. Conversely, following in vivo dosing, primordial and primary follicles were reduced (p < 0.05) by VCD and VCM in CYP2E1 +/+ and -/-, and by VCH in +/+ mice. The data demonstrate that, whereas in vitro ovarian bioactivation of VCM requires CYP 2E1 enzyme, in vivo CYP 2E1 plays a minimal role. Thus, the findings support that hepatic metabolism dominates the contribution made by the ovary in bioactivation of VCM to its ovotoxic metabolite, VCD. This study also demonstrates the use of a novel ovarian culture system to evaluate ovary-specific metabolism of xenobiotics.

Rajapaksa, Kathila S. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., 4122, Tucson, AZ 85724-5051 (United States); Cannady, Ellen A. [Department of Drug Disposition, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285 (United States); Sipes, I. Glenn [Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724-5050 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., 4122, Tucson, AZ 85724-5051 (United States)]. E-mail: hoyer@u.arizona.edu

2007-06-01

183

Resolvin E1 promotes phagocytosis-induced neutrophil apoptosis and accelerates resolution of pulmonary inflammation  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate neutrophil activation contributes to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Apoptosis is essential for removal of neutrophils from inflamed tissues and timely resolution of inflammation. Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is an endogenous lipid mediator derived from the ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid that displays proresolving actions. Because the balance of prosurvival and proapoptosis signals determines the fate of neutrophils, we investigated the impact of RvE1 on neutrophil apoptosis and the outcome of neutrophil-mediated pulmonary inflammation in mice. Culture of human neutrophils with RvE1 accelerated apoptosis evoked by phagocytosis of opsonized Escherichia coli or yeast. RvE1 through the leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 enhanced NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. RvE1 also attenuated ERK and Akt-mediated apoptosis-suppressing signals from myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A, and bacterial DNA, shifting the balance of pro- and anti-survival signals toward apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. In mice, RvE1 treatment enhanced the resolution of established neutrophil-mediated pulmonary injury evoked by intratracheal instillation or i.p. administration of live E. coli or intratracheal instillation of carrageenan plus myeloperoxidase via facilitating neutrophil apoptosis and their removal by macrophages. The actions of RvE1 were prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. These results identify a mechanism, promotion of phagocytosis-induced neutrophil apoptosis and mitigation of potent anti-apoptosis signals, by which RvE1 could enhance resolution of acute lung inflammation.

El Kebir, Driss; Gjorstrup, Per; Filep, Janos G.

2012-01-01

184

Induction of liver cytochrome P4502E1 by pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole in neonatal rats.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P4502E1 (P4502E1) is not present in fetal rat liver; activation of the gene occurs within hours after birth. In adult rats, chemical inducers increase P4502E1 levels largely by a post-transcriptional type of mechanism. Experiments were carried out to evaluate how soon after birth chemicals such as pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole (MP) can induce P4502E1 and whether the mechanism for induction at these early developmental stages, during active transcription, is different from that found in adults. No P4502E1 was found in fetal liver; in liver microsomes from saline control rats, there was a progressive increase in P4502E1 levels and oxidation of dimethylnitrosamine every 2 days after birth, with maximal levels 8 to 14 days after birth. Injecting pyrazole and MP on day 0 and day 1 after birth, resulted in 2- to 4-fold increases (compared to saline control values) in P4502E1 content and oxidation of dimethylnitrosamine in liver microsomes isolated from 2-day-old pups. This extent of increase by treatment with pyrazole or MP over saline control values was similar to that found when pups were treated for 2 days with the inducers on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 19 after birth. Northern blot analysis indicated a progressive increase in P4502E1 mRNA levels, reaching a maximum at about 8 days after birth for saline-treated pups. Pyrazole or MP did not increase P4502E1 mRNA levels over values for the saline controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8450480

Wu, D; Cederbaum, A I

1993-03-01

185

Proteasome inhibition potentiates CYP2E1-mediated toxicity in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Chronic ethanol consumption causes increased oxidative damage in the liver. Induction of CYP2E1 is one pathway involved in how ethanol produces oxidative stress. Ethanol can cause protein accumulation, decreased proteolysis, and decreased proteasome activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of the proteasome activity on CYP2E1-dependent toxicity. HepG2 cells over-expressing CYP2E1 (E47 cells) were treated with arachidonic acid (AA) plus iron, agents important in development of alcoholic liver injury and which are toxic to E47 cells by a mechanism dependent on CYP2E1, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation. Addition of various proteasome inhibitors was associated with significant potentiation of the loss of cell viability caused by AA plus iron. Potentiation of toxicity was associated with increased oxidative damage as reflected by an increase in lipid peroxidation and accumulation of oxidized and nitrated proteins in E47 cells and an enhanced decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. Antioxidants prevented the loss of viability and the potentiation of this loss of viability by proteasome inhibition. CYP2E1 levels were elevated about 3-fold by the proteasome inhibitors. Inhibition of proteasome activity also potentiated toxicity of AA alone and toxicity after treatment to remove glutathione (GSH). Similar results were found in hepatocytes from pyrazole-treated rats with high levels of CYP2E1. In conclusion, proteasome activity plays an important role in modulating CYP2E1-mediated toxicity in HepG2 cells by regulating CYP2E1 levels and by removal of oxidized proteins. Such interactions may be important in CYP2E1-catalyzed toxicity of hepatotoxins and in alcohol-induced liver injury. PMID:12774019

Pérez, María José; Cederbaum, Arthur I

2003-06-01

186

Resolvin E1 promotes phagocytosis-induced neutrophil apoptosis and accelerates resolution of pulmonary inflammation.  

PubMed

Inappropriate neutrophil activation contributes to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Apoptosis is essential for removal of neutrophils from inflamed tissues and timely resolution of inflammation. Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is an endogenous lipid mediator derived from the ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid that displays proresolving actions. Because the balance of prosurvival and proapoptosis signals determines the fate of neutrophils, we investigated the impact of RvE1 on neutrophil apoptosis and the outcome of neutrophil-mediated pulmonary inflammation in mice. Culture of human neutrophils with RvE1 accelerated apoptosis evoked by phagocytosis of opsonized Escherichia coli or yeast. RvE1 through the leukotriene B(4) receptor BLT1 enhanced NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. RvE1 also attenuated ERK and Akt-mediated apoptosis-suppressing signals from myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A, and bacterial DNA, shifting the balance of pro- and anti-survival signals toward apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. In mice, RvE1 treatment enhanced the resolution of established neutrophil-mediated pulmonary injury evoked by intratracheal instillation or i.p. administration of live E. coli or intratracheal instillation of carrageenan plus myeloperoxidase via facilitating neutrophil apoptosis and their removal by macrophages. The actions of RvE1 were prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. These results identify a mechanism, promotion of phagocytosis-induced neutrophil apoptosis and mitigation of potent anti-apoptosis signals, by which RvE1 could enhance resolution of acute lung inflammation. PMID:22927428

El Kebir, Driss; Gjorstrup, Per; Filep, János G

2012-08-27

187

Effect of prostaglandin E1 analogue administration on peripheral skin temperature at high altitude.  

PubMed

The effect of prostaglandin E1 analogue on peripheral skin temperature was examined at high altitude, where local cold injuries are common owing to severe environmental conditions. The peripheral skin temperature at rest was significantly lower at higher altitudes. Oral administration of the prostaglandin E1 analogue limaprost reversed this temperature decrease, probably by enhancement of peripheral circulation. The temperature recovery rate after a cold water challenge was also improved after the administration of limaprost. This oral type of prostaglandin E1 analogue is strongly recommended as an effective prophylactic and therapeutic vasodilator for local cold injuries at high altitudes. PMID:8203772

Saito, S; Shimada, H

1994-06-01

188

Suppression of mutations in two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes by the adenovirus E1A protein.  

PubMed

The protein products of the adenoviral E1A gene are implicated in a variety of transcriptional and cell cycle events, involving interactions with several proteins present in human cells, including parts of the transcriptional machinery and negative regulators of cell division such as the Rb gene product and p107. To determine if there are functional homologs of E1A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have developed a genetic screen for mutants that depend on E1A for growth. The screen is based on a colony color sectoring assay which allows the identification of mutants dependent on the maintenance and expression of an E1A-containing plasmid. Using this screen, we have isolated five mutants that depend on expression of the 12S or 13S cDNA of E1A for growth. A plasmid shuffle assay confirms that the plasmid-dependent phenotype is due to the presence of either the 12S or the 13S E1A cDNA and that both forms of E1A rescue growth of all mutants equally well. The five mutants fall into two classes that were named web1 and web2 (for "wants E1A badly"). Plasmid shuffle assays with mutant forms of E1A show that conserved region 1 (CR1) is required for rescue of the growth of the web1 and web2 E1A-dependent yeast mutants, while the N-terminal 22 amino acids are only partially required; conserved region 2 (CR2) and the C terminus are dispensable. The phenotypes of mutants in both the web1 and the web2 groups are due to a single gene defect, and the yeast genes that fully complement the mutant phenotypes of both groups were cloned. The WEB1 gene sequence encodes a 1,273-amino-acid protein that is identical to SEC31, a protein involved in the budding of transport vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum. The WEB2 gene encodes a 1,522-amino-acid protein with homology to nucleic acid-dependent ATPases. Deletion of either WEB1 or WEB2 is lethal. Expression of E1A is not able to rescue the lethality of either the web1 or the web2 null allele, implying allele-specific mutations that lead to E1A dependence. PMID:7760818

Zieler, H A; Walberg, M; Berg, P

1995-06-01

189

A Role for E1B-AP5 in ATR Signaling Pathways during Adenovirus Infection?  

PubMed Central

E1B-55K-associated protein 5 (E1B-AP5) is a cellular, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein that is targeted by adenovirus (Ad) E1B-55K during infection. The function of E1B-AP5 during infection, however, remains largely unknown. Given the role of E1B-55K targets in the DNA damage response, we examined whether E1B-AP5 function was integral to these pathways. Here, we show a novel role for E1B-AP5 as a key regulator of ATR signaling pathways activated during Ad infection. E1B-AP5 is recruited to viral replication centers during infection, where it colocalizes with ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) and the ATR substrate replication protein A 32 (RPA32). Indeed, E1B-AP5 associates with ATRIP and RPA complex component RPA70 in both uninfected and Ad-infected cells. Additionally, glutathione S-transferase pull-downs show that E1B-AP5 associates with RPA components RPA70 and RPA32 directly in vitro. E1B-AP5 is required for the ATR-dependent phosphorylation of RPA32 during infection and contributes to the Ad-induced phosphorylation of Smc1 and H2AX. In this regard, it is interesting that Ad5 and Ad12 differentially promote the phosphorylation of RPA32, Rad9, and Smc1 during infection such that Ad12 promotes a significant phosphorylation of RPA32 and Rad9, whereas Ad5 only weakly promotes RPA32 phosphorylation and does not induce Rad9 phosphorylation. These data suggest that Ad5 and Ad12 have evolved different strategies to regulate DNA damage signaling pathways during infection in order to promote viral replication. Taken together, our results define a role for E1B-AP5 in ATR signaling pathways activated during infection. This might have broader implications for the regulation of ATR activity during cellular DNA replication or in response to DNA damage.

Blackford, Andrew N.; Bruton, Rachel K.; Dirlik, Orkide; Stewart, Grant S.; Taylor, A. Malcolm R.; Dobner, Thomas; Grand, Roger J. A.; Turnell, Andrew S.

2008-01-01

190

Suppression of mutations in two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes by the adenovirus E1A protein.  

PubMed Central

The protein products of the adenoviral E1A gene are implicated in a variety of transcriptional and cell cycle events, involving interactions with several proteins present in human cells, including parts of the transcriptional machinery and negative regulators of cell division such as the Rb gene product and p107. To determine if there are functional homologs of E1A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have developed a genetic screen for mutants that depend on E1A for growth. The screen is based on a colony color sectoring assay which allows the identification of mutants dependent on the maintenance and expression of an E1A-containing plasmid. Using this screen, we have isolated five mutants that depend on expression of the 12S or 13S cDNA of E1A for growth. A plasmid shuffle assay confirms that the plasmid-dependent phenotype is due to the presence of either the 12S or the 13S E1A cDNA and that both forms of E1A rescue growth of all mutants equally well. The five mutants fall into two classes that were named web1 and web2 (for "wants E1A badly"). Plasmid shuffle assays with mutant forms of E1A show that conserved region 1 (CR1) is required for rescue of the growth of the web1 and web2 E1A-dependent yeast mutants, while the N-terminal 22 amino acids are only partially required; conserved region 2 (CR2) and the C terminus are dispensable. The phenotypes of mutants in both the web1 and the web2 groups are due to a single gene defect, and the yeast genes that fully complement the mutant phenotypes of both groups were cloned. The WEB1 gene sequence encodes a 1,273-amino-acid protein that is identical to SEC31, a protein involved in the budding of transport vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum. The WEB2 gene encodes a 1,522-amino-acid protein with homology to nucleic acid-dependent ATPases. Deletion of either WEB1 or WEB2 is lethal. Expression of E1A is not able to rescue the lethality of either the web1 or the web2 null allele, implying allele-specific mutations that lead to E1A dependence.

Zieler, H A; Walberg, M; Berg, P

1995-01-01

191

Tensile strength requirements for sutures.  

PubMed

The official requirements for sutures in Australia are those of British Pharmacopoeia (B.P.). The results of a survey conducted by this Laboratory indicate that the B.P. test and specifications for knot pull strength are no longer appropriate for sutures currently available in this country. It is suggested that tensile strength measurements on sutures should be carried out, without prior soaking, using the load cell type of constant rate of extension apparatus rather than the pendulum type tester specified in the B.P. Use of a simple knot is suitable for testing synthetic sutures, but the surgeon's knot is preferred for catgut. All products tested easily met both the B.P. and the United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P.) requirements for tensile strength. PMID:6131988

Lee, S; Hailey, D M; Lea, A R

1983-02-01

192

Akt is required for Axl-Gas6 signaling to protect cells from E1A-mediated apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenovirus type 5 E1A protein (E1A) associates with anti-tumor activities by reversing the transformed phenotype, inhibiting metastasis, and inducing apoptosis. We have previously identified that E1A suppresses the expression of Axl, a transforming tyrosine kinase and that Axl-Gas6 receptor-ligand interaction prevents E1A transfectants from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. To determine how the Axl-Gas6 interaction prevents E1A-mediated apoptosis, we analysed

Wei-Ping Lee; Yong Wen; Brian Varnum; Mien-Chie Hung; M-C Hung

2002-01-01

193

Muscle hypertrophy, hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength-trained and untrained men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormonal and neuromuscular adaptations to strength training were studied in eight male strength athletes (SA) and eight non-strength\\u000a athletes (NA). The experimental design comprised a 21-week strength-training period. Basal hormonal concentrations of serum\\u000a total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT) and cortisol (C) and maximal isometric strength, right leg 1 repetition maximum\\u000a (RM) of the leg extensors were measured at weeks

Juha P. Ahtiainen; Arto Pakarinen; Markku Alen; William J. Kraemer; Keijo Häkkinen

2003-01-01

194

26 CFR 1.149(e)-1 - Information reporting requirements for tax-exempt bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.149(e)-1 Information reporting requirements for tax-exempt bonds. (a) General...

2013-04-01

195

26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

2013-04-01

196

26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

2013-04-01

197

Locations of carbohydrate sites on alphavirus glycoproteins show that E1 forms an icosahedral scaffold.  

PubMed

There are 80 spikes on the surface of Sindbis virus arranged as an icosahedral surface lattice. Each spike consists of three copies of each of the glycoproteins E1 and E2. There are two glycosylation sites on E1 and two on E2. These four sites have been located by removal of the glycosylation recognition motifs using site-specific mutagenesis, followed by cryoelectron microscopy. The positions of these sites have demonstrated that E2 forms the protruding spikes and that E1 must be long and narrow, lying flat on the viral surface, forming an icosahedral scaffold analogous to the arrangement of the E glycoprotein in flaviviruses. This arrangement of E1 leads to both dimeric and trimeric intermolecular contacts, consistent with the observed structural changes that occur on fusion with host cell membranes, suggesting a similar fusion mechanism for alpha- and flaviviruses. PMID:11301008

Pletnev, S V; Zhang, W; Mukhopadhyay, S; Fisher, B R; Hernandez, R; Brown, D T; Baker, T S; Rossmann, M G; Kuhn, R J

2001-04-01

198

Replication of colicinogenic factor E 1 DNA: evidence for a discontinuous replication mechanism  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of Col E 1 DNA replication was investigated in a plasmolysed cell system prepared from chloramphenicoltreated E. coli JC 411 (Col E 1). After pulse-labelling with 3H-dTTP a considerable fraction of the newly synthesized DNA was recovered as single-stranded fragments. Upon alkali denaturation the pulse label was found in DNA chains sedimenting slower than unit length Col E 1 strands with a prominent peak at 5 S. During a chase with unlabeled precursors the label is transferred nearly completely into supercoiled Col E 1 DNA. DNA ligase appears to be required for the joining of the 5 S pieces since in the absence of NAD an accumulation of short fragments is observed.

Staudenbauer, Walter L.

1974-01-01

199

26 CFR 1.1397E-1 - Qualified zone academy bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1397E-1 Qualified zone...i), (ii), (iii), (iv) or (v). Services of employees of the eligible local education agency do not constitute...

2009-04-01

200

26 CFR 1.1397E-1 - Qualified zone academy bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1397E-1 Qualified zone...i), (ii), (iii), (iv) or (v). Services of employees of the eligible local education agency do not constitute...

2010-04-01

201

Duplex Ultrasonography After Prostaglandin E1 Injection of the Clitoris in a Case of Hyperreactio Luteinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an unusual case of persistent postpartum clitorimegaly due to ovarian hyperreactio luteinalis. Duplex ultrasonography of the clitoris after intracorporeal injection of prostaglandin E1 revealed marked clitoral erection and increased arterial flow, as in the penis.

Emre Akkus; Serge Carrier; Charles Turzan; To-Nao Wang; F. Lue

1995-01-01

202

Resolvin E1 Improves Tear Production and Decreases Inflammation in a Dry Eye Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose Dry eye (DE) is a common ocular surface disease, particularly among women and the elderly, with chronic symptoms of eye irritation and, in severe cases, blurred vision. Several studies have shown that there is an inflammatory component in DE, although the pathogenesis is not thoroughly understood. Resolvin E1 (RvE1; RX-10001) is an endogenous mediator derived from the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and is involved in inflammation resolution and tissue protection. Here we investigated the role of RvE1 in a DE mouse model. Methods Thirteen- to 14-week-old female BALB/C mice were exposed to desiccating conditions. One week after DE exposure, animals were treated topically with drug or vehicle 4 times per day for an additional week. Controls were nontreated animals placed in a normal environment. Schirmer's test was performed before treatment initiation and at days 2 and 4 after treatment. Density of corneal epithelial cells was analyzed in vivo using the Rostock Cornea Module of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT-II). Corneas were processed using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence examination. Results Schirmer's test showed a significant decrease in tear production in DE compared with controls. There was no change at 2 and 4 days after treatment with the vehicle, but a significant increase was observed at 2 and 4 days in the RvE1-treated group. The density of the superficial epithelial cells showed a significant decrease after DE compared with controls, which increased after 7 days of RvE1 treatment. Western blot analysis showed that ?-smooth muscle actin and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were strongly upregulated after DE and decreased after 7 days of RvE1 treatment. Immunofluorescence confirmed strong positive staining of ?-smooth muscle actin and COX-2 in stroma and/or in epithelia after DE, which decreased with RvE1 treatment. The percentage of infiltrating CD4+ T cells and CD11b+ cells decreased after RvE1 treatment when compared with DE. Conclusion RvE1 promotes tear production, corneal epithelial integrity, and a decrease in inflammatory inducible COX-2. In the stroma, RvE1 inhibits keratocyte transformation to myofibroblasts and lowers the number of monocytes/macrophages in this DE mouse model. These results suggest that RvE1 and similar resolvin analogs have therapeutic potential in the treatment of DE.

Li, Na; He, Jiucheng; Schwartz, Carl Eric; Gjorstrup, Per

2010-01-01

203

The Principles of Strengths-Based Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doing what we do best leads to high levels of engagement and productivity. Educators who capitalize on their strengths daily help students do what they do best by developing a strengths- based approach to education. The principles of strengths-based education include measurement, individualization, networking, deliberate application, and intentional development. Through a parallel process, educators practice the principles of strengths-based education

Shane J. Lopez; Michelle C Louis

2009-01-01

204

Tensile Strength Characteristics of Unsaturated Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile strength characteristics of unsaturated sands are examined through a combined theoretical and experimental study. The characteristics of tensile strength in all three water retention regimes of pendular, funicular, and capillary are examined. A simple direct tensile strength apparatus is employed to determine tensile strength for sands with a broad range of particle sizes from silty sand to fine sand

Ning Lu; Bailin Wu

2007-01-01

205

The Strength-Based Counseling Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article proposes a strength-based model for counseling at-risk youth. The author presents the assumptions, basic concepts, and values of the strength perspective in counseling and offers strength categories as a conceptual model for viewing clients' behavior. Propositions leading toward a theory of strength-based counseling and stages of…

Smith, Elsie J.

2006-01-01

206

Design Considerations of a Galileo E1 Correlator on the Namuru Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the design modifications required to receive and process Galileo E1b and E1c signals on the Namuru platform along with the existing GPS L1 C\\/A correlator. Modifications starting at the lowest level module in hardware up to the acquisition and tracking loop algorithms in the software is explained with the realization techniques. Even though the major differences are

Nagaraj C Shivaramaiah; Andrew G Dempster

207

Resveratrol Stimulates the Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional and pharmacological factors are needed to prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age. The chemical compounds that act on bone metabolism as nutrients in food, however, are poorly understood. The effect of resveratrol, a natural phytoestrogen, on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells was studied. Resveratrol dose-dependently increased DNA synthesis (10?9?10?7M) of MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition,

Kenichi Mizutani; Katsumi Ikeda; Yasuhiro Kawai; Yukio Yamori

1998-01-01

208

CYP2E1-mediated mechanism of anti-genotoxicity of the broccoli constituent sulforaphane  

Microsoft Academic Search

^To whom requests for reprints should be addressed The broccoli constituent sulforaphane (l-isothiocyanate-4- methylsulfinylbutane) has previously been shown to protect rats against 9,10-dimethyl-lr2-benz(a)anthracene tumori- genesis, thought to be due, at least in part, to induction of phase II detoxificatio n. We investigated the ability of sulforaphane to also inhibit the phase I enzyme cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is

Silvia Barcelo; John M. Gardiner; Andreas Gescher; J. Kevin Chipmanw

1996-01-01

209

Chang’E-1 precision orbit determination and lunar gravity field solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present results assessing the role of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) tracking data through precision orbit determination (POD) during the check-out phase for Chang’E-1, and the lunar gravity field solution CEGM-01 based on the orbital tracking data acquired during the nominal phase of the mission. The POD of Chang’E-1 is performed using S-band two-way Range and

Yan Jianguo; Ping Jinsong; Li Fei; Cao Jianfeng; Huang Qian; Fung Lihe

2010-01-01

210

Calculation of energy levels, {ital E}1 transition amplitudes, and parity violation in francium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many-body perturbation theory in the screened Coulomb interaction was used to calculate energy levels, {ital E}1 trransition amplitudes, and the parity-nonconserving (PNC) {ital E}1 amplitude of the 7{ital s}-8{ital s} transition in francium. The method takes into account the core-polarization effect, the second-order correlations, and the three dominating sequences of higher-order correlation diagrams: screening of the electron-electron interaction, particle-hole interaction,

V. A. Dzuba; V. V. Flambaum; O. P. Sushkov

1995-01-01

211

Cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity is enhanced by elevated expression of cytochrome P450 2E1.  

PubMed

In this study, the possible potentiation of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was examined both in vitro and in vivo. Transfected HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 (E47 cells) and not expressing CYP2E1 (C34 cells) were used as an in vitro model, and mice drinking 2% acetone for 7 days to induce CYP2E1 were used as an in vivo model. Exposure of E47 cells to cisplatin caused a much greater loss of cell viability, more striking depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as compared with C34 cells. The prooxidant L-buthionine-[R,S]-sulfoximine (BSO), which depletes GSH, enhanced cisplatin-induced loss of cell viability, whereas the antioxidant glutathione ethyl ester, or the iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) protected against the cisplatin-induced loss of E47 cell viability. Diallyl sulfide (DAS), an inhibitor of CYP2E1, also protected against the cisplatin toxicity in the E47 cells. After being injected with cisplatin (ip, 45 mg/kg), mice drinking 2% acetone with increased CYP2E1 levels exhibited elevated levels of serum ALT and AST, liver caspase-3 activity and positive staining of TUNEL increased, and histopathology indicated the presence of necrotic foci in livers of acetone plus cisplatin-treated mice. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation as indicated by carbonyl formation, staining of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and iron were higher in the cisplatin plus acetone group, compared with cisplatin alone group. Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that elevated CYP2E1 enhances cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism may involve increased production of ROS and oxidative stress. PMID:16251482

Lu, Yongke; Cederbaum, Arthur I

2005-10-26

212

China Lunar Probe Chang'e-1 Microwave Sounder - Design and some results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chang'e-1 Microwave Sounder (CELMS) is a main payload of Chang'e-1 Moon Orbit Satellite in the first stage of China Lunar Probe. CELMS is a four-frequency microwave radiometer with frequencies 3GHz, 7.8GHz, 19.35GHz and 37GHz. During the one year and four months' working in lunar orbit, it got huge scientific data covering full moon surface and obtained the world first global

Jingshan Jiang; Zhenzhan Wang; Xiaohui Zhang; Yun Li; Xuefei Wang; Tao Wang

2010-01-01

213

The Equine Herpesvirus 2 E1 Open Reading Frame Encodes a Functional Chemokine Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several herpesviruses contain open reading frames (ORFs) that encode potential homologs of eucaryotic genes. Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) is a gammaherpesvirus related to other lymphotropic herpesviruses such as herpesvirus saimiri and Epstein-Barr virus. The E1 ORF of EHV-2, a G protein-coupled receptor homolog, shows 31 to 47% amino acid identity with known CC chemokine receptors. To investigate whether E1 may

GRAZIA CAMARDA; GAIA SPINETTI; GIOVANNI BERNARDINI; CATHERINE MAIR; NICK DAVIS-POYNTER; MAURIZIO C. CAPOGROSSI; MONICA NAPOLITANO

1999-01-01

214

The transposon Tn 1 as a probe for studying ColE1 structure and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insertion of the transposable genetic element Tn1 into different sites of plasmid ColE1 results in a number of mutant phenotypes. Whereas all plasmids examined were present in normal amount, all showed reduced immunity to killing by colicin E1. Of six insertions isolated after conjugation, five fail to produce colicin, are conjugally proficient (transmissible), and map within a 500 nucleotide region

Gordon Dougan; David Sherratt

1977-01-01

215

Chinese Family Strengths and Resiliency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese family and marriage strengths and challenges are delineated in this article, including equity in marriage, affection, the ability to adapt to changes, mutual trust, compatibility, harmony, and family support. Despite the fact that Chinese households are getting smaller as a result of governmental policy and the broadening of housing markets, families remain crucial support networks, especially in the areas

Anqi Xu; Xiaolin Xie; Wenli Liu; Yan Xia; Dalin Liu

2007-01-01

216

Competitive positioning strength: market measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A product's competitive position (CP) identifies the segment the product is targeting and the differentiated value proposition it intends to deliver. When a CP is strong, stakeholders understand for whom the product is intended and why, driving choice in the product category. CP strength (CPS) is directly associated with both firm performance and industry health, as industries with high composite

Sandra J. Burke

2011-01-01

217

Algebraic scaling of material strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength of a brittle material is determined by the extreme tail of its crack-size distribution. The Weibull ansatz of algebraic distributions has been widely used but is not derived from any physical mechanism, and recent results on randomly depleted networks exhibiting exponential distributions have called this ansatz into question. In this paper a simple model for the formation and

W. A. Curtin; H. Scher

1992-01-01

218

CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT AND RESPONSE STRENGTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to

TIMOTHY A. SHAHAN

2010-01-01

219

E1A directly binds and regulates the P/CAF acetyltransferase.  

PubMed Central

The P/CAF protein has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and is capable of binding the transcriptional co-activator CBP. Here we show that P/CAF can regulate transcription and that this function is independent of its binding to CBP. The HAT domain of P/CAF has transcriptional activation potential in yeast. In mammalian cells P/CAF can stimulate transcription of the RSV promoter, using the activity of its HAT domain. We show that the adenovirus protein E1A targets P/CAF and sequesters its transcriptional activity. Binding of E1A to P/CAF is direct, independent of CBP and requires residues within E1A conserved region 1. We find that the P/CAF binding residues in E1A are within a motif shown to be essential for efficient disruption of myogenesis by E1A. The fact that E1A can directly bind and regulate the activity of P/CAF, independently of its regulation of CBP, highlights an important role for P/CAF in the process of cell differentiation.

Reid, J L; Bannister, A J; Zegerman, P; Martinez-Balbas, M A; Kouzarides, T

1998-01-01

220

A family of transcriptional adaptor proteins targeted by the E1A oncoprotein.  

PubMed

The cellular protein p300 is a target of the adenoviral E1A oncoprotein and is thought to participate in preventing the G0/G1 transition in the cell cycle, activating certain enhancers and stimulating differentiation pathways. CBP is a protein that is associated with and coactivates the transcription factor CREB, mediating the induction by cyclic AMP of certain responsive promoters. The sequences of p300 and CBP are highly related. We show here that p300, like CBP2, can stimulate transcription. This activity is directly and specifically inhibited by E1A. We also find that CBP exists in a DNA-bound complex containing a member of the CREB family and that E1A and CBP interact with one another in vivo. In keeping with the idea that E1A functionally targets CBP, cAMP-dependent transcription is repressed by E1A. Thus, p300 and CBP define a family of transcriptional adaptor proteins that are specifically targeted by the E1A oncoprotein. PMID:7870178

Arany, Z; Newsome, D; Oldread, E; Livingston, D M; Eckner, R

1995-03-01

221

Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Protein E1 Binds PERK and Represses the Unfolded Protein Response  

PubMed Central

Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular adaptive response which functions to reduce stress caused by misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We and others have previously shown that infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) or expression of the viral proteins can trigger the UPR. HCV is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus causing chronic diseases in humans. Its genome encodes two envelope proteins E1 and E2 that mature in the ER to form non-covalently bound native complex and disulphide-bonded aggregates. Apart from the ER targeting proteins, cytosolic forms have been documented. We have previously shown that the ER-targeting E1 and E2 are capable of eliciting the UPR whereas others have shown that the cytosolic-targeting E2 can bind to the ER stress kinase PERK to dampen the UPR. In this report, we further show that the other envelope protein E1, in its cytosolic form, can also bind PERK and dampen the UPR. Using GST-pulldown assay, we show that E1 binds to the cytoplasmic domain of PERK, suggesting interaction of E1 and PERK takes place in the cytoplasm. Using reporter gene assay and Western blotting, we show that cytosolic E1 can repress UPR-induced BiP and CHOP promoter activity and reduce UPR-induced CHOP expression level. Altogether these results suggest opposing functions of ER- and cytosolic forms of HCV envelope proteins depending on their subcellular localization.

Egan, Philip A; Sobkowiak, Michal; Chan, Shiu-Wan

2013-01-01

222

Distinct Requirements of Adenovirus E1b55K Protein for Degradation of Cellular Substrates?  

PubMed Central

The E1b55K and E4orf6 proteins of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) assemble into a complex together with cellular proteins including cullin 5, elongins B and C, and Rbx1. This complex possesses E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and targets cellular proteins for proteasome-mediated degradation. The ligase activity has been suggested to be responsible for all functions of E1b55K/E4orf6, including promoting efficient viral DNA replication, preventing a cellular DNA damage response, and stimulating late viral mRNA nuclear export and late protein synthesis. The known cellular substrates for degradation by E1b55K/E4orf6 are the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 DNA repair complex, the tumor suppressor p53, and DNA ligase IV. Here we show that the degradation of individual targets can occur independently of other substrates. Furthermore, we identify separation-of-function mutant forms of E1b55K that can distinguish substrates for binding and degradation. Our results identify distinct regions of E1b55K that are involved in substrate recognition but also imply that there are additional requirements beyond protein association. These mutant proteins will facilitate the determination of the relevance of specific substrates to the functions of E1b55K in promoting infection and inactivating host defenses.

Schwartz, Rachel A.; Lakdawala, Seema S.; Eshleman, Heather D.; Russell, Matthew R.; Carson, Christian T.; Weitzman, Matthew D.

2008-01-01

223

Measuring the strength of mice.  

PubMed

Kondziela devised the inverted screen test and published it in 1964. It is a test of muscle strength using all four limbs. Most normal mice easily score maximum on this task; it is a quick but insensitive gross screen, and the weights test described in this article will provide a finer measure of muscular strength. There are also several strain gauge-based pieces of apparatus available commercially that will provide more graded data than the inverted screen test, but their cost may put them beyond the reach of many laboratories which do not specialize in strength testing. Hence in 2000 a cheap and simple apparatus was devised by the author. It consists of a series of chain links of increasing length, attached to a "fur collector" a ball of fine wire mesh sold for preventing limescale build up in hard water areas. An accidental observation revealed that mice could grip these very tightly, so they proved ideal as a grip point for a weight-lifting apparatus. A common fault with commercial strength meters is that the bar or other grip feature is not thin enough for mice to exert a maximum grip. As a general rule, the thinner the wire or bar, the better a mouse can grip with its small claws. This is a pure test of strength, although as for any test motivational factors could potentially play a role. The use of scale collectors, however, seems to minimize motivational problems as the motivation appears to be very high for most normal young adult mice. PMID:23770643

Deacon, Robert M J

2013-06-02

224

Measuring the Strength of Mice  

PubMed Central

Kondziela7 devised the inverted screen test and published it in 1964. It is a test of muscle strength using all four limbs. Most normal mice easily score maximum on this task; it is a quick but insensitive gross screen, and the weights test described in this article will provide a finer measure of muscular strength. There are also several strain gauge-based pieces of apparatus available commercially that will provide more graded data than the inverted screen test, but their cost may put them beyond the reach of many laboratories which do not specialize in strength testing. Hence in 2000 a cheap and simple apparatus was devised by the author. It consists of a series of chain links of increasing length, attached to a "fur collector" a ball of fine wire mesh sold for preventing limescale build up in hard water areas. An accidental observation revealed that mice could grip these very tightly, so they proved ideal as a grip point for a weight-lifting apparatus. A common fault with commercial strength meters is that the bar or other grip feature is not thin enough for mice to exert a maximum grip. As a general rule, the thinner the wire or bar, the better a mouse can grip with its small claws. This is a pure test of strength, although as for any test motivational factors could potentially play a role. The use of scale collectors, however, seems to minimize motivational problems as the motivation appears to be very high for most normal young adult mice.

Deacon, Robert M.J.

2013-01-01

225

Focused SWOT: diagnosing critical strengths and weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the problems involved in its use, SWOT (strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats) analysis remains a major strategic tool for listing the strengths and weaknesses of an organisation, for recording the major strengths and translating them into value. This paper presents a straightforward methodology for making a structured analysis of strengths and weaknesses, based on an analysis of important value-creating events and the strengths

Alex Coman; Boaz Ronen

2009-01-01

226

Improved potency and selectivity of an oncolytic E1ACR2 and E1B19K deleted adenoviral mutant (Ad??) in prostate and pancreatic cancers  

PubMed Central

Purpose Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses are a promising class of tumor-targeting agents with proven safety in hundreds of patients. However, clinical responses have been limited and viral mutants with higher potency are needed. Here we report on the generation of a novel set of mutants with improved efficacy in prostate and pancreatic carcinoma models. Currently no curative treatments are available for late stage metastatic prostate or rapidly progressing pancreatic cancers. Experimental design Ad5 mutants were created with deletions in the E1ACR2-region for tumor selectivity and/or the E1B19K-gene for attenuated replication in vivo; all constructs retain the E3-genes intact. Cell killing efficacy, replication and cytotoxicity in combination with chemotherapeutics were investigated in normal cells (PrEC, NHBE), seven carcinoma cell lines, and human (PC3, DU145) and murine (TRAMPC, CMT-64, CMT-93) tumor models in vivo. Results The double-deleted Ad?? (?E1ACR2 and ?E1B19K) mutant had high cell killing activity in prostate, pancreatic and lung carcinomas. Replication was similar to wild-type in all tumor cells and was attenuated in normal cells to levels less than the single-deleted Ad?CR2 mutant. Ad?? combined with the chemotherapeutics docetaxel and mitoxantrone resulted in synergistically enhanced cell killing and greatly improved anti-tumor efficacy in prostate xenografts in vivo. In murine immunocompetent in vivo models efficacy was greater for mutants with the E3B-genes intact even in the absence of viral replication indicating attenuated macrophage-dependent clearance. Conclusions These data suggest that the novel oncolytic mutant Ad?? is a promising candidate for targeting of solid tumors specifically in combination with chemotherapeutics.

Oberg, Daniel; Yanover, Eva; Adam, Virginie; Sweeney, Katrina; Costas, Celina; Lemoine, Nick R; Hallden, Gunnel

2010-01-01

227

Extra gamma-ray strength for {sup 116,117}Sn arising from pygmy dipole resonance  

SciTech Connect

Photoneutron cross sections were measured for {sup 117}Sn and {sup 116}Sn near neutron thresholds with quasi-monochromatic laser Compton scattering gamma-rays. The measured cross sections for {sup 117}Sn and {sup 116}Sn are strongly enhanced from the threshold behavior expected for L = 1 neutron emissions after E1 photoexcitation. This suggests the presence of extra gamma-ray strength in the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. The present cross sections were analyzed together with radiative neutron capture cross sections for {sup 116}Sn within the framework of the statistical model calculation. It is shown that the extra gamma-ray strength can be interpreted as pygmy E1 resonance which was previously reported in the nuclear resonance fluorescence experiment for {sup 116}Sn and {sup 124}Sn.

Kamata, M.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Itoh, O.; Iwamoto, C.; Kondo, T. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Lui, Y.-W. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Goriely, S. [Institute d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP-226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2010-06-01

228

Mutation in E1, the Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme, Reduces Drosophila Lifespan and Results in Motor Impairment  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases cause tremendous suffering for those afflicted and their families. Many of these diseases involve accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins thought to play a causal role in disease pathology. Ubiquitinated proteins are often found in these protein aggregates, and the aggregates themselves have been shown to inhibit the activity of the proteasome. These and other alterations in the Ubiquitin Pathway observed in neurodegenerative diseases have led to the question of whether impairment of the Ubiquitin Pathway on its own can increase mortality or if ongoing neurodegeneration alters Ubiquitin Pathway function as a side-effect. To address the role of the Ubiquitin Pathway in vivo, we studied loss-of-function mutations in the Drosophila Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme, Uba1 or E1, the most upstream enzyme in the Ubiquitin Pathway. Loss of only one functional copy of E1 caused a significant reduction in adult lifespan. Rare homozygous hypomorphic E1 mutants reached adulthood. These mutants exhibited further reduced lifespan and showed inappropriate Ras activation in the brain. Removing just one functional copy of Ras restored the lifespan of heterozygous E1 mutants to that of wild-type flies and increased the survival of homozygous E1 mutants. E1 homozygous mutants also showed severe motor impairment. Our findings suggest that processes that impair the Ubiquitin Pathway are sufficient to cause early mortality. Reduced lifespan and motor impairment are seen in the human disease X-linked Infantile Spinal Muscular Atrophy, which is associated with mutation in human E1 warranting further analysis of these mutants as a potential animal model for study of this disease.

Liu, Hsiu-Yu; Pfleger, Cathie M.

2013-01-01

229

Ethanol-mediated transplacental induction of CYP2E1 in fetal rat liver.  

PubMed

We examined the potential for the widely consumed xenobiotic ethanol to transplacentally induce fetal rat CYP2E1. Throughout gestation, rat dams were fed a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol or two separate control diets. At 2 days before term, the dams were killed, and maternal and embryonic tissues were collected. Immunoblot analysis of microsomes from fetal liver, placenta and maternal brain revealed a band that comigrated with adult liver CYP2E1. The identity of the immunoreactive protein in placenta, brain and fetal liver was substantiated as CYP2E1 through restriction enzyme digestion of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction product. Quantification of immunoblots containing microsomes from maternal and fetal liver of ethanol-treated dams displayed a 1.4- and 2.4-fold increase in CYP2E1, respectively, compared with microsomes from pair-fed controls. Chlorzoxazone and low substrate concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine were used as metabolic probes for CYP2E1. The rate of chlorzoxazone metabolism by maternal hepatic microsomes from dams fed the 5% ethanol diet was 2.6-fold greater than that of controls. Conversely, a negligible increase was observed in the rate of metabolism by hepatic microsomes from ethanol-exposed fetuses compared with pair-fed animals. When N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylation was examined, these same fetal samples exhibited greater rates of activity (1.5-fold) compared with microsomes from control animals. However, this increase was not as great as expected considering the 2.4-fold increase in CYP2E1 protein. Collectively, fetuses exposed to a 5% ethanol diet throughout gestation exhibited transplacental induction of an hepatic CYP2E1 that may possess different catalytic properties from the analogous adult enzyme. PMID:9262372

Carpenter, S P; Savage, D D; Schultz, E D; Raucy, J L

1997-08-01

230

Two mutations impair the stability and function of ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1).  

PubMed

Protein ubiquitination plays critical roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes including cell proliferation, signal transduction, oncogenesis, and hypoxic response. TS20 is a Balb3T3-derived cell line in which ubiquitination is inhibited by restrictive temperature. While TS20 has been used to elucidate the degradation of many important proteins including p53, p27, HIF-1?, and ornithine decarboxylase, the molecular basis of its temperature sensitivity has not been fully determined. We cloned full-length E1 cDNA from TS20. Sequencing analysis revealed two point mutations (nt736G to A and nt2313G to C) that lead to substitution of aa189A to T and aa714W to C, respectively. Transient transfection assays revealed that mutant E1 was less stable than its wild-type counterpart, and restrictive temperature (39°C) accelerated its degradation. Under permissive temperature, reverting aa714C to W significantly improved E1 stability and activity. Under restrictive temperature, reverting of both substitutions was required to fully restore E1 stability. Similar results were observed when the mutants were expressed in non-TS20 cells, indicating the mutations are sufficient for its temperature sensitive degradation observed in TS20 cells. Functionally, reverting aa714C to W was sufficient to facilitate the monoubiquitination of H2A and to support TS20 growth at 39°C. It also significantly improved the ubiquitination-dependent disposal of HIF-1?. Our data conclusively demonstrate that mutations introgenic to UVBE1 cause E1 instability, which leads to deficiency of E1 function. Our data establish the molecular basis for unambiguous interpretation of experimental data based on TS20 cells, and provide new insight into the structural determinants of E1 stability. PMID:21678405

Lao, Taotao; Chen, Shuyang; Sang, Nianli

2012-04-01

231

Two Mutations Impair the Stability and Function of Ubiquitin-Activating Enzyme (E1)  

PubMed Central

Protein ubiquitination plays critical roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes including cell proliferation, signal transduction, oncogenesis and hypoxic response. TS20 is a Balb3T3-derived cell line in which ubiquitination is inhibited by restrictive temperature. While TS20 has been used to elucidate the degradation of many important proteins including p53, p27, HIF-1? and ornithine decarboxylase, the molecular basis of its temperature sensitivity has not been fully determined. We cloned full-length E1 cDNA from TS20. Sequencing analysis revealed two point mutations (nt736G to A and nt2313G to C) that lead to substitution of aa189A to T and aa714W to C, respectively. Transient transfection assays revealed that mutant E1 was less stable than its wild-type counterpart, and restrictive temperature (39°C) accelerated its degradation. Under permissive temperature, reverting aa714C to W significantly improved E1 stability and activity. Under restrictive temperature, reverting of both substitutions was required to fully restore E1 stability. Similar results were observed when the mutants were expressed in non-TS20 cells, indicating the mutations are sufficient for its temperature sensitive degradation observed in TS20 cells. Functionally, reverting aa714C to W was sufficient to facilitate the monoubiquitination of H2A and to support TS20 growth at 39°C. It also significantly improved the ubiquitination-dependent disposal of HIF-1?. Our data conclusively demonstrate that mutations introgenic to UVBE1 cause E1 instability, which leads to deficiency of E1 function. Our data establish the molecular basis for unambiguous interpretation of experimental data based on TS20 cells, and provide new insight into the structural determinants of E1 stability.

Lao, Taotao; Chen, Shuyang; Sang, Nianli

2011-01-01

232

Structural Dissection of a Gating Mechanism Preventing Misactivation of Ubiquitin by NEDD8’s E1  

SciTech Connect

Post-translational covalent modification by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) is a major eukaryotic mechanism for regulating protein function. In general, each UBL has its own E1 that serves as the entry point for a cascade. The E1 first binds the UBL and catalyzes adenylation of the UBL's C-terminus, prior to promoting UBL transfer to a downstream E2. Ubiquitin's Arg 72, which corresponds to Ala72 in the UBL NEDD8, is a key E1 selectivity determinant: swapping ubiquitin and NEDD8 residue 72 identity was shown previously to swap their E1 specificity. Correspondingly, Arg190 in the UBA3 subunit of NEDD8's heterodimeric E1 (the APPBP1-UBA3 complex), which corresponds to a Gln in ubiquitin's E1 UBA1, is a key UBL selectivity determinant. Here, we dissect this specificity with biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analysis of APPBP1-UBA3-NEDD8 complexes in which NEDD8's residue 72 and UBA3's residue 190 are substituted with different combinations of Ala, Arg, or Gln. APPBP1-UBA3's preference for NEDD8's Ala72 appears to be indirect, due to proper positioning of UBA3's Arg190. By contrast, our data are consistent with direct positive interactions between ubiquitin's Arg72 and an E1's Gln. However, APPBP1-UBA3's failure to interact with a UBL having Arg72 is not due to a lack of this favorable interaction, but rather arises from UBA3's Arg190 acting as a negative gate. Thus, parallel residues from different UBL pathways can utilize distinct mechanisms to dictate interaction selectivity, and specificity can be amplified by barriers that prevent binding to components of different conjugation cascades.

Souphron,J.; Waddell, M.; Paydar, A.; Tokgöz-Gromley, Z.; Roussel, M.; Schulman, B.

2008-01-01

233

On the strength of glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass has been ignored by most of the structural engineering community because of its brittle nature. Glass is an indispensable material in optical systems and sometimes safety, even human safety, depends upon optical glass elements to behave in a structurally reliable manner. One such occasion is to accommodate survey cameras in transport-class aircraft. Fortunately, glass has reliable structural properties and the methods for structural analysis and testing for glass have been well developed. Unfortunately, the glass suppliers have not chosen to publish the appropriate strength properties for many of their glasses. This paper describes the physics of the strength of glass and the engineering application of that physics to an airborne survey aircraft for the safety of its inhabitants.

Hatheway, Alson E.

2013-09-01

234

Tandem Interferometry of the Low Frequency Two Phonon Difference Spectrum of Silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tandem Fabry-Perot interferometer was constructed which allows the observation of a strong, broad central feature in the low frequency Brillouin spectrum of silicon. This feature has been the subject of recent speculation, and the first quantitative measurements of this phenomenon are presented here. It is found that the feature is strongly temperature dependent, and that except for local heating

Mark Winston Anderson

1982-01-01

235

Cyclic strength of hard metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatigue limit of the titanium carbide and tungsten carbide alloys investigated on a basis of 5·108 cycles lies in the range (20–30)·107 Pa, and is thus comparable with the endurance of type ShKh high-carbon (~1% C-Mn-Si-Cr) ball-bearing steels. The strength and character of fracture of the hard metals are determined by the properties and structural state of their phase

N. N. Sereda; A. K. Gerikhanov; M. S. Koval'chenko; L. G. Pedanov

1985-01-01

236

Strength of Shocked Aluminum Oxynitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) is a polycrystalline and transparent ceramic. An accurate characterization of its shock response is critically important for its applications as transparent armor. Shock wave profiles measured in a series of plate impact experiments on AlON [Thornhill, et al., SCCM-2005, 143-146 (2006)] have been reanalyzed using finite element wave propagation simulations and considering an effective strength behavior that

J. Zhu; R. Feng; D. P. Dandekar

2009-01-01

237

Physical Strength and Job Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by David Lane of Rice University, this case study aims to answer the question, "How does one select employees to perform physically demanding jobs?" It examines the relationship between isometric strength tests and job performance for one hundred forty-seven workers. The author has structured the lesson to provide a background, methods and procedures, univariate statistics, scatter plots, correlations, regression and raw data. Some of the main concepts include: correlation, linear regression, multiple regression.

Lane, David M.

2009-03-03

238

Activation of the human beta interferon gene by the adenovirus type 12 E1B gene  

SciTech Connect

The transcription of endogenous beta interferon mRNA was activated in human embryo kidney (HEK) cells infected with adenovirus 12 (Ad12) but was activated only inefficiently or not at all in HEK cells infected with Ad5 and rc-1 (Ad5 dl312 containing the Ad12 E1A region). The analysis with Ad12 mutants showed that Ad12 E1B products, especially the 19K protein, were important for the expression of the endogenous beta interferon gene and Ad12 E1A products were not involved in the expression. The expression of exogeneously transfected pIFN-CAT (a hybrid plasmid having the human beta interferon promoter fused with the CAT gene) was activated in HEK and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells infected with either Ad12 or Ad5. The analysis of cotransfection of CEF cells with pIFN-CAT and plasmids containing fragments of Ad12 or Ad5 DNA showed that Ad12 or Ad5 E1B (possibly the 19K protein) was and E1A was not involved in the expression of the exogenous pIFN-CAT.

Shiroki, K.; Toth, M.

1988-01-01

239

Importin ?/? mediates nuclear import of individual SUMO E1 subunits and of the holo-enzyme  

PubMed Central

SUMOylation, reversible attachment of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO), serves to regulate hundreds of proteins. Consistent with predominantly nuclear targets, enzymes required for attachment and removal of SUMO are highly enriched in this compartment. This is true also for the first enzyme of the SUMOylation cascade, the SUMO E1 enzyme heterodimer, Aos1/Uba2 (SAE1/SAE2). This essential enzyme serves to activate SUMO and to transfer it to the E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. Although the last 40 amino acids in yeast Uba2 have been implicated in its nuclear localization, little was known about the import pathways of Aos1, Uba2, and/or of the assembled E1 heterodimer. Here we show that the mammalian E1 subunits can be imported separately, identify nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in Aos1 and in Uba2, and demonstrate that their import is mediated by importin ?/? in vitro and in intact cells. Once assembled into a stable heterodimer, the E1 enzyme can still be efficiently imported by importin ?/?, due to the Uba2 NLS that is still accessible. These pathways may serve distinct purposes: import of nascent subunits prior to assembly and reimport of stable E1 enzyme complex after mitosis.

Moutty, Marie Christine; Sakin, Volkan; Melchior, Frauke

2011-01-01

240

Genetic mapping of a major site of phosphorylation in adenovirus type 2 E1A proteins.  

PubMed Central

Adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) encodes two acidic phosphoproteins which are required for transactivation of viral transcription, efficient viral DNA replication in phase G0-arrested human cells, and oncogenic transformation of rodent cells. Biochemical analysis of in vivo 32P-labeled adenovirus type 2 E1A proteins purified with monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that these proteins were phosphorylated at multiple serine residues. Two-dimensional phosphotryptic peptide maps of wild-type and mutant E1A proteins were used to locate a major site of E1A protein phosphorylation at serine-219 of the large E1A protein. Although this serine fell within a consensus sequence for phosphorylation by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases, experiments with mutant CHO cells defective in these enzymes indicated that it was not. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute an alanine for serine-219. This mutation prevented phosphorylation at this site. Nonetheless, the mutant was indistinguishable from the wild type for early gene transactivation, replication on G0-arrested WI-38 cells, and transformation of cloned rat embryo fibroblast cells. Images

Tsukamoto, A S; Ponticelli, A; Berk, A J; Gaynor, R B

1986-01-01

241

Expression and Characterization of Acidothermus celluloyticus E1 Endoglucanase in Transgenic Duckweed Lemna minor 8627  

SciTech Connect

Endoglucanase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was expressed cytosolically under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic duckweed, Lemna minor 8627 without any obvious observable phenotypic effects on morphology or rate of growth. The recombinant enzyme co-migrated with the purified catalytic domain fraction of the native E1 protein on western blot analysis, revealing that the cellulose-binding domain was cleaved near or in the linker region. The duckweed-expressed enzyme was biologically active and the expression level was up to 0.24% of total soluble protein. The endoglucanase activity with carboxymethylcellulose averaged 0.2 units mg protein{sup -1} extracted from fresh duckweed. The optimal temperature and pH for E1 enzyme activity were about 80 C and pH 5, respectively. While extraction with HEPES (N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N{prime}-[2-ethanesulfonic acid]) buffer (pH 8) resulted in the highest recovery of total soluble proteins and E1 enzyme, extraction with citrate buffer (pH 4.8) at 65 C enriched relative amounts of E1 enzyme in the extract. This study demonstrates that duckweed may offer new options for the expression of cellulolytic enzymes in transgenic plants.

Sun, Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Himmel, M. E.; Skory, C. D.; Adney, W. S.; Thomas, S. R.; Tisserat, B.; Nishimura, Y.; Yamamoto, Y. T.

2007-01-01

242

Immunoaffinity purification of baculovirus-expressed rubella virus E1 for diagnostic purposes.  

PubMed Central

Three monoclonal antibodies, termed 4E10, 1E11:10, and 2D9:1, were generated against rubella virus. Immunoblot analysis with purified authentic rubella virus or recombinant baculovirus-expressed rubella virus structural proteins E1, E2, and C demonstrated that they were directed against the E1 envelope glycoprotein of the rubella virus particle. By using the yeast Ty virus-like particle system, it was possible to map the binding site of 1E11:10 within amino acids 236 to 286 of the E1 protein and the binding sites of 2D9:1 and 4E10 outside this region. Immunoaffinity purification with these monoclonal antibodies made it evident that they are useful for obtaining large quantities of pure baculovirus-expressed rubella virus envelope protein E1. The diagnostic potential of this immunoaffinity-purified recombinant rubella virus E1 protein compared with that of authentic rubella virus is demonstrated. Images

Lindqvist, C; Schmidt, M; Heinola, J; Jaatinen, R; Osterblad, M; Salmi, A; Keranen, S; Akerman, K; Oker-Blom, C

1994-01-01

243

Structural Insights into E1-Catalyzed Ubiquitin Activation and Transfer to Conjugating Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) are conjugated to their targets by specific cascades involving three classes of enzymes, E1, E2, and E3. Each E1 adenylates the C terminus of its cognate Ubl, forms a E1{approx}Ubl thioester intermediate, and ultimately generates a thioester-linked E2{approx}Ubl product. We have determined the crystal structure of yeast Uba1, revealing a modular architecture with individual domains primarily mediating these specific activities. The negatively charged C-terminal ubiquitin-fold domain (UFD) is primed for binding of E2s and recognizes their positively charged first a helix via electrostatic interactions. In addition, a mobile loop from the domain harboring the E1 catalytic cysteine contributes to E2 binding. Significant, experimentally observed motions in the UFD around a hinge in the linker connecting this domain to the rest of the enzyme suggest a conformation-dependent mechanism for the transthioesterification function of Uba1; however, this mechanism clearly differs from that of other E1 enzymes.

Lee,I.; Schindelin, H.

2008-01-01

244

Active site remodelling accompanies thioester bond formation in the SUMO E1  

SciTech Connect

E1 enzymes activate ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins in two steps by carboxy-terminal adenylation and thioester bond formation to a conserved catalytic cysteine in the E1 Cys domain. The structural basis for these intermediates remains unknown. Here we report crystal structures for human SUMO E1 in complex with SUMO adenylate and tetrahedral intermediate analogues at 2.45 and 2.6 {angstrom}, respectively. These structures show that side chain contacts to ATP-Mg are released after adenylation to facilitate a 130 degree rotation of the Cys domain during thioester bond formation that is accompanied by remodelling of key structural elements including the helix that contains the E1 catalytic cysteine, the crossover and re-entry loops, and refolding of two helices that are required for adenylation. These changes displace side chains required for adenylation with side chains required for thioester bond formation. Mutational and biochemical analyses indicate these mechanisms are conserved in other E1s.

Olsen, Shaun K.; Capili, Allan D.; Lu, Xuequan; Tan, Derek S.; Lima, Christopher D. (SKI)

2010-03-30

245

Effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on motor coordination, strength, and speed.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on coordination, strength, and speed in 60 beginner-level female dancers, aged 13 and 14 yrs. The subjects were divided into two experimental groups (E1 and E2), each numbering 30 subjects, drawn from local dance clubs. In order to determine motor coordination, strength, and speed, we used 15 measurements. The groups were tested before and after the experimental programs. Both experimental programs lasted for 18 wks, with training sessions twice a week for 60 minutes. The subjects from the E1 group trained according to a new experimental program of disco dance (DD) modern sports dance, and the E2 group trained according to the classic DD program of the same kind for beginner selections. The obtained results were assessed by statistical analysis: a paired-samples t-test and MANCOVA/ANCOVA. The results indicated that following the experimental programs, both groups showed a statistically significant improvement in the evaluated skills, but the changes among the E1 group subjects were more pronounced. The basic assumption of this research was confirmed, that the new experimental DD program has a significant influence on coordination, strength, and speed. In relation to these changes, the application of the new DD program was recommended for beginner dancers. PMID:21120267

Uzunovic, Slavoljub; Kostic, Radmila; Zivkovic, Dobrica

2010-09-01

246

Inert strength of pristine silica glass fibers  

SciTech Connect

Silica glass fibers have been produced and tested under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions to investigate the inert strength of pristine fibers in absence of reactive agents. Analysis of the coefficient of variation in diameter ({upsilon}{sub d}) vs the coefficient of variation of breaking strength ({upsilon}{sub {sigma}}) does not adequately explain the variation of breaking stress. Distribution of fiber tensile strength data suggests that the inert strength of such fibers is not single valued and that the intrinsic strength is controlled by defects in the glass. Furthermore, comparison of room temperature UHV data with LN{sub 2} data indicates that these intrinsic strengths are not temperature dependent.

Smith, W.L.; Michalske, T.A.

1993-11-01

247

E1A oncogene induction of cytolytic susceptibility eliminates sarcoma cell tumorigenicity.  

PubMed Central

The manner in which oncogenes influence tumorigenicity beyond their ability to immortalize cells is uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition to subverting cellular growth controls, oncogenes can actively determine tumor-inducing capacity by affecting neoplastic cell susceptibility to destruction by the host cellular immune response. The adenovirus type 5 E1A oncogene, which induces susceptibility to lysis by natural killer cells and encodes epitopes recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, was transfected into highly tumorigenic sarcoma cells. E1A expression in these sarcoma cells eliminated their tumorigenicity in recipients with natural killer cell activity that was competent to lyse these E1A-positive targets. Thymus-dependent responses were not required for tumor rejection. These results indicate that oncogene-regulated cellular pathways that affect neoplastic cell susceptibility to natural killer cell lytic mechanisms may influence tumor development in the immunocompetent host. Images

Walker, T A; Wilson, B A; Lewis, A M; Cook, J L

1991-01-01

248

Immunohistochemical localization of cytochrome P450 2E1 in human pulmonary carcinoma and normal bronchial tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme but data concerning its extrahepatic expression are few. CYP2E1 can metabolically activate many procarcinogens and therefore its presence in the lung might play a role in bioactivation of procarcinogens, so we studied the expression and localization of CYP2E1 in primary pulmonary carcinomas and surrounding normal bronchial tissue from 28 patients. Seromucous

K. T. Kivist; H. Kroemer; A. Linder; G. Friedel; P. Beaune; C. Belloc; P. Fritz

1995-01-01

249

Progress in the prostaglandin E1-therapy of the intermittent claudication by means of bolus injections of LIPO-prostaglandin E1 (LIPO-PGE1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We compared the efficacy of a bolus injection (5?min) of LIPO-PGE1 (Prostaglandin E1 in lipid emulsion) with conventional PGE1-cyclodextrin (PGE1-cyclodextrin) infusions (2?h) in patients with intermittent claudication. The quantitative blood-flow in the common femoral\\u000a artery was measured using a computerized ultrasound Doppler system (MAVIS®). we also monitored the transcutaneous oxygen pressure, the skin temperature on the foot, and the

P. Scheffler; J. Gross; T. Markwirth; J. Maier; H. Schieffer

1996-01-01

250

High-Strength Parts Formed Using Stereolithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-strength parts are produced by first performing a stereolithography part generation process to create a polymer part having opposing interior surfaces. An uncured strength material is interposed between the opposing interior surfaces of the polymer p...

R. V. Kieronaki

1999-01-01

251

Strength Testing and Fractography of MEMS Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The safe, secure, and reliable application of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices requires knowledge about the MEMS materials' strength distributions and strength-limiting flaws. Sandia has developed a microtensile testing technique that uses th...

S. J. Glass D. Lavan T. E. Buchheit K. Jackson

2000-01-01

252

Strength, Balance Exercises May Prevent Sports Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Strength, balance exercises may prevent sports injury (*this news item will ... NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Strength training and balance exercises are more likely to help prevent sports injuries ...

253

Residual strength of damaged marine structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally assessment of ship's longitudinal strength has been made by comparing the elastic stresses at the deck or bottom shell to fractions of the material yield strength. This results in high reserve capacity due to inherent redundancies in ship structures. Residual strength, which is defined as the strength of the structure after damage, has rarely been considered either during design or at the time of repair. In this report, key elements required to undertake an engineering analysis to evaluate the residual strength have been identified. Emphasis has been placed on assessing the residual strength of marine structures damaged due to normal operating loads. Methods available to industry for evaluation of damage such as, fracture and ultimate strength have been summarized. An example problem, illustrating the application of an integrated approach to residual strength assessment on a particular ship type, is presented.

Ghose, Dhruba J.; Nappi, Natale S.; Wiernicki, Christopher J.

1994-09-01

254

Antibody directed to a synthetic peptide encoding the NH2-terminal 16 amino acids of the adenovirus type 2 E1B-53K tumor antigen recognizes the E1B-20K tumor antigen.  

PubMed

A peptide, H2N-Glu-Arg-Arg-Asn-Pro-Ser-Glu-Arg-Gly-Val-Pro-Ala-Gly-Phe-Ser-Gly-(Cys )COOH, containing the amino acid sequence at the NH2 terminus of the adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) E1B-coded large T antigen (E1B-53K) has been synthesized. Anti-peptide antibody was generated in rabbits and used to immunoprecipitate Ad T antigens from Ad2 early infected cell extracts. In addition to the expected E1B-53K T antigen, anti-peptide antibody precipitated the Ad2 E1B-20K T antigen that was previously shown to be related to E1B-53K (M. Green, K.H. Brackmann, M.A. Cartas, and T. Matsuo, J. Virol. 42, 30-41, 1982). Anti-peptide prepared against the COOH terminus of the E1B-53K T antigen or against the NH2 terminus of the E1B-19K T antigen did not precipitate the E1B-20K T antigen. These data suggest that the Ad2 E1B-20K T antigen initiates translation at nucleotide 2016 in reading frame 3, as does E1B-53K. The viral mRNA that encodes the E1B-20K T antigen has not been identified. PMID:6559483

Lucher, L A; Brackmann, K H; Symington, J S; Green, M

1984-01-15

255

Contribution of CYP2E1 to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone metabolism.  

PubMed

The involvement of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in the metabolism of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was studied with three experimental approaches: in the rat, in vitro in human microsomes, and in human volunteers. NMP was administered dermally (40 mg/kg) to OFA rats to examine the influence of CYP2E1 inhibition (5 mg/kg diethyldithiocarbamate, DETC, 30 min before) and CYP2E1 induction (after 4 days of fasting). The main NMP metabolite 5-hydroxy- N-methylpyrrolidone (5HNMP) in the urine fractions collected during the following 48 h was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. CYP2E1 inhibition led to a statistically significant retardation of 5HNMP excretion in urinary fractions collected during the first 12 h. In the group of fasted rats, a two-fold increase of CYP2E1 activity was observed in comparison with the control group. During the first 6 h after dermal administration of NMP to fasted rats, about 33% of the dose was excreted in urine versus 22% in controls. In vitro, NMP (15 mM) was incubated (up to120 min) with human liver microsomes and the formation of 5HNMP followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with V(max) of 1.1 nmol/min per mg protein and K(m) of 2.4 mM. The formation of 5HNMP was inhibited by 35% in the presence of a monoclonal antibody against CYP2E1, but not by CYP1A2 antibody. In a dermal application experiment, 12 humans volunteers were exposed by means of a dermal patch to 300 mg NMP; five urine fractions were collected during the 48 h following the onset of application in order to measure the major metabolites 5HNMP and 2-hydroxymethylsuccinimide (2HMSI). Before NMP application, a blood sample was collected for the quantification of CYP2E1 mRNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). The mean dermal absorption of NMP was 67.9%. The highest amount of 5HNMP was excreted in urine in the fraction collected between 6-12 h (12.6% of dose), while 2HMSI peaked in fractions 12-24 h and 36-48 h (3.3 and 3.2% of dose, respectively). A significant relationship was found between CYP2E1 mRNA content in PBLs and the amount of both the metabolites excreted in urine within 24 h ( r(2)=0.54, P<0.01). It is concluded that CYP2E1 is involved in the first steps of NMP metabolism in the rat and, to a lesser extent, in humans. Since large variations in CYP2E1 activity exist in the human population (at least 5-fold range), it seems justified to take into account the activity of this enzyme in an individual for an accurate interpretation of biological monitoring of exposure to NMP when relying on 5HNMP and/or 2HMSI determination in urine. PMID:12734639

Ligocka, Danuta; Lison, Dominique; Haufroid, Vincent

2003-02-19

256

High strength, tough alloy steel  

DOEpatents

A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Rao, Bangaru V. N. (Albany, CA)

1979-01-01

257

Tensile bond strength of dental glazes.  

PubMed

Adaptic Glaze and Finite exhibited higher tensile bonds strengths than Concise Enamel Bond and Nuva-Seal. This is probably due to inherent higher viscosity and strength properties of Adaptic Glaze and Finite rather than to differences in adhesive qualities of the various resins. Consequently, the observed occasional early clinical loss of glazes should not be attributed to poor tensile bond strength. PMID:6997470

de Wet, F A; Ferreira, M R

1980-10-01

258

Computer Security Strength \\\\& Risk: A Quantitative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: When attacking a software system is only as difficult as it is to obtain a vulnerability to exploit, the security strength of that system is equivalent to the market price of such a vulnerability. In this dissertation I show how security strength can be measured using market means, how these strength measures can be applied to create models that

Stuart Edward Schechter

2004-01-01

259

Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength

Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

2009-01-01

260

Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant…

Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

2003-01-01

261

Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel  

SciTech Connect

The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

Soto, Koji

2002-08-15

262

Development of High Strength Steels for Automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High strength steels have been intensively applied to autobodies to improve crash- worthiness without increasing the body weight under a strong pressure of the re- quirements for fuel consumption, energy saving and crashworthiness. One of the critical problems of the usage of high strength steels for autobodies is a deteriora- tion of press formabililty with increasing the strength. Different types

Manabu TAKAHASHI

2003-01-01

263

Fracture strength of polysilicon at stress concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical design of MEMS requires the ability to predict the strength of load-carrying components with stress concentrations. The majority of these microdevices are made of brittle materials such as polysilicon, which exhibit higher fracture strengths when smaller volumes or areas are involved. A review of the literature shows that the fracture strength of polysilicon increases as tensile specimens get smaller.

Jörg Bagdahn; O. Jadaan

2003-01-01

264

Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strength training has become an accepted method of con- ditioning in children. However, there is concern among some observers that maximal strength testing may be inappropri- ate or potentially injurious to children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children. Thirty- two girls and 64 boys

AVERY D. FAIGENBAUM; LAURIE A. MILLIKEN; WAYNE L. WESTCOTT

2003-01-01

265

26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. ...administrative proceeding is mailed to the tax matters partner with respect to any...

2013-04-01

266

Oxidative and reductive metabolism by cytochrome P450 2E1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are constantly exposed to many poten- tially toxic chemicals. Most require metabolic activation to species responsible for cell injury. Although cytochrome P450 2E1 is only one of many different forms of cytochrome P450 that catalyze these reactions, it has an important role in human health as a result of being readily induced by acute and chronic alcohol ingestion. The

DENNIS R. KOOP

267

[Double-blind trial of oral prostaglandin E1 on impotence].  

PubMed

The effect of oral prostaglandin E1 (limaprost) on erectile function was studied in a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Fifty one patients who agreed to participate were examined for their subjective symptoms and nocturnal erection was recorded using an erectometer at the beginning of the study, after an initial 6 week period, and again after a second 6 week period. Patients were randomly assigned to a group which received placebo followed by limaprost or to a group which received limaprost followed by placebo. Ten cases dropped out. In the remaining forty one patients, NPT during the limaprost phase was significantly different from that during the placebo phase. Patients with the history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or pelvic surgery showed relatively poor responses to oral prostaglandin E1. Oral prostaglandin E1 achieved 42.9% effectiveness in the psychogenic impotence, and this effectiveness is significantly higher than that of placebo. Oral prostaglandin E1 was suggested as an additional or alternative therapy in the management of psychogenic impotence. Psychogenic impotent who didn't respond to sex therapy and patients with slight organic causes would seem to benefit from oral prostaglandin treatment. PMID:1434268

Kawanishi, Y; Kimura, K; Iriguchi, H; Miyamoto, T; Tamura, M; Numata, A; Yuasa, M; Kagawa, S

1992-10-01

268

Assessment of quantitative models for plasmid ColE1 copy number control.  

PubMed

Two quantitative models of plasmid ColE1 copy number control are compared with respect to mathematical logic of derivation and application to experimental observations. Explanatory background material and clarifications are supplied for selected aspects of each model. Contrasting features are emphasized and experiments are suggested to distinguish between predictions of the models. PMID:7537828

Merlin, S; Polisky, B

1995-04-28

269

Interference assessment of DVB-T within the GPS L1 and Galileo E1 band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are highly susceptible to interference, due to their low signal power. This paper studies the impact of DVB-T on the GPS L1 and Galileo E1 frequency band. An analytical tool has been developed to evaluate the probability of detection in the presence of interference, taking into account the possible effects of fading on the GNSS

Matthias Wildemeersch; Alberto Rabbachin; Eduardo Cano; Joaquim Fortuny

2010-01-01

270

Analysis of Galileo E1 OS unbiased BOC\\/CBOC tracking techniques for mass market applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BOC modulation is used for Galileo E1 OS signals. The Offset Carrier (OC) modulation is interesting to transmit the Galileo signal because it offers a high degree of spectral separation with signals centered in the used band and a better robustness against noise, multipath and interference. However, BOC modulation introduces several peaks to the autocorrelation function, potentially biasing the pseudorange

Olivier Julien; Christophe Macabiau; E. Bertrand

2010-01-01

271

Recombinant E1-deleted adenovirus vector induces apoptosis in two lung cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant E1-deleted adenovirus vector induces apoptosis in two lung cancer cell lines. S. Teramoto, T. Matsuse, H. Matsui, E. Ohga, T. Ishii, Y. Ouchi. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: Although replication-defective adenoviruses (Ads) are used as vectors for delivering therapeutic genes to cancer cells, various effects of the viruses on the proliferation of lung cancer cells have been reported. Experiments

S. Teramoto; T. Matsuse; H. Matsui; E. Ohga; T. Ishii; Y. Ouchi

1999-01-01

272

[Alcohol-xenobiotic interactions. Role of cytochrome P450 2E1].  

PubMed

Alcohol and xenobiotics share the same oxidative microsomal pathway, which is mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes. This pathway involves enzymes that belong to the super family of cytochrome P450 and allows to explain a lot of pharmacokinetic or toxic interactions between alcohol and xenobiotics. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is the key enzyme of the microsomal pathway of ethanol oxidation. It is inducible by chronic ethanol consumption and its activity is increased by three to five fold in liver from alcoholics subjects. This induction involves to a lesser extent cytochromes P450 3A4 and 1A2 and contributes to the metabolic tolerance of alcohol and drugs observed in alcoholics. The metabolic tolerance persits several days after ethanol withdrawal. Furthermore, CYP2E1 has a high capacity to activate numerous xenobiotics into toxic or carcinogenic compounds. Drugs currently used such as paracetamol, anesthetics (enflurane, halothane), industrial solvents (benzene or its derivatives), halogenated solvents (CCl4, trichlorethylene) and nitrosamines which are present in food or tobacco smoke are included. Therefore, heavy consumption of alcohol, which results in CYP2E1 induction, increases individual susceptibility to the toxic or carcinogenic effects of these xenobiotics. PMID:11762131

Meskar, A; Plee-Gautier, E; Amet, Y; Berthou, F; Lucas, D

2001-11-01

273

Catapult Launch Fatigue Investigation of the Model E-1B/C-1 Airplane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory fatigue investigation was performed on an E-1B fuselage with a reinforced catapult keel to determine if it could sustain the loads associated with 3,000 catapult launches. The bulkhead at fuselage station 135 failed after 8,420 test cycles of...

H. D. Lystad

1975-01-01

274

Effect of misoprostol, a prostaglandin E 1 analog, on orthodontic tooth movement in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analog, on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats that initially weighed 250 ± 20 g were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 experimental and 2 control (nonappliance and appliance)

Ali Reza Sekhavat; Kazem Mousavizadeh; Hamid Reza Pakshir; Fatemeh Sari Aslani

2002-01-01

275

Tumor Suppression and Sensitization to Taxol Induced Apoptosis of E1A in Breast Cancer Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project is to study the molecular mechanisms underlying ElA's proapoptotic effect and anti-tumor activity and to dissect the functional domains of ElA that are critical for its antitumor activity. Because a phase I E1A gene therapy pro...

Y. Liao

2002-01-01

276

Adenovirus type 5 early region 4 is responsible for E1A-induced p53-independent apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

In the absence of E1B, the 289- and 243-residue E1A products of human adenovirus type 5 induce p53-dependent apoptosis. However, our group has shown recently that the 289-residue E1A protein is also able to induce apoptosis by a p53-independent mechanism (J. G. Teodoro, G. C. Shore, and P. E. Branton, Oncogene 11:467-474, 1995). Preliminary results suggested that p53-independent cell death required expression of one or more additional adenovirus early gene products. Here we show that both the E1B 19-kDa protein and cellular Bcl-2 inhibit or significantly delay p53-independent apoptosis. Neither early region E2 or E3 appeared to be necessary for such cell death. Analysis of a series of E1A mutants indicated that mutations in the transactivation domain and other regions of E1A correlated with E1A-mediated transactivation of E4 gene expression. Furthermore, p53-deficient human SAOS-2 cells infected with a mutant which expresses E1B but none of the E4 gene products remained viable for considerably longer times than those infected with wild-type adenovirus type 5. In addition, an adenovirus vector lacking both E1 and E4 was unable to induce DNA degradation and cell killing in E1A-expressing cell lines. These data showed that an E4 product is essential for E1A-induced p53-independent apoptosis.

Marcellus, R C; Teodoro, J G; Wu, T; Brough, D E; Ketner, G; Shore, G C; Branton, P E

1996-01-01

277

Strength of Shocked Aluminum Oxynitride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) is a polycrystalline and transparent ceramic. An accurate characterization of its shock response is critically important for its applications as transparent armor. Shock wave profiles measured in a series of plate impact experiments on AlON [Thornhill, et al., SCCM-2005, 143-146 (2006)] have been reanalyzed using finite element wave propagation simulations and considering an effective strength behavior that is pressure- and time-dependent. The results show a stiffer shock response than that calculated previously using the jump conditions. The material has a Hugoniot elastic limit of 10.37 GPa and sustains a maximum shear stress of 4.38 GPa for shock compressions up to a shock stress of 96 GPa. The mean stress response determined from the simulations displays no sign of phase transformation and corresponds to a linear shock speed-particle velocity relation with a slope of 0.857. These results have been successfully summarized into an AlON material model consisting of compression-dependent nonlinear elasticity, pressure-dependent equilibrium strength, and over-stress relaxation. The wave profiles simulated with the model show very good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Zhu, J.; Feng, R.; Dandekar, D. P.

2009-06-01

278

Positional cloning and characterization reveal the molecular basis for soybean maturity locus E1 that regulates photoperiodic flowering.  

PubMed

The complex and coordinated regulation of flowering has high ecological and agricultural significance. The maturity locus E1 has a large impact on flowering time in soybean, but the molecular basis for the E1 locus is largely unknown. Through positional cloning, we delimited the E1 locus to a 17.4-kb region containing an intron-free gene (E1). The E1 protein contains a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal and a region distantly related to B3 domain. In the recessive allele, a nonsynonymous substitution occurred in the putative nuclear localization signal, leading to the loss of localization specificity of the E1 protein and earlier flowering. The early-flowering phenotype was consistently observed in three ethylmethanesulfonate-induced mutants and two natural mutations that harbored a premature stop codon or a deletion of the entire E1 gene. E1 expression was significantly suppressed under short-day conditions and showed a bimodal diurnal pattern under long-day conditions, suggesting its response to photoperiod and its dominant effect induced by long day length. When a functional E1 gene was transformed into the early-flowering cultivar Kariyutaka with low E1 expression, transgenic plants carrying exogenous E1 displayed late flowering. Furthermore, the transcript abundance of E1 was negatively correlated with that of GmFT2a and GmFT5a, homologues of FLOWERING LOCUS T that promote flowering. These findings demonstrated the key role of E1 in repressing flowering and delaying maturity in soybean. The molecular identification of the maturity locus E1 will contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which a short-day plant regulates flowering time and maturity. PMID:22619331

Xia, Zhengjun; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Nakashima, Hiroko; Zhai, Hong; Anai, Toyoaki; Sato, Shusei; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Lü, Shixiang; Wu, Hongyan; Tabata, Satoshi; Harada, Kyuya

2012-05-22

279

Application of reliability and fiber probabilistic strength distribution concepts to composite vessel burst strength design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite pressure vessel design approach that is based on reliability and probabilistic fiber strength distribution concepts is discussed. The method is based on the fiber strain-strength interference reliability theory. The way in which fiber strength distribution parameters generated by two tensile tests of impregnated carbon fiber strands can be used in pressure vessel strength design is examined. It is

David Cohen

1992-01-01

280

The Distribution of Subjective Memory Strength: List Strength and Response Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Models of recognition memory assume that memory decisions are based partially on the subjective strength of the test item. Models agree that the subjective strength of targets increases with additional time for encoding however the origin of the subjective strength of foils remains disputed. Under the fixed strength assumption the distribution of…

Criss, Amy H.

2009-01-01

281

The Strengths Assessment Inventory: Reliability of a New Measure of Psychosocial Strengths for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new measure, the Strengths Assessment Inventory-Youth self-report (SAI-Y), was recently developed to assess the strengths of children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 years. The SAI-Y differs from similar measures in that it provides a comprehensive assessment of strengths that are intrinsic to the individual as well as strengths

Brazeau, James N.; Teatero, Missy L.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Blanchette, Loretta R.

2012-01-01

282

Correlation of Yield Strength and Tensile Strength with Hardness for Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardness values as well as yield and tensile strength values were compiled for over 150 nonaustenitic, hypoeutectoid steels having a wide range of compositions and a variety of microstructures. The microstructures include ferrite, pearlite, martensite, bainite, and complex multiphase structures. The yield strength of the steels ranged from approximately 300 MPa to over 1700 MPa. Tensile strength varied over the range of 450-2350 MPa. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of the yield strength and the tensile strength to the diamond pyramid hardness values for these steels. Both the yield strength and tensile strength of the steels exhibited a linear correlation with the hardness over the entire range of strength values. Empirical relationships are provided that enable the estimation of strength from a bulk hardness measurement. A weak effect of strain-hardening potential on the hardness-yield strength relationship was also observed.

Pavlina, E. J.; van Tyne, C. J.

2008-12-01

283

Comparison between high strength concrete and normal strength concrete subjected to high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two normal strength concretes and three high strength concretes, with 28-day compressive strengths of 28, 47, 76, 79 and 94\\u000a MPa respectively, were used to compare the effect of high temperatures on high strength concrete and normal strength concrete.\\u000a After being heated to a series of maximum temperatures at 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200°C, and maintained for 1 hour,

Sammy Y. N. Chan; Gai-fei Peng; John K. W. Chan

1996-01-01

284

Influence of shear bond strength on compressive strength and stress–strain characteristics of masonry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on shear bond strength–masonry compressive strength relationships and the influence of bond strength\\u000a on stress–strain characteristics of masonry using soil–cement blocks and cement–lime mortar. Methods of enhancing shear bond\\u000a strength of masonry couplets without altering the strength and modulus of masonry unit and the mortar are discussed in detail.\\u000a Application of surface coatings and manipulation of

B. V. Venkatarama Reddy; Ch. V. Uday Vyas

2008-01-01

285

Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength  

PubMed Central

Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned reinforcers do not strengthen behavior in a reinforcement-like fashion are considered. A signposts or means-to-an-end account is explored and appears to provide a plausible alternative interpretation of the effects of stimuli associated with primary reinforcers. Related suggestions that primary reinforcers also might not have their effects via a strengthening process are explored and found to be worthy of serious consideration.

Shahan, Timothy A

2010-01-01

286

Preparation, mechanical strengths, and thermal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ni-based amorphous wires with good bending ductility have been prepared for Ni75Si8B17 and Ni78P12B10 alloys containing 1 to 2 at. pct Al or Zr by melt spinning in rotating water. The enhancement of the wire-formation tendency by the addition of Al has been clarified to be due to the increase in the stability of the melt jet through the formation of a thin A12O3 film on the outer surface. The maximum wire diameter is about 190 to 200 ?m for the Ni-Si (or P)-B-Al alloys and increases to about 250 ?m for the Ni-Si-B-Al-Cr alloys containing 4 to 6 at. pct Cr. The tensile fracture strength and fracture elongation are 2730 MPa and 2.9 pct for (Ni0.75Si0.08B0.17 99Al1) wire and 2170 MPa and 2.4 pct for (Ni0.78P0.12B0.1)99Al1 wire. These wires exhibit a fatigue limit under dynamic bending strain in air with a relative humidity of 65 pct; this limit is 0.50 pct for a Ni-Si-B-Al wire, which is higher by 0.15 pct than that of a Fe75Si10B15 amorphous wire. Furthermore, the Ni-base wires do not fracture during a 180-deg bending even for a sample annealed at temperatures just below the crystallization temperature, in sharp contrast to high embrittlement tendency for Fe-base amorphous alloys. Thus, the Ni-based amorphous wires have been shown to be an attractive material similar to Fe- and Co-based amorphous wires because of its high static and dynamic strength, high ductility, high stability to thermal embrittlement, and good corrosion resistance.

Inoue, A.; Furukawa, S.; Hagiwara, M.; Masumoto, T.

1987-05-01

287

Structural stability of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1: effect of pH and dissociative detergents.  

PubMed

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E1 has been widely employed as a potential vaccine antigen in clinical research. A truncated form (amino acids 192-326) of the E1 protein (E1y) was expressed in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha and purified from the cell lysate. E1y forms protein particles in the absence of detergent and remains monomeric when detergent concentration is high. In this work, a variety of spectroscopic and hydrodynamic techniques including circular dichroism, intrinsic and ANS fluorescence as well as static and dynamic light scattering are employed to evaluate E1y structural stability. The effect of two dissociative detergents, Empigen BB and Zwittergent 3-12 on E1y stability, is investigated and the results are summarized using the empirical phase diagram (EPD)-based approach. The EPDs reveal that when temperature is increased, E1y particles are more thermally stable than monomers at both pH 5 and 7. A more detailed biophysical characterization of the E1y particles is also performed including pH and temperature as variables. The EPD indicates that E1y particles are most stable at pH 7 and 8 under the given experimental conditions. The results from this study provide detailed information that will help guide the future development of E1-based HCV vaccines. PMID:19072857

He, Feng; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Bosman, Fons; Verhaeghe, Marijke; Middaugh, C Russell

2009-09-01

288

Polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 and GSTM1 Genes as Possible Protection Factors for Leprosy Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The CYP2E1 and GSTM1 genes encode metabolic enzymes that have key functions in drug modification and elimination. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the possible effects of CYP2E1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms in 71 leprosy patients and in 110 individuals from the general population. The GSTM1*0 null allele and INDEL CYP2E1*1D mutant genotypes were analyzed by conventional PCR, while CYP2E1 SNPs (1053C>T, 1293G>C and 7632T>A) were determined by RT-PCR. In leprosy patients, the GSTM1*0 and CYP2E1*5 alleles and the combined alleles GSTM1*0/CYP2E1*6 and GSTM1*0/CYP2E1*5 were significantly related to a baciloscopic index (BI) (BI<3), while the CYP2E1*6 allele was related to a better clinical evolution in the leprosy spectrum. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, GSTM1*0, CYP2E1*5 and CYP2E1*6 may be possible protection factors for leprosy patients.

Pinto, Pablo; Salgado, Claudio Guedes; Santos, Ney; Alencar, Dayse O.; Santos, Sidney; Hutz, Mara H.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea

2012-01-01

289

Atomic data from the iron project. LXI. Radiative E1, E2, E3, and M1 transition probabilities for Fe IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative decay rates (A) and line strengths (S) are presented for a large number of electric dipole allowed (E1) and forbidden electric quadrupole (E2), octupole (E3) and magnetic dipole (M1) transitions in Fe IV. The ion is amongst the most complex iron ions and exhibits effects of strong electron correlation. It has closely spaced fine structure levels from seven configurations: 3s23p63d5, 3s23p63d44s, 3s23p63d44p, 3s23p63d44d, 3s23p6334s4p, 3s23p63d34s4d, 3s23p53d6 before an energy gap could be noted. Atomic parameters are presented for multipole radiative transitions among the 1275 fine structure levels dominated by these seven configurations. A total of approximately 173 000 transitions of type E1, E2, E3 and M1 are presented, The set of intercombination and forbidden transitions complements the earlier extensive set of dipole allowed (? J=0, ±1, ? L=0,± 1, and ? S = 0) fine structure transitions in Fe IV. The results are obtained in the relativistic Breit-Pauli approximation using an updated atomic structure code SUPERSTRUCTURE. Transition probabilities are compared with the existing results and varying degrees of agreement are found. The total number of transitions presented should provide a reasonably complete set for modeling of most optical to ultraviolet Fe IV spectra of astrophysical sources.

Nahar, S. N.

2006-03-01

290

Investigation and remediation of false topographic perception phenomena observed on Chang'E-1 lunar imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

False topographic perception phenomenon (FTPP) is a relief inversion phenomenon in remote sensing images and causes false perception problems. Such images of the Moon suffer from serious FTPP problems. Correctly observing and understanding the terrain features on the Moon from lunar surface images is important for lunar exploration missions and various lunar scientific investigations. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the FTPP problem associated with lunar craters, by using the Chang'E-1 lunar imagery covering the major areas of the lunar surface. Results reveal that the FTPP problem is positively correlated with crater latitudes in the north hemisphere of the Moon. For craters within a similar latitude range, the FTPP level is positively correlated with the depth-diameter ratio of the crater. A wavelet-transform based approach is proposed for FTPP remediation on Chang'E-1 imagery. Experimental analysis using three different types of craters revealed that the approach is able to effectively correct the FTPP problem.

Wu, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Gao, Yang

2013-01-01

291

The DprE1 enzyme, one of the most vulnerable targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The re-emergence of tuberculosis in recent years led the World Health Organization (WHO) to launch the Stop TB Strategy program. Beside repurposing the existing drugs and exploring novel molecular combinations, an essential step to face the burden of tuberculosis will be to develop new drugs by identifying vulnerable bacterial targets. Recent studies have focused on decaprenylphosphoryl-D-ribose oxidase (DprE1) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an essential enzyme involved in cell wall metabolism, for which new promising molecules have proved efficacy as antitubercular agents. This review summarizes the state of the art concerning DprE1 in terms of structure, enzymatic activity and inhibitors. This enzyme is emerging as one of the most vulnerable target in M. tuberculosis. PMID:24037308

Riccardi, Giovanna; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Chiarelli, Laurent Roberto; Manina, Giulia; Mattevi, Andrea; Binda, Claudia

2013-09-14

292

Throughput Calibration of the 52x0.2E1 Aperture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Spectral Library {NGSL} is a library of low-dispersion STIS spectra extending from 0.2-1.0 microns. So far, 378 stars with a wide range in metallicity have been observed. Despite their high S/N>100, many NGSL spectra have 5-10% systematic errors in their spectral energy distributions, which can be traced to throughput variations in the 52x0.2E1 aperture caused by vignetting of a wavelength-dependent asymmetric PSF. We propose to obtain STIS spectra of the HST standard star, BD+75D325, at several positions in the 52x0.2E1 aperture, which will enable us to calibrate the NGSL spectra properly.;

Heap, Sara

2008-07-01

293

Cloning of a bcl-2 homologue by interaction with adenovirus E1B 19K  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NUMBER of DNA viruses carry apoptosis-inhibiting genes which enable the virus to escape from the host reponse1-5. The adenovirus E1B 19K protein can inhibit apoptosis induced by El A, tumour-necrosis factor-alpha, FAS antigen and nerve growth factor deprivation6-9. The molecular basis of this inhibition remains poorly understood, but the fact that protection is seen in the absence of other

Stuart N. Farrow; Julia H. M. White; Isabelle Martinou; Thomas Raven; Kwok-Tao Pun; Christine J. Grinham; Jean-Claude Martinou; Robin Brown

1995-01-01

294

Induction of DNA synthesis and apoptosis in cardiac myocytes by E1A oncoprotein  

PubMed Central

Beginning during the second half of gestation, increasing numbers of cardiac myocytes withdraw from the cell cycle such that DNA synthesis is no longer detectable in these cells by neonatal day 17 in vivo. The mechanisms that exclude these and other terminally differentiated cells from the cell division cycle are poorly understood. To begin to explore the molecular basis of the barrier to G1/S progression in cardiac myocytes, we used adenoviruses to express wild-type and mutant E1A proteins in primary cultures from embryonic day 20 rats. While most of these cardiac myocytes are ordinarily refractory to DNA synthesis, even in the presence of serum growth factors, expression of wild-type E1A stimulates DNA synthesis in up to 94% or almost all successfully transduced cells. Rather than complete the cell cycle, however, these cells undergo apoptosis. Apoptosis is limited to those cells that engage in DNA synthesis, and the kinetics of the two processes suggest that DNA synthesis precedes apoptosis. Mutations in E1A that disable it from binding Rb and related pocket proteins have little effect on its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in cardiac myocytes. In contrast, mutants that are defective in binding the cellular protein p300 stimulate DNA synthesis 2.4-4.1-fold less efficiently, even in the context of retained E1A pocket protein binding. In the absence of ElA pocket protein binding, the usual situation in the cell, loss of p300 binding severely decreases the ability of ElA to stimulate DNA synthesis. These results suggest that the barrier to G1/S progression in cardiac myocytes is mediated. at least in part, by the same molecules that gate the G1/S transition in actively cycling cells, and that p300 or related family members play an important role in this process.

1996-01-01

295

Regulation of reduced nitrogen assimilation in Rhodobacter capsulatus E1F1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus E1F1 assimilates ammonia and other forms of reduced nitrogen either through the GS\\/GOGAT pathway or by the concerted action of l-alanine dehydrogenase and aminotransferases. These routes are light-independent and very responsive to the carbon and nitrogen sources used for cell growth. GS was most active in cells grown on nitrate or l-glutamate as nitrogen sources,

Francisco Javier Caballero; Isabel Igefio; Jacobo Cfirdenas; Francisco Castillo

1989-01-01

296

Clinical trial of E1B-deleted adenovirus (dl1520) gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The prognosis of HCC is poor and current therapies are largely ineffective. Genetic abnormalities are commonly seen in HCC tumors particularly with inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor. Gene therapy with E1B-deleted (dl1520) adenovirus could be of therapeutic value as it offers the potential of tumor growth control in

Nagy Habib; Hosny Salama; Ahmed Abd El Latif Abu Median; Ilia Isac Anis; Rasha Ahmed Abd Al Aziz; Catherine Sarraf; Ragai Mitry; Roman Havlik; Prem Seth; Jack Hartwigsen; Reva Bhushan; Joanna Nicholls; Steen Jensen

2002-01-01

297

The characteristics of neutrino-nuclear reactions at E ? = 1-3 GeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the charged-current neutrino—nuclear interactions are investigated for the first time at E ? = 1-3 GeV using the data obtained with SKAT propane-freon bubble chamber irradiated in the neutrino beam at the Serpukhov accelerator. The E ? dependence of the mean multiplicities of different types of secondary particles and their multiplicity, momentum, and angular distributions are measured.

Agababyan, N. M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Atayan, M.; Grigoryan, N.; Gulkanyan, H.; Ivanilov, A. A.; Karamyan, Zh.; Korotkov, V. A.

2007-11-01

298

3D visualization of solar wind ion data from the Chang'E-1 exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chang'E-1 (abbreviation CE-1), China's first Moon-orbiting spacecraft launched in 2007, carried equipment called the Solar Wind Ion Detector (abbreviation SWID), which sent back tens of gigabytes of solar wind ion differential number flux data. These data are essential for furthering our understanding of the cislunar space environment. However, to fully comprehend and analyze these data presents considerable difficulties, not only

Tian Zhang; Yankui Sun; Zesheng Tang

2011-01-01

299

Dechlorination and Decolorization of Organics in Bleach Plant E-1 Effluent by Photochemical Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photochemical study of the dechlorination of four model compounds, 4,5-dichloroguaiacol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, and tetrachloroguaiacol in aqueous solutions under UV radiation was conducted using ArF (193 nm) and KrF (248 nm) excimer laser to explore the response of chlorinated phenolics present in the E_1 effluent from conventional chlorine bleaching of softwood kraft pulp towards photo-oxidation processes. Kinetic study show that the

Tianyan Xie

1994-01-01

300

Prostaglandin E 1Resuscitates Hepatic Organic Anion Transport Independent of Its Hemodynamic Effect after Warm Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandin E1(PGE1) is a promising agent against ischemic liver damage, but direct evidence of the benefit to intrinsic hepatocyte function has been lacking. We demonstrate here that organic anion transport can be supported by treatment with PGE1even at a lower dose which does not affect hepatic microcirculation in rabbits with liver inflow occlusion. Near-infrared spectroscopy was applied to directly measure

Hisashi Shinohara; Akira Tanaka; Toyoshi Fujimoto; Akiyoshi Kanazawa; Seiji Satoh; Etsuro Hatano; Yoshio Yamaoka

1997-01-01

301

Calculation of Radiative Corrections to E1 matrix elements in the Neutral Alkalis  

SciTech Connect

Radiative corrections to E1 matrix elements for ns-np transitions in the alkali metal atoms lithium through francium are evaluated. They are found to be small for the lighter alkalis but significantly larger for the heavier alkalis, and in the case of cesium much larger than the experimental accuracy. The relation of the matrix element calculation to a recent decay rate calculation for hydrogenic ions is discussed, and application of the method to parity nonconservation in cesium is described.

Sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T

2004-09-28

302

Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis

Lisa M. Masiello; Joseph S. Fotos; Deni S. Galileo; Norman J. Karin

2006-01-01

303

Cerebral palsy and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: identification of two new mutations in the E1? gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex deficiency, a common cause of congenital lactic acidosis, is mostly due to mutations\\u000a in the X-linked gene coding for the E1? subunit of the complex. We have studied two unrelated girls presenting a static encephalopathy\\u000a with spastic quadriplegia, microcephaly and seizures and in one girl, hypocalcaemia, a new finding in PDH complex deficiency.\\u000a PDH deficiency was

W. Lissens; P. Vreken; P. G. Barth; F. A. Wijburg; W. Ruitenbeek; R. J. A. Wanders; S. Seneca; I. Liebaers; L. De Meirleir

1999-01-01

304

The zinc finger protein GLI transforms primary cells in cooperation with adenovirus E1A.  

PubMed Central

The GLI gene was previously isolated by virtue of its amplification in human glioblastomas. We have now found that GLI expression can result in the in vitro transformation of both primary and secondary rodent cells. When coexpressed with adenovirus E1A, the GLI protein functions analogously to RAS, resulting in the formation of dense foci of cells which are tumorigenic in nude mice. Images

Ruppert, J M; Vogelstein, B; Kinzler, K W

1991-01-01

305

Human CYP2E1 mediates the formation of glycidamide from acrylamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding the cancer risk assessment of acrylamide (AA) it is of basic interest to know, as to what amount of the absorbed\\u000a AA is metabolized to glycidamide (GA) in humans, compared to what has been observed in laboratory animals. GA is suspected\\u000a of being the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of AA. From experiments with CYP2E1-deficient mice it can be concluded that

Eva Settels; Ulrike Bernauer; Richard Palavinskas; Horst S. Klaffke; Ursula Gundert-Remy; Klaus E. Appel

2008-01-01

306

Glucocorticoids Increase the Responsiveness of Cells in Culture to Prostaglandin E1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of steroid hormones on the response of human astrocytoma cells (1321N1) to prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) has been investigated. Responsiveness to PGE1 was determined by measuring the conversion of [3H]ATP to cyclic [3H]AMP in cells prelabeled with [3H]adenine. After incubation of the cells with dexamethasone, a marked increase in both the maximal effect (2- to 3-fold) and the potency

Stephen J. Foster; John P. Perkins

1977-01-01

307

Sunflower seed extract enhances the differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is recognised as one of the major hormonal deficiency diseases, especially in menopausal women and the elderly. The present study investigated whether treatment with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed extract (SSE) may affect the function of MC3T3-E1 osteogenic cells. In order to determine the growth and differentiation of osteoblast, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen

Eun Mi Choi

2012-01-01

308

Stimulatory effect of daidzein in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daidzein is a natural isoflavone found in Leguminosae. The effect of daidzein on osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated. Cells were cultured in a serum-free medium for 48 hr in the presence of daidzein (10?7–10?5 M). Daidzein (10?6 and 10?5 M) caused a significant elevation of protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and DNA content in cells; those increases were about 1.4-,

Emi Sugimoto; Masayoshi Yamaguchi

2000-01-01

309

Effect of lipo-pro-prostaglandin E 1, AS013 on rat inner ear microcirculatory thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated effects of lipo-pro-prostaglandin E1 (lipo-[11?, 13E, 15S]-11,15-dihydroxy-9-[1-oxobutoxy]-prosta-8, 13-dien-1-oic acid butyl ester), AS-013 in two models of hearing disturbance and equilibrium dysfunction induced by rat inner ear microcirculatory thrombosis. Inner ear microcirculatory thrombosis was induced by photochemical reaction between systemic injection of Rose Bengal and irradiation of green light to the cochlea and vestibule. Photochemical reaction causes endothelial injury

K. Hokamura; K. Umemura; N. Nakamura; M. Watanabe; T. Takashima; M. Nakashima

1998-01-01

310

Polymorphism of metabolizing genes and lung cancer histology: prevalence of CYP2E1 in adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between genetic predisposition and development of specific cancers has not been adequately elucidated. In this study, the involvement of three polymorphic genes (CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1) in the development of different histological types of lung cancer was investigated. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes of lung cancer patients who have been long-term cigarette smokers (n = 52).

Randa A. El-Zein; Joseph B. Zwischenberger; Sherif Z. Abdel-Rahman; Aravind B. Sankar; William W. Au

1997-01-01

311

Expression of lysyl oxidase isoforms in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covalent intermolecular cross-linking of collagen is initiated by the action of lysyl oxidase (LOX) on the telopeptidyl lysine and hydroxylysine residues. Recently, several LOX isoforms, i.e., LOX-like proteins 1–4 (LOXL1–4), have been identified but their specific tissue distribution and functions are still largely unknown. In this study, mRNA expression of LOX and LOXL1–4 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was screened by

Phimon Atsawasuwan; Yoshiyuki Mochida; Duenpim Parisuthiman; Mitsuo Yamauchi

2005-01-01

312

Distribution of the antiseptic-resistance gene qacE? 1 in Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the antiseptic-resistance genes qacE and qacE?1, originally isolated from Gram-negative bacteria, was studied in a large number of Gram-positive bacteria by a method that included the polymerase chain reaction. A total of 151 strains of Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, isolated from clinical sources and obtained from the Japanese Collection of Microorganisms, was used in this analysis. We found

Hitoshi Kazama; Hajime Hamashima; Masanori Sasatsu; Taketoshi Arai

1998-01-01

313

Carbon dioxide reactivity during prostaglandin E 1 . induced hypotension for cerebral aneurysm surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cerebral vasomotor reactivity to carbon dioxide was studied, using a thermal gradient blood flow meter in 43 patients\\u000a with intracranial cerebral aneurysm under deliberate hypotension induced by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) infusion. The patients were divided into three groups according to the neurological status. Patients in Groups A and B had\\u000a subarachnoid haemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Group A

Kazuo Abe; Akira Demizu; Takashi Mima; Kitaro Kamada; Ikuto Yoshiya

1992-01-01

314

Sciadopitysin protects osteoblast function via its antioxidant activity in MC3T3-E1 cells.  

PubMed

Age-related osteoblast dysfunction is the main cause of age-related bone loss in both men and women. In the present study, the effect of sciadopitysin, a type of biflavonoids, on osteoblast function was investigated in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Sciadopitysin caused a significant elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, osteocalcin production, mineralization, and glutathione content in the cells (P<0.05). Sciadopitysin also decreased the production of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-?) induced by antimycin A, a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor. We investigated the protective effects of sciadopitysin on antimycin A-induced toxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to antimycin A caused a significant reduction in osteoblast dysfunction. However, pretreatment with sciadopitysin prior to antimycin A exposure significantly reduced antimycin A-induced cell damage by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) loss, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, and nitrotyrosine increase, suggesting that sciadopitysin may be useful for protecting mitochondria against a burst of oxidative stress. Moreover, sciadopitysin increased phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) inhibited by antimycin A. Our results demonstrate that sciadopitysin may reduce or prevent osteoblasts degeneration. PMID:23624148

Suh, Kwang Sik; Lee, Young Soon; Kim, Young Seol; Choi, Eun Mi

2013-04-23

315

Independent cyclic AMP and E1A induction of adenovirus early region 4 expression.  

PubMed Central

A cellular transcription factor, ATF, binds to a repeated element in the adenovirus early region 4 (E4) promoter. ATF also binds to other viral early promoter regions and to the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response elements of cellular genes. In this report, we demonstrate that a single ATF-binding site located immediately upstream of the E4 TATA box, between -62 and -46, mediates induction of E4 transcription by 8-bromoadenosine-3',5-cyclic monophosphate or cholera toxin in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. Different ATF-binding sites in the E4 control region independently conferred cAMP inducibility on the simian virus 40 early promoter in PC12 cells. Induction of E4 expression by cAMP was also observed in virus-infected HepG2 cells. Other viral early promoter regions that contain ATF-binding sites (E1A and E2A) were also induced by cAMP in infected cells. E4 expression was activated by the E1A 13S mRNA products in HepG2 cells. E1A trans activation appears to be distinct from the cAMP response. Images

Leza, M A; Hearing, P

1989-01-01

316

Bursts of energetic electron induced large surface charging observed by Chang'E-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relationship between surface charging and bursts of energetic electron (BEE) event is presented in this paper. In a 200 km lunar polar orbit, during quiet time, 0.1-2.0 MeV BEE events were observed by High Energetic Particles Detectors (HPD) on board Chang'E-1, on December 22, 2007, when the spacecraft was within the inner terrestrial magnetosheath. At the same time, a large surface charging of ˜-5.4 kV was observed by Chang'E-1, which was evidenced by increasing the ions energy observed by Solar Wind Ion Detectors (SWIDs). We found that the surface charging is strongly correlated with BEE events, and the potentials of spacecraft surface charging was experientially expressed as U?3.6×10-5·fT (kV). The BEE events did occur in the solar wind, geomagnetic tail and magnetosheath alternately, whereas the surface charging during the BEE events is in the magnetosheath or transition region of boundaries. Though the observed surface charging was fewer than the BEE events, it is expected that the occurrence of the charging events caused by the bursts of energetic electrons should be more frequent than the Chang'E-1 observations. Meanwhile, the spacecraft charging indicates the lunar surface can be charged to negative kilovolt-scale by the BEE events even in quiet times.

Wang, X. Y.; Zhang, A. B.; Zhang, X. G.; Reme, H.; Kong, L. G.; Zhang, S. Y.; Yu, D. J.; Wang, S. J.; Zhu, G. W.

2012-10-01

317

Characterization of a novel long-chain n-alkane-degrading strain, Dietzia sp. E1.  

PubMed

The newly isolated strain E1, identified as a Dietzia sp., proved to have an excellent ability to degrade n-C12 to n-C38 alkane components of crude oil. The preferred substrate was the very long-chain alkane n-eicosane at an optimal temperature of 37 degrees C and an optimal pH of 8 under aerobic conditions. The growth and substrate uptake kinetics were monitored during the n-alkane fermentation process, and Dietzia sp. E1 cells were found to possess three distinct levels of cell-surface hydrophobicity. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis revealed that intracellular substrate mineralization occurred through the conversion of n-alkane to the corresponding n-alkanal. The monoterminal oxidation pathway was presumably initiated by AlkB and CYP153 terminal alkane hydroxylases, both of their partial coding sequences were successfully detected in the genome of strain E1, a novel member of the Dietzia genus. PMID:21319712

Bihari, Zoltán; Szabó, Zsolt; Szvetnik, Attila; Balázs, Margit; Bartos, Péter; Tolmacsov, Péter; Zombori, Zoltán; Kiss, István

318

A comparison of substrate dynamics in human CYP2E1 and CYP2A6  

PubMed Central

Considering the dynamic nature of CYPs, methods that reveal information about substrate and enzyme dynamics are necessary to generate predictive models. To compare substrate dynamics in CYP2E1 and CYP2A6, intramolecular isotope effect experiments were conducted, using deuterium labeled substrates: o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, and 4,4?-dimethylbiphenyl. Competitive intermolecular experiments were also conducted using d0- and d6-labeled p-xylene. Both CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 displayed full isotope effect expression for o-xylene oxidation and almost complete suppression for dimethylbiphenyl. Interestingly, (kH/kD)obs for d3-p-xylene oxidation ((kH/kD)obs = 6.04 and (kH/kD)obs = 5.53 for CYP2E1 and CYP2A6, respectively) was only slightly higher than (kH/kD)obs for d3-dimethylnaphthalene ((kH/kD)obs = 5.50 and (kH/kD)obs = 4.96, respectively). One explanation is that in some instances (kH/kD)obs values are generated by the presence of two substrates bound simultaneously to the CYP. Speculatively, if this explanation is valid, then intramolecular isotope effect experiments should be useful in the mechanistic investigation of P450 cooperativity.

Harrelson, John P.; Henne, Kirk R.; Alonso, Darwin O.V.; Nelson, Sidney D.

2009-01-01

319

Purification of rubella virus E1-E2 protein complexes by immunoaffinity chromatography.  

PubMed

A murine monoclonal antibody directed against the E1 membrane glycoprotein of rubella virus was immobilized on an N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated chromatographic support. The antibody was used to purify rubella virus E1-E2 protein complexes from Tween-80/diethyl ether extracts of cell culture supernatants containing virus particles. The adsorption behaviour of immunosorbents with ligand densities of 2.9, 5.4 and 11.1 mg monoclonal antibody per millilitre of gel was investigated using batchwise conditions. Then the immunoaffinity purification process was optimized with regard to adsorption efficiency by adjusting the flow rate, the bed height and the amount of sample loaded onto the column. The optimized immunoaffinity purification process which is reproducible and relatively simple (one-step) had a yield of 73%, a concentration factor of 5-8 and a purification factor of about 2600. No mouse IgG due to ligand leakage could be detected in the immunopurified product using an enzyme immunoassay. High-performance size exclusion chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and electron microscopy showed that the immunopurified product contained rosette-like structures formed by complexes of E1 and E2 proteins. The product retained its hemagglutinating activity and proved to be suitable for application in a fluorescent enzyme immunoassay for determination of anti-rubella IgG in human serum. PMID:9015274

van Sommeren, A P; Machielsen, P A; Schielen, W J; Bloemers, H P; Gribnau, T C

1997-01-01

320

Adaptive Mutations in Sindbis Virus E2 and Ross River Virus E1 That Allow Efficient Budding of Chimeric Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alphavirus glycoproteins E2 and E1 form a heterodimer that is required for virus assembly. We have studied adaptive mutations in E2 of Sindbis virus (SIN) and E1 of Ross River virus (RR) that allow these two glycoproteins to interact more efficiently in a chimeric virus that has SIN E2 but RR E1. These mutations include K129E, K131E, and V237F in

KYONGMIN HWANG KIM; ELLEN G. STRAUSS; JAMES H. STRAUSS

2000-01-01

321

Serum deprivation-induced HepG2 cell death is potentiated by CYP2E1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of oxidative stress plays a key role in serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. CYP2E1 plays an important role in toxicity of many chemicals and ethanol and produces oxidant stress. We investigated whether CYP2E1 expression can sensitize HepG2 cells to toxicity as a consequence of serum deprivation. The models used were HepG2 E47 cells that express human CYP2E1, and C34 HepG2 cells

Jian Zhuge; Arthur I. Cederbaum

2006-01-01

322

A case of PDH-E1? mosaicism in a male patient with severe metabolic lactic acidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized a novel mutation in a male patient that affects the coding sequence of PDH-E1a gene and changes arginine-141 to a leucine. This nucleotide substitution was found in about 75% of the studied DNA (fibroblasts, liver and muscle), a scenario that would indicate a case of E1a mosaicism in a male patient. When the mutant E1a protein was

A. Seyda; K. Chun; S. Packman; B. H. Robinson

2001-01-01

323

Biochemical Construction of Specific Chimeric Plasmids from ColE1 DNA and Unfractionated Escherichia coli DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of chimeric plasmids was constructed using colicinigenic factor E1 (ColE1) DNA as the replicon and DNA fragments carrying the galactose or tryptophan operons from E. coli. Restriction endonuclease EcoRI digests of ColE1 DNA and various DNAs containing the trp or gal operons were joined by T4 polynucleotide ligase [polynucleotide synthetase (ATP), poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide) ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.5.1.1]. Chimeric plasmids

Carolyn J. Collins; David A. Jackson; F. Albert J. Devries

1976-01-01

324

Detection of rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies with a baculovirus-expressed E1 protein.  

PubMed Central

The structural proteins of rubella virus (RV) were expressed in insect cells by using the baculovirus expression vector system. The recombinant E1 envelope glycoprotein was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography and used to detect RV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Correlation analysis between the reactivities of antibodies against this recombinant E1 and the reactivities against authentic RV antigen shows that purified E1 can detect RV antibodies of the immunoglobulin M type.

Schmidt, M; Lindqvist, C; Salmi, A; Oker-Blom, C

1996-01-01

325

Purification and application of C-terminally truncated hepatitis C virus E1 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To explore the possibility of expressing hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein 1 (E1) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and to test the purified recombinant E1 proteins for clinical and research applications. METHODS: C-terminally truncated E1 fragments were expressed in E. coli as hexa-histidine-tagged fusion proteins. The expression products were purified under denaturing conditions using immobilized-metal affinity chromatography. Purified

Jing Liu; Li-Xin Zhu; Yu-Ying Kong; Guang-Di Li; Yuan Wang

2005-01-01

326

The generation of a colE1Ap r cloning vehicle which allows detection of inserted DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3.2 Mdal sequence of DNA, TnA, which contains the ampicillin (Ap) resistance determinant has been translocated from an R plasmid to the plasmid ColE1. A total of 12 isolates were studied. There are at least 8 sites in ColE1 at which TnA has inserted. Insertion at five of these has resulted in a Col- phenotype. One ColE1-Apr plasmid, RSF2124,

Magdalene So; Ron Gill; Stanley Falkow

1975-01-01

327

Strength characteristics of transformation-toughened zirconia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of failure in a transformation-toughened MgO-partially-stabilized ZrOâ are identified using in situ observations. The observations are related to measured stress-strain curves, strengths under various loading conditions, strength degradation from surface damage, and comparative strengths and toughnesses of toughened and overaged materials. Both reversible and irreversible tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformations, as well as microcracking, are associated with nonlinear stress-strain curves. The influence

D. B. MARSHALL

1986-01-01

328

Notched strength of ceramic-matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two simple approaches for characterizing the strength of notched ceramic-matrix composites are presented in non-dimensional form for finite geometries and are used to evaluate the notched strength of a woven-Nicalon-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite. Notch sensitivity can be evaluated with one parameter—the material toughness divided by the product of the unnotched strength and specimen width. For notchinsensitive behavior, a minimum toughness can

W. P. Keith; K. T. Kedward

1997-01-01

329

Strength of porcelain fused to titanium beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to measure strengths of layered porcelain fused to titanium beams, determine failure modes, and investigate the porcelain-titanium interface. A three-point flexural test and formulas derived especially for this purpose were used. The strength of layered porcelain-ceramic beams was limited by the cohesive tensile or compressive strengths of the porcelain, not by the porcelaintitanium interfacial

Shane N. White; Ly Ho; Angelo A. Caputo; Edward Goo

1996-01-01

330

The drop in strength at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Reduction of the ultimate strength with decreasing temperatures in fcc materials indicates embrittlement of the material.2.The reduction of the strength with decreasing temperature is due to the reduction of the effective surface energy, i.e., the increase of the resistance to plastic deformation with the occurrence of a crack at stresses close to the yield strength.3.The effect of stress concentrations on

D. V. Lebedev

1971-01-01

331

Age and Sex Differences in Orofacial Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored age- and sex-related differences in orofacial strength. Healthy adult men (N = 88) and women (N = 83) participated in the study. Strength measures were obtained using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). Anterior\\u000a and posterior tongue elevation strength measures were obtained using a standard method. Tongue protrusion and lateralization,\\u000a cheek compression, and lip compression measures utilized adaptors allowing the participant

Heather M. ClarkNancy; Nancy Pearl Solomon

332

Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E1 Protein Is Translated from Polycistronic mRNA by a Discontinuous Scanning Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Papillomaviruses are small double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate episomally in the nuclei of infected cells. The full-length E1 protein of papillomaviruses is required for the replication of viral DNA. The viral mRNA from which the human papillomavirus type 18 E1 protein is expressed is not known. We demonstrate that in eukaryotic cells, the E1 protein is expressed from polycistronic mRNA containing E6, E7, and E1 open reading frames (ORFs). The translation of adjacent E7 and E1 ORFs is not associated; it is performed by separate populations of ribosomes. The translation of the downstream E1 gene is preceded by ribosome scanning. Scanning happens at least at the 5? end of the polycistronic mRNA and also approximately 100 bp in front of the E1 gene. Long areas in middle of the mRNA are bypassed by ribosomes, possibly by ribosomal “shunting.” Inactivation of short minicistrons in the upstream area of the E1 gene did not change the expression level of the E1 gene.

Remm, Maido; Remm, Anu; Ustav, Mart

1999-01-01

333

Ethanol induction of CYP2A5: role of CYP2E1-ROS-Nrf2 pathway.  

PubMed

Chronic ethanol consumption was previously shown to induce CYP2A5 in mice, and this induction of CYP2A5 by ethanol was CYP2E1 dependent. In this study, the mechanisms of CYP2E1-dependent ethanol induction of CYP2A5 were investigated. CYP2E1 was induced by chronic ethanol consumption to the same degree in wild-type (WT) mice and CYP2A5 knockout (Cyp2a5 (-/-)) mice, suggesting that unlike the CYP2E1-dependent ethanol induction of CYP2A5, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is not CYP2A5 dependent. Microsomal ethanol oxidation was about 25% lower in Cyp2a5 (-/-) mice compared with that in WT mice, suggesting that CYP2A5 can oxidize ethanol although to a lesser extent than CYP2E1 does. CYP2A5 was induced by short-term ethanol consumption in human CYP2E1 transgenic knockin (Cyp2e1 (-/-) KI) mice but not in CYP2E1 knockout (Cyp2e1 (-/-)) mice. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was also induced by acute ethanol in Cyp2e1 (-/-) KI mice but not in Cyp2e1 (-/-) mice. Ethanol induction of CYP2A5 in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2 (-/-)) mice was lower compared with that in WT mice, whereas CYP2E1 induction by ethanol was comparable in WT and Nrf2 (-/-) mice. Antioxidants (N-acetyl-cysteine and vitamin C), which blocked oxidative stress induced by chronic ethanol in WT mice and acute ethanol in Cyp2e1 (-/-) KI mice, also blunted the induction of CYP2A5 and Nrf2 by ethanol but not the induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol. These results suggest that oxidative stress induced by ethanol via induction of CYP2E1 upregulates Nrf2 activity, which in turn regulates ethanol induction of CYP2A5. Results obtained from primary hepatocytes, mice gavaged with binge ethanol or fed chronic ethanol, show that Nrf2-regulated ethanol induction of CYP2A5 protects against ethanol-induced steatosis. PMID:22552773

Lu, Yongke; Zhang, Xu Hannah; Cederbaum, Arthur I

2012-05-02

334

The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of leukemia and multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

The proteasomal pathway of protein degradation involves 2 discrete steps: ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we evaluated the effects of inhibiting the ubiquitination pathway at the level of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 (E1). By immunoblotting, leukemia cell lines and primary patient samples had increased protein ubiquitination. Therefore, we examined the effects of genetic and chemical inhibition of the E1 enzyme. Knockdown of E1 decreased the abundance of ubiquitinated proteins in leukemia and myeloma cells and induced cell death. To further investigate effects of E1 inhibition in malignancy, we discovered a novel small molecule inhibitor, 3,5-dioxopyrazolidine compound, 1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4-[(5-nitro-2-furyl)methylene]-3,5-pyrazolidinedione (PYZD-4409). PYZD-4409 induced cell death in malignant cells and preferentially inhibited the clonogenic growth of primary acute myeloid leukemia cells compared with normal hematopoietic cells. Mechanistically, genetic or chemical inhibition of E1 increased expression of E1 stress markers. Moreover, BI-1 overexpression blocked cell death after E1 inhibition, suggesting ER stress is functionally important for cell death after E1 inhibition. Finally, in a mouse model of leukemia, intraperitoneal administration of PYZD-4409 decreased tumor weight and volume compared with control without untoward toxicity. Thus, our work highlights the E1 enzyme as a novel target for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

Xu, G. Wei; Ali, Mohsin; Wood, Tabitha E.; Wong, Derek; Maclean, Neil; Wang, Xiaoming; Gronda, Marcela; Skrtic, Marko; Li, Xiaoming; Hurren, Rose; Mao, Xinliang; Venkatesan, Meenakshi; Zavareh, Reza Beheshti; Ketela, Troy; Reed, John C.; Rose, David; Moffat, Jason; Batey, Robert A.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

2010-01-01

335

Binding of the E1 and E2 Proteins to the Origin of Replication of Bovine Papillomavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA replication of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) requires two viral proteins encoded from the E1 and E2 openreadingframes.E1andE2aresequence-specificDNAbindingproteinsthatbindtotheircognatebinding sitesintheBPVoriginofreplication(ori).TheE1andE2proteinscaninteractphysicallywitheachother,and this interaction results in cooperative binding when binding sites for both proteins are present. We have analyzed the binding of E1 to the ori in the absence and presence of E2, using DNase I footprint analysis, gel mobility shift assays, and interference

TIINA SEDMAN; JUHAN SEDMAN; ANDARNE STENLUND

1997-01-01

336

Pitch strength of normal and dysphonic voices  

PubMed Central

Two sounds with the same pitch may vary from each other based on saliency of their pitch sensation. This perceptual attribute is called “pitch strength.” The study of voice pitch strength may be important in quantifying of normal and pathological qualities. The present study investigated how pitch strength varies across normal and dysphonic voices. A set of voices (vowel /a/) selected from the Kay Elemetrics Disordered Voice Database served as the stimuli. These stimuli demonstrated a wide range of voice quality. Ten listeners judged the pitch strength of these stimuli in an anchored magnitude estimation task. On a given trial, listeners heard three different stimuli. The first stimulus represented very low pitch strength (wide-band noise), the second stimulus consisted of the target voice and the third stimulus represented very high pitch strength (pure tone). Listeners estimated pitch strength of the target voice by positioning a continuous slider labeled with values between 0 and 1, reflecting the two anchor stimuli. Results revealed that listeners can judge pitch strength reliably in dysphonic voices. Moderate to high correlations with perceptual judgments of voice quality suggest that pitch strength may contribute to voice quality judgments.

Shrivastav, Rahul; Eddins, David A.; Anand, Supraja

2012-01-01

337

The strength of the minority  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we focus on the problem of opinion formation by introducing a simple model with a certain community structure. To understand the strength of the community, we took a particular interest in a special problem of how the opinion of a small but cohesive community could persist or even be finally accepted by the majority of the society. Both simulation and analysis has been done in the absence and presence of noise. In the noiseless environment, assuming the population of the community is fixed, if the cohesion of the community reaches a certain level, then the phase transition will occur in the evolution process that the community will never be assimilated even if it can assimilate the other nodes in the network, which depends on the population of the community. On the other hand, in the presence of noise, the process of opinion formation seems more complex that two transition behaviors occur outside and inside the community as the noise level increases. And the outcomes of the evolution may be completely opposite under different noise conditions.

Huang, Gan; Cao, Jinde; Wang, Guanjun; Qu, Yuzhong

2008-07-01

338

Towards a measurement of the 2s2p 3P0 ? 2s2 1S0 E1M1 two photon transition rate in Be-like xenon ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectronic recombination (DR) of Be-like 136Xe50+ was measured by employing the electron-ion merged-beam technique at the storage ring ESR of GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. We present results covering the center-of-mass energy range 0 - 4 eV. In addition to Rydberg series of resonances associated with ground-state intra L-shell excitations, resonances were found which are formed during DR of initially metastable 136Xe50+(2s2p 3P0) parent ions. This state is the first excited state and is long lived because the J=0 ? J=0 transition and the absence of nuclear spin make the rare E1M1 two-photon transition the lowest-order decay channel. Future measurements which will monitor the strength of the resonances as function of storage time may be exploited for a measurement of the E1M1 two photon transition rate.

Bernhardt, D.; Brandau, C.; Kozhuharov, C.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.; Böhm, S.; Bosch, F.; Jacobi, J.; Kieslich, S.; Knopp, H.; Mokler, P. H.; Nolden, F.; Shi, W.; Stachura, Z.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.

2012-11-01

339

Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults?  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether grip strength is related to total muscle strength in children, adolescents, and young adults. The second purpose was to provide reference charts for grip strength, which could be used in the clinical and research setting. This cross-sectional study was performed at primary and secondary schools and the University of Applied Sciences. Three hundred and eighty-four healthy Dutch children, adolescents, and young adults at the age of 8 to 20 years participated. Isometric muscle strength was measured with a handheld dynamometer of four muscle groups (shoulder abductors, grip strength, hip flexors, and ankle dorsiflexors). Total muscle strength was a summing up of shoulder abductors, hip flexors, and ankle dorsiflexors. All physical therapists participated in a reliability study. The study was started when intratester and intertester reliability was high (Pearson correlation coefficient >0.8). Grip strength was strongly correlated with total muscle strength, with correlation coefficients between 0.736 and 0.890 (p < 0.01). However, the correlation was weaker when controlled for weight (0.485-0.564, p < 0.01). Grip strength is related to total muscle strength. This indicates, in the clinical setting, that grip strength can be used as a tool to have a rapid indication of someone's general muscle strength. The developed reference charts are suitable for evaluating muscle strength in children, adolescents, and young adults in clinical and research settings. PMID:19526369

Wind, Anne E; Takken, Tim; Helders, Paul J M; Engelbert, Raoul H H

2009-06-14

340

Role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced circadian gene-mediated intestinal hyperpermeability.  

PubMed

We have shown that alcohol increases Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro by inducing the expression of redox-sensitive circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 and that these proteins are necessary for alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. We hypothesized that alcohol metabolism by intestinal Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) could alter circadian gene expression (Clock and Per2), resulting in alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. In vitro Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were exposed to alcohol, and CYP2E1 protein, activity, and mRNA were measured. CYP2E1 expression was knocked down via siRNA and alcohol-induced hyperpermeability, and CLOCK and PER2 protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells were also treated with alcohol or H?O? with or without N-acetylcysteine (NAC) anti-oxidant, and CLOCK and PER2 proteins were measured at 4 or 2 h. In vivo Cyp2e1 protein and mRNA were also measured in colon tissue from alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol increased CYP2E1 protein by 93% and enzyme activity by 69% in intestinal cells in vitro. Alcohol feeding also increased mouse colonic Cyp2e1 protein by 73%. mRNA levels of Cyp2e1 were not changed by alcohol in vitro or in mouse intestine. siRNA knockdown of CYP2E1 in Caco-2 cells prevented alcohol-induced hyperpermeability and induction of CLOCK and PER2 proteins. Alcohol-induced and H?O?-induced increases in intestinal cell CLOCK and PER2 were significantly inhibited by treatment with NAC. We concluded that our data support a novel role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability via a mechanism involving CYP2E1-dependent induction of oxidative stress and upregulation of circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2. PMID:23660503

Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Shaikh, Maliha; Tang, Yueming; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

2013-05-09

341

Crystal structure of hyperthermophilic esterase EstE1 and the relationship between its dimerization and thermostability properties  

PubMed Central

Background EstE1 is a hyperthermophilic esterase belonging to the hormone-sensitive lipase family and was originally isolated by functional screening of a metagenomic library constructed from a thermal environmental sample. Dimers and oligomers may have been evolutionally selected in thermophiles because intersubunit interactions can confer thermostability on the proteins. The molecular mechanisms of thermostabilization of this extremely thermostable esterase are not well understood due to the lack of structural information. Results Here we report for the first time the 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of EstE1. The three-dimensional structure of EstE1 exhibits a classic ?/? hydrolase fold with a central parallel-stranded beta sheet surrounded by alpha helices on both sides. The residues Ser154, Asp251, and His281 form the catalytic triad motif commonly found in other ?/? hydrolases. EstE1 exists as a dimer that is formed by hydrophobic interactions and salt bridges. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and heat inactivation kinetic analysis of EstE1 mutants, which were generated by structure-based site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues participating in EstE1 dimerization, revealed that hydrophobic interactions through Val274 and Phe276 on the ?8 strand of each monomer play a major role in the dimerization of EstE1. In contrast, the intermolecular salt bridges contribute less significantly to the dimerization and thermostability of EstE1. Conclusion Our results suggest that intermolecular hydrophobic interactions are essential for the hyperthermostability of EstE1. The molecular mechanism that allows EstE1 to endure high temperature will provide guideline for rational design of a thermostable esterase/lipase using the lipolytic enzymes showing structural similarity to EstE1.

Byun, Jung-Sue; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Nam Doo; Yoon, JeongHyeok; Kim, Dong-Uk; Koh, Eunhee; Oh, Jong-Won; Cho, Hyun-Soo

2007-01-01

342

Brain CYP2E1 is induced by nicotine and ethanol in rat and is higher in smokers and alcoholics  

PubMed Central

Ethanol and nicotine are commonly coabused drugs. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) metabolizes ethanol and bioactivates tobacco-derived procarcinogens. Ethanol and nicotine can induce hepatic CYP2E1 and we hypothesized that both centrally active drugs could also induce CYP2E1 within the brain. Male rats were treated with saline, ethanol (3.0 g kg?1 by gavage) or nicotine (1.0 mg kg?1 s.c.) for 7 days. Ethanol treatment significantly increased CYP2E1 in olfactory bulbs (1.7-fold), frontal cortex (2.0-fold), hippocampus (1.9-fold) and cerebellum (1.8-fold), while nicotine induced CYP2E1 in olfactory bulbs (2.3-fold), frontal cortex (3.0-fold), olfactory tubercle (3.1-fold), cerebellum (2.5-fold) and brainstem (2.0-fold). Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the induction was cell-type specific. Consistent with the increased CYP2E1 found in rat brain following drug treatments, brains from alcoholics and alcoholic smokers showed greater staining of granular cells of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cells of CA2 and CA3 hippocampal regions as well as of cerebellar Purkinje cells compared to nonalcoholic nonsmokers. Moreover, greater CYP2E1 immunoreactivity was observed in the frontal cortices in the alcoholic smokers in comparison to nonalcoholic nonsmokers and alcoholic nonsmokers. To investigate if nicotine could contribute to the increased CYP2E1 observed in alcoholic smokers, we treated human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells in culture and found significantly higher CYP2E1 immunostaining in nicotine-treated cells (0.1–10 nM). CYP2E1 induction in the brain, by ethanol or nicotine, may influence the central effects of ethanol and the development of nervous tissue pathologies observed in alcoholics and smokers.

Howard, Lisa A; Miksys, Sharon; Hoffmann, Ewa; Mash, Deborah; Tyndale, Rachel F

2003-01-01

343

Role of mouse CYP2E1 in the O-hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol: comparison of activities in hepatic microsomes from Cyp2e1(-/-) and wild-type mice.  

PubMed

Enzymatic activities are routinely used to identify the contribution of individual forms of cytochrome P450 in a particular biotransformation. p-Nitrophenol O-hydroxylation (PNPH) has been widely used as a measure of CYP2E1 catalytic activity. However, rat and human forms of CYP3A have also been shown to catalyze this activity. In mice, the contributions of CYP3A and CYP2E1 to PNPH activity are not known. Here we used hepatic microsomes from Cyp2e1(-/-) and wild-type mice to investigate the contributions of constitutively expressed and alcohol-induced murine CYP2E1 and CYP3A to PNPH activity. In liver microsomes from untreated mice, PNPH activity was much greater in wild-type mice compared with Cyp2e1(-/-) mice, suggesting a major role for CYP2E1 in catalyzing PNPH activity. Hepatic PNPH activities were not significantly different in microsomes from male and female mice, although the microsomes from females have dramatically higher levels of CYP3A. Treatment with a combination of ethanol and isopentanol resulted in induction of CYP3A proteins in wild-type and Cyp2e1(-/-) mice, as well as CYP2E1 protein in wild-type mice. The alcohol treatment increased PNPH activities in hepatic microsomes from wild-type mice but not from Cyp2e1(-/-) mice. Our findings suggest that in untreated and alcohol-treated mice, PNPH activity may be used as a specific probe for CYP2E1 and that constitutively expressed and alcohol-induced forms of mouse CYP3A have little to no role in catalyzing PNPH activity. PMID:15205381

Wolf, Kristina K; Wood, Sheryl G; Bement, Jenna L; Sinclair, Peter R; Wrighton, Steven A; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Frank J; Sinclair, Jacqueline F

2004-07-01

344

Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells  

SciTech Connect

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 >> LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G protein-coupled receptor LPA1.

Masiello, Lisa M.; Fotos, Joseph S.; Galileo, Deni S.; Karin, Norm J.

2006-07-01

345

A comparison of substrate dynamics in human CYP2E1 and CYP2A6  

SciTech Connect

Considering the dynamic nature of CYPs, methods that reveal information about substrate and enzyme dynamics are necessary to generate predictive models. To compare substrate dynamics in CYP2E1 and CYP2A6, intramolecular isotope effect experiments were conducted, using deuterium labeled substrates: o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, and 4,4'-dimethylbiphenyl. Competitive intermolecular experiments were also conducted using d{sub 0}- and d{sub 6}-labeled p-xylene. Both CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 displayed full isotope effect expression for o-xylene oxidation and almost complete suppression for dimethylbiphenyl. Interestingly (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} for d{sub 3}-p-xylene oxidation ((k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 6.04 and (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 5.53 for CYP2E1 and CYP2A6, respectively) was only slightly higher than (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} for d{sub 3}-dimethylnaphthalene ((k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 5.50 and (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 4.96, respectively). One explanation is that in some instances (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} values are generated by the presence of two substrates-bound simultaneously to the CYP. Speculatively, if this explanation is valid, then intramolecular isotope effect experiments should be useful in the mechanistic investigation of P450 cooperativity.

Harrelson, John P. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)]. E-mail: harrelsonj@pacificu.edu; Henne, Kirk R. [Amgen, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Alonso, Darwin O.V. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Nelson, Sidney D. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2007-01-26

346

Calculation of energy levels, {ital E}1 transition amplitudes, and parity violation in francium  

SciTech Connect

Many-body perturbation theory in the screened Coulomb interaction was used to calculate energy levels, {ital E}1 trransition amplitudes, and the parity-nonconserving (PNC) {ital E}1 amplitude of the 7{ital s}-8{ital s} transition in francium. The method takes into account the core-polarization effect, the second-order correlations, and the three dominating sequences of higher-order correlation diagrams: screening of the electron-electron interaction, particle-hole interaction, and the iterations of the self-energy operator. The result for the PNC amplitude for {sup 223}Fr is {ital E}1(7{ital s}-8{ital s})=(1.59{plus_minus}{similar_to}1%){times}10{sup {minus}10}{ital iea}{sub {ital B}}({minus}{ital Q}{sub {ital W}}/{ital N}), where {ital Q}{sub {ital W}} is the weak charge of the nucleus, {ital N}=136 is the number of neutrons, {ital e}={vert_bar}{ital e}{vert_bar} is the elementary charge, and {ital a}{sub {ital B}} is the Bohr radius. Our prediction for the position of the 8{ital s} energy level of Fr, which has not been measured yet, is 13 110 cm{sup {minus}1} below the limit of the continuous spectrum. The accuracy of the calculations was controlled by comparison with available experimental data and analogous calculations for cesium. It is estimated to be {similar_to}0.1% for the energy levels and {similar_to}1% for the transition amplitudes.

Dzuba, V.A.; Flambaum, V.V.; Sushkov, O.P. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

1995-05-01

347

Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.  

PubMed

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1>LPA4>LPA2>LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G-protein-coupled receptor LPA1. PMID:16487757

Masiello, Lisa M; Fotos, Joseph S; Galileo, Deni S; Karin, Norman J

2006-02-17

348

Strength and sprint performance in wheelchair athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between strength, exhibited by an athlete in both dynamic constant resistance and isokinetic exercise, and sprint performance was investigated in 12 wheelchair track athletes (32.2 ± 9.3 years old, National Wheelchair Athletic Association functional classification ranging from II to V). Strength tests included a 1 repetition maximum (RM) bench press and an isokinetic arm compound movement (60°.sec and

Jay R. Hoffman; Lawrence E. Armstrong; Carl M. Maresh; Robert W. Kenefick; John W. Castellani; Angela Pasqualicchio

1994-01-01

349

Strength and Fatigue Life of Wire Rope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented that predicts the fatigue life of a large diameter wire rope, from test data for small diameter rope. Dimensional analysis and the technique of interpolation and extrapolation are employed. The method is applied first to study size effects on the breaking strength of wire ropes and then to predict fatigue strength. Results are compared with experimental

Chi-Hui Chien; Raymond A. LeClair; George A. Costello

1988-01-01

350

Static Material Strength Determined Using a DAC  

SciTech Connect

By measuring sample thickness and pressure gradient using x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction, respectively, the accurate static yield strengths of Ta and Fe were determined at high pressure. This improved method has several advantages over other similar methods to quantitatively determine static material strength.

Cynn, H; Evans, W; Klepeis, J P; Lipp, M; Liermann, P; Yang, W

2009-06-04

351

46 CFR 160.017-17 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strength. 160.017-17 Section 160.017-17...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING...EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-17 Strength. (a) Each chain ladder must...

2011-10-01

352

46 CFR 163.003-17 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strength. 163.003-17 Section 163.003-17...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-17 Strength. (a) Each pilot ladder must...

2012-10-01

353

46 CFR 160.017-17 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strength. 160.017-17 Section 160.017-17...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING...EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-17 Strength. (a) Each chain ladder must...

2012-10-01

354

46 CFR 163.003-17 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strength. 163.003-17 Section 163.003-17...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-17 Strength. (a) Each pilot ladder must...

2011-10-01

355

In situ Shear Strength Tester for Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research was to develop a device for rapid in situ measurement of rock shearing strength and to compare the shearing strength results with those obtained by other test methods. The rock borehole shear test (RBST) operates by expansio...

R. L. Handy L. E. Engle J. M. Pitt

1976-01-01

356

Fracture mechanics approaches to coating strength evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of mechanical failure of flame sprayed molybdenum coating on piston rings prompted development of reliable methods of characterising and improving bond strengths. A method of using the ASTM specimen with a small modification, to estimate fracture toughness properties of the coating is proposed. Flame spraying process parameters are optimised to produce coatings of high adhesive strength using Taguchi

N. Gowri Shankar

1996-01-01

357

Rock Strength Under Confined Shock Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses the laboratory measurements of the static strength of rock needed to simulate the response of rock to an underground explosion. The approach is to identify the variables that affect the strength of rock and to discuss each effect in ...

C. H. Scholz

1982-01-01

358

Limits on rock strength under high confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding of deep earthquake source mechanisms requires knowledge of failure processes active under high confinement. Under low confinement the compressive strength of rock is well known to be limited by frictional sliding along stress-concentrating flaws. Under higher confinement strength is usually assumed limited by power-law creep associated with the movement of dislocations. In a review of existing experimental data, we

Carl E. Renshaw; Erland M. Schulson

2007-01-01

359

Effect of reinforcement corrosion on bond strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of reinforcement corrosion on the bond strength between steel and concrete was investigated. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete elements, including the ultimate bond strength, free-end slip, and the modes of failure in precracking, cracking and postcracking stages was studied. Also, the effect of different crack widths and the rib profile degradation for various degrees of corrosion on

Abdullah A. Almusallam; Ahmad S. Al-Gahtani; Abdur Rauf Aziz; Rasheeduzzafar

1996-01-01

360

Dynamic compressive strengths of polymeric composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic compressive strength of unidirectional fiber composites in the form of fiber microbuckling was investigated and modeled. Both strain rate and shear stress effects on the compressive strength were considered. The present model was developed from extending Rosen's fiber buckling model in conjunction with a viscoplasticity model to describe the inelastic and rate dependent behavior of the composite. Off-axis

Jialin Tsai; C. T. Sun

2004-01-01

361

BONE BREAKING STRENGTH IN MATURE DAIRY COWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of parity, stage of lactation, and measurement site (fused 3rd and 4th metacarpal bone vs. caudal vertebrae 14 and 15) on breaking strength of bone in dairy cattle, and to assess the relationship between breaking strength and bone mineral content. The caudal vertebrae and right front metacarpal (sample pairs) were excised from

B. E. Keene; K. F. Knowlton; J. H. Wilson; M. L. McGilliard; C. Holtaway

362

Strength training exercise for special population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an appropriate strength training programme for different population is a complicated process. This programme design requires a solid understanding of the underlying scientific principles and should be based on a sound rationale. For an effective strength training programme design, it is very important to identify the specific variables that need to be controlled in order to better predict

K Prabhakaran Manilal

2010-01-01

363

Rest Interval between Sets in Strength Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strength training has become one of the most popular physical activities for increasing characteristics such as absolute muscular strength, endurance, hypertrophy and muscular power. For efficient, safe and effective training, it is of utmost importance to understand the interaction among training vari- ables, which might include the intensity, number of sets, rest interval between sets, exercise modality and velocity of

Belmiro Freitas de Salles; Roberto Simão; Fabrõ ´ cio Miranda; Jefferson da Silva Novaes; Adriana Lemos; Jeffrey M. Willardson

2009-01-01

364

Tools for Building on Youth Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While rhetoric about strength-based approaches abounds, this perspective has not penetrated the front lines of practice. Many programs serving troubled youngsters are still mired in a deficit and deviance orientation. This article provides practical strategies for assessing the strengths of children and developing interventions to tap their…

Cox, Kathy

2008-01-01

365

Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements…

Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

2009-01-01

366

The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His presentation shows…

Peterson, Christopher

2013-01-01

367

Strength of welded jumbo box columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate strength of hot?rolled wide flange steel columns has been studied extensively. However, very limited research work has been carried out on welded box columns, especially the jumbo type. This study focuses on the ultimate strength of welded jumbo box columns which are fabricated from four steel plates. The magnitude and distribution of residual stresses due to welding processes

1992-01-01

368

The role of metabolites in strength training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the role of high forces versus metabolic cost in the adaptations following strength training. Ten young, healthy male and female subjects trained one leg using concentric (CL) and the other using eccentric (EL) contractions of the quadriceps muscle for 20 weeks. EL used weights which were 35% higher than those used for CL. Isometric strength, and the

R. Carey Smith; O. M. Rutherford

1995-01-01

369

Strengths: African-American Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is generally true that when people are deprived of their own cultural forms and are coerced into adopting the cultural forms of others, disorder, stress, and even disability will occur. Conversely, the basic strength of any people results from their experience of historical and cultural continuity. The strengths of African-American children…

Hilliard, Asa G., III

370

Identification of a Functional Splice Variant of 14-3-3E1 in Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 14-3-3 protein family is a family of regulatory proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. The presence of 14-3-3\\u000a isoforms and the diversity of cellular processes regulated by 14-3-3 isoforms suggest functional specificity of the isoforms.\\u000a In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a new isoform of the rainbow trout 14-3-3E1 gene generated\\u000a by alternative splicing. The

Warapond Wanna; Caird E. Rexroad; Jianbo Yao

2010-01-01

371

Calculation of radiative corrections to E1 matrix elements in the neutral alkali metals  

SciTech Connect

Radiative corrections to E1 matrix elements for ns-np transitions in the alkali-metal atoms lithium through francium are evaluated. They are found to be small for the lighter alkali metals but significantly larger for the heavier alkali metals, and in the case of cesium much larger than the experimental accuracy. The relation of the matrix element calculation to a recent decay rate calculation for hydrogenic ions is discussed, and application of the method to parity nonconservation in cesium is described.

Sapirstein, J.; Cheng, K.T. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2005-02-01

372

Chikungunya virus with E1-A226V mutation causing two outbreaks in 2010, Guangdong, China  

PubMed Central

Background CHIKV is a mosquito-borne emerging pathogen that has a major health impact in humans in tropical zones around the globe. A new variant of the virus, E1-A226V caused a large outbreak in the Indian Ocean islands and India from 2004–2007. CHIKV outbreak was initially reported in Dongguan region of Guangdong in 2010 in China, another smaller CHIKV outbreak was found in Yangjiang region of Guangdong two weeks later. The viral agent causing the two outbreaks was inferred to be the new E1-A226V variant and Yangjiang CHIKV might be introduced from Dongguan. To confirm the hypothesis and determine the origin of CHIKV causing the outbreaks, we described Yangjiang outbreak in this study, and the molecular characterization of CHIKV from Yangjiang and Dongguang outbreaks were analyzed. Results 27 clinical cases of CHIK fever were reported in outbreak in Yangjiang region. Sera sample from 12 clinical cases were collected from the outbreak, and nucleic acid and antibody tests for CHIKV were performed using Real-time RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence. Positive samples of Real-time RT-PCR were subjected to viral isolation. The results showed 3/12 samples positive for Real-time RT-PCR. 7/12 and 4/12 samples were positive for IgM and IgG against CHIKV respectively, two virus strains were isolated. Four viral genomes from Dongguan and Yangjiang were sequenced, characterized and phylogeneticly analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four seqeunced viruses had the closest relationship (99.4~99.6% identify) with the Singapore 2008 isolate belonging to the Indian ocean clade. A common mutation at the site of the E1-A226V was observed among four viruses. Four and three aa substitutions were detected in the CHIKV sequence from the Dongguan and Yangjiang outbreak strains respectively. Conclusion CHIKV with an E1-A226V mutation that originated from Southeast Asia isolates caused two outbreaks in China in 2010, and originated from two different infectious sources.

2013-01-01

373

[Infusion of prostaglandin E1 in resting angina resistant to conventional therapy].  

PubMed

Effect of 48-72 hour infusion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was studied in 17 patients with angina refractory to conventional medical treatment (combination of propranolol, 160 mg/day nifedipin, 30 mg/day and nitrates) by the double blind test. PGE1 was infused to 11, placebo to 6 patients. There was no difference between PGE1 and placebo groups in the number of ischemic episodes and duration of myocardial ischemia as evidenced by Holter ECG monitoring. But in 2 patients with vasospastic angina attacks of ischemia were almost completely abolished by PGE1. PMID:3908782

Gratsianski?, N A; Logutov, Iu A; Karpov, Iu A; Maevskaia, E G; Solov'eva, N V

1985-09-01

374

Cell Lines and Constructs Useful in Production of E1-Deleted Adenoviruses in Absence of Replication Competent Adenovirus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Novel cell lines useful for trans-complementing E1-deleted adenoviral vectors are described. The cell lines are capable of providing high yields of E1-deleted adenoviral vectors in the absence of replication-competent adenovirus over multiple passages.

G. Gao J. M. Wilson

2005-01-01

375

11 CFR 300.61 - Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(A)).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(A)). 300.61 Section 300.61 Federal Elections...Officeholders § 300.61 Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(A)). No person described in 11 CFR 300.60...

2012-01-01

376

Adenovirus 5 E1A enhances histone deacetylase inhibitors-induced apoptosis through Egr-1-mediated Bim upregulation.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are potent anti-cancer agents for variety of cancer types. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been approved as a drug to treat cutaneous T cell lymphoma, and the combination of HDACi and other agents have been actively tested in many clinical trials. Adenovirus 5 early region 1A (E1A) has been shown to exhibit high tumor suppressor activity, and gene therapy using E1A has been tested in clinical trials. Here, we showed that proapoptotic activity of HDACi was robustly enhanced by E1A in multiple cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Moreover, we showed that combination of E1A gene therapy and SAHA showed high therapeutic efficacy with low toxicity in vivo ovarian and breast xenograft models. SAHA downregulated Bcl-XL and upregulated proapoptotic BH3-only protein Bim, whose expression was further enhanced by E1A in cancer cells. These alterations of Bcl-2 family proteins were critical for apoptosis induced by the combination in cancer cells. SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 in Bim promoter region, while E1A upregulated Egr-1, which was directly involved in Bim transactivation. Together, our results provide not only a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying anti-tumor activity of E1A, but also a rationale for the combined HDACi and E1A gene therapy in future clinical trials. PMID:20676141

Yamaguchi, H; Chen, C-T; Chou, C-K; Pal, A; Bornmann, W; Hortobagyi, G N; Hung, M-C

2010-08-02

377

Adenovirus 5 E1A enhances histone deacetylase inhibitors-induced apoptosis through Egr-1-mediated Bim upregulation  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are potent anti-cancer agents for variety of cancer types. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been approved as a drug to treat cutaneous T cell lymphoma, and the combination of HDACi and other agents have been actively tested in many clinical trials. Adenovirus 5 early region 1A (E1A) has been shown to exhibit high tumor suppressor activity, and gene therapy using E1A has been tested in clinical trials. Here, we showed that proapoptotic activity of HDACi was robustly enhanced by E1A in multiple cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Moreover, we showed that combination of E1A gene therapy and SAHA showed high therapeutic efficacy with low toxicity in vivo ovarian and breast xenograft models. SAHA downregulated Bcl-XL and upregulated proapoptotic BH3-only protein Bim, whose expression was further enhanced by E1A in cancer cells. These alterations of Bcl-2 family proteins were critical for apoptosis induced by the combination in cancer cells. SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 in Bim promoter region, while E1A upregulated Egr-1, which was directly involved in Bim transactivation. Together, our results provide not only a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying anti-tumor activity of E1A, but also a rationale for the combined HDACi and E1A gene therapy in future clinical trials.

Yamaguchi, H; Chen, C-T; Chou, C-K; Pal, A; Bornmann, W; Hortobagyi, GN; Hung, M-C

2010-01-01

378

Partition of E1A proteins between soluble and structural fractions of adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells.  

PubMed Central

The partition of E1A proteins between soluble and structural framework fractions of human cells infected or transformed by subgroup C adenoviruses was investigated by using gentle cell fractionation conditions. A polyclonal antibody raised against a trpE-E1A fusion protein (K.R. Spindler, D.S.E. Rosser, and A. J. Berk, J. Virol. 132-141, 1984) synthesized in Escherichia coli was used to measure the steady-state levels of E1A proteins recovered in the various fractions by immunoblotting. The relative concentration of E1A proteins recovered in the soluble fraction of adenovirus type 2-infected cells was at least fivefold greater than the relative concentration in the corresponding fraction of transformed 293 cells. The observed distribution of E1A proteins was not altered by the sulfhydryl-blocking reagent N-ethylmaleimide. E1A proteins were recovered in nuclear matrix, chromatin, and cytoskeleton fractions after further fractionation of the structural framework fraction. However, the E1A protein species that could be identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis were not uniformly distributed among the subcellular fractions examined. The results obtained when fractionation was performed in the presence of the oxidation catalysts Cu2+ or (ortho-phenanthroline)2 Cu2+ indicate that E1A proteins can be efficiently cross-linked, via disulfide bonds, to the structural framework of both adenovirus-infected and adenovirus-transformed cells. Images

Chatterjee, P K; Flint, S J

1986-01-01

379

11 CFR 102.13 - Authorization of political committees (2 U.S.C. 432(e) (1) and (3)).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authorization of political committees (2 U.S.C. 432(e) (1) and (3)). 102.13...RECORDKEEPING BY POLITICAL COMMITTEES (2 U.S.C. 433) § 102.13 Authorization of political committees (2 U.S.C. 432(e) (1) and (3))....

2013-01-01

380

11 CFR 102.12 - Designation of principal campaign committee (2 U.S.C. 432(e) (1) and (3)).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of principal campaign committee (2 U.S.C. 432(e) (1) and (3)). 102.12...RECORDKEEPING BY POLITICAL COMMITTEES (2 U.S.C. 433) § 102.12 Designation of principal campaign committee (2 U.S.C. 432(e) (1) and (3))....

2013-01-01

381

11 CFR 300.62 - Non-Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(B)).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Non-Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(B)). 300.62 Section 300.62 Federal Elections... § 300.62 Non-Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(B)). A person described in 11 CFR 300.60...

2012-01-01

382

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners  

SciTech Connect

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low Alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

Skochko, G.W.; Herrmann, T.P.

1992-11-01

383

Characterization and Whole Genome Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E1-1374?63nt Variants  

PubMed Central

Background The variation of the most common Human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in cervical cancer, the HPV16, has been extensively investigated in almost all viral genes. The E1 gene variation, however, has been rarely studied. The main objective of the present investigation was to analyze the variability of the E6 and E1 genes, focusing on the recently identified E1-1374?63nt variant. Methodology/Principal Findings Variation within the E6 of 786 HPV16 positive cervical samples was analyzed using high-resolution melting, while the E1-1374?63nt duplication was assayed by PCR. Both techniques were supplemented with sequencing. The E1-1374?63nt duplication was linked with the E-G350 and the E-C109/G350 variants. In comparison to the referent HPV16, the E1-1374?63nt E-G350 variant was significantly associated with lower grade cervical lesions (p?=?0.029), while the E1-1374?63nt E-C109/G350 variant was equally distributed between high and low grade lesions. The E1-1374?63nt variants were phylogenetically closest to E-G350 variant lineage (A2 sub-lineage based on full genome classification). The major differences between E1-1374?63nt variants were within the LCR and the E6 region. On the other hand, changes within the E1 region were the major differences from the A2 sub-lineage, which has been historically but inconclusively associated with high grade cervical disease. Thus, the shared variations cannot explain the particular association of the E1-1374?63nt variant with lower grade cervical lesions. Conclusions/Significance The E1 region has been thus far considered to be well conserved among all HPVs and therefore uninteresting for variability studies. However, this study shows that the variations within the E1 region could possibly affect cervical disease, since the E1-1374?63nt E-G350 variant is significantly associated with lower grade cervical lesions, in comparison to the A1 and A2 sub-lineage variants. Furthermore, it appears that the silent variation 109T>C of the E-C109/G350 variant might have a significant role in the viral life cycle and warrants further study.

Sabol, Ivan; Matovina, Mihaela; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Grce, Magdalena

2012-01-01

384

The influence of aggregate type on the strength and abrasion resistance of high strength concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the influence of aggregate type on the strength characteristics and abrasion resistance of high strength silica fume concrete. Five different aggregate types (gabbro, basalt, quartsite, limestone and sandstone) were used to produce high strength concrete containing silica fume. Silica fume replacement ratio with cement was 15% on a mass basis. Water-binder ratio was 0.35. The amount of

A. K?l?ç; C. D. Ati?; A. Teymen; O. Karahan; F. Özcan; C. Bilim; M. Özdemir

2008-01-01

385

Analysis of the Adenovirus E1B-55K-Anchored Proteome Reveals Its Link to Ubiquitination Machinery  

PubMed Central

During the early phase of infection, the E1B-55K protein of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) counters the E1A-induced stabilization of p53, whereas in the late phase, E1B-55K modulates the preferential nucleocytoplasmic transport and translation of the late viral mRNAs. The mechanism(s) by which E1B-55K performs these functions has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, we have taken a proteomics-based approach to identify and characterize novel E1B-55K-associated proteins. A multiprotein E1B-55K-containing complex was immunopurified from Ad5-infected HeLa cells and found to contain E4-orf6, as well as several cellular factors previously implicated in the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated destruction of proteins, including Cullin-5, Rbx1/ROC1/Hrt1, and Elongins B and C. We further demonstrate that a complex containing these as well as other proteins is capable of directing the polyubiquitination of p53 in vitro. These ubiquitin ligase components were found in a high-molecular-mass complex of 800 to 900 kDa. We propose that these newly identified binding partners (Cullin-5, Elongins B and C, and Rbx1) complex with E1B-55K and E4-orf6 during Ad infection to form part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific protein substrates for degradation. We further suggest that E1B-55K functions as the principal substrate recognition component of this SCF-type ubiquitin ligase, whereas E4-orf6 may serve to nucleate the assembly of the complex. Lastly, we describe the identification and characterization of two novel E1B-55K interacting factors, importin-?1 and pp32, that may also participate in the functions previously ascribed to E1B-55K and E4-orf6.

Harada, Josephine N.; Shevchenko, Anna; Shevchenko, Andrej; Pallas, David C.; Berk, Arnold J.

2002-01-01

386

Inhibition of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication by an E1-Derived p80/UAF1-Binding Peptide  

PubMed Central

The papillomavirus E1 helicase is recruited by E2 to the viral origin, where it assembles into a double hexamer that orchestrates replication of the viral genome. We previously identified the cellular WD40 repeat-containing protein p80/UAF1 as a novel interaction partner of E1 from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types. p80 was found to interact with the first 40 residues of HPV type 31 (HPV31) E1, and amino acid substitutions within this domain abrogated the maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. In this study, we report that these p80-binding substitutions reduce by 70% the ability of E1 to support transient viral DNA replication without affecting its interaction with E2 and assembly at the origin in vivo. Microscopy studies revealed that p80 is relocalized from the cytoplasm to discrete subnuclear foci by E1 and E2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further revealed that p80 is recruited to the viral origin in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of a 40-amino-acid-long p80-binding peptide, derived from HPV31 E1, was found to inhibit viral DNA replication by preventing the recruitment of endogenous p80 to the origin. Mutant peptides defective for p80 interaction were not inhibitory, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Characterization of this E1 peptide by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that it is intrinsically disordered in solution, while mapping studies indicated that the WD repeats of p80 are required for E1 interaction. These results provide additional evidence for the requirement for p80 in anogenital HPV DNA replication and highlight the potential of E1-p80 interaction as a novel antiviral target.

Lehoux, Michael; Fradet-Turcotte, Amelie; Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Omichinski, James G.

2012-01-01

387

First Selenodetic Result from Chang'E-1 Lunar Orbiter Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Chinese lunar orbiter, Chang'E-1, was sent to the circle polar orbit of the moon on Nov. 5. During the first month mission checkout period and the following normal mission period, it has been tracked using Range and RR and VLBI method. The tracking data may contribute to both of the OD and the POD of the mission. At the same time, the laser altimeter has been operated to measure the topography of the moon with very high accuracy and spatial resolution. Using the domestic tracking data, POD of Chang'E-1 mission was carried out. It is expected to merge the tracking data with other missions so as to improve the lunar global gravity field. By combining the POD data and attitude information as well as other necessary telemetry messages, the topography of the moon was renewed. Based on the renewed lunar DEM information and the lunar gravity field, the lunar crastial sphere and the Moho surface have been estimated using a downward continuation analyzing method. It may contribute to the selenodetic researches by combining with the historic data.

Ping, Jinsong; Huang, Qian; Yan, Jianguo; Shi, Xian; Wang, Guangli; Sha, Kai; Tang, Geshi; Chen, Ming; Cao, Jianfeng

388

Active sites of two orthologous cytochromes P450 2E1: Differences revealed by spectroscopic methods  

SciTech Connect

Cytochromes P450 2E1 of human and minipig origin were examined by absorption spectroscopy under high hydrostatic pressure and by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Human enzyme tends to denature to the P420 form more easily than the minipig form; moreover, the apparent compressibility of the heme active site (as judged from a redshift of the absorption maximum with pressure) is greater than that of the minipig counterpart. Relative compactness of the minipig enzyme is also seen in the Raman spectra, where the presence of planar heme conformation was inferred from band positions characteristic of the low-spin heme with high degree of symmetry. In this respect, the CYP2E1 seems to be another example of P450 conformational heterogeneity as shown, e.g., by Davydov et al. for CYP3A4 [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 312 (2003) 121-130]. The results indicate that the flexibility of the CYP active site is likely one of its basic structural characteristics.

Anzenbacherova, Eva [Institute of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, CZ-775 15 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Hudecek, Jiri [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, CZ-128 40, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Murgida, Daniel [Max-Volmer-Laboratory for Biophysical Chemistry, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Hildebrandt, Peter [Max-Volmer-Laboratory for Biophysical Chemistry, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Marchal, Stephane [INSERM U710, University of Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Lange, Reinhard [INSERM U710, University of Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Anzenbacher, Pavel [Institute of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, CZ-775 15 Olomouc (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: anzen@tunw.upol.cz

2005-12-09

389

[Information extraction of the Chang'E-1 interference imaging spectrometer (IIM) 2C data].  

PubMed

Through analysis of solar azimuth of Chang'E-1 IIM data, the data of high-angle were chosen to do radiometric calibration. The method of neighbourhood averaging and neighbourhood weighted averaging were adopted to repaire original data which contains bad points and bands. Because of interference imaging spectrometer's inherent problem and CCD array gain distortion, the image displays discontinuity of transverse response. By using the method of subspace maximum eigenvalue to cablibrate image, the statistical result of processed images shows homogeneity on intensity of radiance. The empirical linear method was adopted to calibrate IIM data absolutely. Meanwhile, in order to correct bias coefficient of data which has been calibrated and de-noised, the method of wavelet transform was adopted to modificate data of radiometric calibration for the first time, the final available IIM 2C data were confirmed. Compared with the data which has been accredited, the analysis proposal of IIM 2C data was established. Then the first reflectivity image of the lunar nearside based on Chang'E-1 IIM 2C was accomplished. PMID:22715804

Wang, Xiang; Chen, Jian-ping; Li, Jian-feng; Shi, Rui; Wu, Zhao

2012-04-01

390

Termination Point of Replication of Colicin E1 Plasmid DNA in Cell Extracts*  

PubMed Central

Closed-circular monomeric molecules were one of the major products of replication of colicin E1 plasmid DNA in cell extracts. However, when the plasmid DNA synthesized in the reaction mixture was labeled for 3 min after 27 min of incubation, most of the label was found in open-circular molecules. The open-circular molecules were converted to closed-circular molecules upon further incubation. The newly replicated open-circular molecules had a nick or small gap in their newly synthesized strand. The interruption was located at approximately 20% of the molecular length from the single site of cleavage by restriction endonuclease EcoR1 and at or very close to the origin of replication. The addition of 10 mM nicotinamide mononucleotide instead of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to extracts did not significantly affect the kinetics of the colicin E1 plasmid DNA synthesis. However, in the presence of nicotinamide mononucleotide the formation of completely replicated closed-circular molecules was suppressed and, instead, open-circular molecules accumulated with an interruption in the newly synthesized strand at the termination point of replication, which was located at or very close to the origin of replication.

Sakakibara, Yoshimasa; Tomizawa, Jun-Ichi

1974-01-01

391

Up-regulation of VEGF by MC3T3-E1 cells treated with curculigoside.  

PubMed

Empirical evidence has shown that curculigoside, the main active compound of the traditionally used Chinese herb, Curculigo orchioides (Amaryllidaceae, rhizome), affects bone formation and fracture healing. However, the mechanistic details of these processes remain unclear. Therefore, the effects of curculigoside on immortalized, pre-osteoblastic mouse MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated. Following treatment with curculigoside, MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited an increased rate of proliferation. Higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were also detected in cell supernatants and cell lysates by ELISA and western blot analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of curculigoside was observed at relatively low doses (i.e. 10-100 ?g/mL). In combination, these responses to treatment with curculigoside elucidate mechanistic details underlying the therapeutic effects of Curculigo orchioides on bone, and identifies these molecules as potential targets for the treatment of common metabolic bone diseases. PMID:21394809

Ma, Chengjian; Zhang, Junyu; Fu, Jiehai; Cheng, Linfang; Zhao, Guangshu; Gu, Yaping

2011-06-01

392

E1 reaction-induced synthesis of hydrophilic oxide nanoparticles in a non-hydrophilic solvent.  

PubMed

In this paper, tert-amyl alcohol was employed to directly react with metal chlorides for the preparation of oxide nanoparticles. Some typical metal oxide or hydroxides with different morphologies, such as TiO(2) nanoparticles, TiO(2) nanorods, FeOOH nanowires, Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles, and SnO(2) nanoparticles, can be easily fabricated through such simple chemical reactions. E1 reaction was found to play the leading role in the synthesis of metal oxides attributed to better stability of tertiary carbocations in tert-amyl alcohol and the strong interaction of metal chlorides with hydroxyl groups that results in the easy dissociation of carbon-oxygen bonds in tert-amyl alcohol. S(N)1 reaction can also occur in certain reactions due to nucleophilic substitution of chloride ions for hydroxyl groups. As-prepared metal oxides show good compatibility with an aqueous system while they were synthesized in a non-hydrophilic solvent probably attributed to the specific E1 reaction mechanism involving the generation of water, and can be directly incorporated into an aqueous soluble polymer, such as PVA, to exhibit many promising applications. PMID:22990362

Hu, Ming-Jun; Gao, Jiefeng; Yang, Shiliu; Dong, Yucheng; Wong, Julia Shuk Ping; Xu, Jiaju; Shan, Guangcun; Li, Robert K Y

2012-10-21

393

Uncertainty evaluation study on Chang'E-1 Laser Altimeter on-orbit detection error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chang'E-1 Laser Altimeter(LAM), as one of the scientific instruments onboard the Chinese Chang'E-1 orbiter, has successfully gained the massive lunar elevation scientific data of global topography of the moon. Uncertainty evaluation of the lunar elevation detection error based on LAM scientific data is developed in this paper. Firstly, the data are selected from the flat terrain region in all the lunar elevation detection data; Secondly, after the pseudo elevation data are removed in the selected region, regional elevation mean and standard deviation are calculated. Making use of the calculations and taking into account all kinds of uncertainty contributors of LAM orbiting exploring, the uncertainty evaluation methods of the LAM in-orbit elevation exploring are proposed on the basis of the guide to Monte Carlo Methods. Finally, the uncertainty evaluation results of different regions of lunar surface are given. The evaluation results not only can provide the basis for further analysis laser altimeter measurement error sources, but also give the reference for making the high precision moon digital elevation graph and provide theoretical guidance for the accuracy requirement of design of payload on lunar orbiter.

Wang, Dong-Xia; Song, Ai-Guo; Wen, Xiu-Lan

2013-01-01

394

Ocular and optic nerve ischemia: recognition and treatment with intravenous prostaglandin E1.  

PubMed

Ischemia of the optic nerve, the retina and the choroid are common problems in ophthalmology. This paper presents the different types of ischemia and their treatment with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), a powerful vasodilator of the microcirculation. This is a review article of various previously published case reports and studies presenting patients with different types of ocular and optic nerve ischemia. Their treatment with intravenous (IV) PGE1 is described. Treatment for acute and chronic problems is presented. The visual acuity and/or the visual fields improved in almost all the treated patients. When measured, the blood flow velocities also improved. No complications due to the use of PGE1 were seen. Treatment with IV PGE1 should be considered in cases of ocular and optic nerve ischemia to immediately restore blood flow to these structures and improve the visual acuity. Intravenous prostaglandin E1 is an effective treatment for ocular and optic nerve ischemia leading to immediate visual improvement. PMID:22108487

Steigerwalt, R D; Cesarone, M R; Pascarella, A; De Angelis, M; Nebbioso, M; Belcaro, G; Feragalli, B

2011-09-01

395

Heterogeneity of adenovirus type 5 E1A proteins: multiple serine phosphorylations induce slow-migrating electrophoretic variants but do not affect E1A-induced transcriptional activation or transformation.  

PubMed Central

The 289-amino-acid product encoded by the adenovirus E1A 13S mRNA has several pleiotropic activities, including transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression, and when acting in concert with certain oncogene products, cell transformation. In all cell types in which E1A has been introduced (except bacteria), E1A protein is extensively posttranslationally modified to yield several isoelectric and molecular weight variants. The most striking variant is one that has a retarded mobility, by about Mr = 2,000, in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. We have investigated the nature of this modification and have assessed its importance for E1A activity. Phosphorylation is responsible for the altered mobility of E1A, since acid phosphatase treatment eliminates the higher apparent molecular weight products. By using several E1A deletion mutants, we show that at least two seryl residues, residing between residues 86 and 120 and 224 and 289, are the sites of phosphorylation and that each phosphorylation can independently induce the mobility shift. However, E1A mutants lacking these seryl residues transcriptionally activate the adenovirus E3 and E2A promoters and transform baby rat kidney cells to near wild-type levels. Images

Richter, J D; Slavicek, J M; Schneider, J F; Jones, N C

1988-01-01

396

Molecular basis of maple syrup urine disease: Novel mutations at the E1[alpha] locus that impair E1([alpha][sub 2][beta][sub 2]) assembly or decrease steady-state E1[alpha] mRNA levels of branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase complex  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the occurrence of three novel mutations in the E1[alpha] (BCKDHA) locus of the branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex that cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). An 8-bp deletion in exon 7 is present in one allele of a compound-heterozygous patient (GM-649). A single C nucleotide insertion in exon 2 occurs in one allele of an intermediate-MSUD patient (Lo). The second allele of patient Lo carries an A-to-G transition in exon 9 of the E1[alpha] gene. This missense mutation changes Tyr-368 to Cys (Y368C) in the E1[alpha] subunit. Both the 8-bp deletion and the single C insertion generate a downstream nonsense codon. Both mutations appear to be associated with a low abundance of the mutant E1[alpha] mRNA, as determined by allele-specific oligonucleotide probing. Transfection studies strongly suggest that the Y368C substitution in the E1[alpha] subunit impairs its proper assembly with the normal E1[beta]. Unassembled as well as misassembled E1[alpha] and E1[beta] subunits are degraded in the cell. 32 refs., 8 figs.

Chuang, J.L.; Fisher, C.R.; Chuang, D.T.; Cox, R.P. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-08-01

397

?-ray strength function for Sn116,117 with the pygmy dipole resonance balanced in the photoneutron and neutron capture channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Sn117 and Sn116 near the neutron thresholds at 6.94 and 9.56 MeV, respectively, with quasi-monochromatic laser-Compton scattering ? rays. The Sn117 cross section, which is strongly enhanced near the low threshold, provides evidence for the presence of extra ? strength in the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. A coherent analysis of the photoneutron data for Sn117 together with the neutron capture on Sn116 shows that the ?-ray strength function is balanced in the photoneutron and neutron capture channels in terms of the microscopic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov plus quasiparticle random-phase approximation model of E1 strength combined with a pygmy E1 resonance at 8.5 MeV. The high-energy part of the pygmy resonance is also suggested in the photoneutron cross section for Sn116.

Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Kamata, M.; Kondo, T.; Itoh, O.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

2009-11-01

398

Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength  

PubMed Central

Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N?55), “low extraversion” (E<45), and “low conscientiousness” (C<45) have been associated with multiple risky health behaviors but have not been investigated with regards to muscle strength. Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate associations between individual and combined typologies consisting of high N, low E, and low C and muscle strength, and whether physical activity and body mass index act as mediators. Method This cross-sectional study includes 1,220 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results High N was found among 18%, low E among 31%, and low C among 26% of the sample. High levels of N, particularly when combined with either low E or low C, were associated with lower muscle strength compared with having only one or none of these personality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs.

Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

2011-01-01

399

Radiative strength functions of germanium from thermal neutron capture  

SciTech Connect

Thermal neutron capture gamma rays from germanium have been studied using an internal irradiation facility and a pair spectrometer. Energy and intensity of transitions in four germanium isotopes were determined and their level and separation energies inferred. The separation energies are {ital S}{sub {ital n}} ({sup 71}Ge)=7415.95{plus minus}0.05 keV, {ital S}{sub {ital n}} ({sup 73}Ge)=6782.94{plus minus}0.05 keV, {ital S}{sub {ital n}} ({sup 74}Ge)=10 196.31{plus minus}0.07 keV, and {ital S}{sub {ital n}} ({sup 75}Ge)=6505.26{plus minus}0.08 keV. The {ital E}1 reduced strength function, {l angle}{Gamma}{sub {gamma}{ital i}D}{sup {minus}1}{ital E}{sub {ital i}}{sup {minus}3}{ital A{minus}2/3}{r angle}, of these germanium isotopes was found to be (1.8{plus minus}0.5){times}10{sup {minus}9} MeV{sup {minus}3}, a value lower than the global average. The {ital M}1 strength function {l angle}{Gamma}{sub {gamma}{ital i}D}{sup {minus}1}{ital E}{sub {ital i}}{sup {minus}3}{r angle} of {sup 74}Ge was estimated to be (20{plus minus}9){times}10{sup {minus}9} MeV{sup {minus}3} which agrees with the global average. The average {ital B}({ital E}2){bar {down arrow}} of {sup 74}Ge using the present thermal data and the previous resonance data from literature was found to be 18{plus minus}10{ital e}{sup 2} fm{sup 4} MeV {sup {minus}1} which agrees with the value predicted by the Axel-Brink hypothesis.

Islam, M.A.; Kennett, T.J.; Prestwich, W.V. (Department of Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1 (CA))

1991-03-01

400

Obi-Wan Adobe: Engineering for Strength  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct an experiment to determine how varying the composition of a construction material affects its strength. They make several adobe bricks with differing percentages of sand, soil, fibrous material and water. They test the bricks for strength by dropping them onto a concrete surface from progressively greater heights. Students graph the experiment results and use what they learn to design their own special mix that maximizes the bricksâ strength. During the course of the experiment, students learn about variables (independent, dependent, control) and the steps of the engineering design process.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

401

Relative flexural strength of dental restorative ceramics.  

PubMed

The relative flexural strengths of ten brands of dental restorative ceramics were evaluated by a three-point bending test. The materials consisted of three low-fusing and one high-fusing feldspathic porcelains and six reinforced dental restorative ceramics which are currently in clinical use. The reinforced ceramic materials investigated utilized a number of different strengthening processes, including alumina and ceramic fiber reinforcement and controlled crystallization. The results of the investigation indicate that significant differences exist among the measured breaking strengths of the various materials. The processes of controlled crystallization and alumina reinforcement appear to be adequate means of improving the bending strength of restorative dental ceramics. PMID:2086291

Seghi, R R; Daher, T; Caputo, A

1990-07-01

402

Muscle hypertrophy, hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength-trained and untrained men.  

PubMed

Hormonal and neuromuscular adaptations to strength training were studied in eight male strength athletes (SA) and eight non-strength athletes (NA). The experimental design comprised a 21-week strength-training period. Basal hormonal concentrations of serum total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT) and cortisol (C) and maximal isometric strength, right leg 1 repetition maximum (RM) of the leg extensors were measured at weeks 0, 7, 14 and 21. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at weeks 0 and 21. In addition, the acute heavy resistance exercises (AHRE) (bilateral leg extension, five sets of ten RM, with a 2-min rest between sets) including blood samples for the determination of serum T, FT, C, and GH concentrations were assessed before and after the 21-week training. Significant increases of 20.9% in maximal force and of 5.6% in muscle CSA in NA during the 21-week strength training period were greater than those of 3.9% and -1.8% in SA, respectively. There were no significant changes in serum basal hormone concentrations during the 21-week experiment. AHRE led to significant acute decreases in isometric force and acute increases in serum hormones both at weeks 0 and 21. Basal T concentrations (mean of 0, 7, 14 and 21 weeks) and changes in isometric force after the 21-week period correlated with each other (r=0.84, P<0.01) in SA. The individual changes in the acute T responses between weeks 0 and 21 and the changes in muscle CSA during the 21-week training correlated with each other (r=0.76, P<0.05) in NA. The correlations between T and the changes in isometric strength and in muscle CSA suggest that both serum basal testosterone concentrations and training-induced changes in acute testosterone responses may be important factors for strength development and muscle hypertrophy. PMID:12734759

Ahtiainen, Juha P; Pakarinen, Arto; Alen, Markku; Kraemer, William J; Häkkinen, Keijo

2003-05-07

403

Application of satellite laser altimetry in Chang'E-1 precision orbit determination and lunar gravity field solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of satellite laser altimetry measurement in planetary spacecraft precision or-bit determination (POD) and planetary gravity field recovery has been implemented in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and shows improvements both on POD and gravity field solution. During Chang'E-1 nominal mission phase, the satellite laser altimetry provided continuous measurements for about 4 months. In this work we outline Chang'E-1 satellite laser altimetry measurement firstly. Then results of Chang'E-1 precision orbit determination (POD) and lunar gravity field solution are given by combining Chang'E-1 orbital tracking data (including two way range and range rate, as well as Very Long Baseline Interferometry delay and delay rate data) with satellite laser altimetry are given. Analysis and comparison are put forward between POD and gravity field results with and without al-timetry measurement. It indicates that altimetry measurement can improve POD and gravity field solution of Chang'E-1 significantly. The result will be helpful to recomputed Chang'E-1 ephemeris to improve Chang'E-1 topography model.

Jianguo, Yan; Jinsong, Ping

404

Heterologous Acidothermus cellulolyticus 1,4-?-Endoglucanase E1 Produced Within the Corn Biomass Converts Corn Stover Into Glucose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires inexpensive bulk production of biologically active cellulase enzymes, which might be achieved through direct production of these enzymes within the biomass crops. Transgenic corn plants containing the catalytic domain of Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endo-1,4-? glucanase and the bar bialaphos resistance coding sequences were generated after Biolistic® (BioRad Hercules, CA) bombardment of immature embryo-derived cells. E1 sequences were regulated under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and tobacco mosaic virus translational enhancer, and E1 protein was targeted to the apoplast using the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein to achieve accumulation of this enzyme. The integration, expression, and segregation of E1 and bar transgenes were demonstrated, respectively, through Southern and Western blotting, and progeny analyses. Accumulation of up to 1.13% of transgenic plant total soluble proteins was detected as biologically active E1 by enzymatic activity assay. The corn-produced, heterologous E1 could successfully convert ammonia fiber explosion-pretreated corn stover polysaccharides into glucose as a fermentable sugar for ethanol production, confirming that the E1 enzyme is produced in its active from.

Ransom, Callista; Balan, Venkatesh; Biswas, Gadab; Dale, Bruce; Crockett, Elaine; Sticklen, Mariam

405

Localization of the adenovirus E1Aa protein, a positive-acting transcriptional factor, in infected cells infected cells.  

PubMed Central

The function of the adenovirus E1Aa protein (the product of the 13S E1A mRNA) during a productive viral infection is to activate transcription of the six early viral transcription units. To study the mechanism of action of this protein, a peptide which was 13 amino acids long and had a sequence unique to the protein product of the adenovirus 13S E1A mRNA (pE1Aa) was coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and used to raise an antibody in rabbits. The resulting antiserum was specific to this protein and did not react with the protein product of the 12S E1A mRNA, which shares considerable sequence with the E1Aa protein. This antiserum was used to probe for the E1Aa protein in situ by indirect immunofluorescence and in extracts of infected HeLa cells. We found that the protein was associated with large cellular structures both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. The nuclear form of the protein was analyzed further and was found to purify with the nuclear matrix. Images

Feldman, L T; Nevins, J R

1983-01-01

406

Study of the radiative strength function in /sup 148,150/Sm  

SciTech Connect

The spectra of ..gamma.. rays accompanying neutron capture by the nuclei /sup 147//sup ,//sup 149/Sm is isolated resonances have been measured by the time-of-flight method in the IBR-30 reactor. Absolute intensities have been obtained for a number of transitions. From a combination of the results of the present work and published data we have determined the radiative strength function of the nuclei /sup 148/Sm and /sup 150/Sm for E1 transitions in the ..gamma..-ray energy region 5--7.5 MeV. The values obtained are 2.8 and 1.7 times smaller than the respective values expected from extrapolation of the Lorentz curves of the giant electric dipole resonance. An analysis of the behavior of the radiative strength function of nuclei with A = 148--157 is carried out.

Becvar, F.; Montero-Cabrera, M.E.; Rigol, J.; Telezhnikov, S.A.; Hiep, H.T.

1987-07-01

407

First evidence for spin-flip M1 strength in {sup 40}Ar  

SciTech Connect

The {sup 40}Ar({gamma}{yields},{gamma}{sup '}) photon scattering reaction was used to search for spin-flip M1 strength in {sup 40}Ar. The nearly monochromatic, linearly polarized photon beam of HI{gamma}S, in an energy region from 7.7 to 11 MeV, was employed in this study. 28 dipole excitations were observed. The azimuthal intensity asymmetry indicated that all of these states were E1 except for the state at E{sub x}=9.757 MeV. Shell-model calculations were used to interpret this state as one fragment of the spin-flip M1 strength in {sup 40}Ar.

Li, T.C.; Rainovski, G. [Nuclear Structure Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Pietralla, N.; Ahn, T.; Costin, A. [Nuclear Structure Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Tonchev, A.P.; Ahmed, M.W.; Blackston, M.A.; Parpottas, Y.; Perdue, B.A.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Angell, C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Keeter, K.J. [Department of Physics, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83209 (United States); Li, J.; Mikhailov, S.; Wu, Y.K. [Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lisetskiy, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2006-05-15

408

The Measurements of Gamma-ray Spectrometers from China's Chang'E-1/2 Spacecrafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma ray spectrometers, as one of the major payloads onboard China's Chang'E-1/2 spacecrafts, were aimed to provide maps of the abundances of major elements, O, Si, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Na, and Fe, and of the natural radioactive elements, U, Th, and K, in the subsurface of the Moon. These elements presented on the lunar surface are the end products of a series of processes (i.e., accumulation, collision, and modification), their measurements, therefore, could provide many important clues to understand the formation and evolution of the Moon. Gamma ray spectrometer onboard Chang'E-1spacecraft used a large CsI(Tl) crystal as its main detector to measure gamma rays from the Moon with energy resolution of ˜9%@662 keV while Chang'E-2 gamma ray spectrometer firstly used big LaBr3 crystal in the planetary detection with energy resolution of ˜3.61%@662 keV. Both gamma ray spectrometers used coincident technique to suppress the Compton effects and reduce the background gamma rays from the interactions from GCRs with spacecraft materials. Gamma rays from the Moon were measured in the energy range of 0.3 ˜ 10 MeV with 512-channel spectrum every 3 seconds from a circle, polar-orbit but at a nominal altitude of 200 km and 100 km, respectively. Thorium and Potassium maps were derived from the one-year gamma ray measurements of Chang'E-1spacecraft. All these maps show good consistent with previous results from Lunar Prospector and Kaguya missions. Lunar terrains could be clearly classified on the basis of these compositions in relation with other characteristics. Chang'E-2 gamma ray spectrometer has only half-year detections, but since large LaBr3 crystal has higher energy resolution and higher detection efficiency, element distribution across the lunar surface could be obtained with higher precision. With the data set from Chang'E-2 gamma ray spectrometer, radioactive elements (K, and Th), and major elements (Fe, Ti, Si, Mg, Al, O, and Ca) distributions on the lunar surface have been derived. From present research, several new features have been found that are different from the results of Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer.

Zhu, Meng-Hua; Chang, Jin; Ma, T.

2012-07-01

409

The regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 during LPS-induced inflammation in the rat  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that inflammatory and infectious conditions differentially regulate cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated drug metabolism in the liver. We have previously outlined a potential pathway for the downregulation in hepatic cytochrome P450 following LPS-mediated inflammation in the CNS (Abdulla, D., Goralski, K.B., Garcia Del Busto Cano, E., Renton, K.W., 2005. The signal transduction pathways involved in hepatic cytochrome P450 regulation in the rat during an LPS-induced model of CNS inflammation. Drug Metab. Dispos). The purpose of this study was to outline the effects of LPS-induced peripheral and central nervous system inflammation on hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in vivo, an enzyme that plays an important role in various physiological and pathological states. We report an increase in hepatic mRNA expression of CYP2E1 that occurred as early as 2-3 h following either the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5 mg/kg LPS or i.c.v. administration of 25 {mu}g of LPS. This increase in CYP2E1 mRNA expression was sustained for 24 h. In sharp contrast to the increase in hepatic CYP2E1 mRNA, we observed a significant reduction in the catalytic activity of this enzyme 24 h following either the i.c.v. or i.p. administration of LPS. Cycloheximide or actinomycin-D did not change the LPS-mediated downregulation in hepatic CYP2E1 catalytic activity. Our results support the idea that LPS acts at two different levels to regulate hepatic CYP2E1: a transcriptional level to increase CYP2E1 mRNA expression and a post-transcriptional level to regulate CYP2E1 protein and activity.

Abdulla, Dalya [Department of Pharmacology, Sir Charles Tupper Medical Bldg., Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4H7 (Canada); Goralski, Kerry B. [Department of Pharmacology, Sir Charles Tupper Medical Bldg., Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4H7 (Canada); College of Pharmacy, Burbidge Building, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Renton, Kenneth W. [Department of Pharmacology, Sir Charles Tupper Medical Bldg., Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4H7 (Canada)]. E-mail: Ken.Renton@dal.ca

2006-10-01

410

THE MULTIPLE ROLES OF CYCLIN E1 IN CONTROLLING CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION AND CELLULAR MORPHOLOGY OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Regulation of eukaryotic cell cycle progression requires sequential activation and inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases. Previous RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in Trypanosoma brucei indicated that cyclin E1, cdc2-related kinase (CRK)1 and CRK2 are involved in regulating G1/S transition, whereas cyclin B2 and CRK3 play a pivotal role in controlling the G2/M checkpoint. To search for potential interactions between the other cyclins and CRKs that may not have been revealed by the RNAi assays, we used the yeast two-hybrid system and an in vitro GST pulldown assay and observed interactions between cyclin E1 and CRK1, CRK2 and CRK3. Cyclins E1-E4 are homologues of yeast Pho80 cyclin. But yeast complementation assays indicated that none of them possesses a Pho80-like function. Analysis of cyclin E1+CRK1 and cyclin E1+CRK2 double knockdowns in the procyclic form of T. brucei indicated that the cells were arrested more extensively in the G1 phase beyond the cumulative effect of individual knockdowns. But BrdU incorporation was significantly impaired only in cyclin E1+CRK1 depleted cells, whereas a higher percentage of cyclin E1+CRK2 knockdown cells assumed a grossly elongated posterior end morphology. A double knockdown of cyclin E1 and CRK3 arrested cells in G2/M much more efficiently than if CRK3 was depleted alone. Taken together, these data suggest multiple functions of cyclin E1. It forms a complex with CRK1 in promoting G1/S phase transition, with CRK2 in controlling the posterior morphogenesis during G1/S transition and with CRK3 in promoting passage across the G2/M checkpoint in the trypanosome.

Gourguechon, Stephane; Savich, Jason M.; Wang, Ching C.

2009-01-01

411

Inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 expression by 2-(allylthio)Pyrazine, a Potential chemoprotective agent: hepatoprotective Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 2E1 (P450 2E1) is active in both the detoxification and activation of small organic molecules. The effects of 2-(allylthio)pyrazine (2-AP) on P450 2El-catalytic activity and the expression of rat hepatic P450 2E1 were examined. 2-AP competitively inhibited 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity in vitro (Ki, 12 ?M). 2-AP treatment of rats (200 mg\\/kg\\/day, po, 1–3 days old) resulted in 20–30%

Nak Doo Kim; Mi Kyong Kwak; Sang Geon Kim

1997-01-01

412

[Priapism after intracavernous injection of PgE1 in two cases of impotence following total cysto-prostatectomy].  

PubMed

The authors report two cases of priapism of more than six hours, following intracavernous injection of 15 and 10 mcg PgE1 respectively, in six patients with impotence after radical cystoprostatectomy. Bearing in mind the proven safety of intracavernous injection of PgE1 in the treatment and diagnosis of erectile dysfunction, such a proportion of priapism in this group of patients has called our attention. It is probably due to an increased in the PgE1 intracavernous metabolism, due to the ligation of the penile venous drainage during surgery. PMID:8522852

Llopis, J; Romero, J A; Gutiérrez, R; Alvarez, R; Talbot, R; Vendrell, J R; Barranco, M A; Carretero, P

1995-01-01

413

Combined System of Activated Sludge and Ozonation for the Treatment of Kraft E1 Effluent  

PubMed Central

The treatment of paper mill effluent for COD, TOC, total phenols and color removal was investigated using combined activated sludge-ozonation processes and single processes. The combined activated sludge-O3/pH 10 treatment was able to remove around 80% of COD, TOC and color from Kraft E1 effluent. For the total phenols, the efficiency removal was around 70%. The ozonation post treatment carried out at pH 8.3 also showed better results than the single process. The COD, TOC, color and total phenols removal efficiency obtained were 75.5, 59.1, 77 and 52.3%, respectively. The difference in the concentrations of free radical produced by activated sludge-O3/pH 10 and activated sludge-O3/pH 8.3 affected mainly the TOC and total phenol removal values.

Assalin, Marcia Regina; dos Santos Almeida, Edna; Duran, Nelson

2009-01-01

414

Health sector response to security threats during the civil war in E1 Salvador.  

PubMed Central

During the recent civil war in E1 Salvador, as in other modern wars, human rights abuses adversely affected health workers, patients, and medical facilities. The abuses themselves have been described in reports of human rights advocacy organisations but health sector adaptations to a hostile wartime environment have not. Agencies engaged in health work during the civil war adapted parties such as training of community based lay health workers, use of simple technology, concealment of patients and medical supplies, denunciation of human rights abuses, and multilevel negotiations in order to continue providing services. The Salvadorean experience may serve as a helpful case study for medical personnel working in wars elsewhere. Images p1471-a p1472-a p1473-a

Brentlinger, P. E.

1996-01-01

415

Effect of prostaglandin E1 on certain renal actions of parathyroid hormone  

PubMed Central

Parathyroid hormone increased basal adenyl cyclase activity and that increase was inhibited by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). Tissue cyclic 3?,5?-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) concentrations were increased by parathyroid hormone and that increase was likewise inhibited by PGE1. Both parathyroid hormone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased 32P incorporation into renal cortical phospholipids. PGE1 diminished the effect of parathyroid hormone but not dibutyryl cyclic AMP to influence that parameter. PGE1 likewise modulated the effect of parathyroid hormone but not dibutyryl cyclic AMP to decrease fractional phosphate reabsorption by the renal tubule. It is suggested that PGE1 inhibits the effect of parathyroid hormone by decreasing its effect on adenyl cyclase. Such interaction may be important in modulating the intracellular action of parathyroid hormone on kidney cortex.

Beck, Nama P.; DeRubertis, Frederick R.; Michelis, Michael F.; Fusco, Robert D.; Field, James B.; Davis, Bernard B.

1972-01-01

416

Joint Tracking of Chang'E-1 with VLBI and USB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese lunar exploration mission Chang'E-I made use of a Chinese Unified S-Band (USB) system and a network of four Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) antennas to meet the orbit determination/predication requirements of spacecraft tracking and scientific data analysis, which for the first time handled telemetry and control for a spacecraft at a distance of about 380,000 km. Chang'E-1 provided a perfect chance to quantify the contributions of VLBI to orbit determination/predication, and to test and evaluate the performance of the USB-VLBI joint system. We investigate in this paper the quality of the data and analyze the precision of orbit determination with different data arcs and data combinations during the 2-week journey from Earth to Chang'E-1's lunar mission orbit, using GEODYN II orbit determination software. The residuals of VLBI delay is about 3 ns (RMS, root-mean-squares), the residuals of VLBI delay-rate is about 0.6 ps/s, the residuals of ranging is about 1 2 m and Doppler is about 1 cm/s. Three flight phases are invistigated, namely 3 phasing orbits near Earth, the translunar trajectory and the lunar catputed orbits. We found including of VLBI data substantially improved orbit precision for short data arcs, therefore VLBI played an important role in assessing spacecraft manuvore performance. Given the differential nature of VLBI observables and their errors mostly from BBC's nonlinear phase-frequency responses, it appears for longer data arcs the VLBI contribution is relatively minor. We conclude that for Chang'E-I, the inclusion of VLBI data improved substantially the performance of orbit determination and prediction, even though the VLBI data acquisition and correlation imposes a major burden on data processing.

Hu, Xiaogong

417

CYP2E1 overexpression up-regulates both non-specific delta-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase-1 in the human hepatoma cell line HLE/2E1.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is known to turn over rapidly both in vivo in the liver, and in vitro in cultured hepatoma cells expressing CYP. We examined changes in heme metabolism by analyzing gene expression of the non-specific delta-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS-N), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate limiting enzyme in heme synthesis and catabolism, respectively, in the human hepatoma cell line HLE/2E1, in which CYP2E1 was overexpressed by transfection of its expression vector. Both ALAS-N mRNA and HO-1 mRNA levels were found to be markedly up-regulated in HLE/2E1 cells as compared with those in non-transfected cells (HLE), or in mock-transfected cells (HLE/MOCK). Treatment of HLE/2E1 cells with succinylacetone (SA), a potent inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase and thereby heme synthesis, resulted in a further increase in ALAS-N mRNA but a decrease in HO-1 mRNA levels. In contrast, treatment of cells with heme, as heme arginate, to SA-pretreated HLE/2E1 cells restored both mRNA levels to the untreated control level. These findings suggest that the overexpression of CYP2E1 results in the up-regulation of ALAS-N in order to meet with an increased demand for heme synthesis for CYP2E1 formation, while it also results in the up-regulation of HO-1 presumably by enzyme induction by free heme released from CYP2E1, which then results in the elimination of toxic excess free heme and ultimately restores the physiologic milieu. PMID:12469218

Takahashi, Shuji; Takahashi, Toru; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Matsumi, Masaki; Yokoyama, Masataka; Morita, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Namba, Masayoshi; Akagi, Reiko; Sassa, Shigeru

2003-01-01

418

Oscillator Strengths in the Mg Isoelectronic Sequence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Configuration interaction calculations, within a semiempirical model potential framework, are used to calculate bound-bound oscillator strengths for members of the Mg isoelectronic sequence up to Cl(+)5. Where comparison data are available the present res...

G. A. Victor R. F. Stewart C. Laughlin

1975-01-01

419

Tear Strength of Elastomers under Threshold Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements have been made of the tear strength of several elastomeric materials under threshold conditions, i.e., in the swollen state and at high temperatures when dissipative contributions to the work of fracture are minimized. The materials studied w...

A. K. Bhowmick A. N. Gent C. T. R. Pulford

1983-01-01

420

Cavitation Strength of Liquids with Large Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cavitation strength of liquids has been studied at atmospheric pressure by applying tensile stress pulses of duration up to 3 ?s and amplitude up to 20 MPa within the temperature range from room temperature to the temperature of explosive boiling-up of the liquid. At high temperatures, where in absolute value the tensile strength does not exceed 1-2 times the critical pressure, agreement between classical nucleation theory and experiment is observed within the experimental error. With a decrease of the temperature the tensile strength of the liquid increases, but the experimental values of the breaking strength are lower than those predicted from theory. The dependence of the degree of discrepancy between theory and experiment on the number of atoms in the molecules of the liquids investigated is shown.

Vinogradov, Vladimir E.; Pavlov, Pavel A.

2013-09-01

421

High Strength, High Modulus Graphite Fibers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formation of high modulus and high strength graphite fibers from polymeric fibers and from fibers spun from pitches is reviewed. Methods of preparation given by patents and in the technical literature are abstracted for precursors including cellulose ...

H. M. Ezekiel

1971-01-01

422

American Indian Family: Strengths and Stresses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research conference on the strengths and coping skills of the American Indian family was planned. The major outcome of the conference was a set of priorities for researchable issues on the Indian family. Indian health values, religious attitudes, extend...

A. Shattuck

1981-01-01

423

Determination of Practical Ultimate Strength of Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the circumstances surrounding the production of structural grade concrete of maximum compressive strength which could be utilized in actual field construction. Five methods were investigated with the following ...

K. L. Saucier

1972-01-01

424

Ultimate Strength Analysis of Framed Offshore Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An efficient method is presented for analysis of the non-linear behavior of offshore structures up to ultimate strength. The algorithm is based on the idealizied structural unit method. Geometrical and material nonlinearities are accounted for by applying...

J. E. van Aanhold

1985-01-01

425

HDPE geomembrane/geotextile interface shear strength  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes torsional ring shear tests on interfaces comprised of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes/nonwoven geotextiles and a drainage geocomposite. Four textured geomembranes with three different manufacturing techniques are utilized to investigate the effect of geomembrane texturing on interface shear resistance. In addition, the effects of geotextile fiber type, fabric style, polymer composition, calendering, and mass per unit area on textured HDPE geomembrane interface strengths are investigated. The textured HDPE geomembrane/nonwoven geotextile and drainage geocomposite interfaces exhibited a large post-peak strength loss. This strength loss is attributed to pulling out or tearing of filaments from the nonwoven geotextile and orienting them parallel to shear and polishing of the texturing on the geomembrane. At high normal stresses, the strength loss can be caused by damage to or removal of the texturing on the geomembrane surface.

Stark, T.D.; Eid, H.T. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Williamson, T.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Huntington Beach, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

426

Practical Formulas of Strength of Association Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Practical formulas for several analysis of variance (ANOVA) designs and models are presented which make it possible for readers to compute strength of association measures without the use of complete ANOVA tables. (Author/PN)|

Charter, Richard A.

1982-01-01

427

Gross Panel Strength Under Combined Loading.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The existing methods of predicting the behavior and ultimate strength of ship gross panels were evaluated, examined and in some instances, further developed. The assumptions, approximations, and deficiencies in each method were identified with the objecti...

A. E. Mansour

1977-01-01

428

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

Wilborn, Colin

429

Cooperative Strength Training. A Method for Preadolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Physical educators can teach preadolescents safe training methods and help them set realistic goals congruent with their needs and abilities without sophisticated and costly equipment. A cooperative strength training program with appropriate instructional methods is described. (MT)|

Menson, Wayne W.; Pettigrew, Frank E.

1988-01-01

430

Strength of Field Compacted Clayey Embankments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The shearing behavior of a plastic Indiana clay (St. Croix) was studied for both laboratory and field compaction. This interim report deals with the field compacted phase. The strength tests were performed by unconsolidated-undrained (UU) and saturated co...

Y. Liang C. W. Lovell

1982-01-01

431

14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The m