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Sample records for e2f-hdac complexes negatively

  1. A Developmental Study of Factivity and Negation in Complex Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopmann, Marita R.; Maratsos, Michael P.

    Two groups of preschoolers and one of young grade-schoolers were tested for their comprehension of presuppositions and negation in complex syntax. Four types of sentences were presented: affirmative and negative versions of sentences with factive main predicates (which presuppose the truth of the proposition of the complement clause) and with…

  2. Negative Ions Enhance Survival of Membrane Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Liko, Idlir; Hopper, Jonathan T S; Allison, Timothy M; Benesch, Justin L P; Robinson, Carol V

    2016-06-01

    Membrane protein complexes are commonly introduced to the mass spectrometer solubilized in detergent micelles. The collisional activation used to remove the detergent, however, often causes protein unfolding and dissociation. As in the case for soluble proteins, electrospray in the positive ion mode is most commonly used for the study of membrane proteins. Here we show several distinct advantages of employing the negative ion mode. Negative polarity can yield lower average charge states for membrane proteins solubilized in saccharide detergents, with enhanced peak resolution and reduced adduct formation. Most importantly, we demonstrate that negative ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI) minimizes subunit dissociation in the gas phase, allowing access to biologically relevant oligomeric states. Together, these properties mean that intact membrane protein ions can be generated in a greater range of solubilizing detergents. The formation of negative ions, therefore, greatly expands the possibilities of using mass spectrometry on this intractable class of protein. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27106602

  3. Negative Ions Enhance Survival of Membrane Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liko, Idlir; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Allison, Timothy M.; Benesch, Justin L. P.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2016-06-01

    Membrane protein complexes are commonly introduced to the mass spectrometer solubilized in detergent micelles. The collisional activation used to remove the detergent, however, often causes protein unfolding and dissociation. As in the case for soluble proteins, electrospray in the positive ion mode is most commonly used for the study of membrane proteins. Here we show several distinct advantages of employing the negative ion mode. Negative polarity can yield lower average charge states for membrane proteins solubilized in saccharide detergents, with enhanced peak resolution and reduced adduct formation. Most importantly, we demonstrate that negative ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI) minimizes subunit dissociation in the gas phase, allowing access to biologically relevant oligomeric states. Together, these properties mean that intact membrane protein ions can be generated in a greater range of solubilizing detergents. The formation of negative ions, therefore, greatly expands the possibilities of using mass spectrometry on this intractable class of protein.

  4. Negative Ions Enhance Survival of Membrane Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liko, Idlir; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Allison, Timothy M.; Benesch, Justin L. P.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2016-04-01

    Membrane protein complexes are commonly introduced to the mass spectrometer solubilized in detergent micelles. The collisional activation used to remove the detergent, however, often causes protein unfolding and dissociation. As in the case for soluble proteins, electrospray in the positive ion mode is most commonly used for the study of membrane proteins. Here we show several distinct advantages of employing the negative ion mode. Negative polarity can yield lower average charge states for membrane proteins solubilized in saccharide detergents, with enhanced peak resolution and reduced adduct formation. Most importantly, we demonstrate that negative ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI) minimizes subunit dissociation in the gas phase, allowing access to biologically relevant oligomeric states. Together, these properties mean that intact membrane protein ions can be generated in a greater range of solubilizing detergents. The formation of negative ions, therefore, greatly expands the possibilities of using mass spectrometry on this intractable class of protein.

  5. [Application of therapy in negative pressure complex wounds in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Fernández Sánchez, Rosario; Muñoz-Miguelsanz, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been widely used in the adult patient, contrary to what happens in children, with just a few long series papers. NPWT avoids long and expensive hospital admissions, reducing the hospital costs; it also decreases the family dynamics and allows for an early return to everyday activities. In this article, we present three clinical cases consisting of a toddler, a child and a teenager with complex wounds treated with NPWT in the pediatric surgery department of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital in Granada. The results were excellent, with a good adherence to treatment in all cases, achieving a complete closure in two cases; the third case needed a deferred surgical closure after surgical site preparation, and showed a decrease of the wound size after the NPWT. Moreover, successful pain management was achieved during the wound cleansing, which was done under an ambulatory regime. No general anesthesia was needed. From our experience, we propose the NPWT as an alternative therapy to the classic surgical approach for this type of complex lesions in children, which offers the same advantages and results than in adults. PMID:27297175

  6. Complex Teacher Evaluation Systems Can Produce Negative Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine teacher perceptions of the impact on instructional practice when using a complex, standards-based performance evaluation system. The study used expectancy theory to investigate teacher expectancy (did they believe they could enhance their practice to the identified program standards?), instrumentality…

  7. Negative refraction of complex lattices of dielectric cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yi; He, Sailing

    2007-01-01

    Some photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of complex lattices of dielectric cylinders can have an effective refraction index (n) of -1. Subwavelength imaging by a slab of a honeycomb PC of dielectric cylinders with n=-1 is investigated and an open resonator with a quality factor higher than 3000 is designed with the same PC. Air PC interfaces with low reflection are also used for the slab lens and open resonator.

  8. Route complexity and simulated physical ageing negatively influence wayfinding.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Emma; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Mobach, Mark P

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this age-simulation field experiment was to assess the influence of route complexity and physical ageing on wayfinding. Seventy-five people (aged 18-28) performed a total of 108 wayfinding tasks (i.e., 42 participants performed two wayfinding tasks and 33 performed one wayfinding task), of which 59 tasks were performed wearing gerontologic ageing suits. Outcome variables were wayfinding performance (i.e., efficiency and walking speed) and physiological outcomes (i.e., heart and respiratory rates). Analysis of covariance showed that persons on more complex routes (i.e., more floor and building changes) walked less efficiently than persons on less complex routes. In addition, simulated elderly participants perform worse in wayfinding than young participants in terms of speed (p < 0.001). Moreover, a linear mixed model showed that simulated elderly persons had higher heart rates and respiratory rates compared to young people during a wayfinding task, suggesting that simulated elderly consumed more energy during this task. PMID:27184311

  9. Visualizing Proteins and Macromolecular Complexes by Negative Stain EM: from Grid Preparation to Image Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Booth, David S.; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Cheng, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Single particle electron microscopy (EM), of both negative stained or frozen hydrated biological samples, has become a versatile tool in structural biology 1. In recent years, this method has achieved great success in studying structures of proteins and macromolecular complexes 2, 3. Compared with electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM), in which frozen hydrated protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of vitreous ice 4, negative staining is a simpler sample preparation method in which protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of dried heavy metal salt to increase specimen contrast 5. The enhanced contrast of negative stain EM allows examination of relatively small biological samples. In addition to determining three-dimensional (3D) structure of purified proteins or protein complexes 6, this method can be used for much broader purposes. For example, negative stain EM can be easily used to visualize purified protein samples, obtaining information such as homogeneity/heterogeneity of the sample, formation of protein complexes or large assemblies, or simply to evaluate the quality of a protein preparation. In this video article, we present a complete protocol for using an EM to observe negatively stained protein sample, from preparing carbon coated grids for negative stain EM to acquiring images of negatively stained sample in an electron microscope operated at 120kV accelerating voltage. These protocols have been used in our laboratory routinely and can be easily followed by novice users. PMID:22215030

  10. Negative cortical DC shifts preceding and accompanying simple and complex sequential movements.

    PubMed

    Lang, W; Zilch, O; Koska, C; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1989-01-01

    Negative cortical DC shifts preceding and accompanying the execution of four different motor tasks were analysed in 18 subjects (Ss): Repetitive flexions and extensions of the forefinger had to be performed either by the right (1) or the left (2) hand. This simple motor task was compared to a complex one in which flexions and extensions of forefinger and hand had to be alternated in a fixed sequence. The complex task had either to be performed by the right (3) or the left (4) hand. Thus, the four conditions differed in the side of the performing hand (right/left) and in task-complexity (simple/complex). After its voluntary initiation, each task had to be performed for at least a period of six seconds. A Bereitschaftspotential (BP) preceded the voluntary initiation of the movement. Task-performance was accompanied by a negative DC shift called a performance-related negativity (N-P). Amplitudes of BP and N-P were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the factors "performing hand" (right/left) and "task-complexity" (simple/complex). "Performing hand" had significant effects on N-BP and N-P in C3* and C4* (positioned over the primary motor cortex) but did not influence mid-central (Cz*), frontal (F3, Fz, and F4) or parietal (P3, Pz, P4) recordings. "Task-complexity" had significant effects on N-P in mid-central (Cz*, C1*, C2*) and parietal (P3, Pz) recordings with higher negativity for complex movements. Recordings in C3* and C4* did not vary with "task complexity".(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2924844

  11. Prediction of Negative Attitude from Congruity, Summation, and Logarithm Formulae for the Evaluation of Complex Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lynn R.

    1970-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to Compare the efficacy of an averaging (congruity) formula vs. an additive formula for the evaluation of complex stimuli when negative adjectives were used to describe the attitude topic. A logarithm formula proposed by Mannis, Gleason, and Dawes was also used. (DB)

  12. Stealth fast photoswitching of negative photochromic naphthalene-bridged phenoxyl-imidazolyl radical complexes.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Hirao, Yasukazu; Kubo, Takashi; Abe, Jiro

    2016-05-21

    Naphthalene-bridged phenoxyl-imidazolyl radical complex (Np-PIC) is a novel fast switchable negative photochromic compound, which shows the thermal back reaction in the millisecond time scale. Upon UV light irradiation, Np-PIC shows the hypochromic effect in the UVA region due to there being less conjugation in the transient isomer. By replacing the phenoxyl unit with a naphthoxyl unit, the molecular structure has an asymmetric carbon, leading to fast chiroptical switching. This simple molecular design will be a good candidate for the future development of negative photochromic compounds. PMID:27124495

  13. Natural media with negative index of refraction: Perspectives of complex transition metal oxides (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fertman, E. L.; Beznosov, A. B.

    2011-07-01

    The capabilities of perovskite-like compounds with the effect of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and some other complex oxides to have a negative index of refraction (NIR) are considered. Physical properties of these compounds are also analyzed from the standpoint of designing tunable metamaterials on their base. Of particular interest are temperature and magnetic field driven first-order transformations in oxides with perovskite structure and in spinels. These transformations give rise to nanophase separated states, using which the properties of negative refraction can be affected. The magnetic-field controlled metamaterials with CMR oxides as a boundary NIR media for a photonic crystal are discussed.

  14. Fast Negative Photochromism of 1,1'-Binaphthyl-Bridged Phenoxyl-Imidazolyl Radical Complex.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Abe, Jiro

    2016-01-27

    Negative photochromism, in which a thermally stable colored form isomerizes to the transient colorless form by light irradiation and the back reaction occurs thermally, is advantageous in its applications for photoswitching materials because visible light can cause the photochromic color change of the materials. Moreover, the photochromic color change can be induced even on the inside of the materials due to the absence of the reabsorption of the visible excitation light by the photogenerated colorless species. While several negative photochromic compounds have been reported, the time scales of the back reaction are still slower than minutes, and no available fast responsive negative photochromic compounds have been reported. Here, we developed a negative photochromic 1,1'-binaphthyl-bridged phenoxyl-imidazolyl radical complex (BN-PIC) which enables fast photoswitching by visible light. The stable colored BN-PIC shows instantaneous decoloration by visible light irradiation, and the photogenerated colorless form thermally reverts to the initial colored form with a half-life of 1.9 s at room temperature. BN-PIC can also cause the drastic change in the chiroptical properties by the photochromic reaction, and the rate of the thermal back reaction is affected by the chirality of the solvent. Since the negative photochromic reaction can occur on the inside of the materials, the fast negative photochromism is expected to have an impact in the fields of photoresponsive materials of solid states and molecular aggregates. PMID:26714023

  15. Efficient in vivo gene delivery by the negatively charged complexes of cationic liposomes and plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Son, K K; Tkach, D; Hall, K J

    2000-09-29

    We examined changes in zeta potential (the surface charge density, zeta) of the complexes of liposome (nmol)/DNA (microg) (L/D) formed in water at three different ratios (L/D=1, 10 and 20) by changing the ionic strength or pH to find an optimum formulation for in vivo gene delivery. At high DNA concentrations, zeta of the complexes formed in water at L/D=10 was significantly lowered by adding NaCl (zeta=+8.44+/-3.1 to -27.6+/-3.5 mV) or increasing pH from 5 (zeta=+15.3+/-1.0) to 9 (zeta=-22.5+/-2.5 mV). However, the positively charged complexes formed at L/D=20 (zeta=+6.2+/-3.5 mV) became negative as NaCl was added at alkaline pH as observed in medium (zeta=-19.7+/-9.9 mV). Thus, the complexes formed in water under the optimum condition were stable and largely negatively charged at L/D=1 (zeta=-58.1+/-3.9 mV), unstable and slightly positively charged at L/D=10 (zeta=+8.44+/-3.7 mV), and unstable and largely positively charged at L/D=20 (zeta=+24.3+/-3.6 mV). The negatively charged complexes efficiently delivered DNA into both solid and ascitic tumor cells. However, the positively charged complexes were very poor in delivering DNA into solid tumors, yet were efficient in delivering DNA into ascitic tumors grown in the peritoneum regardless of complex size. This slightly lower gene transfer efficiency of the negatively charged complexes can be as efficient as the positively charged ones when an injection is repeated (at least two injections), which is the most common case for therapy regimes. The results indicate that optimum in vivo lipofection may depend on the site of tumor growth. PMID:11018645

  16. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a reagent for complex mixture analysis by negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Juyal, Priyanka; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2013-08-20

    Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) enables the direct characterization of complex mixtures without prior fractionation. High mass resolution can distinguish peaks separated by as little as 1.1 mDa), and high mass accuracy enables assignment of elemental compositions in mixtures that contain tens of thousands of individual components (crude oil). Negative electrospray ionization (ESI) is particularly useful for the speciation of the most acidic petroleum components that are implicated in oil production and processing problems. Here, we replace conventional ammonium hydroxide by tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, a much stronger base, with higher solubility in toluene) to more uniformly deprotonate acidic components of complex mixtures by negative ESI FTICR MS. The detailed compositional analysis of four crude oils (light to heavy, from different geographical locations) reveals that TMAH reagent accesses 1.5-6 times as many elemental compositions, spanning a much wider range of chemical classes than does NH4OH. For example, TMAH reagent produces abundant negative electrosprayed ions from less acidic and neutral species that are in low abundance or absent with NH4OH reagent. More importantly, the increased compositional coverage of TMAH-modified solvent systems maintains, or even surpasses, the compositional information for the most acidic species. The method is not limited to petroleum-derived materials and could be applied to the analysis of dissolved organic matter, coal, lipids, and other naturally occurring compositionally complex organic mixtures. PMID:23919350

  17. Self-Structures, Negative Events, and Adolescent Depression: Clarifying the Role of Self-Complexity in a Prospective, Multiwave Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joseph R.; Spiegler, Kevin M.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this multiwave longitudinal study was to examine the structure of self-complexity and its relation to depressive symptoms in 276 adolescents (M = 12.55; SD = 1.04). Self-complexity, depressive symptoms, and negative events were assessed during a laboratory assessment at baseline, and then depressive symptoms and negative events were…

  18. RUNX3 is a novel negative regulator of oncogenic TEAD-YAP complex in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Y; Lin, S J; Chen, Y; Voon, D C-C; Zhu, F; Chuang, L S H; Wang, T; Tan, P; Lee, S C; Yeoh, K G; Sudol, M; Ito, Y

    2016-05-19

    Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a well-documented tumour suppressor that is frequently inactivated in gastric cancer. Here, we define a novel mechanism by which RUNX3 exerts its tumour suppressor activity involving the TEAD-YAP complex, a potent positive regulator of proliferative genes. We report that the TEAD-YAP complex is not only frequently hyperactivated in liver and breast cancer, but also confers a strong oncogenic activity in gastric epithelial cells. The increased expression of TEAD-YAP in tumour tissues significantly correlates with poorer overall survival of gastric cancer patients. Strikingly, RUNX3 physically interacts with the N-terminal region of TEAD through its Runt domain. This interaction markedly reduces the DNA-binding ability of TEAD that attenuates the downstream signalling of TEAD-YAP complex. Mutation of RUNX3 at Arginine 122 to Cysteine, which was previously identified in gastric cancer, impairs the interaction between RUNX3 and TEAD. Our data reveal that RUNX3 acts as a tumour suppressor by negatively regulating the TEAD-YAP oncogenic complex in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26364597

  19. Neurophysiological evidence for whole form retrieval of complex derived words: a mismatch negativity study

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jeff; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Complex words can be seen as combinations of elementary units, decomposable into stems and affixes according to morphological rules. Alternatively, complex forms may be stored as single lexical entries and accessed as whole forms. This study uses an event-related potential brain response capable of indexing both whole-form retrieval and combinatorial processing, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), to investigate early brain activity elicited by morphologically complex derived words in German. We presented complex words consisting of stems “sicher” (secure), or “sauber” (clean) combined with abstract nominalizing derivational affixes -heit or -keit, to form either congruent derived words: “Sicherheit” (security) and “Sauberkeit” (cleanliness), or incongruent derived pseudowords: *“Sicherkeit”, and *“Sauberheit”. Using this orthogonal design, it was possible to record brain responses for -heit and -keit in both congruent and incongruent contexts, therefore balancing acoustic variance. Previous research has shown that incongruent combinations of symbols elicit a stronger MMN than congruent combinations, but that single words or constructions stored as whole forms elicit a stronger MMN than pseudowords or non-existent constructions. We found that congruent derived words elicited a stronger MMN than incongruent derived words, beginning about 150 ms after perception of the critical morpheme. This pattern of results is consistent with whole-form storage of morphologically complex derived words as lexical units, or mini-constructions. Using distributed source localization methods, the MMN enhancement for well-formed derivationally complex words appeared to be most prominent in the left inferior anterior-temporal, bilateral superior parietal and bilateral post-central, supra-marginal areas. In addition, neurophysiological results reflected the frequency of derived forms, thus providing further converging evidence for whole form storage and against a

  20. Basal core promoters control the equilibrium between negative cofactor 2 and preinitiation complexes in human cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The general transcription factor TFIIB and its antagonist negative cofactor 2 (NC2) are hallmarks of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription. Both factors bind TATA box-binding protein (TBP) at promoters in a mutually exclusive manner. Dissociation of NC2 is thought to be followed by TFIIB association and subsequent preinitiation complex formation. TFIIB dissociates upon RNAPII promoter clearance, thereby providing a specific measure for steady-state preinitiation complex levels. As yet, genome-scale promoter mapping of human TFIIB has not been reported. It thus remains elusive how human core promoters contribute to preinitiation complex formation in vivo. Results We compare target genes of TFIIB and NC2 in human B cells and analyze associated core promoter architectures. TFIIB occupancy is positively correlated with gene expression, with the vast majority of promoters being GC-rich and lacking defined core promoter elements. TATA elements, but not the previously in vitro defined TFIIB recognition elements, are enriched in some 4 to 5% of the genes. NC2 binds to a highly related target gene set. Nonetheless, subpopulations show strong variations in factor ratios: whereas high TFIIB/NC2 ratios select for promoters with focused start sites and conserved core elements, high NC2/TFIIB ratios correlate to multiple start-site promoters lacking defined core elements. Conclusions TFIIB and NC2 are global players that occupy active genes. Preinitiation complex formation is independent of core elements at the majority of genes. TATA and TATA-like elements dictate TFIIB occupancy at a subset of genes. Biochemical data support a model in which preinitiation complex but not TBP-NC2 complex formation is regulated. PMID:20230619

  1. Large and negative magnetic anisotropy in pentacoordinate mononuclear Ni(ii) Schiff base complexes.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Svoboda, Ingrid; Boča, Roman; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-05-28

    A series of pentacoordinate Ni(ii) complexes of the general formula [Ni(L5)] () with various pentadentate Schiff base ligands H2L5 (originating in a condensation of aromatic ortho-hydroxy-aldehydes and aliphatic triamines) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray structure analysis and magnetometry. The alternations of substituents on the H2L parent ligand resulted in the complexes with the geometry varying between the square-pyramid and trigonal-bipyramid. In the compounds whose chromophore geometry is closer to a trigonal-bipyramid, a large and negative uniaxial anisotropy (D = -64 cm(-1)) was identified. Moreover, the simple linear expression for the axial zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter, D/cm(-1) = 32.7(4.8) - 151(10)τ, was proposed, where τ (in degrees) stands for the Addison parameter. The results of magnetic analysis were also supported by ab initio CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations of the ZFS splitting parameters D and E, and g tensors. Despite large and negative D-values of the reported compounds, slow relaxation of magnetization was not observed either in zero or non-zero static magnetic field, thus no single-molecule magnetic behaviour was detected. PMID:25919125

  2. Complex Negative Regulation of TLR9 by Multiple Proteolytic Cleavage Events.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Siddhartha S; Cameron, Jody; Brooks, James C; Leifer, Cynthia A

    2016-08-15

    TLR9 is an innate immune receptor important for recognizing DNA of host and foreign origin. A mechanism proposed to prevent excessive response to host DNA is the requirement for proteolytic cleavage of TLR9 in endosomes to generate a mature form of the receptor (TLR9(471-1032)). We previously described another cleavage event in the juxtamembrane region of the ectodomain that generated a dominant-negative form of TLR9. Thus, there are at least two independent cleavage events that regulate TLR9. In this study, we investigated whether an N-terminal fragment of TLR9 could be responsible for regulation of the mature or negative-regulatory form. We show that TLR9(471-1032), corresponding to the proteolytically cleaved form, does not function on its own. Furthermore, activity is not rescued by coexpression of the N-terminal fragment (TLR9(1-440)), inclusion of the hinge region (TLR9(441-1032)), or overexpression of UNC93B1, the last of which is critical for trafficking and cleavage of TLR9. TLR9(1-440) coimmunoprecipitates with full-length TLR9 and TLR9(471-1032) but does not rescue the native glycosylation pattern; thus, inappropriate trafficking likely explains why TLR9(471-1032) is nonfunctional. Lastly, we show that TLR9(471-1032) is also a dominant-negative regulator of TLR9 signaling. Together, these data provide a new perspective on the complexity of TLR9 regulation by proteolytic cleavage and offer potential ways to inhibit activity through this receptor, which may dampen autoimmune inflammation. PMID:27421483

  3. Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

  4. Parallel calculations of vibrational properties in complex materials: negative thermal expansion and elastic inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.

    Effects of thermal vibrations are essential to obtain a more complete understanding of the properties of complex materials. For example, they are important in the analysis and simulation of x-ray absorption spectra (XAS). In previous work we introduced an ab initio approach for a variety of vibrational effects, such as crystallographic and XAS Debye-Waller factors, Debye and Einstein temperatures, and thermal expansion coefficients. This approach uses theoretical dynamical matrices from which the locally-projected vibrational densities of states are obtained using a Lanczos recursion algorithm. In this talk I present recent improvements to our implementation, which permit simulations of more complex materials with up to two orders of magnitude larger simulation cells. The method takes advantage of parallelization in calculations of the dynamical matrix with VASP. To illustrate these capabilities we discuss two problems of considerable interest: negative thermal expansion in ZrW2O8; and local inhomogeneities in the elastic properties of supported metal nanoparticles. Both cases highlight the importance of a local treatment of vibrational properties. Supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER15476, with computer support from DOE-NERSC.

  5. Targeting triple negative breast cancer cells by N3-substituted 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone thiosemicarbazones and their metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrasiabi, Zahra; Stovall, Preston; Finley, Kristen; Choudhury, Amitava; Barnes, Charles; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul; Vyas, Alok; Padhye, Subhash

    2013-10-01

    Novel N3-substituted 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone thiosemicarbazones and their copper, nickel and palladium complexes are structurally characterized and reported along with the single crystal X-ray structures of three ligands and one nickel complex. All compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative potential against Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells which have poor prognosis and no effective drugs to treat with. All compounds exhibited antiproliferative activity against these cells. Among the metal complexes evaluated, redox active copper complexes were found to be more potent. The possible mechanism for such enhanced activity can be attributed to the generation of oxidative stress, which was amenable for targeting through metal complexation.

  6. Use of Closed Incision Management with Negative Pressure Therapy for Complex Cardiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: In patients with major comorbidities undergoing complex cardiothoracic surgery, incision management is critical. This retrospective review evaluated negative pressure over closed sternal incisions in cardiac patients with multiple comorbidities within 30 days post-median sternotomy. Methods: Records of post-sternotomy patients treated with Prevena™ Incision Management System (KCI, an Acelity company, San Antonio, TX), a closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT), were reviewed from September 2010 through September 2014. Data collected included demographics, major comorbidities, types of surgery, relevant medical history, incision length, therapy duration, time to follow-up, and incision complications. Descriptive statistics were computed for continuous variables, frequency, and percentages for categorical variables. Results: Twenty-seven patients were treated with ciNPT between September 2010 and September 2014. The mean patient age was 62.5 (SD 7.9), and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 38.5 (SD 4.4) kg/m2. Risk factors included obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, 27/27; 100%), diabetes (25/27; 92.6%), hypertension (16/27; 59.3%), and 20/27 patients (74%) had ≥ 5 comorbidities. Mean ciNPT duration was 5.6 (SD 0.9) days. Within 30 days post-surgery, 21/27 (77.8%) patients had intact incisions with good reapproximation. Two patients experienced minor dehiscences; four cases of superficial cellulitis were treated and resolved. One patient with a dehiscence was readmitted for intravenous antibiotics and five patients were managed successfully with antibiotics as outpatients. All patients had intact incisions with good skin approximation at final follow-up. Conclusions: In this retrospective study of post-sternotomy patients at high risk of developing complications, ciNPT over closed sternal incisions resulted in favorable outcomes within 30 days of surgery. PMID:27026831

  7. Positive and negative ion mode ESI-MS and MS/MS for studying drug-DNA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu, Frédéric; Pirotte, Sophie; Pauw, Edwin De; Gabelica, Valérie

    2006-07-01

    We report systematic investigation of duplex DNA complexes with minor groove binders (Hoechsts 33258 and 33342, netropsin and DAPI) and intercalators (daunomycin, doxorubicin, actinomycin D, ethidium, cryptolepine, neocryptolepine, m-Amsacrine, proflavine, ellipticine and mitoxantrone) by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS in the negative ion mode and in the positive ion mode. The apparent solution phase equilibrium binding constants can be determined by measuring relative intensities in the ESI-MS spectrum. While negative ion mode gives reliable results, positive ion mode gives a systematic underestimation of the binding constants and even a complete suppression of the complexes for intercalators lacking functional groups capable of interacting in the grooves. In the second part of the paper we systematically compare MS/MS fragmentation channels and breakdown curves in the positive and the negative modes, and discuss the possible uses and caveats of MS/MS in drug-DNA complexes. In the negative mode, the drugs can be separated in three groups: (1) those that leave the complex with no net charge; (2) those that leave the complex with a negative charge; and (3) those that remain attached on the strands upon dissociation of the duplex due to their positive charge. In the positive ion mode, all complexes fragment via the loss of protonated drug. Information on the stabilization of the complex by drug-DNA noncovalent interactions can be obtained straightforwardly only in the case of neutral drug loss. In all other cases, proton affinity (in the positive ion mode), gas-phase basicity (in the negative ion mode) and coulombic repulsion are the major factors influencing the fragmentation channel and the dissociation kinetics.

  8. Bound Na(+) is a Negative Effecter for Thrombin-Substrate Stereospecific Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Kurisaki, Ikuo; Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2016-05-26

    Thrombin has been studied as a paradigmatic protein of Na(+)-activated allosteric enzymes. Earlier structural studies suggest that Na(+)-binding promotes the thrombin-substrate association reaction. However, it is still elusive because (1) the structural change, driven by Na(+)-binding, is as small as the thermal fluctuation, and (2) the bound Na(+) is close to Asp189 in the primary substrate binding pocket (S1-pocket), possibly preventing substrate access via repulsive interaction. It still remains a matter of debate whether Na(+)-binding actually promotes the reaction. To solve this problem, we examined the effect of Na(+) on the reaction by employing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. By executing independent 210 MD simulations of apo and holo systems, we obtained 80 and 26 trajectories undergoing substrate access to S1-pocket, respectively. Interestingly, Na(+)-binding results in a 3-fold reduction of the substrate access. Furthermore, we examined works for the substrate access and release, and found that Na(+)-binding is disadvantageous for the presence of the substrate in the S1-pocket. These observations provide the insight that the bound Na(+) is essentially a negative effecter in thrombin-substrate stereospecific complex formation. The insight rationalizes an enigmatic feature of thrombin, relatively low Na(+)-binding affinity. This is essential to reduce the disadvantage of Na(+)-binding in the substrate-binding. PMID:27164318

  9. Negative membrane curvature catalyzes nucleation of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III assembly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Il-Hyung; Kai, Hiroyuki; Carlson, Lars-Anders; Groves, Jay T; Hurley, James H

    2015-12-29

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery functions in HIV-1 budding, cytokinesis, multivesicular body biogenesis, and other pathways, in the course of which it interacts with concave membrane necks and bud rims. To test the role of membrane shape in regulating ESCRT assembly, we nanofabricated templates for invaginated supported lipid bilayers. The assembly of the core ESCRT-III subunit CHMP4B/Snf7 is preferentially nucleated in the resulting 100-nm-deep membrane concavities. ESCRT-II and CHMP6 accelerate CHMP4B assembly by increasing the concentration of nucleation seeds. Superresolution imaging was used to visualize CHMP4B/Snf7 concentration in a negatively curved annulus at the rim of the invagination. Although Snf7 assemblies nucleate slowly on flat membranes, outward growth onto the flat membrane is efficiently nucleated at invaginations. The nucleation behavior provides a biophysical explanation for the timing of ESCRT-III recruitment and membrane scission in HIV-1 budding. PMID:26668364

  10. Characterization to species level of Mycobacterium avium complex strains from human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakopoulos, A M; Tassios, P T; Matsiota-Bernard, P; Marinis, E; Tsaousidou, S; Legakis, N J

    1997-01-01

    Forty human clinical Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex strains isolated in Greece were characterized to the species level by PCR with three sets of primers specific for one or both species. M. avium predominated in both human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients, but the frequency of M. intracellulare isolation appeared to be higher in the latter. PMID:9350780

  11. Catalytic Water Oxidation by Ruthenium Complexes Containing Negatively Charged Ligand Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Kärkäs, Markus D; Åkermark, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Artificial photosynthesis represents an attractive way of converting solar energy into storable chemical energy. The H2O oxidation half-reaction, which is essential for producing the necessary reduction equivalents, is an energy-demanding transformation associated with a high kinetic barrier. Herein we present a couple of efficient Ru-based catalysts capable of mediating this four-proton-four-electron oxidation. We have focused on the incorporation of negatively charged ligands, such as carboxylate, phenol, and imidazole, into the catalysts to decrease the redox potentials. This account describes our work in designing Ru catalysts based on this idea. The presence of the negatively charged ligands is crucial for stabilizing the metal centers, allowing for light-driven H2O oxidation. Mechanistic details associated with the designed catalysts are also presented. PMID:26991306

  12. Does job complexity mitigate the negative effect of emotion-rule dissonance on employee burnout?

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Bettina; Korunka, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In interactions with clients or patients, human service workers are at risk of experiencing discrepancies between felt and organizationally mandated emotions (i.e. emotion-rule dissonance). Given the documented detrimental effects of such discrepancies on employee strain, the present study investigated whether job complexity mitigates the relation between emotion-rule dissonance and employee burnout using data from a two-wave panel study of eldercare workers (N = 583, 16-month time lag). Structural equation modelling revealed that emotion-rule dissonance at Time 1 preceded emotional exhaustion and depersonalization at Time 2. Beyond that, employees whose work offered job complexity were found to suffer less from emotional exhaustion and depersonalization when encountering discrepancies between felt and stipulated emotions compared to employees who conducted noncomplex work. Thus, designing complex tasks appears to be a crucial starting point for alleviating employee burnout in jobs that provoke emotion-rule dissonance. PMID:26681818

  13. Negative results in phase III trials of complex interventions: cause for concern or just good science?

    PubMed

    Crawford, Mike J; Barnicot, Kirsten; Patterson, Sue; Gold, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Not all interventions that show promise in exploratory trials will be supported in phase III studies. But the high failure rate in recent trials of complex mental health interventions is a concern. Proper consideration of trial processes and greater use of adaptive trial designs could ensure better use of available resources. PMID:27369475

  14. Pavement crack detection combining non-negative feature with fast LoG in complex scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wanli; Zhang, Xiuhua; Hong, Hanyu

    2015-12-01

    Pavement crack detection is affected by much interference in the realistic situation, such as the shadow, road sign, oil stain, salt and pepper noise etc. Due to these unfavorable factors, the exist crack detection methods are difficult to distinguish the crack from background correctly. How to extract crack information effectively is the key problem to the road crack detection system. To solve this problem, a novel method for pavement crack detection based on combining non-negative feature with fast LoG is proposed. The two key novelties and benefits of this new approach are that 1) using image pixel gray value compensation to acquisit uniform image, and 2) combining non-negative feature with fast LoG to extract crack information. The image preprocessing results demonstrate that the method is indeed able to homogenize the crack image with more accurately compared to existing methods. A large number of experimental results demonstrate the proposed approach can detect the crack regions more correctly compared with traditional methods.

  15. Properties of clusters in the gas phase. V - Complexes of neutral molecules onto negative ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keesee, R. G.; Lee, N.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ion-molecules association reactions of the form A(-)(B)n-1 + B = A(-)(B)n were studied over a range of temperatures in the gas phase using high pressure mass spectrometry. Enthalpy and entropy changes were determined for the stepwise clustering reactions of (1) sulfur dioxide onto Cl(-), I(-), and NO2(-) with n ranging from one to three or four, and onto SO2(-) and SO3(-) with n equal to one; and (2) carbon dioxide onto Cl(-), I(-), NO2(-), CO3(-), and SO3(-) with n equal to one. From these data and earlier hydration results, the order of the magnitude of the enthalpy changes on the association of the first neutral for a series of negative ions was found to parallel the gas-phase basicity of those anions.

  16. Changes of slow cortical negative DC-potentials during the acquisition of a complex finger motor task.

    PubMed

    Niemann, J; Winker, T; Gerling, J; Landwehrmeyer, B; Jung, R

    1991-01-01

    To study whether electrophysiological correlates of increasing motor skill can be demonstrated in man, we recorded cortical negative DC-potentials during the acquisition of a complex finger movement in 21 subjects. The movement consisted in moving a matchstick to and fro between the index finger (II) and the little finger (V). Cortical negative DC-potentials were recorded at Fz, Cz, C1, C2 and Pz. As a control a simple finger movement was performed during the same session by 7 of the Ss. Both tasks were repeated 60-80 times and averages of the first and the last 15 artifact-free single runs were compared. Whereas only a slight, inconstant decrease in surface electronegativity during the simple motor task was observed, a significant reduction in potential size occurred during the complex task at Cz (maximum), C1, C2 and Pz but not at Fz. In addition, a significant difference in the decrease of surface electronegativity between various electrode positions was observed. We suggest that these changes in potential size during the process of motor learning may reflect an altered cortical organisation of movement control during the acquisition of a complex motor task. PMID:1893989

  17. The NF90-NF45 Complex Functions as a Negative Regulator in the MicroRNA Processing Pathway▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Shuji; Aoki, Kazuma; Higuchi, Takuma; Todaka, Hiroshi; Morisawa, Keiko; Tamaki, Nobuyuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Fukushima, Atsuki; Taniguchi, Taketoshi; Agata, Yasutoshi

    2009-01-01

    The positive regulatory machinery in the microRNA (miRNA) processing pathway is relatively well characterized, but negative regulation of the pathway is largely unknown. Here we show that a complex of nuclear factor 90 (NF90) and NF45 proteins functions as a negative regulator in miRNA biogenesis. Primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) processing into precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) was inhibited by overexpression of the NF90 and NF45 proteins, and considerable amounts of pri-miRNAs accumulated in cells coexpressing NF90 and NF45. Treatment of cells overexpressing NF90 and NF45 with an RNA polymerase II inhibitor, α-amanitin, did not reduce the amounts of pri-miRNAs, suggesting that the accumulation of pri-miRNAs is not due to transcriptional activation. In addition, the NF90 and NF45 complex was not found to interact with the Microprocessor complex, which is a processing factor of pri-miRNAs, but was found to bind endogenous pri-miRNAs. NF90-NF45 exhibited higher binding activity for pri-let-7a than pri-miR-21. Of note, depletion of NF90 caused a reduction of pri-let-7a and an increase of mature let-7a miRNA, which has a potent antiproliferative activity, and caused growth suppression of transformed cells. These findings suggest that the association of the NF90-NF45 complex with pri-miRNAs impairs access of the Microprocessor complex to the pri-miRNAs, resulting in a reduction of mature miRNA production. PMID:19398578

  18. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) to Treat Complex Defect of the Leg after Electrical Burn.

    PubMed

    Tevanov, Iulia; Enescu, Dan M; Bălănescu, Radu; Sterian, G; Ulici, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy is a non-invasive treatment that uses under atmospheric pressure to increase blood supply to the wound, stimulating the formation of granulation tissue, angiogenesis, proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Negative pressure therapy has also the ability to decrease the bacterial load, reduce swelling and decrease exudate while maintaining a moist environment that facilitates healing. Our patient, a 17 year old male, suffered major third and fourth-degree high voltage electrical burns on 60% of the body surface, in November 2011. After the excision of the necrotic tissue (muscles and tendons), the lower extremity of the right leg- the tibial bone, the fibula, external and internal malleoli became exposed circularly. The soft-tissue defect was partially covered by using an internal twin muscle flap and free split skin. Then, a cross leg flap technique has been used, partially covering the defect with a contralateral thigh flap. Surface swab cultures were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In October 2013 the patient was transferred to our department. The clinical examination of the right leg showed that the tibial bone had been exposed on an area of 15/3 cm in the lower half. The peroneal malleolus had also been exposed. The resection of the devitalized, exposed tibia and the avivement of the wound edges were performed. Then the NPWT was started and performed by intermittent suction. Local cleansing, soft-tissue avivement and dressing changes were performed twice a week for 6 weeks. After six weeks of NPWT and eleven dressing changes under general anaesthesia, the wounds were ready for skin grafting. Granulation tissue was formed, covering the entire surface of both the tibia bone and the peroneal malleolus. Both receptor beds were covered with free skin graft harvested from the ipsilateral thigh. The mechanical suture of the skin grafts was performed and the grafts were covered with damp dressing. By using the NPWT it

  19. Rem2 Is an Activity-Dependent Negative Regulator of Dendritic Complexity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ghiretti, Amy E.; Moore, Anna R.; Brenner, Rebecca G.; Chen, Liang-Fu; West, Anne E.; Lau, Nelson C.; Van Hooser, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    A key feature of the CNS is structural plasticity, the ability of neurons to alter their morphology and connectivity in response to sensory experience and other changes in the environment. How this structural plasticity is achieved at the molecular level is not well understood. We provide evidence that changes in sensory experience simultaneously trigger multiple signaling pathways that either promote or restrict growth of the dendritic arbor; structural plasticity is achieved through a balance of these opposing signals. Specifically, we have uncovered a novel, activity-dependent signaling pathway that restricts dendritic arborization. We demonstrate that the GTPase Rem2 is regulated at the transcriptional level by calcium influx through L-VGCCs and inhibits dendritic arborization in cultured rat cortical neurons and in the Xenopus laevis tadpole visual system. Thus, our results demonstrate that changes in neuronal activity initiate competing signaling pathways that positively and negatively regulate the growth of the dendritic arbor. It is the balance of these opposing signals that leads to proper dendritic morphology. PMID:24403140

  20. Quantum effects in electron emission from and accretion on negatively charged spherical particles in a complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.; Misra, Shikha

    2012-07-15

    The authors have investigated the electron emissions (thermionic, electric field, photoelectric, and light induced field) from and electron accretion on a charged particle in a complex plasma, on the basis of a three region electrical potential model in and around a charged spherical particle in a complex plasma, characterized by Debye shielding. A continuous variation of the transmission coefficient across the surface of a particle (corresponding to emission and accretion) with the radial electron energy {epsilon}{sub r} has been obtained. It is seen that the numerical values of the emission and accretion transmission coefficients [D({epsilon}{sub r})] are almost the same. This is the necessary and sufficient condition for the validity of Saha's equation for thermal equilibrium of a system of dust and electrons. This is in contrast to the earlier condition, which limited the range of validity of Saha's equation to the range of the applicability of Born approximation. It is seen that D({epsilon}{sub r}) increases with increasing {epsilon}{sub r}, increasing negative electric potential on the surface, decreasing radius, and deceasing Debye length. The electron currents, corresponding to thermionic, electric field, photoelectric and light induced field emission increase with increasing surface potential; this fact may have significant repercussions in complex plasma kinetics. Since numerically D({epsilon}{sub r}) is significantly different from unity in the range of {epsilon}{sub r} of interest, it is necessary to take into account the D({epsilon}{sub r})-{epsilon}{sub r} dependence in complex plasma theory.

  1. Reducing Complexity: A Regularized Non-negative Matrix Approximation (NNMA) Approach to X-ray Spectromicroscopy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Rachel Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy combines microscopy and spectroscopy to provide rich information about the chemical organization of materials down to the nanoscale. But with richness also comes complexity: natural materials such as biological or environmental science specimens can be composed of complex spectroscopic mixtures of different materials. The challenge becomes how we could meaningfully simplify and interpret this information. Approaches such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis have been used in previous studies, but with some limitations that we will describe. This leads us to develop a new approach based on a development of non-negative matrix approximation (NNMA) analysis with both sparseness and spectra similarity regularizations. We apply this new technique to simulated spectromicroscopy datasets as well as a preliminary study of the large-scale biochemical organization of a human sperm cell. NNMA analysis is able to select major features of the sperm cell without the physically erroneous negative weightings or thicknesses in the calculated image which appeared in previous approaches.

  2. Negative hyperconjugation and red-, blue- or zero-shift in X-Z∙∙∙Y complexes.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jyothish; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D; Vidya, Kaipanchery

    2015-01-01

    A generalized explanation is provided for the existence of the red- and blue-shifting nature of X-Z bonds (Z=H, halogens, chalcogens, pnicogens, etc.) in X-Z∙∙∙Y complexes based on computational studies on a selected set of weakly bonded complexes and analysis of existing literature data. The additional electrons and orbitals available on Z in comparison to H make for dramatic differences between the H-bond and the rest of the Z-bonds. The nature of the X-group and its influence on the X-Z bond length in the parent X-Z molecule largely controls the change in the X-Z bond length on X-Z∙∙∙Y bond formation; the Y-group usually influences only the magnitude of the effects controlled by X. The major factors which control the X-Z bond length change are: (a) negative hyperconjugative donation of electron density from X-group to X-Z σ* antibonding molecular orbital (ABMO) in the parent X-Z, (b) induced negative hyperconjugation from the lone pair of electrons on Z to the antibonding orbitals of the X-group, and (c) charge transfer (CT) from the Y-group to the X-Z σ* orbital. The exchange repulsion from the Y-group that shifts partial electron density at the X-Z σ* ABMO back to X leads to blue-shifting and the CT from the Y-group to the σ* ABMO of X-Z leads to red-shifting. The balance between these two opposing forces decides red-, zero- or blue-shifting. A continuum of behaviour of X-Z bond length variation is inevitable in X-Z∙∙∙Y complexes. PMID:25653178

  3. Genetic evaluation of BRCA1-A complex genes with triple-negative breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi-Zi; Qiao, Feng; Yao, Ling; Cao, Zhi-Gang; Ye, Fu-Gui; Wu, Jiong; Hu, Xin; Wang, Bin; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background The tumor suppressor BRCA1 plays a pivotal role in maintaining genomic stability and tumor suppression. The BRCA1-A complex is required for recruitment of BRCA1 to DNA damage sites, DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control. Since germline mutations of BRCA1 often lead to breast tumors that are triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) type, we aimed to investigate whether genetic deficiency in genes of the BRCA1-A complex is associated with risk to TNBC development. Results We found that rs7250266 in the promoter region of NBA1 confers a decreased risk to TNBC development, but not to non-TNBC susceptibility. In addition, the haplotypes containing two polymorphisms rs7250266 and rs2278256 are associated with a lower chance of TNBC development specifically. Our studies also showed that the protective alleles of rs7250266 (C > G) and rs2278256 (T > C) down-regulate promoter activity of NBA1 in mammary epithelial cells. Methods We investigated associations between the BRCA1-A complex genes and TNBC developing risk in first case-control study of Chinese Han Women population including 414 patients with TNBC and 354 cancer-free controls. We detected 37 common variants in ABRAXAS, RAP80, BRE, BRCC36 and NBA1/MERIT40 genes encoding the BRCA1-A complex and evaluated their genetic susceptibility to the risk of TNBC. An additional cohort with 652 other types of breast cancer (non-TNBC) cases and 890 controls was used to investigate the associations between TNBC-specific SNPs genotype and non-TNBCs susceptibility. Conclusions Genetic variants in NBA1 may be an important genetic determinant of TNBC susceptibility. Further investigation and validation of these SNPs in larger cohorts may facilitate in predication and prevention of TNBC and in counseling individuals for risk of TNBC development. PMID:26848770

  4. Cyclophilin E Functions as a Negative Regulator to Influenza Virus Replication by Impairing the Formation of the Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zengfu; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Zhendong; Xu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Caiwei; Sun, Lei; Gao, George F.; Ye, Xin; Liu, Wenjun

    2011-01-01

    Background The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A virus is a multifunctional protein that plays a critical role in the replication and transcription of the viral genome. Therefore, examining host factors that interact with NP may shed light on the mechanism of host restriction barriers and the tissue tropism of influenza A virus. Here, Cyclophilin E (CypE), a member of the peptidyl-propyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) family, was found to bind to NP and inhibit viral replication and transcription. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, CypE was found to interact with NP but not with the other components of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP): PB1, PB2, and PA. Mutagenesis data revealed that the CypE domain comprised of residues 137–186 is responsible for its binding to NP. Functional analysis results indicated that CypE is a negative regulator in the influenza virus life cycle. Furthermore, knock-down of CypE resulted in increased levels of three types of viral RNA, suggesting that CypE negatively affects viral replication and transcription. Moreover, up-regulation of CypE inhibited the activity of influenza viral polymerase. We determined that the molecular mechanism by which CypE negatively regulates influenza virus replication and transcription is by interfering with NP self-association and the NP-PB1 and NP-PB2 interactions. Conclusions/Significance CypE is a host restriction factor that inhibits the functions of NP, as well as viral replication and transcription, by impairing the formation of the vRNP. The data presented here will help us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of host restriction barriers, host adaptation, and tissue tropism of influenza A virus. PMID:21887220

  5. Forskolin-inducible cAMP Pathway Negatively Regulates T-cell Proliferation by Uncoupling the Interleukin-2 Receptor Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Georgialina; Ross, Jeremy A.; Nagy, Zsuzsanna S.; Kirken, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine-mediated regulation of T-cell activity involves a complex interplay between key signal transduction pathways. Determining how these signaling pathways cross-talk is essential to understanding T-cell function and dysfunction. In this work, we provide evidence that cross-talk exists between at least two signaling pathways: the Jak3/Stat5 and cAMP-mediated cascades. The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (Fsk) significantly increased intracellular cAMP levels and reduced proliferation of the human T-cells via inhibition of cell cycle regulatory genes but did not induce apoptosis. To determine this inhibitory mechanism, effects of Fsk on IL-2 signaling was investigated. Fsk treatment of MT-2 and Kit 225 T-cells inhibited IL-2-induced Stat5a/b tyrosine and serine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding activity. Fsk treatment also uncoupled IL-2 induced association of the IL-2Rβ and γc chain, consequently blocking Jak3 activation. Interestingly, phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that Fsk-treated cells resulted in elevated serine phosphorylation of Jak3 but not Stat5, suggesting that Fsk can negatively regulate Jak3 activity possibly mediated through PKA. Indeed, in vitro kinase assays and small molecule inhibition studies indicated that PKA can directly serine phosphorylate and functionally inactivate Jak3. Taken together, these findings suggest that Fsk activation of adenylate cyclase and PKA can negatively regulate IL-2 signaling at multiple levels that include IL-2R complex formation and Jak3/Stat5 activation. PMID:23341462

  6. Auditory scene analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David J.; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Proulx, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don’t yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36) performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio–visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this. PMID:26528202

  7. SAPCD2 Controls Spindle Orientation and Asymmetric Divisions by Negatively Regulating the Gαi-LGN-NuMA Ternary Complex.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Catherine W N; Monat, Carine; Robitaille, Mélanie; Lacomme, Marine; Daulat, Avais M; Macleod, Graham; McNeill, Helen; Cayouette, Michel; Angers, Stéphane

    2016-01-11

    Control of cell-division orientation is integral to epithelial morphogenesis and asymmetric cell division. Proper spatiotemporal localization of the evolutionarily conserved Gαi-LGN-NuMA protein complex is critical for mitotic spindle orientation, but how this is achieved remains unclear. Here we identify Suppressor APC domain containing 2 (SAPCD2) as a previously unreported LGN-interacting protein. We show that SAPCD2 is essential to instruct planar mitotic spindle orientation in both epithelial cell cultures and mouse retinal progenitor cells in vivo. Loss of SAPCD2 randomizes spindle orientation, which in turn disrupts cyst morphogenesis in three-dimensional cultures, and triples the number of terminal asymmetric cell divisions in the developing retina. Mechanistically, we show that SAPCD2 negatively regulates the localization of LGN at the cell cortex, likely by competing with NuMA for its binding. These results uncover SAPCD2 as a key regulator of the ternary complex controlling spindle orientation during morphogenesis and asymmetric cell divisions. PMID:26766442

  8. Auditory scene analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    PubMed

    Brown, David J; Simpson, Andrew J R; Proulx, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don't yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36) performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio-visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this. PMID:26528202

  9. Synthetic quantitative array technology identifies the Ubp3-Bre5 deubiquitinase complex as a negative regulator of mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Müller, Matthias; Kötter, Peter; Behrendt, Christina; Walter, Elena; Scheckhuber, Christian Q; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Reichert, Andreas S

    2015-02-24

    Mitophagy is crucial to ensuring mitochondrial quality control. However, the molecular mechanism and regulation of mitophagy are still not fully understood. Here, we developed a quantitative methodology termed synthetic quantitative array (SQA) technology, which allowed us to perform a genome-wide screen for modulators of rapamycin-induced mitophagy in S. cerevisiae. SQA technology can be easily employed for other enzyme-based reporter systems and widely applied in yeast research. We identified 86 positive and 10 negative regulators of mitophagy. Moreover, SQA-based analysis of non-selective autophagy revealed that 63 of these regulators are specific for mitophagy and 33 regulate autophagy in general. The Ubp3-Bre5 deubiquitination complex was found to inhibit mitophagy but, conversely, to promote other types of autophagy, including ribophagy. This complex translocates dynamically to mitochondria upon induction of mitophagy. These findings point to a role of ubiquitination in mitophagy in yeast and suggest a reciprocal regulation of distinct autophagy pathways. PMID:25704822

  10. Linear free energy relationships for metal-ligand complexation: Bidentate binding to negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonaro, Richard F.; Atalay, Yasemin B.; Di Toro, Dominic M.

    2011-05-01

    Stability constants for metal complexation to bidentate ligands containing negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms can be estimated from the following linear free energy relationship (LFER): log KML = χOO( αO log KHL,1 + αO log KHL,2) where KML is the metal-ligand stability constant for a 1:1 complex, KHL,1 and KHL,2 are the proton-ligand stability constants (the ligand p Ka values), and αO is the Irving-Rossotti slope. The parameter χOO is metal specific and has slightly different values for five and six membered chelate rings. LFERs are presented for 21 different metal ions and are accurate to within approximately 0.30 log units in predictions of log KML values. Ligands selected for use in LFER development include dicarboxylic acids, carboxyphenols, and ortho-diphenols. For ortho-hydroxybenzaldehydes, α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, and α-ketocarboxylic acids, a modification of the LFER where log KHL,2 is set equal to zero is required. The chemical interpretation of χOO is that it accounts for the extra stability afforded to metal complexes by the chelate effect. Cu-NOM binding constants calculated from the bidentate LFERs are similar in magnitude to those used in WHAM 6. This LFER can be used to make log KML predictions for small organic molecules. Since natural organic matter (NOM) contains many of the same functional groups (i.e. carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohols), the LFER log KML predictions shed light on the range of appropriate values for use in modeling metal partitioning in natural systems.

  11. The nascent-polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit regulates the polygalacturonases expression negatively and influences the pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuli; Guo, Min; Xu, Dafeng; Chen, Fangxin; Zhang, Huajian; Pan, Yuemin; Li, Maomao; Gao, Zhimou

    2015-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic plant-pathogenic fungus that infects more than 400 species of plants. In this study the nascent polypeptide-associated complex α subunit gene of S. sclerotiorum (SsNACα; accession No. XP_001593856.1) was cloned and characterized. The relative transcript expression of SsNACα at different morphological stages of asexual development of S. sclerotiorum were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). RNAi-mediated gene silencing was successful for SsNACα, and the mutated strains exhibited less than 15% of the relative expression of SsNACα were obtained and used for studying the biological functions of the gene. A delay in sclerotial maturation for S. sclerotiorum was observed in the SsNACα mutants. The significant elevations for both the activities of pectin-degrading enzymes and the expression of polygalacturonase genes also were associated with the mutated strains, indicating that SsNACα could negatively influence polygalacturonases expression and modulate the pathogenicity of S. sclerotiorum. PMID:26297780

  12. Array-based identification of triple-negative breast cancer cells using fluorescent nanodot-graphene oxide complexes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yu; Auguste, Debra T

    2016-07-15

    Early and accurate diagnosis of breast cancer holds great promise to improve treatability and curability. Here, we report the usage of six luminescent nanodot-graphene oxide complexes as novel fluorescent nanoprobes in a sensing array capable of effectively identifying healthy, cancerous, and metastatic human breast cells. The sensory system is based on the utilization of nanoprobe-graphene oxide sensor elements that can be disrupted in the presence of breast cells to give fluorescent readouts. Using this multichannel sensor, we have successfully identified breast cancer cells and distinguished between estrogen receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive, and triple negative phenotypes. This approach also allows cell identification at high sensitivity (200 cells) with high reproducibility. The unknown cell sample analysis indicates that the sensor is able to identify 49 out of 50 breast cell samples correctly, with a detection accuracy of 98%. Taken together, this array-based luminescent nanoprobe-graphene oxide sensing platform presents a useful cell screening tool with potential applications in biomedical diagnostics. PMID:27003608

  13. Combined use of negative pressure wound therapy and Integra® to treat complex defects in lower extremities after burns

    PubMed Central

    González Alaña, I.; Torrero López, J.V.; Martín Playá, P.; Gabilondo Zubizarreta, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Deep and extensive burns of lower extremities present a difficult challenge to healthcare professionals. After debridement, bones, tendons or joints are frequently exposed and cannot be covered by simple autografts. Moreover, in the case of major burns, damage to the surrounding areas of skin and the severity of the patient’s overall condition, often count against using pedicled or microsurgical flaps. In dealing with such complex wounds, which are difficult to treat, several authors have recommended the combined use of Integra® and negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). They emphasize that NPWT eliminates wound exudate, promotes neovascularisation and cell migration through the Integra® matrix while increasing its stability and adherence to the wound bed, as well as decreasing the time needed for its total integration. The case presented here is of a patient with major third-degree flame burns to the lower extremities. After debridement, the external and internal malleolus bilaterally became exposed as well as the partially debrided tendons (Achilles, extensor digitorum longus, long and short peroneus, anterior and posterior tibialis). After ruling out the use of local or microsurgical flaps due to the patient’s poor general condition and the presence of burns debrided to the fascia over both lower extremities, we elected to manage the patient with a combined treatment using Integra® and NPWT. After three weeks of treatment, the surface layer of the Integra® matrix was replaced with autografts. Due to partial loss of the skin grafts, a second autograft was needed. At present the patient is completely healed; he can walk with full flexion-extension of both ankles. PMID:24133403

  14. Spoligotype profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from HIV-positive and -negative patients in Nigeria: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cadmus, Simeon; Hill, Véronique; van Soolingen, Dick; Rastogi, Nalin

    2011-01-01

    We ran a comparative analysis of all patients for whom a positive culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was available between April 2004 and October 2005 and whose HIV serology results were known, with spoligotyping results (n = 163) split into 49 HIV-positive patients and 114 HIV-negative patients. Spoligotype international type 373 (SIT373) (T1 lineage), which was highly prevalent among the HIV(+) patients, was totally absent from the HIV(-) population, suggesting that we had a specific clone affecting nearly 1/3 of all HIV-tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected patients. Among the LAM10-CAM sublineage strains, we had only a single strain of SIT403 among HIV(-) patients (0.88%), as opposed to 12.25% of the HIV(+) population (χ(2) = 10.77; P < 0.01), indicating a strong association between the strain and the HIV(+) population. The LAM10-CAM lineage spoligotype SIT61 was prevalent among the 2 subsets (37.72% in HIV(-) versus 12.24% in HIV(+) populations), though, with a significant difference between the 2 groups (χ(2) = 10.53; P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference for SIT53 (T1 lineage) in the 2 subsets: 6.14 versus 8.2% (χ(2) = 0.22; P > 0.05). A total of 7/49, or 14.3%, other SITs among HIV(+) patients were not found among the HIV(-) patients. When added to the most prevalent SIT among HIV(+) patients (SIT373; n = 16), 23/49, or 47%, isolates among HIV-TB-coinfected patients were unique. We conclude that further studies should be carried out to investigate the evolution of these genotypes and others in the emergence of multidrug resistance and control of tuberculosis in Nigeria. PMID:21048016

  15. False-negative indocyanine green videoangiography among complex unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms: the importance of further aneurysm inspection.

    PubMed

    Kulwin, Charles; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-10-01

    Successful surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms requires complete occlusion of the aneurysm lumen while maintaining patency of the adjacent branching and perforating arteries. Intraoperative flow assessment allows aneurysm clip repositioning in the event these requirements are not met, avoiding the risk of postoperative rehemorrhage or infarction. A number of modalities have been proposed for primarily intraoperative qualitative blood flow assessment, including microdoppler ultrasonography, intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and more recently noninvasive fluorescent angiography including indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent imaging. Puncture of the aneurysm dome to exclude aneurysm sac filling may also assess the efficacy of clip placement. Although a high concordance between ICG and DSA has been reported, there remains an important subset of aneurysms for which negative ICG study may erroneously suggest aneurysm occlusion. A high-risk situation for such a false-negative study is an atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm in which vessel wall plaque interferes with the ICG signal. Furthermore, a decreased flow within the aneurysm may not allow enough emission light for detection under the current technology. In this report, we describe our experience with cases of MCA aneurysms with false-negative ICG-VA studies requiring clip adjustment for optimal surgical treatment and discuss two illustrative cases of MCA aneurysms with intraoperative fluorescence studies that were falsely negative, requiring puncture of the aneurysm to correctly identify incomplete aneurysm occlusion. PMID:24552255

  16. The Enok acetyltransferase complex interacts with Elg1 and negatively regulates PCNA unloading to promote the G1/S transition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Kusch, Thomas; Swanson, Selene K; Szerszen, Leanne T; Li, Ge; Dutta, Arnob; Washburn, Michael P; Abmayr, Susan M; Workman, Jerry L

    2016-05-15

    KAT6 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are involved in cell cycle regulation. However, information regarding their roles in regulating cell cycle progression is limited. Here, we report the identification of subunits of the Drosophila Enok complex and demonstrate that all subunits are important for its HAT activity. We further report a novel interaction between the Enok complex and the Elg1 proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-unloader complex. Depletion of Enok in S2 cells resulted in a G1/S cell cycle block, and this block can be partially relieved by depleting Elg1. Furthermore, depletion of Enok reduced the chromatin-bound levels of PCNA in both S2 cells and early embryos, suggesting that the Enok complex may interact with the Elg1 complex and down-regulate its PCNA-unloading function to promote the G1/S transition. Supporting this hypothesis, depletion of Enok also partially rescued the endoreplication defects in Elg1-depleted nurse cells. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the roles of KAT6 HATs in cell cycle regulation through modulating PCNA levels on chromatin. PMID:27198229

  17. Earlier timbre processing of instrumental tones compared to equally complex spectrally rotated sounds as revealed by the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Christmann, Corinna A; Lachmann, Thomas; Berti, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Harmonically rich sounds have been shown to be processed more efficiently by the human brain compared to single sinusoidal tones. To control for stimulus complexity as a potentially confounding factor, tones and equally complex spectrally rotated sounds, have been used in the present study to investigate the role of the overtone series in sensory auditory processing in non-musicians. Timbre differences in instrumental tones with equal pitch elicited a MMN which was earlier compared to that elicited by the spectrally rotated sounds, indicating that harmonically rich tones are processed faster compared to non-musical sounds without an overtone series, even when pitch is not the relevant information. PMID:25173970

  18. Immune complex disease with a lupus-like pattern of deposition in an antinuclear antibody-negative patient.

    PubMed

    Pirkle, James L; Freedman, Barry I; Fogo, Agnes B

    2013-07-01

    Immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis can be caused by a multitude of disease processes and may manifest in a variety of histologic patterns. Lupus nephritis is an immune complex disease, the diagnosis of which requires that the affected patient have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the absence of SLE, the finding of glomerulonephritis with certain patterns of immune complex deposition characteristic of lupus nephritis has been referred to as lupus-like glomerulonephritis. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, IgM, complement C3, and C1q deposition in glomerular immune deposits is one such pattern. We report a case of immune complex disease in a primarily membranous distribution with mesangial, subendothelial, and tubular basement membrane deposits with IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C1q deposition in a patient with proteinuria, photosensitive dermatitis, and a positive lupus anticoagulant test. The patient had 3 of the clinical criteria for SLE, thus failing to meet the diagnosis based on the American College of Rheumatology definition. In this case, a diagnosis of lupus-like glomerulonephritis was made after other causes of membranous glomerulopathy were excluded. This teaching case highlights the broad differential diagnosis of this pattern of injury and reviews similar cases in the literature. PMID:23548558

  19. Spin-filtering, giant magnetoresistance, rectifying and negative differential resistance effects in planar four-coordinate Fe complex with graphene nanoribbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P. E-mail: ss-cheng@ujn.edu.cn; Wu, Q. H.; Chen, G. E-mail: ss-cheng@ujn.edu.cn; Liu, D. S.; Department of Physics, Jining University, Qufu 273155

    2014-01-28

    By using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism combined with the density functional theory, we have investigated the spin-polarized transport properties of a planar four-coordinate Fe complex sandwiched between two zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) electrodes, where the ZGNRs are modulated by external magnetic field. The results show that the system can exhibit perfect dual spin-filtering and spin-rectifying effects at a wide bias range, giant magnetoresistance effect with large magnetoresistance ratio at small bias, and obvious negative differential resistance behavior. The mechanisms are proposed for these phenomena.

  20. Genomic complexity profiling reveals that HORMAD1 overexpression contributes to homologous recombination deficiency in triple-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Johnathan; Weekes, Daniel; Shah, Vandna; Gazinska, Patrycja; Joshi, Shalaka; Sidhu, Bhavna; Gillett, Cheryl; Pinder, Sarah; Vanoli, Fabio; Jasin, Maria; Mayrhofer, Markus; Isaksson, Anders; Cheang, Maggie C.U.; Mirza, Hasan; Frankum, Jessica; Lord, Christopher J.; Ashworth, Alan; Vinayak, Shaveta; Ford, James M.; Telli, Melinda L.; Grigoriadis, Anita; Tutt, Andrew N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are characterised by a wide spectrum of genomic alterations, some of which might be caused by defects in DNA repair processes such as homologous recombination (HR). Despite this understanding, associating particular patterns of genomic instability with response to therapy has been challenging. Here, we show that Allelic-imbalanced Copy Number Aberrations (AiCNA) are more prevalent in TNBCs that respond to platinum-based chemotherapy, thus providing a candidate predictive biomarker for this disease. Furthermore, we show that a high level of AiCNA is linked with elevated expression of a meiosis-associated gene HORMAD1. Elevated HORMAD1 expression suppresses RAD51-dependent HR and drives the use of alternative forms of DNA repair, the generation of AiCNAs as well as sensitising cancer cells to HR targeting therapies. Our data therefore provides a mechanistic association between HORMAD1 expression, a specific pattern of genomic instability and an association with response to platinum-based chemotherapy in TNBC. PMID:25770156

  1. Septic arthritis caused by a gram-negative bacterium representing a new species related to the Bordetella-Alcaligenes complex.

    PubMed

    Kronvall, G; Hanson, H S; von Stedingk, L V; Törnqvist, E; Falsen, E

    2000-03-01

    A knee-joint exudate culture yielded on two occasions a gram-negative bacterium. Regular methods for speciation did not provide an identification. The infection was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The unknown isolate, CCUG 36768, was subjected to further investigation, including 16S rDNA sequencing, protein profiling, cellular fatty acid analysis, and various biochemical tests, in order to produce a species identification. The 1469 bp-long 16S rDNA sequence did not reveal identity with any known species sequence. CCUG 36768 clustered in a group of species, including Alcaligenes defragrans, Denitrobacter permanens, Taylorella equigenitalis, Alcaligenes faecalis, and four strains of Alcaligenes species without a specific species name. Bordetella species also showed a high degree of similarity with CCUG 36768. Protein profiling, cellular fatty acid analysis and computer-assisted analysis of biochemical profiles indicated similarity with Bordetella-Alcaligenes species, often close to B. holmesii and B. avium. API 20 NE indicated the profile of Moraxella species of poor identity. It is concluded that CCUG 36768 represents a new bacterial species of pathogenic potential in humans. It is related to the Bordetella-Alcaligenes group. Powerful new methods for speciation are available and it is recommended that unknown isolates from normally sterile sites be submitted for further analysis. Several isolates are required for the definition of new species. PMID:10752687

  2. Favorable combination of positive and negative electrode materials with glyme-Li salt complex electrolytes in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, A.; Kamijima, K.; Yoshida, M.; Dokko, K.; Watanabe, M.

    Tetraglyme (G4)-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (TFSA) complexes with different G4 ratio were investigated. An increase in the amount of G4 led to the decrease in the viscosity, and increase in the ionic conductivity of the complex, and G4-LiTFSA showed higher thermal stabilities than the conventional organic electrolyte, when the molar ratio of G4 was more than 40 mol%. The increase in the G4 amount improved the rate capabilities of Li/LiCoO 2 cells in the range where the molar ratio of G4 was between 40 mol% and 60 mol%. The stable Li ion intercalation-deintercalation was not observed in the Li/graphite cell of [Li(G4)][TFSA] (G4: 50 mol%) without additives. However, the additives for forming solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film, such as vinylene carbonate, vinylethylene carbonate, and 1,3-propane sultone, led to the charge-discharge performance comparable to that of the conventional organic electrolyte. The adoption of Li 4Ti 5O 12 and LiFePO 4 led to excellent reversibilities of the Li half cells using [Li(G4)][TFSA], probably because of the favorable operation voltage. In the case of the LiFePO 4/Li 4Ti 5O 12 cell, the cell with [Li(G4)][TFSA] showed the better rate capability than that with the conventional organic electrolyte, when the rate was less than 1 CmA, and it is concluded that [Li(G4)][TFSA] can be the candidate as the alternative of organic electrolytes when the most appropriate electrode-active materials are used.

  3. Linear ubiquitin assembly complex negatively regulates RIG-I and TRIM25 mediated type-I interferon induction

    PubMed Central

    Inn, Kyung-Soo; Gack, Michaela U.; Tokunaga, Fuminori; Shi, Mude; Wong, Lai-Yee; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Jung, Jae U.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Upon detection of viral RNA, retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) undergoes TRIM25-mediated Lys-63 linked ubiquitination, leading to type-I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC), comprised of two RING-IBR-RING (RBR)-containing E3 ligases HOIL-1L and HOIP, independently targets TRIM25 and RIG-I to effectively suppress virus-induced IFN production. RBR E3 ligase domains of HOIL-1L and HOIP bind and induce proteosomal degradation of TRIM25, whereas the NZF domain of HOIL-1L competes with TRIM25 for RIG-I binding. Consequently, both actions by the HOIL-1L/HOIP LUBAC potently inhibit RIG-I ubiquitination and anti-viral activity, but in a mechanistically separate manner. Conversely, the genetic deletion or depletion of HOIL-1L and HOIP robustly enhances virus-induced type-I IFN production. Taken together, the HOIL-1L/HOIP LUBAC specifically suppresses RIG-I ubiquitination and activation by inducing TRIM25 degradation and inhibiting TRIM25 interaction with RIG-I, resulting in the comprehensive suppression of the IFN-mediated anti-viral signaling pathway. PMID:21292167

  4. Negatively charged Ir(iii) cyclometalated complexes containing a chelating bis-tetrazolato ligand: synthesis, photophysics and the study of reactivity with electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Valentina; Zacchini, Stefano; Raiteri, Paolo; Mazzoni, Rita; Zanotti, Valerio; Massi, Massimiliano; Stagni, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The bis-tetrazolate dianion [1,2 BTB](2-), which is the deprotonated form of 1,2 bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzene [1,2-H2BTB], is for the first time exploited as an ancillary N^N ligand for negatively charged [Ir(C^N)2(N^N)](-)-type complexes, where C^N is represented by cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine (ppy) or 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (F2ppy). The new Ir(iii) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- have been fully characterised and the analysis of the X-ray structure of [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- confirmed the coordination of the [1,2 BTB](2-) dianion in a bis chelated fashion through the N-atoms adjacent to each of the tetrazolic carbons. Both of the new anionic Ir(iii) complexes displayed phosphorescence in the visible region, with intense sky-blue (λmax = 460-490 nm) or aqua (λmax = 490-520 nm) emissions originating from [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]-, respectively. In comparison with our very recent examples of anionic Ir(iii)tetrazolate cyclometalates, the new Ir(iii) tris chelate complexes [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]-, display an improved robustness, allowing the study of their reactivity toward the addition of electrophiles such as H(+) and CH3(+). In all cases, the electrophilic attacks occurred at the coordinated tetrazolate rings, involving the reversible - by a protonation deprotonation mechanism - or permanent - upon addition of a methyl moiety - switching of their global net charge from negative to positive and, in particular, the concomitant variation of their photoluminescence output. The combination of the anionic complexes [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- or [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- with a deep red emitting (λmax = 686 nm) cationic Ir(iii) tetrazole complex such as [IrTPYZ-Me]+, where TPYZ-Me is 2-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyrazine, gave rise to two fully Ir(iii)-based soft salts capable of displaying additive and O2-sensitive emission colours, with an almost pure white light obtained by the appropriate

  5. Dominant-negative mutants of importin-beta block multiple pathways of import and export through the nuclear pore complex.

    PubMed Central

    Kutay, U; Izaurralde, E; Bischoff, F R; Mattaj, I W; Görlich, D

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear protein import proceeds through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Importin-beta mediates translocation via direct interaction with NPC components and carries importin-alpha with the NLS substrate from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. The import reaction is terminated by the direct binding of nuclear RanGTP to importin-beta which dissociates the importin heterodimer. Here, we analyse the sites of interaction on importin-beta for its multiple partners. Ran and importin-alpha respectively require residues 1-364 and 331-876 of importin-beta for binding. Thus, RanGTP-mediated release of importin-alpha from importin-beta is likely to be an active displacement rather than due to simple competition between Ran and importin-alpha for a common binding site. Importin-beta has at least two non-overlapping sites of interaction with the NPC, which could potentially be used sequentially during translocation. Our data also suggest that termination of import involves a transient release of importin-beta from the NPC. Importin-beta fragments which bind to the NPC, but not to Ran, resist this release mechanism. As would be predicted from this, these importin-beta mutants are very efficient inhibitors of NLS-dependent protein import. Surprisingly, however, they also inhibit M9 signal-mediated nuclear import as well as nuclear export of mRNA, U snRNA, and the NES-containing Rev protein. This suggests that mediators of these various transport events share binding sites on the NPC and/or that mechanisms exist to coordinate translocation through the NPC via different nucleocytoplasmic transport pathways. PMID:9135132

  6. A Negative Feedback Loop Controlling bHLH Complexes Is Involved in Vascular Cell Division and Differentiation in the Root Apical Meristem.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hirofumi; Iwamoto, Kuninori; Kariya, Yuka; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Kan, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Hiroo; Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko

    2015-12-01

    Controlling cell division and differentiation in meristems is essential for proper plant growth. Two bHLH heterodimers consisting of LONESOME HIGHWAY (LHW) and TARGET OF MONOPTEROS 5 (TMO5)/TMO5-LIKE1 (T5L1) regulate periclinal cell division in vascular cells in the root apical meristem (RAM). In this study, we further investigated the functions of LHW-T5L1, finding that in addition to controlling cell division, this complex regulates xylem differentiation in the RAM via a novel negative regulatory system. LHW-T5L1 upregulated the thermospermine synthase gene ACAULIS5 (ACL5), as well as SUPPRESSOR OF ACAULIS5 LIKE3 (SACL3), which encodes a bHLH protein, in the RAM. The SACL3 promoter sequence contains a conserved upstream open reading frame (uORF), which blocked translation of the main SACL3 ORF in the absence of thermospermine. Thermospermine eliminated the negative effect of uORF and enhanced SACL3 production. Further genetic and molecular biological analyses indicated that ACL5 and SACL3 suppress the function of LHW-T5L1 through a protein-protein interaction between LHW and SACL3. Finally, we showed that a negative feedback loop consisting of LHW-T5L1, ACL5, SACL3, and LHW-SACL3 contributes to maintain RAM size and proper root growth. These findings suggest that a negative feedback loop regulates the LHW-T5L1 output level to coordinate cell division and differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. PMID:26616019

  7. DNA-PK/Ku complex binds to latency-associated nuclear antigen and negatively regulates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent replication

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Seho; Lim, Chunghun; Lee, Jae Young; Song, Yoon-Jae; Park, Junsoo; Choe, Joonho; Seo, Taegun

    2010-04-16

    During latent infection, latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays important roles in episomal persistence and replication. Several host factors are associated with KSHV latent replication. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Ku70, and Ku86 bind the N-terminal region of LANA. LANA was phosphorylated by DNA-PK and overexpression of Ku70, but not Ku86, impaired transient replication. The efficiency of transient replication was significantly increased in the HCT116 (Ku86 +/-) cell line, compared to the HCT116 (Ku86 +/+) cell line, suggesting that the DNA-PK/Ku complex negatively regulates KSHV latent replication.

  8. Dermal Fenestration With Negative Pressure Wound Therapy: A Technique for Managing Soft Tissue Injuries Associated With High-Energy Complex Foot Fractures.

    PubMed

    Poon, Henrietta; Le Cocq, Heather; Mountain, Alistair J; Sargeant, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Military casualties can sustain complex foot fractures from blast incidents. This frequently involves the calcaneum and is commonly associated with mid-foot fracture dislocations. The foot is at risk of both compartment syndrome and the development of fracture blisters after such injuries. The amount of energy transfer and the environment in which the injury was sustained also predispose patients to potential skin necrosis and deep infection. Decompression of the compartments is a part of accepted practice in civilian trauma to reduce the risk of complications associated with significant soft tissue swelling. The traditional methods of foot fasciotomy, however, are not without significant complications. We report a simple technique of dermal fenestration combined with the use of negative pressure wound therapy, which aims to preserve the skin integrity of the foot without resorting to formal fasciotomy. PMID:26443232

  9. The THO/TREX Complex Active in miRNA Biogenesis Negatively Regulates Root-Associated Acid Phosphatase Activity Induced by Phosphate Starvation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Sibo; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Xiaoyue; Xu, Le; Fang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Zhi John

    2016-01-01

    Induction and secretion of acid phosphatases (APases) is an adaptive response that plants use to cope with P (Pi) deficiency in their environment. The molecular mechanism that regulates this response, however, is poorly understood. In this work, we identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, hps8, which exhibits enhanced APase activity on its root surface (also called root-associated APase activity). Our molecular and genetic analyses indicate that this altered Pi response results from a mutation in the AtTHO1 gene that encodes a subunit of the THO/TREX protein complex. The mutation in another subunit of this complex, AtTHO3, also enhances root-associated APase activity under Pi starvation. In Arabidopsis, the THO/TREX complex functions in mRNA export and miRNA biogenesis. When treated with Ag+, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, the enhanced root-associated APase activity in hps8 is largely reversed. hpr1-5 is another mutant allele of AtTHO1 and shows similar phenotypes as hps8. ein2 is completely insensitive to ethylene. In the hpr1-5ein2 double mutant, the enhanced root-associated APase activity is also greatly suppressed. These results indicate that the THO/TREX complex in Arabidopsis negatively regulates root-associated APase activity induced by Pi starvation by inhibiting ethylene signaling. In addition, we found that the miRNA399-PHO2 pathway is also involved in the regulation of root-associated APase activity induced by Pi starvation. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the adaptive response of plants to Pi starvation. PMID:27329222

  10. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Reveals Remarkable Noninnocence of Ligands in Nickel Bis(dithiolene) Complexes [Ni(dddt)2](-) and [Ni(edo)2](.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2016-05-12

    [Ni(dddt)2](-) (dddt = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dithiine-2,3-dithiolate) and [Ni(edo)2](-) (edo = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dioxine-2,3-dithiolate) are two donor-type nickel bis(dithiolene) complexes, with the tendency of donating low binding energy electrons. These two structurally similar complexes differ only with respect to the outer atoms in the ligand framework where the former has four S atoms while the latter has four O atoms. Herein, we report a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) study on these two complexes to probe the electronic structures of the anions and their corresponding neutrals. The NIPE spectra exhibit the adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) or, equivalently, the electron affinity (EA) of the neutral [Ni(L)2](0) to be relatively low for this type of complexes, 2.780 and 2.375 eV for L = dddt and edo, respectively. The 0.4 eV difference in ADEs shows a significant substitution effect for sulfur in dddt by oxygen in edo, i.e., noninnocence of the ligands, which has decreased the electronic stability of [Ni(edo)2](-) by lowering its electron binding energy by ∼0.4 eV. The observed substitution effect on gas-phase EA values correlates well with the measured redox potentials for [Ni(dddt)2](-/0) and [Ni(edo)2](-/0) in solutions. The singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) of [Ni(dddt)2](0) and [Ni(edo)2](0) is also determined from the spectra to be 0.57 and 0.53 eV, respectively. Accompanying DFT calculations and molecular orbital (MO) composition analyses show significant ligand contributions to the redox MOs and allow the components of the orbitals involved in each electronic transition and spectral assignments to be identified. PMID:27099986

  11. Inherited variants in the inner centromere protein (INCENP) gene of the chromosomal passenger complex contribute to the susceptibility of ER-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kabisch, Maria; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ying, Shibo; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Peeters, Stephanie; Weltens, Caroline; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Purrington, Kristen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S; Humphreys, Keith; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederik; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Pilar Zamora, M; Arias Perez, Jose I; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Kriege, Mieke; Koppert, Linetta B; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Slettedahl, Seth; Toland, Amanda E; Vachon, Celine; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Fasching, Peter A; Ruebner, Matthias; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Swerdlow, Anthony; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Scuvera, Giulietta; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Zheng, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha J; Cai, Qiuyin; Torres, Diana; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Kristensen, Vessela; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Simard, Jacques; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Hamann, Ute

    2015-02-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell division. Therefore, inherited CPC variability could influence tumor development. The present candidate gene approach investigates the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding key CPC components and breast cancer risk. Fifteen SNPs in four CPC genes (INCENP, AURKB, BIRC5 and CDCA8) were genotyped in 88 911 European women from 39 case-control studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Possible associations were investigated in fixed-effects meta-analyses. The synonymous SNP rs1675126 in exon 7 of INCENP was associated with overall breast cancer risk [per A allele odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.98, P = 0.007] and particularly with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors (per A allele OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.95, P = 0.0005). SNPs not directly genotyped were imputed based on 1000 Genomes. The SNPs rs1047739 in the 3' untranslated region and rs144045115 downstream of INCENP showed the strongest association signals for overall (per T allele OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P = 0.0009) and ER-negative breast cancer risk (per A allele OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10, P = 0.0002). Two genotyped SNPs in BIRC5 were associated with familial breast cancer risk (top SNP rs2071214: per G allele OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.21, P = 0.002). The data suggest that INCENP in the CPC pathway contributes to ER-negative breast cancer susceptibility in the European population. In spite of a modest contribution of CPC-inherited variants to the total burden of sporadic and familial breast cancer, their potential as novel targets for breast cancer treatment should be further investigated. PMID:25586992

  12. Inherited variants in the inner centromere protein (INCENP) gene of the chromosomal passenger complex contribute to the susceptibility of ER-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kabisch, Maria; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ying, Shibo; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Peeters, Stephanie; Weltens, Caroline; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Purrington, Kristen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Humphreys, Keith; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederik; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Pilar Zamora, M.; Arias Perez, Jose I.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Kriege, Mieke; Koppert, Linetta B.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Slettedahl, Seth; Toland, Amanda E.; Vachon, Celine; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; McLean, Catriona; Fasching, Peter A.; Ruebner, Matthias; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Swerdlow, Anthony; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Scuvera, Giulietta; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Zheng, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Cai, Qiuyin; Torres, Diana; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Kristensen, Vessela; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Simard, Jacques; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell division. Therefore, inherited CPC variability could influence tumor development. The present candidate gene approach investigates the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding key CPC components and breast cancer risk. Fifteen SNPs in four CPC genes (INCENP, AURKB, BIRC5 and CDCA8) were genotyped in 88 911 European women from 39 case-control studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Possible associations were investigated in fixed-effects meta-analyses. The synonymous SNP rs1675126 in exon 7 of INCENP was associated with overall breast cancer risk [per A allele odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92–0.98, P = 0.007] and particularly with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors (per A allele OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83–0.95, P = 0.0005). SNPs not directly genotyped were imputed based on 1000 Genomes. The SNPs rs1047739 in the 3ʹ untranslated region and rs144045115 downstream of INCENP showed the strongest association signals for overall (per T allele OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00–1.06, P = 0.0009) and ER-negative breast cancer risk (per A allele OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.10, P = 0.0002). Two genotyped SNPs in BIRC5 were associated with familial breast cancer risk (top SNP rs2071214: per G allele OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04–1.21, P = 0.002). The data suggest that INCENP in the CPC pathway contributes to ER-negative breast cancer susceptibility in the European population. In spite of a modest contribution of CPC-inherited variants to the total burden of sporadic and familial breast cancer, their potential as novel targets for breast cancer treatment should be further investigated. PMID:25586992

  13. Dominating expression of negative regulatory factors downmodulates major histocompatibility complex Class-II expression on dendritic cells in chronic hepatitis C infection

    PubMed Central

    Tomer, Shallu; Chawla, Yogesh K; Duseja, Ajay; Arora, Sunil K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to development of functionally impaired dendritic cells (DCs) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients infected with genotype 3 virus. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on the cohorts of CHC individuals identified as responders or non-responders to antiviral therapy. Myeloid DCs were isolated from the peripheral blood of each subject using CD1c (BDCA1)+ DC isolation Kit. Monocytes from healthy donor were cultured with DC growth factors such as IL-4 and GM-CSF either in the presence or absence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral proteins followed by LPS stimulation. Phenotyping was done by flowcytometry and gene expression profiling was evaluated by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Non-responders [sustained virological response (SVR)-ve] to conventional antiviral therapy had significantly higher expression of genes associated with interferon responsive element such as IDO1 and PD-L1 (6-fold) and negative regulators of JAK-STAT pathway such as SOCS (6-fold) as compared to responders (SVR+ve) to antiviral therapy. The down-regulated genes in non-responders included factors involved in antigen processing and presentation mainly belonging to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class-II family as HLA-DP, HLA-DQ (2-fold) and superoxide dismutase (2-fold). Cells grown in the presence of HCV viral proteins had genes down-regulated for factors involved in innate response, interferon signaling, DC maturation and co-stimulatory signaling to T-cells, while the genes for cytokine signaling and Toll-like receptors (4-fold) were up-regulated as compared to cells grown in absence of viral proteins. CONCLUSION: Underexpressed MHC class-II genes and upregulated negative regulators in non-responders indicate diminished capacity to present antigen and may constitute mechanism of functionally defective state of DCs. PMID:27298560

  14. High-throughput Database Search and Large-scale Negative Polarity Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Ultraviolet Photodissociation for Complex Proteomic Samples*

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, James A.; Xu, Hua; Robinson, Michelle R.; Horton, Andrew P.; Shaw, Jared B.; Giles, David K.; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Dalby, Kevin N.; Trent, M. Stephen; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) for the activation and dissociation of peptide anions is evaluated for broader coverage of the proteome. To facilitate interpretation and assignment of the resulting UVPD mass spectra of peptide anions, the MassMatrix database search algorithm was modified to allow automated analysis of negative polarity MS/MS spectra. The new UVPD algorithms were developed based on the MassMatrix database search engine by adding specific fragmentation pathways for UVPD. The new UVPD fragmentation pathways in MassMatrix were rigorously and statistically optimized using two large data sets with high mass accuracy and high mass resolution for both MS1 and MS2 data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer for complex Halobacterium and HeLa proteome samples. Negative mode UVPD led to the identification of 3663 and 2350 peptides for the Halo and HeLa tryptic digests, respectively, corresponding to 655 and 645 peptides that were unique when compared with electron transfer dissociation (ETD), higher energy collision-induced dissociation, and collision-induced dissociation results for the same digests analyzed in the positive mode. In sum, 805 and 619 proteins were identified via UVPD for the Halobacterium and HeLa samples, respectively, with 49 and 50 unique proteins identified in contrast to the more conventional MS/MS methods. The algorithm also features automated charge determination for low mass accuracy data, precursor filtering (including intact charge-reduced peaks), and the ability to combine both positive and negative MS/MS spectra into a single search, and it is freely open to the public. The accuracy and specificity of the MassMatrix UVPD search algorithm was also assessed for low resolution, low mass accuracy data on a linear ion trap. Analysis of a known mixture of three mitogen-activated kinases yielded similar sequence coverage percentages for UVPD of peptide anions versus conventional collision-induced dissociation of

  15. High-throughput database search and large-scale negative polarity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ultraviolet photodissociation for complex proteomic samples.

    PubMed

    Madsen, James A; Xu, Hua; Robinson, Michelle R; Horton, Andrew P; Shaw, Jared B; Giles, David K; Kaoud, Tamer S; Dalby, Kevin N; Trent, M Stephen; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2013-09-01

    The use of ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) for the activation and dissociation of peptide anions is evaluated for broader coverage of the proteome. To facilitate interpretation and assignment of the resulting UVPD mass spectra of peptide anions, the MassMatrix database search algorithm was modified to allow automated analysis of negative polarity MS/MS spectra. The new UVPD algorithms were developed based on the MassMatrix database search engine by adding specific fragmentation pathways for UVPD. The new UVPD fragmentation pathways in MassMatrix were rigorously and statistically optimized using two large data sets with high mass accuracy and high mass resolution for both MS(1) and MS(2) data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer for complex Halobacterium and HeLa proteome samples. Negative mode UVPD led to the identification of 3663 and 2350 peptides for the Halo and HeLa tryptic digests, respectively, corresponding to 655 and 645 peptides that were unique when compared with electron transfer dissociation (ETD), higher energy collision-induced dissociation, and collision-induced dissociation results for the same digests analyzed in the positive mode. In sum, 805 and 619 proteins were identified via UVPD for the Halobacterium and HeLa samples, respectively, with 49 and 50 unique proteins identified in contrast to the more conventional MS/MS methods. The algorithm also features automated charge determination for low mass accuracy data, precursor filtering (including intact charge-reduced peaks), and the ability to combine both positive and negative MS/MS spectra into a single search, and it is freely open to the public. The accuracy and specificity of the MassMatrix UVPD search algorithm was also assessed for low resolution, low mass accuracy data on a linear ion trap. Analysis of a known mixture of three mitogen-activated kinases yielded similar sequence coverage percentages for UVPD of peptide anions versus conventional collision-induced dissociation of

  16. Negative mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Richard T.

    2015-03-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given.

  17. The Structure of the PanD/PanZ Protein Complex Reveals Negative Feedback Regulation of Pantothenate Biosynthesis by Coenzyme A

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Diana C.F.; Patel, Vijay; Bartlett, Christopher P.; Nozaki, Shingo; Grant, Thomas D.; Gowdy, James A.; Thompson, Gary S.; Kalverda, Arnout P.; Snell, Edward H.; Niki, Hironori; Pearson, Arwen R.; Webb, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Coenzyme A (CoA) is an ubiquitous and essential cofactor, synthesized from the precursor pantothenate. Vitamin biosynthetic pathways are normally tightly regulated, including the pathway from pantothenate to CoA. However, no regulation of pantothenate biosynthesis has been identified. We have recently described an additional component in the pantothenate biosynthetic pathway, PanZ, which promotes the activation of the zymogen, PanD, to form aspartate α-decarboxylase (ADC) in a CoA-dependent manner. Here we report the structure of PanZ in complex with PanD, which reveals the structural basis for the CoA dependence of this interaction and activation. In addition, we show that PanZ acts as a CoA-dependent inhibitor of ADC catalysis. This inhibitory effect can effectively regulate the biosynthetic pathway to pantothenate, and thereby also regulate CoA biosynthesis. This represents a previously unobserved mode of metabolic regulation whereby a cofactor-utilizing protein negatively regulates the biosynthesis of the same cofactor. PMID:25910242

  18. HACE1 Negatively Regulates Virus-Triggered Type I IFN Signaling by Impeding the Formation of the MAVS-TRAF3 Complex.

    PubMed

    Mao, He-Ting; Wang, Yan; Cai, Juan; Meng, Jun-Ling; Zhou, Yu; Pan, Yu; Qian, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    During virus infection, the cascade signaling pathway that leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines is controlled at multiple levels to avoid detrimental overreaction. HACE1 has been characterized as an important tumor suppressor. Here, we identified HACE1 as an important negative regulator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling. Overexpression of HACE1 inhibited Sendai virus- or poly (I:C)-induced signaling and resulted in reduced IFNB1 production and enhanced virus replication. Knockdown of HACE1 expression exhibited the opposite effects. Ubiquitin E3 ligase activity of the dead mutant HACE1/C876A had a comparable inhibitory function as WT HACE1, suggesting that the suppressive function of HACE1 on virus-induced signaling is independent of its E3 ligase activity. Further study indicated that HACE1 acted downstream of MAVS and upstream of TBK1. Mechanistic studies showed that HACE1 exerts its inhibitory role on virus-induced signaling by disrupting the MAVS-TRAF3 complex. Therefore, we uncovered a novel function of HACE1 in innate immunity regulation. PMID:27213432

  19. The structure of the PanD/PanZ protein complex reveals negative feedback regulation of pantothenate biosynthesis by coenzyme A.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Diana C F; Patel, Vijay; Bartlett, Christopher P; Nozaki, Shingo; Grant, Thomas D; Gowdy, James A; Thompson, Gary S; Kalverda, Arnout P; Snell, Edward H; Niki, Hironori; Pearson, Arwen R; Webb, Michael E

    2015-04-23

    Coenzyme A (CoA) is an ubiquitous and essential cofactor, synthesized from the precursor pantothenate. Vitamin biosynthetic pathways are normally tightly regulated, including the pathway from pantothenate to CoA. However, no regulation of pantothenate biosynthesis has been identified. We have recently described an additional component in the pantothenate biosynthetic pathway, PanZ, which promotes the activation of the zymogen, PanD, to form aspartate α-decarboxylase (ADC) in a CoA-dependent manner. Here we report the structure of PanZ in complex with PanD, which reveals the structural basis for the CoA dependence of this interaction and activation. In addition, we show that PanZ acts as a CoA-dependent inhibitor of ADC catalysis. This inhibitory effect can effectively regulate the biosynthetic pathway to pantothenate, and thereby also regulate CoA biosynthesis. This represents a previously unobserved mode of metabolic regulation whereby a cofactor-utilizing protein negatively regulates the biosynthesis of the same cofactor. PMID:25910242

  20. HACE1 Negatively Regulates Virus-Triggered Type I IFN Signaling by Impeding the Formation of the MAVS-TRAF3 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Mao, He-Ting; Wang, Yan; Cai, Juan; Meng, Jun-Ling; Zhou, Yu; Pan, Yu; Qian, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    During virus infection, the cascade signaling pathway that leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines is controlled at multiple levels to avoid detrimental overreaction. HACE1 has been characterized as an important tumor suppressor. Here, we identified HACE1 as an important negative regulator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling. Overexpression of HACE1 inhibited Sendai virus- or poly (I:C)-induced signaling and resulted in reduced IFNB1 production and enhanced virus replication. Knockdown of HACE1 expression exhibited the opposite effects. Ubiquitin E3 ligase activity of the dead mutant HACE1/C876A had a comparable inhibitory function as WT HACE1, suggesting that the suppressive function of HACE1 on virus-induced signaling is independent of its E3 ligase activity. Further study indicated that HACE1 acted downstream of MAVS and upstream of TBK1. Mechanistic studies showed that HACE1 exerts its inhibitory role on virus-induced signaling by disrupting the MAVS-TRAF3 complex. Therefore, we uncovered a novel function of HACE1 in innate immunity regulation. PMID:27213432

  1. On the structure of the two-stream instability-complex G-Hamiltonian structure and Krein collisions between positive- and negative-action modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruili; Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Jianyuan

    2016-07-01

    The two-stream instability is probably the most important elementary example of collective instabilities in plasma physics and beam-plasma systems. For a warm plasma with two charged particle species, the instability diagram of the two-stream instability based on a 1D warm-fluid model exhibits an interesting band structure that has not been explained. We show that the band structure for this instability is the consequence of the Hamiltonian nature of the warm two-fluid system. Interestingly, the Hamiltonian nature manifests as a complex G-Hamiltonian structure in wave-number space, which directly determines the instability diagram. Specifically, it is shown that the boundaries between the stable and unstable regions are locations for Krein collisions between eigenmodes with different Krein signatures. In terms of physics, this rigorously implies that the system is destabilized when a positive-action mode resonates with a negative-action mode, and that this is the only mechanism by which the system can be destabilized. It is anticipated that this physical mechanism of destabilization is valid for other collective instabilities in conservative systems in plasma physics, accelerator physics, and fluid dynamics systems, which admit infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian structures.

  2. Negative Regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 by Human INO80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex Is Implicated in Cell Cycle Phase G2/M Arrest and Abnormal Chromosome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lingling; Ding, Jian; Dong, Liguo; Zhao, Jiayao; Su, Jiaming; Wang, Lingyao; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Tong; Wang, Fei; Jin, Jingji; Cai, Yong

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified an ATP-dependent human Ino80 (INO80) chromatin remodeling complex which shares a set of core subunits with yeast Ino80 complex. Although research evidence has suggested that INO80 complex functions in gene transcription and genome stability, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Herein, based on gene expression profiles from the INO80 complex-knockdown in HeLa cells, we first demonstrate that INO80 complex negatively regulates the p21Waf1/Cip1 (p21) expression in a p53-mediated mechanism. In chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and a sequential ChIP (Re-ChIP) assays, we determined that the INO80 complex and p53 can bind to the same promoter region of p21 gene (-2.2kb and -1.0kb upstream of the p21 promoter region), and p53 is required for the recruitment of the INO80 complex to the p21 promoter. RNAi knockdown strategies of INO80 not only led to prolonged progression of cell cycle phase G2/M to G1, but it also resulted in abnormal chromosome stability. Interestingly, high expression of p21 was observed in most morphologically-changed cells, suggesting that negative regulation of p21 by INO80 complex might be implicated in maintaining the cell cycle process and chromosome stability. Together, our findings will provide a theoretical basis to further elucidate the cellular mechanisms of the INO80 complex. PMID:26340092

  3. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  4. Effect of Polyelectrolyte Stiffness and Solution pH on the Nanostructure of Complexes Formed by Cationic Amphiphiles and Negatively Charged Polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Ram-On, Maor; Cohen, Yachin; Talmon, Yeshayahu

    2016-07-01

    The interaction between amphiphiles and polyelectrolytes has been widely investigated in recent years due to their potential application in industry and medicine, with special focus on gene therapy. The cationic lipid dioleoyl trimethylammonium propane, DOTAP, and the oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, sodium poly(acrylic acid) and sodium poly(styrenesulfonate), form multilamellar complexes in water. Because of the different molecular stiffness of the two polyelectrolytes, they form different nanostructured complexes. Also, because of the different ionization behavior of the two polyelectrolytes, pH differently affects the complexation of the polyelectrolytes with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), another cationic surfactant. We used cryogenic temperature transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to compare the nanostructures formed. Our results show that although the basic nanostructures of the complexes are always lamellar (multilamellar or unilamellar) the morphology of the complexes is affected by the polyelectrolyte rigidity and the solution pH. PMID:27049758

  5. Mutations within the LINC-HELLP non-coding RNA differentially bind ribosomal and RNA splicing complexes and negatively affect trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Marie; Visser, Allerdien; Buabeng, Kwadwo M L; Poutsma, Ankie; van der Schors, Roel C; Oudejans, Cees B M

    2015-10-01

    LINC-HELLP, showing chromosomal linkage with the pregnancy-specific HELLP syndrome in Dutch families, reduces differentiation from a proliferative to an invasive phenotype of first-trimester extravillous trophoblasts. Here we show that mutations in LINC-HELLP identified in HELLP families negatively affect this trophoblast differentiation either by inducing proliferation rate or by causing cell cycle exit as shown by a decrease in both proliferation and invasion. As LincRNAs predominantly function through interactions with proteins, we identified the directly interacting proteins using chromatin isolation by RNA purification followed by protein mass spectrometry. We found 22 proteins predominantly clustering in two functional networks, i.e. RNA splicing and the ribosome. YBX1, PCBP1, PCBP2, RPS6 and RPL7 were validated, and binding to these proteins was influenced by the HELLP mutations carried. Finally, we show that the LINC-HELLP transcript levels are significantly upregulated in plasma of women in their first trimester of pregnancy compared with non-pregnant women, whereas this upregulation seems absent in a pilot set of patients later developing pregnancy complications, indicative of its functional significance in vivo. PMID:26173455

  6. IS1311 and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses, Serotypes, and Drug Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium Complex Isolates Obtained from a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dvorska, Lenka; Bartos, Milan; Ostadal, Oldrich; Kaustova, Jarmila; Matlova, Ludmila; Pavlik, Ivo

    2002-01-01

    Six isolates of Mycobacterium avium of genotype dnaJ+ IS901− IS1311+ IS1245+ and serotypes 6 (n = 1), 6/9, (n = 2), and 9 (n = 3) were obtained within a 5-month period from a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient treated for tuberculosis. The isolates were identified with PvuII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis as a single IS1311 RFLP type and six different IS1245 RFLP types. Six separate colonies/clones obtained by subculture from each of the six isolates were tested for MICs of a set of 10 drugs. This report documents the appearance of isolates that are resistant to antimycobacterial drugs as the duration of therapy increases. Because isolates recovered from the patient following longer duration of treatment were more likely to be resistant to more antimycobacterial drugs, we would conclude that there was selection for antimycobacterial drug-resistant isolates. Analyses of all 36 clones identified three IS1311 and 22 IS1245 types forming three clusters. Tests of 105 environmental samples collected in the home and the work place of the patient yielded 16 mycobacterial isolates, of which one M. avium from soil was of genotype dnaJ+ IS901+ IS1311+ IS1245+ and serotype 2, and the second M. avium from a vacuum cleaner was of genotype dnaJ+ IS901− IS1311+ IS1245+ and serotype 9. Overall analyses of the results did not reveal any relation between serotype, RFLP type, and drug susceptibility. Based on the course of the disease in the patient and different serotypes, IS1311 and IS1245 RFLP types of isolates of M. avium we suppose represent polyclonal infection. PMID:12354870

  7. Macroporous hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Part 4: growth of rat bone marrow stromal cells in three-dimensional hydrogels with positive and negative surface charges and in polyelectrolyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Lesný, P; Prádný, M; Jendelová, P; Michálek, J; Vacík, J; Syková, E

    2006-09-01

    The growth of bone marrow stromal cells was assessed in vitro in macroporous hydrogels based on 2-hydro- xyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) copolymers with different electric charges. Copolymers of HEMA with sodium methacrylate (MA(-)) carried a negative electric charge, copolymers of HEMA with [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (MOETA(-)) carried a positive electric charge and terpolymers of HEMA, MA(-) and MOETA(+) carried both, positive and negative electric charges. The charges in the polyelectrolyte complexes were shielded by counter-ions. The hydrogels had similar porosities, based on a comparison of their diffusion parameters for small cations as measured by the real-time tetramethylammonium iontophoretic method of diffusion analysis. The cell growth was studied in the peripheral and central regions of the hydrogels at 2 hours and 2, 7, 14 and 28 days after cell seeding. Image analysis revealed the highest cellular density in the HEMA-MOETA(+) copolymers; most of the cells were present in the peripheral region of the hydrogels. A lower density of cells but no difference between the peripheral and central regions was observed in the HEMA-MA(-) copolymers and in polyelectrolyte complexes. This study showed that positively charged functional groups promote the adhesion of cells. PMID:16932865

  8. ARS5 is a component of the 26S proteasome complex, and negatively regulates thiol biosynthesis and arsenic tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong-Yul; Kim, Tae-Houn; Komives, Elizabeth A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Schroeder, Julian I

    2009-09-01

    A forward-genetic screen in Arabidopsis led to the isolation of several arsenic tolerance mutants. ars5 was the strongest arsenate- and arsenite-resistant mutant identified in this genetic screen. Here, we report the characterization and cloning of the ars5 mutant gene. ars5 is shown to exhibit an increased accumulation of arsenic and thiol compounds during arsenic stress. Rough mapping together with microarray-based expression mapping identified the ars5 mutation in the alpha subunit F (PAF1) of the 26S proteasome complex. Characterization of an independent paf1 T-DNA insertion allele and complementation by PAF1 confirmed that paf1 mutation is responsible for the enhanced thiol accumulation and arsenic tolerance phenotypes. Arsenic tolerance was not observed in a knock-out mutant of the highly homologous PAF2 gene. However, genetic complementation of ars5 by the overexpression of PAF2 suggests that the PAF2 protein is functionally equivalent to PAF1 when expressed at high levels. No detectible difference was observed in total ubiquitinylated protein profiles between ars5 and wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, suggesting that the arsenic tolerance observed in ars5 is not derived from a general impairment in proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that arsenic induces the enhanced transcriptional activation of several key genes that function in glutathione and phytochelatin biosynthesis in the WT, and this arsenic induction of gene expression is more dramatic in ars5. The enhanced transcriptional response to arsenic and the increased accumulation of thiol compounds in ars5, compared with WT, suggest the presence of a positive regulation pathway for thiol biosynthesis that is enhanced in the ars5 background. PMID:19453443

  9. ARS5 is a component of the 26S proteasome complex and negatively regulates thiol biosynthesis and arsenic tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Dong-Yul; Kim, Tae-Houn; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A forward genetic screen in Arabidopsis led to the isolation of several arsenic tolerance mutants. ars5 is the strongest arsenate and arsenite resistant mutant identified in this genetic screen. Here, we report the characterization and cloning of the ars5 mutant gene. ars5 is shown to exhibit an increased accumulation of arsenic and thiol compounds during arsenic stress. Rough mapping together with microarray-based expression mapping identified the ars5 mutation in the alpha subunit F (PAF1) of the 26S proteasome complex. Characterization of an independent paf1 T-DNA insertion allele and complementation by PAF1 confirmed that paf1 mutation is responsible for the enhanced thiol accumulation and the arsenic tolerance phenotypes. Arsenic tolerance was not observed in a knockout mutant of the highly homologous PAF2 gene. However, genetic complementation of ars5 by over expression of PAF2 suggests that the PAF2 protein is functionally equivalent to PAF1 when expressed at high levels. No detectible difference was observed in total ubiquitinylated protein profiles between ars5 and wild type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the arsenic tolerance observed in ars5 is not derived from a general impairment in proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that arsenic induces enhanced transcriptional activation of several key genes that function in glutathione and phytochelatin biosynthesis in wild type and this arsenic-induction of gene expression is more dramatic in ars5. The enhanced transcriptional response to arsenic and the increased accumulation of thiol compounds in ars5 compared to WT suggest the presence of a positive regulation pathway for thiol biosynthesis that is enhanced in the ars5 background. PMID:19453443

  10. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex exerts both negative and positive control over LET-23/EGFR-dependent vulval induction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Flibotte, Stephane; Kim, Bo Ram; Van de Laar, Emily; Brown, Louise; Moghal, Nadeem

    2016-07-01

    Signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) generates diverse developmental patterns. This requires precise control over the location and intensity of signaling. Elucidation of these regulatory mechanisms is important for understanding development and disease pathogenesis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, LIN-3/EGF induces vulval formation in the mid-body, which requires LET-23/EGFR activation only in P6.p, the vulval progenitor nearest the LIN-3 source. To identify mechanisms regulating this signaling pattern, we screened for mutations that cooperate with a let-23 gain-of-function allele to cause ectopic vulval induction. Here, we describe a dominant gain-of-function mutation in swsn-4, a component of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. Loss-of-function mutations in multiple SWI/SNF components reveal that weak reduction in SWI/SNF activity causes ectopic vulval induction, while stronger reduction prevents adoption of vulval fates, a phenomenon also observed with increasing loss of LET-23 activity. High levels of LET-23 expression in P6.p are thought to locally sequester LIN-3, thereby preventing ectopic vulval induction, with slight reductions in its expression interfering with LIN-3 sequestration, but not vulval fate signaling. We find that SWI/SNF positively regulates LET-23 expression in P6.p descendants, providing an explanation for the similarities between let-23 and SWI/SNF mutant phenotypes. However, SWI/SNF regulation of LET-23 expression is cell-specific, with SWI/SNF repressing its expression in the ALA neuron. The swsn-4 gain-of-function mutation affects the PTH domain, and provides the first evidence that its auto-inhibitory function in yeast Sth1p is conserved in metazoan chromatin remodelers. Finally, our work supports broad use of SWI/SNF in regulating EGFR signaling during development, and suggests that dominant SWI/SNF mutations in certain human congenital anomaly syndromes may be gain-of-functions. PMID:27207389

  11. Identification of phosphorylated peptides from complex mixtures using negative-ion orifice-potential stepping and capillary liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, J; Burkhart, W; Kassel, D B

    1994-01-01

    A rapid method for identifying and characterizing sites of phosphorylation of peptides and proteins is described. High-performance capillary liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is used to distinguish non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated peptides originating from mixtures as complex as enzyme digests. The method relies on the ability to produce a fragment ion characteristic and unique to phosphopeptides (m/z 79, PO3) by stepping the orifice potential of the mass spectrometer as a function of mass. At low m/z values, a high orifice potential is applied to induce extensive fragmentation of the peptide, leading to the formation of the m/z 79 phosphate-derived ion. This method is analogous to that described by Carr et al. for the identification of glycopeptides from enzymatic digestion of glycoproteins (S.A. Carr, M.J. Huddleston, M.F. Bean, Protein Science 2, 183 (1993)). The method was first evaluated and validated for a mixture of non-, mono- and di-phosphorylated synthetic peptides. Both mono- and di-phosphorylated peptides were found to generate fragment ions characteristic of PO3 whereas the non-phosphorylated peptide did not. Application of the method was extended to identifying phosphopeptides generated from an endoprotease Lys-C digestion of beta-casein. Both the expected mono- and tetra-phosphorylated Lys-C peptides were observed and identified rapidly in the LC/SEI-MS analysis. The procedure was used additionally to identify the site(s) of phosphorylation of the cytosolic non-receptor tyrosine kinase, pp60(c-src). PMID:8118063

  12. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:25797499

  13. Meningitis - gram-negative

    MedlinePlus

    Gram-negative meningitis ... Acute bacterial meningitis can be caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Meningococcal and H. influenzae meningitis are caused by Gram-negative bacteria and are covered in detail in other articles. This article ...

  14. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    PubMed

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. PMID:26776387

  15. The miRNA miR-34a enhances HIV-1 replication by targeting PNUTS/PPP1R10, which negatively regulates HIV-1 transcriptional complex formation.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Richa; Arora, Sakshi; Ponia, Sanket S; Kumar, Binod; Maddika, Subbareddy; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2015-09-15

    HIV-1 relies heavily on the host cellular machinery for its replication. During infection, HIV-1 is known to modulate the host-cell miRNA profile. One of the miRNAs, miR-34a, is up-regulated by HIV-1 in T-cells as suggested by miRNA microarray studies. However, the functional consequences and the mechanism behind this phenomenon were not explored. The present study shows that HIV-1 enhances miR-34a in a time-dependent manner in T-cells. Our overexpression and knockdown-based experimental results suggest that miR-34a promotes HIV-1 replication in T-cells. Hence, there is a positive feedback loop between miR-34a and HIV-1 replication. We show that the mechanism of action of miR-34a in HIV-1 replication involves a cellular protein, the phosphatase 1 nuclear-targeting subunit (PNUTS). PNUTS expression levels decrease with the progression of HIV-1 infection in T-cells. Also, the overexpression of PNUTS potently inhibits HIV-1 replication in a dose-dependent manner. We report for the first time that PNUTS negatively regulates HIV-1 transcription by inhibiting the assembly of core components of the transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, i.e. cyclin T1 and CDK9. Thus, HIV-1 increases miR-34a expression in cells to overcome the inhibitory effect of PNUTS on HIV-1 transcription. So, the present study provides new mechanistic details with regard to our understanding of a complex interplay between miR-34a and the HIV-1 transcription machinery involving PNUTS. PMID:26188041

  16. Protein Kinase C-Mediated Phosphorylation of BCL11B at Serine 2 Negatively Regulates Its Interaction with NuRD Complexes during CD4+ T-Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Dubuissez, Marion; Loison, Ingrid; Paget, Sonia; Vorng, Han; Ait-Yahia, Saliha; Rohr, Olivier; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Leprince, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor BCL11B/CTIP2 is a major regulatory protein implicated in various aspects of development, function and survival of T cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation and SUMOylation modulate BCL11B transcriptional activity, switching it from a repressor in naive murine thymocytes to a transcriptional activator in activated thymocytes. Here, we show that BCL11B interacts via its conserved N-terminal MSRRKQ motif with endogenous MTA1 and MTA3 proteins to recruit various NuRD complexes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of BCL11B Ser2 does not significantly impact BCL11B SUMOylation but negatively regulates NuRD recruitment by dampening the interaction with MTA1 or MTA3 (MTA1/3) and RbAp46 proteins. We detected increased phosphorylation of BCL11B Ser2 upon in vivo activation of transformed and primary human CD4(+) T cells. We show that following activation of CD4(+) T cells, BCL11B still binds to IL-2 and Id2 promoters but activates their transcription by recruiting P300 instead of MTA1. Prolonged stimulation results in the direct transcriptional repression of BCL11B by KLF4. Our results unveil Ser2 phosphorylation as a new BCL11B posttranslational modification linking PKC signaling pathway to T-cell receptor (TCR) activation and define a simple model for the functional switch of BCL11B from a transcriptional repressor to an activator during TCR activation of human CD4(+) T cells. PMID:27161321

  17. Negative-ion states

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

  18. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  19. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  20. [Negative symptoms: which antipsychotics?].

    PubMed

    Maurel, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia is a major issue and a challenge for the functional and social prognosis of the disease, to which they are closely linked. First- and second-generation antipsychotics allow a reduction of all negative symptoms. The hope of acting directly on primary negative symptoms with any antipsychotic is not supported by the literature. However, the effectiveness of first- and second-generation antipsychotics is demonstrated on secondary negative symptoms. PMID:26776390

  1. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  2. The Syntax of Negation in English and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Takemasa

    1975-01-01

    The distribution and form of negatives in Japanese as compared to English in the simple declarative sentence, in the interrogative sentence, in different speech styles, in indefinite negatives, and in complex sentences. (SC)

  3. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  4. The addiction to negativity.

    PubMed

    Lane, R C; Hull, J W; Foehrenbach, L M

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we have described a type of resistance that has attracted increasing psychoanalytic attention in recent years. Patients exposed to intense negativity during early life may develop an addiction to negative experience as adolescents and adults, and this may constitute a central organizing feature of their personality. In almost all patients, however, some moments of negativity may be observed. We have traced the developmental origins of an attachment to negativity, drawing especially on psychoanalytic investigations of preoedipal pathology. Manifestations and derivatives of early negativity include anhedonia, attachment to physical pain, fear of success, masochism, deprivation of self and others, and negative voyeurism. In discussing the dynamic functions of negativity, we place particular emphasis on two motives: the patient's desires for revenge against early objects that have been a source of deprivation and frustration; and the defensive function of negativity in helping to express as well as ward off dangerous wishes to merge with the object. Deviant forms of autoerotism are likely to be used by these patients to deal with the reactivation of early experiences of neglect and rejection. When negativity is used as a defense or method of relating to others it can lead to a severe disruption of the psychotherapeutic relationship. We have reviewed suggestions for the management of extreme negativity in treatment. Resolution of the therapist's countertransference reactions, especially induced feelings of frustration, rage, and helplessness, is crucial. Emphasis also has been placed on the patient's desires for revenge against self and object, and the manner in which these may be understood and eventually resolved. Only when patient and therapist begin to investigate the adaptive functions of extreme negativity can this pathological symptom be resolved and the patient's awareness of self and sense of autonomy be enhanced. PMID:1763149

  5. The Evolution of Negation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, William

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a method for extrapolation of diachronic processes from synchronic states, the dynamicization of synchronic typologies, to propose a hitherto unobserved historical source for markers of verbal negation, namely irregular negative existential predicate forms. Explanations are proposed for the occurrence of the attested processes in this…

  6. Learning from Negative Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, Fritz K.

    1996-01-01

    Identifies and discusses the elements and applications of learning from negative morality. Negative morality refers to the experience of learning from mistakes thereby creating a body of personal knowledge about "what not to do." This knowledge not only protects individuals but steers them to the right behavior. (MJP)

  7. On Negative Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belletête, Jonathan; Paranjape, M. B.

    2013-06-01

    The Schwarzschild solution to the matter free, spherically symmetric Einstein equations has one free parameter, the mass. But the mass can be of any sign. What is the meaning of the negative mass solutions? The answer to this question for the case of a pure Schwarzschild negative mass black solution is still elusive, however, in this essay, we will consider negative mass solutions within a Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry. We show that there exist reasonable configurations of matter, bubbles of distributions of matter, that satisfy the dominant energy condition everywhere, that are nonsingular and well behaved everywhere, but correspond to the negative mass Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry outside the matter distribution. These negative mass bubbles could occur as the end state of a quantum tunneling transition.

  8. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  9. Negative birefringent polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor); Cheng, Stephen Z. D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A negative birefringent film, useful in liquid crystal displays, and a method for controlling the negative birefringence of a polyimide film is disclosed which allows the matching of an application to a targeted amount of birefringence by controlling the degree of in-plane orientation of the polyimide by the selection of functional groups within both the diamine and dianhydride segments of the polyimide which affect the polyimide backbone chain rigidity, linearity, and symmetry. The higher the rigidity, linearity and symmetry of the polyimide backbone, the larger the value of the negative birefringence of the polyimide film.

  10. The negative relief of large river floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, John; Ashworth, Philip J.

    2014-02-01

    Large floodplains have multiple and complex negative relief assemblages in which depressions fall below local or general floodplain surfaces at a variety of scales. The generation and dynamics of negative relief along major alluvial corridors are described and compared. Such depressions are significant for the storage and passage of surface waters, the creation of a range of riparian, wetland, lacustrine and flowing-water habitats, and the long-term accumulation of organic materials.

  11. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  12. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  13. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  14. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-12-31

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  15. Negative affixes in medical English.

    PubMed

    Dzuganova, B

    2006-01-01

    Many medical terms have negative meaning expressed by means of a negative prefix or suffix. The most frequently used negative prefixes are: a-, dis-, in-, non-, and un-. There is only one negative suffix -less (Ref. 15). PMID:17125069

  16. Context, engagement, and the (multiple) functions of negativity bias.

    PubMed

    Federico, Christopher M; Johnston, Christopher D; Lavine, Howard G

    2014-06-01

    Hibbing and colleagues argue that political attitudes may be rooted in individual differences in negativity bias. Here, we highlight the complex, conditional nature of the relationship between negativity bias and ideology by arguing that the political impact of negativity bias should vary as a function of (1) issue domain and (2) political engagement. PMID:24970433

  17. Negative pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James T; Marks, Malcolm W

    2007-10-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy has become an increasingly important part of wound management. Over the last decade, numerous uses for this method of wound management have been reported, ranging from acute and chronic wounds, to closure of open sternal and abdominal wounds, to assistance with skin grafts. The biophysics behind the success of this treatment largely have focused on increased wound blood flow, increased granulation tissue formation, decreased bacterial counts, and stimulation of wound healing pathways through shear stress mechanisms. The overall success of negative pressure wound therapy has led to a multitude of clinical applications, which are discussed in this article. PMID:17967622

  18. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  19. [Chemotherapies of negative schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Petit, M; Dollfus, S

    1991-01-01

    Five years ago, Goldberg claimed that negative symptoms of schizophrenia do respond to neuroleptics. This apparent discovery is, in fact, a very common way of thinking for European schools of psychiatry, specially the French one guided by Delay and Deniker. Initially focused on reserpine and some alerting phenothiazines such as thioproperazine, this opinion has been extended to benzamides in the 1970s. The analysis of the publications devoted to this point indicates that several drugs are actually considered as potent disinhibitors (i.e. active on negative symptoms of schizophrenia): Phenothiazines: As shown in the controlled studies by Itil (1971), Poirier-Littré (1988), fluphenazine and pipotiazine improve the BPRS anergia factor and the SANS score. Butyrophenones: The first description of the "imipramine like" effect of trifluperidol by Janssen (1959) initiated the studies by Gallant (1960), Fox (1963). They compared trifluperidol at low doses versus haloperidol and chlorpromazine at medium and high doses, BPRS anergia factor improved only at low doses. Diphenylbutylpiperidines (DPBP): Meltzer's review (1986) concluded to the efficacy of such drugs on negative symptoms appearing as a specific biochemical relationship effect. A definite analysis about doses leads to a very different interpretation: DPBP low doses and only low doses improved negative symptoms as much as some low doses of phenothiazines. On the opposite, DPBP, phenothiazines and butyrophenones high doses are inefficient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1683624

  20. Action Learning, Performativity and Negative Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the concept of negative capability as a human capacity for containment and contrasts it with well-valued positive capability as expressed through performativity in organisations and society. It identifies the problem of dispersal--the complex ways we behave in order to avoid the emotional challenges of living with uncertainty.…

  1. [Negative pressure wound therapy - review].

    PubMed

    Gudmundsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Valsdottir, Elsa; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2014-04-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a new therapeutic option in wound healing and was first described in its present form in 1997. A vacuum source is used to create sub-atmospheric pressure in the local wound environment to promote healing. This is achieved by connecting a vacuum pump to a tube that is threaded into a wound gauze or foam filler dressing covered with a drape. This concept in wound treatment has been shown to be useful in treating different wound infections, including diabetic wounds as well as complex infections of the abdomen and thorax. NPWT has been used in Iceland for over a decade and its use is steadily increasing. This review describes the indications and outcome of NPWT and is aimed at a broad group of doctors and nurses where recent Icelandic studies on the subject are covered. PMID:24713539

  2. Dynamically variable negative stiffness structures

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Christopher B.; Shahan, David W.; Smith, Sloan P.; Keefe, Andrew C.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Variable stiffness structures that enable a wide range of efficient load-bearing and dexterous activity are ubiquitous in mammalian musculoskeletal systems but are rare in engineered systems because of their complexity, power, and cost. We present a new negative stiffness–based load-bearing structure with dynamically tunable stiffness. Negative stiffness, traditionally used to achieve novel response from passive structures, is a powerful tool to achieve dynamic stiffness changes when configured with an active component. Using relatively simple hardware and low-power, low-frequency actuation, we show an assembly capable of fast (<10 ms) and useful (>100×) dynamic stiffness control. This approach mitigates limitations of conventional tunable stiffness structures that exhibit either small (<30%) stiffness change, high friction, poor load/torque transmission at low stiffness, or high power active control at the frequencies of interest. We experimentally demonstrate actively tunable vibration isolation and stiffness tuning independent of supported loads, enhancing applications such as humanoid robotic limbs and lightweight adaptive vibration isolators. PMID:26989771

  3. Dynamically variable negative stiffness structures.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Christopher B; Shahan, David W; Smith, Sloan P; Keefe, Andrew C; McKnight, Geoffrey P

    2016-02-01

    Variable stiffness structures that enable a wide range of efficient load-bearing and dexterous activity are ubiquitous in mammalian musculoskeletal systems but are rare in engineered systems because of their complexity, power, and cost. We present a new negative stiffness-based load-bearing structure with dynamically tunable stiffness. Negative stiffness, traditionally used to achieve novel response from passive structures, is a powerful tool to achieve dynamic stiffness changes when configured with an active component. Using relatively simple hardware and low-power, low-frequency actuation, we show an assembly capable of fast (<10 ms) and useful (>100×) dynamic stiffness control. This approach mitigates limitations of conventional tunable stiffness structures that exhibit either small (<30%) stiffness change, high friction, poor load/torque transmission at low stiffness, or high power active control at the frequencies of interest. We experimentally demonstrate actively tunable vibration isolation and stiffness tuning independent of supported loads, enhancing applications such as humanoid robotic limbs and lightweight adaptive vibration isolators. PMID:26989771

  4. Think (Gram) negative!

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family in Europe is a worrisome phenomenon. Extended spectrum betalactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains are widespread in the community and are frequently imported into the hospital. Of even more concern is the spread of carbapenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella spp. from regions where they are already endemic. Antibiotic use is a main driver of antibiotic resistance, which again increases broad spectrum antibiotic use, resulting in a vicious circle that is difficult to interrupt. The present commentary highlights important findings of a surveillance study of antimicrobial use and resistance in German ICUs over 8 years with a focus on Gram-negative resistance. PMID:20587087

  5. Negative refraction and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amariti, Antonio; Forcella, Davide; Mariotti, Alberto; Siani, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    We discuss exotic properties of charged hydrodynamical systems, in the broken superconducting phase, probed by electromagnetic waves. Motivated by general arguments from hydrodynamics, we observe that negative refraction, namely the propagation in opposite directions of the phase velocities and of the energy flux, is expected for low enough frequencies. We corroborate this general idea by analyzing a holographic superconductor in the AdS/CFT correspondence, where the response functions can be explicitly computed. We study the dual gravitational theory both in the probe and in the backreacted case. We find that, while in the first case the refractive index is positive at every frequency, in the second case there is negative refraction at low enough frequencies. This is in agreement with hydrodynamic considerations.

  6. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  7. The negative repetition effect.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Peterson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising negative repetition effect, in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and across pairs, the target words were drawn from a small set of categories. In the repetition condition, the pairs were initially presented in a random order and then presented a 2nd time blocked by the category of the target words. In the single presentation condition, the pairs were presented only in the blocked order. Participants in the former condition recalled fewer target words on a free recall test despite having seen the word pairs twice (the negative repetition effect). This phenomenon is explored in a series of 5 experiments assessing 3 theoretical accounts of the effect. The experiments demonstrate that the negative repetition effect generalizes over multiple encoding conditions (reading and generative encoding), over different memory tests (free and cued recall), and over delay (5 min and 2 days). The results argue against a retrieval account and a levels-of-processing account but are consistent with the item-specific-relational account, the account upon which the effect was initially predicated. PMID:23421508

  8. Management of insecticide resistance in control of the Simulium damnosum complex by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme, West Africa: potential use of negative correlation between organophosphate resistance and pyrethroid susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kurtak, D; Meyer, R; Ocran, M; Ouédraogo, M; Renaud, P; Sawadogo, R O; Télé, B

    1987-04-01

    1. Resistance of some populations of the Simulium damnosum complex to temephos (100-fold at the LC50 level), with degrees of cross-resistance to chlorphoxim (14-fold) and other organophosphate insecticides, follows intensive larvicidal control of S. damnosum s.l. in West African river systems since 1975 by the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme. 2. Larvae of at least three sibling species of the S. damnosum complex have become organophosphate-resistant: these are the forest species S. sanctipauli Vajime & Dunbar and the savanna species S. sirbanum V. & D. and S. damnosum Theobald sensu stricto. 3. Organophosphate-resistant S. damnosum s.l. larvae show increased susceptibility to some organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides, especially to permethrin (up to 11-fold) and OMS 3002 (up to 17-fold), as compared with organophosphate-susceptible populations. 4. This differential susceptibility is reflected by increased pyrethroid efficacy in operational use for river treatments against organophosphate-resistant field populations of S. damnosum s.l. larvae. Treatment of 100 km of the lower Bandama River in 1985 showed that permethrin at the highly selective dosage of 10 min exposure to 0.01 mg/l caused reversion towards organophosphate-susceptibility of the target population of S. sanctipauli. This effect was less pronounced when the Comoe River was treated at the lower dosage of 0.005 mg/l for 10 min. 5. To overcome temephos-resistance, it is proposed that the most rational usage of currently available larvicides would involve the following annual sequence of treatments: Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 when river discharge is below 75 m3/s; chlorphoxim for about eight weekly treatment cycles after river discharge rises; permethrin (or alternative pyrethroid) for up to six treatment cycles--this should eliminate any incipient selection for chlorphoxim-resistance; resume chlorphoxim (or perhaps carbosulfan) treatments until river discharge falls below 75 m3/s

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae putative G protein, Gtr1p, which forms complexes with itself and a novel protein designated as Gtr2p, negatively regulates the Ran/Gsp1p G protein cycle through Gtr2p.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, N; Noguchi, E; Nishimoto, T

    1999-01-01

    Prp20p and Rna1p are GDP/GTP exchanging and GTPase-activating factors of Gsp1p, respectively, and their mutations, prp20-1 and rna1-1, can both be suppressed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae gtr1-11. We found that gtr1-11 caused a single amino acid substitution in Gtr1p, forming S20L, which is a putative GDP-bound mutant protein, while Gtr1p has been reported to bind to GTP alone. Consistently, gtr1-S20N, another putative GDP-bound mutant, suppressed both prp20-1 and rna1-1. On the other hand, gtr1-Q65L, a putative GTP-bound mutant, was inhibitory to prp20-1 and rna1-1. Thus, the role that Gtr1p plays in vivo appears to depend upon the nucleotide bound to it. Our data suggested that the GTP-bound Gtr1p, but not the GDP-bound Gtr1p, interacts with itself through its C-terminal tail. S. cerevisiae possesses a novel gene, GTR2, which is homologous to GTR1. Gtr2p interacts with itself in the presence of Gtr1p. The disruption of GTR2 suppressed prp20-1 and abolished the inhibitory effect of gtr1-Q65L on prp20-1. This finding, taken together with the fact that Gtr1p-S20L is a putative, inactive GDP-bound mutant, implies that Gtr1p negatively regulates the Ran/Gsp1p GTPase cycle through Gtr2p. PMID:10388807

  10. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST), and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event extraction systems. The

  11. Polarized negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  12. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  13. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  14. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  15. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  16. Negative Optical Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C. T.

    2014-09-01

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of ``negative optical torque'', meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  17. Negative Optical Torque

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of “negative optical torque”, meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained. PMID:25226863

  18. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  19. 19. Print from copy negative (original glass plate negative in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Print from copy negative (original glass plate negative in Tippecanoe County Historical Society.) Original photo dated May 7, 1893. View north, south side. - Big Four Depot, 10 South Second Street, Lafayette, Tippecanoe County, IN

  20. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  1. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  2. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  3. Plasmonics without negative dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2016-05-01

    Plasmonic phenomena are exhibited in light-matter interaction involving materials whose real parts of permittivity functions attain negative values at operating wavelengths. However, such materials usually suffer from dissipative losses, thus limiting the performance of plasmon-based optical devices. Here, we utilize an alternative methodology that mimics a variety of plasmonic phenomena by exploiting the well-known structural dispersion of electromagnetic modes in bounded guided-wave structures filled with only materials with positive permittivity. A key issue in the design of such structures is prevention of mode coupling, which can be achieved by implementing thin metallic wires at proper interfaces. This method, which is more suitable for lower frequencies, allows designers to employ conventional dielectrics and highly conductive metals for which the loss is low at these frequencies, while achieving plasmonic features. We demonstrate, numerically and analytically, that this platform can provide surface plasmon polaritons, local plasmonic resonance, plasmonic cloaking, and epsilon-near-zero-based tunneling using conventional positive-dielectric materials.

  4. Coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karsten; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-10-01

    The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  5. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Many wounds are difficult to heal, despite medical and nursing care. They may result from complications of an underlying disease, like diabetes; or from surgery, constant pressure, trauma, or burns. Chronic wounds are more often found in elderly people and in those with immunologic or chronic diseases. Chronic wounds may lead to impaired quality of life and functioning, to amputation, or even to death. The prevalence of chronic ulcers is difficult to ascertain. It varies by condition and complications due to the condition that caused the ulcer. There are, however, some data on condition-specific prevalence rates; for example, of patients with diabetes, 15% are thought to have foot ulcers at some time during their lives. The approximate community care cost of treating leg ulcers in Canada, without reference to cause, has been estimated at upward of $100 million per year. Surgically created wounds can also become chronic, especially if they become infected. For example, the reported incidence of sternal wound infections after median sternotomy is 1% to 5%. Abdominal surgery also creates large open wounds. Because it is sometimes necessary to leave these wounds open and allow them to heal on their own (secondary intention), some may become infected and be difficult to heal. Yet, little is known about the wound healing process, and this makes treating wounds challenging. Many types of interventions are used to treat wounds. Current best practice for the treatment of ulcers and other chronic wounds includes debridement (the removal of dead or contaminated tissue), which can be surgical, mechanical, or chemical; bacterial balance; and moisture balance. Treating the cause, ensuring good nutrition, and preventing primary infection also help wounds to heal. Saline or wet-to-moist dressings are reported as

  6. Conservatives, liberals, and "the negative".

    PubMed

    Charney, Evan

    2014-06-01

    The authors connect conservatism with aversion to negativity via the tendentious use of the language of threats to characterize conservatism, but not liberalism. Their reliance upon an objective conception of the negative ignores the fact that much of the disagreement between liberals and conservatives is over whether or not one and the same state of affairs is negative or positive. PMID:24970432

  7. Negativity bias and basic values.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-06-01

    Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

  8. Negative-ion source applications.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, J

    2008-02-01

    In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombardment-type heavy negative-ion source and rf-plasma sputter type. In the case where a negative ion is irradiated on a material surface, surface charging seldom takes place because incoming negative charge of the negative ion is well balanced with outgoing negative charge of the released secondary electron. In the negative-ion implantation into an insulator or insulated conductive material, high precision implantation processing with charge-up free properties can be achieved. Negative-ion implantation technique, therefore, can be applied to the following novel material processing systems: the surface modification of micrometer-sized powders, the nanoparticle formation in an insulator for the quantum devices, and the nerve cell growth manipulation by precise control of the biocompatibility of polymer surface. When a negative ion with low kinetic energy approaches the solid surface, the kinetic energy causes the interatomic bonding (kinetic bonding), and formation of a metastable material is promoted. Carbon films with high constituent of sp(3) bonding, therefore, can be formed by carbon negative-ion beam deposition. PMID:18315249

  9. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  10. 24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF AREA 'B' HOLSTON ORDNANCE WORKS.' 1944. #OCMH 4-12.2ASAV3 in Super Explosives Program RDX and Its Composition A, B, & C, Record Group No. 319, National Archives, Washington, D.C. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  11. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    PubMed

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  12. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies. PMID:7428744

  13. Intrinsic Negative Mass from Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mei, F.; Caramazza, P.; Pierangeli, D.; Di Domenico, G.; Ilan, H.; Agranat, A. J.; Di Porto, P.; DelRe, E.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and provide experimental evidence of a mechanism able to support negative intrinsic effective mass. The idea is to use a shape-sensitive nonlinearity to change the sign of the mass in the leading linear propagation equation. Intrinsic negative-mass dynamics is reported for light beams in a ferroelectric crystal substrate, where the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity leads to a negative-mass Schrödinger equation. The signature of inverted dynamics is the observation of beams repelled from strongly guiding integrated waveguides irrespective of wavelength and intensity and suggests shape-sensitive nonlinearity as a basic mechanism leading to intrinsic negative mass.

  14. [Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: historical aspects].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, D; Paquin, N; Cherikh, F; Giordana, B; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    The history of negative symptoms of schizophrenia rises early days of medicine in clinical and pathophysiological differences between positive and negative and their complex joint. Forming a set of typical core of symptoms, and some feature of a syndrome belonging to a specific pathophysiological mechanism, negative symptoms of schizophrenia emerge from old descriptions of clinical pictures, related to the overall look of madness, the heart of alienation, a central sign of early dementia, gradually more precisely describing the strange nature of the autistic withdrawal and schizophrenic apragmatism. At therapeutic era, negative symptoms have taken over the positive symptoms to establish an operational criteria whose importance lies in the progressive severity of this clinical type and in their contribution to therapeutic resistance. Despite the efforts of modern typological classifications, this work rehabilitates the old concept of "unitary psychosis" by defining a common symptomatic core to multiple clinical forms of psychosis, combining deficit of emotional expression and avolition, meaning a native psychopathology and a pathophysiology possibly in a common final way, and calling the arrival of new treatment strategies. PMID:26776389

  15. Negation in the Chaamling Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Vishnu S.

    This paper examines the different ways of forming negative sentences in the Chaamling language, an indigenous language spoken in the eastern, hilly districts of Nepal. It explains that negation, or negativization, in the Chaamling language is done with the help of affixation. In imperative sentences, the prefix mi- is added to the verb, which is…

  16. Current concepts in negative pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Howe, Lisa M

    2015-05-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is becoming recognized in veterinary medicine as a viable option for the management of complex wounds. NPWT has many advantages over traditional wound care and results in quicker and improved wound healing in many instances. This article discusses the art and science of NPWT, as well as the many current indications, complications, advantages and disadvantages, and future directions of NPWT in small animal veterinary medicine. This therapy will likely have a growing role in veterinary medical practice for complicated wound management and other usages in coming years. PMID:25744142

  17. Negative ions at Titan and Enceladus: recent results.

    PubMed

    Coates, Andrew J; Wellbrock, Anne; Lewis, Gethyn R; Jones, Geraint H; Young, David T; Crary, Frank J; Waite, J Hunter; Johnson, Robert E; Hille, Thomas W; Sittler, Edward C

    2010-01-01

    The detection of heavy negative ions (up to 13 800 amu) in Titan's ionosphere is one of the tantalizing new results from the Cassini mission. These heavy ions indicate for the first time the existence of heavy hydrocarbon and nitrile molecules in this primitive Earth-like atmosphere. These ions were suggested to be precursors of aerosols in Titan's atmosphere and may precipitate to the surface as tholins. We present the evidence for and the analysis of these heavy negative ions at Titan. In addition we examine the variation of the maximum mass of the Titan negative ions with altitude and latitude for the relevant encounters so far, and we discuss the implications for the negative ion formation process. We present data from a recent set of encounters where the latitude was varied between encounters, with other parameters fixed. Models are beginning to explain the low mass negative ions, but the formation process for the higher mass ions is still not understood. It is possible that the structures may be chains, rings or even fullerenes. Negative ions, mainly water clusters in this case, were seen during Cassini's recent close flybys of Enceladus. We present mass spectra from the Enceladus plume, showing water clusters and additional species. As at Titan, the negative ions indicate chemical complexities which were unknown before the Cassini encounters, and are indicative of a complex balance between neutrals and positively and negatively charged ions. PMID:21302552

  18. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Hiskes, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  19. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale. PMID:27333052

  20. Lower body negative pressure device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Lower Body Negative Pressure Device was used, in the space environment, to stress the astronaut's cardiovascular system, to determine the extent and time course of his cardiovascular deconditioning and to determine whether in-flight data from experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, would be useful in predicting postflight status of orthostatic tolerance. The lower portion of the subject's body was enclosed in this device for the purpose of applying regulated and controlled negative pressure. A description is given of the device.

  1. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  2. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones. PMID:27396411

  3. Factors identified for negative appendicectomies.

    PubMed

    Mirza, M R; Habib, L; Jaleel, F

    2009-07-01

    The study was done, to determine the factors for negative appendicectomies. This prospective descriptive study includes patients managed at four non teaching and a teaching hospital of Karachi from March 2006 to February 2008. One hundred and sixty eight patients underwent appendicectomy during the study period. Details of clinical presentations, investigations, operative findings and histopathology were entered and analyzed. Literature search was aimed to see the negative appendicectomy rate (NAR) in last ten years despite using diagnostic tools (clinical scoring, diagnostic imaging and laparoscopy). In this study a total number of 168 patients under went appendicectomy. Normal appendices were found in 31 patients (negative appendicectomy rate was 18.45%) and associated pathology was seen in 13 patients, an incidental finding of Meckel's diverticulum in 5 patients and no other pathology was seen in 13 patients. The different factors which we identified for negative appendicectomies in our practice were non teaching hospitals where diagnostic scoring system was difficult to apply, female gender, selective use of imaging modality, other pathologies presenting with pain in right lower quadrant (RLQ) and requiring surgical intervention, and non-availability of CT scan and laparoscopy. Despite many advances in diagnostic system, acute appendicitis is still a diagnostic dilemma at times. Although there is no substitute for clinical judgment but in sub groups of patients in whom the possibility of negative appendicectomy is high, diagnostic modalities should be used judiciously to decrease the negative exploration. PMID:19623147

  4. Optical Refraction in Silver: Counterposition, Negative Phase Velocity and Orthogonal Phase Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naqvi, Qaisar A.; Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2011-01-01

    Complex behaviour associated with metamaterials can arise even in commonplace isotropic dielectric materials. We demonstrate how silver, for example, can support negative phase velocity and counterposition, but not negative refraction, at optical frequencies. The transition from positive to negative phase velocity is not accompanied by remarkable…

  5. Negative Transportation and Cross-Linguistic Negative Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soga, Matsuo

    1972-01-01

    This paper considers whether the negative transportation (NT) rule operating in English is operative also in Japanese and whether investigation of the phenomenon in Japanese may provide new insights for English research. The discussion begins with an explanation and examples of the NT rule in English. Japanese cases are then studied, and the…

  6. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  7. Sigma models with negative curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2016-05-01

    We construct Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) based on the scalar manifold Hn, which is a hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature. The Lagrangian has a non-compact O (n , 1) global symmetry group, but it gives a unitary theory as long as only a compact subgroup of the global symmetry is gauged. Whether the HEFT manifold has positive or negative curvature can be tested by measuring the S-parameter, and the cross sections for longitudinal gauge boson and Higgs boson scattering, since the curvature (including its sign) determines deviations from Standard Model values.

  8. Negative Geography: Locating Things Elsewhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Robert H.

    The phenomenon of negative geography--the assertion that any location is better than the one selected--is discussed and ways in which this approach differs from traditional geography methodology are analyzed. Case studies of two citizens' groups which protested the relocation of a city mission and halfway house in their neighborhoods illustrate…

  9. Metalinguistic Negation in English and Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedwick, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    Negation is a unique and fascinating property of human language which has been given extensive theoretical and typological treatment. One categorization divides negation use into metalinguistic negation and descriptive negation (Horn, 1985). Descriptive negation (DN) is the truth-functional semantic operator which has received the most attention…

  10. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  11. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  12. Drawing Inferences from Semantically Positive and Negative Implicative Predicates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella

    A study investigated the inferential processing involved in the comprehension of a class of complex predicates (such as "remember to,""manage to,""fail to," and "neglect to") that are known as implicative. The subjects, 64 college students, were timed while they drew inferences from syntactically affirmative and negative sentences containing the…

  13. Negative magnetophoresis in diluted ferrofluid flow.

    PubMed

    Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2015-07-21

    We report magnetic manipulation of non-magnetic particles suspended in diluted ferrofluid. Diamagnetic particles were introduced into a circular chamber to study the extent of their deflection under the effect of a non-uniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Since ferrofluid is a paramagnetic medium, it also experiences a bulk magnetic force that in turn induces a secondary flow opposing the main hydrodynamic flow. Sheath flow rate, particle size, and magnetic field strength were varied to examine this complex behaviour. The combined effect of negative magnetophoresis and magnetically induced secondary flow leads to various operation regimes, which can potentially find applications in separation, trapping and mixing of diamagnetic particles such as cells in a microfluidic system. PMID:26054840

  14. Negative pressure therapy: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Schintler, M V

    2012-02-01

    Negative pressure (wound) therapy, synonymous with topical negative pressure or vacuum therapy mainly cited as branded VAC® (vacuum-assisted closure) therapy, is a mode of therapy used to encourage wound healing. It is used both as primary treatment of chronic and complex wounds and as an adjunct for temporary closure and wound bed preparation preceding surgical procedures such as skin grafts and flap surgery. The device has come into wide and successful use, although the physiological basis of its effect is not yet fully understood, and with a delay, increasingly evidence-based data become available. A meta-analysis was made of peer-reviewed publications (PubMed-Medline) chosen on the basis of inclusion of the terms randomized clinical trial, vacuum-assisted closure, and topical negative pressure. Scientific data were evaluated from experimental animal studies, randomized clinical trials, observations of clinical applications, and case reports on all known effects of VAC therapy. Systematic analysis of the data shows efficacy concerning induction of wound healing mechanisms, especially in the early stage. Increased perfusion can be considered proven. Data analysis shows positive efficacy for treatment of infection. Although this therapy appears effective and its superiority to conventional techniques has been demonstrated, there are still some critical votes concerning efficacy. Because its mechanisms of action remain unclear, and because there is still some gap between evidence-based data and the excellent clinical results, further prospective, randomized, blinded studies are needed. Even so, we conclude that vacuum therapy, used when indicated and especially by experienced surgeons, is an excellent tool to support wound healing. PMID:22271727

  15. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  16. Gram-Negative Flagella Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Protein glycosylation had been considered as an eccentricity of a few bacteria. However, through advances in analytical methods and genome sequencing, it is now established that bacteria possess both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways. Both glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins, flagellins from Archaea and Eubacteria being one of these. Flagella O-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria and in only the Gram-positive genera Clostridium and Listeria. Furthermore, O-glycosylation has also been demonstrated in a limited number of lateral flagellins. In this work, we revised the current advances in flagellar glycosylation from Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the structural diversity of glycans, the O-linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation. PMID:24557579

  17. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:22478391

  18. In defense of negative temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, J.

    2016-03-01

    This pedagogical comment highlights three misconceptions concerning the usefulness of the concept of negative temperature, being derived from the usual, often termed Boltzmann, definition of entropy. First, both the Boltzmann and Gibbs entropies must obey the same thermodynamic consistency relation. Second, the Boltzmann entropy does obey the second law of thermodynamics. Third, there exists an integrating factor of the heat differential with both definitions of entropy.

  19. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  20. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    PubMed

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise. PMID:19673775

  1. Negative mass solitons in gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarıoǧlu, Özgür; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-03-01

    We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Zp spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordström metrics.

  2. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  3. A Special Sort of Forgetting: Negation in Freud and Augustine.

    PubMed

    Rosengart, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The development from a positive, dualistic theory of memory and forgetting to a concept of memory that includes forgetting as a variety of remembering is traced in two thinkers. Freud's concept of repression is discussed as a complex negation of both remembering and forgetting, and the development of this construct is shown in his letters to Wilhelm Fliess. A close reading of Augustine of Hippo's Confessions shows a similar concept of a special sort of forgetting, in which what is forgotten is remembered nonetheless. Finally, the limits of the comparison are discussed, and a reading of Freud's "Negation" reveals ways in which the unconscious is fundamentally unlike Augustine's interiority. PMID:27009296

  4. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  5. Instrumentation for negative ion detection.

    PubMed

    McKeown, M

    1980-06-01

    The instrumentation and practical circuitry required for the detection of negative ions exiting the mass analysis section of a mass spectrometer is examined. The potentials needed to bias the electron multiplier when detecting negative ions from a low ion-energy mass spectrometer, e.g., a quadrupole, are contrasted with the biasing requirements of a mass spectrometer having high ion-energies, e.g., a magnetic sector. Methods of decoupling the biasing high voltage on the signal lead of the multiplier in pulse counting measurements are discussed in detail so that normal, ground referenced input, pulse preamplifiers may be used. Easily understood, practical rules for determining the values of circuit components are given together with a simplified theory of transferring pulse signals from multiplier collector to pulse preamplifier. The changes in circuitry needed when attempting to detect ions by current measurement methods from an electron multiplier area detailed. The effects of leakage currents into athe input of the current preamplifier and their avoidance bay using triaxial shielding on vacuum feed-throughs are explained. The article suggests possible methods of decoupling the high voltage referenced input and the ground referenced output of a current measuring preamplifier. PMID:7428750

  6. Photosynthesis and negative entropy production.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Robert C; Engelmann, Enrico; Garlaschi, Flavio; Casazza, Anna Paola; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2005-09-30

    The widely held view that the maximum efficiency of a photosynthetic pigment system is given by the Carnot cycle expression (1-T/Tr) for energy transfer from a hot bath (radiation at temperature Tr) to a cold bath (pigment system at temperature T) is critically examined and demonstrated to be inaccurate when the entropy changes associated with the microscopic process of photon absorption and photochemistry at the level of single photosystems are considered. This is because entropy losses due to excited state generation and relaxation are extremely small (DeltaS < T/Tr) and are essentially associated with the absorption-fluorescence Stokes shift. Total entropy changes associated with primary photochemistry for single photosystems are shown to depend critically on the thermodynamic efficiency of the process. This principle is applied to the case of primary photochemistry of the isolated core of higher plant photosystem I and photosystem II, which are demonstrated to have maximal thermodynamic efficiencies of xi > 0.98 and xi > 0.92 respectively, and which, in principle, function with negative entropy production. It is demonstrated that for the case of xi > (1-T/Tr) entropy production is always negative and only becomes positive when xi < (1-T/Tr). PMID:16139784

  7. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  8. Mismatch Negativity: Translating the Potential

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Juanita; Harms, Lauren; Schall, Ulrich; Michie, Patricia T.

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has become a valuable tool in cognitive neuroscience. Its reduced size in persons with schizophrenia is of unknown origin but theories proposed include links to problems in experience-dependent plasticity reliant on N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. In this review we address the utility of this tool in revealing the nature and time course of problems in perceptual inference in this illness together with its potential for use in translational research testing animal models of schizophrenia-related phenotypes. Specifically, we review the reasons for interest in MMN in schizophrenia, issues pertaining to the measurement of MMN, its use as a vulnerability index for the development of schizophrenia, the pharmacological sensitivity of MMN and the progress in developing animal models of MMN. Within this process we highlight the challenges posed by knowledge gaps pertaining to the tool and the pharmacology of the underlying system. PMID:24391602

  9. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-03-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  10. Tools to assess negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kane, John M

    2013-06-01

    Although effective treatments for negative symptoms are currently limited, clinicians still need to assess and monitor them because of their impact on patient functioning. Further, documenting patients' negative symptoms provides a complete clinical record that the clinician can use to make systematic and careful treatment decisions. Several tools for assessing negative symptoms in schizophrenia are available, including the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the 16-item Negative Symptoms Assessment (NSA-16), and the Schedule for Deficit Syndrome (SDS). Additionally, newer instruments are in development-the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Brief Negative Symptoms Scale (BNSS)-and are yielding promising results. This overview outlines these assessment tools so that clinicians can measure negative symptom severity and track treatment response for their patients with schizophrenia. PMID:23842020

  11. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  12. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  13. Identification of candidate genes associated with positive and negative heterosis in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis is a complex biological phenomenon in which the offspring show superior performance compared to the inbred parents. Heterosis can be positive or negative. To identify the genes related to positive and negative heterosis, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) libraries were constru...

  14. The Morpho-Syntax and Pragmatics of Levantine Arabic Negation: A Synchronic and Diachronic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqassas, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the morphosyntax and pragmatics of Levantine Arabic negation from both a synchronic and a diachronic perspective. It is shown that the complex distribution of the negation morphemes "ma," "la" and "-sh" is subject to morphosyntactic and pragmatic constraints. The morphosyntactic…

  15. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No... the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 25.333. This must be shown...

  16. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23... Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of an engine, an auxiliary power unit approved for use in... the airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in §...

  17. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23... Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of an engine, an auxiliary power unit approved for use in... the airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in §...

  18. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23... Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of an engine, an auxiliary power unit approved for use in... the airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in §...

  19. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No... the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 25.333. This must be shown...

  20. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No... the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 25.333. This must be shown...

  1. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No... the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 25.333. This must be shown...

  2. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No... the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 25.333. This must be shown...

  3. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23... Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of an engine, an auxiliary power unit approved for use in... the airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in §...

  4. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23... Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of an engine, an auxiliary power unit approved for use in... the airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in §...

  5. Negative dimensional integrals. I. Feynman graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, I. G.; Ricotta, R. M.

    1987-07-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series.

  6. 40 CFR 62.06 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declarations. 62.06 Section 62....06 Negative declarations. A State may submit to the Administrator a letter certifying that no designated facilities exist in the State if such is the case. The negative declaration will be in lieu of...

  7. Electric Potential Near The Extraction Region In Negative Ion Sources With Surface Produced Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fukano, A.; Hatayama, A.

    2011-09-26

    The potential distribution near the extraction region in negative ion sources for the plasma with the surface produced negative ions is studied analytically. The potential is derived analytically by using a plasma-sheath equation, where negative ions produced on the Plasma Grid (PG) surface are considered in addition to positive ions and electrons. A negative potential peak is formed in the sheath region near the PG surface for the case of strong surface production of negative ions or for low energy negative ions. Negative ions are reflected by the negative potential peak near the PG and returned to the PG surface. This reflection mechanism by the negative potential peak possibly becomes a factor in negative ion extraction. It is also indicated that the potential difference between the plasma region and the wall decreases by the surface produced negative ions. This also has the possibility to contribute to the negative ion extraction.

  8. A biopsychosocial model based on negative feedback and control

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Timothy A.; Mansell, Warren; Tai, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    Although the biopsychosocial model has been a popular topic of discussion for over four decades it has not had the traction in fields of research that might be expected of such an intuitively appealing idea. One reason for this might be the absence of an identified mechanism or a functional architecture that is authentically biopsychosocial. What is needed is a robust mechanism that is equally important to biochemical processes as it is to psychological and social processes. Negative feedback may be the mechanism that is required. Negative feedback has been implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitters as well as important psychological and social processes such as emotional regulation and the relationship between a psychotherapist and a client. Moreover, negative feedback is purported to also govern the activity of all other organisms as well as humans. Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) describes the way in which negative feedback establishes control at increasing levels of perceptual complexity. Thus, PCT may be the first biopsychosocial model to be articulated in functional terms. In this paper we outline the working model of PCT and explain how PCT provides an embodied hierarchical neural architecture that utilizes negative feedback to control physiological, psychological, and social variables. PCT has major implications for both research and practice and, importantly, provides a guide by which fields of research that are currently separated may be integrated to bring about substantial progress in understanding the way in which the brain alters, and is altered by, its behavioral and environmental context. PMID:24616685

  9. A Circuit Mechanism for Differentiating Positive and Negative Associations

    PubMed Central

    Namburi, Praneeth; Beyeler, Anna; Yorozu, Suzuko; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Wichmann, Romy; Holden, Stephanie S.; Mertens, Kim L.; Anahtar, Melodi; Felix-Ortiz, Ada C.; Wickersham, Ian R.; Gray, Jesse M.; Tye, Kay M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate stimuli predicting positive or negative outcomes is critical for survival, and perturbations of emotional processing underlie many psychiatric disease states. Synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) mediates the acquisition of associative memories, both positive1,2 and negative3–7. Different populations of BLA neurons may encode fearful or rewarding associations8–10, but the identifying features of these populations and the synaptic mechanisms of differentiating positive and negative emotional valence have remained an enigma. Here, we show that BLA neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc projectors) or the centromedial amygdala (CeM projectors) underwent opposing synaptic changes following fear or reward conditioning. We found that photostimulation of NAc projectors supports positive reinforcement while photostimulation of CeM projectors mediates negative reinforcement. Photoinhibition of CeM projectors impaired fear conditioning and enhanced reward conditioning. We then characterized these functionally-distinct neuronal populations by comparing their electrophysiological, morphological and genetic features. We provide a mechanistic explanation for the representation of positive and negative associations within the amygdala. PMID:25925480

  10. A circuit mechanism for differentiating positive and negative associations.

    PubMed

    Namburi, Praneeth; Beyeler, Anna; Yorozu, Suzuko; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G; Halbert, Sarah A; Wichmann, Romy; Holden, Stephanie S; Mertens, Kim L; Anahtar, Melodi; Felix-Ortiz, Ada C; Wickersham, Ian R; Gray, Jesse M; Tye, Kay M

    2015-04-30

    The ability to differentiate stimuli predicting positive or negative outcomes is critical for survival, and perturbations of emotional processing underlie many psychiatric disease states. Synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) mediates the acquisition of associative memories, both positive and negative. Different populations of BLA neurons may encode fearful or rewarding associations, but the identifying features of these populations and the synaptic mechanisms of differentiating positive and negative emotional valence have remained unknown. Here we show that BLA neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc projectors) or the centromedial amygdala (CeM projectors) undergo opposing synaptic changes following fear or reward conditioning. We find that photostimulation of NAc projectors supports positive reinforcement while photostimulation of CeM projectors mediates negative reinforcement. Photoinhibition of CeM projectors impairs fear conditioning and enhances reward conditioning. We characterize these functionally distinct neuronal populations by comparing their electrophysiological, morphological and genetic features. Overall, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the representation of positive and negative associations within the amygdala. PMID:25925480

  11. Negative ions in the coma of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaizy, P.; Reme, H.; Sauvaud, J. A.; D'Uston, C.; Lin, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of negatively charged cometary ions in the inner coma of Comet Halley is reported. These ions are observed in three broad mass peaks at 7-19, 22-65, and 85-110 AMU, with densities reaching greater than about 1/cu cm, about 0.05/cu cm, and about 0.04/cu cm, respectively, at a distance of about 2300 km from the nucleus. The ion species thought to be present include O(-), OH(-), C(-), CH(-), CN(-) and heavier complex CHO molecular ions. As negative ions are easily destroyed by solar radiation at about 1 AU, an efficient production mechanism, so far unidentified, is required to account for the observed densities. The detection of negative ions in the coma near 1 AU implies that negative ions should also be present in similar neutral gas and dust environment farther away from the sun. If the negative-ion densities are large enough, they could play an important part in physical processes such as radiative transfer or charge exchange.

  12. Corrugator activity confirms immediate negative affect in surprise.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for this switch in operating mode. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by surprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low surprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect) and frontalis (cultural surprise expression) activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes. PMID:25762956

  13. Corrugator activity confirms immediate negative affect in surprise

    PubMed Central

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for this switch in operating mode. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by surprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low surprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect) and frontalis (cultural surprise expression) activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes. PMID:25762956

  14. Carney Complex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening guidelines may change over time as new technologies are developed and more is learned about Carney complex. It is important to talk with your doctor about appropriate screening tests. Learn more about what to expect when having ...

  15. [Negative symptoms: clinical and psychometric aspects].

    PubMed

    Adida, M; Azorin, J-M; Belzeaux, R; Fakra, E

    2015-12-01

    Recent investigations performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis have suggested that negative symptoms are multidimensional, including evidence for at least two distinct negative symptom subdomains: diminished expression and amotivation. Guidance for selection of instruments for measurement of negative symptoms is rapidly evolving. As there are continuing advances in the description of negative symptoms, new instruments are under development, and new data on the performance of instruments emerge from clinical trials. The Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) are considered to be reliable and valid measures for negative symptom trials but differ with respect to their domain coverage, use of informants, integration of global scores, administration time and comprehensiveness of their structured interviews. In response to the 2005 NIMH - MATRICS consensus statement, work groups are field testing and refining two new measures, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Both address the five currently recognized domains of negative symptoms, differentiate appetitive from consummatory aspects of anhedonia and address desire for social relationships. Thus far, both have exhibited promising psychometric properties. PMID:26776385

  16. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  17. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  18. Negation, questions, and structure building in a homesign system

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Amy; Giannakidou, Anastasia; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Deaf children whose hearing losses are so severe that they cannot acquire spoken language, and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language, use gestures called homesigns to communicate. Homesigns have been shown to contain many of the properties of natural languages. Here we ask whether homesign has structure building devices for negation and questions. We identify two meanings (negation, question) that correspond semantically to propositional functions, that is, to functions that apply to a sentence (whose semantic value is a proposition, φ) and yield another proposition that is more complex (¬φ for negation; ?φ for question). Combining φ with¬ or ? thus involves sentence modification. We propose that these negative and question functions are structure building operators, and we support this claim with data from an American homesigner. We show that: (a) each meaning is marked by a particular form in the child’s gesture system (side-to-side headshake for negation, manual flip for question); (b) the two markers occupy systematic, and different, positions at the periphery of the gesture sentences (headshake at the beginning, flip at the end); and (c) the flip is extended from questions to other uses associated with the wh-form (exclamatives, referential expressions of location) and thus functions like a category in natural languages. If what we see in homesign is a language creation process (Goldin-Meadow, 2003), and if negation and question formation involve sentential modification, then our analysis implies that homesign has at least this minimal sentential syntax. Our findings thus contribute to ongoing debates about properties that are fundamental to language and language learning. PMID:23630971

  19. Negation, questions, and structure building in a homesign system.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Amy; Giannakidou, Anastasia; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-03-01

    Deaf children whose hearing losses are so severe that they cannot acquire spoken language, and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language, use gestures called homesigns to communicate. Homesigns have been shown to contain many of the properties of natural languages. Here we ask whether homesign has structure building devices for negation and questions. We identify two meanings (negation, question) that correspond semantically to propositional functions, that is, to functions that apply to a sentence (whose semantic value is a proposition, ϕ) and yield another proposition that is more complex (¬ϕ for negation; ?ϕ for question). Combining ϕ with ¬ or ? thus involves sentence modification. We propose that these negative and question functions are structure building operators, and we support this claim with data from an American homesigner. We show that: (a) each meaning is marked by a particular form in the child's gesture system (side-to-side headshake for negation, manual flip for question); (b) the two markers occupy systematic, and different, positions at the periphery of the gesture sentences (headshake at the beginning, flip at the end); and (c) the flip is extended from questions to other uses associated with the wh-form (exclamatives, referential expressions of location) and thus functions like a category in natural languages. If what we see in homesign is a language creation process (Goldin-Meadow, 2003), and if negation and question formation involve sentential modification, then our analysis implies that homesign has at least this minimal sentential syntax. Our findings thus contribute to ongoing debates about properties that are fundamental to language and language learning. PMID:23630971

  20. Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode.

  1. Nonlinear negative refraction by difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianjun; Shen, Dongyi; Feng, Yaming; Wan, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    Negative refraction has attracted much interest for its promising capability in imaging applications. Such an effect can be implemented by negative index meta-materials, however, which are usually accompanied by high loss and demanding fabrication processes. Recently, alternative nonlinear approaches like phase conjugation and four wave mixing have shown advantages of low-loss and easy-to-implement, but associated problems like narrow accepting angles can still halt their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally a scheme to realize negative refraction by nonlinear difference frequency generation with wide tunability, where a thin Beta barium borate slice serves as a negative refraction layer bending the input signal beam to the idler beam at a negative angle. Furthermore, we realize optical focusing effect using such nonlinear negative refraction, which may enable many potential applications in imaging science.

  2. Production systems need negation as failure

    SciTech Connect

    Phan Minh Dung; Mancarella, P.

    1996-12-31

    We study action rule based systems with two forms of negation, namely classical negation and {open_quotes}negation as failure to find a course of actions{close_quotes}. We show by several examples that adding negation as failure to such systems increase their expressiveness, in the sense that real life problems can be represented in a natural and simple way. Then, we address the problem of providing a formal declarative semantics to these extended systems, by adopting an argumentation based approach, which has been shown to be a simple unifying framework for understanding the declarative semantics of various nonmonotonic formalisms. In this way, we naturally define the grounded (well-founded), stable and preferred semantics for production systems with negation as failure. Next, we characterize the class of stratified production systems, which enjoy the properties that the above mentioned semantics coincide and that negation as failure can be computed by a simple bottom-up operator.

  3. Dust grains potential variation in a Vasyliunas Cairns-distributed plasmas with negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abid, A. A.; Khan, M. Z.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dust grains' potential variation is presented by using a non-equilibrium complex (dusty) plasma following the Vasyliunas Cairns (VC)-distribution, in which the components such as the electrons, ions [positive and negative], and dust grains have negative charge. For this reason, mathematical statement of currents is solved for dust grains having negatively charge to accomplish the equilibrium state value (viz., qd = constant) in the presence of VC-distributed plasmas. Indeed, the current balance equations are modified due to the streaming/nonequilibrium distributed negative ions. Numerically, it is assessed that the important plasma variable, for example, spectral index α, spectral index κ , negative ions streaming velocity (U0), and negative ions number density ( ρ ) , significantly influences the dust grain surface potential ( | ψ d | ) by: (i) increasing the value of spectral index kappa ( κ ) and negative ions density ( ρ ) , the magnitude of dust surface potential ( | ψ d | ) decreases and (ii) increasing the values of spectral index α and negative ions streaming velocity (U0), dust grains surface potential ( | ψ d | ) increases. The relevance to low-temperature research center in a non-equilibrium dusty (complex) plasma is precisely discussed by associating oxygen ions (negative and positive) species.

  4. Arabinogalactan proteins are incorporated in negatively charged coffee brew melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Bekedam, E Koen; De Laat, Marieke P F C; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2007-02-01

    The charge properties of melanoidins in high molecular weight (HMw) coffee brew fractions, isolated by diafiltration and membrane dialysis, were studied. Ion exchange chromatography experiments with the HMw fractions showed that coffee brew melanoidins were negatively charged whereas these molecules did not expose any positive charge at the pH of coffee brew. Fractions with different ionic charges were isolated and subsequently characterized by means of the specific extinction coefficient (K(mix 405nm)), sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, and the arabinogalactan protein (AGP) specific Yariv gel-diffusion assay. The isolated fractions were different in composition and AGP was found to be present in one of the HMw fractions. The AGP accounted for 6% of the coffee brew dry matter and had a moderate negative charge, probably caused by the presence of uronic acids. As the fraction that precipitated with Yariv was brown (K(mix 405nm) = 1.2), compared to a white color in the green bean, it was concluded that these AGPs had undergone Maillard reaction resulting in an AGP-melanoidin complex. The presence of mannose (presumably from galactomannan) indicates the incorporation of galactomannans in the AGP-melanoidin complex. As the uronic acid content in the more negatively charged melanoidin-rich, AGP-poor HMw fractions decreased, it was hypothesized that acidic groups are formed or incorporated during melanoidin formation. PMID:17263472

  5. Functional splinting of upper limb injuries with gauze-based topical negative pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher J; Chester, Darren L; Jeffery, Steven L

    2011-11-01

    Complex hand injuries can be difficult to dress effectively and achieve adequate splintage of the hand in a functional position. During the past 7 years, we have had a great deal of success with topical negative-pressure dressings in the management of complex blast-related extremity war injuries. We have more recently changed to using a gauze-based system and have found this particularly useful in dressing complex hand injuries. We have been able to use this vacuum dressing system to splint the hand in a position of function. This provides an easily applied dressing that, through topical negative pressure, promotes wound healing and ensures a resting functional position, thus minimizing postoperative stiffness. We have not been able to achieve this as efficiently with standard dressings and plaster-of-Paris casts. This article details the technique of functional splinting of complex hand injuries using a gauze-based, topical negative-pressure dressing system. PMID:22036283

  6. Absolute negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan

    2015-12-01

    Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the absolute negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the absolute negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the absolute negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the absolute negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.

  7. Negative refraction without absorption via quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ai-Ping; Ge, Wenchao; Wang, Meng; Li, Fu-li; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-02-01

    Negative refraction of a probe field is studied in a dense gas consisting of cascade-type four-level atoms. By coupling the magnetic component of the probe field to a Λ scheme with initially prepared coherence in the two lower levels, strong negative permeability with minimal absorption can be obtained. The permittivity of the gas to the electric component of the probe field can be made negative by taking into account the local field effect of the dense atoms. Strong negative refraction with zero absorption can be achieved in a wide range of parameters in our scheme. A possible experimental realization is also discussed.

  8. An advanced negative hydrogen ion source.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Alexey A; Dobrovolsky, Andrey N; Goretskii, Victor P

    2016-02-01

    The results of investigation of emission productivity of negative particles source with cesiated combined discharge are presented. A cylindrical beam of negative hydrogen ions with density about 2 A/cm(2) in low noise mode on source emission aperture is obtained. The total beam current values are up to 200 mA for negative hydrogen ions and up to 1.5 A for all negative particles with high divergence after source. The source has simple design and can produce stable discharge with low level of oscillation. PMID:26931996

  9. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science – which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour – is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  10. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  11. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe ...

  12. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  13. The RNA synthesis machinery of negative-stranded RNA viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Ortín, Juan; Martín-Benito, Jaime

    2015-05-15

    The group of Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses (NSVs) includes many human pathogens, like the influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial or Ebola viruses, which produce frequent epidemics of disease and occasional, high mortality outbreaks by transmission from animal reservoirs. The genome of NSVs consists of one to several single-stranded, negative-polarity RNA molecules that are always assembled into mega Dalton-sized complexes by association to many nucleoprotein monomers. These RNA-protein complexes or ribonucleoproteins function as templates for transcription and replication by action of the viral RNA polymerase and accessory proteins. Here we review our knowledge on these large RNA-synthesis machines, including the structure of their components, the interactions among them and their enzymatic activities, and we discuss models showing how they perform the virus transcription and replication programmes. - Highlights: • Overall organisation of NSV RNA synthesis machines. • Structure and function of the ribonucleoprotein components: Atomic structure of the RNA polymerase complex. • Commonalities and differences between segmented- and non-segmented NSVs. • Transcription versus replication programmes.

  14. Community detection in networks with positive and negative links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traag, V. A.; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2009-09-01

    Detecting communities in complex networks accurately is a prime challenge, preceding further analyses of network characteristics and dynamics. Until now, community detection took into account only positively valued links, while many actual networks also feature negative links. We extend an existing Potts model to incorporate negative links as well, resulting in a method similar to the clustering of signed graphs, as dealt with in social balance theory, but more general. To illustrate our method, we applied it to a network of international alliances and disputes. Using data from 1993-2001, it turns out that the world can be divided into six power blocs similar to Huntington’s civilizations, with some notable exceptions.

  15. 4. Photographic copy of a photograph taken from pasteup negatives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photographic copy of a photograph taken from paste-up negatives for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers document GF-500-MCP, entitled "Grand Forks Site RLS Army Operating Drawings, Master Composite Photographs for SAFEGUARD TSE Systems and Equipment," Page 9, dated 1 September 1974 (original document and negatives in possession of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, AL). Photographer unknown. View of remote launch operations building exterior (southwest corner), prior to earth mounding. A,B,C, and D are heat exchangers HX-1102B, HX-1102A, HX-1101B, and HX-1101 A, respectively. The heat exchangers transferred heat from the cooling water to the outside air during the normal operating mode. On the far right is the air exhaust shaft - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Remote Launch Operations Building, Near Service Road exit from Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  16. 5. Photographic copy of a photograph taken from pasteup negatives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of a photograph taken from paste-up negatives for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers document GF-500-MCP, entitled "Grand Forks Site RLS Army Operating Drawings, Master Composite Photographs for SAFEGUARD TSE Systems and Equipment," Page 9, dated 1 September 1974 (original document and negatives in possession of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, AL). Photographer unknown. View of pneumatic control panel regulating entrance to waiting room #116. The panel activated the pneumatic cylinder for opening and closing of blast doors #116 and #118. A rotary air motor actuated locking and unlocking of the doors. - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Remote Launch Operations Building, Near Service Road exit from Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. Estimation for entanglement negativity of free fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Wang, Yihong

    2016-07-01

    In this letter we study the negativity of one dimensional free fermions. We derive the general form of the {{{Z}}N} symmetric term in moments of the partial transposed (reduced) density matrix, which is an algebraic function of the end points of the system. Such a path integral turns out to be a convenient tool for making estimations for the negativity.

  18. Negative Knowledge: Understanding Professional Learning and Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartmeier, Martin; Bauer, Johannes; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we critically analyze how the concept of negative knowledge contributes to the understanding of professionals' expert practice and learning. Negative knowledge is experientially acquired knowledge about what is wrong and what is to be avoided during performance in a given work situation. In terms of its theoretical foundation, the…

  19. The Negative Binomial Distribution in Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderholm, Jonas; Inoue, Shuichiro

    2009-06-01

    We give examples of situations where the negative binomial distribution has appeared in quantum physics since its debut in the work of Planck. Several of its properties are reviewed, and Mandel's Q-parameter is shown to play an interesting role. The photon-pair distributions of squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon states are identified as negative binomial.

  20. Negative ion spectrometry for detecting nitrated explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettger, H. G.; Yinon, J.

    1975-01-01

    Ionization procedure is modified to produce mainly negative ions by electron capture. Peaks of negative ions are monitored conventionally. Nitrated organic materials could be identified directly from sample sniff inlet stream by suitably modified mass spectrometer because of unique electronegativity which nitro group imparts to organic material.

  1. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  2. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.122 Section 52.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts...

  3. Negation in the brain: modulating action representations.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Marco; Manenti, Rosa; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Falini, Andrea; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F; Moro, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    Sentential negation is a universal syntactic feature of human languages that reverses the truth value expressed by a sentence. An intriguing question concerns what brain mechanisms underlie our ability to represent and understand the meaning of negative sentences. We approach this issue by investigating action-related language processing and the associated neural representations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we measured brain activity in 18 healthy subjects during passive listening of sentences characterized by a factorial combination of polarity (affirmative vs. negative) and concreteness (action-related vs. abstract). Negation deactivated cortical areas and the left pallidum. Compared to abstract sentences, action-related sentences activated the left-hemispheric action-representation system. Crucially, the polarity by concreteness interactions showed that the activity within the action-representation system was specifically reduced for negative action-related vs. affirmative action-related sentences (compared to abstract sentences). Accordingly, functional integration within this system as measured by Dynamic Causal Modeling was specifically weaker for negative action-related than for affirmative action-related sentences. This modulation of action representations indicates that sentential negation transiently reduces the access to mental representations of the negated information. PMID:18771737

  4. Criticism and the Ethics of Negative Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to work through my own angst at a negative review of my "Education, Philosophy and Politics," reviewed recently by Ian Stronach for the "British Educational Research Journal," and to provide a therapeutic reading of the ethics of negative reviews. What of "shots in the dark" and should there…

  5. 40 CFR 52.2900 - Negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declaration. 52.2900 Section... § 52.2900 Negative declaration. (a) Air Pollution Implementation Plan for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (1) Letter of December 15, 1982, from the Governor to EPA, which is a...

  6. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  7. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals’ subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation. PMID:27101931

  8. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals' subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation. PMID:27101931

  9. Negative Ion Beam Extraction and Emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Andrew J. T.

    2007-08-10

    The use of magnetic fields to both aid the production of negative ions and suppress the co-extracted electrons causes the emittance and hence the divergence of the negative ion beam to increase significantly due to the plasma non-uniformity from jxB drift. This drift distorts the beam-plasma meniscus and experimental results of the beam emittance are presented, which show that non-uniformity causes the square of the emittance to be proportional to the 2/3 power of the extracted current density. This can cause the divergence of the negative ion beam to be significantly larger than its positive ion counterpart. By comparing results from positive and negative ion beam emittances from the same source, it is also possible to draw conclusions about their vulnerability to magnetic effects. Finally emittances of caesiated and un-caesiated negative ion beams are compared to show how the surface and volume modes of production interact.

  10. Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references.