Science.gov

Sample records for e1 two-phonon strengths

  1. Reply to "Comment on two-phonon gamma-vibrational strength in osmium nuclei"

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.B.; Simon, M.W.; Krueken, R.; Cooper, J.R.; Barton, C.J.; Beausang, C.W.; Bialik, C.; Caprio, M.A.; Casten, R.F.; Hecht, A.A.; Newman, H.; Novak, J.; Pietralla, N.; Zyromski, K.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2002-09-03

    The claim that the two-phonon gamma-vibrational configuration constitutes a major component for the I=4+ states in osmium nuclei is based on solid experimental evidence. A non-negligible two-quasiparticle or hexadecapole component must also exist in order to explain the data.

  2. Spectral collapse via two-phonon interactions in trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felicetti, S.; Pedernales, J. S.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Romero, G.; Lamata, L.; Braak, D.; Solano, E.

    2015-09-01

    Two-photon processes have so far been considered only as resulting from frequency-matched second-order expansions of light-matter interaction, with consequently small coupling strengths. However, a variety of novel physical phenomena arises when such coupling values become comparable to the system characteristic frequencies. Here, we propose a realistic implementation of two-photon quantum Rabi and Dicke models in trapped-ion technologies. In this case, effective two-phonon processes can be explored in all relevant parameter regimes. In particular, we show that an ion chain under bichromatic laser drivings exhibits a rich dynamics and highly counterintuitive spectral features, such as interaction-induced spectral collapse.

  3. Origin of Low-Lying Enhanced E1 Strength in Rare-Earth Nuclei

    E-print Network

    M. Spieker; S. Pascu; A. Zilges; F. Iachello

    2015-05-17

    The experimental $E1$ strength distribution below 4 MeV in rare-earth nuclei suggests a local breaking of isospin symmetry. In addition to the octupole states, additional $1^-$ states with enhanced E1 strength have been observed in rare-earth nuclei by means of ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) experiments. By reproducing the experimental results, the spdf interacting boson model calculations provide further evidence for the formation of an $\\alpha$ cluster in medium-mass nuclei and might provide a new understanding of the origin of low-lying E1 strength.

  4. Origin of low-lying enhanced E1 strength in rare-Earth nuclei.

    PubMed

    Spieker, M; Pascu, S; Zilges, A; Iachello, F

    2015-05-15

    The experimental E1 strength distribution below 4 MeV in rare-earth nuclei suggests a local breaking of isospin symmetry. In addition to the octupole states, additional J^{?}=1^{-} states with enhanced E1 strength have been observed in rare-earth nuclei by means of (?,?') experiments. By reproducing the experimental results, the spdf interacting boson model calculations provide further evidence for the formation of an ? cluster in medium-mass nuclei and might provide a new understanding of the origin of low-lying E1 strength. PMID:26024168

  5. Isoscalar E0, E1, and E2 strength in Ca-40 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW; Clark, HL.

    2001-01-01

    : Isoscalar E0, E1, and E2 strength in 40Ca ?Phys. Rev. C 63, 067301 ?2001?? D. H. Youngblood, Y.-W. Lui, and H. L. Clark ~Published 21 September 2001! DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.64.049901 PACS number~s!: 25.55.Ci, 24.30.Cz, 27.40.1z, 99.10.1g Due to a...

  6. B(E1) Strengths from Coulomb Excitation of 11Be

    E-print Network

    N. C. Summers; S. D. Pain; N. A. Orr; W. N. Catford; J. C. Angelique; N. I. Ashwood; V. Bouchat; N. M. Clarke; N. Curtis; M. Freer; B. R. Fulton; F. Hanappe; M. Labiche; J. L. Lecouey; R. C. Lemmon; D. Mahboub; A. Ninane; G. Normand; F. M. Nunes; N. Soic; L. Stuttge; C. N. Timis; I. J. Thompson; J. S. Winfield; V. Ziman

    2007-05-10

    The $B$(E1;$1/2^+\\to1/2^-$) strength for $^{11}$Be has been extracted from intermediate energy Coulomb excitation measurements, over a range of beam energies using a new reaction model, the extended continuum discretized coupled channels (XCDCC) method. In addition, a measurement of the excitation cross section for $^{11}$Be+$^{208}$Pb at 38.6 MeV/nucleon is reported. The $B$(E1) strength of 0.105(12) e$^2$fm$^2$ derived from this measurement is consistent with those made previously at 60 and 64 MeV/nucleon, i n contrast to an anomalously low result obtained at 43 MeV/nucleon. By coupling a multi-configuration description of the projectile structure with realistic reaction theory, the XCDCC model provides for the first time a fully quantum mechanical description of Coulomb excitation. The XCDCC calculations reveal that the excitation process involves significant contributions from nuclear, continuum, and higher-order effects. An analysis of the present and two earlier intermediate energy measurements yields a combined B(E1) strength of 0.105(7) e$^2$fm$^2$. This value is in good agreement with the value deduced independently from the lifetime of the $1/2^-$ state in $^{11}$Be, and has a comparable p recision.

  7. B(E1) Strengths from Coulomb excitation of 11Be

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, N C; Pain, S D; Orr, N A; Catford, W N; Angelique, J C; Ashwood, N I; Bouchat, V; Clarke, N M; Curtis, N; Freer, M; Fulton, B R; Hanappe, F; Labiche, M; Loucey, J L; Lemmon, R C; Mahboub, D; Ninane, A; Normand, G; Nunes, F M; Soic, N; Stuttge, L; Timis, C N; Thompson, I; Winfield, J S; Ziman, V

    2007-03-06

    The B(E1;1/2{sup +}{yields} 1/2{sup -}) strength for {sup 11}Be has been extracted from intermediate energy Coulomb excitation measurements, over a range of beam energies using a new reaction model, the extended continuum discretized coupled channels (XCDCC) method. In addition, a measurement of the excitation cross section for {sup 11}Be+{sup 208}Pb at 38.6 MeV/nucleon is reported. The B(E1) strength of 0.105(12) e{sup 2}fm{sup 2} derived from this measurement is consistent with those made previously at 60 and 64 MeV/nucleon, in contrast to an anomalously low result obtained at 43 MeV/nucleon. By coupling a multi-configuration description of the projectile structure with realistic reaction theory, the XCDCC model provides for the first time a fully quantum mechanical description of Coulomb excitation. The XCDCC calculations reveal that the excitation process involves significant contributions from nuclear, continuum, and higher-order effects. An analysis of the present and two earlier intermediate energy measurements yields a combined B(E1) strength of 0.105(7) e{sup 2}fm{sup 2}. This value is in good agreement with the value deduced independently from the lifetime of the 1/2{sup -} state in {sup 11}Be, and has a comparable precision.

  8. Energy distribution of the E1-transition strengths in the {sup 46}Ti nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorets, I. D. Ratkevich, S. S.

    2008-08-15

    The structure of levels of the {sup 46}Ti nucleus is studied by means of the nonselective reaction {sup 45}Sc(p, {gamma}) at proton energies ranging between 1.2 and 3.1 MeV. Spin-parity assignments for {sup 46}Ti states of excitation energies up to 5.5 MeV are obtained by using the method of averaged resonances. Radiative strength functions for E1 transitions populating these states are determined. The resulting data are compared with predictions of various models.

  9. Discovery of low-lying E1 and M1 strengths in {sup 232}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Adekola, A. S.; Hammond, S. L.; Hill, A.; Karwowski, H. J.; Angell, C. T.; Howell, C. R.; Kwan, E.; Kelley, J. H.

    2011-03-15

    Properties of low-energy dipole states in {sup 232}Th have been investigated with the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique. The present work used monoenergetic {gamma}-ray beams at energies of 2-4 MeV from the high-intensity {gamma}-ray source at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Over 40 transitions corresponding to deexcitation to the ground state and first excited state were observed for the first time. Excitation energies, integrated cross sections, decay widths, branching ratios, and transition strengths for those states in {sup 232}Th were determined and compared with quasiparticle random-phase-approximation calculations. A large number of E1 transitions were observed for the first time in actinide nuclei with summed strength of 3.28(69)x10{sup -3} e{sup 2} fm{sup 2}. The observed summed M1 strength of 4.26(63){mu}{sub N}{sup 2} is in good agreement with the other actinides and with the systematics of the scissors mode in deformed rare-earth nuclei.

  10. Two-phonon octupole excitation in /sup 147/Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, P.; Styczen, J.; Piiparinen, M.; Blomqvist, J.; Kortelahti, M.

    1982-05-24

    A half-life measurement gives (57 +- 13)B/sub W/ for the 1575-keV E3 transition in /sup 147/Gd, which characterizes the 2.572-MeV (19/2)/sup -/ level as ..nu..f/sub 7/2/ x 3/sup -/ x 3/sup -/ two-phonon octupole state. This is the first identification of a nuclear two-phonon octupole excitation. The observed departures from harmonic vibration (twice the one-phonon energy and twice the transition rate) can be quantitatively understood in terms of the microscopic composition of the states, and can be derived from other observed features of the octupole vibrations in this region.

  11. Systematic study of low-lying E1 strength using the time-dependent mean field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ebata, S.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Inakura, T.

    2012-11-12

    We carry out systematic investigation of electric dipole (E1) mode from light to heavy nuclei, using a new time-dependent mean field theory: the Canonical-basis Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (Cb-TDHFB) theory. The Cb-TDHFB in the three-dimensional coordinate space representation can deal with pairing correlation and any kind of deformation in the timedependent framework. We report the neutron-number dependence of the low-energy E1 mode for light (A > 40) and heavy isotopes (A < 100) around N= 82.

  12. Two-dimensional image edge enhancement by two-phonon Bragg diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, V M; Shkerdin, G N; Bulyuk, A N

    2011-12-31

    A model of acousto-optic interaction is developed for describing two-phonon Bragg diffraction in a gyrotropic single TeO{sub 2} crystal, which makes allowance for ellipticity of crystal optical eigenwaves. Formation of a two-dimensional edge of an image in the first diffraction order is explained by invoking a three-dimensional description for the wave surfaces of optical eigenwaves.

  13. Two-phonon scattering in graphene in the quantum Hall regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, A. M.; Hartmann, R. R.; Portnoi, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most distinctive features of graphene is its huge inter-Landau-level splitting in experimentally attainable magnetic fields which results in the room-temperature quantum Hall effect. In this paper we calculate the longitudinal conductivity induced by two-phonon scattering in graphene in a quantizing magnetic field at elevated temperatures. It is concluded that the purely phonon-induced scattering, negligible for conventional semiconductor heterostructures under quantum Hall conditions, becomes comparable to the disorder-induced contribution to the dissipative conductivity of graphene in the quantum Hall regime.

  14. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling. PMID:26536958

  15. Hong–Ou–Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose–Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong–Ou–Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling.

  16. PHYSICAL REVIE% B VOLUME 17, NUMBER 6 15 MARCH 1978 Two-phonon scattemig in solid neon

    E-print Network

    Glyde, Henry R.

    PHYSICAL REVIE% B VOLUME 17, NUMBER 6 15 MARCH 1978 Two-phonon scattemig in solid neon %. M neutron scattering from phonons in solid neon at 5 K, is calculated using the self-consistent phonon that the unusually shaped phonon groups they found for high-frequency phonons in neon is due to an unusually large

  17. Isospin structure of one-and two-phonon giant dipole resonance excitations A. F. R. de Toledo Piza,1

    E-print Network

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Isospin structure of one- and two-phonon giant dipole resonance excitations A. F. R. de Toledo Piza, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla, Spain Received 7 December 1998 Isospin is included in the description to be hindered or completely suppressed in calculations in which the isospin degree of freedom is not considered

  18. Relaxation times of the two-phonon processes with spin-flip and spin-conserving in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zi-Wu; Liu, Lei; Li, Shu-Shen

    2014-04-07

    We perform a theoretical investigation on the two-phonon processes of the spin-flip and spin-conserving relaxation in quantum dots in the frame of the Huang-Rhys' lattice relaxation model. We find that the relaxation time of the spin-flip is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the spin-conserving, which is in agreement with previous experimental measurements. Moreover, the opposite variational trends of the relaxation time as a function of the energy separation for two-phonon processes are obtained in different temperature regime. The relaxation times display the oscillatory behaviors at the demarcation point with increasing magnetic field, where the energy separation matches the optical phonon energy and results in the optical phonon resonance. These results are useful in understanding the intraband levels' relaxation in quantum dots and could be helpful in designing photoelectric and spin-memory devices.

  19. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  20. Nature of One- and Two-Phonon Mixed Symmetry States in 92Zr and 94Mo from High-Resolution Electron and Proton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Burda, O.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Botha, N. T.; Fearick, R. W.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Foertsch, S. V.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, H.; Pietralla, N.

    2006-03-13

    High-resolution inelastic electron (performed at the S-DALINAC) and proton (performed at iThemba LABS) scattering experiments on 92Zr and 94Mo with emphasis on E2 transitions are presented The measured form factors and angular distributions provide a measure for the F-spin purity, respectively the isovector nature, of the proposed one-phonon mixed symmetry states and furthermore provide a sensitive test of a possible two-phonon character of excited 2+ states.

  1. Oscillator Strengths and Predissociation Rates for Rydberg Transitions in 12C16O, 13C16O, and 13C18O Involving the E 1Pi, B 1Sigma+, and W 1Pi States

    E-print Network

    M. Eidelsberg; Y. Sheffer; S. R. Federman; J. L. Lemaire; J. H. Fillion; F. Rostas; J. Ruiz

    2006-05-06

    One of the processes controlling the interstellar CO abundance and the ratio of its isotopologues is photodissociation. Accurate oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for Rydberg transitions are needed for modeling this process. We present results on absorption from the E ^1Pi-X ^1Sigma^+ (1-0) and B ^1Sigma^+-X ^1Sigma^+ (6-0) bands at 1051 and 1002 \\AA, respectively, and the vibrational progression W ^1Pi-X ^1Sigma^+ (v'-0) bands with v' = 0 to 3 at 972, 956, 941, and 925 \\AA, respectively. The corresponding spectra were acquired at the high resolution (R ~ 30,000) SU5 beam line at the Super ACO Synchrotron in Orsay, France. Spectra were obtained for the ^12C^16O, ^13C^16O, and ^13C^18O isotopologues. These represent the most complete set of measurements available. Comparison is made with earlier results, both empirical and theoretical. While earlier determinations of oscillator strengths based on absorption from synchrotron radiation tend to be somewhat smaller than ours, the suite of measurements from a variety of techniques agree for the most part considering the mutual uncertainties. For the bands studied here, their relative weakness, or their significant line widths arising from predissociation, minimizes potential problems from large optical depths at line center in absorption measurements. Predissociating line widths could generally be extracted from the spectra thanks to the profile simulations used in the analysis. In many cases, these simulations allowed us to consider e and f parity levels separately and to determine the dependence of the width on rotational quantum number, J. Our results are consistent with earlier determinations, especially the widths inferred from laser experiments.

  2. Relation of E1 pygmy and toroidal resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, V. O.; Repko, A.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Kvasil, J.

    2015-05-01

    A possible relation of low-lying E1 strength ("pygmy resonance") and toroidal strength is analyzed by using Skyrme random-phase-approximation (RPA) results for the strength functions, transition densities and current fields in 208Pb. It is shown that the irrotational pygmy motion can appear as a local manifestation of the collective vortical toroidal dipole resonance (TDR) at the nuclear surface. The RPA results are compared to unperturbed (1ph) ones.

  3. Analog E1 transitions and isospin mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Pattabiraman, N. S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Bentley, M. A.; Wadsworth, R.; Lister, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Lotay, G.; Woods, P. J.; Krishichayan,; Isacker, P. Van

    2008-08-15

    We investigate whether isospin mixing can be determined in a model-independent way from the relative strength of E1 transitions in mirror nuclei. The specific examples considered are the A=31 and A=35 mirror pairs, where a serious discrepancy between the strengths of 7/2{sup -}{yields}5/2{sup +} transitions in the respective mirror nuclei has been observed. A theoretical analysis of the problem suggests that it ought to be possible to disentangle the isospin mixing in the initial and final states given sufficient information on experimental matrix elements. With this in mind, we obtain a lifetime for the relevant 7/2{sup -} state in {sup 31}S using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. We then collate the available information on matrix elements to examine the level of isospin mixing for both A=31 and A=35 mirror pairs.

  4. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  5. Relation of E1 pygmy and toroidal resonances

    E-print Network

    V. O. Nesterenko; A. Repko; P. -G. Reinhard; J. Kvasil

    2014-10-21

    A possible relation of the low-lying E1 (pygmy resonance) and toroidal strengths is analyzed by using Skyrme-RPA results for the strength functions, transition densities and current fields in $^{208}$Pb. It is shown that the irrotational pygmy motion can appear as a local manifestation of the collective vortical toroidal dipole resonance (TDR) at the nuclear surface. The RPA results are compared to unperturbed (1ph) ones.

  6. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distributions described in section 367(e)(1). 1.367(e)-1 Section 1.367(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(e)-1 Distributions described in section 367(e)(1)....

  7. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distributions described in section 367(e)(1). 1.367(e)-1 Section 1.367(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(e)-1 Distributions described in section 367(e)(1)....

  8. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distributions described in section 367(e)(1). 1.367(e)-1 Section 1.367(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.367(e)-1 Distributions described in section 367(e)(1). (a) Purpose and...

  9. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distributions described in section 367(e)(1). 1.367(e)-1 Section 1.367(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(e)-1 Distributions described in section 367(e)(1)....

  10. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Steven R. (Denver, CO); Laymon, Robert A. (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    1996-01-01

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol.

  11. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.R.; Laymon, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1996-07-16

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol. 6 figs.

  12. Why Strength Training?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... week. Strength training, particularly in conjunction with regular aerobic exercise, can also have a profound impact on ... gained not only strength and flexibility but also aerobic capacity when they did strength training three times ...

  13. Energy-dependence of skin-mode fraction in $E1$ excitations of neutron-rich nuclei

    E-print Network

    H. Nakada; T. Inakura; H. Sawai

    2015-02-17

    We have extensively investigated characters of the low-energy $E1$ strengths in $N>Z$ nuclei, by analyzing the transition densities obtained by the HF+RPA calculations with several effective interactions. Crossover behavior has been confirmed, from the skin mode at low energy to the $pn$ mode at higher energy. Decomposing the $E1$ strengths into the skin-mode, $pn$-mode and interference fractions, we show that the ratio of the skin-mode strength to the full strength may be regarded as a generic function of the excitation energy, insensitive to nuclides and effective interactions, particularly beyond Ni.

  14. Energy-dependence of skin-mode fraction in $E1$ excitations of neutron-rich nuclei

    E-print Network

    Nakada, H; Sawai, H

    2015-01-01

    We have extensively investigated characters of the low-energy $E1$ strengths in $N>Z$ nuclei, by analyzing the transition densities obtained by the HF+RPA calculations with several effective interactions. Crossover behavior has been confirmed, from the skin mode at low energy to the $pn$ mode at higher energy. Decomposing the $E1$ strengths into the skin-mode, $pn$-mode and interference fractions, we show that the ratio of the skin-mode strength to the full strength may be regarded as a generic function of the excitation energy, insensitive to nuclides and effective interactions, particularly beyond Ni.

  15. P a g e | 1 RECORDS MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    P a g e | 1 RECORDS MANAGEMENT POLICY University Policy No: IM7700 Classification: Information Management Approving Authority: Board of Governors Effective date: January, 2010 Supersedes: New Last editorial change: Mandated review: January, 2017 Associated Procedures: Procedures for the Management

  16. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  17. Strength Modeling Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Lee, P.; Wong, S.

    1985-01-01

    Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force versus joint torque; (4) instantaneous versus steady force; (5) active force versus reactive force; (6) presence or absence of gravity; (7) body somatotype and composition; (8) body (segment) masses; (9) muscle group envolvement; (10) muscle size; (11) fatigue; and (12) practice (training) or familiarity. In surveying the available literature on strength measurement and modeling an attempt was made to examine as many of these parameters as possible. The conclusions reached at this point toward the feasibility of implementing computationally reasonable human strength models. The assessment of accuracy of any model against a specific individual, however, will probably not be possible on any realistic scale. Taken statistically, strength modeling may be an effective tool for general questions of task feasibility and strength requirements.

  18. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...distribution under section 367(e)(1). A distributing...divided by the total number of units of the class of...Except where section 897(e)(1) and the regulations...information that demonstrates a number of distributees that are...of listed stocks. (e) Reporting under...

  19. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...distribution under section 367(e)(1). A distributing...divided by the total number of units of the class of...Except where section 897(e)(1) and the regulations...information that demonstrates a number of distributees that are...of listed stocks. (e) Cross-references....

  20. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...distribution under section 367(e)(1). A distributing...divided by the total number of units of the class of...Except where section 897(e)(1) and the regulations...information that demonstrates a number of distributees that are...of listed stocks. (e) Reporting under...

  1. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...distribution under section 367(e)(1). A distributing...divided by the total number of units of the class of...Except where section 897(e)(1) and the regulations...information that demonstrates a number of distributees that are...of listed stocks. (e) Reporting under...

  2. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...distribution under section 367(e)(1). A distributing...divided by the total number of units of the class of...Except where section 897(e)(1) and the regulations...information that demonstrates a number of distributees that are...of listed stocks. (e) Cross-references....

  3. Strengths of Remarried Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaub, Patricia Kain; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on remarried families' (N=80) perceptions of family strengths, marital satisfaction, and adjustment to the remarried situation. Results indicated that although most would like to make some changes, scores on the measurements used were high. A supportive environment was the most important predictor of family strength and success. (JAC)

  4. Crossover from skin-mode to proton-neutron-mode in $E1$ excitations of neutron-rich nuclei

    E-print Network

    H. Nakada; T. Inakura; H. Sawai

    2013-02-06

    Character of the low-energy $E1$ excitations is investigated by analyzing transition densities obtained from the RPA calculations in the doubly-magic nuclei. We propose a decomposition method of the $E1$ excitations into the $pn$ mode (i.e. oscillation between protons and neutrons) and the skin mode (oscillation of the neutron skin against the inner core) via the transition densities, by which their mixing is handled in a straightforward manner. Crossover behavior of the $E1$ excitations is found, from the skin mode at low energy to the $pn$ mode at higher energy. The ratio of the skin-mode strength to the full strength turns out to be insensitive to nuclide and to effective interactions in the energy region of the crossover. Depending on the excitation energy, the observed low-energy $E1$ excitations are not necessarily dominated by the skin mode, as exemplified for $^{90}$Zr. fied for $^{90}$Zr.

  5. Reduction of bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Cindy

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on reduction of bone strength are presented. WEHI 231 B growth rates, experimental chambers used to apply the electric field to the cell cultures, and a mouse suspended by rotating cuff in electromagnetic field are shown.

  6. Strength and Balance Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Jun 23,2015 If you have ... second set. Walking Heel-to-Toe Purpose: Improve balance. Starting Position: Stand close to a wall for ...

  7. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post-LEP apples seem to have been from a single batch of material. The pre-LEP apples of the weak strength and the post-LEP apples with even weaker strength could have been made of the same batch of material, and the small strength differential might be due to the difference in the induction heating system. If the pre-LEP apples with the lower strength and the post LEP apples are made from the same batch of material, their combined scatter of strength data would be wider and can be understood as a result of the additional processing steps of stress relief and induction heating as discussed.

  8. Study of M1 and E1 excitations by high-resolution proton inelastic scattering measurement at forward angles

    SciTech Connect

    Tamii, A.; Adachi, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kaneda, T.; Matsubara, H.; Okamura, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Carter, J.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Sasamoto, Y.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von

    2007-06-13

    Experimental technique for measuring proton inelastic scattering with high-resolution at 295 MeV and at forward angles including zero degrees is described. The method is useful for extracting spin part of the M1 strength via nuclear excitation as well as E1 strength via Coulomb excitation. An excitation energy resolution of 20 keV, good scattering angle resolution, and low background condition have been achieved. The experimental technique was applied for several sd and pf shell nuclei.

  9. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  10. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  11. Spin resonance strength calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Courant,E.D.

    2008-10-06

    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  12. Electron impact collision strengths in Sn XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Y.Q. Zhong, J.Y.

    2008-11-15

    The energy levels, multipole (E1, M1, E2, and M2) transition rates, and electron-impact collision strengths are calculated for Sn XXIII. The data refer to 107 fine-structure levels belonging to the configurations (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4l, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}4l, and 3s3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}4l(l = s, p, d, and f). The collision strengths are calculated with a 20-collision-energy grid in terms of the energy of the scattered electron between 37.5 and 8436 eV by using the distorted-wave approximation. Effective collision strengths are obtained at five electron temperatures, T{sub e} (eV) = 193.89, 387.78, 581.67, 775.57, and 969.46, by integrating the collision strengths over a Maxwellian electron distribution.

  13. High strength composites evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, S.M.

    1992-02-01

    A high-strength, thick-section, graphite/epoxy composite was identified. The purpose of this development effort was to evaluate candidate materials and provide LANL with engineering properties. Eight candidate materials (Samples 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, and 1700) were chosen for evaluation. The Sample 1700 thermoplastic material was the strongest overall.

  14. The Strength of Varying Tie Strength

    E-print Network

    Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    "The Strength of Weak Ties" argument (Granovetter 1973) says that the most valuable information is best collected through bridging ties with other social circles than one's own, and that those ties tend to be weak. Aral and Van Alstyne (2011) added that to access complex information, actors need strong ties ("high bandwidth") instead. These insights I generalize by pointing at actors' interest to avoid spending large resources on low value information. Weak ties are well-suited for relatively simple information at low transmission and tie maintenance costs, whereas for complex information, the best outcomes are expected for those actors who vary their bandwidths along with the value of information accessed. To support my claim I use all patents in the USA (two million) over the period 1975-1999. I also show that in rationalized fields, such as technology, bandwidth correlates highly with the value of information, which provides support for using this proxy if value can't be measured directly. Finally, I show ...

  15. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) a Schedule 13D or 13G under 17 CFR 240.13d-1 or 17 CFR 240.13d-2, and provide a copy of same to the distributing corporation under 17 CFR 240.13d-7. (ii... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distributions described in section 367(e)(1)....

  16. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) a Schedule 13D or 13G under 17 CFR 240.13d-1 or 17 CFR 240.13d-2, and provide a copy of same to the distributing corporation under 17 CFR 240.13d-7. (ii... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distributions described in section 367(e)(1)....

  17. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under 17 CFR 240.13d-1 or 17 CFR 240.13d-2, and provide a copy of same to the distributing corporation under 17 CFR 240.13d-7. (ii) Other distributees. A distributing corporation that has made a distribution... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distributions described in section 367(e)(1)....

  18. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under 17 CFR 240.13d-1 or 17 CFR 240.13d-2, and provide a copy of same to the distributing corporation under 17 CFR 240.13d-7. (ii) Other distributees. A distributing corporation that has made a distribution... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributions described in section 367(e)(1)....

  19. 26 CFR 1.367(e)-1 - Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under 17 CFR 240.13d-1 or 17 CFR 240.13d-2, and provide a copy of same to the distributing corporation under 17 CFR 240.13d-7. (ii) Other distributees. A distributing corporation that has made a distribution... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distributions described in section 367(e)(1)....

  20. 26 CFR 1.503(e)-1 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rules. 1.503(e)-1 Section 1.503(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(e)-1 Special rules. (a) In general. (1) Section 503(e) provides that for purposes of...

  1. 26 CFR 53.4941(e)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... thereunder. (e) Act of self-dealing—(1) Number of acts; use of money or property—(i) In general. If a... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 53.4941(e)-1 Section 53.4941(e)-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(e)-1...

  2. 26 CFR 53.4941(e)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... thereunder. (e) Act of self-dealing—(1) Number of acts; use of money or property—(i) In general. If a... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 53.4941(e)-1 Section 53.4941(e)-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(e)-1...

  3. 26 CFR 53.4941(e)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... thereunder. (e) Act of self-dealing—(1) Number of acts; use of money or property—(i) In general. If a... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 53.4941(e)-1 Section 53.4941(e)-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(e)-1...

  4. 26 CFR 53.4941(e)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... thereunder. (e) Act of self-dealing—(1) Number of acts; use of money or property—(i) In general. If a... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 53.4941(e)-1 Section 53.4941(e)-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(e)-1...

  5. 26 CFR 53.4941(e)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 53.4941(e)-1 Section 53.4941(e)-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(e)-1 Definitions... is transferred subject only to the condition that the buyer make payment for receipt of such...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-1 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 3231(e). (2) A payment made by an employer to an individual through the employer's payroll is presumed... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 31.3231(e)-1 Section 31.3231(e)-1... Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3231(e)-1...

  7. 26 CFR 53.4941(e)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... thereunder. (e) Act of self-dealing—(1) Number of acts; use of money or property—(i) In general. If a... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 53.4941(e)-1 Section 53.4941(e)-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(e)-1...

  8. 26 CFR 53.4941(e)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 53.4941(e)-1 Section 53.4941(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(e)-1 Definitions. (a) Taxable period—(1) In general....

  9. Prepubescent Strength Training. Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Joe W.; Holshouser, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    Under the careful supervision of a trained fitness professional, the benefits of prepubescent strength training (improved strength, power, muscular endurance, bone density) outweigh the risks (acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries). (CB)

  10. Activation of NF-?B by Human Papillomavirus 16 E1 Limits E1-Dependent Viral Replication through Degradation of E1

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Tomomi; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Egawa, Nagayasu; Yugawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NF-?B is a family of transcription factors that regulate gene expression involved in many processes, such as the inflammatory response and cancer progression. Little is known about associations of NF-?B with the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle. We have developed a tissue culture system to conditionally induce E1-dependent replication of the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) genome in human cervical keratinocytes and found that expression of HPV16 E1, a viral helicase, results in reduction of I?B? and subsequent activation of NF-?B in a manner dependent on helicase activity. Exogenous expression of a degradation-resistant mutant of I?B?, which inhibits the activation of NF-?B, enhanced E1-dependent replication of the viral genome. Wortmannin, a broad inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), and, to a lesser extent, VE-822, an ATR kinase inhibitor, but not KU55933, an ATM kinase inhibitor, suppressed the activation of NF-?B and augmented E1-dependent replication of the HPV16 genome. Interestingly, the enhancement of E1-dependent replication of the viral genome was associated with increased stability of E1 in the presence of wortmannin as well as the I?B? mutant. Collectively, we propose that expression of E1 induces NF-?B activation at least in part through the ATR-dependent DNA damage response and that NF-?B in turn limits E1-dependent replication of HPV16 through degradation of E1, so that E1 and NF-?B may constitute a negative feedback loop. IMPORTANCE A major risk factor in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers is persistent infection with high-risk HPVs. To eradicate viruses from infected tissue, it is important to understand molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment and maintenance of persistent infection. In this study, we obtained evidence that human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E1, a viral DNA helicase essential for amplification of the viral genomes, induces NF-?B activation and that this limits E1-dependent genome replication of HPV16. These results suggest that NF-?B mediates a negative feedback loop to regulate HPV replication and that this feedback loop could be associated with control of the viral copy numbers. We could thus show for the first time that NF-?B activity is involved in the establishment and maintenance of persistent HPV infection. PMID:25717108

  11. TOT: the association strength heuristic 

    E-print Network

    Choi, Hyun

    2005-11-01

    that the frequency and strength of TOTs linearly increased as a function of number of co-occurrences; the correlation between TOT strength and the participants?? subjective estimation of number of co-occurrences was greater than the correlation between TOT strength...

  12. Strength Development for Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…

  13. Strength Training and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  14. Strength Training for Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

    This guide is designed to serve as a resource for developing strength training programs for children. Chapter 1 uses research findings to explain why strength training is appropriate for children. Chapter 2 explains some of the important physiological concepts involved in children's growth and development as they apply to developing strength

  15. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-print Network

    Martin Chaplin

    2007-06-10

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

  16. The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone have been measured as a function of confining pressure and pore pressure. Both the fracture strength and the frictional strength obey the law of effective stress, that is, the strength is determined not by the confining pressure alone but by the difference between the confining pressure and the pore pressure. The fracture strength of the rock varies by as much as 20 per cent depending on the cement between the grains, but the frictional strength is independent of lithology. Over the range 0 2 kb, ??=0??5 + 0??6??n. This relationship also holds for other rocks such as gabbro, dunite, serpentinite, granite and limestone. ?? 1975.

  17. The nuclear receptor NR2E1/TLX controls senescence.

    PubMed

    O'Loghlen, A; Martin, N; Krusche, B; Pemberton, H; Alonso, M M; Chandler, H; Brookes, S; Parrinello, S; Peters, G; Gil, J

    2015-07-30

    The nuclear receptor NR2E1 (also known as TLX or tailless) controls the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and has been implied as an oncogene which initiates brain tumors including glioblastomas. Despite NR2E1 regulating targets like p21(CIP1) or PTEN we still lack a full explanation for its role in NSC self-renewal and tumorigenesis. We know that polycomb repressive complexes also control stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis, but so far, no formal connection has been established between NR2E1 and PRCs. In a screen for transcription factors regulating the expression of the polycomb protein CBX7, we identified NR2E1 as one of its more prominent regulators. NR2E1 binds at the CBX7 promoter, inducing its expression. Notably CBX7 represses NR2E1 as part of a regulatory loop. Ectopic NR2E1 expression inhibits cellular senescence, extending cellular lifespan in fibroblasts via CBX7-mediated regulation of p16(INK4a) and direct repression of p21(CIP1). In addition NR2E1 expression also counteracts oncogene-induced senescence. The importance of NR2E1 to restrain senescence is highlighted through the process of knocking down its expression, which causes premature senescence in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. We also confirmed that NR2E1 regulates CBX7 and restrains senescence in NSCs. Finally, we observed that the expression of NR2E1 directly correlates with that of CBX7 in human glioblastoma multiforme. Overall we identified control of senescence and regulation of polycomb action as two possible mechanisms that can join those so far invoked to explain the role of NR2E1 in control of NSC self-renewal and cancer. PMID:25328137

  18. Complete Electric Dipole Strength and Neutron Skin in 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Poltoraska, I.; Tamii, A.

    2013-03-01

    Small-angle polarized proton scattering including 0° on 208Pb has been studied at the RCNP cyclotron with high energy resolution of the order 25 -- 30 keV (FWHM). The complete E1 strength distribution from 5 to 20 MeV could be extracted from the data. The total E1 polarizability as well as the properties of the pygmy dipole resonance can be extracted with high precision providing important experimental constraints on the neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and the symmetry energy of neutron matter.

  19. Gaussian discriminating strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  20. Strength in numbers.

    PubMed

    Lakkis, S

    1999-03-01

    A case study showing the attitudes and actions reinforcing discrimination against women's rights in Lebanon is presented. The study illustrates the way in which the public¿s views and the interests of families and local dignitaries can manipulate opinions. Organizations aimed at protecting women's rights have found strength in working together. The Lebanese League, an organization comprised of 17 women's and human rights associations, has established a center and a telephone hotline to encourage abused women to disclose and discuss their situation. The center provides support in the form of legal, psychological and medical assistance. Another organization working with the Lebanese League towards the same vision is the Lebanese Physically Handicapped Union. Efforts to lobby around a Lebanese legislation discriminating against women so far had no success, but all organizations involved are aware of the need to work through a range of interventions, and to take a long-term view, before they can count on any success. PMID:12295032

  1. [The strength of fragile].

    PubMed

    Lagrée, J

    2015-02-01

    Chronic disorder not only modifies the patient's health status; it affects the body relationship and its potential; it decreases its power to act, changes its relation to time, to its relatives, in shortcut it affects all dimensions of the relationship with oneself, with others, and the world. However, if we assume that a patient cannot be reduced to his/her illness but must always be treated with the respect of a person, we also understand how chronic and debilitating disease affects both freedom (or autonomy) and perfectibility (or creativity). By analyzing the different forms of freedom of the patient, this paper intends to rehabilitate the fragile own strength which is fortitude. It manifests itself in attitudes and virtues such as gentleness, patience, attention to the present, hope, power of thought. It also intends to show that it is supporting fragile and allowing them to develop their own way of acting and living as humanity became intelligent and creative. PMID:24721121

  2. New Insights into FoxE1 Functions: Identification of Direct FoxE1 Targets in Thyroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Lara P.; López-Márquez, Arístides; Martínez, Ángel M.; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Santisteban, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Background FoxE1 is a thyroid-specific forkhead transcription factor essential for thyroid gland development, as well as for the maintenance of the thyroid differentiated state in adults. FoxE1 recognizes and binds to a short DNA sequence present in thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroperoxidase (Tpo) promoters, but FoxE1 binding to regulatory regions other than Tg and Tpo promoters remains almost unexplored. Improving knowledge of the regulatory functions of FoxE1 is necessary to clarify its role in endocrine syndromes and cancer susceptibility. Methodology/Principal Finding In order to further investigate downstream FoxE1 targets, we performed a genome-wide expression screening after knocking-down FoxE1 and obtained new insights into FoxE1 transcriptional networks in thyroid follicular cells. After validation, we confirmed Adamts9, Cdh1, Duox2 and S100a4 as upregulated genes and Casp4, Creld2, Dusp5, Etv5, Hsp5a, Nr4a2 and Tm4sf1 as downregulated genes when FoxE1 was silenced. In promoter regions of putative FoxE1-regulated genes and also in the promoters of the classical thyroid genes Nis, Pax8 and Titf1, we performed an in silico search of the FoxE1 binding motif that was in close proximity to the NF1/CTF binding sequence, as previously described for other forkhead factors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we detected specific in vivo FoxE1 binding to novel regulatory regions in two relevant thyroid genes, Nis and Duox2. Moreover, we demonstrated simultaneous binding of FoxE1 and NF1/CTF to the Nis upstream enhancer region, as well as a clear functional activation of the Nis promoter by both transcription factors. Conclusions/Significance In search for potential downstream mediators of FoxE1 function in thyroid cells, we identified two novel direct FoxE1 target genes. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence regarding the implication of Nis and Duox2 in executing the transcriptional program triggered by FoxE1. Furthermore, this study points out the important role of FoxE1 in the regulation of a large number of genes in thyroid cells. PMID:23675434

  3. Fault Roughness Records Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Candela, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Fault roughness is commonly ~0.1-1% at the outcrop exposure scale. More mature faults are smoother than less mature ones, but the overall range of roughness is surprisingly limited which suggests dynamic control. In addition, the power spectra of many exposed fault surfaces follow a single power law over scales from millimeters to 10's of meters. This is another surprising observation as distinct structures such as slickenlines and mullions are clearly visible on the same surfaces at well-defined scales. We can reconcile both observations by suggesting that the roughness of fault surfaces is controlled by the maximum strain that can be supported elastically in the wallrock. If the fault surface topography requires more than 0.1-1% strain, it fails. Invoking wallrock strength explains two additional observations on the Corona Heights fault for which we have extensive roughness data. Firstly, the surface is isotropic below a scale of 30 microns and has grooves at larger scales. Samples from at least three other faults (Dixie Valley, Mount St. Helens and San Andreas) also are isotropic at scales below 10's of microns. If grooves can only persist when the walls of the grooves have a sufficiently low slope to maintain the shape, this scale of isotropy can be predicted based on the measured slip perpendicular roughness data. The observed 30 micron scale at Corona Heights is consistent with an elastic strain of 0.01 estimated from the observed slip perpendicular roughness with a Hurst exponent of 0.8. The second observation at Corona Heights is that slickenlines are not deflected around meter-scale mullions. Yielding of these mullions at centimeter to meter scale is predicted from the slip parallel roughness as measured here. The success of the strain criterion for Corona Heights supports it as the appropriate control on fault roughness. Micromechanically, the criterion implies that failure of the fault surface is a continual process during slip. Macroscopically, the fundamental nature of the control means that 0.1 to 1% roughness should be ubiquitous on faults and can generally be used for simulating ground motion. An important caveat is that the scale-dependence of strength may result in a difference in the yield criterion at large-scales. The commonly observed values of the Hurst exponent below 1 may capture this scale-dependence.

  4. Strength of Chemical Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Jerry D.

    1973-01-01

    Students are not generally made aware of the extraordinary magnitude of the strengths of chemical bonds in terms of the forces required to pull them apart. Molecular bonds are usually considered in terms of the energies required to break them, and we are not astonished at the values encountered. For example, the Cl2 bond energy, 57.00 kcal/mole, amounts to only 9.46 x 10(sup -20) cal/molecule, a very small amount of energy, indeed, and impossible to measure directly. However, the forces involved in realizing the energy when breaking the bond operate over a very small distance, only 2.94 A, and, thus, f(sub ave) approx. equals De/(r - r(sub e)) must be very large. The forces involved in dissociating the molecule are discussed in the following. In consideration of average forces, the molecule shall be assumed arbitrarily to be dissociated when the atoms are far enough separated so that the potential, relative to that of the infinitely separated atoms, is reduced by 99.5% from the potential of the molecule at the equilibrium bond length (r(sub e)) for Cl2 of 1.988 A this occurs at 4.928 A.

  5. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  6. Study of gamma-ray strength functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

    1980-08-07

    The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

  7. Lifetime of the yrast I?=5- state and E 1 hindrance in the transitional nucleus Ce13658

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, T.; Regan, P. H.; M?rginean, N.; Podolyák, Zs.; Roberts, O. J.; Bruce, A. M.; Alkhomashi, N.; Britton, R.; Bucurescu, D.; Deleanu, D.; Filipescu, D.; Ghit?, D.; Glodariu, T.; Mihai, C.; Mulholland, K.; Lica, R.; M?rginean, R.; Nakhostin, M.; Negret, A.; Nita, C. R.; Stroe, L.; Sava, T.; Townsley, C.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    The half-lives of the I?=5- and I?=7- yrast states with Ex=1978 keV and Ex=2307 keV in the N =78 isotone 136Ce, have been measured to be 496(23) ps and 270(24) ps, respectively, using the coincident fast-timing spectroscopy technique following population by a 124Sn(16O ,4 n ) fusion-evaporation reaction at an incident beam energy of 68 MeV. The extracted B (E 1 ;5-?4+) =1.8 (3 ) ×10-6 W.u. value is compared with the systematics of the region and is found to be in line with typical E 1 strengths for single-particle-type decays, rather than showing any evidence for the additional E 1 decay hindrance associated with K -quantum number violation in axially deformed systems observed in lighter Ce isotopes.

  8. 26 CFR 1.642(e)-1 - Depreciation and depletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation and depletion. 1.642(e...Beneficiaries § 1.642(e)-1 Depreciation and depletion. An estate or trust is allowed the deductions for depreciation and depletion, but only...

  9. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

  10. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1 Allocation rules. Where only a...

  11. 26 CFR 1.665(e)-1 - Preceding taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.665(e)-1 Preceding taxable year. (a) Definition. For purposes of subpart D... dividends or taxable stock dividends in question were currently distributable to the beneficiary....

  12. 26 CFR 1.665(e)-1 - Preceding taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.665(e)-1 Preceding taxable year. (a) Definition. For purposes of... determination that the extraordinary dividends or taxable stock dividends in question were...

  13. Strength properties of fly ash based controlled low strength materials.

    PubMed

    Türkel, S

    2007-08-25

    Controlled low strength material (CLSM) is a flowable mixture that can be used as a backfill material in place of compacted soils. Flowable fill requires no tamping or compaction to achieve its strength and typically has a load carrying capacity much higher than compacted soils, but it can still be excavated easily. The selection of CLSM type should be based on technical and economical considerations for specific applications. In this study, a mixture of high volume fly ash (FA), crushed limestone powder (filler) and a low percentage of pozzolana cement have been tried in different compositions. The amount of pozzolana cement was kept constant for all mixes as, 5% of fly ash weight. The amount of mixing water was chosen in order to provide optimum pumpability by determining the spreading ratio of CLSM mixtures using flow table method. The shear strength of the material is a measure of the materials ability to support imposed stresses on the material. The shear strength properties of CLSM mixtures have been investigated by a series of laboratory tests. The direct shear test procedure was applied for determining the strength parameters Phi (angle of shearing resistance) and C(h) (cohesion intercept) of the material. The test results indicated that CLSM mixtures have superior shear strength properties compared to compacted soils. Shear strength, cohesion intercept and angle of shearing resistance values of CLSM mixtures exceeded conventional soil materials' similar properties at 7 days. These parameters proved that CLSM mixtures are suitable materials for backfill applications. PMID:17331642

  14. Complete dipole strength distributions in 208Pb from high-resolution polarized proton scattering at 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Small-angle polarized proton scattering including 0° at incident energies of a few 100 MeV/nucleon is established as a new spectrospcopic tool for the study of E1 and M1 strength distributions. Experiments of this type have been realized recently at RCNP, Osaka, Japan with high energy resolution of the order 25 - 30 keV (FWHM). Using 208Pb as an example, the physics potential of such data is discussed. It includes information on the properties of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance but also on complete E1 and M1 strength distributions and thus the gamma strength function. The E1 polarizability can be extracted with a precision of about 4% providing important experimental constraints on the neutron skin thickness in 208Pb.

  15. Effects of phonon-phonon coupling on properties of pygmy resonance in $^{124-132}$Sn

    E-print Network

    N. N. Arsenyev; A. P. Severyukhin; V. V. Voronov; Nguyen Van Giai

    2012-09-27

    Starting from an effective Skyrme interaction we study effects of phonon-phonon coupling on the low-energy electric dipole response in $^{124-132}$Sn. The QRPA calculations are performed within a finite rank separable approximation. The inclusion of two-phonon configurations gives a considerable contribution to low-lying strength. Comparison with available experimental data shows a reasonable agreement for the low-energy $E1$ strength distribution.

  16. Oncolytic Replication of E1b-Deleted Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Wechman, Stephen L.; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2015-01-01

    Various viruses have been studied and developed for oncolytic virotherapies. In virotherapy, a relatively small amount of viruses used in an intratumoral injection preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, leading to the release of amplified viral particles that spread the infection to the surrounding tumor cells and reduce the tumor mass. Adenoviruses (Ads) are most commonly used for oncolytic virotherapy due to their infection efficacy, high titer production, safety, easy genetic modification, and well-studied replication characteristics. Ads with deletion of E1b55K preferentially replicate in and destroy cancer cells and have been used in multiple clinical trials. H101, one of the E1b55K-deleted Ads, has been used for the treatment of late-stage cancers as the first approved virotherapy agent. However, the mechanism of selective replication of E1b-deleted Ads in cancer cells is still not well characterized. This review will focus on three potential molecular mechanisms of oncolytic replication of E1b55K-deleted Ads. These mechanisms are based upon the functions of the viral E1B55K protein that are associated with p53 inhibition, late viral mRNA export, and cell cycle disruption. PMID:26561828

  17. Impotence evaluated by the use of prostaglandin E1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, T.I.; Yang, C.R.; Wang, S.J.; Chang, C.L.; Tzai, T.S.; Chang, C.H.; Wu, H.C.

    1989-06-01

    We screened 80 patients at our hospital for the differential diagnosis of impotence using intracavernous injection of prostaglandin E1 (20 micrograms). The rate of positive response was 78.8 per cent (63 patients). Neither systemic reactions nor priapism occurred. However, a considerable incidence (23.8 per cent, 19 of 80 patients) of tolerable injection pain was encountered. The 133-xenon penile washout study was conducted routinely in impotent men for hemodynamic evaluation of penile vascularity. In 80 patients a positive correlation between the response of intracavernous prostaglandin E1 injection and the result of the washout study was found (r equals 0.381, p less than 0.0002). We selected 14 subjects randomly to receive additional intravenous infusions of prostaglandin E1 (6 ampules, 120 micrograms total) for 3 days, after which another 133-xenon washout study was done. The washout studies before and after intravenous prostaglandin E1 infusion were compared, and 10 patients (71.4 per cent) appeared to obtain improvement in half-time clearance and penile blood flow. However, only 3 patients noticed improvement subjectively. We suggest that prostaglandin E1 could be a desirable alternative for the diagnosis and treatment of impotence.

  18. [Strength training with superimposed vibrations].

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, A; Salin, D; Schmidtbleicher, D

    2001-03-01

    To examine the effects of strength training with superimposed vibrations ten subjects trained over a period of six weeks (three sessions per week) one leg with back squats and superimposed vibrations and the other leg with traditional squats. In each training session participants performed 4 sets with 8-12 repetitions. Before and after the training period maximum strength and rate of force development were measured. The results show that both training modes induced comparable and statistical significant increases in maximum strength (vibration training +6.5%, traditional training +6.2%. The slight increases in rate of force development in both groups didn't reach statistical significance. As a consequence it seems that strength training with superimposed vibrations for the leg extensor chain is not superior to a traditional training mode. PMID:11338657

  19. Weld width indicates weld strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C. J.; Novak, H. L.; Mcllwain, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Width of butt weld in 2219-T87 aluminum has been found to be more reliable indicator of weld strength than more traditional parameters of power input and cooling rate. Yield stress and ultimate tensile strength tend to decrease with weld size. This conclusion supports view of many professional welders who give priority to weld geometry over welding energy or cooling rate as indicator of weld quality.

  20. Polymer Welding: Strength Through Entanglements

    E-print Network

    Ting Ge; Flint Pierce; Dvora Perahia; Gary S. Grest; Mark O. Robbins

    2012-11-29

    Large-scale simulations of thermal welding of polymers are performed to investigate the rise of mechanical strength at the polymer-polymer interface with the welding time. The welding process is in the core of integrating polymeric elements into devices as well as in thermal induced healing of polymers; processes that require development of interfacial strength equal to that of the bulk. Our simulations show that the interfacial strength saturates at the bulk shear strength much before polymers diffuse by their radius of gyration. Along with the strength increase, the dominant failure mode changes from chain pullout at the interface to chain scission as in the bulk. Formation of sufficient entanglements across the interface, which we track using a Primitive Path Analysis is required to arrest catastrophic chain pullout at the interface. The bulk response is not fully recovered until the density of entanglements at the interface reaches the bulk value. Moreover, the increase of interfacial strength before saturation is proportional to the number of interfacial entanglements between chains from opposite sides.

  1. Acetaldehyde and parkinsonism: role of CYP450 2E1

    PubMed Central

    Vaglini, Francesca; Viaggi, Cristina; Piro, Valentina; Pardini, Carla; Gerace, Claudio; Scarselli, Marco; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The present review update the relationship between acetaldehyde (ACE) and parkinsonism with a specific focus on the role of P450 system and CYP 2E1 isozyme particularly. We have indicated that ACE is able to enhance the parkinsonism induced in mice by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a neurotoxin able to damage the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Similarly diethyldithiocarbamate, the main metabolite of disulfiram, a drug widely used to control alcoholism, diallylsulfide (DAS) and phenylisothiocyanate also markedly enhance the toxin-related parkinsonism. All these compounds are substrate/inhibitors of CYP450 2E1 isozyme. The presence of CYP 2E1 has been detected in the dopamine (DA) neurons of rodent Substantia Nigra (SN), but a precise function of the enzyme has not been elucidated yet. By treating CYP 2E1 knockout (KO) mice with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, the SN induced lesion was significantly reduced when compared with the lesion observed in wild-type animals. Several in vivo and in vitro studies led to the conclusion that CYP 2E1 may enhance the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice by increasing free radical production inside the dopaminergic neurons. ACE is a good substrate for CYP 2E1 enzyme as the other substrate-inhibitors and by this way may facilitate the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to toxic events. The literature suggests that ethanol and/or disulfiram may be responsible for toxic parkinsonism in human and it indicates that basal ganglia are the major targets of disulfiram toxicity. A very recent study reports that there are a decreased methylation of the CYP 2E1 gene and increased expression of CYP 2E1 mRNA in Parkinson's disease (PD) patient brains. This study suggests that epigenetic variants of this cytochrome contribute to the susceptibility, thus confirming multiples lines of evidence which indicate a link between environmental toxins and PD. PMID:23801948

  2. GLOSSARY of Medical Insurance Terminology P a g e | 1

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    GLOSSARY of Medical Insurance Terminology P a g e | 1 Annual Deductible is the amount you must pay;GLOSSARY of Medical Insurance Terminology P a g e | 2 How do you know if your plan has "no coinsurance each year for medical and mental health expenses before your medical plan begins to pay benefits

  3. Multi-Laboratory Validation of Estrone (E1) ELISA Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a round-robin evaluation of commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technology to quantitatively or qualitatively measure the hormone estrone (E1) in combined animal feeding operation (CAFO) receiving streams. ELISA is meant to be a simpl...

  4. 24. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS REINFORCEMENT DETAILS; MONOLITHS E1 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS - REINFORCEMENT DETAILS; MONOLITHS E-1 TO F-4 INCL. & NO. 34. Sheet S-11, June, 1939. File no. SA 342/24(?). - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  5. LBNL-2021E 1 Air Distribution Effectiveness for

    E-print Network

    exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to makeLBNL-2021E 1 Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting

  6. P a g e | 1 IFAS Shared Service Centers (SSC)

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    P a g e | 1 IFAS Shared Service Centers (SSC) Expense to Expense (E2E) Instruction Guide) to the appropriate Shared Service Center (McCarty or Fifield). Each email should have a subject line containing E2E with this process or anything else, please contact your Shared Service Center: McCarty Phone: 352-294-3199 Email

  7. EXPRESSION OF ENDOGLUCANASE E1 IN TRANSGENIC DUCKWEED LEMNA MINOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic duckweed (Lemna minor) that expresses Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase was generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Out of 15 independent transgenic lines, 1 line with the highest CMC-degrading activity was selected for further studies. The 2-week-old transgeni...

  8. Excitation energy and strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in stable tin isotopes

    E-print Network

    B. Özel; J. Enders; H. Lenske; P. von Neumann-Cosel; I. Poltoratska; V. Yu. Ponomarev; A. Richter; D. Savran; N. Tsoneva

    2009-01-16

    The $^{112,120}$Sn$(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ reactions have been studied at the S-DALINAC. Electric dipole (E1) strength distributions have been determined including contributions from unresolved strength extracted by a fluctuation analysis. Together with available data on $^{116,124}$Sn, an experimental systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in stable even-mass tin isotopes is established. The PDR centroid excitation energies and summed strengths are in reasonable agreement with quasiparticle-phonon model calculations based on a nonrelativistic description of the mean field but disagree with relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions.

  9. Bursts modify electrical synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Julie S.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in synaptic strength resulting from neuronal activity have been described in great detail at chemical synapses, but the relationship between natural forms of activity and strength at electrical synapses had previously not been investigated. The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a brain area rich in gap junctional (electrical) synapses, regulates cortical attention, initiates sleep spindles, and participates in shifts between states of arousal. Plasticity of electrical synapses in the TRN may be a key mechanism underlying these processes. Recently, a novel activity-dependent form of long-term depression was described at electrical synapses in the TRN [29]. Here we provide an overview of those findings and discuss them in broader context. Because gap junctional proteins are widely expressed in the mammalian brain, modification of synaptic strength is likely to be a widespread and powerful mechanism at electrical synapses across the brain. PMID:22771703

  10. Strength of Nanotubes and Megacables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    In this chapter my findings [mainly reported in N. Pugno, J. Phys.- Condens. Matter, 18, S1971-S1990 (2006); N. Pugno, Acta Mater. 55, 5269-5279 (2007); N. Pugno, Nano Today 2, 44-47 (2007)] on the mechanical strength of nanotubes and megacables are reviewed, with an eye to the challenging project of the carbon nanotube-based space elevator megacable. Accordingly, basing the design of the megacable on the theoretical strength of a single carbon nanotube, as originally proposed at the beginning of the third millennium, has been demonstrated to be naïve. The role on the fracture strength of thermodynamically unavoidable atomistic defects with different size and shape is thus here quantified on brittle fracture both numerically (with ad hoc hierarchical simulations) and theoretically (with quantized fracture theories), for nanotubes and nanotube bundles. Fatigue, elasticity, non-asymptotic regimes, elastic-plasticity, rough cracks, finite domains and size-effects are also discussed.

  11. Effect of solar wind pressure pulses on the size and strength of the auroral oval

    E-print Network

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    Effect of solar wind pressure pulses on the size and strength of the auroral oval A. Boudouridis, E. [1] It has recently been found that solar wind dynamic pressure changes can dramatically affect solar wind dynamic pressure increases on the location, size, and intensity of the auroral oval using

  12. Observation of large scissors resonance strength in actinides.

    PubMed

    Guttormsen, M; Bernstein, L A; Bürger, A; Görgen, A; Gunsing, F; Hagen, T W; Larsen, A C; Renstrøm, T; Siem, S; Wiedeking, M; Wilson, J N

    2012-10-19

    The orbital M1 scissors resonance has been measured for the first time in the quasicontinuum of actinides. Particle-? coincidences are recorded with deuteron and (3)He-induced reactions on (232)Th. The residual nuclei (231,232,233)Th and (232,233) Pa show an unexpectedly strong integrated strength of B(M1)=11-15?(n)(2) in the E(?)=1.0-3.5 MeV region. The increased ?-decay probability in actinides due to scissors resonance is important for cross-section calculations for future fuel cycles of fast nuclear reactors and may also have an impact on stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23215072

  13. Possible hemodynamic pathways of intraurethral prostaglandin-E1 (MUSE).

    PubMed

    Bschleipfer, T; Cimniak, H-U; Beckert, R; Hauck, E W; Weidner, W; Sparwasser, C

    2004-08-01

    Intraurethral application of prostaglandin-E1 (MUSE) is a well-tolerated pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction. However, the physiological mechanisms of drug transfer into the cavernous bodies are not completely clear. Using spongiosography in 35 patients, our study tried to elucidate existing shunt mechanisms. The X-rays show venous drainage through the deep dorsal vein up to the plexus Santorini. The circumflex veins are also contrasted and the cavernous bodies show opacification in their distal portion only. Structures shunting directly between the corpus spongiosum and the cavernous bodies were not demonstrable. Retrograde filling of the cavernous bodies through the deep dorsal vein and its circumflex braches seems to be the most relevant way of drug transfer after intraurethral application of prostaglandin-E1. Diffusion into the cavernous bodies or a systemic mechanism of action does not seem probable. PMID:14961055

  14. Discovery and Classification of DES15E1iuh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15E1iuh discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. We obtained spectra using the X-SHOOTER instrument (wavelength range 380-950nm) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389; wavelength range 370-885nm) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  15. Earthquake stress drop and laboratory-inferred interseismic strength recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Hickman, S.H.; Wong, T.-F.

    2001-01-01

    We determine the scaling relationships between earthquake stress drop and recurrence interval tr that are implied by laboratory-measured fault strength. We assume that repeating earthquakes can be simulated by stick-slip sliding using a spring and slider block model. Simulations with static/kinetic strength, time-dependent strength, and rate- and state-variable-dependent strength indicate that the relationship between loading velocity and recurrence interval can be adequately described by the power law VL ??? trn, where n=-1. Deviations from n=-1 arise from second order effects on strength, with n>-1 corresponding to apparent time-dependent strengthening and n<-1 corresponding to weakening. Simulations with rate and state-variable equations show that dynamic shear stress drop ????d scales with recurrence as d????d/dlntr ??? ??e(b-a), where ??e is the effective normal stress, ??=??/??e, and (a-b)=d??ss/dlnV is the steady-state slip rate dependence of strength. In addition, accounting for seismic energy radiation, we suggest that the static shear stress drop ????s scales as d????s/dlntr ??? ??e(1+??)(b-a), where ?? is the fractional overshoot. The variation of ????s with lntr for earthquake stress drops is somewhat larger than implied by room temperature laboratory values of ?? and b-a. However, the uncertainty associated with the seismic data is large and the discrepancy between the seismic observations and the rate of strengthening predicted by room temperature experiments is less than an order of magnitude. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Isoscalar and neutron modes in the E 1 spectra of Ni isotopes and the relevance of shell effects and the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, P.; Hergert, H.; Roth, R.

    2015-09-01

    We study theoretically the electric dipole transitions of even Ni isotopes at low energies, using the self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation with the D1S Gogny interaction and a continuum-RPA model with the SLy4 Skyrme force. We analyze isoscalar states, isovector states, and the dipole polarizability. We define a reference value for the polarizability to remove a trivial dependence on the mass number. We compare our results with data and other calculations, with a focus on collective states, shell effects, and threshold transitions. Our results support the presence of a strong isoscalar transition, with little or moderate E 1 strength, as a universal feature of ordinary nuclei. In moderately neutron-rich Ni isotopes, namely 68Ni and neighboring isotopes, this transition is found bimodal due to couplings with surface neutrons. An adequate treatment of the continuum states appears essential for describing suprathreshold E 1 strength, especially beyond 68Ni. Very exotic isotopes (N >50 ) are found highly polarizable, with practically all their E 1 strength in the continuum. The dipole polarizability and the neutron-skin thickness are influenced by shell structure in different ways, so they can appear anticorrelated. A comparison with existing results for lighter (Ca) and heavier (Sn) nuclei suggests that the so-called pygmy dipole strength is influenced strongly by shell effects and that, partly for that reason, its isospin structure depends on the mass region.

  17. Isoscalar and neutron modes in the E1 spectra of Ni isotopes and the relevance of shell effects and the continuum

    E-print Network

    P. Papakonstantinou; H. Hergert; R. Roth

    2015-09-08

    We study theoretically the electric dipole transitions of even Ni isotopes at low energies, using the self-consistent quasi-particle random-phase approximation (RPA) with the D1S Gogny interaction and a continuum-RPA model with the SLy4 Skyrme force. We analyze isoscalar states, isovector states, and the dipole polarizability. We define a reference value for the polarizability, to remove a trivial dependence on the mass number. We compare our results with data and other calculations, with a focus on collective states, shell effects, and threshold transitions. Our results support the presence of a strong isoscalar transition, with little or moderate E1 strength, as a universal feature of ordinary nuclei. In moderately neutron-rich Ni isotopes, namely 68Ni and neighboring isotopes, this transition is found bimodal due to couplings with surface neutrons. An adequate treatment of the continuum states appears essential for describing suprathreshold E1 strength, especially beyond 68Ni. Very exotic isotopes (N>50) are found highly polarizable, with practically all their E1 strength in the continuum. The dipole polarizability and the neutron skin thickness are influenced by shell structure in different ways, so they can appear anticorrelated. A comparison with existing results for lighter (Ca) and heavier (Sn) nuclei suggests that the so-called pygmy dipole strength is influenced strongly by shell effects and that, partly for that reason, its isospin structure depends on the mass region.

  18. VLBI tracking for Chang'E-1 lunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang'E-1 VLBI Team

    Chinese Space Agency will begin a broad project of exploration of the Moon called Chang E Project The first Chinese lunar orbiter Chang E-1 will be launched in 2007 An X-band VLBI beacon is being developed and will be installed onboard the lunar orbiter as a radio source for VLBI observations During the launching and mission periods the Chinese VLBI Network will be operated together with the S-band Chinese Space Tracking Network to carry out the high-precision navigation of Chang E-1 To realize this target besides the two existing radio telescopes located at Sheshan near Shanghai and Nanshan near Urumqi two new radio telescopes one dish of 50 m in diameter at Miyun near Beijing and one dish of 40 m in diameter at Kunming as well as a VLBI data processing center at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory are being constructed now In the Chang E-1 mission the S C VLBI tracking will be conducted in three regimes routine low-precision regime at 2 3 GHz medium-precision at 2 3 and 8 4 GHz simultaneous dual-frequency and high-precision 2 3 and 8 4 dual frequency measurements using a phase-stable up-down coherent radio link In this paper we will introduce the latest status of the Chinese VLBI Network the progress of the preparation of the S C VLBI tracking and the VLBI observations of European lunar mission SMART-1

  19. Prepubescent Strength Training Gains Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have stimulated greater support for prepubescent weight training. There seems to be general agreement that strength and weight training, when practiced under properly controlled conditions, is safe and efficacious for prepubescents. Weight lifting is not supported. Recommendations for weight training are made, and reservations are…

  20. Large-scale continuum random-phase approximation predictions of dipole strength for astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoutidis, I.; Goriely, S.

    2012-09-01

    Large-scale calculations of the E1 strength are performed within the random phase approximation (RPA) based on the relativistic point-coupling mean field approach in order to derive the radiative neutron capture cross sections for all nuclei of astrophysical interest. While the coupling to the single-particle continuum is taken into account in an explicit and self-consistent way, additional corrections like the coupling to complex configurations and the temperature and deformation effects are included in a phenomenological way to account for a complete description of the nuclear dynamical problem. It is shown that the resulting E1-strength function based on the PCF1 force is in close agreement with photoabsorption data as well as the available experimental E1 strength data at low energies. For neutron-rich nuclei, as well as light neutron-deficient nuclei, a low-lying so-called pygmy resonance is found systematically in the 5-10 MeV region. The corresponding strength can reach 10% of the giant dipole strength in the neutron-rich region and about 5% in the neutron-deficient region, and is found to be reduced in the vicinity of the shell closures. Finally, the neutron capture reaction rates of neutron-rich nuclei is found to be about 2-5 times larger than those predicted on the basis of the nonrelativistic RPA calculation and about a factor 50 larger than obtained with traditional Lorentzian-type approaches.

  1. Information Content of the Low-Energy Electric Dipole Strength: Correlation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent experiments on the electric dipole (E1) polarizability in heavy nuclei have stimulated theoretical interest in the low-energy electric dipole strength, both isovector and isoscalar. Purpose: We study the information content carried by the electric dipole strength with respect to isovector and isoscalar indicators characterizing bulk nuclear matter and finite nuclei. To separate isoscalar and isovector modes, and low-energy strength and giant resonances, we analyze the E1 strength as a function of the excitation energy E and momentum transfer q. Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy density functionals, augmented by the random phase approximation, to compute the E1 strength and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables. Calculations are performed for the spherical, doubly magic nuclei 208Pb and 132Sn. Results: We demonstrate that E1 transition densities in the low-energy region below the giant dipole resonance exhibit appreciable state dependence and multinodal structures, which are fingerprints of weak collectivity. The correlation between the accumulated low-energy strength and the symmetry energy is weak, and dramatically depends on the energy cutoff assumed. On the other hand, a strong correlation is predicted between isovector indicators and the accumulated isovector strength at E around 20 MeV and momentum transfer q 0.65 fm 1. Conclusions: Momentum- and coordinate-space patterns of the low-energy dipole modes indicate a strong fragmentation into individual particle-hole excitations. The global measure of low-energy dipole strength correlates poorly with the nuclear symmetry energy and other isovector characteristics. Consequently, our results do not support the suggestion that there exists a collective pygmy dipole resonance, which is a strong indicator of nuclear isovector properties. By considering nonzero values of momentum transfer, one can isolate individual excitations and nicely separate low-energy excitations from the T=1 and T=0 giant collective modes. That is, measurements at q>0 may serve as a tool to correlate the E1 strength with certain bulk observables, such as incompressibility and symmetry energy.

  2. Octupole deformation in sup 221 Fr; E1 transition rates

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, C.F.; Peghaire, A. ); Sheline, R.K. )

    1990-07-10

    Experimental data following the alpha decay of{sup 225}Ac are interpreted in terms of a spectroscopy in {sup 221}Fr consistent with octupole deformation. However, the measured E1 transition probabilities suggest that the low lying bands in {sup 221}Fr are considerably more mixed than in nuclei with slightly higher mass number. It is suggested that this mixing of states in {sup 221}Fr is indicative of the partial collapse of Nilsson-like orbitals into more degenerate shell model orbitals.

  3. RP-1 delivered to E-1 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employee Dustan Ladner (left) assists tanker driver David Velasco in transferring RP-1 fuel to a 20,000-gallon underground tank at the E-1 Test Stand during a March 30 delivery. The rocket propellant will be used for testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines beginning this summer. Stennis is testing the engines for Orbital Sciences Corporation, which has partnered with NASA to provide eight supply missions to the International Space Station through 2015. The partnership is part of NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services initiative to work closer with companies to provide commercial space transport once the space shuttle is retired later this year.

  4. An Interlaminar Tensile Strength Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Roderick H.; Jackson, Wade C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to determine interlaminar tensile strength, sigma(sub 3c), of a fiber reinforced composite material using a curved beam. The specimen was a unidirectional curved beam, bent 90 deg, with straight arms. Attached to each arm was a hinged loading mechanism that was held by the grips of a tension testing machine. Geometry effects of the specimen, including the effects of loading arm length, inner radius, thickness, and width, were studied. The data sets fell into two categories: low strength corresponding to a macroscopic flaw related failure and high strength corresponding to a microscopic flaw related failure. From the data available, the specimen width and loading arm length had little effect on sigma(sub 3c). The inner radius was not expected to have a significant effect on sigma(sub 3c), but this conclusion could not be confirmed because of differences in laminate quality for each curve geometry. The thicker specimens had the lowest value of sigma(sub 3c) because of poor laminate quality.

  5. Strength scaling in fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Morton, John

    1991-01-01

    A research program was initiated to study and isolate the factors responsible for scale effects in the tensile strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates. Four layups were chosen with appropriate stacking sequences so as to highlight individual and interacting failure modes. Four scale sizes were selected for investigation including full scale size, 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4, with n = to 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively. The full scale specimen sizes was 32 piles thick as compared to 24, 16, and 8 piles for the 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4 specimen sizes respectively. Results were obtained in the form of tensile strength, stress-strain curves and damage development. Problems associated with strength degradation with increasing specimen sizes are isolated and discussed. Inconsistencies associated with strain measurements were also identified. Enchanced X-ray radiography was employed for damage evaluation, following step loading. It was shown that fiber dominated layups were less sensitive to scaling effects compared to the matrix dominated layups.

  6. Strength Scaling in Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Morton, John

    1990-01-01

    A research program was initiated to study and isolate the factors responsible for scale effects in the tensile strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates. Four layups were chosen with appropriate stacking sequences so as to highlight individual and interacting failure modes. Four scale sizes were selected for investigation including full scale size, 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4, with n = to 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively. The full scale specimen sizes was 32 piles thick as compared to 24, 16, and 8 piles for the 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4 specimen sizes respectively. Results were obtained in the form of tensile strength, stress-strain curves and damage development. Problems associated with strength degradation with increasing specimen sizes are isolated and discussed. Inconsistencies associated with strain measurements were also identified. Enhanced x ray radiography was employed for damage evaluation, following step loading. It was shown that fiber dominated layups were less sensitive to scaling effects compared to the matrix dominated layups.

  7. Shear Strength of Aluminum Oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, Dattatraya P.; Vaughan, Brian A. M.; Proud, William G.

    2007-06-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) is a transparent, polycrystalline cubic spinel. The results of investigations^1-4 on shock response of AlON permit determination of the equation of state, and shear strength retained under shock compression. Whereas the values of the HEL of AlON holds no surprises, the inelastic response of AlON reported in Ref. 1-4 differ significantly and is stress dependent. The results of Ref. 1-2 show that AlON retains a shear strength of 3 to 4 GPa when shocked up to around 20 GPa, but the results of Ref, 3-4 seem to suggest a possible loss of shear strength when shocked to 16 GPa and beyond. Our analysis examines the observed differences in the inelastic response of AlON reported in these four studies . 1. J. U. Cazamias, et. al., in Fundamental Issues and Applications of Shock-Wave and High Strain Rate Phenomena, Eds. Staudhammer, Murr, and Meyers, Elsevier, NY, 173 (2001). 2. B. A. M. Vaughn, et.al., Shock Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, Report SP/1092 (2001) 3. T. Sekine, et.al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4803 (2003). 4. T. F. Thornhill, et.al., Shock Compression of Matter-2005, Eds. Furnish, Elert, Russell, White, AIP, NY, 143 (2006).

  8. Inert strength of pristine silica glass fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.L.; Michalske, T.A.

    1993-11-01

    Silica glass fibers have been produced and tested under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions to investigate the inert strength of pristine fibers in absence of reactive agents. Analysis of the coefficient of variation in diameter ({upsilon}{sub d}) vs the coefficient of variation of breaking strength ({upsilon}{sub {sigma}}) does not adequately explain the variation of breaking stress. Distribution of fiber tensile strength data suggests that the inert strength of such fibers is not single valued and that the intrinsic strength is controlled by defects in the glass. Furthermore, comparison of room temperature UHV data with LN{sub 2} data indicates that these intrinsic strengths are not temperature dependent.

  9. The Strength Of Infrared Transmitting Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, David J.; Finney, Mark J.; Prideaux, Peter H.; Schultz, Peter C.

    1987-08-01

    The strength characteristics of several different chalcogenide fibers, drawn from commercially available materials were investigated. Both core and core/clad fibers were used in the study. Two measuring techniques were employed (bending and tensile) to measure the strength of these fibers. Tensile testing indicated the core glasses to have a strength between 10-20 kpsi (68-135 MPa). Bend test showed these strengths to be between 20-70 kpsi (135-474 MPa). Cladded fibers displayed an additional tensile strength of 4 kpsi (27 MPa) and additional bending strength of 15-30 kpsi (102-234 MPa).

  10. Precision measurement of the electromagnetic dipole strengths in Be11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.; Summers, N. C.; Hackman, G.; Drake, T. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Chester, A.; Close, A.; Cline, D.; Cross, D. S.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, A.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hayes, A. B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Nano, T.; Navrátil, P.; Pearson, C. J.; Pore, J.; Quaglioni, S.; Svensson, C. E.; Starosta, K.; Thompson, I. J.; Voss, P.; Williams, S. J.; Wang, Z. M.

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic dipole strength in Be11 between the bound states has been measured using low-energy projectile Coulomb excitation at bombarding energies of 1.73 and 2.09 MeV/nucleon on a Pt196 target. An electric dipole transition probability B(E1;1/2-?1/2+)=0.102(2) e2fm was determined using the semi-classical code Gosia, and a value of 0.098(4) e2fm was determined using the Extended Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels method with the quantum mechanical code FRESCO. These extracted B(E1) values are consistent with the average value determined by a model-dependent analysis of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation measurements and are approximately 14% lower than that determined by a lifetime measurement. The much-improved precisions of 2% and 4% in the measured B(E1) values between the bound states deduced using Gosia and the Extended Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels method, respectively, compared to the previous accuracy of ˜10% will help in our understanding of and better improve the realistic inter-nucleon interactions.

  11. Dielectric strength of parylene HT

    SciTech Connect

    Diaham, S. Bechara, M.; Locatelli, M.-L.; Khazaka, R.; Tenailleau, C.

    2014-02-07

    The dielectric strength of parylene HT (PA-HT) films was studied at room temperature in a wide thickness range from 500?nm to 50??m and was correlated with nano- and microstructure analyses. X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy have revealed an enhancement of crystallization and spherulites development, respectively, with increasing the material thickness (d). Moreover, a critical thickness d{sub C} (between 5 and 10??m) is identified corresponding to the beginning of spherulite developments in the films. Two distinct behaviors of the dielectric strength (F{sub B}) appear in the thickness range. For d???d{sub C}, PA-HT films exhibit a decrease in the breakdown field following a negative slope (F{sub B}???d{sup ?0.4}), while for d?strength (F{sub B}???10 MV/cm) is obtained. A model of spherulite development in PA-HT films with increasing the thickness is proposed. The decrease in F{sub B} above d{sub C} is explained by the spherulites development, whereas its increase below d{sub C} is induced by the crystallites growth. An annealing of the material shows both an enhancement of F{sub B} and an increase of the crystallites and spherulites dimensions, whatever the thickness. The breakdown field becomes thickness-independent below d{sub C} showing a strong influence of the nano-scale structural parameters. On the contrary, both nano- and micro-scale structural parameters appear as influent on F{sub B} for d???d{sub C}.

  12. Dielectric strength of parylene HT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaham, S.; Bechara, M.; Locatelli, M.-L.; Khazaka, R.; Tenailleau, C.; Kumar, R.

    2014-02-01

    The dielectric strength of parylene HT (PA-HT) films was studied at room temperature in a wide thickness range from 500 nm to 50 ?m and was correlated with nano- and microstructure analyses. X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy have revealed an enhancement of crystallization and spherulites development, respectively, with increasing the material thickness (d). Moreover, a critical thickness dC (between 5 and 10 ?m) is identified corresponding to the beginning of spherulite developments in the films. Two distinct behaviors of the dielectric strength (FB) appear in the thickness range. For d ? dC, PA-HT films exhibit a decrease in the breakdown field following a negative slope (FB ˜ d-0.4), while for d < dC, it increases with increasing the thickness (FB ˜ d0.3). An optimal thickness doptim ˜ 5 ?m corresponding to a maximum dielectric strength (FB ˜ 10 MV/cm) is obtained. A model of spherulite development in PA-HT films with increasing the thickness is proposed. The decrease in FB above dC is explained by the spherulites development, whereas its increase below dC is induced by the crystallites growth. An annealing of the material shows both an enhancement of FB and an increase of the crystallites and spherulites dimensions, whatever the thickness. The breakdown field becomes thickness-independent below dC showing a strong influence of the nano-scale structural parameters. On the contrary, both nano- and micro-scale structural parameters appear as influent on FB for d ? dC.

  13. Mechanical bone strength in the proximal tibia 

    E-print Network

    Prommin, Danu

    2000-01-01

    Six bone slices from one canine tibia were tested by compressive load to determine the ultimate strength as a function of distance from the knee. Both the ultimate compressive strength and overall modulus of elasticity of tibial bone increased...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6230(e)-1T contained in 26 CFR.... 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. (a) In general. If a notice of the...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6230(e)-1T contained in 26 CFR.... 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. (a) In general. If a notice of the...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6230(e)-1T contained in 26 CFR.... 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. (a) In general. If a notice of the...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6230(e)-1T contained in 26 CFR.... 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. (a) In general. If a notice of the...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6230(e)-1T contained in 26 CFR.... 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required to furnish names. (a) In general. If a notice of the...

  19. Nuclear level densities and {gamma}-ray strength functions in {sup 44,45}Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Ingebretsen, F.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Chankova, R.; Loennroth, T.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2007-10-15

    The scandium isotopes {sup 44,45}Sc were studied with the {sup 45}Sc({sup 3}He, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 44}Sc and {sup 45}Sc({sup 3}He, {sup 3}He{sup '}{gamma}){sup 45}Sc reactions, respectively. The nuclear level densities and {gamma}-ray strength functions have been extracted using the Oslo method. The experimental level densities are compared to calculated level densities obtained from a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. This model also gives information about the parity distribution and the number of broken Cooper pairs as a function of excitation energy. The experimental {gamma}-ray strength functions are compared to theoretical models of the E1, M1, and E2 strength and to data from ({gamma}, n) and ({gamma},p) experiments. The strength functions show an enhancement at low {gamma} energies that cannot be explained by the present standard models.

  20. Nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions in 44,45Sc

    E-print Network

    A. C. Larsen; M. Guttormsen; R. Chankova; T. Loennroth; S. Messelt; F. Ingebretsen; J. Rekstad; A. Schiller; S. Siem; N. U. H. Syed; A. Voinov

    2008-01-22

    The scandium isotopes 44,45Sc have been studied with the 45Sc(3He,alpha gamma)44Sc and 45Sc(3He,3He' gamma)45Sc reactions, respectively. The nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions have been extracted using the Oslo method. The experimental level densities are compared to calculated level densities obtained from a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. This model also gives information about the parity distribution and the number of broken Cooper pairs as a function of excitation energy. The experimental gamma-ray strength functions are compared to theoretical models of the E1, M1, and E2 strength, and to data from (gamma,n) and (gamma,p) experiments. The strength functions show an enhancement at low gamma energies that cannot be explained by the present, standard models.

  1. Nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions in 44,45Sc

    E-print Network

    Larsen, A C; Chankova, R; Lönnroth, T; Messelt, S; Ingebretsen, F; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S; Syed, N U H; Voinov, A

    2007-01-01

    The scandium isotopes 44,45Sc have been studied with the 45Sc(3He,alpha gamma)44Sc and 45Sc(3He,3He' gamma)45Sc reactions, respectively. The nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions have been extracted using the Oslo method. The experimental level densities are compared to calculated level densities obtained from a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. This model also gives information about the parity distribution and the number of broken Cooper pairs as a function of excitation energy. The experimental gamma-ray strength functions are compared to theoretical models of the E1, M1, and E2 strength, and to data from (gamma,n) and (gamma,p) experiments. The strength functions show an enhancement at low gamma energies that cannot be explained by the present, standard models.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Durotaxis Depends on Substrate Stiffness Gradient Strength

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Ludovic G.; Choi, Yu Suk; Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; del Álamo, Juan C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) respond to niche elasticity, which varies between and within tissues. Stiffness gradients result from pathological conditions but also occur through normal variation, e.g. muscle. MSCs undergo directed migration even in response to shallow stiffness gradients before differentiating. More refined gradients of both stiffness range and strength are needed to better understand mechanical regulation of migration in normal and disease pathologies. We describe polyacrylamide stiffness gradient fabrication using three distinct systems that generate stiffness gradients of physiological (1 Pa/µm), pathological (10 Pa/µm), and step (? 100Pa/um) strength spanning physiologically relevant stiffness for most soft tissue, i.e. 1–12 kPa. MSCs migrated to the stiffest region for each gradient. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that migration velocity scaled directly with gradient strength. Directed migration was reduced in the presence of the contractile agonist lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and cytoskeletal-perturbing drugs nocodazole and cytochalasin; LPA- and nocodazole-treated cells remained spread and protrusive, while cytochalasin-treated cells did not. Untreated and nocodazole-treated cells spread in a similar manner, but nocodazole-treated cells had greatly diminished traction forces. These data suggest that actin is required for migration whereas microtubules are required for directed migration. The data also imply that in vivo, MSCs may have a more significant contribution to repairs in stiffer regions where they may preferentially accumulate. PMID:23390141

  3. Expression of adenovirus E1B mutant phenotypes is dependent on the host cell and on synthesis of E1A proteins.

    PubMed Central

    White, E; Stillman, B

    1987-01-01

    Adenovirus mutants containing genetic alterations in the gene encoding the E1B 19,000-molecular-weight (19K) tumor antigen induce the degradation of host cell chromosomal DNA (deg phenotype) and enhanced cytopathic effect (cyt phenotype) after infection of HeLa and KB cells. The deg and cyt phenotypes are a consequence of viral early gene expression in the absence of the E1B 19K protein. The role of the E1A proteins in induction of the cyt and deg phenotypes was investigated by constructing E1A-E1B double mutant viruses. Viruses were constructed to express the individual E1A 13S, 12S, or 9S cDNA genes in the presence of a mutation in the gene encoding the E1B 19K tumor antigen. Expression of either the 13S or 12S E1A proteins in the absence of functional E1B 19K protein produced the deg and cyt phenotypes. In contrast, a virus which expressed exclusively the 9S E1A gene product in the absence of the E1B 19K gene product did not induce the deg and cyt phenotypes, even at high multiplicities of infection. Therefore, both the 13S and 12S E1A gene products could directly or indirectly cause the deg and cyt phenotypes during infection of HeLa cells with an E1B 19K gene mutant virus. Furthermore, the deg phenotype was found to be host cell type specific, occurring in HeLa and KB cells but not in growth-arrested human WI38 cells. These results indicate that expression of the E1A trans-activating and transforming proteins is necessary for the induction of the cyt and deg phenotypes and that host cell factors also play a role. Images PMID:2949088

  4. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Koji

    2002-08-15

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  5. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  6. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength

  7. Modeling Relationship Strength in Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    relationship strength from interaction activity (e.g., communication, tagging) and user similarity. MoreModeling Relationship Strength in Online Social Networks Rongjing Xiang, Jennifer Neville Computer of link formation can lead to networks with heterogeneous relationship strengths (e.g., acquaintances

  8. Strength and ductility of asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Egorova, V.V.; Ovchinnikova, V.N.

    1984-03-01

    This article presents data on the ductility of asphalt as measured in an RMI-5 tensile tester, which is designed for tests on raw and vulcanized rubbers and rubber mixes. The asphalt test specimens were prepared in the form of ''figure eights'' and the tests were performed at 23-24/sup 0/C. Discrete load levels were determined at each 25-50% elongation. The true stress was calculated on the basis of the actual cross section of the specimen at the point of measurement, which was determined from motion picture photography of the elongation process. The addition of finely dispersed limestone to the asphalt leads to a sharp increase of its structural strength and a reduction of its total elongation. The particles of finely dispersed powders are implanted between the aggregates of asphaltenes and resins, binding them into a rigid, relatively immobile system, making it more difficult for these aggregates to straighten out and become oriented in the continuous malthene phase in the direction of the axis of elongation, as reflected in the presented stress/ elongation diagram. It is determined that the addition of 1% SKDP-N rubber to the BND 40/60 asphalt leads to an increase in ductility while strength is maintained. Includes a table.

  9. Strength of Shocked Aluminum Oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Feng, R.; Dandekar, D. P.

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) is a polycrystalline and transparent ceramic. An accurate characterization of its shock response is critically important for its applications as transparent armor. Shock wave profiles measured in a series of plate impact experiments on AlON [Thornhill, et al., SCCM-2005, 143-146 (2006)] have been reanalyzed using finite element wave propagation simulations and considering an effective strength behavior that is pressure- and time-dependent. The results show a stiffer shock response than that calculated previously using the jump conditions. The material has a Hugoniot elastic limit of 10.37 GPa and sustains a maximum shear stress of 4.38 GPa for shock compressions up to a shock stress of 96 GPa. The mean stress response determined from the simulations displays no sign of phase transformation and corresponds to a linear shock speed-particle velocity relation with a slope of 0.857. These results have been successfully summarized into an AlON material model consisting of compression-dependent nonlinear elasticity, pressure-dependent equilibrium strength, and over-stress relaxation. The wave profiles simulated with the model show very good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  10. Mechanical strength of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Zonfrillo, G; Pratesi, F

    2008-01-01

    A series of mechanical strength tests have been carried out in order to characterize some dental implants. Most specimens tested were of the tapered-joint kind, but for comparison further tests have been carried out on screw-joined implants. The loads applied were similar to those existing in the typical working conditions of the component; however, in order to conform to the ISO standard 14801, loads higher than those achieved in working conditions were applied. The static characterization tests determined the strength of the system, with large deformations preceding rupture. The fatigue tests led to the determination of the fatigue limit of the dental implant, defined conventionally in these cases as the maximum value under which the system has a life of at least 2.106 cycles. The fatigue limit is higher than the stress that the teeth endure during the normal process of mastication, and it confirms the suitable structural design of the device. Failure analysis has shown that the fatigue crack leading to rupture commonly occurs in the section in which the hexagonal insert in the tapered joint begins. PMID:20740454

  11. The strength of Miranda's lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    In attempting to understand the endogenic processes which have shaped the surface of an icy satellite, it is desirable to quantify the failure strength of the satellite's lithosphere. In a crust that is fractured on a large scale, frictional sliding along pre-existing fractures occurs in response to lower differential stresses than required to initiate fracture of pristine rock, thus governing failure of a brittle lithosphere. Failure is predicted along favorably oriented fracture planes; if fractures of all orientations are assumed to be present in the crust (as is expected of a heavily cratered lithosphere), frictional failure relations are directly applicable. The Coulomb criterion predicts that the shear stress (sigma sub t) and normal stress (sigma sub n) components on a fracture plane at failure are related as sigma sub t = mu-sigma sub n + S sub o, where S sub o is the cohesion and mu is the coefficient of friction. At moderate to high pressures, the frictional sliding strength of most materials is found to be sigma sub t = 0.85 sigma sub n.

  12. Cobalt: for strength and color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  13. Strength of Welded Aircraft Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueggeman, W C

    1937-01-01

    This investigation is a continuation of work started in 1928 and described in NACA-TR-348 which shows that the insertion of gusset plates was the most satisfactory way of strengthening a joint. Additional tests of the present series show that joints of this type could be improved by cutting out the portion of the plate between the intersecting tubes. T and lattice joints in thin-walled tubing 1 1/2 by 0.020 inch have somewhat lower strengths than joints in tubing of greater wall thickness because of failure by local buckling. In welding the thin-walled tubing, the recently developed "carburizing flux" process was found to be the only method capable of producing joints free from cracks. The "magnetic powder" inspection was used to detect cracks in the joints and flaws in the tubing.

  14. Extra ?-ray strength for 116,117Sn arising from pygmy dipole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, M.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Itoh, O.; Iwamoto, C.; Kondo, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Goriely, S.

    2010-06-01

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for 117Sn and 116Sn near neutron thresholds with quasi-monochromatic laser Compton scattering ?-rays. The measured cross sections for 117Sn and 116Sn are strongly enhanced from the threshold behavior expected for L = 1 neutron emissions after E1 photoexcitation. This suggests the presence of extra ?-ray strength in the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. The present cross sections were analyzed together with radiative neutron capture cross sections for 116Sn within the framework of the statistical model calculation. It is shown that the extra ?-ray strength can be interpreted as pygmy E1 resonance which was previously reported in the nuclear resonance fluorescence experiment for 116Sn and 124Sn.

  15. Improved Plant-based Production of E1 endoglucanase Using Potato: Expression Optimization and Tissue Targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Thomas, S R.

    2000-06-01

    Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) gene expression in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was examined in this study, where the E1 coding sequence was transcribed under control of a leaf specific promoter (tomato RbcS-3C) or the Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of mannopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region). Average E1 activity in leaf extracts of potato transformants, in which E1 protein was targeted by a chloroplast signal peptide and an apoplast signal peptide were much higher than those by an E1 native signal peptide and a vacuole signal peptide. E1 protein accumulated up to 2.6% of total leaf soluble protein, where E1 gene was under control of the RbcS-3C promoter, alfalfa mosaic virus 5-untranslated leader, and RbcS-2A signal peptide. E1 protein production, based on average E1 activity and E1 protein accumulation in leaf extracts, is higher in potato than those measured previously in transgenic tobacco bearing the same transgene constructs. Comparisons of E1 activity, protein accumulation, and relative mRNA levels showed that E1 expression under control of tomato RbcS-3C promoter was specifically localized in leaf tissues, while E1 gene was expressed in both leaf and tuber tissues under control of Mac promoter. This suggests dual-crop applications in which potato vines serve as enzyme production `bioreactors' while tubers are preserved for culinary applications.

  16. Strength Difference between Clam-Shell and Long-Reach Excavator Constructed Cement-Bentonite Self-Hardening Slurry Walls

    E-print Network

    1 Strength Difference between Clam-Shell and Long-Reach Excavator Constructed Cement-Bentonite Self-Hardening Slurry Walls Paul J. Axtell1 , P.E., Timothy D. Stark2 , Ph.D., P.E., and John C. Dillon3 , P.E. 1 Dan Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District, john.c.dillon@usace.army.mil ABSTRACT: Cement

  17. Dynamic Strength Ceramic Nanocomposites Under Pulse Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Vaganova, Irina K.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.

    2015-06-01

    Multi-scale computer simulation approach has been applied to research of strength of nanocomposites under dynamic loading. The influence of mesoscopic substructures on the dynamic strength of ceramic and hybrid nanocomposites, which can be formed using additive manufacturing were numerically investigated. At weak shock wave loadings the shear strength and the spall strength of ceramic and hybrid nanocomposites depends not only phase concentration and porosity, but size parameters of skeleton substructures. The influence of skeleton parameter on the shear strength and the spall strength of ceramic nanocomposites with the same concentration of phases decreases with increasing amplitude of the shock pulse of microsecond duration above the double amplitude of the Hugoniot elastic limit of nanocomposites. This research carried out in 2014 -2015 was supported by grant from The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program and also Ministry of Sciences and Education of Russian Federation (State task 2014/223, project 1943, Agreement 14.132.

  18. Crush strength of encapsulated microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.

    1988-12-15

    The use of coated microsphere fuels has been suggested for the Savannah River Plant's (SRP) operating reactors as well as for the Low-Temperature Heavy-Water (LTHW) New Production Reactor (NPR). A program is underway to examine the feasibility of incorporating coated microsphere fuels into the well developed powder metallurgy (PM) fuel fabrication process. The coated microspheres were developed for use in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). The reference fuel (Triso-coated) for the HTGR consists of an uranium oxycarbide kernel encapsulated in a porous pyrolytic carbon buffer, a dense pyrolytic carbon inner layer (IPyC), a SiC layer, and a dense pyrolytic carbon outer layer (OPyC). For the microspheres to contain gaseous fission products, less than one particle in 1000 can fail during fabrication and/or irradiation. Early SRL efforts have shown that conventional Triso-coated particles do not survive fabrication by PM/sup 2/. Measurements of the crush strength of coated microspheres show that removal of either the pyrolytic carbon buffer or the outer pyrolytic carbon layer lowers the fracture resistance of the microspheres. These results indicate that Triso coated microspheres are more likely to fracture during fabrication of SRP fuel if the microspheres are down sized by removal of either of the pyrolytic carbon layers.

  19. Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity Koray Basar a,c,e,1

    E-print Network

    Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity Koray Basar a,c,e,1 , Thibaut Sesia b,c,e,1 , Henk Groenewegen d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 2. Nucleus accumbens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 2.1. The nucleus accumbens as part of the ventral striatum

  20. High-Strength Glass for Solar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1987-01-01

    Technology for strengthening thin sections reviewed. Report reviews technology of high-strength glass for such solar applications as heat collectors, reflectors, and photovoltaic arrays. Discusses most feasible methods - heat strengthening and chemical strengthening of increasing strength of glass for solar-energy use. Also estimates cost and availability of high-strength glass and considers physical characteristics, amenability to back-silvering, and effects of atmospheric contamination.

  1. Photon Strength Functions below GDER Maximum: Present Status and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Krticka, Milan

    2009-01-28

    Existing experimental data on {gamma} decay of energy levels in medium-weight and heavy nuclei at excitation energies well above the pairing gap indicate that the role of nuclear structure effects is small and that this decay is largely governed by the extreme statistical model. Specifically, in line with the validity of Brink hypothesis and the paradigm of photon strength, the average properties of the {gamma} decay can be described by a set of photon strength functions (PSFs) for individual multipolarities and by the level density function. PSFs are directly related to the photoabsorption cross sections {sigma}{sub {gamma}}{sub abs}. It is well known that in the case of E1 radiation this cross section is dominated by the giant dipole electric resonance. However the size of {sigma}{sub {gamma}}{sub abs.} and its {gamma}-ray energy dependence at energies below the neutron threshold are known rather poorly. In the case of higher multipolarities (M1, E2,...) the present knowledge about their roles is much worse. Available information on E1 and M1 PSFs obtained from various kinds of experiments in the {gamma}-ray energy region of interest will be discussed within the widely used models. It will be shown that none of them seems to be able to describe PSFs reasonably for a broad range of nuclei. Emphasis will be also laid on the properties of the scissors mode and other possible resonance-like structures in PSFs at energies below about 10 MeV. Perspectives of further studies of PSFs will be outlined.

  2. Strength Training in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper reviews the mechanisms underlying the inability to generate force in individuals with stroke and summarizes the effects of strength training in these individuals. In addition, a systematic review of studies that have incorporated progressive strengthening interventions in individuals with stroke is presented. Summary of Key Points Central (e.g., motor recruitment) and peripheral (e.g., muscle atrophy) sources may alter muscle strength in individuals with stroke and further investigations are needed to partition and quantify their effects. As to the effect of strength training interventions in individuals with stroke, the majority of studies (albeit with small samples) that evaluated muscle strength as an outcome demonstrated improvements. With regard to the effect of strength training on functional outcomes in individuals with stroke, positive outcomes were found in less rigorous pre-test/post-test studies, but more conflicting results with controlled trials. Conclusions Although there is some suggestion that strength training alone can improve muscle strength, further research is required to optimize strength training and the transfer of these strength gains to functional tasks in individuals with stroke. PMID:23255839

  3. Strength Training in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dahab, Katherine Stabenow; McCambridge, Teri Metcalf

    2009-01-01

    Context: Strength training in children, in combination with plyometric and/or agility training, has become an increasingly popular tactic for athletes to gain a competitive edge during the off-season. The present review clarifies some common myths associated with strength training in children, and it outlines the most current recommendations. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies on strength training in children and adolescents were reviewed (search results included studies indexed in PubMed and MEDLINE from 1980 through 2008). Also reviewed were recommendations from consensus guidelines and position statements applicable to strength training in youth. Results: Children can improve strength by 30% to 50% after just 8 to 12 weeks of a well-designed strength training program. Youth need to continue to train at least 2 times per week to maintain strength. The case reports of injuries related to strength training, including epiphyseal plate fractures and lower back injuries, are primarily attributed to the misuse of equipment, inappropriate weight, improper technique, or lack of qualified adult supervision. Conclusion: Youth—athletes and nonathletes alike—can successfully and safely improve their strength and overall health by participating in a well-supervised program. Trained fitness professionals play an essential role in ensuring proper technique, form, progression of exercises, and safety in this age group. PMID:23015875

  4. Mechanical strength and stability of lithium aluminate

    SciTech Connect

    Brimhall, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated the strength and resistance to thermal shock of lithium aluminate annular pellets. The room temperature, axial compressive fracture strength of pellets made at Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES) varied from 80 to 133 ksi. The strength at 430{degrees}C (806{degrees}F) was to 30 to 40% lower. The strength at 900{degrees}C (1652{degrees}F) showed a wide variation with one measurement near 90 ksi. These strength values are consistent with other data and predictions made in the literature when the grain size and porosity of the microstructure are taken into account. In diametral compression tests, the fracture strengths were much lower due to the existence of tensile stresses in some pellet regions from this type of loading. However, the fracture stresses were still generally higher than those reported in the literature; this fracture resistance probably reflects the better quality of the pellets tested in this study. Measurements on pellets made at PNL indicated lower strengths compared to the WAES material. This strength difference could be accounted for by different processing technologies: material made at PNL was cold-pressed and sintered with high porosity whereas the WAES material was isostatically hot-pressed with high density. Thermal shocking of the material by ramping to 900{degrees}C in two minutes did not have an observable effect on the microstructure or the strength of any of the pellets.

  5. Muscular strength after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Winther, Siri B; Husby, Vigdis S; Foss, Olav A; Wik, Tina S; Svenningsen, Svein; Engdal, Monika; Haugan, Kristin; Husby, Otto S

    2016-02-01

    Background and purpose - Minimizing the decrease in muscular strength after total hip arthroplasty (THA) might allow patients to recover faster. We evaluated muscular strength in patients who were operated on using 3 surgical approaches. Patients and methods - In a prospective cohort study, 60 patients scheduled for primary THA were allocated to the direct lateral, posterior, or anterior approach. Leg press and abduction strength were evaluated 2 weeks or less preoperatively, 2 and 8 days postoperatively, and at 6-week and 3-month follow-up. Results - Differences in maximal strength change were greatest after 2 and 8 days. The posterior and anterior approaches produced less decrease in muscular strength than the direct lateral approach. 6 weeks postoperatively, the posterior approach produced greater increase in muscular strength than the direct lateral approach, and resulted in a greater increase in abduction strength than the anterior approach. At 3-month follow-up, no statistically significant differences between the groups were found. The operated legs were 18% weaker in leg press and 15% weaker in abduction than the unoperated legs, and the results were similar between groups. Interpretation - The posterior and anterior approaches appeared to have the least negative effect on abduction and leg press muscular strength in the first postoperative week; the posterior approach had the least negative effect, even up to 6 weeks postoperatively. THA patients have reduced muscle strength in the operated leg (compared to the unoperated leg) 3 months after surgery. PMID:26141371

  6. 26 CFR 1.1397E-1 - Qualified zone academy bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualified zone academy bonds. 1.1397E-1 Section 1.1397E-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1397E-1 Qualified zone academy bonds. (a) In general—(1) Overview....

  7. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(e)-1 Number of withholding exemptions... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31.3401(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1...

  11. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Regulations 118 (26 CFR part 39, 1939 ed.) for the necessary amount. On January 1, 1965, B, a calendar year... when prior law applied. 1.691(e)-1 Section 1.691(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied. (a) In...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-1 - Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sale price. 48.4216(e)-1 Section 48.4216(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(e)-1 Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. (a) In general. Section 4216(e) deals with the treatment to be accorded charges made by...

  13. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3406(e)-1 - Period during which backup withholding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identification number. See § 31.3406(d)-5(e) and (g)(3) for the period for which withholding is required in the... required. 31.3406(e)-1 Section 31.3406(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(e)-1 Period during...

  15. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Regulations 118 (26 CFR part 39, 1939 ed.) for the necessary amount. On January 1, 1965, B, a calendar year... when prior law applied. 1.691(e)-1 Section 1.691(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied. (a) In...

  16. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Regulations 118 (26 CFR part 39, 1939 ed.) for the necessary amount. On January 1, 1965, B, a calendar year... when prior law applied. 1.691(e)-1 Section 1.691(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied. (a) In...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3406(e)-1 - Period during which backup withholding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... identification number. See § 31.3406(d)-5(e) and (g)(3) for the period for which withholding is required in the... required. 31.3406(e)-1 Section 31.3406(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(e)-1 Period during...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3406(e)-1 - Period during which backup withholding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... identification number. See § 31.3406(d)-5(e) and (g)(3) for the period for which withholding is required in the... required. 31.3406(e)-1 Section 31.3406(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(e)-1 Period during...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(e)-1 Number of withholding exemptions... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31.3401(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(e)-1 Number of withholding exemptions... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31.3401(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-1 - Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sale price. 48.4216(e)-1 Section 48.4216(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(e)-1 Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. (a) In general. Section 4216(e) deals with the treatment to be accorded charges made by...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-1 - Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sale price. 48.4216(e)-1 Section 48.4216(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(e)-1 Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. (a) In general. Section 4216(e) deals with the treatment to be accorded charges made by...

  3. 26 CFR 1.263(e)-1 - Expenditures in connection with certain railroad rolling stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by the Interstate Commerce Commission (49 CFR Part 1201), but only if (i) such unit exclusively moves... rolling stock. 1.263(e)-1 Section 1.263(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263(e)-1 Expenditures...

  4. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Regulations 118 (26 CFR part 39, 1939 ed.) for the necessary amount. On January 1, 1965, B, a calendar year... when prior law applied. 1.691(e)-1 Section 1.691(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied. (a) In...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(e)-1 Number of withholding exemptions... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31.3401(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  6. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of...

  7. 26 CFR 1.924(e)-1 - Activities relating to the disposition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... export property. 1.924(e)-1 Section 1.924(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... United States § 1.924(e)-1 Activities relating to the disposition of export property. (a) Advertising and sales promotion. For purposes of section 924(e), advertising and sales promotion are defined as...

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(e)-1 - Cooperative hospital service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....501(e)-1 Section 1.501(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(e)-1 Cooperative hospital service organizations. (a) General rule. Section 501(e) is the exclusive and controlling...

  9. 26 CFR 1.924(e)-1 - Activities relating to the disposition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... export property. 1.924(e)-1 Section 1.924(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... United States § 1.924(e)-1 Activities relating to the disposition of export property. (a) Advertising and sales promotion. For purposes of section 924(e), advertising and sales promotion are defined as...

  10. 26 CFR 1.501(e)-1 - Cooperative hospital service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...(e)-1 Section 1.501(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(e)-1 Cooperative hospital service organizations. (a) General rule. Section 501(e) is the exclusive and controlling...

  11. 26 CFR 1.501(e)-1 - Cooperative hospital service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...(e)-1 Section 1.501(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(e)-1 Cooperative hospital service organizations. (a) General rule. Section 501(e) is the exclusive and controlling...

  12. 26 CFR 1.924(e)-1 - Activities relating to the disposition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... property. 1.924(e)-1 Section 1.924(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... States § 1.924(e)-1 Activities relating to the disposition of export property. (a) Advertising and sales promotion. For purposes of section 924(e), advertising and sales promotion are defined as follows....

  13. 26 CFR 1.501(e)-1 - Cooperative hospital service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....501(e)-1 Section 1.501(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(e)-1 Cooperative hospital service organizations. (a) General rule. Section 501(e) is the exclusive and controlling...

  14. 26 CFR 1.924(e)-1 - Activities relating to the disposition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... export property. 1.924(e)-1 Section 1.924(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... United States § 1.924(e)-1 Activities relating to the disposition of export property. (a) Advertising and sales promotion. For purposes of section 924(e), advertising and sales promotion are defined as...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6323(e)-1 - Priority of interest and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Priority of interest and expenses. 301.6323(e)-1 Section 301.6323(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....6323(e)-1 Priority of interest and expenses. (a) In general. If the lien imposed by section 6321 is...

  16. 26 CFR 48.6416(e)-1 - Refund to exporter or shipper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Refund to exporter or shipper. 48.6416(e)-1 Section 48.6416(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(e)-1 Refund to exporter...

  17. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulations 118 (26 CFR part 39, 1939 ed.) for the necessary amount. On January 1, 1965, B, a calendar year... when prior law applied. 1.691(e)-1 Section 1.691(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....691(e)-1 Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied. (a) In...

  18. 26 CFR 1.501(e)-1 - Cooperative hospital service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(e)-1 Section 1.501(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(e)-1 Cooperative hospital service organizations. (a) General rule. Section 501(e) is the exclusive and controlling...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3406(e)-1 - Period during which backup withholding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required. 31.3406(e)-1 Section 31.3406(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(e)-1 Period during which... percent on any reportable payment (as defined in section 3406(b)) made to a payee during the...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-1 - Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... excluded local advertising charge, see paragraph (b)(3) of § 48.4216(e)-2. In any case where the payment is... price. 48.4216(e)-1 Section 48.4216(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(e)-1 Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price....

  1. 26 CFR 1.665(e)-1A - Preceding taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preceding taxable year. 1.665(e)-1A Section 1.665(e)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(e)-1A Preceding taxable year. (a) Definition—(1) Domestic...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301.6511(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(e)-1 Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for distillation of alcohol. No payment shall be allowed or made under section 6418...

  3. Identification of a nuclear export signal sequence for bovine papillomavirus E1 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rosas-Acosta, German; Wilson, Van G.

    2008-03-30

    Recent studies have demonstrated nuclear export by papillomavirus E1 proteins, but the requisite export sequence(s) for bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E1 were not defined. In this report we identify three functional nuclear export sequences (NES) present in BPV E1, with NES2 being the strongest in reporter assays. Nuclear localization of BPV1 E1 was modulated by over- or under-expression of CRM1, the major cellular exportin, and export was strongly reduced by the CRM1 inhibitor, Leptomycin B, indicating that E1 export occurs primarily through a CRM1-dependent process. Consistent with the in vivo functional results, E1 bound CRM1 in an in vitro pull-down assay. In addition, sumoylated E1 bound CRM1 more effectively than unmodified E1, suggesting that E1 export may be regulated by SUMO modification. Lastly, an E1 NES2 mutant accumulated in the nucleus to a greater extent than wild-type E1, yet was defective for viral origin replication in vivo. However, NES2 exhibited no intrinsic replication defect in an in vitro replication assay, implying that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling may be required to maintain E1 in a replication competent state.

  4. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-1 - Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... price. 48.4216(e)-1 Section 48.4216(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(e)-1 Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. (a) In general. Section 4216(e) deals with the treatment to be accorded charges made by a...

  5. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied. 1.691(e)-1 Section 1.691(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment...

  6. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied. 1.691(e)-1 Section 1.691(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3406(e)-1 - Period during which backup withholding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identification number. See § 31.3406(d)-5(e) and (g)(3) for the period for which withholding is required in the... required. 31.3406(e)-1 Section 31.3406(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(e)-1 Period during...

  8. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan. (a) General rule....

  9. 26 CFR 1.924(e)-1 - Activities relating to the disposition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... export property. 1.924(e)-1 Section 1.924(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.924(e)-1 Activities relating to the disposition of export property. (a) Advertising and sales promotion. For purposes of section 924(e), advertising and sales promotion are defined as follows....

  10. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax matters partner required to furnish names. 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax matters partner required to furnish names. 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required...

  12. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied. 1.691(e)-1 Section 1.691(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment...

  13. 26 CFR 1.924(e)-1 - Activities relating to the disposition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Activities relating to the disposition of export property. 1.924(e)-1 Section 1.924(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Earned Income of Citizens of United States § 1.924(e)-1 Activities relating...

  14. 42 CFR 52e.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 52e.1 Section 52e.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.1 To what programs...

  15. 42 CFR 52e.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 52e.1 Section 52e.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.1 To what programs...

  16. 42 CFR 52e.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 52e.1 Section 52e.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.1 To what programs...

  17. 42 CFR 52e.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 52e.1 Section 52e.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.1 To what programs...

  18. 42 CFR 52e.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 52e.1 Section 52e.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.1 To what programs...

  19. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Respect of Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment obligations...requirement for a bond. Section 691(e)(1) provides that if the...assured by bond. Section 691(e)(1) further provides that...b ) The name, identifying number (provided under section...

  20. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan...date the plan is established the number of employees employed in...

  1. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan...date the plan is established the number of employees employed in...

  2. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Respect of Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment obligations...requirement for a bond. Section 691(e)(1) provides that if the...assured by bond. Section 691(e)(1) further provides that...b ) The name, identifying number (provided under section...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...furnish names. 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...Assessment In General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required...interest, and taxpayer identification number of each person who was a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Respect of Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment obligations...requirement for a bond. Section 691(e)(1) provides that if the...assured by bond. Section 691(e)(1) further provides that...b ) The name, identifying number (provided under section...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...furnish names. 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...Assessment In General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required...interest, and taxpayer identification number of each person who was a...

  6. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Respect of Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment obligations...requirement for a bond. Section 691(e)(1) provides that if the...assured by bond. Section 691(e)(1) further provides that...b ) The name, identifying number (provided under section...

  7. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan...date the plan is established the number of employees employed in...

  8. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Respect of Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment obligations...requirement for a bond. Section 691(e)(1) provides that if the...assured by bond. Section 691(e)(1) further provides that...b ) The name, identifying number (provided under section...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...furnish names. 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...Assessment In General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required...interest, and taxpayer identification number of each person who was a...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan...date the plan is established the number of employees employed in...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...furnish names. 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...Assessment In General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required...interest, and taxpayer identification number of each person who was a...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6230(e)-1 - Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...furnish names. 301.6230(e)-1 Section 301.6230(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...Assessment In General § 301.6230(e)-1 Tax matters partner required...interest, and taxpayer identification number of each person who was a...

  13. 26 CFR 1.414(e)-1 - Definition of church plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Definition of church plan. 1.414(e)-1 Section 1.414(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(e)-1 Definition of church plan...date the plan is established the number of employees employed in...

  14. Probabilistic Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composite Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Ashwin R.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainties associated with the primitive random variables such as manufacturing process (processing temperature, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio), constituent properties (fiber, matrix and interface), and geometric parameters (ply thickness, interphase thickness) have been simulated to quantify the scatter in the first matrix cracking strength (FMCS) and the ultimate tensile strength of SCS-6/RBSN (SiC fiber (SCS-6) reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composite) ceramic matrix composite laminate at room temperature. Cumulative probability distribution function for the FMCS and ultimate tensile strength at room temperature (RT) of (0)(sub 8), (0(sub 2)/90(sub 2), and (+/-45(sub 2))(sub S) laminates have been simulated and the sensitivity of primitive variables to the respective strengths have been quantified. Computationally predicted scatter of the strengths for a uniaxial laminate have been compared with those from limited experimental data. Also the experimental procedure used in the tests has been described briefly. Results show a very good agreement between the computational simulation and the experimental data. Dominating failure modes in (0)(sub 8), (0/90)(sub s) and (+/-45)(sub S) laminates have been identified. Results indicate that the first matrix cracking strength for the (0)(sub S), and (0/90)(sub S) laminates is sensitive to the thermal properties, modulus and strengths of both the fiber and matrix whereas the ultimate tensile strength is sensitive to the fiber strength and the fiber volume ratio. In the case of a (+/-45)(sub S), laminate, both the FMCS and the ultimate tensile strengths have a small scatter range and are sensitive to the fiber tensile strength as well as the fiber volume ratio.

  15. Identification of 2-piperidone as a biomarker of CYP2E1 activity through metabolomic phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Chen, Chi; Kristopher, Krausz W; Manna, Soumen K; Scerba, Mike; Friedman, Fred K; Luecke, Hans; Idle, Jeffrey R; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2013-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a key enzyme in the metabolic activation of many low molecular weight toxicants and also an important contributor to oxidative stress. A noninvasive method to monitor CYP2E1 activity in vivo would be of great value for studying the role of CYP2E1 in chemical-induced toxicities and stress-related diseases. In this study, a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach was used to identify a metabolite biomarker of CYP2E1 through comparing the urine metabolomes of wild-type (WT), Cyp2e1-null, and CYP2E1-humanized mice. Metabolomic analysis with multivariate models of urine metabolites revealed a clear separation of Cyp2e1-null mice from WT and CYP2E1-humanized mice in the multivariate models of urine metabolomes. Subsequently, 2-piperidone was identified as a urinary metabolite that inversely correlated to the CYP2E1 activity in the three mouse lines. Backcrossing of WT and Cyp2e1-null mice, together with targeted analysis of 2-piperidone in mouse serum, confirmed the genotype dependency of 2-piperidone. The accumulation of 2-piperidone in the Cyp2e1-null mice was mainly caused by the changes in the biosynthesis and degradation of 2-piperidone because compared with the WT mice, the conversion of cadaverine to 2-piperidone was higher, whereas the metabolism of 2-piperidone to 6-hydroxy-2-piperidone was lower in the Cyp2e1-null mice. Overall, untargeted metabolomic analysis identified a correlation between 2-piperidone concentrations in urine and the expression and activity of CYP2E1, thus providing a noninvasive metabolite biomarker that can be potentially used in to monitor CYP2E1 activity. PMID:23811823

  16. Low-energy dipole strength and the critical case of 48Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, P.; Hergert, H.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Roth, R.

    2012-03-01

    Recent theoretical work has not led to a consensus regarding the nature of the low-energy E1 strength in the 40,44,48Ca isotopes, for which high-resolution (? ,??) data exist. Here we revisit this problem using the first-order quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) and different interactions. First we examine all even Ca isotopes with N = 14- 40. All isotopes are predicted to undergo dipole transitions at low energy, of large and comparable isoscalar strength but of varying E1 strength. Provided a moderate and uniform energetic shift is introduced to the results, QRPA with the Gogny D1S interaction is able to account for the (? ,??) data, because, up to N = 28, it yields a rather pure isoscalar oscillation. A neutron-skin oscillation is anticipated for N ? 30. This contradicts existing predictions that 44,48Ca develop a neutron-skin mode. Which theoretical result is correct cannot be resolved conclusively using the available data. We propose that alpha-scattering, possibly followed by an electroexcitation experiment, could resolve the situation and thereby help to improve the different models aspiring to describe reliably the low-energy dipole strength of nuclei.

  17. Microscopic nature of the photon strength function: stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes

    E-print Network

    Oleg Achakovskiy; Alexander Avdeenkov; Stephane Goriely; Sergei Kamerdzhiev; Siegfried Krewald; Dmitriy Voitenkov

    2014-10-16

    The pygmy-dipole resonances and photon strength functions in stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes are calculated within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite fermi systems which includes the QRPA and phonon coupling effects and uses the known Skyrme forces SLy4. The pygmy dipole resonance in $^{72}Ni$ is predicted with the mean energy of 12.4 MeV and the energy-weighted sum rule exhausting 25.6\\% of the total strength. The microscopically obtained photon E1 strength functions are used to calculate nuclear reaction properties, i.e the radiative neutron capture cross section, gamma-ray spectra, and average radiative widths. Our main conclusion is that in all these quantities it is necessary to take the phonon coupling effects into account.

  18. Strain rate, temperature, and humidity on strength and moduli of a graphite/epoxy composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lifshitz, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the influence of strain rate, temperature and humidity on the mechanical behavior of a graphite/epoxy fiber composite are presented. Three principal strengths (longitudinal, transverse and shear) and four basic moduli (E1, E2, G12 and U12) of a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite were followed as a function of strain rate, temperature and humidity. Each test was performed at a constant tensile strain rate in an environmental chamber providing simultaneous temperature and humidity control. Prior to testing, specimens were given a moisture preconditioning treatment at 60 C. Values for the matrix dominated moduli and strength were significantly influenced by both environmental and rate parameters, whereas the fiber dominated moduli were not. However, the longitudinal strength was significantly influenced by temperature and moisture content. A qualitative explanation for these observations is presented.

  19. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.; Zehnder, Alan T.

    2015-11-01

    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations show that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.

  20. 14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength. 35.24 Section 35.24 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The maximum stresses developed in...

  1. Bond Strength of Grade 100 Reinforcing Steel

    E-print Network

    Miller, Shelby

    2007-12-14

    The bond strength of Grade 100 ASTM A 1035 reinforcing steel manufactured by MMFX Technologies Corp. is evaluated with respect to bond strength equations found in ACI 318-05 and ACI 408R-03. Test specimens are fullscale beam-splice specimens tested...

  2. 46 CFR 160.017-17 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Strength. 160.017-17 Section 160.017-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-17 Strength. (a) Each chain ladder must be designed to pass the approval tests in...

  3. 14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strength. 35.24 Section 35.24 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The maximum stresses developed in...

  4. 14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strength. 35.24 Section 35.24 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The maximum stresses developed in...

  5. 14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strength. 35.24 Section 35.24 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The maximum stresses developed in...

  6. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  7. Static Material Strength Determined Using a DAC

    SciTech Connect

    Cynn, H; Evans, W; Klepeis, J P; Lipp, M; Liermann, P; Yang, W

    2009-06-04

    By measuring sample thickness and pressure gradient using x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction, respectively, the accurate static yield strengths of Ta and Fe were determined at high pressure. This improved method has several advantages over other similar methods to quantitatively determine static material strength.

  8. Children of Remarriage: Perceptions of Family Strengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaub, Patricia Kain; Hanna, Sharon L.

    1984-01-01

    Examined children's (N=44) perception of their remarried family's strengths. In general, the findings indicated that although the children did not deny that there were difficulties involved with stepfamily adjustment, they nonetheless rated their family relatively high in family strength. (JAC)

  9. The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His presentation shows…

  10. Strength enhancement process for prealloyed powder superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J.; Freche, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique involving superplastic processing and high pressure autoclaving was applied to a nickel base prealloyed powder alloy. Tensile strengths as high as 2865 MN/sq m at 480 C were obtained with as-superplastically deformed material. Appropriate treatments yielding materials with high temperature tensile and stress rupture strengths were also devised.

  11. Strength Development and Motor-Sports Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This document examines the effects of strength-development programs on the improvement of motor skills and sports competencies. Part one defines various terms used throughout the development studies. Part two discusses the mixed results of experiments involving speed of movement as the motor item indicative of strength development. Part three…

  12. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth.

    PubMed

    Barber, Asa H; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M

    2015-04-01

    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  13. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Asa H.; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  14. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and potential for erosion, it is important to compare the measured shear strength to penetrometer measurements and to develop a correlation (or correlations) between UCS measured by a pocket penetrometer and direct shear strength measurements for various homogeneous and heterogeneous simulants. This study developed 11 homogeneous simulants, whose shear strengths vary from 4 to 170 kPa. With these simulants, we developed correlations between UCS measured by a Geotest E-280 pocket penetrometer and shear strength values measured by a Geonor H-60 hand-held vane tester and a more sophisticated bench-top unit, the Haake M5 rheometer. This was achieved with side-by-side measurements of the shear strength and UCS of the homogeneous simulants. The homogeneous simulants developed under this study consist of kaolin clay, plaster of Paris, and amorphous alumina CP-5 with water. The simulants also include modeling clay. The shear strength of most of these simulants is sensitive to various factors, including the simulant size, the intensity of mixing, and the curing time, even with given concentrations of simulant components. Table S.1 summarizes these 11 simulants and their shear strengths.

  15. The character strengths of class clowns

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of “identified as a class clown,” “comic talent,” “disruptive rule-breaker,” and “subversive joker.” Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors “identified as the class clown” and “comic talent” were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (“disruptive rule-breaker,” “subversive joker”) were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers. PMID:25324796

  16. Neural network analysis of strength and ductility of welding alloys for high strength low

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    of welding would be reduced through higher productivity, reduced energy costs, reduced man- powerNeural network analysis of strength and ductility of welding alloys for high strength low alloy There are considerable demands for the development of weld metals for high strength low alloy steels. To assist

  17. Subcellular localization of rat CYP2E1 impacts metabolic efficiency toward common substrates.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Jessica H; Martin, H Cass; Caro, Andres A; Pearce, Amy R; Miller, Grover P

    2015-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) detoxifies or bioactivates many low molecular-weight compounds. Most knowledge about CYP2E1 activity relies on studies of the enzyme localized to endoplasmic reticulum (erCYP2E1); however, CYP2E1 undergoes transport to mitochondria (mtCYP2E1) and becomes metabolically active. We report the first comparison of in vitro steady-state kinetic profiles for erCYP2E1 and mtCYP2E1 oxidation of probe substrate 4-nitrophenol and pollutants styrene and aniline using subcellular fractions from rat liver. For all substrates, metabolic efficiency changed with substrate concentration for erCYP2E1 reflected in non-hyperbolic kinetic profiles but not for mtCYP2E1. Hyperbolic kinetic profiles for the mitochondrial enzyme were consistent with Michaelis-Menten mechanism in which metabolic efficiency was constant. By contrast, erCYP2E1 metabolism of 4-nitrophenol led to a loss of enzyme efficiency at high substrate concentrations when substrate inhibited the reaction. Similarly, aniline metabolism by erCYP2E1 demonstrated negative cooperativity as metabolic efficiency decreased with increasing substrate concentration. The opposite was observed for erCYP2E1 oxidation of styrene; the sigmoidal kinetic profile indicated increased efficiency at higher substrate concentrations. These mechanisms and CYP2E1 levels in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum were used to estimate the impact of CYP2E1 subcellular localization on metabolic flux of pollutants. Those models showed that erCYP2E1 mainly carries out aniline metabolism at all aniline concentrations. Conversely, mtCYP2E1 dominates styrene oxidation at low styrene concentrations and erCYP2E1 at higher concentrations. Taken together, subcellular localization of CYP2E1 results in distinctly different enzyme activities that could impact overall metabolic clearance and/or activation of substrates and thus impact the interpretation and prediction of toxicological outcomes. PMID:26463279

  18. Mapping strengths into virtues: the relation of the 24 VIA-strengths to six ubiquitous virtues

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Proyer, René T.

    2015-01-01

    The Values-in-Action-classification distinguishes six core virtues and 24 strengths. As the assignment of the strengths to the virtues was done on theoretical grounds it still needs empirical verification. As an alternative to factor analytic investigations the present study utilizes expert judgments. In a pilot study the conceptual overlap among five sources of knowledge (strength’s name including synonyms, short definitions, brief descriptions, longer theoretical elaborations, and item content) about a particular strength was examined. The results show that the five sources converged quite well, with the short definitions and the items being slightly different from the other. All strengths exceeded a cut-off value but the convergence was much better for some strengths (e.g., zest) than for others (e.g., perspective). In the main study 70 experts (from psychology, philosophy, theology, etc.) and 41 laypersons rated how prototypical the strengths are for each of the six virtues. The results showed that 10 were very good markers for their virtues, nine were good markers, four were acceptable markers, and only one strength failed to reach the cut-off score for its assigned virtue. However, strengths were often markers for two or even three virtues, and occasionally they marked the other virtue more strongly than the one they were assigned to. The virtue prototypicality ratings were slightly positively correlated with higher coefficients being found for justice and humanity. A factor analysis of the 24 strengths across the ratings yielded the six factors with an only slightly different composition of strengths and double loadings. It is proposed to adjust either the classification (by reassigning strengths and by allowing strengths to be subsumed under more than one virtue) or to change the definition of certain strengths so that they only exemplify one virtue. The results are discussed in the context of factor analytic attempts to verify the structural model. PMID:25954222

  19. Relationship among fatigue strength, mean grain size and compressive strength of a rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.

    1988-10-01

    Fatigue tests carried on three sets of samples having different mean grain sizes revealed that fatigue strength is a function of mean grain size of the rock. Samples having smaller grain size show higher value of fatigue strength. Graywacke samples from Flagstaff formation having mean grain sizes of 1.79 mm, 1.35 mm and 0.93 mm showed fatigue strengths of 87%, 88.25% and 89.1% respectively. Since the mean uniaxial compressive strength also varied with varying grain size, i. e. higher mean strength value for samples having finer grain size; the fatigue strength of a rock also shows a converse relation with mean uniaxial compressive strength.

  20. Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Ratigan, Joe L. (Rapid City, SD)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

  1. Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Ratigan, J.L.

    1982-05-28

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

  2. Mapping strengths into virtues: the relation of the 24 VIA-strengths to six ubiquitous virtues.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Willibald; Proyer, René T

    2015-01-01

    The Values-in-Action-classification distinguishes six core virtues and 24 strengths. As the assignment of the strengths to the virtues was done on theoretical grounds it still needs empirical verification. As an alternative to factor analytic investigations the present study utilizes expert judgments. In a pilot study the conceptual overlap among five sources of knowledge (strength's name including synonyms, short definitions, brief descriptions, longer theoretical elaborations, and item content) about a particular strength was examined. The results show that the five sources converged quite well, with the short definitions and the items being slightly different from the other. All strengths exceeded a cut-off value but the convergence was much better for some strengths (e.g., zest) than for others (e.g., perspective). In the main study 70 experts (from psychology, philosophy, theology, etc.) and 41 laypersons rated how prototypical the strengths are for each of the six virtues. The results showed that 10 were very good markers for their virtues, nine were good markers, four were acceptable markers, and only one strength failed to reach the cut-off score for its assigned virtue. However, strengths were often markers for two or even three virtues, and occasionally they marked the other virtue more strongly than the one they were assigned to. The virtue prototypicality ratings were slightly positively correlated with higher coefficients being found for justice and humanity. A factor analysis of the 24 strengths across the ratings yielded the six factors with an only slightly different composition of strengths and double loadings. It is proposed to adjust either the classification (by reassigning strengths and by allowing strengths to be subsumed under more than one virtue) or to change the definition of certain strengths so that they only exemplify one virtue. The results are discussed in the context of factor analytic attempts to verify the structural model. PMID:25954222

  3. Harmonic two-phonon {gamma}-vibrational state in neutron-rich {sup 106}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Guessous, A.; Schulz, N.; Phillips, W.R.; Ahmad, I.; Bentaleb, M.; Durell, J.L.; Jones, M.A.; Leddy, M.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Morss, L.R.; Piepenbring, R.; Smith, A.G.; Urban, W.; Varley, B.J.

    1995-09-18

    The neutron-rich {sup 106}Mo nucleus has been studied by prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following the spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm. The characteristics of the rotational band built on a state at 1435 keV identifies the band head as the best candidate for a harmonic double-phonon {ital K}{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} {gamma}-vibrational state observed so far.

  4. Effect of immobilization on ankle dorsiflexion strength.

    PubMed

    Geboers, J F; van Tuijl, J H; Seelen, H A; Drost, M R

    2000-06-01

    This study was performed in order to determine the loss of strength of the dorsiflexors in healthy persons after immobilization of the ankle, and the ability of these muscles to regain strength. First, isometric ankle dorsiflexion strength was measured in 33 healthy male and 39 female subjects in age categories 20-40 and 40-80 years, in order to obtain reference data and to determine the reproducibility of the measurement protocol. Gender, age and ankle position had a significant influence on the ankle dorsiflexion torque. Secondly, torque was measured in 15 patients after 4-6 weeks' immobilization of the ankle due to a fracture. A 28% decrease in dorsiflexion torque was seen. Strength reduction in neutral position and in 30 degrees plantar flexion was not significantly different. Without specific therapy restoration of torque was almost complete 6 weeks after cast removal. PMID:10853720

  5. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured.?

  6. Multiscale strength homogenization : application to shale nanoindentation

    E-print Network

    Gathier, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Shales are one of the most encountered materials in sedimentary basins. Because of their highly heterogeneous nature, their strength prediction for oil and gas exploitation engineering has long time been an enigma. In this ...

  7. 14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Fatigue strength. The structure must be designed, as far as practicable, to avoid points of stress concentration where variable stresses above the fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal service....

  8. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  9. FPSO global strength and hull optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junyuan; Xiao, Jianhua; Ma, Rui; Cao, Kai

    2014-03-01

    Global strength is a significant item for floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) design, and steel weight plays an important role in the building costs of FPSO. It is the main task to consider and combine these two aspects by optimizing hull dimensions. There are many optional methods for the global strength analysis. A common method is to use the ABS FPSO Eagle software to analyze the global strength including the rule check and direct strength analysis. And the same method can be adopted for the FPSO hull optimization by changing the depth. After calculation and optimization, the results are compared and analyzed. The results can be used as a reference for the future design or quotation purpose.

  10. Observationally determined Fe II oscillator strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. M.; van Steenberg, M.; Seab, C. G.

    1983-08-01

    Absorption oscillator strengths for 21 Fe II resonance lines, have been determined using a curve-of-growth analysis of interstellar data from the Copernicus and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellites. In addition to slight changes in strengths of the far-UV lines, new f-values are reported for wavelength 1608.45, a prominent line in interstellar and quasar absorption spectra, and for wavelength 2260.08, a weak, newly identified linen in IUE interstellar spectra. An upper limit on the strength of the undetected line at 2366.867 A (UV multiplet 2) is set. Using revised oscillator strengths, Fe II column densities toward 13 OB stars are derived. The interstellar depletions, (Fe/H), relative to solar values range between factors of 10 and 120.

  11. 14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Fatigue strength. The structure must be designed, as far as practicable, to avoid points of stress concentration where variable stresses above the fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal service....

  12. 14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Fatigue strength. The structure must be designed, as far as practicable, to avoid points of stress concentration where variable stresses above the fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal service....

  13. 14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Fatigue strength. The structure must be designed, as far as practicable, to avoid points of stress concentration where variable stresses above the fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal service....

  14. 14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Fatigue strength. The structure must be designed, as far as practicable, to avoid points of stress concentration where variable stresses above the fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal service....

  15. Investigation of strength properties of freshwater ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragov, A.; Igumnov, L.; Konstantinov, A.; Lomunov, A.; Filippov, A.; Shmotin, Yu.; Didenko, R.; Krundaeva, A.

    2015-09-01

    A study of the strength and deformation properties of freshwater ice under compression, tension and shear in a wide range of strain rates (10-4 - 3 ? 103 s-1) and temperatures of - 5? C, - 20? C, - 40? C and - 60? C was performed. Static stress-strain curves of ice under compression were obtained on which the identified strength properties of ice as well as compressive modulus. To determine the mechanical properties of ice at high-speed loading the Kolsky method was used with various embodiments of split Hopkinson bar. The deformation curves were obtained at various loading conditions. Thereon breaking points were defined as well as their dependence on the strain rate and temperature. Also static and dynamic strength properties of ice at splitting and circular shear were defined. Increase in the dynamic strength properties upon the static ones for all loading conditions was marked.

  16. 46 CFR 116.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck...

  17. Fatigue Strength of Airplane and Engine Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaes, Kurt

    1934-01-01

    This report was undertaken to give a brief summary of the laws governing the fatigue stresses and of the most important strength coefficients necessary for the correct dimensioning of the structural members.

  18. Seal strength models for medical device trays 

    E-print Network

    Mays, Patricia Faye

    2009-05-15

    Seven empirical equations were developed for the prediction of seal strength for medical device trays. A new methodology was developed and used for identifying burst and peel locations and comparing burst pressure and peel force. Multiple linear...

  19. Short-term Periodization Models: Effects on Strength and Speed-strength Performance.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Dividing training objectives into consecutive phases to gain morphological adaptations (hypertrophy phase) and neural adaptations (strength and power phases) is called strength-power periodization (SPP). These phases differ in program variables (volume, intensity, and exercise choice or type) and use stepwise intensity progression and concomitant decreasing volume, converging to peak intensity (peaking phase). Undulating periodization strategies rotate these program variables in a bi-weekly, weekly, or daily fashion. The following review addresses the effects of different short-term periodization models on strength and speed-strength both with subjects of different performance levels and with competitive athletes from different sports who use a particular periodization model during off-season, pre-season, and in-season conditioning. In most periodization studies, it is obvious that the strength endurance sessions are characterized by repetition zones (12-15 repetitions) that induce muscle hypertrophy in persons with a low performance level. Strictly speaking, when examining subjects with a low training level, many periodization studies include mainly hypertrophy sessions interspersed with heavy strength/power sessions. Studies have demonstrated equal or statistically significant higher gains in maximal strength for daily undulating periodization compared with SPP in subjects with a low to moderate performance level. The relatively short intervention period and the lack of concomitant sports conditioning call into question the practical value of these findings for competitive athletes. Possibly owing to differences in mesocycle length, conditioning programs, and program variables, competitive athletes either maintained or improved strength and/or speed-strength performance by integrating daily undulating periodization and SPP during off-season, pre-season and in-season conditioning. In high-performance sports, high-repetition strength training (>15) should be avoided because it does not provide an adequate training stimulus for gains in muscle cross-sectional area and strength performance. High-volume circuit strength training performed over 2 years negatively affected the development of the power output and maximal strength of the upper extremities in professional rugby players. Indeed, meta-analyses and results with weightlifters, American Football players, and throwers confirm the necessity of the habitual use of ?80% 1 RM: (1) to improve maximal strength during the off-season and in-season in American Football, (2) to reach peak performance in maximal strength and vertical jump power during tapering in track-and-field, and (3) to produce hypertrophy and strength improvements in advanced athletes. The integration and extent of hypertrophy strength training in in-season conditioning depend on the duration of the contest period, the frequency of the contests, and the proportion of the conditioning program. Based on the literature, 72 h between hypertrophy strength training and strength-power training should be provided to allow for adequate regeneration times and therefore maximal stimulus intensities in training. This conclusion is only valid if the muscle is not trained otherwise during this regeneration phase. Thus, rotating hypertrophy and strength-power sessions in a microcycle during the season is a viable option. Comparative studies in competitive athletes who integrated strength training during pre-season conditioning confirm a tendency for gains in explosive strength and statistically significant improvements in medicine ball throw through SPP but not through daily undulating periodization. These findings indicate that to maximize the speed-strength in the short term (peaking), elite athletes should perform strength-power training twice per week. It is possible to perform a single strength-power session with the method of maximum explosive strength actions moving high-weight loads (90% 1 repetition maximum [RM]) at least 1-2 days before competition because of the shorter regeneration times and potentiation

  20. P a g e | 1 SFU Marine Vessel Registration, Insurance & Operations Guide

    E-print Network

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    P a g e | 1 SFU Marine Vessel Registration, Insurance & Operations Guide Table of Contents Last ..........................................................................................................3 1.1) Pleasure vessels ............................................................................................................................................. 3 1.2) Commercial vessels

  1. Expression and characterization of a soluble rubella virus E1 envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Seto, N O; Gillam, S

    1994-10-01

    Individual specific antigenic rubella virus (RV) structural proteins are required for accurate serological diagnosis of acute and congenital rubella infections as well as rubella immune status. The RV envelope glycoprotein E1 is the major target antigen and plays an important role in viral-specific immune responses. The native virion is difficult to produce in large quantities and the protein subunits are also difficult to isolate without loss of antigenicity. The production of a soluble RV E1 (designated E1 delta Tm) using the baculovirus-insect cell expression system is described. In contrast to wild-type RV E1, the genetically engineered E1 delta Tm protein lacks a transmembrane anchor. It behaved as a secretory protein and was secreted abundantly from insect cells. Pulse-chase studies were used to examine the synthesis, glycosylation, and secretion of E1 delta Tm by the insect cells. The secreted E1 delta Tm protein was purified from serum-free medium by one-step immunochromatography. The purified E1 delta Tm protein retained full antigenicity and may be a convenient source of E1 protein for use in diagnostic assay and rubella vaccine development. PMID:7852960

  2. Impact Strength of Glass and Glass Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-01

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  3. IMPACT STRENGTH OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-28

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  4. High-Hot-Strength Ceramic Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayir, Ali; Matson, Lawrence E.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous fibers consisting of laminae of alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet offer exceptionally high strength, resistance to creep, and chemical stability at high temperatures. These fibers exceed tensile strength of sapphire fibers. Leading candidates for reinforcement of intermetallic-matrix composites in exhaust nozzles of developmental high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Other applications are in aerospace, automotive, chemical-process, and power-generation industries.

  5. Shear strength of metal-sapphire contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    The shear strength of polycrystalline Ag, Cu, Ni, and Fe contacts on clean (0001) sapphire has been studied in ultrahigh vacuum. Both clean metal surfaces and surfaces exposed to O2, Cl2, and C2H4 were used. The results indicate that there are two sources of strength of Al2O3-metal contacts: an intrinsic one that depends on the particular clean metal in contact with Al2O3 and an additional one due to intermediate films. The shear strength of the clean metal contacts correlated directly with the free energy of oxide formation for the lowest metal oxide, in accord with the hypothesis that a chemical bond is formed between metal cations and oxygen anions in the sapphire surface. Contacts formed by metals exposed to chlorine exhibited uniformly low shear strength indicative of van der Waals bonding between chlorinated metal surfaces and sapphire. Contacts formed by metals exposed to oxygen exhibited enhanced shear strength, in accord with the hypothesis that an intermediate oxide layer increases interfacial strength.

  6. Upper extremity injuries associated with strength training.

    PubMed

    Haupt, H A

    2001-07-01

    Most injuries sustained during strength training are mild strains that resolve with appropriate rest. More severe injuries include traumatic shoulder dislocations, tendon ruptures of the pectoralis major, biceps, and triceps; stress fractures of the distal clavicle, humerus, radius, and ulna; traumatic fractures of the distal radius and ulna in adolescent weightlifters; and compressive and stretch neuropathies. These more severe injuries are usually the result of improperly performing a strength training exercise. Educating athletes regarding proper strength-training techniques serves to reverse established injury patterns and to prevent these injuries in the first place. Recognizing the association of anabolic steroid use to several of the injury patterns further reinforces the need for medical specialists to counsel athletes against their use. With the increasing use of supplements such as creatine, the incidence and nature of strength-training injuries may change further. Greater emphasis on the competitive performance of younger athletes undoubtedly will generate enthusiasm for strength training at earlier ages in both sexes. The importance of proper supervision of these young athletes by knowledgeable persons will increase. As the popularity of strength training grows, there will be ample opportunity to continue to catalog the injury patterns associated with this activity. PMID:11494836

  7. Magnetic Field Strengths in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balser, Dana S.; Anish Roshi, D.; Jeyakumar, S.; Bania, T. M.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Shitanishi, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We measure carbon radio recombination line (RRL) emission at 5.3 {{GHz}} toward four H ii regions with the Green Bank Telescope to determine the magnetic field strength in the photodissociation region (PDR) that surrounds the ionized gas. Roshi suggests that the non-thermal line widths of carbon RRLs from PDRs are predominantly due to magneto-hydrodynamic waves, thus allowing the magnetic field strength to be derived. We model the PDR with a simple geometry and perform the non-LTE radiative transfer of the carbon RRL emission to solve for the PDR physical properties. Using the PDR mass density from these models and the carbon RRL non-thermal line width we estimate total magnetic field strengths of B? 100{--}300 ? {{G}} in W3 and NGC 6334A. Our results for W49 and NGC 6334D are less well constrained with total magnetic field strengths between B? 200{--}1000 ? {{G}}. H i and OH Zeeman measurements of the line of sight magnetic field strength ({B}{{los}}), taken from the literature, are between a factor of ? 0.5{--}1 of the lower bound of our carbon RRL magnetic field strength estimates. Since | {B}{{los}}| ?slant B, our results are consistent with the magnetic origin of the non-thermal component of carbon RRL widths.

  8. Recognition of adenovirus E1A gene products on immortalized cell surfaces by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bellgrau, D; Walker, T A; Cook, J L

    1988-05-01

    The experiments described in this report were designed to examine whether target cells transfected with the adenovirus E1A gene and exhibiting increased susceptibility to lysis by natural killer cells and activated macrophages (J. L. Cook, T. A. Walker, A. M. Lewis, Jr., H. E. Ruley, F. L. Graham, and S. H. Pilder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:6965-6969, 1986) also express E1A proteins on their surfaces. MT1A, 12S, and 13S are strain Fischer baby rat kidney (BRK) cell lines immortalized by transfection with plasmids containing only the E1A gene of nononcogenic adenovirus. All of these cell lines were effective in stimulating the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro, provided that the cultures were supplemented with an exogenous source of lymphokine and that the responding lymphocytes were from syngeneic Fischer rats previously immunized with a cell line containing the intact E1A gene. HrA2, a Fischer BRK cell line immortalized by transfection with a plasmid containing only exon 1 of the E1A gene, did not generate, nor was it lysed by, E1A-specific CTL. The cytolytic activity of E1A-specific CTL was blocked by antiserum from Fischer rats immunized with purified E1A proteins synthesized in Escherichia coli, supporting the conclusion that an epitope on E1A proteins encoded by the intact E1A gene constitutes part of the CTL target structure on adenovirus-transformed cells. These data suggest that in addition to their functions within host cells, E1A gene products are important immunogenic determinants on the surfaces of adenovirus-transformed cells. PMID:2451753

  9. Notched Strength Allowables and Inplane Shear Strength of AS4/VRM-34 Textile Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenoble, Ray W.; Johnston, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Notched and unnotched strength allowables were developed for a textile composite to provide input data to analytical structural models based on the Pultruded Rod Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. Filled-hole tensile strength, filled-hole compressive strength, and inplane shear strength along stitch lines have been measured. The material system evaluated in this study is based on warp-knitted preforms of AS4 carbon fibers and VRM-34 epoxy resin, which have been processed via resin infusion and oven curing. All specimens were tested in as-fabricated (dry) condition. Filled-hole strengths were evaluated with and without through-thickness stitching. The effects of scaling on filled-hole tensile strength were evaluated by testing specimens in two widths, but with identical width / hole-diameter ratios. Inplane shear specimens were stitched in two configurations, and two specimen thicknesses were tested for each stitch configuration.

  10. The effect of mineral bond strength and adsorbed water on fault gouge frictional strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the tendency of many fault gouge minerals to take on adsorbed or interlayer water may strongly influence their frictional strength. To test this hypothesis, triaxial sliding experiments were conducted on 15 different single-mineral gouges with various water-adsorbing affinities. Vacuum dried samples were sheared at 100 MPa, then saturated with water and sheared farther to compare dry and wet strengths. The coefficients of friction, ?, for the dry sheet-structure minerals (0.2-0.8), were related to mineral bond strength, and dropped 20-60% with the addition of water. For non-adsorbing minerals (? = 0.6-0.8), the strength remained unchanged after saturation. These results confirm that the ability of minerals to adsorb various amounts of water is related to their relative frictional strengths, and may explain the anomalously low strength of certain natural fault gouges.

  11. Nr2e1 Deficiency Augments Palmitate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaoli; Deng, Haohua; Dai, Zhe; Xu, Yancheng; Xiong, Xiaokan; Ma, Pei; Cheng, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group E member 1 (Nr2e1) has been regarded as an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its function elsewhere is unknown. In the present study, we generated Nr2e1 knockdown MIN6 cells and studied whether Nr2e1 knockdown affected basal beta cell functions such as proliferation, cell death, and insulin secretion. We showed that knockdown of Nr2e1 in MIN6 cells resulted in increased sensitivity to lipotoxicity, decreased proliferation, a partial G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest, and higher rates of apoptosis. Moreover, Nr2e1 deficiency exaggerates palmitate-induced impairment in insulin secretion. At the molecular level, Nr2e1 deficiency augments palmitate-induced oxidative stress. Nr2e1 deficiency also resulted in decreases in antioxidant enzymes and expression level of Nrf2. Together, this study indicated a potential protective effect of Nr2e1 on beta cells, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. PMID:26649147

  12. Resolvin E1 inhibits dendritic cell migration in the skin and attenuates contact hypersensitivity responses.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Yu; Honda, Tetsuya; Hanakawa, Sho; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Murata, Teruasa; Ueharaguchi-Tanada, Yuri; Ono, Sachiko; Amano, Wataru; Nakajima, Saeko; Egawa, Gyohei; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kitoh, Akihiko; Dainichi, Teruki; Ogawa, Narihito; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Arita, Makoto; Nakamura, Motonobu; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2015-10-19

    Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is a lipid mediator derived from ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that exerts potent antiinflammatory roles in several murine models. The antiinflammatory mechanism of RvE1 in acquired immune responses has been attributed to attenuation of cytokine production by dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we newly investigated the effect of RvE1 on DC motility using two-photon microscopy in a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model and found that RvE1 impaired DC motility in the skin. In addition, RvE1 attenuated T cell priming in the draining lymph nodes and effector T cell activation in the skin, which led to the reduced skin inflammation in CHS. In contrast, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induced actin filament reorganization in DCs and increased DC motility by activating Cdc42 and Rac1 via BLT1, which was abrogated by RvE1. Collectively, our results suggest that RvE1 attenuates cutaneous acquired immune responses by inhibiting cutaneous DC motility, possibly through LTB4-BLT1 signaling blockade. PMID:26438363

  13. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31.3401(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax...

  14. 26 CFR 1.263(e)-1 - Expenditures in connection with certain railroad rolling stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by the Interstate Commerce Commission (49 CFR Part 1201), but only if (i) such unit exclusively moves... rolling stock. 1.263(e)-1 Section 1.263(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible §...

  15. 26 CFR 1.263(e)-1 - Expenditures in connection with certain railroad rolling stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by the Interstate Commerce Commission (49 CFR Part 1201), but only if (i) such unit exclusively moves... rolling stock. 1.263(e)-1 Section 1.263(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible §...

  16. 26 CFR 1.263(e)-1 - Expenditures in connection with certain railroad rolling stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by the Interstate Commerce Commission (49 CFR Part 1201), but only if (i) such unit exclusively moves... rolling stock. 1.263(e)-1 Section 1.263(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible §...

  17. 26 CFR 1.263(e)-1 - Expenditures in connection with certain railroad rolling stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by the Interstate Commerce Commission (49 CFR Part 1201), but only if (i) such unit exclusively moves... rolling stock. 1.263(e)-1 Section 1.263(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible §...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3406(e)-1 - Period during which backup withholding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Period during which backup withholding is required. 31.3406(e)-1 Section 31.3406(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection...

  19. Nr2e1 Deficiency Augments Palmitate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoli; Deng, Haohua; Dai, Zhe; Xu, Yancheng; Xiong, Xiaokan; Ma, Pei; Cheng, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group E member 1 (Nr2e1) has been regarded as an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its function elsewhere is unknown. In the present study, we generated Nr2e1 knockdown MIN6 cells and studied whether Nr2e1 knockdown affected basal beta cell functions such as proliferation, cell death, and insulin secretion. We showed that knockdown of Nr2e1 in MIN6 cells resulted in increased sensitivity to lipotoxicity, decreased proliferation, a partial G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest, and higher rates of apoptosis. Moreover, Nr2e1 deficiency exaggerates palmitate-induced impairment in insulin secretion. At the molecular level, Nr2e1 deficiency augments palmitate-induced oxidative stress. Nr2e1 deficiency also resulted in decreases in antioxidant enzymes and expression level of Nrf2. Together, this study indicated a potential protective effect of Nr2e1 on beta cells, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. PMID:26649147

  20. 78 FR 15597 - Special Conditions: GE Aviation CT7-2E1 Turboshaft Engine Model

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...Aviation CT7-2E1 Turboshaft Engine Model AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Aviation (GE) CT7-2E1 engine model. This engine model will have a novel or unusual design feature, which is a combination of two existing ratings into a...

  1. 40 CFR Figure E-1 to Subpart E of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Fig. E-1 Figure E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53—Designation Testing...

  2. 40 CFR Figure E-1 to Subpart E of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Fig. E-1 Figure E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53—Designation Testing...

  3. 40 CFR Figure E-1 to Subpart E of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Fig. E-1 Figure E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53—Designation Testing...

  4. Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 -rz Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 - rz Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics (iCFD) 424512.0 E, 5 sp 1. Introduction; Fluid dynamics (lecture 1 of 4) Ron Zevenhoven Åbo to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 - rz maj 2015 Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering

  5. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3406(e)-1 - Period during which backup withholding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period during which backup withholding is required. 31.3406(e)-1 Section 31.3406(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31.3401(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3406(e)-1 - Period during which backup withholding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period during which backup withholding is required. 31.3406(e)-1 Section 31.3406(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31.3401(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions...claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31...Source § 31.3401(e)-1 Number of withholding exemptions...is greater than the number of withholding exemptions...f)(2)-1(e), and for...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions...claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31...Source § 31.3401(e)-1 Number of withholding exemptions...is greater than the number of withholding exemptions...f)(2)-1(e), and for...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions...claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31...Source § 31.3401(e)-1 Number of withholding exemptions...is greater than the number of withholding exemptions...f)(2)-1(e), and for...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions...claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31...Source § 31.3401(e)-1 Number of withholding exemptions...is greater than the number of withholding exemptions...f)(2)-1(e), and for...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3401(e)-1 - Number of withholding exemptions claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Number of withholding exemptions...claimed. 31.3401(e)-1 Section 31...Source § 31.3401(e)-1 Number of withholding exemptions...is greater than the number of withholding exemptions...f)(2)-1(e), and for...

  19. Advances in Paediatric Strength Assessment: Changing Our Perspective on Strength Development

    PubMed Central

    Croix, Mark De Ste

    2007-01-01

    Our knowledge of the age and sex associated changes in strength during childhood and adolescence is relatively limited compared to other physiological parameters. However, those studies available on the age and sex associated change in strength are relatively consistent, especially for the lower limbs. Caution must be taken when transferring this knowledge to other muscle joints as the development in strength appears to be both muscle action and joint specific. Strength appears to increase in both boys and girls until about the age of 14 y where it begins to plateau in girls and a spurt is evident in boys. By 18 y there are few overlaps in strength between boys and girls. The exact age in which sex differences become apparent appears to be both muscle group and muscle action specific and there is a suggestion that sex differences in upper body strength occur earlier than lower body strength. What is less clear is the complex factors that contribute to the production of strength during childhood and adolescence. There are few well controlled longitudinal studies that have concurrently examined the influence of known variables using appropriate statistical techniques. Most studies have shown that maturation does not exert an independent effect when other factors, such as stature and body mass are accounted for. Also, the assumption that muscle cross-sectional area is the most important parameter in strength production does not hold when examined with other known variables. Consistently, stature appears to play a key role in strength development and this may be attributed to the strength spurt that has been linked to peak height velocity, and the muscle moment arm. Advances in technology have provided us with more accurate techniques to examine these explanatory variables but the complex interaction of neural, mechanical and muscular remains to be clearly identified from well controlled longitudinal studies. Key pointsThe age associated development in strength is attributable to changes in growth and maturation. Sex differences appear at around 14y and very few girls out perform boys in strength tests at 18y.Stature and mass appear to be important explanatory variables in the development of muscle strength. PHV is a particularly important time for maximal gains in strength during childhood.The muscle moment arm is possibly the most important factor in the development of muscle strength with age but further longitudinal studies using MRI are needed. PMID:24149415

  20. Strength analysis of laser welded lap joint for ultra high strength steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Young Cheol; Kim, Cheol Hee; Cho, Young Tae; Jung, Yoon Gyo

    2013-12-01

    Several industries including the automotive industry have recently applied the process of welding high strength steel. High strength steel is steel that is harder than normal high strength steel, making it much stronger and stiffer. HSS can be formed in pieces that can be up to 10 to 15 percent thinner than normal steel without sacrificing strength, which enables weight reduction and improved fuel economy. Furthermore, HSS can be formed into complex shapes that can be welded into structural areas. This study is based on previous experiments and is aimed at establishing the stress distribution for laser welded high strength steel. Research on the stress distribution for laser welded high strength steel is conducted by using Solid Works, a program that analyzes the stress of a virtual model. In conclusion, we found that the stress distribution is changed depending on the shape of welded lap joint. In addition, the Influence of the stress distribution on welded high strength steel can be used to standard for high energy welding of high strength steel, and we can also predict the region in welded high strength steel that may cracked.

  1. Effects of Strength Training on Strength Development and Joint Position Sense in Functionally Unstable Ankles

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Carrie L.; Moore, Josef H.; Arnold, Brent L.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of ankle-strengthening exercises on joint position sense and strength development in subjects with functionally unstable ankles. Design and Setting: Subjects were randomly assigned to a training or control group. The training group participated in a 6-week strength-training protocol using rubber tubing 3 times a week throughout the training period. The control group did not participate in the strength-training protocol. Subjects: Twenty healthy college students (10 females, 10 males, age = 20.6 ± 2.23 years; ht = 176.40 ± 7.14 cm; wt = 74.18 ± 10.17 kg) with a history of functional ankle instability volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements: We pretested and posttested dorsiflexor and evertor isometric strength with a handheld dynamometer and collected joint position sense (JPS) data at 20° for inversion and plantar flexion and at 10° for eversion and dorsiflexion. Results: Statistical tests for strength and JPS revealed significant group-by-time interactions for dorsiflexion strength, eversion strength, inversion JPS, and plantar flexion JPS. Simple main-effects testing revealed improvements in training group strength and JPS at posttesting. There were no significant effects for eversion JPS, but the group main effect for dorsiflexion JPS was significant, with the experimental group having better scores than the control group. Conclusions: Ankle-strengthening exercises improved strength, inversion JPS, dorsiflexion JPS, and plantar flexion JPS in subjects with functionally unstable ankles. Imagesp311-a PMID:16558526

  2. Steady-state and transient Zener parameters in viscoplasticity: Drag strength versus yield strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    A hypothesis is put forth which enables the viscoplastician to formulate a theory of viscoplasticity that reduces, in closed form, to the classical theory of creep. This hypothesis is applied to a variety of drag and yield strength models. Because of two theoretical restrictions that are a consequence of this hypothesis, three different yield strength models and one drag strength model are shown to be theoretically admissible. One of these yield strength models is selected as being the most appropriate representation for isotropic hardening.

  3. High-Strength Bolt Corrosion Fatigue Life Model and Application

    PubMed Central

    Hui-li, Wang; Si-feng, Qin

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue performance of high-strength bolt was studied. Based on the fracture mechanics theory and the Gerberich-Chen formula, the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture crack model and the fatigue life model were established. The high-strength bolt crack depth and the fatigue life under corrosion environment were quantitatively analyzed. The factors affecting high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life were discussed. The result showed that the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture biggest crack depth reduces along with the material yield strength and the applied stress increases. The material yield strength was the major factor. And the high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life reduced along with the increase of material strength, the applied stress or stress amplitude. The stress amplitude influenced the most, and the material yield strength influenced the least. Low bolt strength and a low stress amplitude level could extend high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life. PMID:25152916

  4. Oxidative stress mediated toxicity exerted by ethanol-inducible CYP2E1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Defeng; Cederbaum, Arthur I. . E-mail: arthur.cederbaum@mssm.edu

    2005-09-01

    Induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol is one of the central pathways by which ethanol generates a state of oxidative stress in hepatocytes. To study the biochemical and toxicological actions of CYP2E1, our laboratory established HepG2 cell lines which constitutively overexpress CYP2E1 and characterized these cells with respect to ethanol toxicity. Addition of ethanol or an unsaturated fatty acid such as arachidonic acid or iron was toxic to the CYP2E1-expressing cells but not control cells. This toxicity was associated with elevated lipid peroxidation and could be prevented by antioxidants and inhibitors of CYP2E1. Apoptosis occurred in the CYP2E1-expressing cells exposed to ethanol, arachidonic acid, or iron. Removal of GSH caused a loss of viability in the CYP2E1-expressing cells even in the absence of added toxin or pro-oxidant. This was associated with mitochondrial damage and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Low concentrations of iron and arachidonic acid synergistically interacted with CYP2E1 to produce cell toxicity, suggesting these nutrients may act as priming or sensitizing agents to alcohol-induced liver injury. Surprisingly, CYP2E1-expressing cells had elevated GSH levels, due to transcriptional activation of glutamate cysteine ligase. Similarly, levels of catalase, alpha-, and microsomal glutathione transferase were also increased, suggesting that upregulation of these antioxidant genes may reflect an adaptive mechanism to remove CYP2E1-derived oxidants. Using co-cultures, interaction between CYP2E1-derived diffusible mediators to activate collagen production in hepatic stellate cells was found. While it is likely that several mechanisms contribute to alcohol-induced liver injury, the linkage between CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, stellate cell activation, and GSH homeostasis may contribute to the toxic action of ethanol on the liver. HepG2 cell lines overexpressing CYP2E1 may be a valuable model to characterize the biochemical and toxicological properties of CYP2E1.

  5. Distinct Features of Cap Binding by eIF4E1b Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kubacka, Dorota; Miguel, Ricardo Núñez; Minshall, Nicola; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Standart, Nancy; Zuberek, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    eIF4E1b, closely related to the canonical translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E1a), cap-binding protein is highly expressed in mouse, Xenopus and zebrafish oocytes. We have previously characterized eIF4E1b as a component of the CPEB mRNP translation repressor complex along with the eIF4E-binding protein 4E-Transporter, the Xp54/DDX6 RNA helicase and additional RNA-binding proteins. eIF4E1b exhibited only very weak interactions with m7GTP-Sepharose and, rather than binding eIF4G, interacted with 4E-T. Here we undertook a detailed examination of both Xenopus and human eIF4E1b interactions with cap analogues using fluorescence titration and homology modeling. The predicted structure of eIF4E1b maintains the ? + ? fold characteristic of eIF4E proteins and its cap-binding pocket is similarly arranged by critical amino acids: Trp56, Trp102, Glu103, Trp166, Arg112, Arg157 and Lys162 and residues of the C-terminal loop. However, we demonstrate that eIF4E1b is 3-fold less well able to bind the cap than eIF4E1a, both proteins being highly stimulated by methylation at N7 of guanine. Moreover, eIF4E1b proteins are distinguishable from eIF4E1a by a set of conserved amino acid substitutions, several of which are located near to cap-binding residues. Indeed, eIF4E1b possesses several distinct features, namely, enhancement of cap binding by a benzyl group at N7 position of guanine, a reduced response to increasing length of the phosphate chain and increased binding to a cap separated by a linker from Sepharose, suggesting differences in the arrangement of the protein's core. In agreement, mutagenesis of the amino acids differentiating eIF4E1b from eIF4E1a reduces cap binding by eIF4E1a 2-fold, demonstrating their role in modulating cap binding. PMID:25463438

  6. Subunit affinities and stoichiometries of the human papillomavirus type 11 E1:E2:DNA complex.

    PubMed

    Chao, S F; Rocque, W J; Daniel, S; Czyzyk, L E; Phelps, W C; Alexander, K A

    1999-04-01

    The association between the papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins is an important regulatory interaction, imparting coordinated control of viral transcription and replication. Using fluorescence polarization, we have characterized the interactions between HPV-11 E1, HPV-11 E2, and DNA in solution at equilibrium. For these studies, two double-stranded fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotides were prepared. The first fluorescent oligonucleotide, designated Fl-E2BS and containing a single E2 binding-site palindrome (ACCGN6CGGT), was used to determine the affinity of E2 for its DNA binding site. HPV-11 E2 bound Fl-E2BS with an apparent Kd of 0.84 nM. Binding was saturable and consistent with a single class of noninteracting sites. The second oligonucleotide, designated Fl-E1E2BS, contained both E1 and E2 sites in sequence derived directly from the HPV-11 origin of replication. Under titration conditions identical to those used for Fl-E2BS, the E2 protein exhibited reduced affinity for Fl-E1E2BS (Kd > 100 nM). E1 binding to Fl-E1E2BS was of very low affinity. Addition of excess HPV-11 E1 to Fl-E1E2BS lowered the dissociation constant for the E2:Fl-E1E2BS interaction to 2 nM. This effect was not dependent upon ATP or magnesium ion. Fluorescence polarization and other data suggest formation of a complex containing six E1 molecules and a single dimer of E2 bound to a single Fl-E1E2BS oligonucleotide; E2 dissociation from the final complex did not occur. In summary, physical interaction between E1 and E2 increases the DNA binding affinity of each. The role of this energy coupling may be to promote origin-specific binding of both E1 and E2 to DNA. PMID:10194380

  7. Nutritional aspects of women strength athletes

    PubMed Central

    Volek, J S; Forsythe, C E; Kraemer, W J

    2006-01-01

    Strength training elicits sports related and health benefits for both men and women. Although sexual dimorphism is observed in exercise metabolism, there is little information outlining the specific nutritional needs of women strength athletes. Many women athletes restrict energy intake, specifically fat consumption, in order to modify body composition, but this nutritional practice is often counter?productive. Compared to men, women appear to be less reliant on glycogen during exercise and less responsive to carbohydrate mediated glycogen synthesis during recovery. Female strength athletes may require more protein than their sedentary and endurance training counterparts to attain positive nitrogen balance and promote protein synthesis. Therefore, women strength athletes should put less emphasis on a very high carbohydrate intake and more emphasis on quality protein and fat consumption in the context of energy balance to enhance adaptations to training and improve general health. Attention to timing of nutrient ingestion, macronutrient quality, and dietary supplementation (for example, creatine) are briefly discussed as important components of a nutritionally adequate and effective strength training diet for women. PMID:16855068

  8. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  9. (Finite) statistical size effects on compressive strength

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jérôme; Girard, Lucas; Gimbert, Florent; Amitrano, David; Vandembroucq, Damien

    2014-01-01

    The larger structures are, the lower their mechanical strength. Already discussed by Leonardo da Vinci and Edmé Mariotte several centuries ago, size effects on strength remain of crucial importance in modern engineering for the elaboration of safety regulations in structural design or the extrapolation of laboratory results to geophysical field scales. Under tensile loading, statistical size effects are traditionally modeled with a weakest-link approach. One of its prominent results is a prediction of vanishing strength at large scales that can be quantified in the framework of extreme value statistics. Despite a frequent use outside its range of validity, this approach remains the dominant tool in the field of statistical size effects. Here we focus on compressive failure, which concerns a wide range of geophysical and geotechnical situations. We show on historical and recent experimental data that weakest-link predictions are not obeyed. In particular, the mechanical strength saturates at a nonzero value toward large scales. Accounting explicitly for the elastic interactions between defects during the damage process, we build a formal analogy of compressive failure with the depinning transition of an elastic manifold. This critical transition interpretation naturally entails finite-size scaling laws for the mean strength and its associated variability. Theoretical predictions are in remarkable agreement with measurements reported for various materials such as rocks, ice, coal, or concrete. This formalism, which can also be extended to the flowing instability of granular media under multiaxial compression, has important practical consequences for future design rules. PMID:24733930

  10. Contact Strength and Cracking of Laminar Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heged?sov'a, Lucia; Ceniga, Ladislav

    2012-04-01

    The paper deals with the determination of strength of laminar ceramics by mechanical tests in bending and contact modes. The bending and contact modes are simulated by the four-point bending test, and by single-cycle contact test using rollers or spheres, respectively. In general, the determination of strength of ceramic materials results from statistical methods which are usually represented by the Weibull analysis. The Weibull analysis comprises the determination of the characteristic strength ?0 and Weibull modulus m. The characteristic strength ?0,bend and ?0,cont as well as the Weibull moduli mbend and mcont, which are related to the four-point bending test and the single-cycle contact test using rollers, are thus determined, respectively. The comparison of numerical results of ?0,bend/?0,cont, mbend/mcont confirms the validity of the Fett's theory. Along with this verification, a microstructural analysis of strength-degrading defects which represent fraction origins is performed for both modes. The determination of the mechanical loading which causes material failure along with an analysis of parameters of cracks are also presented. The contact test using the spheres is also performed at a multi-cycle mode. The mechanical tests were applied to Al2O3-ZTA laminar ceramics (ZTA=60%Al2O3 + 40%ZrO2).

  11. Molecular mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity mediated by CYP2E1

    SciTech Connect

    Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat; Kamijima, Michihiro; Yamada, Naoyasu; Ito, Yuki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Nakamura, Daichi; Okamura, Ai; Ichihara, Gaku; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2008-09-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 was suggested to be the major enzyme involved in trichloroethylene (TRI) metabolism and TRI-induced hepatotoxicity, although the latter molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The involvement of CYP2E1 in TRI-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying molecular mechanism were studied by comparing hepatotoxicity in cyp2e1{sup +/+} and cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice. The mice were exposed by inhalation to 0 (control), 1000, or 2000 ppm of TRI for 8 h a day, for 7 days, and TRI-hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histopathology. Urinary metabolites of trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were considerably greater in cyp2e1{sup +/+} compared to cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice, suggesting that CYP2E1 is the major P450 involved in the formation of these metabolites. Consistent with elevated plasma ALT and AST activities, cyp2e1{sup +/+} mice in the 2000 ppm group showed histopathological inflammation. TRI significantly upregulated PPAR{alpha}, which might function to inhibit NF{kappa}B p50 and p65 signalling. In addition, TRI-induced NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA, and significantly positive correlation between NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA expression and plasma ALT activity levels were observed, suggesting the involvement of p52 in liver inflammation. Taken together, the current study directly demonstrates that CYP2E1 was the major P450 involved in the first step of the TRI metabolism, and the metabolites produced may have two opposing roles: one inducing hepatotoxicity and the other protecting against the toxicity. Intermediate metabolite(s) from TRI to chloral hydrate produced by CYP2E1-mediated oxidation may be involved in the former, and TCA in the latter.

  12. Role of CYP2E1 in thioacetamide-induced mouse hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Jin Seok; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Morimura, Keiichirou; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan; Chusiri, Yaowares; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Fukushima, Shoji

    2008-05-01

    Previous experiments showed that treatment of mice and rats with thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver cell damage, fibrosis and/or cirrhosis, associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of hepatic stellate cells. Some experiments suggest that CYP2E1 may be involved in the metabolic activation of TAA. However, there is no direct evidence on the role of CYP2E1 in TAA-mediated hepatotoxicity. To clarify this, TAA-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated using Cyp2e1-null mice. Male wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice were treated with TAA (200 mg/kg of body weight, single, i.p.) at 6 weeks of age, and hepatotoxicity examined 24 and 48 h after TAA treatment. Relative liver weights of Cyp2e1-null mice were significantly different at 24 h compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in Cyp2e1-null mice were significantly different at both time points compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Histopathological examination showed Cyp2e1-null mice represented no hepatototoxic lesions, in clear contrast to severe centriobular necrosis, inflammation and hemorrhage at both time points in wild-type mice. Marked lipid peroxidation was also only limited to wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Similarly, TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression in Cyp2e1-null mice did not significantly differ from the control levels, contrasting with the marked alteration in wild-type mice (p < 0.01). Western blot analysis further revealed no increase in iNOS expression in Cyp2e1-null mice. These results reveal that CYP2E1 mediates TAA-induced hepatotoxicity in wild-type mice as a result of increased oxidative stress.

  13. Adenovirus E1A proteins inhibit activation of transcription by p53.

    PubMed Central

    Steegenga, W T; van Laar, T; Riteco, N; Mandarino, A; Shvarts, A; van der Eb, A J; Jochemsen, A G

    1996-01-01

    p53 stimulates the transcription of a number of genes, such as MDM2, Waf1, and GADD45. We and others have shown previously that this activity of p53 can be inhibited by adenovirus type 2 or 12 large E1B proteins. Here we show that the adenovirus E1A proteins also can repress the stimulation of transcription by p53, both in transient transfections and in stably transfected cell lines. The inhibition by E1A occurs without a significant effect on the DNA-binding capacity of p53. Furthermore, the activity of a fusion protein containing the N-terminal part of p53 linked to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain can be suppressed by E1A. This indicates that E1A affects the transcription activation domain of p53, although tryptic phosphopeptide mapping revealed that the level of phosphorylation of this domain does not change significantly in E1A-expressing cell lines. Gel filtration studies, however, showed p53 to be present in complexes of increased molecular weight as a result of E1A expression. Apparently, E1A can cause increased homo- or hetero-oligomerization of p53, which might result in the inactivation of the transcription activation domain of p53. Additionally, we found that transfectants stably expressing E1A have lost the ability to arrest in G1 after DNA damage, indicating that E1A can abolish the normal biological function of p53. PMID:8628276

  14. HBx Inhibits CYP2E1 Gene Expression via Downregulating HNF4? in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chongyi; Wang, Xiaodong; Cederbaum, Arthur I.; Gan, Lixia; Xie, Bin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1, one of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidases located predominantly in liver, plays a key role in metabolism of xenobiotics including ethanol and procarcinogens. Recently, down-expression of CYP2E1 was found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the majority to be chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HBx may inhibit CYP2E1 gene expression via hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?). By enforced HBx gene expression in cultured HepG2 cells, we determined the effect of HBx on CYP2E1 mRNA and protein expression. With a bioinformatics analysis, we found a consensus HNF-4? binding sequence located on ?318 to ?294 bp upstream of human CYP2E1 promoter. Using reporter gene assay and site-directed mutagenesis, we have shown that mutation of this site dramatically decreased CYP2E1 promoter activity. By silencing endogenous HNF-4?, we have further validated knockdown of HNF-4? significantly decreased CYP2E1expression. Ectopic overexpression of HBx in HepG2 cells inhibits HNF-4? expression, and HNF-4? levels were inversely correlated with viral proteins both in HBV-infected HepG2215 cells and as well as HBV positive HCC liver tissues. Moreover, the HBx-induced CYP2E1 reduction could be rescued by ectopic supplement of HNF4? protein expression. Furthermore, human hepatoma cells C34, which do not express CYP2E1, shows enhanced cell growth rate compared to E47, which constitutively expresses CYP2E1. In addition, the significantly altered liver proteins in CYP2E1 knockout mice were detected with proteomics analysis. Together, HBx inhibits human CYP2E1 gene expression via downregulating HNF4? which contributes to promotion of human hepatoma cell growth. The elucidation of a HBx-HNF4?-CYP2E1 pathway provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism underlining chronic HBV infection associated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:25238230

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were determined. All of the gloves that are approved for glovebox use and listed in the glovebox procurement specification met the tensile and elongation requirements. The Viton{reg_sign} compound gloves are not listed in the specification, but exhibited lower tensile strengths than permissible based on the Butyl rubber requirements. Piercan Polyurethane gloves were the thinnest samples and exhibited the highest tensile strength of the materials tested.

  16. Influence of corrosion on brazed joints' strength.

    PubMed

    Angelini, E; Pezzoli, M; Rosalbino, F; Zucchi, F

    1991-02-01

    The influence of corrosion on the bond strength of different brazed joints commonly used in dentistry has been investigated by means of accelerated immersion tests in artificial saliva buffered at pH 2, and in Ringer's solution, both kept at 37 degrees C. Two Co-Cr base metal alloys were brazed with a gold and a non-precious alloy. After 60 days' immersion the tensile strength of the samples brazed with the gold alloy was dramatically reduced because of galvanic corrosion phenomena. The bond strength of the specimens brazed with the non-precious alloy was largely unaffected. Corrosion products rich in nickel were detected. The electrochemical characterization of the base metal alloys and brazing materials was performed by means of polarization curves in the two media investigated. High short circuit currents were only produced with the gold brazing materials. PMID:1673131

  17. Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Alireza

    This report summarizes an experimental program conducted to investigate production techniques and mechanical properties of high strength concrete in general and to provide recommendations for using these concretes in manufacturing precast/prestressed bridge girders. Test variables included total amount and composition of cementitious material (portland cement, fly ash, and silica fume), type and brand of cement, type of silica fume (dry densified and slurry), type and brand of high-range water-reducing admixture, type of aggregate, aggregate gradation, maximum aggregate size, and curing. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of these variables on changes in compressive strength and modulus of elasticity over time, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, creep, shrinkage, and absorption potential (as an indirect indicator of permeability). Also investigated were the effects of test parameters such as mold size, mold material, and end condition. Over 6,300 specimens were cast from approximately 140 mixes over a period of 3 years.

  18. Structure and Strength at Immiscible Polymer Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Ting Ge; Gary S. Grest; Mark O. Robbins

    2013-10-14

    Thermal welding of polymer-polymer interfaces is important for integrating polymeric elements into devices. When two different polymers are joined, the strength of the weld depends critically on the degree of immiscibility. We perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of the structure-strength relation at immiscible polymer interfaces. Our simulations show that immiscibility arrests interdiffusion and limits the equilibrium interfacial width. Even for weakly immiscible films, the narrow interface is unable to transfer stress upon deformation as effectively as the bulk material, and chain pullout at the interface becomes the dominant failure mechanism. This greatly reduces the interfacial strength. The weak response of immiscible interfaces is shown to arise from an insufficient density of entanglements across the interface. We demonstrate that there is a threshold interfacial width below which no significant entanglements can form between opposite sides to strengthen the interface.

  19. Revealing the maximum strength in nanotwinned copper.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Chen, X; Huang, X; Lu, K

    2009-01-30

    The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain boundary-related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced strain hardening and tensile ductility. The strongest twin thickness originates from a transition in the yielding mechanism from the slip transfer across twin boundaries to the activity of preexisting easy dislocation sources. PMID:19179523

  20. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams, ternary additions to liquid or solid components should be considered as means to impart desired properties to amalgams.

  1. Burst Strength of Tubing and Casing Based on Twin Shear Unified Strength Theory

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Kuanhai; Sun, Yongxing; Zeng, Dezhi; Liu, Wanying; Kong, Xiangwei; Singh, Ambrish

    2014-01-01

    The internal pressure strength of tubing and casing often cannot satisfy the design requirements in high pressure, high temperature and high H2S gas wells. Also, the practical safety coefficient of some wells is lower than the design standard according to the current API 5C3 standard, which brings some perplexity to the design. The ISO 10400: 2007 provides the model which can calculate the burst strength of tubing and casing better than API 5C3 standard, but the calculation accuracy is not desirable because about 50 percent predictive values are remarkably higher than real burst values. So, for the sake of improving strength design of tubing and casing, this paper deduces the plastic limit pressure of tubing and casing under internal pressure by applying the twin shear unified strength theory. According to the research of the influence rule of yield-to-tensile strength ratio and mechanical properties on the burst strength of tubing and casing, the more precise calculation model of tubing-casing's burst strength has been established with material hardening and intermediate principal stress. Numerical and experimental comparisons show that the new burst strength model is much closer to the real burst values than that of other models. The research results provide an important reference to optimize the tubing and casing design of deep and ultra-deep wells. PMID:25397886

  2. Differences in tongue strength across age and gender: is there a diminished strength reserve?

    PubMed

    Youmans, Scott R; Youmans, Gina L; Stierwalt, Julie A G

    2009-03-01

    Maximum tongue strength was investigated and compared to mean swallowing pressure elicited by the anterior tongue to calculate the percentage of maximum tongue strength used during swallowing in 96 participants with normal swallowing, divided into three 20-year age groups. The purposes of this investigation were to investigate normal swallowing physiology and to determine whether tongue strength reserves diminished according to age or gender. The results of the study yielded significant maximum tongue strength differences between the youngest and oldest and middle and oldest age groups; the oldest group had the weakest tongues. Mean swallowing pressure did not differ based on age, but women were found to have significantly higher pressures than men. The percentage of maximum tongue strength used during swallowing did not vary as a function of age, but women used a significantly higher percentage of tongue strength to swallow than men. Based on the results, it appears that a diminishing strength reserve does not exist based on age, but it does exist based on gender. Specifically, it appears that women have a reduced tongue strength reserve compared to men. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:18690406

  3. Optical Fiber Strength/Fatigue Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, F.; Helfinstine, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Optical communication via hair-thin silica waveguides has revolutionized the telecommunications industry. Because its uses are spreading beyond telephony, with its relatively benign environments, to more exotic undersea and space applications, a new emphasis is now placed on optical fiber strength and fatigue characteristics. This paper will trace the historical development of optical waveguides strength/fatigue experiments and a recent attempt to determine the material fatigue constant "n" of modern silica waveguides. Stressing practical application, detailed derivations have been purposely left out for the sake of brevity.

  4. Effect of space flight on bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spengler, D. M.; Morey, E. R.; Carter, D. R.; Turner, R. T.; Baylink, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    To test the possibility that spaceflight has a deleterious effect on bone mechanical properties, femur breaking strength by torsional loading in rats that had been flown for 19 days aboard Cosmos 936 was determined. The results showed that femurs from flight rats were less stiff than the flight controls, and failed under torsion at a lower torque and energy of absorption. The defect was corrected following space flight and could be prevented during space flight by centrifuging the rats at 1 x g. Altered bone geometry due to inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface provides the most likely explanation for the decrease in bone strength during spaceflight.

  5. Electrical Strength of Multilayer Vacuum Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Caporaso, G J

    2008-07-01

    The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

  6. Dynamic tensile strength of lunar rock types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, S. N.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic tensile strength of four rocks are determined. A flat plate impact experiment is employed to generate approximately one-microsecond-duration tensile stress pulses in rock samples by superposing rarefaction waves to induce fracture. It is noted that the effect of chemical weathering and other factors has not been explicitly studied. The given tensile strengths are based on a series of experiments on each rock where determination of incipient spallation is made by terminal microscopic examination. The data are generally consistent with previous determinations, at least one of which was for a significantly chemically altered but physically coherent rock.

  7. Method for producing high dielectric strength microvalves

    DOEpatents

    Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Reichmuth, David S. (Oakland, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-04-04

    A microvalve having a cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, polymer monolith for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. The microvalve contains a porous fluorinated polymer monolithic element whose pores are filled with an electrically insulating, high dielectric strength fluid, typically a perfluorinated liquid. This combination provides a microvalve that combines high dielectric strength with extremely low electrical conductivity. These microvalves have been shown to have resistivities of at least 100 G.OMEGA. and are compatible with solvents such as water at a pH between 2.7 and 9.0, 1-1 propanol, acetonitrile, and acetone.

  8. Giant monopole strength in Ni-58 

    E-print Network

    Lui, YW; Clark, HL; Youngblood, David H.

    2000-01-01

    . Except for a some- what larger background at lower excitation in the earlier data, they are in excellent agreement up to the Ex530 MeV limit of the earlier data. Multipole strength distributions were obtained using ??slice analysis?? @3,4# where a... work is shown by the solid line. Giant monopole Y.-W. Lui, H. L. Clark Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University ~Received 3 November 1999 The strength distribution of the giant monopole resonanc MeV using small-angle scattering of 240-MeV a...

  9. Wind loading and strength of cladding glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. A.; Simiu, E.

    1983-05-01

    A procedure for investigating glass cladding behavior under arbitrary loads, including fluctuating wind loads, is presented. The procedure accounts for the fact that internal stresses are nonlinear functions of the external loads, that initial glass strengths are random functions of position and direction, and that glass strength undergoes degradation under the action of external loads in accordance with basic fracture mechanics laws. Numerical examples are presented, and corresponding probability distribution curves are calculated, indicating the probability of failure of a specified panel subjected to fluctuating wind loads and to 1-minute constant loads. These curves are used to illustrate a method for assessing current glass cladding design procedures.

  10. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, R. P.; Wei, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of temperature, hydrogen pressure, stress intensity, and yield strength on the kinetics of gaseous hydrogen assisted crack propagation in 18Ni maraging steels were investigated experimentally. It was found that crack growth rate as a function of stress intensity was characterized by an apparent threshold for crack growth, a stage where the growth rate increased sharply, and a stage where the growth rate was unchanged over a significant range of stress intensity. Cracking proceeded on load application with little or no detectable incubation period. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased with increasing yield strength.

  11. Correlation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of high strength concrete incorporating chopped basalt fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq, Nasir; Fadhilnuruddin, Muhd; Elshekh, Ali Elheber Ahmed; Fathi, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), is considered as the most important test for non-destructive techniques that are used to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of high strength concrete (HSC). The relationship between the compressive strength of HSC containing chopped basalt fibre stands (CBSF) and UPV was investigated. The concrete specimens were prepared using a different ratio of CBSF as internal strengthening materials. The compressive strength measurements were conducted at the sample ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days; whilst, the ultrasonic pulse velocity was measured at 28 days. The result of HSC's compressive strength with the chopped basalt fibre did not show any improvement; instead, it was decreased. The UPV of the chopped basalt fibre reinforced concrete has been found to be less than that of the control mix for each addition ratio of the basalt fibre. A relationship plot is gained between the cube compressive strength for HSC and UPV with various amounts of chopped basalt fibres.

  12. Size effect on flexural, splitting tensile, and torsional strengths of high-strength concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, F.P.; Balendran, R.V.; Jeary, A.P.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the size effect on flexural, splitting tensile, and torsional strengths of high-strength concrete (HSC) with normal aggregate (crushed limestone) and lightweight aggregate (sintered fly ash). The Bazant`s size effect law gives a very good fit to the flexural strengths of both normal and lightweight aggregate HSC measured from beams of different sizes. As observed in the size effect curve, the fracture behavior of the lightweight HSC seems more brittle than that of the normal HSC. Linear elastic fracture mechanics may still be less applicable to HSC in the normal size range than nonlinear fracture mechanics. A reverse size effect is observed in the prism splitting tensile strengths of both normal and light-weight HSC and possible mechanisms of the reverse size effect are discussed. The torsional strength of the lightweight HSC appears to have a stronger size dependency than that of the normal HSC.

  13. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 11 E1 and E2 proteins expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bream, G L; Ohmstede, C A; Phelps, W C

    1993-01-01

    The study of human papillomavirus replication has been hampered by the lack of an in vitro system which reliably supports virus replication. Recent results from the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) system indicate that the E1 and E2 proteins are the only viral gene products required for replication. By analogy with simian virus 40 large T antigen, E1 is thought to possess ATPase and helicase activity, which may play a direct role in viral DNA replication. The precise role of E2 is unclear, but it may function in part to help localize E1 to the replication origin. We have initiated a study of replication in the human papillomavirus type 11 system which, by analogy to BPV, has focused on the E1 and E2 proteins of this virus. We have expressed the full-length E1 and E2 proteins in Sf9 insect cells by using a baculovirus expression vector. Both the 80-kDa E1 protein and the 42.5-kDa E2 protein are nuclear phosphoproteins. The E1 and E2 proteins form a heteromeric complex within the insect cells, and both proteins localize to a DNA fragment which contains the viral origin of replication. In addition, we have detected an E1-associated ATPase and GTPase activity, which is likely part of an energy-generating system for the helicase activity which is predicted for this protein. The human papillomavirus type 11 E1 and E2 proteins possess the same replication-associated activities exhibited by the corresponding BPV proteins, suggesting that the replication activities of these viruses are tightly conserved. Images PMID:8386271

  14. DprE1 Is a Vulnerable Tuberculosis Drug Target Due to Its Cell Wall Localization.

    PubMed

    Brecik, Miroslav; Centárová, Ivana; Mukherjee, Raju; Kolly, Gaëlle S; Huszár, Stanislav; Bobovská, Adela; Kilacsková, Emöke; Mokošová, Veronika; Svetlíková, Zuzana; Šarkan, Michal; Neres, João; Korduláková, Jana; Cole, Stewart T; Mikušová, Katarína

    2015-07-17

    The flavo-enzyme DprE1 catalyzes a key epimerization step in the decaprenyl-phosphoryl d-arabinose (DPA) pathway, which is essential for mycobacterial cell wall biogenesis and targeted by several new tuberculosis drug candidates. Here, using differential radiolabeling with DPA precursors and high-resolution fluorescence microscopy, we disclose the unexpected extracytoplasmic localization of DprE1 and periplasmic synthesis of DPA. Collectively, this explains the vulnerability of DprE1 and the remarkable potency of the best inhibitors. PMID:25906160

  15. Increased intraocular pressure after third ventricle injections of prostaglandin E1 and arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Krupin, T; Oestrich, C; Podos, S M; Becker, B

    1976-03-01

    Prostaglandin E1 administered into the third ventricle of rabbits produced increased intraocular pressure and body temperature. Similar responses were observed after third ventricle instillation of arachidonic acid, a precursor of prostaglandin E2. Increase of body temperature occurred with lower doses of prostaglandin E1 and arachidonic acid while the intraocular pressure response required larger amounts of these drugs. Pretreatment with aspirin rectal suppositories had no effect on the third ventricle responses induced by prostaglandin E1. Aspirin pretreatment before third ventricle instillation of arachidonic acid blocked the increases of intraocular pressure and temperature. PMID:1258959

  16. Suppression of mutations in two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes by the adenovirus E1A protein.

    PubMed Central

    Zieler, H A; Walberg, M; Berg, P

    1995-01-01

    The protein products of the adenoviral E1A gene are implicated in a variety of transcriptional and cell cycle events, involving interactions with several proteins present in human cells, including parts of the transcriptional machinery and negative regulators of cell division such as the Rb gene product and p107. To determine if there are functional homologs of E1A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have developed a genetic screen for mutants that depend on E1A for growth. The screen is based on a colony color sectoring assay which allows the identification of mutants dependent on the maintenance and expression of an E1A-containing plasmid. Using this screen, we have isolated five mutants that depend on expression of the 12S or 13S cDNA of E1A for growth. A plasmid shuffle assay confirms that the plasmid-dependent phenotype is due to the presence of either the 12S or the 13S E1A cDNA and that both forms of E1A rescue growth of all mutants equally well. The five mutants fall into two classes that were named web1 and web2 (for "wants E1A badly"). Plasmid shuffle assays with mutant forms of E1A show that conserved region 1 (CR1) is required for rescue of the growth of the web1 and web2 E1A-dependent yeast mutants, while the N-terminal 22 amino acids are only partially required; conserved region 2 (CR2) and the C terminus are dispensable. The phenotypes of mutants in both the web1 and the web2 groups are due to a single gene defect, and the yeast genes that fully complement the mutant phenotypes of both groups were cloned. The WEB1 gene sequence encodes a 1,273-amino-acid protein that is identical to SEC31, a protein involved in the budding of transport vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum. The WEB2 gene encodes a 1,522-amino-acid protein with homology to nucleic acid-dependent ATPases. Deletion of either WEB1 or WEB2 is lethal. Expression of E1A is not able to rescue the lethality of either the web1 or the web2 null allele, implying allele-specific mutations that lead to E1A dependence. PMID:7760818

  17. Experimental study of the electric dipole strength in the even Mo nuclei and its deformation dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, M.; Junghans, A. R.; Nair, C.; Schwengner, R.; Beyer, R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Wagner, A.; Grosse, E.

    2010-03-01

    Two methods based on bremsstrahlung were applied to the stable even Mo isotopes for the experimental determination of the photon strength function covering the high excitation energy range above 4 MeV with its increasing level density. Photon scattering was used up to the neutron separation energies Sn and data up to the maximum of the isovector giant resonance (GDR) were obtained by photoactivation. After a proper correction for multistep processes the observed quasicontinuous spectra of scattered photons show a remarkably good match to the photon strengths derived from nuclear photoeffect data obtained previously by neutron detection and corrected in absolute scale by using the new activation results. The combined data form an excellent basis to derive a shape dependence of the E1 strength in the even Mo isotopes with increasing deviation from the N=50 neutron shell (i.e., with the impact of quadrupole deformation and triaxiality). The wide energy coverage of the data allows for a stringent assessment of the dipole sum rule and a test of a novel parametrization developed previously which is based on it. This parametrization for the electric dipole strength function in nuclei with A>80 deviates significantly from prescriptions generally used previously. In astrophysical network calculations it may help to quantify the role the p-process plays in cosmic nucleosynthesis. It also has impact on the accurate analysis of neutron capture data of importance for future nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation.

  18. Building on a Foundation of Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Donald B.

    2006-01-01

    Students are faced with numerous challenges as they reach the high school level. Among these issues are declining levels of academic efficacy, expectancy, confidence, positive academic behaviors, and motivation. Intentionally developing existing strengths or talents may reverse these negative trends and equip students with the skills necessary to…

  19. Got LEGO Bricks? Children with Spatial Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with spatial strengths have preferences for visual ideation, holistic reasoning, and innovation. With the emphasis on verbal skills, American schools rarely provide opportunities for children to excel in these areas. Standardized assessments used to judge achievement do not value reflective thinking and innovation; therefore, students…

  20. Strength Training. A Key to Athletic Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Patricia W.

    Characteristics of an effective strength training program are analyzed and descriptions are offered of different kinds of weight training activities. Comparisons are made between concentric, isometric, eccentric, and isokinetic training methods. The fundamentals and techniques of an exemplary training program are outlined and the organization and…

  1. Weight Training for Strength and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

  2. Postactivation Potentiation Biases Maximal Isometric Strength Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6?±?55.7?N·m versus 248.9?±?55.1?N·m), RTD (746?±?152?N·m·s?1versus 727?±?158?N·m·s?1), and RMS (59.1?±?12.2% RMSMAX??versus 54.8?±?9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373?±?1200?ms versus 2784?±?1226?ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables. PMID:25133157

  3. Extraction strength of cannulated cancellous bone screws.

    PubMed

    Hearn, T C; Schatzker, J; Wolfson, N

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the alterations in the relative dimensions of thread and core diameter that accompany cannulation of cancellous bone screws affect their holding strength. The screws were inserted in bovine femoral cancellous bone and mounted in the load train of a materials testing system. They were then extracted under servo-hydraulic displacement control. The tests were repeated in synthetic cancellous material. From the corresponding load-displacement histories, the maximum force values attained were determined as the screws' holding strengths. The results of tests from 17 matched pairs of bovine femora, and of 15 tests of each screw in synthetic material, were recorded. No significant differences in extraction strength between 7.0-mm cannulated and 6.5-mm standard cancellous bone screws were found. Based on tests in the bovine femur and synthetic cancellous material, this study showed that the extraction strength of cancellous bone screws is not altered by the changes in thread-to-core ratio accommodating cannulation. PMID:8459298

  4. High strength composites evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, S.M.

    1992-02-01

    A high-strength, thick-section, graphite/epoxy composite was identified. The purpose of this development effort was to evaluate candidate materials and provide LANL with engineering properties. Eight candidate materials (Samples 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, and 1700) were chosen for evaluation. The Sample 1700 thermoplastic material was the strongest overall.

  5. Innovative Degree Programs Matched to City Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhatme, Uday

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, IUPUI has steadily acquired a considerable national reputation as an up-and-coming university. Some of the reasons for this recognition include the RISE Initiative and the large number of innovative degree programs recently started at IUPUI based on campus strengths and the priorities of the city of Indianapolis. Some specific…

  6. Assessment of respiratory muscle function and strength.

    PubMed Central

    Syabbalo, N.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of respiratory muscle strength is useful in order to detect respiratory muscle weakness and to quantify its severity. In patients with severe respiratory muscle weakness, vital capacity is reduced but is a non-specific and relatively insensitive measure. Conventionally, inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength has been assessed by maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures sustained for 1 s (PImax and PEmax) during maximal static manoeuvre against a closed shutter. However, PImax and PEmax are volitional tests, and are poorly reproducible with an average coefficient of variation of 25%. The sniff manoeuvre is natural and probably easier to perform. Sniff pressure, and sniff transdiaphragmatic pressure are more reproducible and useful measure of diaphragmatic strength. Nevertheless, the sniff manoeuvre is also volition-dependent, and submaximal efforts are most likely to occur in patients who are ill or breathless. Non-volitional tests include measurements of twitch oesophageal, gastric and transdiaphragmatic pressure during bilateral electrical and magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation. Electrical phrenic nerve stimulation is technically difficult and is also uncomfortable and painful. Magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation is less painful and transdiaphragmatic pressure is reproducible in normal subjects. It is a relatively easy test that has the potential to become a widely adopted method for the assessment of diaphragm strength. The development of a technique to measure diaphragmatic sound (phonomyogram) during magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation opens the way for noninvasive assessment of diaphragmatic function. PMID:9683973

  7. ROOM TEMPERATURE STRENGTH DEGRADATION OF OPTICAL FIBERS

    E-print Network

    Matthewson, M. John

    ROOM TEMPERATURE STRENGTH DEGRADATION OF OPTICAL FIBERS C. R. Kurkjian, H. H. Yuce Bell of elevated temperatures and at room temperature. Using these data we show that accelerated testing can be used to predict ambient temperature behavior. An activation energy of '90 kJ.mo11 describes the shift

  8. Achieved Relative Intervention Strength: Models and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Cordray, David S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a method of determining the achieved relative strength (ARS) of an intervention by calculating the extent to which core intervention components are present in both the treatment and control condition. Using data from several examples the authors demonstrate how to calculate ARS indices, and subsequently how to incorporate them…

  9. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Willkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L.

    1996-11-05

    A silicon nitride ceramic is disclosed comprising: (a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, (b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and (c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa. 4 figs.

  10. 46 CFR 177.1020 - Strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck house, must be capable of withstanding the maximum load from wave and...

  11. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Pujari, Vimal K. (Northboro, MA); Tracey, Dennis M. (Medfield, MA); Foley, Michael R. (Oxford, MA); Paille, Norman I. (Oxford, MA); Pelletier, Paul J. (Millbury, MA); Sales, Lenny C. (Grafton, MA); Willkens, Craig A. (Sterling, MA); Yeckley, Russell L. (Oakham, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A silicon nitride ceramic comprising: a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa.

  12. Compacted Soil Liner Interface Strength Importance

    E-print Network

    Case Study Compacted Soil Liner Interface Strength Importance Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 ; Hangseok interface is not the geomembrane (GM)/compacted low-permeability soil liner (LPSL) but a soil­soil interface placing the cover soil from bottom to top. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606 .0000556. © 2012 American

  13. Gamow-Teller strength of Mg-26 

    E-print Network

    Xu, HM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Ajupova, G. K.; Kokenge, B.; Lui, YW.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured cross sections for (d,He-2)-induced reactions on Mg-26 at an energy of E(d)=125.2 MeV. The measured Gamow-Teller strength is significantly smaller than that inferred from (p,n) reactions. We demonstrate that beta(+) Gamow...

  14. Strength of incompatible amorphous polymer interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, J.L.; Wool, R.P. )

    1993-09-27

    The mechanical strength of incompatible polymer interfaces welded above T[sub g] was investigated as a function of time, temperature, and composition. Three pairs of polymers were used: polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)-poly(methyl methacrylate), and poly(styrene-coacrylonitrile)-polycarbonate. For each pair, the weld strength G[sub 1c], measured by wedge cleavage, attained a constant value which increased with welding temperature. While the plateau strengths are typically only about 5-10% of bulk G[sub 1c] values, they are orders of magnitude greater than the work of adhesion calculated using intermolecular forces. For the copolymer-homopolymer pairs, the maximum plateau strength was reached when the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, [chi], was a minimum. These results are in agreement with a model based on Helfand's molecular theories of the structure of incompatible interfaces, coupled with a microscopic deformation mechanism, which predicts that G[sub 1c] [approximately] 1/[chi]. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed dissimilar fracture surfaces for a given pair, with evidence of stick-slip crack growth. XPS revealed residues of one polymer on the other's surface, indicating cohesive fracture occurred to some extent. In each case, the cohesive fracture occurred in the polymer with the lower entanglement density and lower craze stress.

  15. Internal and Interface Shear Strength of

    E-print Network

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    . This report investigates the mechanical behavior of GCLs by providing a state-of-the-art review of internali Internal and Interface Shear Strength of Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) by John Scott Mc;ii McCartney, John S., Zornberg, Jorge G., and Swan, Jr., Robert H. Internal and Interface Shear

  16. Evaluation of fracture strength by sonic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Griffith-Irwin equation is used to describe the fracture characteristics of graphite. The material constants, Young's modulus and mean flaw size, are measured sonically from velocity and attenuation measurements. The effects of steam oxidation and neutron irradiation on fracture strength are shown to be predictable assuming a constant strain-energy release rate.

  17. Oscillator strength of instantaneous diatomic sodium molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perny, G.

    1991-12-01

    We introduce definitely the notion of instantaneous molecules, real or fictitious, in spite of its utilization in certain fields of the supraconductivity, genetics and advanced medical research. Calculation of the oscillator strength of instantaneous sodium diatomic molecules gives [ f mol]Na 2( i)=6,86. This method is transposable at lithium and other Ia elements.

  18. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  19. Hugoniot and strength behavior of silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogler, T. J.; Reinhart, W. D.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Dandekar, D. P.

    2006-01-01

    The shock behavior of two varieties of the ceramic silicon carbide was investigated through a series of time-resolved plate impact experiments reaching stresses of over 140 GPa. The Hugoniot data obtained are consistent for the two varieties tested as well as with most data from the literature. Through the use of reshock and release configurations, reloading and unloading responses for the material were found. Analysis of these responses provides a measure of the ceramic's strength behavior as quantified by the shear stress and the strength in the Hugoniot state. While previous strength measurements were limited to stresses of 20-25 GPa, measurements were made to 105 GPa in the current study. The initial unloading response is found to be elastic to stresses as high as 105 GPa, the level at which a solid-to-solid phase transformation is observed. While the unloading response lies significantly below the Hugoniot, the reloading response essentially follows it. This differs significantly from previous results for B4C and Al2O3. The strength of the material increases by about 50% at stresses of 50-75 GPa before falling off somewhat as the phase transformation is approached. Thus, the strength behavior of SiC in planar impact experiments could be characterized as metal-like in character. The previously reported phase transformation at ~105 GPa was readily detected by the reshock technique, but it initially eluded detection with traditional shock experiments. This illustrates the utility of the reshock technique for identifying phase transformations. The transformation in SiC was found to occur at about 104 GPa with an associated volume change of about 9%.

  20. Information Technology Security Training Requirements Appendix E --Training Cross Reference E-1

    E-print Network

    Reference E-2 #12;Information Technology Security Training Requirements APPENDIX E -- JOB FUNCTIONInformation Technology Security Training Requirements APPENDIX E Appendix E -- Training Cross Reference E-1 #12;Information Technology Security Training Requirements Appendix E -- Training Cross

  1. P a g e | 1 PLAN FOR USE OF TECHNOLOGY FEE

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yi

    P a g e | 1 PLAN FOR USE OF TECHNOLOGY FEE 2012-2013 Office of the Provost and VP for Finance....................................................................................................... 7 1. CUNY University Technology Initiatives (CUNY-UTI) Projects ........................................................................................ 8 3. Department of Information Technology & Systems

  2. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. 301.6511(e)-1 Section 301...Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as livestock feed and for...accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article manufactured...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

  8. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

  9. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

  10. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...true Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

  11. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031...1 Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of like kind....

  12. 26 CFR 1.1397E-1 - Qualified zone academy bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1397E-1 Qualified zone academy bonds. (a) Overview. In general,...

  13. Single- vs. Multiple-Set Strength Training in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlumberger, Andreas; Stec, Justyna; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Compared the effects of single- and multiple-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training. Both training groups had significant strength improvements in leg extension. In the seated bench press, only the three-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength. There were higher strength gains overall in the…

  14. Assessing the Strengths of Mental Health Consumers: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Victoria J.; Le Boutillier, Clair; Leamy, Mary; Larsen, John; Oades, Lindsay G.; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Strengths assessments focus on the individual's talents, abilities, resources, and strengths. No systematic review of strengths assessments for use within mental health populations has been published. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate strengths assessments for use within mental health services. A systematic review identified 12…

  15. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell plates is not known, it shall be taken at 50,000 psi for steel and...

  16. Study on strength, elastic modulus of artifical lightweight aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakizaki, M.

    1982-04-01

    Aggregate strength of artificial lightweight concrete and concrete used with this artificial lightweight aggregate can be expected to have nearly the same strength as normal weight concrete. An experimental study of properties of concrete strength and correlation between compressive and tensile and flexural strengths and elastic modulus of its concrete was made.

  17. EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED MUSIC ON MAXIMAL BENCH PRESS STRENGTH AND STRENGTH ENDURANCE.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Michele, Rocco Di; Merni, Franco

    2015-06-01

    Listening to music during strength workouts has become a very common practice. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of listening to self-selected music on strength performances. Thirty-one resistance-trained men (M age = 24.7 yr., SD = 5.9; M height = 178.7 cm, SD = 4.7; M body mass = 83.54 kg, SD = 12.0) were randomly assigned to either a Music group (n = 19) or to a Control group (n = 12). Both groups took part in two separate sessions; each session consisted in a maximal strength test (1-RM) and a strength-endurance test (repetitions to failure at 60% 1-RM) using the bench press exercise. The music group listened to music in the second assessment session, while the control group performed both tests without music. Listening to music induced a significant increase of strength endurance performance and no effects on maximal strength. These findings have implications for the use of music during strength workouts. PMID:26106802

  18. Natural history of the E1-like superfamily: implication for adenylation, sulfur transfer and ubiquitin conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.

    2009-01-01

    The E1-like superfamily is central to ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation, biosynthesis of cysteine, thiamine and MoCo and several secondary metabolites. Yet, its functional diversity and evolutionary history is not well-understood. We develop a natural classification of this superfamily and use it to decipher the major adaptive trends occurring in the evolution of the E1-like superfamily. Within the Rossmann fold, E1-like proteins are closest to NAD(P)/FAD-dependent dehydrogenases and S-AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases. Hence, their phosphotransfer activity is an independent catalytic “invention” with respect to such activities seen in other Rossmannoid folds. Sequence and structure analysis reveals a striking diversity of residues and structures involved in adenylation, sulfotransfer and substrate-binding between different E1-like families, allowing us to predict previously uncharacterized functional adaptations. E1-like proteins are fused to several previously undetected domains, such as a predicted sulfur transfer domain containing a novel superfamily of the TATA-binding protein fold, different types of catalytic domains, a novel winged helix-turn-helix domain and potential adaptor domains related to Ub conjugation. Based on these fusions we develop a generalized model for the linking of E1 catalyzed adenylation/thiolation with further down-stream reactions. This is likely to involve a dynamic interplay between the E1 active sites and diverse fused C-terminal domains. We also predict participation of E1-like domains in previously uncharacterized bacterial secondary metabolism pathways, new cysteine biosynthesis systems, such as those associated with archaeal O-phosphoseryl tRNA, metal-sulfur cluster assembly (e.g. in nitrogen fixation) and Ub-conjugation. Evolutionary reconstructions suggest that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) contained a single E1-like domain possessing both phosphotransfer and thiolating activities and participating in multiple sulfotransfer reactions. The E1-like superfamily subsequently expanded to include 26 families clustering into three major radiations. These are broadly involved in ubiquitin activation, cofactor and cysteine biosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In light of this we present evidence that in eukaryotes other E1-like enzymes, such as Urm1, were independently recruited for Ubl conjugation, probably functioning without conventional E2-like enzymes. PMID:19089947

  19. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. -- Highlights: ? Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ? Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ? Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ? Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  20. Cyclin E1 Regulates Kv2.1 Channel Phosphorylation and Localization in Neuronal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Niyathi H.; Schulien, Anthony J.; Clemens, Katerina; Aizenman, Talia D.; Hageman, Thomas M.; Wills, Zachary P.

    2014-01-01

    Kv2.1 is a major delayed rectifying K+ channel normally localized to highly phosphorylated somatodendritic clusters in neurons. Excitatory stimuli induce calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation and dispersal of Kv2.1 clusters, with a concomitant hyperpolarizing shift in the channel's activation kinetics. We showed previously that sublethal ischemia, which renders neurons transiently resistant to excitotoxic cell death, can also induce Zn2+-dependent changes in Kv2.1 localization and activation kinetics, suggesting that activity-dependent modifications of Kv2.1 may contribute to cellular adaptive responses to injury. Recently, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) was shown to phosphorylate Kv2.1, with pharmacological Cdk5 inhibition being sufficient to decluster channels. In another study, cyclin E1 was found to restrict neuronal Cdk5 kinase activity. We show here that cyclin E1 regulates Kv2.1 cellular localization via inhibition of Cdk5 activity. Expression of cyclin E1 in human embryonic kidney cells prevents Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of Kv2.1, and cyclin E1 overexpression in rat cortical neurons triggers dispersal of Kv2.1 channel clusters. Sublethal ischemia in neurons induces calcineurin-dependent upregulation of cyclin E1 protein expression and cyclin E1-dependent Kv2.1 channel declustering. Importantly, overexpression of cyclin E1 in neurons is sufficient to reduce excitotoxic cell death. These results support a novel role for neuronal cyclin E1 in regulating the phosphorylation status and localization of Kv2.1 channels, a likely component of signaling cascades leading to ischemic preconditioning. PMID:24647953

  1. M3E.1.pdf OFC 2014 OSA 2014 Rev PA1Rev PA1 1

    E-print Network

    Bergman, Keren

    M3E.1.pdf OFC 2014 © OSA 2014 1/16/2014 1 Rev PA1Rev PA1 1 Silicon Photonics for Exascale Systems, Kishore Padmara, Ke Wen, Lee Zhu Lightwave Research Laboratory, Columbia University Rev PA1Rev PA1 2-1-55752-993-0/14/$31.00 ©2014 Optical Society of America #12;M3E.1.pdf OFC 2014 © OSA 2014 1/16/2014 2 Rev PA1Rev PA1 3 Exascale

  2. Specific uptake of radioiodinated fragment E1 by venous thrombi in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.C.; Olexa, S.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Budzynski, A.Z.

    1983-12-01

    Fragment E1, a product of plasmic digestion of cross-linked fibrin, binds specifically in vitro to polymerized fibrin but not to fibrinogen. Purified human Fragment E1 was radiolabeled with /sup 125/I or /sup 131/I by the Iodogen technique. The uptake of radioiodinated Fragment E1 in vitro into forming or preformed clots was demonstrated. Animal biodistribution studies of radioiodinated Fragment E1 showed its rapid removal from the circulation; radioactive catabolites did not reside long in any organ and were excreted in the urine. The uptake in vivo was evaluated in pigs with preexisting venous thrombi of various ages from 1 h up to 5 d at the time of intravenous systemic injection of the tracer. Radioiodinated fibrinogen was also injected into the same animals to compare the uptake of the two tracers. Thrombus-to-blood ratios for Fragment E1 averaged 43:1 (range 10-108) and 29:1 (range 8-107) in thrombi 1-6 h and 1-5 d old, respectively. In contrast, mean thrombus-to-blood ratios for fibrinogen were, in the same time intervals, 26:1 (range 17-41) and 2:1 (range 0.5-3.9), respectively. It is concluded that radioiodinated Fragment E1 is a specific marker of thrombi in vivo: its uptake by fresh thrombi is better than that of labeled fibrinogen and, in contrast to radioiodinated fibrinogen, this fragment is incorporated into old thrombi as well.

  3. DNA-binding properties of an adenovirus 289R E1A protein.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, P K; Bruner, M; Flint, S J; Harter, M L

    1988-01-01

    An adenovirus 2 289 amino acid (289R) E1A protein purified from Escherichia coli has been shown to interact with DNA by two independent methods. UV-crosslinking of complexes containing unmodified, uniformly 32P-labelled DNA and purified E1A protein induced efficient labelling of the protein with covalently attached oligonucleotides, indicating that the E1A protein itself contacts DNA. Discrete nucleoprotein species were also observed when E1A protein--DNA complexes were analysed by gel electrophoresis. Although the 289R E1A protein exhibited no significant binding to single-stranded DNA or to RNA, no evidence for its sequence-specific binding to double-stranded DNA was obtained with either assay. Identification of the sites of covalent attachment of 32P-labelled oligonucleotides by partial proteolysis of the crosslinked E1A protein indicated that the interaction of this protein with DNA is mediated via domain(s) in the C-terminal half of the protein. Such previously unrecognized DNA-binding activity is likely to contribute to the regulatory activities of this important adenoviral protein. Images PMID:2969333

  4. Diabetes mellitus increases the in vivo activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zaiqi; Hall, Stephen D; Maya, Juan F; Li, Lang; Asghar, Ali; Gorski, J C

    2003-01-01

    Aim Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is thought to activate a number of protoxins, and has been implicated in the development of liver disease. Increased hepatic expression of CYP2E1 occurs in rat models of diabetes but it is unclear whether human diabetics display a similar up-regulation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that human diabetics experience enhanced CYP2E1 expression. Methods The pharmacokinetics of a single dose of chlorzoxazone (500 mg), used as an index of hepatic CYP2E1 activity, was determined in healthy subjects (n = 10), volunteers with Type I (n = 13), and Type II (n = 8) diabetes mellitus. Chlorzoxazone and 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone in serum and urine were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression of CYP2E1 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was quantified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results The mean ± s.d. (90% confidence interval of the difference) chlorzoxazone area under the plasma concentration-time curve was significantly (P ? 0.05) reduced in obese Type II diabetics (15.7 ± 11.3 µg h ml?1; 9, 22) compared with healthy subjects (43.5 ± 16.9 µg h ml?1; 16, 40) and Type I diabetics (32.8 ± 9.2 µg h ml?1; 9, 25). There was a significant two-fold increase in the oral clearance of chlorzoxazone in obese Type II diabetics compared with healthy volunteers and Type I diabetics. The protein binding of chlorzoxazone was not significantly different between the three groups. In contrast, Type 1 diabetics and healthy volunteers demonstrated no difference in the oral clearance of chlorzoxazone. The urinary recovery of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone as a percentage of the administered dose was not different between healthy, Type I and obese Type II diabetics. The elimination half-life of chlorzoxazone did not differ between the three groups. CYP2E1 mRNA was significantly elevated in Type I and obese Type II diabetics compared with healthy volunteers. The oral clearance of chlorzoxazone, elimination half-life, Tmax, and Cmax were not significantly influenced by weight, body mass index, serum glucose, serum cholesterol, or glycosylated haemoglobin. Conclusions There was a marked increase in hepatic CYP2E1 activity in obese Type II diabetics as assessed by chlorzoxazone disposition. Increased expression of CYP2E1 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was found in both types of diabetes mellitus. Adverse hepatic events associated with Type II diabetes may be in part a result of enhanced CYP2E1 expression and activity. PMID:12534643

  5. Cytochrome p450 2E1 polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cardia cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lin; Zheng, Zong-Li; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes have recently been shown to affect susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) enzyme catalyzes the metabolism of many procarcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines and related compounds. The gene coding for this enzyme is polymorphic and thus may play a role in gastric cardia cancer (GCC) etiology. In this hospital-based case-control study, we evaluate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and the risk of GCC. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 159 histologically confirmed GCC cases identified via hospital cancer registry and surgical records at five hospitals in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China, between April and November 2001. Controls were 192 patients admitted to the same hospitals for nonmalignant conditions. The genotypes of CYP2E1 were detected by a PCR-based RFLP assay. The odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression analyses and were adjusted for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: The distribution of three genotypes of CYP2E1 in GCC cases and controls was significantly different (?2 = 16.04, P<0.01). The frequency of the CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotype in GCC cases and controls was 60.4% and 40.1%, respectively. The CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotype was associated with an increased risk for GCC (the adjusted (OR) was 2.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.52-3.70). Subjects who carried the CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotype and were habitual smokers were at a significantly higher risk of developing GCC (OR = 4.68, 95%CI: 2.19-10.04) compared with those who had the CYP2E1 (c1/c2 or c2/c2) genotype and did not smoke. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the CYP2E1 genotype may influence individual susceptibility to development of GCC, and that the risk increases significantly in smokers. PMID:15793883

  6. High-Strength Undiffused Brushless (HSUB) Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S; Lee, Seong T; Tolbert, Leon M

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a new high-strength undiffused brushless machine that transfers the stationary excitation magnetomotive force to the rotor without any brushes. For a conventional permanent magnet (PM) machine, the air-gap flux density cannot be enhanced effectively but can be weakened. In the new machine, both the stationary excitation coil and the PM in the rotor produce an enhanced air-gap flux. The PM in the rotor prevents magnetic-flux diffusion between the poles and guides the reluctance flux path. The pole flux density in the air gap can be much higher than what the PM alone can produce. A high-strength machine is thus obtained. The air-gap flux density can be weakened through the stationary excitation winding. This type of machine is particularly suitable for electric and hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Patents of this new technology are either granted or pending.

  7. On the Ultimate Strength of Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Neil K.

    2015-10-01

    This and an accompanying paper track a range of thresholds for the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the ambient state to the point at which the material bond strength is overcome and it becomes warm dense matter. The threshold considered here is the weak shock limit that differentiates weak- from strong shock dynamic loading. This work examines this threshold and shows a correlation with the theoretical strength of the material. The structure of the shock that evolves has steady and unsteady phases that sweep different regions in a target in differing manners. This is put in context with scale to show it as a transit to a hydrodynamic regime. Limits on the applicability of solid mechanics are discussed in relation to the mechanisms observed.

  8. Alumina strength degradation in the elastic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, M.D.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1997-08-01

    Measurements of Kanel et. al. [1991] have suggested that deviatoric stresses in glasses shocked to nearly the Hugoniot Elastic limit (HEL) relax over a time span of microseconds after initial loading. Failure (damage) waves have been inferred on the basis of these measurements using time-resolved manganin normal and transverse stress gauges. Additional experiments on glass by other researchers, using time-resolved gauges, high-speed photography and spall strength determinations have also lead to the same conclusions. In the present study the authors have conducted transmitted-wave experiments on high-quality Coors AD995 alumina shocked to roughly 5 and 7 GPa (just below or at the HEL). The material is subsequently reshocked to just above its elastic limit. Results of these experiments do show some evidence of strength degradation in the elastic regime.

  9. Strength of Polysilicon for MEMS Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; LaVan, David A.

    1999-07-20

    The safe, secure and reliable application of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) devices requires knowledge about the distribution in material and mechanical properties of the small-scale structures. A new testing program at Sandia is quantifying the strength distribution using polysilicon samples that reflect the dimensions of critical MEMS components. The strength of polysilicon fabricated at Sandia's Microelectronic Development Laboratory was successfully measured using samples 2.5 microns thick, 1.7 microns wide with lengths between 15 and 25 microns. These tensile specimens have a freely moving hub on one end that anchors the sample to the silicon die and allows free rotation. Each sample is loaded in uniaxial tension by pulling laterally with a flat tipped diamond in a computer-controlled Nanoindenter. The stress-strain curve is calculated using the specimen cross section and gage length dimensions verified by measuring against a standard in the SEM.

  10. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  11. Elasticity and Strength of Biomacromolecular Crystals: Lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, A. M.; Witherow, W. K.; Chen, L. Q.; Chernov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The static Young modulus, E = 0.1 to 0.5 GPa, the crystal critical strength (sigma(sub c)) and its ratio to E,sigma(sub c)/E is approximately 10(exp 3), were measured for the first time for non cross-linked lysozyme crystals in solution. By using a triple point bending apparatus, we also demonstrated that the crystals were purely elastic. Softness of protein crystals built of hard macromolecules (26 GPa for lysozyme) is explained by the large size of the macromolecules as compared to the range of intermolecular forces and by the weakness of intermolecular bonds as compared to the peptide bond strength. The relatively large reported dynamic elastic moduli (approximately 8 GPa) from resonance light scattering should come from averaging over the moduli of intracrystalline water and intra- and intermolecular bonding.

  12. Rock strength under confined shock conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, C.H.

    1982-10-01

    This report addresses the laboratory measurements of the static strength of rock needed to simulate the response of rock to an underground explosion. The approach is to identify the variables that affect the strength of rock and to discuss each effect in terms of the underlying processes that cause it. Most of the report is the result of a literature review, although some new analyses and concepts are presented. Attention is directed at three basic rock types: low porosity brittle rock such as granodiorite, high porosity brittle rock such as volcanic tuff, and a rock that may be ductile under the relevant conditions, salt. These three rock types are sufficiently different that somewhat different constitutive laws may have to be used to model their behavior.

  13. Strength of fabric reinforced Blackglas composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, C.; Ko, F.K.

    1996-12-31

    In brittle matrix composites the role of matrix porosity; interface; and matrix/fiber properties degradation due to processing are especially critical for the strength of the composite. In this paper, the Fabric Geometry Model (FGM) is modified to predict the strength of fabric composites. An incremental strain approach in conjunction with strain energy criterion is presented in order to account for the potentially nonlinear behavior of the materials, as seen in the experimental stress-strain curves of Nextel/Blackglas, composites. The failure of the composite is determined by use of a modified maximum strain energy criterion, which is based on the relative magnitudes of the various energy terms in corresponding direction. The effects of porosity, microcracks, fiber and matrix degradation, and fiber/matrix interface are also considered in the modified model.

  14. Strength of Footing with Punching Shear Preventers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Moon, Jiho; Park, Keum-Sung; Bae, Kyu-Woong

    2014-01-01

    The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested. PMID:25401141

  15. Structural equation modeling: strengths, limitations, and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Tomarken, Andrew J; Waller, Niels G

    2005-01-01

    Because structural equation modeling (SEM) has become a very popular data-analytic technique, it is important for clinical scientists to have a balanced perception of its strengths and limitations. We review several strengths of SEM, with a particular focus on recent innovations (e.g., latent growth modeling, multilevel SEM models, and approaches for dealing with missing data and with violations of normality assumptions) that underscore how SEM has become a broad data-analytic framework with flexible and unique capabilities. We also consider several limitations of SEM and some misconceptions that it tends to elicit. Major themes emphasized are the problem of omitted variables, the importance of lower-order model components, potential limitations of models judged to be well fitting, the inaccuracy of some commonly used rules of thumb, and the importance of study design. Throughout, we offer recommendations for the conduct of SEM analyses and the reporting of results. PMID:17716081

  16. Ambient temperature fracture strength of pure alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Nguyen, N.Q.

    1990-12-19

    The fracture of alumina copper-vapor laser tubes has led to great interest in the mechanical properties of pure alumina ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the Copper Laser Program. In particular, knowledge of the fracture strength of the alumina used to make these tubes is required at temperatures ranging from ambient to 1500{degree}C. The purpose of the work reported here was to confirm that the fracture strength data reasonably well describe the behavior of the alumina used in the Copper Laser Program. The goal was to make this investigation with the minimum of effort and cost. To this end, only ambient temperature tests were planned.

  17. Strength of glass from Hertzian line contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenrui; Cuerden, Brian; Parks, Robert E.; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    In optical lens assembly, metal retaining rings are often used to hold the lens in place. If we mount a lens to a sharp metal edge using normal retention force, high compressive stress is loaded to the interface and the calculated tensile stress near the contact area from Hertzian contact appears higher than allowable. Therefore, conservative designs are used to ensure that glass will not fracture during assembly and operation. We demonstrate glass survival with very high levels of stress. This paper analyzes the high contact stress between glass lenses and metal mounts using finite element model and to predict its effect on the glass strength with experimental data. We show that even though contact damage may occur under high surface tensile stress, the stress region is shallow compared to the existing flaw depth. So that glass strength will not be degraded and the component can survive subsequent applied stresses.

  18. Cryogenic insulation strength and bond tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerer, P. H.; Ehl, J. H.; Prasthofer, W. P. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for testing the tensile strength and bonding strength of sprayed-on foam insulation attached to metal cryogenic fuel tanks is described. A circular cutter is used to cut the insulation down to the surface of the metal tank to form plugs of the insulation for testing in situ on the tank. The apparatus comprises an electromechanical pulling device powered by a belt battery pack. The pulling device comprises a motor driving a mechanical pulling structure comprising a horizontal shaft connected to two bell cracks which are connected to a central member. When the lower end of member is attached to a fitting, which in turn is bonded to a plug, a pulling force is exerted on the plug sufficient to rupture it. The force necessary to rupture the plug or pull it loose is displayed as a digital read-out.

  19. Osteogenic gene expression of murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells under cyclic tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, C. T.; Chen, C. C.; Cheong, U.-I.; Liu, S. L.; Huang, T. H.

    2014-08-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote cell proliferation. The remodeling ability of the tension side of orthodontic teeth affects post-orthodontic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of LLLT on osteoblast-like cells treated with a simulated tension system that provides a mechanical tension regimen. Murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in a Flexcell strain unit with programmed loads of 12% elongation at a frequency of 0.5?Hz for 24 and 48?h. The cultured cells were treated with a low-level diode laser using powers of 5?J and 10?J. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The expression of osteogenic genes (type I collagen (Col-1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), bone morphologic protein (BMP-2), and bone morphologic protein (BMP-4)) in MC3T3-E1 cells was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The proliferation rate of tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under 5?J and 10?J LLLT increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Prominent mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells was visible using a von Kossa stain in the 5?J LLLT group. Osteogenic genes (Col-1, OC, OPG and BMP-2) were significantly expressed in the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5?J and 10?J LLLT (p < 0.05). LLLT in tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells showed synergistic osteogenic effects, including increases in cell proliferation and Col-1, OPN, OC, OPG and BMP-2 gene expression. LLLT might be beneficial for bone remodeling on the tension side of orthodontics.

  20. Expression of Estrogen Sulfotransferase 1E1 and Steroid Sulfatase in Breast Cancer: A Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Poisson Paré, D.; Song, D.; Luu-The, V.; Han, B.; Li, S.; Liu, G.; Labrie, F; Pelletier, G.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the steroid sulfatase (STS) and the estrogen sulfotransferase (EST1E1) are commonly expressed in human breast carcinomas. STS and EST1E1 combined action could maintain the equilibrium between sulfated (inactive) and unconjugated (active) estrogens, which might have effects on development of hormone dependent breast cancer. We studied the expression of the STS and EST1E1 in 88 breast carcinomas and 57 adjacent non-malignant tissues by immunohistochemistry. The results were correlated with the tumor expression of estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) and ? (ER-?), progesterone receptor A (PR-A) and B (PR-B) and the proliferation marker CDC47, the tumoral type and stage and the age at surgery. STS expression was higher in carcinoma specimens than in adjacent normal tissues, although not to a significant level (p = 0.064) and it was positively associated with CDC47 expression (p < 0.05). These observations support the hypothesis that STS is overexpressed in breast cancer and associated with a worse prognosis. EST1E1 was observed for the first time in the nuclei of epithelial and tumoral cells. Tumor expression of EST1E1 was positively correlated with ER-? (p < 0.01) and PR-B (p < 0.05), two steroid receptors already associated with an improve prognosis for breast cancer. Controlling the STS overexpression in carcinomas could be a way to inhibit cancer growth. The significance of the association between EST1E1 and ER-? or PR-B should be further studied since these two receptors are transcription activators and may regulate the expression of protective enzymes like EST1E1. PMID:21556246

  1. [Newly developed drugs to improve bone strength].

    PubMed

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis improve bone strength by inhibiting bone resorption or stimulating bone formation. New drugs already using some action mechanism such as bisphosphonate or parathyroid hormone-related peptide analog are being developed in Japan. In addition, new drugs with new action mechanisms such as cathepsin K inhibitor or anti-sclerostin antibody are also being developed and it has been reported that they have good potential to increase bone mineral density. PMID:26728536

  2. Single pellet crush strength testing of catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Brienza, P.K. )

    1988-09-01

    ASTM D-32 Committee on Catalysts has developed a standard test method for single pellet crush strength for formed catalyst shapes. This standard was issued under the fixed designation D 4179. The method is applicable to regular catalyst shapes such as tablets and spheres. Extrudates, granular materials, and other irregular shapes are excluded. The committee continues to work on the development of a method for the single pellet crush testing of extrudates.

  3. New methods to measure phase transition strength

    E-print Network

    Wolfhard Janke; Des Johnston; Ralph Kenna

    2002-08-08

    A recently developed technique to determine the order and strength of phase transitions by extracting the density of partition function zeroes (a continuous function) from finite-size systems (a discrete data set) is generalized to systems for which (i) some or all of the zeroes occur in degenerate sets and/or (ii) they are not confined to a singular line in the complex plane. The technique is demonstrated by application to the case of free Wilson fermions.

  4. On a model of calculating bond strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yang, T. T.; Lin, T. S.

    1976-01-01

    Diffusion bonding is a fabricating process to join the fibers and a matrix together forming a composite. The efficiency of the bonding process depends on temperature, time, and pressure. Based on a simplified pair potential model, an expression for the bond-energy at the fiber-matrix interface is formulated in terms of the above-mentioned three parameters. From this expression and the mean atomic distance, the bond-strength between the fibers and the matrix can be calculated.

  5. Simulation studies for surfaces and materials strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halicioglu, Timur

    1988-01-01

    During this six month period of the Simulation Studies for Surfaces and Materials Strength program investigations were carried out in two general areas: (1) Energy barriers and structural transitions between isomers of small Al clusters were investigated. In this study an empirical potential function which was parametrized based on accurate first principle results was employed; (2) A comparative study was conducted to investigate the applicability of most commonly employed model potential functions in calculating various bulk, surface and small cluster properties.

  6. Shear adhesion strength of aligned electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Najem, Johnny F; Wong, Shing-Chung; Ji, Guang

    2014-09-01

    Inspiration from nature such as insects' foot hairs motivates scientists to fabricate nanoscale cylindrical solids that allow tens of millions of contact points per unit area with material substrates. In this paper, we present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive shear adhesive laminates. By using aligned electrospun nylon-6, we create dry adhesives, as a succession of our previous work on measuring adhesion energies between two single free-standing electrospun polymer fibers in cross-cylinder geometry, randomly oriented membranes and substrate, and peel forces between aligned fibers and substrate. The synthetic aligned cylindrical solids in this study are electrically insulating and show a maximal Mode II shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm(2) on a glass slide. This measured value, for the purpose of comparison, is 270% of that reported from gecko feet. The Mode II shear adhesion strength, based on a commonly known "dead-weight" test, is 97-fold greater than the Mode I (normal) adhesion strength of the same. The data indicate a strong shear binding on and easy normal lifting off. Anisotropic adhesion (Mode II/Mode I) is pronounced. The size and surface boundary effects, crystallinity, and bending stiffness of fibers are used to understand these electrospun nanofibers, which vastly differ from otherwise known adhesive technologies. The anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to a decreasing fiber diameter and an optimized laminate thickness, which, in turn, influences the bending stiffness and solid-state "wettability" of points of contact between nanofibers and surface asperities. PMID:25105533

  7. Oscillator strengths for ionized iron and manganese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Pottasch, S. R.; Morton, D. C.; York, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The observed strengths of interstellar absorption lines of Fe II and Mn II in the spectra of alpha Vir, beta Cen, pi Sco, and zeta Oph along with laboratory f values of some of these lines between 2343 and 2606 A have been used to determine curves of growth for these ions and the f-values of ten lines of Fe II and three lines of Mn II between 1055 and 1261 A. The Fe and Mn abundances are derived.

  8. Sex Differences in Tibial Bone Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Torikoshi, S.; Hutchinson, K. J.; Hargens, Alan R.; Steele, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an instrument (MRTA or Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer) that measures bending stiffness (EI) non-Invasively to evaluate the strength of the tibia, a long bone in the weightbearing skeleton highly vulnerable to mineral loss during space flight. In healthy men, we found asymmetry in EI consistent with the bone's support function (L greater than R). In this study, we analyzed EI in women and compared the results to those in men.

  9. Strength, Deformation and Fracture in Metallic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xun Wendy

    An understanding of the mechanics of nanoscale metals and semiconductors is necessary for the safe and prolonged operation of nanostructured devices from transistors to nanowire- based solar cells to miniaturized electrodes. This is a fascinating but challenging pursuit because mechanical properties that are size-invariant in conventional materials, such as strength, ductility and fracture behavior, can depend critically on sample size when materials are reduced to sub-micron dimensions. In this thesis, the effect of nanoscale sample size, microstructure and structural geometry on mechanical strength, deformation and fracture are explored for several classes of solid materials. Nanocrystalline platinum nano-cylinders with diameters of 60 nm to 1 ?m and 12 nm sized grains are fabricated and tested in compression. We find that nano-sized metals containing few grains weaken as sample diameter is reduced relative to grain size due to a change from deformation governed by internal grains to surface grain governed deformation. Fracture at the nanoscale is explored by performing in-situ SEM tension tests on nanocrystalline platinum and amorphous, metallic glass nano-cylinders containing purposely introduced structural flaws. It is found that failure location, mechanism and strength are determined by the stress concentration with the highest local stress whether this is at the structural flaw or a microstructural feature. Principles of nano-mechanics are used to design and test mechanically robust hierarchical nanostructures with structural and electrochemical applications. 2-photon lithography and electroplating are used to fabricate 3D solid Cu octet meso-lattices with micron-scale features that exhibit strength higher than that of bulk Cu. An in-situ SEM lithiation stage is developed and used to simultaneously examine morphological and electrochemical changes in Si-coated Cu meso-lattices that are of interest as high energy capacity electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

  10. Visual Features: Featural Strength and Visual Strength Are Two Dissociable Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    Visual features are often assumed to be the general building blocks for various visual tasks. However, it is well known that some stimulus categories (i.e., basic features) can be processed in parallel, but others (e.g., Ts in different orientations) need to be scanned serially, and this difference in featural strength seems to be on a fundamentally different dimension from differences in visual strength (e.g., reduction in contrast). This study compared two high-level tasks, namely tasks that require a lot of attentional operations (change detection and pattern comparison), with one low-level task, namely a task that requires few attentional operations (perceptual discrimination). The results confirmed that featural strength has substantial effects on high-level tasks but only a negligible effect on the low-level task. The results also revealed a complementary interaction: Visual strength has a substantial effect on the low-level task, but a negligible effect on high-level tasks. Overall, featural strength and visual strength are two dissociable dimensions in processing of visual features. The present results, along with other findings, challenge the generality of processing visual features. PMID:26348155

  11. Post impact compressive strength in composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuts, Edvins; Sandhu, Raghbir S.; Daniels, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the plan, equipment, procedures, and findings of an experimental investigation of the tolerance to low velocity impact of a graphite epoxy (AS4/3501-6) and graphite bismaleimide (M6/CYCOM3100) advanced composites. The applied impacts were governed by the Air Force Guide Specification 87221. Specimens of each material system having a common nominal layup (10% 0 deg; 80% +/-45 deg; 10% 90 deg), a common 7 inch (17.78 cm) by 10 inch (25.40 cm) size, five different thicknesses (9, 26, 48, 74, and 96 plies), and ambient moisture content were impacted and strength tested at room temperature. Damaged areas and post impact compression strengths (PICS) were among the most significant findings obtained. While the undamaged per ply compression strength of both materials is a strong function of laminate thickness, the per ply PICS is not. The average difference in per ply PICS between the two material systems is about seven percent. Although a smaller percentage of the applied kinetic energy was absorbed by the Gr/BMI than by the Gr/Epoxy composites, larger damaged areas were produced in the Gr/BMI than in Gr/Epoxy. Within the limitations of this investigation, the Gr/BMI system seems to offer no advantage in damage tolerance over the Gr/Epoxy system examined.

  12. Selective activation of microglia facilitates synaptic strength.

    PubMed

    Clark, Anna K; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J; Malcangio, Marzia; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2015-03-18

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1? from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  13. Selective Activation of Microglia Facilitates Synaptic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anna K.; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J.; Malcangio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1? from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  14. ZERODUR: bending strength data for etched surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Leys, Antoine; Carré, Antoine; Kerz, Franca; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In a continuous effort since 2007 a considerable amount of new data and information has been gathered on the bending strength of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR®. By fitting a three parameter Weibull distribution to the data it could be shown that for homogenously ground surfaces minimum breakage stresses exist lying much higher than the previously applied design limits. In order to achieve even higher allowable stress values diamond grain ground surfaces have been acid etched, a procedure widely accepted as strength increasing measure. If surfaces are etched taking off layers with thickness which are comparable to the maximum micro crack depth of the preceding grinding process they also show statistical distributions compatible with a three parameter Weibull distribution. SCHOTT has performed additional measurement series with etch solutions with variable composition testing the applicability of this distribution and the possibility to achieve further increase of the minimum breakage stress. For long term loading applications strength change with time and environmental media are important. The parameter needed for prediction calculations which is combining these influences is the stress corrosion constant. Results from the past differ significantly from each other. On the basis of new investigations better information will be provided for choosing the best value for the given application conditions.

  15. Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities from the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method: Ne IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2014-09-01

    The atomic parameters-oscillator strengths, line strengths, radiative decay rates (A), and lifetimes-for fine structure transitions of electric dipole (E1) type for the astrophysically abundant ion Ne IV are presented. The results include 868 fine structure levels with n? 10, l? 9, and 1/2?J? 19/2 of even and odd parities, and the corresponding 83,767 E1 transitions. The calculations were carried out using the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method in the close coupling approximation. The transitions have been identified spectroscopically using an algorithm based on quantum defect analysis and other criteria. The calculated energies agree with the 103 observed and identified energies to within 3% or better for most of the levels. Some larger differences are also noted. The A-values show good to fair agreement with the very limited number of available transitions in the table compiled by NIST, but show very good agreement with the latest published multi-configuration Hartree-Fock calculations. The present transitions should be useful for diagnostics as well as for precise and complete spectral modeling in the soft X-ray to infra-red regions of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  16. 2-Carboxyquinoxalines kill mycobacterium tuberculosis through noncovalent inhibition of DprE1.

    PubMed

    Neres, João; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Gadupudi, Ramakrishna; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Mori, Giorgia; Venturelli, Alberto; Savina, Svetlana; Makarov, Vadim; Kolly, Gaelle S; Molteni, Elisabetta; Binda, Claudia; Dhar, Neeraj; Ferrari, Stefania; Brodin, Priscille; Delorme, Vincent; Landry, Valérie; de Jesus Lopes Ribeiro, Ana Luisa; Farina, Davide; Saxena, Puneet; Pojer, Florence; Carta, Antonio; Luciani, Rosaria; Porta, Alessio; Zanoni, Giuseppe; De Rossi, Edda; Costi, Maria Paola; Riccardi, Giovanna; Cole, Stewart T

    2015-03-20

    Phenotypic screening of a quinoxaline library against replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis led to the identification of lead compound Ty38c (3-((4-methoxybenzyl)amino)-6-(trifluoromethyl)quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid). With an MIC99 and MBC of 3.1 ?M, Ty38c is bactericidal and active against intracellular bacteria. To investigate its mechanism of action, we isolated mutants resistant to Ty38c and sequenced their genomes. Mutations were found in rv3405c, coding for the transcriptional repressor of the divergently expressed rv3406 gene. Biochemical studies clearly showed that Rv3406 decarboxylates Ty38c into its inactive keto metabolite. The actual target was then identified by isolating Ty38c-resistant mutants of an M. tuberculosis strain lacking rv3406. Here, mutations were found in dprE1, encoding the decaprenylphosphoryl-d-ribose oxidase DprE1, essential for biogenesis of the mycobacterial cell wall. Genetics, biochemical validation, and X-ray crystallography revealed Ty38c to be a noncovalent, noncompetitive DprE1 inhibitor. Structure-activity relationship studies generated a family of DprE1 inhibitors with a range of IC50's and bactericidal activity. Co-crystal structures of DprE1 in complex with eight different quinoxaline analogs provided a high-resolution interaction map of the active site of this extremely vulnerable target in M. tuberculosis. PMID:25427196

  17. Expression and Characterization of Acidothermus celluloyticus E1 Endoglucanase in Transgenic Duckweed Lemna minor 8627

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Himmel, M. E.; Skory, C. D.; Adney, W. S.; Thomas, S. R.; Tisserat, B.; Nishimura, Y.; Yamamoto, Y. T.

    2007-01-01

    Endoglucanase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was expressed cytosolically under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic duckweed, Lemna minor 8627 without any obvious observable phenotypic effects on morphology or rate of growth. The recombinant enzyme co-migrated with the purified catalytic domain fraction of the native E1 protein on western blot analysis, revealing that the cellulose-binding domain was cleaved near or in the linker region. The duckweed-expressed enzyme was biologically active and the expression level was up to 0.24% of total soluble protein. The endoglucanase activity with carboxymethylcellulose averaged 0.2 units mg protein{sup -1} extracted from fresh duckweed. The optimal temperature and pH for E1 enzyme activity were about 80 C and pH 5, respectively. While extraction with HEPES (N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N{prime}-[2-ethanesulfonic acid]) buffer (pH 8) resulted in the highest recovery of total soluble proteins and E1 enzyme, extraction with citrate buffer (pH 4.8) at 65 C enriched relative amounts of E1 enzyme in the extract. This study demonstrates that duckweed may offer new options for the expression of cellulolytic enzymes in transgenic plants.

  18. Investigation of Indazole Unbinding Pathways in CYP2E1 by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhonghua; Cheng, Feixiong; Xu, You; Fu, Jing; Xiao, Wen; Shen, Jie; Liu, Guixia; Li, Weihua; Tang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Human microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) can oxidize not only low molecular weight xenobiotic compounds such as ethanol, but also many endogenous fatty acids. The crystal structure of CYP2E1 in complex with indazole reveals that the active site is deeply buried into the protein center. Thus, the unbinding pathways and associated unbinding mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations combined with steered molecular dynamics and potential of mean force calculations were performed to identify the possible unbinding pathways in CYP2E1. The results show that channel 2c and 2a are most likely the unbinding channels of CYP2E1. The former channel is located between helices G and I and the B-C loop, and the latter resides between the region formed by the F-G loop, the B-C loop and the ?1 sheet. Phe298 and Phe478 act as the gate keeper during indazole unbinding along channel 2c and 2a, respectively. Previous site-directed mutagenesis experiments also supported these findings. PMID:22442693

  19. Genetic mapping of a major site of phosphorylation in adenovirus type 2 E1A proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, A S; Ponticelli, A; Berk, A J; Gaynor, R B

    1986-01-01

    Adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) encodes two acidic phosphoproteins which are required for transactivation of viral transcription, efficient viral DNA replication in phase G0-arrested human cells, and oncogenic transformation of rodent cells. Biochemical analysis of in vivo 32P-labeled adenovirus type 2 E1A proteins purified with monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that these proteins were phosphorylated at multiple serine residues. Two-dimensional phosphotryptic peptide maps of wild-type and mutant E1A proteins were used to locate a major site of E1A protein phosphorylation at serine-219 of the large E1A protein. Although this serine fell within a consensus sequence for phosphorylation by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases, experiments with mutant CHO cells defective in these enzymes indicated that it was not. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute an alanine for serine-219. This mutation prevented phosphorylation at this site. Nonetheless, the mutant was indistinguishable from the wild type for early gene transactivation, replication on G0-arrested WI-38 cells, and transformation of cloned rat embryo fibroblast cells. Images PMID:2940374

  20. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Iman; Feizi, Hossein; Hasan-khali, Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for designing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population. Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females) aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis. Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively. Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population. PMID:26000246

  1. Shear strength of metals under uniaxial deformation and pure shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, F. T.; Mayer, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamic shear strength of perfect monocrystalline metals using the molecular dynamics simulation. Three types of deformation (single shear, uniaxial compression and tension) are investigated for five metals of different crystallographic systems (fcc, bcc and hcp). A strong dependence of the calculated shear strength on the deformation type is observed. In the case of bcc (iron) and hcp (titanium) metals, the maximal shear strength is achieved at the uniaxial compression, while the minimal shear strength is observed at the uniaxial tension. In the case of fcc metals (aluminum, copper, nickel) the largest strength is achieved at the pure shear, the lowest strength is obtained at the uniaxial compression.

  2. Substitution of specific cysteine residues in E1 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus strain Brescia affects formation of E1-E2 heterodimers and alters virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E1, along with E^rns and E2, is one of the three envelope glycoproteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E1 and E2 are anchored to the virus envelope at their carboxyl termini and E^rns loosely associates with the viral envelope. In infected cells, E2 forms homodimers and heterodimers with E1,...

  3. Inhibitory potency of 4-carbon alkanes and alkenes toward CYP2E1 activity.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Jessica H; Miller, Grover P; Boysen, Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    CYP2E1 has been implicated in the bioactivation of many small molecules into reactive metabolites which form adducts with proteins and DNA, and thus a better understanding of the molecular determinants of its selectivity are critical for accurate toxicological predictions. In this study, we determined the potency of inhibition of human CYP2E1 for various 4-carbon alkanes, alkenes and alcohols. In addition, known CYP2E1 substrates and inhibitors including 4-methylpyrazole, aniline, and dimethylnitrosamine were included to determine their relative potencies. Of the 1,3-butadiene-derived metabolites studied, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene was the strongest inhibitor with an IC50 of 110 ?M compared to 1700 ?M and 6600 ?M for 1,2-butenediol and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, respectively. Compared to known inhibitors, inhibitory potency of 3,4-epoxy-1-butene is between 4-methylpyrazole (IC50 = 1.8 ?M) and dimethylnitrosamine (IC50 = 230 ?M). All three butadiene metabolites inhibit CYP2E1 activity through a simple competitive mechanism. Among the 4-carbon compounds studied, the presence and location of polar groups seems to influence inhibitory potency. To further examine this notion, the investigation was extended to include structurally and chemically similar analogues, including propylene oxide and various butane alcohols. Those results demonstrated preferential recognition of CYP2E1 toward the type and location of polar and hydrophobic structural elements. Taken together, CYP2E1 metabolism may be modified in vivo by exposure to 4-carbon compounds, such as drugs, and nutritional constituents, a finding that highlights the complexity of exposure to mixtures. PMID:24561005

  4. Leinamycin E1 acting as an anticancer prodrug activated by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Yun, Bong-Sik; Ma, Ming; Basu, Hirak S; Church, Dawn R; Ingenhorst, Gudrun; Huang, Yong; Yang, Dong; Lohman, Jeremy R; Tang, Gong-Li; Ju, Jianhua; Liu, Tao; Wilding, George; Shen, Ben

    2015-07-01

    Leinamycin (LNM) is a potent antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140, featuring an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety that is spiro-fused to a thiazole-containing 18-membered lactam ring. Upon reductive activation in the presence of cellular thiols, LNM exerts its antitumor activity by an episulfonium ion-mediated DNA alkylation. Previously, we have cloned the lnm gene cluster from S. atroolivaceus S-140 and characterized the biosynthetic machinery responsible for the 18-membered lactam backbone and the alkyl branch at C3 of LNM. We now report the isolation and characterization of leinamycin E1 (LNM E1) from S. atroolivacues SB3033, a ?lnmE mutant strain of S. atroolivaceus S-140. Complementary to the reductive activation of LNM by cellular thiols, LNM E1 can be oxidatively activated by cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) to generate a similar episulfonium ion intermediate, thereby alkylating DNA and leading to eventual cell death. The feasibility of exploiting LNM E1 as an anticancer prodrug activated by ROS was demonstrated in two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and DU-145. Because many cancer cells are under higher cellular oxidative stress with increased levels of ROS than normal cells, these findings support the idea of exploiting ROS as a means to target cancer cells and highlight LNM E1 as a novel lead for the development of anticancer prodrugs activated by ROS. The structure of LNM E1 also reveals critical new insights into LNM biosynthesis, setting the stage to investigate sulfur incorporation, as well as the tailoring steps that convert the nascent hybrid peptide-polyketide biosynthetic intermediate into LNM. PMID:26056295

  5. The dynamics of E1A in regulating networks and canonical pathways in quiescent cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses force quiescent cells to re-enter the cell cycle to replicate their DNA, and for the most part, this is accomplished after they express the E1A protein immediately after infection. In this context, E1A is believed to inactivate cellular proteins (e.g., p130) that are known to be involved in the silencing of E2F-dependent genes that are required for cell cycle entry. However, the potential perturbation of these types of genes by E1A relative to their functions in regulatory networks and canonical pathways remains poorly understood. Findings We have used DNA microarrays analyzed with Bayesian ANOVA for microarray (BAM) to assess changes in gene expression after E1A alone was introduced into quiescent cells from a regulated promoter. Approximately 2,401 genes were significantly modulated by E1A, and of these, 385 and 1033 met the criteria for generating networks and functional and canonical pathway analysis respectively, as determined by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. After focusing on the highest-ranking cellular processes and regulatory networks that were responsive to E1A in quiescent cells, we observed that many of the up-regulated genes were associated with DNA replication, the cell cycle and cellular compromise. We also identified a cadre of up regulated genes with no previous connection to E1A; including genes that encode components of global DNA repair systems and DNA damage checkpoints. Among the down-regulated genes, we found that many were involved in cell signalling, cell movement, and cellular proliferation. Remarkably, a subset of these was also associated with p53-independent apoptosis, and the putative suppression of this pathway may be necessary in the viral life cycle until sufficient progeny have been produced. Conclusions These studies have identified for the first time a large number of genes that are relevant to E1A's activities in promoting quiescent cells to re-enter the cell cycle in order to create an optimum environment for adenoviral replication. PMID:21615925

  6. Quantitative muscle strength testing: a comparison of job strength requirements and actual worker strength among military technicians.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, D M; Clark, J A; Johns, R E; White, G L; Hoffman, S

    1989-01-01

    In this study the authors investigate the percentage of mismatch between job demands and worker physical capacity in Utah National Guard mechanics. This population had demonstrated a higher incidence of low back trouble than other job descriptions reviewed. The authors utilized onsite still and videotape photography and a computerized biomechanical strength prediction model to assess loads on the lumbosacral spine due to various job tasks. Job demands were then compared to the actual physical capacity of the individual workers based on static strength testing in job-related positions. A load cell on the testing apparatus entered the force generated into a computer which averaged the force of the last three seconds of a five-second lift. It was determined that as much as a 38% mismatch existed within this population for some job tasks which these workers were exposed to. Suggestions for preventing job-related low back cumulative trauma disorders are presented, including: engineering redesign, worker selection programs, work hardening, and others. PMID:2522169

  7. "The strength of Nebraska": Boyd Epley, Husker Power, and the formation of the strength coaching profession.

    PubMed

    Shurley, Jason P; Todd, Jan S

    2012-12-01

    Boyd Epley was hired as the first full-time strength and conditioning coach at the University of Nebraska in 1969. Epley's hiring was the result of his extensive knowledge of strength training, an injury, and several disappointing seasons for the Cornhusker football team. An enterprising young coach, Tom Osborne, recognized that injured football players who trained with Epley, then an injured varsity pole-vaulter, returned to the team stronger than when they left. Osborne and Epley were able to convince head football coach and athletic director, Bob Devaney, that his belief that weight training was detrimental to athletic performance was unfounded. After starting the Husker Power program, Epley consistently worked to make it more scientific and specific to the demands of football. The results of Epley's work speak for themselves, over a career that spanned 35 years, football teams under his tutelage recorded 356 wins, 5 national championships, and a host of national player of the year award winners. In addition to his work as a practitioner of strength and conditioning, Epley also played an integral role in organizing a disparate group of individuals into a recognizable profession. He was the driving force in founding the National Strength and Conditioning Association in 1978. The organization would go on to fund and disseminate research in the field, resulting in the highly skilled practitioners of strength and conditioning practicing today. PMID:22027859

  8. Melanoma cultures show different susceptibility towards E1A-, E1B-19 kDa- and fiber-modified replication-competent adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, M; Graf, C; Gut, T; Sirena, D; Peter, I; Dummer, R; Greber, U F; Hemmi, S

    2006-06-01

    Replicating adenovirus (Ad) vectors with tumour tissue specificity hold great promise for treatment of cancer. We have recently constructed a conditionally replicating Ad5 AdDeltaEP-TETP inducing tumour regression in a xenograft mouse model. For further improvement of this vector, we introduced four genetic modifications and analysed the viral cytotoxicity in a large panel of melanoma cell lines and patient-derived melanoma cells. (1) The antiapoptotic gene E1B-19 kDa (Delta19 mutant) was deleted increasing the cytolytic activity in 18 of 21 melanoma cells. (2) Introduction of the E1A 122-129 deletion (Delta24 mutant), suggested to attenuate viral replication in cell cycle-arrested cells, did not abrogate this activity and increased the cytolytic activity in two of 21 melanoma cells. (3) We inserted an RGD sequence into the fiber to extend viral tropism to alphav integrin-expressing cells, and (4) swapped the fiber with the Ad35 fiber (F35) enhancing the tropism to malignant melanoma cells expressing CD46. The RGD-fiber modification strongly increased cytolysis in all of the 11 CAR-low melanoma cells. The F35 fiber-chimeric vector boosted the cytotoxicity in nine of 11 cells. Our results show that rational engineering additively enhances the cytolytic potential of Ad vectors, a prerequisite for the development of patient-customized viral therapies. PMID:16482201

  9. The genetic architecture of maize stalk strength.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Jason A; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A; De Leon, Natalia; McMullen, Michael D; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Buckler, Edward S

    2013-01-01

    Stalk strength is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Strong stalks reduce lodging and maximize harvestable yield. Studies show rind penetrometer resistance (RPR), or the force required to pierce a stalk rind with a spike, is a valid approximation of strength. We measured RPR across 4,692 recombinant inbreds (RILs) comprising the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel derived from crosses of diverse inbreds to the inbred, B73. An intermated B73×Mo17 family (IBM) of 196 RILs and a panel of 2,453 diverse inbreds from the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) were also evaluated. We measured RPR in three environments. Family-nested QTL were identified by joint-linkage mapping in the NAM panel. We also performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) in each panel. Broad sense heritability computed on a line means basis was low for RPR. Only 8 of 26 families had a heritability above 0.20. The NCRPIS diversity panel had a heritability of 0.54. Across NAM and IBM families, 18 family-nested QTL and 141 significant GWAS associations were identified for RPR. Numerous weak associations were also found in the NCRPIS diversity panel. However, few were linked to loci involved in phenylpropanoid and cellulose synthesis or vegetative phase transition. Using an identity-by-state (IBS) relationship matrix estimated from 1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and RPR measures from 20% of the NAM panel, genomic prediction by GBLUP explained 64±2% of variation in the remaining RILs. In the NCRPIS diversity panel, an IBS matrix estimated from 681,257 SNPs and RPR measures from 20% of the panel explained 33±3% of variation in the remaining inbreds. These results indicate the high genetic complexity of stalk strength and the potential for genomic prediction to hasten its improvement. PMID:23840585

  10. The Genetic Architecture of Maize Stalk Strength

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Jason A.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.; De Leon, Natalia; McMullen, Michael D.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Stalk strength is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Strong stalks reduce lodging and maximize harvestable yield. Studies show rind penetrometer resistance (RPR), or the force required to pierce a stalk rind with a spike, is a valid approximation of strength. We measured RPR across 4,692 recombinant inbreds (RILs) comprising the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel derived from crosses of diverse inbreds to the inbred, B73. An intermated B73×Mo17 family (IBM) of 196 RILs and a panel of 2,453 diverse inbreds from the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) were also evaluated. We measured RPR in three environments. Family-nested QTL were identified by joint-linkage mapping in the NAM panel. We also performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) in each panel. Broad sense heritability computed on a line means basis was low for RPR. Only 8 of 26 families had a heritability above 0.20. The NCRPIS diversity panel had a heritability of 0.54. Across NAM and IBM families, 18 family-nested QTL and 141 significant GWAS associations were identified for RPR. Numerous weak associations were also found in the NCRPIS diversity panel. However, few were linked to loci involved in phenylpropanoid and cellulose synthesis or vegetative phase transition. Using an identity-by-state (IBS) relationship matrix estimated from 1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and RPR measures from 20% of the NAM panel, genomic prediction by GBLUP explained 64±2% of variation in the remaining RILs. In the NCRPIS diversity panel, an IBS matrix estimated from 681,257 SNPs and RPR measures from 20% of the panel explained 33±3% of variation in the remaining inbreds. These results indicate the high genetic complexity of stalk strength and the potential for genomic prediction to hasten its improvement. PMID:23840585

  11. Frictional Strength of Hayward Fault Gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C.; Moore, D.; Lockner, D.

    2007-12-01

    A recent 3-D geologic model of the Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay Region shows that a number of different rock units are juxtaposed across the fault surface as a result of lateral displacement. The fault gouge formed therein is likely a mixture of these various rock types. To better model the mechanical behavior of the Hayward fault, which is known to both creep and have large earthquakes, frictional properties of mixtures of the principal rock types were determined in the laboratory. Room temperature triaxial shearing tests were conducted on binary and ternary mixtures of Great Valley Sequence graywacke, Franciscan jadeite-bearing metagraywacke, Franciscan pumpellyite-bearing metasandstone, Franciscan melange matrix, serpentinite and two-pyroxene gabbro. The gouge samples were crushed and sieved (<150 ?m grains), then applied in a 1-mm layer between saw-cut sliding blocks. Each sample assemblage was saturated and sheared at constant pore water pressure of 1 MPa and normal stress of 51 MPa. Coefficients of friction, ?, ranged from a low of 0.38 for the serpentinite to a maximum of 0.85 for the gabbro. While the serpentinite and the Franciscan melange matrix were relatively weak, all other rock types obeyed Byerlee's Law. The friction coefficient of mixtures could be reliably predicted by a simple average based on dry weight percent of the end member strengths. This behavior is in contrast to some mixtures of common gouge materials such as montmorillonite+quartz, which exhibit non- linear frictional strength trends with varying weight percent of constituents. All materials tested except serpentinite were velocity strengthening, therefore promoting creeping behavior. The addition of serpentinite decreased a-b values of the gouge and increased the characteristic displacement, dc, of strength evolution. Because temperature strongly influences the mechanical properties of fault gouge as well as speeding chemical reactions between the constituents, elevated temperature experiments simulating deeper seismogenic regions of the Hayward fault are planned for the near future.

  12. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethan...

  13. 26 CFR 1.72(e)-1T - Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... all contributions are employee contributions (temporary). 1.72(e)-1T Section 1.72(e)-1T Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.72(e)-1T Treatment of distributions... Reform Act (TRA) of 1984 change the law with regard to the treatment of non-annuity distributions...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1033(e)-1 Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of livestock (other than poultry) held for draft, breeding, or dairy purposes in excess of the number...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1033(e)-1 Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of livestock (other than poultry) held for draft, breeding, or dairy purposes in excess of the number...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(e)-1... (other than poultry) held for draft, breeding, or dairy purposes in excess of the number the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1033(e)-1 Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of livestock (other than poultry) held for draft, breeding, or dairy purposes in excess of the number...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1033(e)-1 Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of livestock (other than poultry) held for draft, breeding, or dairy purposes in excess of the number...

  19. 26 CFR 25.2523(e)-1 - Marital deduction; life estate with power of appointment in donee spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... appointment in donee spouse. 25.2523(e)-1 Section 25.2523(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Deductions § 25.2523(e)-1 Marital deduction; life estate with power of appointment in donee spouse. (a) In general. Section 2523(e) provides that if an interest in property is transferred by a donor to his...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(e)-1 Sale or exchange of...

  1. Protective claddings for high strength chromium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The application of a Cr-Y-Hf-Th alloy as a protective cladding for a high strength chromium alloy was investigated for its effectiveness in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of a core alloy. Cladding was accomplished by a combination of hot gas pressure bonding and roll cladding techniques. Based on bend DBTT, the cladding alloy was effective in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of the chromium core alloy for up to 720 ks (200hours) in air at 1422 K (2100 F). A significant increase in the bend DBTT occurred with longer time exposures at 1422 K or short time exposures at 1589 K (2400 F).

  2. The undrained strength – liquidity index relationship

    E-print Network

    Vardanega, P. J.; Haigh, S. K.

    2014-04-14

    -Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 The undrained strength – liquidity index relationship Re-submitted to Canadian Geotechnical Journal Technical Paper Dr P. J. Vardanega, BE(Hons) MEngSc Qld.UT PhD Cantab., MIEAust M.ASCE Lecturer in Civil... Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering University of Bristol, United Kingdom Formerly, Research Associate Department of Engineering University of Cambridge United Kingdom p.j.vardanega@bristol.ac.uk Dr S. K. Haigh, MEng MA PhD Cantab...

  3. Dipole Strength Around the Particle Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savran, D.

    2015-10-01

    In the low-energy part of the electric dipole strength of atomic nuclei an addition structure has been identified beside the well-known Giant Dipole Resonance, which is usually denoted as Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR). The PDR has attracted strong interest in the last years in nuclear physics. Different experimental approaches have been used in the last decade in order to investigate this new interesting nuclear excitation mode. Among the different experiments the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method has played a pioneering role in the research on the PDR.

  4. Electromagnetic Dipole Strength in Transitional Nuclei

    E-print Network

    S. Q. Zhang; I. Bentley; S. Brant; F. Dönau; S. Frauendorf; B. Kämpfer; R. Schwengner; A. Wagner

    2008-08-19

    Electromagnetic dipole absorption cross-sections of transitional nuclei with large-amplitude shape fluctuations are calculated in a microscopic way by introducing the concept of Instantaneous Shape Sampling. The concept bases on the slow shape dynamics as compared to the fast dipole vibrations. The elctromagnetic dipole strength is calculated by means of RPA for the instantaneous shapes, the probability of which is obtained by means of IBA. Very good agreement with the experimental absorption cross sections near the nucleon emission threshold is obtained.

  5. Strength of early visual adaptation depends on visual awareness

    E-print Network

    Blake, Randolph

    Strength of early visual adaptation depends on visual awareness Randolph Blake*, Duje Tadin, Kenith) We measured visual-adaptation strength under variations in visual awareness by manipulating phenomenal invisibility of adapting stimuli using binocular rivalry and visual crowding. Results showed

  6. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  7. 47 CFR 73.686 - Field strength measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...testing antenna and the field strength meter. Match the antenna impedance to the transmission line at all frequencies measured, and...testing antenna and the field strength meter. Match the antenna impedance to the transmission line at all frequencies measured,...

  8. 47 CFR 73.686 - Field strength measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...testing antenna and the field strength meter. Match the antenna impedance to the transmission line at all frequencies measured, and...testing antenna and the field strength meter. Match the antenna impedance to the transmission line at all frequencies measured,...

  9. 47 CFR 73.686 - Field strength measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...testing antenna and the field strength meter. Match the antenna impedance to the transmission line at all frequencies measured, and...testing antenna and the field strength meter. Match the antenna impedance to the transmission line at all frequencies measured,...

  10. Microscopic nature of the radiative strength function: Structures, coupling with phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S. P.; Achakovskii, O. I.; Avdeenkov, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    The microscopic nature of the radiative strength function, which is the most important characteristic necessary for the description of nuclear reactions involving gamma-ray photons both in astrophysics and in the theory of nuclear reactors, has been discussed. It has been shown that, in contrast to phenomenological approaches based on various modifications of the Lorentzian dependence for this function, the microscopic approach gives structures that are due to the effects both within the standard random phase approximation and of coupling with low-lying collective excitations (phonons), i.e., beyond the standard random phase approximation. Microscopic calculations of the strength function for several Sn and Ni isotopes have been performed within the self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite Fermi systems, where both of these effects are taken into account and the SLy4 Skyrme forces are used to calculate the mean field, effective interaction between nucleons, and characteristics of phonons. Microscopic radiative E1 strength functions have been used in the modern EMPIRE 3.1 code for the calculation of the cross sections for the radiative capture of neutrons and average radiative widths of neutron resonances. Reasonable agreement with the existing experimental data has been obtained with allowance for coupling with phonons. The integral characteristics of the pygmy dipole resonance in the unstable 68Ni nucleus have been explained. The existence of this resonance has been predicted in the unstable 72Ni nucleus.

  11. Cytochrome P450 2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism is associated with urologic cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, You-Cheng; Wu, Xun; Zhou, Xue-Qiong; Ren, Rui; Su, Ze-Xuan; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in the metabolic activation of various carcinogens. CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism has been identified in urologic cancer patients, while studies of the polymorphism have shown inconclusive trends in the risk of urologic cancers. Therefore, we performed this systematic review to provide a complete picture and conducted a meta-analysis to derive a precise estimation. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science to identify eligible studies up to December 15, 2014. 12 studies with 2712 cases and 2977 controls were included in the meta-analysis.The odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used to assess the strength of associations. We observed that the c2 allele of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of urologic cancer under all genetic models (c2 vs. c1: OR = 0.742, 95% CI = 0.659-0.835); c2c2 vs. c1c1: OR = 0.516, 95% CI = 0.357-0.745; c1c2 vs. c1c1: OR = 0.748, 95% CI = 0.748 (0.648-0.863; c2c2 + c1c2 vs. c1c1: OR = 0.722, 95% CI = 0.629-0.829; c2c2 vs. c1c1 + c1c2: OR = 0.578, 95% CI = 0.401-0.832). In the subgroup analysis by cancer type, statistically significant associations were found in urothelial cancer in all genetic models. When stratified by ethnicity, a same trend was also indicated in Asians in all genetic models.To conclude, our results support the conclusion that the CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism may be associated with urologic cancer susceptibility. The c2 allele is a low-penetrance risk factor for urologic cancer development. PMID:26309545

  12. Induction of CYP2E1 in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Aljomah, Ghanim; Baker, Susan S; Liu, Wensheng; Kozielski, Rafal; Oluwole, Janet; Lupu, Benita; Baker, Robert D; Zhu, Lixin

    2015-12-01

    Mounting evidence supports a contribution of endogenous alcohol metabolism in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is not known whether the expression of alcohol metabolism genes is altered in the livers of simple steatosis. There is also a current debate on whether fatty acids induce CYP2E1 in fatty livers. In this study, expression of alcohol metabolizing genes in the liver biopsies of simple steatosis patients was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), in comparison to biopsies of NASH livers and normal controls. Induction of alcohol metabolizing genes was also examined in cultured HepG2 cells treated with ethanol or oleic acid, by qRT-PCR and Western blots. We found that the mRNA expression of alcohol metabolizing genes including ADH1C, ADH4, ADH6, catalase and CYP2E1 was elevated in the livers of simple steatosis, to similar levels found in NASH livers. In cultured HepG2 cells, ethanol induced the expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein, but not ADH4 or ADH6; oleic acid did not induce any of these genes. These results suggest that elevated alcohol metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD at the stage of simple steatosis as well as more severe stages. Our in vitro data support that CYP2E1 is induced by endogenous alcohol but not by fatty acids. PMID:26551085

  13. Effects of Herbal Products and their Constituents on Human Cytochrome P4502E1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Raner, Gregory M.; Cornelious, Sean; Moulick, Kamalika; Wang, Yingqing; Mortenson, Ashley; Cech, Nadja B.

    2010-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from fresh Echinacea purpurea and Spilanthes acmella and dried Hydrastis canadensis were examined with regard to their ability to inhibit cytochrome P4502E1 mediated oxidation of p-nitrophenol in vitro. In addition, individual constituents of these extracts, including alkylamides from E. purpurea and S. acmella, caffeic acid derivatives from E. purpurea, and several of the major alkaloids from H. canadensis, were tested for inhibition using the same assay. H. canadensis (goldenseal) was a strong inhibitor of the P4502E1, and the inhibition appeared to be related to the presence of the alkaloids berberine, hydrastine and canadine in the extract. These compounds inhibited 2E1 with KI values ranging from 2.8 µM for hydrastine to 18 µM for berberine. The alkylamides present in E. purpurea and S. acmella also showed significant inhibition at concentrations as low as 25 µM, whereas the caffeic acid derivatives had no effect. Commercial green tea preparations, along with four of the individual tea catechins, were also examined and were found to have no effect on the activity of P4502E1. PMID:17658211

  14. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-1 - Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 true Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. 48.4216...4216(e)-1 Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. (a) In...expenditures in connection with, the advertising of certain articles subject to...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-1 - Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. 48.4216...4216(e)-1 Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. (a) In...expenditures in connection with, the advertising of certain articles subject to...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-1 - Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. 48.4216...4216(e)-1 Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. (a) In...expenditures in connection with, the advertising of certain articles subject to...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-1 - Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. 48.4216...4216(e)-1 Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. (a) In...expenditures in connection with, the advertising of certain articles subject to...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar... Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(e)-1 Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as... the person entitled thereto. Such right accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar... Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(e)-1 Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as... the person entitled thereto. Such right accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar... Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(e)-1 Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as... the person entitled thereto. Such right accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or...

  1. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar... Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(e)-1 Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as... the person entitled thereto. Such right accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or...

  2. Identification and Mechanistic Studies of a Novel Ubiquitin E1 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Ungermannova, Dana; Parker, Seth J.; Nasveschuk, Christopher G.; Chapnick, Douglas A.; Phillips, Andrew J.; Kuchta, Robert D.; Liu, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    Protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is important for a diverse number of cellular processes ranging from cell signaling to development. Disruption of the ubiquitin pathway occurs in a variety of human diseases, including several cancers and neurological disorders. Excessive proteolysis of tumor suppressor proteins, such as p27, occurs in numerous aggressive human tumors. To discover small-molecule inhibitors that potentially prevent p27 degradation, we developed a series of screening assays, including a cell-based screen of a small-molecule compound library and two novel nucleotide exchange assays. Several small-molecule inhibitors, including NSC624206, were identified and subsequently verified to prevent p27 ubiquitination in vitro. The mechanism of NSC624206 inhibition of p27 ubiquitination was further unraveled using the nucleotide exchange assays and shown to be due to antagonizing ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1). We determined that NSC624206 and PYR-41, a recently reported inhibitor of ubiquitin E1, specifically block ubiquitin-thioester formation but have no effect on ubiquitin adenylation. These studies reveal a novel E1 inhibitor that targets a specific step of the E1 activation reaction. NSC624206 could, therefore, be potentially useful for the control of excessive ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in vivo. PMID:22274912

  3. 2007LANDESBIOSCIENCE.DONOTDISTRIBUTE. e1 Autophagy 2007;Vol.3Issue5

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    © 2007LANDESBIOSCIENCE.DONOTDISTRIBUTE. e1 Autophagy 2007;Vol.3Issue5 Research Paper Listeria and page numbers have been assigned, the citation will change accordingly. KEY worDs Listeria monocytogenes ABsTrACT Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that is able to colonize the cytosol

  4. The Astrophysics of Planetary Systems: Formation, Structure, and Dynamical Evolution, E1, 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Withers, Paul

    The Astrophysics of Planetary Systems: Formation, Structure, and Dynamical Evolution, E1, 1 of 2 systems: formation Here we explore how the existence and nature of a planet's satellite system can be used are abundant in the solar system, we expect that satellites are likely to be present around many extrasolar

  5. P a g e | 1 University of Sussex Health, Safety & Wellbeing Policy November 2011

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    P a g e | 1 University of Sussex Health, Safety & Wellbeing Policy November 2011 University of Sussex Health, Safety and Wellbeing Policy October 2012 Reference Title Created Owner Review HSO-MR1 Health & Safety Policy DD.MM.20YY Health, Safety and Wellbeing Office HSO/(MR) 09.12.2011 03.01.2012 20

  6. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-1 - Effect of Internal Revenue Service's failure to provide notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(e)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April...: Example 1. Partnership ABC has as one of its partners, A, a partnership with three partners, X, Y, and Z. ABC does not have more than 100 partners, and partnership A is entitled to notice under section...

  7. Lecture 15 Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm Weinan E1,2

    E-print Network

    Li, Tiejun

    Lecture 15 Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm Weinan E1,2 and Tiejun Li2 1 Department, tieli@pku.edu.cn No.1 Science Building, 1575 #12;Introduction Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm Outline Introduction Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm #12;Introduction Simulated Annealing Genetic

  8. NOVEL ASSAY TO ASSESS CYP-2E1-LIKE ACTIVITY IN THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liver microsomes and S-9 fraction of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) metabolized the CYP2E1 specific substrate, p-nitrophenol (PNP), to a single hydroxylated product, 4-nitrocatechol. The use of liver S-9 fraction proved to be a viable alternative to liver microsomes and allowe...

  9. Phyllanthus urinaria extract attenuates acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity: involvement of cytochrome P450 CYP2E1.

    PubMed

    Hau, Desmond Kwok Po; Gambari, Roberto; Wong, Raymond Siu Ming; Yuen, Marcus Chun Wah; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Tong, Cindy Sze Wai; Zhu, Guo Yuan; Leung, Alexander Kai Man; Lai, Paul Bo San; Lau, Fung Yi; Chan, Andrew Kit Wah; Wong, Wai Yeung; Kok, Stanton Hon Lung; Cheng, Chor Hing; Kan, Chi Wai; Chan, Albert Sun Chi; Chui, Chung Hin; Tang, Johnny Cheuk On; Fong, David Wang Fun

    2009-08-01

    Acetaminophen is a commonly used drug for the treatment of patients with common cold and influenza. However, an overdose of acetaminophen may be fatal. In this study we investigated whether mice, administered intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of acetaminophen, when followed by oral administration of Phyllanthus urinaria extract, may be prevented from death. Histopathological analysis of mouse liver sections showed that Phyllanthus urinaria extract may protect the hepatocytes from acetaminophen-induced necrosis. Therapeutic dose of Phyllanthus urinaria extract did not show any toxicological phenomenon on mice. Immunohistochemical staining with the cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 antibody revealed that Phyllanthus urinaria extract reduced the cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 protein level in mice pre-treated with a lethal dose of acetaminophen. Phyllanthus urinaria extract also inhibited the cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 enzymatic activity in vitro. Heavy metals, including arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, as well as herbicide residues were not found above their detection limits. High performance liquid chromatography identified corilagin and gallic acid as the major components of the Phyllanthus urinaria extract. We conclude that Phyllanthus urinaria extract is effective in attenuating the acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 enzyme may be an important factor for its therapeutic mechanism. PMID:19386480

  10. JUVENILE AND SEX CHARACTERS OF EVORTHODUS LYRICUS (FAM. GOBIIDlE) 1

    E-print Network

    on to separate the genera differs radically with the sex and also with age as follows. In the young below 25JUVENILE AND SEX CHARACTERS OF EVORTHODUS LYRICUS (FAM. GOBIIDlE) 1 $ By ISAAC GINSBURG, Assistant:lpresent the two sexes of one and the same species. These two species are Gobius lyricus Girard and Evorthod118

  11. Co-precipitation of radium in high ionic strength systems: 2. Kinetic and ionic strength effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Y. O.; Metz, V.; Oren, Y.; Volkman, Y.; Ganor, J.

    2011-10-01

    High concentrations of naturally occurring radium pose environmental and health concerns in natural and industrial systems. The adsorption of Ra 2+ in saline water is limited compared to its adsorption in fresh water, but the process of co-precipitation may be effective in decreasing its concentration. However, despite its importance, Ra co-precipitation has rarely been studied in high ionic strength environments such as those in evaporitic systems. The fate of Ra in the reject brine of a desalination plant was studied via evaporation batch experiments at ionic strengths ( I) ranging from 0.7 to 7.0 mol kg -1. Precipitation sequences revealed that Ra co-precipitated with barite, even though the latter was a trace mineral compared to the precipitated gypsum. The concentration-based effective partition coefficient, KD,barite', for the co-precipitation reaction was 1.04 ± 0.01. This value of KD' is significantly lower than the value for relatively diluted solutions (1.8 ± 0.1). This low value of KD,barite' is mainly the result of a kinetic effect but is also slightly affected by the ionic strength. Both effects are quantitatively examined in the present paper. It is suggested that a kinetic effect influences the nucleation of (Ra,Ba)SO 4, reducing the value of the partition coefficient. This kinetic effect is caused by the favorable nucleation of a more soluble phase (i.e., a phase with a higher BaSO 4 fraction). An additional decrease in the partition coefficient results from the ionic strength effect. Considering the activity of Ra 2+ and Ba 2+ in the solution (rather than their concentration) makes it possible to determine the activity-based partition coefficient ( KD,barite?), which accounts for the ionic strength effect. KD,barite' was calculated empirically from the experiments and theoretically via a kinetic model. The two derived values are consistent with one another and indicate the combined effect of ionic strength and precipitation kinetics. Finally, the common assumption that ?/?=1 was re-examined using a numerical model to predict the experimental results. As the ionic strength increases, this assumption becomes less appropriate for predicting the change in KD,barite' as calculated in the experiments. Understanding the co-precipitation of Ra in such systems is crucial for risk assessments in which both Ra concentration and ionic strength are relatively high.

  12. Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.

    Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

  13. Low-energy behavior of $E2$ strength functions

    E-print Network

    R. Schwengner

    2014-11-04

    Electric quadrupole strength functions have been deduced from averages of a large number of $E2$ transition strengths calculated within the shell model for the nuclides $^{94}$Mo and $^{95}$Mo. These strength functions are at variance with phenomenological approximations as provided by the Reference Input Parameter Library RIPL-3 for calculations of reaction rates on the basis of the statistical model.

  14. Drained Shear Strength Parameters for Analysis of Landslides

    E-print Network

    Drained Shear Strength Parameters for Analysis of Landslides Timothy D. stark'; Hangseok choi2;and of drained shear strength parameters for analysis of landslides. In particular, the importance, existence for landslide analyses, empirical relationships for the drained residual and fully softened strengths

  15. Liquefied strength ratio from liquefaction flow failure case histories

    E-print Network

    . Stark Abstract: The shear strength of liquefied soil, s,(LIQ), mobilized during a liquefaction flow. 1996). The liquefied shear strength has been Seed 1987; Seed and Harder 1990; Stark and 1992; referred- (Seed 1987), and the undrained critical shear strength, dures are those by Poulos et Seed su

  16. Measures of Strength and Fitness for Older Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Wayne H.; Hiebert, Lujean M.

    The overall strength of the musculature does not require testing of large numbers of muscle groups and can be accomplished from three or four tests. Small batteries of strength tests have been devised to predict total strength. The best combination of tests for males are thigh flexors, leg extensors, arm flexors, and pectoralis major. The battery…

  17. Strengths-Based Education: Probing Its Limits. The Cutting Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    Except for Timothy Hodges and James Harter's restrained research summary, the feature articles in this issue are evangelical in their praise of strengths-based education. It is, they assure us, a major innovation. English teacher Alexis Onishi writes that StrengthsQuest, a specific strengths-based approach, will have "a lifelong impact on how…

  18. Yield Strength Ratio and Liquefaction Analysis of Slopes and Embankments

    E-print Network

    Yield Strength Ratio and Liquefaction Analysis of Slopes and Embankments Scott M. Olson, A.M.ASCE,1 and Timothy D. Stark, M.ASCE2 Abstract: A procedure is proposed to evaluate the triggering of liquefaction(yield)/ v0 . Thirty liquefaction flow failures were back analyzed to evaluate shear strengths and strength

  19. Autism Severity and Muscle Strength: A Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Troutman, Melissa R.; Davis, Georgia; King, Paul G.; Young, John L.; Geier, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between muscle strength, as measured by hand grip strength, and autism severity, as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Thirty-seven (37) children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were evaluated using the CARS and then tested for hand muscle strength using a hand grip…

  20. Determinants of eggshell strength in endangered raptors.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Aurora M; Herrel, Anthony; Van Dongen, Stefan; Furio, Naoki; Negro, Juan José

    2009-04-01

    We compared eggshell strength in a group of falcon taxa including the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus), the red shaheen falcon (F. peregrinus babylonicus), the saker falcon (F. cherrug), the gyr falcon (F. rusticolus) and some interspecific and intraspecific hybrids. Our results showed that smaller falcons (<1,000 g) of the peregrine group have eggshells that are significantly softer (x=13.3 N) and thinner (x=0.26 mm) (n=107 eggs) than larger falcons (>1,000 g) of the gyr-saker group (x=20.8 N and 0.39 mm, respectively, n=81 eggs). We found a significant positive correlation between egg hardness and eggshell thickness. Linear mixed models showed that clutches from heavier females consisted of larger and harder eggs with thicker shells and thicker egg membranes. Eggs produced by older females and eggs laid later in the laying sequence were relatively smaller and softer and had relatively thin egg membranes and eggshells. Individual females, irrespective of their age, contributed significantly to the observed variation in egg strength. Egg size and hardness of hybrid eggs were similar to that of the pure species suggesting that hybridization does not affect eggshell hardness or thickness. Our study provides quantitative evidence of several factors, other than levels of contamination, which may affect eggshell thickness and hardness in falcons. PMID:19267399